WorldWideScience

Sample records for screening uptake evidence

  1. Prostate and Colorectal Cancer Screening Uptake among US and Foreign-Born Males: Evidence from the 2015 NHIS Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilunga Tshiswaka, Daudet; Donley, Tiffany; Okafor, Anthony; Memiah, Peter; Mbizo, Justice

    2017-06-01

    Research suggests that prostate and colorectal cancers disproportionately affect men in the US, but little is known about the determinants of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake among US and foreign-born males. The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors influence prostate and colorectal cancer screening uptake among US-native born and foreign-born men. Using the 2015 National Health Interview Survey, we conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to highlight factors associated with the uptake of prostate and colorectal cancer screening among US-native born and foreign-born men. The sample size consisted of 5651 men respondents, with the mean age of 59.7 years (SD = 12.1). Of these, more than two-fifths (42%) were aged 50-64 years old. With respect to race/ethnicity, the sample was predominantly non-Hispanic Whites (65.5%), 863 (15.6%) Hispanics, and 710 (12.4%) Blacks. Our analysis found higher rates of both US-born and foreign-born men aged 65 years or older, who had either a PSA or CRC screening tests than those aged <65 years. Results of the general multivariate model suggest that men under 50 years old, US-born and foreign-born alike, are statistically significantly less likely to have prostate or colorectal cancer screenings than men aged 65 years or above. This study highlights the influencing factors that encourage or discourage PSA and CRC screening uptake between US-native born and foreign-born men. The results of this inquiry provide an evidence-based blueprint for policymakers and interventionists seeking to address prostate and colorectal cancer among men.

  2. Cancer Screening Considerations and Cancer Screening Uptake for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceres, Marc; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Loscalzo, Matthew; Rice, David

    2018-02-01

    To describe the current state of cancer screening and uptake for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons and to propose cancer screening considerations for LGBT persons. Current and historic published literature on cancer screening and LGBT cancer screening; published national guidelines. Despite known cancer risks for members of the LGBT community, cancer screening rates are often low, and there are gaps in screening recommendations for LGBT persons. We propose evidence-based cancer screening considerations derived from the current literature and extant cancer screening recommendations. The oncology nurse plays a key role in supporting patient preventive care and screening uptake through assessment, counseling, education, advocacy, and intervention. As oncology nurses become expert in the culturally competent care of LGBT persons, they can contribute to the improvement of quality of care and overall well-being of this health care disparity population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    ), in an attempt to explain the observed variation in national uptake rates. METHODS: We used a mixed methods approach with an embedded design: a) documentary analysis and b) expert stakeholder analysis. National central statistical offices and legal documents were studied first to gain insight in demographic....... RESULTS: There were many similarities in the demographics, healthcare systems, government abortion legislation and Down's syndrome screening policy across the studied countries. However, the additional cost for Down's syndrome screening over and above standard antenatal care in the Netherlands...

  4. Exploring the uptake and framing of research evidence on universal screening for intimate partner violence against women: a knowledge translation case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathen, C Nadine; Macgregor, Jennifer Cd; Sibbald, Shannon L; Macmillan, Harriet L

    2013-04-12

    Significant emphasis is currently placed on the need to enhance health care decision-making with research-derived evidence. While much has been written on specific strategies to enable these "knowledge-to-action" processes, there is less empirical evidence regarding what happens when knowledge translation (KT) processes do not proceed as planned. The present paper provides a KT case study using the area of health care screening for intimate partner violence (IPV). A modified citation analysis method was used, beginning with a comprehensive search (August 2009 to October 2012) to capture scholarly and grey literature, and news reports citing a specific randomized controlled trial published in a major medical journal on the effectiveness of screening women, in health care settings, for exposure to IPV. Results of the searches were extracted, coded and analysed using a multi-step mixed qualitative and quantitative content analysis process. The trial was cited in 147 citations from 112 different sources in journal articles, commentaries, books, and government and news reports. The trial also formed part of the evidence base for several national-level practice guidelines and policy statements. The most common interpretations of the trial were "no benefit of screening", "no harms of screening", or both. Variation existed in how these findings were represented, ranging from summaries of the findings, to privileging one outcome over others, and to critical qualifications, especially with regard to methodological rigour of the trial. Of note, interpretations were not always internally consistent, with the same evidence used in sometimes contradictory ways within the same source. Our findings provide empirical data on the malleability of "evidence" in knowledge translation processes, and its potential for multiple, often unanticipated, uses. They have implications for understanding how research evidence is used and interpreted in policy and practice, particularly in

  5. Interventions for increasing uptake in screening programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droste, Sigrid

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Opportunities for the early detection of disease are not sufficiently being taken advantage of. Specific interventions could increase the uptake of prevention programmes. A comprehensive analysis of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions with reference to Germany is still needed. Objectives: This report aimed to describe and assess interventions to increase uptake in primary and secondary prevention and to explore the assessment of their cost-effectiveness. Methods: 29 scientific databases were systematically searched in a wide strategy. Additional references were located from bibliographies. All published systematic reviews and primary studies were assessed for inclusion without language restrictions. Teams of two reviewers identified the literature, extracted data and assessed the quality of the publications independently. Results: Four HTA reports and 22 systematic reviews were identified for the medical evaluation covering a variety of interventions. The economic evaluation was based on two HTA-reports, one meta-analysis and 15 studies. The evidence was consistent for the effectiveness of invitations and reminders aimed at users, and for prompts aimed at health care professionals. These interventions were the most commonly analysed. (Financial Incentives for users and professionals were identified in a small number of studies. Limited evidence was available for cost-effectiveness showing incremental costs for follow-up reminders and invitations by telephone. Evidence for ethical, social and legal aspects pointed to needs in vulnerable populations. Discussion: The material was heterogeneous regarding interventions used, study populations and settings. The majority of references originated from the United States and focused on secondary prevention. Approaching all target groups by invitations and reminders was recommended to increase uptake in prevention programmes in general. Conclusions: Further research

  6. Barriers to cervical cancer screening uptake among rural women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [5] Among Asian-American women, psychosocial ... poorly-trained personnel were health system-related barriers. In sub-Saharan ... explored the religious and cultural barriers to cervical screening ... perceived barriers to screening uptake.

  7. Masculinity, Racism, Social Support, and Colorectal Cancer Screening Uptake Among African American Men: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Charles R; Mitchell, Jamie A; Franta, Gabriel J; Foster, Margaret J; Shires, Deirdre

    2017-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly preventable when CRC screening is utilized, yet CRC screening completion among African American men is relatively low and their mortality rates remain 50% higher juxtaposed to their White counterparts. Since a growing body of literature indicates masculinity, racism, and social support each have strong influences on CRC screening uptake, this systematic review examined the connections between these three sociocultural factors and CRC screening uptake among African American men. Potential studies were retrieved from MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. Cited reference searching for the final sample was employed to identify and assess additional studies for inclusion using Scopus. The methodological quality of the reviewed evidence was also evaluated. Nineteen studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Thirteen studies employed nonexperimental research designs; a quasi-experimental design was present in four, and two utilized experimental designs. Studies were published between 2000 and 2014; the majority between 2009 and 2013. Social support was most frequently addressed (84%) while masculinity and racism were equally studied with paucity (11%) for their influence on CRC screening. After evaluating conceptual and methodological characteristics of the studies, 42% fell below average in quality and rigor. The need for increased attention to the sociocultural correlates of CRC screening for African American men are highlighted in this systematic review, and important recommendations for research and practice are provided. Alongside a call for more rigorous research, further research examining the influence of masculinity and racism on CRC screening completion among African American men is warranted.

  8. Employee Screening : Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Fali Huang; Peter Cappelli

    2007-01-01

    Arguably the fundamental problem faced by employers is how to elicit effort from employees. Most models suggest that employers meet this challenge by monitoring employees carefully to prevent shirking. But there is another option that relies on heterogeneity across employees, and that is to screen job candidates to find workers with a stronger work ethic who require less monitoring. This should be especially useful in work systems where monitoring by supervisors is more difficult, such as tea...

  9. Impact of second reminder invitation on uptake of screening and cancer detection in BreastCheck.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, P

    2012-01-01

    This research aims to quantify the impact of reminder invitations on uptake and cancer detection in Ireland. Examination of BreastCheck\\'s clinical database (2000-2010) to determine number of women screened following first invitation and after reminder; comparison by age group and screening phase with outcomes of recall rate, cancer detection and true positive rates. Of 819,182 first invitations sent 448,974 (54.8%) women attended. 245,157 (66.2%) women attended after reminder invitations, increasing uptake by 29.9% to 694,131 (84.7%) and cancers detected by 1,550 (35%). Women awaiting a reminder were less likely recalled for assessment 9,555 (3.9%) than respondents to first invitation 2,887 (4.04%) (p=0.004). Younger, mainly initial women were more likely recalled for assessment after first invitation. There was no difference between cohorts for cancer detection rate or true positive rate. Reminders increased uptake, supporting international evidence. For programme efficiency attendance at first invitation is optimal. For maximum programme effectiveness attendance must be encouraged with reminders.

  10. Screening uptake rates and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in primary versus secondary care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Dea, Angela

    2014-01-17

    The risks associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are well recognized, and there is increasing evidence to support treatment of the condition. However, clear guidance on the ideal approach to screening for GDM is lacking. Professional groups continue to debate whether selective screening (based on risk factors) or universal screening is the most appropriate approach. Additionally, there is ongoing debate about what levels of glucose abnormalities during pregnancy respond best to treatment and which maternal and neonatal outcomes benefit most from treatment. Furthermore, the implications of possible screening options on health care costs are not well established. In response to this uncertainty there have been repeated calls for well-designed, randomised trials to determine the efficacy of screening, diagnosis, and management plans for GDM. We describe a randomised controlled trial to investigate screening uptake rates and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening in primary versus secondary care settings. The objective of this study is to assess screening uptake rates, and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening for GDM in primary versus secondary care.

  11. Social Cognitive Mediators of Sociodemographic Differences in Colorectal Cancer Screening Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Hing Lo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study examined if and how sociodemographic differences in colorectal cancer (CRC screening uptake can be explained by social cognitive factors. Methods. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with individuals aged 60–70 years (n=1309 living in England as part of a population-based omnibus survey. Results. There were differences in screening uptake by SES, marital status, ethnicity, and age but not by gender. Perceived barriers (stand. b=-0.40, p<0.001, social norms (stand. b=0.33, p<0.001, and screening knowledge (stand. b=0.17, p<0.001 had independent associations with uptake. SES differences in uptake were mediated through knowledge, social norms, and perceived barriers. Ethnic differences were mediated through knowledge. Differences in uptake by marital status were primarily mediated through social norms and to a lesser extent through knowledge. Age differences were largely unmediated, except for a small mediated effect via social norms. Conclusions. Sociodemographic differences in CRC screening uptake were largely mediated through social cognitive factors. Impact. Our findings suggest that multifaceted interventions might be needed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities. Ethnic differences might be reduced through improved screening knowledge. Normative interventions could emphasise screening as an activity endorsed by important others outside the immediate family to appeal to a wider audience.

  12. Accessibility and screening uptake rates for gestational diabetes mellitus in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullinan, John

    2012-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and is associated with a range of maternal and neonatal complications and conditions. Given increasing levels of prevalence worldwide, there are growing calls for the implementation of screening practices to identify and treat positive GDM cases. This paper uses a unique dataset to investigate the role of healthcare centre accessibility on the decision to attend for screening, employing geographic information systems, econometric and simulation techniques. We focus on the extent to which \\'travel distance to screening hospital site\\' impacts upon the individual\\'s screen uptake decision, whether significant geographic inequalities exist in relation to accessibility to screening, and the likely impact on uptake rates of providing screening services at a local level via primary care. Our findings have important implications for the provision of GDM screening services.

  13. Cervical and breast cancer screening uptake among women with serious mental illness: a data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, Charlotte; Cunningham, Ruth; Ashworth, Mark; Barley, Elizabeth; Stewart, Robert J; Henderson, Max J

    2016-10-21

    Breast and cancer screening uptake has been found to be lower among women with serious mental illness (SMI). This study aims to corroborate these findings in the UK and to identify variation in screening uptake by illness/treatment factors, and primary care consultation frequency. Linked population-based primary and secondary care data from the London borough of Lambeth (UK) were used to compare breast and cervical screening receipt among linked eligible SMI patients (n = 625 and n = 1393), to those without SMI known only to primary care (n = 106,554 and n = 25,385) using logistic regression models adjusted first for socio-demographic factors and second, additionally for primary care consultation frequency. Eligible SMI patients were less likely to have received breast (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.57 - 0.84, p screening (adjusted OR 0.72, CI: 0.60 - 0.85, p breast (adjusted ORs 0.46 to 0.59, all p screening (adjusted ORs 0.48 - 0.65, all p screening. Women with SMI are less likely to receive breast and cervical cancer screening than comparable women without SMI. Higher primary care consultation rates among SMI patients is likely a mediating factor between SMI status and uptake, particularly for cervical screening - a service organised in primary care. To tackle health disparities linked to SMI, efforts at increasing screening uptake are key and should be targeted at women with other markers of illness severity or risk, beyond SMI status alone.

  14. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingshan; Moritz, Sabina; Lorenzetti, Diane; Sykes, Lindsay; Straus, Sharon; Quan, Hude

    2012-06-07

    The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear). 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective in increasing screening uptake. Intervention

  15. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Mingshan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing intervention strategies to enhance breast and cervical screening uptake in Asian women. Methods This study systematically reviewed studies published as of January 2010 to synthesize knowledge about effectiveness of cancer screening interventions targeting Asian women. Fifteen multidisciplinary peer-reviewed and grey literature databases were searched to identify relevant studies. Results The results of our systematic review were reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. Of 37 selected intervention studies, only 18 studies included valid outcome measures (i.e. self-reported or recorded receipt of mammograms or Pap smear. 11 of the 18 intervention studies with valid outcome measures used multiple intervention strategies to target individuals in a specific Asian ethnic group. This observed pattern of intervention design supports the hypothesis that employing a combination of multiple strategies is more likely to be successful than single interventions. The effectiveness of community-based or workplace-based group education programs increases when additional supports, such as assistance in scheduling/attending screening and mobile screening services are provided. Combining cultural awareness training for health care professionals with outreach workers who can help healthcare professionals overcome language and cultural barriers is likely to improve cancer screening uptake. Media campaigns and mailed culturally sensitive print materials alone may be ineffective

  16. Geography, private costs and uptake of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in a remote rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sandra M; Duncan, John L; Cairns, John; Godden, David J

    2006-03-29

    The relationship between geographical location, private costs, health provider costs and uptake of health screening is unclear. This paper examines these relationships in a screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland, a rural and remote area of over 10,000 square miles. Men aged 65-74 (n = 9323) were invited to attend screening at 51 locations in 50 settlements. Effects of geography, deprivation and age on uptake were examined. Among 8,355 attendees, 8,292 completed a questionnaire detailing mode of travel and costs incurred, time travelled, whether accompanied, whether dependants were cared for, and what they would have been doing if not attending screening, thus allowing private costs to be calculated. Health provider (NHS) costs were also determined. Data were analysed by deprivation categories, using the Scottish Indices of Deprivation (2003), and by settlement type ranging from urban to very remote rural. Uptake of screening was high in all settlement types (mean 89.6%, range 87.4-92.6%). Non-attendees were more deprived in terms of income, employment, education and health but there was no significant difference between non-attendees and attendees in terms of geographical access to services. Age was similar in both groups. The highest private costs (median 7.29 pound sterling per man) and NHS screening costs (18.27 pound sterling per man invited) were observed in very remote rural areas. Corresponding values for all subjects were: private cost 4.34 pound sterling and NHS cost 15.72 pound sterling per man invited. Uptake of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in is remote and rural setting was high in comparison with previous studies, and this applied across all settlement types. Geographical location did not affect uptake, most likely due to the outreach approach adopted. Private and NHS costs were highest in very remote settings but still compared favourably with other published studies.

  17. Geography, private costs and uptake of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in a remote rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairns John

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between geographical location, private costs, health provider costs and uptake of health screening is unclear. This paper examines these relationships in a screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland, a rural and remote area of over 10,000 square miles. Methods Men aged 65–74 (n = 9323 were invited to attend screening at 51 locations in 50 settlements. Effects of geography, deprivation and age on uptake were examined. Among 8,355 attendees, 8,292 completed a questionnaire detailing mode of travel and costs incurred, time travelled, whether accompanied, whether dependants were cared for, and what they would have been doing if not attending screening, thus allowing private costs to be calculated. Health provider (NHS costs were also determined. Data were analysed by deprivation categories, using the Scottish Indices of Deprivation (2003, and by settlement type ranging from urban to very remote rural. Results Uptake of screening was high in all settlement types (mean 89.6%, range 87.4 – 92.6%. Non-attendees were more deprived in terms of income, employment, education and health but there was no significant difference between non-attendees and attendees in terms of geographical access to services. Age was similar in both groups. The highest private costs (median £7.29 per man and NHS screening costs (£18.27 per man invited were observed in very remote rural areas. Corresponding values for all subjects were: private cost £4.34 and NHS cost £15.72 per man invited. Conclusion Uptake of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in this remote and rural setting was high in comparison with previous studies, and this applied across all settlement types. Geographical location did not affect uptake, most likely due to the outreach approach adopted. Private and NHS costs were highest in very remote settings but still compared favourably with other published studies.

  18. Awareness and uptake of colorectal, breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening tests in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentın; Lopez de Andres, Ana; Jimenez-Trujillo, Isabel; Gallardo Pino, Carmen; Jimenez-Garcıa, Rodrigo

    2014-04-01

    We aim to describe levels of awareness and uptake of colorectal, breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening tests and to analyze the association to socio-demographic and health-related variables. Population-based cross-sectional study conducted using a home-based personal interview survey on a nationwide representative sample (n = 7938) of population aged ≥18 years (Oncobarometro Survey). Awareness was assessed by asking participants: Now I am going to mention several medical tests for cancer detection, please tell me if you already know about them or if this is the first time you have heard of them? The tests mentioned were faecal occult blood test (FOBT), mammography, Pap smear and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Cancer screening uptake was assessed by asking participants whether they had received tests within the previous 2 years. Awareness rates of 38.55% for FOBT, 95.03% for mammography, 70.84% for Pap smears and 54.72% for PSA were found. Uptake mammography was 74.46%, Pap smears 65.57%, PSA 35.19% and FOBT 9.40%. Factors such as immigration status, lower educational level or income and not suffering from chronic conditions are negative predictors for uptake. Awareness and uptake results showed acceptable figures for mammography, moderate for Pap smears and unacceptably low for FOBT. Inequalities exist in uptake of cancer screening. It is necessary to develop public health educational programmes, especially for the vulnerable populations, aiming to inform and motivate them to use screening services on a regular basis. Our data suggest that although PSA is not recommended, this opportunistic screening is frequently used in Spain.

  19. A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Mingshan; Moritz Sabina; Lorenzetti Diane; Sykes Lindsay; Straus Sharon; Quan Hude

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The Asian population is one of the fastest growing ethnic minority groups in western countries. However, cancer screening uptake is consistently lower in this group than in the native-born populations. As a first step towards developing an effective cancer screening intervention program targeting Asian women, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review, without geographic, language or date limitations, to update current knowledge on the effectiveness of existing interve...

  20. Explaining low uptake for Down syndrome screening in the Netherlands : (and predicting utilisation of other programmes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crombag, NMTH

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, only a quarter of all pregnant women take part in the current Down syndrome screening(DSS) programme. Compared to other Northern European countries, Dutch uptake rates are very low. This thesis concentrates on the test-utilisation of DSS, in particular the factors impeding or

  1. Breast cancer screening: evidence for false reassurance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Gelder (Rianne); E. As, van (Elisabeth); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); C.C.M. Bartels (Carina); R. Boer (Rob); G. Draisma (Gerrit); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractTumour stage distribution at repeated mammography screening is, unexpectedly, often not more favourable than stage distribution at first screenings. False reassurance, i.e., delayed symptom presentation due to having participated in earlier screening rounds, might be associated with

  2. Screening mammography uptake within Australia and Scotland in rural and urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janni; Macleod, Catriona; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Woods, Laura M; Henderson, Robert; Watson, Angus; Kyle, Richard G; Hubbard, Gill; Mullen, Russell; Atherton, Iain

    2015-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that rural populations had lower uptake of screening mammography than urban populations in the Scottish and Australian setting. Scottish data are based upon information from the Scottish Breast Screening Programme Information System describing uptake among women residing within the NHS Highland Health Board area who were invited to attend for screening during the 2008 to 2010 round (N = 27,416). Australian data were drawn from the 2010 survey of the 1946-51 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (N = 9890 women). Contrary to our hypothesis, results indicated that women living in rural areas were not less likely to attend for screening mammography compared to women living in urban areas in both Scotland (OR for rural = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.06-1.29) and Australia (OR for rural = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01-1.31). The absence of rural-urban differences in attendance at screening mammography demonstrates that rurality is not necessarily an insurmountable barrier to screening mammography.

  3. A tailored intervention to promote uptake of retinal screening among young adults with type 2 diabetes - an intervention mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Amelia J; Browne, Jessica L; Abraham, Charles; Tumino, Dee; Hines, Carolyn; Rees, Gwyneth; Speight, Jane

    2018-05-31

    Young adults (18-39 years) with type 2 diabetes are at risk of early development and rapid progression of diabetic retinopathy, a leading cause of vision loss and blindness in working-age adults. Retinal screening is key to the early detection of diabetic retinopathy, with risk of vision loss significantly reduced by timely treatment thereafter. Despite this, retinal screening rates are low among this at-risk group. The objective of this study was to develop a theoretically-grounded, evidence-based retinal screening promotion leaflet, tailored to young adults with type 2 diabetes. Utilising the six steps of Intervention Mapping, our multidisciplinary planning team conducted a mixed-methods needs assessment (Step 1); identified modifiable behavioural determinants of screening behaviour and constructed a matrix of change objectives (Step 2); designed, reviewed and debriefed leaflet content with stakeholders (Steps 3 and 4); and developed program implementation and evaluation plans (Steps 5 and 6). Step 1 included in-depth qualitative interviews (N = 10) and an online survey that recruited a nationally-representative sample (N = 227), both informed by literature review. The needs assessment highlighted the crucial roles of knowledge (about diabetic retinopathy and screening), perception of personal risk, awareness of the approval of significant others and engagement with healthcare team, on retinal screening intentions and uptake. In Step 2, we selected five modifiable behavioural determinants to be targeted: knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, intention, and behavioural skills. In Steps 3 and 4, the "Who is looking after your eyes?" leaflet was developed, containing persuasive messages targeting each determinant and utilising engaging, cohort-appropriate imagery. In Steps 5 and 6, we planned Statewide implementation and designed a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the leaflet. This research provides an example of a systematic, evidence

  4. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals ALK1 mediates LDL uptake and transcytosis in endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraehling, Jan R.; Chidlow, John H.; Rajagopal, Chitra; Sugiyama, Michael G.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Lee, Monica Y.; Zhang, Xinbo; Ramírez, Cristina M.; Park, Eon Joo; Tao, Bo; Chen, Keyang; Kuruvilla, Leena; Larriveé, Bruno; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa; Ola, Roxana; Rotllan, Noemi; Zhou, Wenping; Nagle, Michael W.; Herz, Joachim; Williams, Kevin Jon; Eichmann, Anne; Lee, Warren L.; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Sessa, William C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and animals lacking functional LDL receptor (LDLR), LDL from plasma still readily traverses the endothelium. To identify the pathways of LDL uptake, a genome-wide RNAi screen was performed in endothelial cells and cross-referenced with GWAS-data sets. Here we show that the activin-like kinase 1 (ALK1) mediates LDL uptake into endothelial cells. ALK1 binds LDL with lower affinity than LDLR and saturates only at hypercholesterolemic concentrations. ALK1 mediates uptake of LDL into endothelial cells via an unusual endocytic pathway that diverts the ligand from lysosomal degradation and promotes LDL transcytosis. The endothelium-specific genetic ablation of Alk1 in Ldlr-KO animals leads to less LDL uptake into the aortic endothelium, showing its physiological role in endothelial lipoprotein metabolism. In summary, identification of pathways mediating LDLR-independent uptake of LDL may provide unique opportunities to block the initiation of LDL accumulation in the vessel wall or augment hepatic LDLR-dependent clearance of LDL. PMID:27869117

  5. Contextual factors associated with uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Natasha; Brown, Hilary K; Vigod, Simone; Cobigo, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Existing research on barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening uptake has focused primarily on socio-demographic characteristics of individuals. However, contextual factors, such as service organization, as well as healthcare providers' training and practices, are more feasibly altered to increase health service use. The objective of the authors in this study was to perform a critical systematic review of the literature to identify contextual factors at the provider- and system-level that were associated with breast and cervical cancer screening uptake. Studies published from 2000 to 2013 were identified through PubMed and PsycInfo. Methodologic quality was assessed, and studies were examined for themes related to provider- and system-level factors associated with screening uptake. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Findings revealed a positive association between patients' receipt of provider recommendation and uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening. Uptake was also higher among patients of female providers. Facilities with flexible appointment times and reminders had higher mammography and Pap test uptake. Similarly, greater organizational commitment to quality and performance had higher breast and cervical cancer screening rates. Knowledge provided in this review could be used in future research to inform the development of public health policy and clinical programs to improve screening uptake.

  6. Influence of rurality, deprivation and distance from clinic on uptake in men invited for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilly, M A; Mundie, A; Bachoo, P; Nimmo, F

    2015-07-01

    Effective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening requires high uptake. The aim was to assess the independent association of screening uptake with rurality, social deprivation, clinic type, distance to clinic and season. Screening across Grampian was undertaken by trained nurses in six community and three hospital clinics. Men aged 65 years were invited for screening by post (with 2 further reminders for non-responders). AAA screening data are stored on a national call-recall database. The Scottish postcode directory was used to allocate to all invited men a deprivation index (Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation), a Scottish urban/rural category and distance to clinic. Multivariable analysis was undertaken. The cohort included 5645 men invited for screening over 12 months (October 2012 to October 2013); 42·6 per cent lived in urban areas, 38·9 per cent in rural areas and 18·5 per cent in small towns (uptake 87·0, 89·3 and 90·8 per cent respectively). Overall uptake was 88·6 per cent with 76 new AAAs detected: 15·2 (95 per cent c.i. 11·8 to 18·6) per 1000 men screened. Aberdeen city (large urban area) had the lowest uptake (86·1 per cent). Uptake declined with increasing deprivation, with the steepest decline in urban areas. On multivariable analysis, a 1-point increase in deprivation deciles was associated with a 0·08 (95 per cent c.i. 0·06 to 0·11) reduction in the odds of being screened (P < 0·001). Clinic type (community versus hospital), distance to clinic and season were not associated independently with uptake. Both urban residence and social deprivation were associated independently with uptake among men invited for AAA screening. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prostate screening uptake in Australian BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKinley Joanne M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Men who carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at increased risk for prostate cancer. However the efficacy of prostate screening in this setting is uncertain and limited data exists on the uptake of prostate screening by mutation carriers. This study prospectively evaluated uptake of prostate cancer screening in a multi-institutional cohort of mutation carriers. Subjects were unaffected male BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, aged 40–69 years, enrolled in the Kathleen Cuningham Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab and who had completed a mailed, self-report follow-up questionnaire 3 yearly after study entry. Of the 75 male carriers in this study, only 26 (35% had elected to receive their mutation result. Overall, 51 (68% did not recall having received a recommendation to have prostate screening because of their family history, but 41 (55% had undergone a prostate specific antigen (PSA test and 32 (43% a digital rectal examination (DRE in the previous 3 years. Those who were aware of their mutation result were more likely to have received a recommendation for prostate screening (43 vs. 6%, p = 0.0001, and to have had a PSA test (77 vs. 43%, p = 0.005 and a DRE (69 vs. 29%, p = 0.001 in the previous 3 years. The majority of unaffected males enrolled in kConFab with a BRCA1/2 mutation have not sought out their mutation result. However, of those aware of their positive mutation status, most have undergone at least one round of prostate screening in the previous 3 years.

  8. Identifying factors to improve oral cancer screening uptake: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Vida Zohoori

    Full Text Available To engage with high risk groups to identify knowledge and awareness of oral cancer signs and symptoms and the factors likely to contribute to improved screening uptake.Focus group discussions were undertaken with 18 males; 40+ years of age; smokers and/or drinkers (15+ cigarettes per day and/or 15+ units of alcohol per week, irregular dental attenders living in economically deprived areas of Teesside.There was a striking reported lack of knowledge and awareness of oral cancer and its signs and symptoms among the participants. When oral/mouth cancer leaflets produced by Cancer Research UK were presented to the participants, they claimed that they would seek help on noticing such a condition. There was a preference to seek help from their general practitioner rather than their dentist due to perceptions that a dentist is 'inaccessible' on a physical and psychological level, costly, a 'tooth specialist' not a 'mouth specialist', and also not able to prescribe medication and make referrals to specialists. Interestingly, none of the 18 participants who were offered a free oral cancer examination at a dental practice took up this offer.The uptake of oral cancer screening may be improved by increasing knowledge of the existence and signs and symptoms of oral cancer. Other factors that may increase uptake are increased awareness of the role of dentists in diagnosing oral cancer, promotion of oral cancer screening by health professionals during routine health checks, and the use of a "health" screening setting as opposed to a "dental" setting for such checks.

  9. Nutrition screening tools: an analysis of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper, Annalynn; Ferguson, Maree; Thompson, Kyle; Castellanos, Victoria H; Porcari, Judy

    2012-05-01

    In response to questions about tools for nutrition screening, an evidence analysis project was developed to identify the most valid and reliable nutrition screening tools for use in acute care and hospital-based ambulatory care settings. An oversight group defined nutrition screening and literature search criteria. A trained analyst conducted structured searches of the literature for studies of nutrition screening tools according to predetermined criteria. Eleven nutrition screening tools designed to detect undernutrition in patients in acute care and hospital-based ambulatory care were identified. Trained analysts evaluated articles for quality using criteria specified by the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Library. Members of the oversight group assigned quality grades to the tools based on the quality of the supporting evidence, including reliability and validity data. One tool, the NRS-2002, received a grade I, and 4 tools-the Simple Two-Part Tool, the Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST)-received a grade II. The MST was the only tool shown to be both valid and reliable for identifying undernutrition in the settings studied. Thus, validated nutrition screening tools that are simple and easy to use are available for application in acute care and hospital-based ambulatory care settings.

  10. Efficacy of interventions to increase the uptake of chlamydia screening in primary care: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Basil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As most genital chlamydia infections are asymptomatic, screening is the main way to detect and cases for treatment. We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the efficacy of interventions for increasing the uptake of chlamydia screening in primary care. Methods We reviewed studies which compared chlamydia screening in the presence and the absence of an intervention. The primary endpoints were screening rate or total tests. Results We identified 16 intervention strategies; 11 were randomised controlled trials and five observational studies, 10 targeted females only, five both males and females, and one males only. Of the 15 interventions among females, six were associated with significant increases in screening rates at the 0.05 level including a multifaceted quality improvement program that involved provision of a urine jar to patients at registration (44% in intervention clinics vs. 16% in the control clinic; linking screening to routine Pap smears (6.9% vs. 4.5%, computer alerts for doctors (12.2% vs. 10.6%; education workshops for clinic staff; internet-based continuing medical education (15.5% vs. 12.4%; and free sexual health consultations (16.8% vs. 13.2%. Of the six interventions targeting males, two found significant increases including the multifaceted quality improvement program in which urine jars were provided to patients at registration (45% vs. 15%; and the offering by doctors of a test to all presenting young male clients, prior to consultation (29 vs. 4%. Conclusions Interventions that promoted the universal offer of a chlamydia test in young people had the greatest impact on increasing screening in primary care.

  11. Understanding low colorectal cancer screening uptake in South Asian faith communities in England--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Cecily K; Thomas, Mary C; McGregor, Lesley M; von Wagner, Christian; Raine, Rosalind

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer screening uptake within the South Asian population in England is approximately half that of the general population (33 % vs 61 %), and varies by Muslim (31.9 %), Sikh (34.6 %) and Hindu (43.7 %) faith background. This study sought to explore reasons for low uptake of CRC screening in South Asian communities and for the variability of low uptake between three faith communities; and to identify strategies by which uptake might be improved. We interviewed 16 'key informants' representing communities from the three largest South Asian faith backgrounds (Islam, Hinduism and Sikhism) in London, England. Reasons for low colorectal cancer screening uptake were overwhelmingly shared across South Asian faith groups. These were: limitations posed by written English; limitations posed by any written language; reliance on younger family members; low awareness of colorectal cancer and screening; and difficulties associated with faeces. Non-written information delivered verbally and interactively within faith or community settings was preferred across faith communities. Efforts to increase accessibility to colorectal cancer screening in South Asian communities should use local language broadcasts on ethnic media and face-to-face approaches within community and faith settings to increase awareness of colorectal cancer and screening, and address challenges posed by written materials.

  12. Evidence-based medicine: the value of vision screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, George R; Ellepola, Chalani; Beauchamp, Cynthia L

    2010-01-01

    To review the literature for evidence-based medicine (EBM), to assess the evidence for effectiveness of vision screening, and to propose moving toward value-based medicine (VBM) as a preferred basis for comparative effectiveness research. Literature based evidence is applied to five core questions concerning vision screening: (1) Is vision valuable (an inherent good)?; (2) Is screening effective (finding amblyopia)?; (3) What are the costs of screening?; (4) Is treatment effective?; and (5) Is amblyopia detection beneficial? Based on EBM literature and clinical experience, the answers to the five questions are: (1) yes; (2) based on literature, not definitively so; (3) relatively inexpensive, although some claim benefits for more expensive options such as mandatory exams; (4) yes, for compliant care, although treatment processes may have negative aspects such as "bullying"; and (5) economic productive values are likely very high, with returns of investment on the order of 10:1, while human value returns need further elucidation. Additional evidence is required to ascertain the degree to which vision screening is effective. The processes of screening are multiple, sequential, and complicated. The disease is complex, and good visual outcomes require compliance. The value of outcomes is appropriately analyzed in clinical, human, and economic terms.

  13. [Breast cancer screening in Austria: Key figures, age limits, screening intervals and evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeitler, Klaus; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Horvath, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, the first nationwide quality-assured breast cancer screening program addressing women aged ≥ 40 years was introduced in Austria. As part of the process of developing a patient information leaflet, the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Review Center of the Medical University of Graz was charged with the task of assessing the potential benefits and harms of breast cancer screening from the available evidence. Based on these results, key figures were derived for mortality, false-positive and false-negative mammography results, and overdiagnosis, considering Austria-specific incidence rates for breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Furthermore, the current evidence regarding age limits and screening interval, which were the subjects of controversial public discussions, was analyzed. A systematic search for primary and secondary literature was performed and additional evidence was screened, e. g., evaluation reports of European breast cancer screening programs. On the basis of the available evidence and of the Austrian breast cancer mortality and incidence rates, it can be assumed that - depending on the age group - 1 to 4 breast cancer deaths can be avoided per 1,000 women screened in a structured breast cancer screening program, while the overall mortality remains unchanged. On the other hand, 150 to 200 of these 1,000 women will be affected by false-positive results and 1 to 9 women by overdiagnosis due to the structured breast cancer screening. Therefore, the overall benefit-harm balance is uncertain. If women from 40 to 44 or above 70 years of age are considered, who can also participate in the Austrian screening program, even a negative benefit-harm balance seems possible. However, with the implementation of quality standards in breast cancer screening and the dissemination of a patient information leaflet, an improvement in the medical treatment situation, specifically in terms of informed decision-making, can be expected. Copyright © 2015

  14. Making evidence more wanted: a systematic review of facilitators to enhance the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John; Byrne, Charles; Clarke, Mike

    2012-12-01

    The increased uptake of evidence from systematic reviews is advocated because of their potential to improve the quality of decision making for patient care. Systematic reviews can do this by decreasing inappropriate clinical variation and quickly expediting the application of current, effective advances to everyday practice. However, research suggests that evidence from systematic reviews has not been widely adopted by health professionals. Little is known about the facilitators to uptake of research evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses. To review the facilitators to the uptake by decision makers, of evidence from systematic, meta-analyses and the databases containing them. We searched 19 databases covering the full range of publication years, utilised three search engines and also personally contacted investigators. Grey literature and knowledge translation research was particularly sought. Reference lists of primary studies and related reviews were also searched. Studies were included if they reported on the views and perceptions of decision makers on the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews, meta-analyses and the databases associated with them. One investigator screened titles to identify candidate articles, and then two reviewers independently assessed the relevance of retrieved articles to exclude studies that did not meet the inclusion criteria. Quality of the included studies was also assessed. Using a pre-established taxonomy, two reviewers described the methods of included studies and extracted data that were summarised in tables and then analysed. Differences were resolved by consensus. Of articles initially identified, we selected unique published studies describing at least one facilitator to the uptake of evidence from systematic reviews. The 15 unique studies reported 10 surveys, three qualitative investigations and two mixed studies that addressed potential facilitators. Five studies were from Canada, four from the UK, three from

  15. Implementation research evidence uptake and use for policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panisset Ulysses

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major obstacle to the progress of the Millennium Development Goals has been the inability of health systems in many low- and middle-income countries to effectively implement evidence-informed interventions. This article discusses the relationships between implementation research and knowledge translation and identifies the role of implementation research in the design and execution of evidence-informed policy. After a discussion of the benefits and synergies needed to translate implementation research into action, the article discusses how implementation research can be used along the entire continuum of the use of evidence to inform policy. It provides specific examples of the use of implementation research in national level programmes by looking at the scale up of zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea in Bangladesh and the scaling up of malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. A number of tested strategies to support the transfer of implementation research results into policy-making are provided to help meet the standards that are increasingly expected from evidence-informed policy-making practices.

  16. Awareness of breast cancer and barriers to breast screening uptake in Bangladesh: A population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rakibul M; Bell, Robin J; Billah, Baki; Hossain, Mohammad B; Davis, Susan R

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the awareness of breast cancer (BCa) and BCa screening amongst women at midlife in Bangladesh. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey of women aged 30-59 years was conducted in 7 districts of the 7 divisions in Bangladesh, using a multistage cluster sampling technique. The factors associated with the awareness of BCa and breast assessment of asymptomatic women were investigated separately, using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 1590 participants, mean age 42.3 (±8.0) years, 81.9% had ever heard of BCa and 64.2% of any methods of BCa screening, respectively. Awareness of BCa was associated with being aged 40-49 years (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.46-2.84), aged 49-59 years (1.96, 1.32-2.91), being overweight (1.46, 1.07-2.01) and obesity (1.62, 1.01-2.62), while inversely associated with rural dwelling (0.37, 0.22-0.61), primary education (0.44, 0.27-0.70), having no education (0.23, 0.14-0.36) and parity (0.62, 0.44-0.87). Of the 750 women who were aware of clinical breast examination (CBE) or mammography, reasons provided for not undergoing screening included that they had no symptoms (92%) and that they did not know screening was needed (40%). 8% of women reported CBE. Women with no education were less likely to have undergone CBE (0.38, 0.141.04; p=0.059). Lack of understanding of the assessment of asymptomatic women is the key obstacle to BCa screening uptake in Bangladesh. Health education programs, especially BCa awareness programs, have the potential to increase BCa awareness and down-staging of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lay health educators within primary care practices to improve cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients: challenges in quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofters AK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AK Lofters,1–4 M Vahabi,5 V Prakash,6 L Banerjee,7 P Bansal,8 S Goel,7,8 S Dunn1,2,9 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, 4Centre for Urban Health Solutions, St Michael’s Hospital, 5Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, 6Screening Saves Lives Program, Canadian Cancer Society, Mississauga, 7Wise Elephant Family Health Team, Brampton, 8Mississauga Halton Central West Regional Cancer Program, Mississauga, 9Women’s College Research Institute, Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Cancer screening uptake is known to be low among South Asian residents of Ontario. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if lay health educators embedded within the practices of primary care providers could improve willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients taking a quality improvement approach.Materials and methods: Participating physicians selected quality improvement initiatives to use within their offices that they felt could increase willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake. They implemented initiatives, adapting as necessary, for six months.Results: Four primary care physicians participated in the study. All approximated that at least 60% of their patients were of South Asian ethnicity. All physicians chose to work with a preexisting lay health educator program geared toward South Asians. Health ambassadors spoke to patients in the office and telephoned patients. For all physicians, ~60% of South Asian patients who were overdue for cancer screening and who spoke directly to health ambassadors stated they were willing to be screened. One physician was able to track actual screening among contacted patients and found that screening uptake was relatively high: from 29.2% (colorectal cancer to 44.6% (breast cancer of patients came in for screening

  18. The effect of women's decision-making power on maternal health services uptake: evidence from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohui; Ma, Ning

    2013-03-01

    A large body of research has explored the links between women's decision making and their uptake of maternal health services, but the evidence so far is inconclusive. This study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey to examine the influence of household decision making on women's uptake of maternal health services. We find that women's decision-making power has a significant positive correlation with maternal health services uptake and that influential males' decision-making power has the opposite effect, after controlling for socio-economic indicators and supply-side conditions. Our findings suggest that empowering women and increasing their ability to make decisions may increase their uptake of maternal health services. They also suggest that policies directed toward improving women's utilization of maternal health services in Pakistan must target men as well as women.

  19. Cases with focal FDG uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-PET screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yutaka; Iguchi, Atsuko; Matsuo, Chikashi; Otawa, Kouichi; Nakamura, Mamoru

    2007-01-01

    We examined fifteen cases with focal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the thyroid gland detected by FDG-positron emission tomography (PET) screening for cancer. Examination of the thyroid gland was carried out by using computer tomography, ultrasound sonography, laboratory test and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Surgical operation was performed to the patient who was suspected of having thyroid cancer by FNAC or clinical findings. Thyroid cancer was histologically confirmed in 4 cases. Malignancy was not ruled out by FNAC in one patient. Seven patients were suspected of having benign thyroid tumor (adenoma, adenomatous goiter). Three patients were diagnosed with thyroiditis (Hashimoto thyroiditis, subacute thyroiditis, painless thyroiditis) by laboratory tests. It was not easy to differentiate between cancer and benign diseases only by FDG-PET. However, it was useful to detect thyroid tumor especially if the tumor is hardly palpable. FDG-PET was also valuable as a diagnostic imaging technique to evaluate metastasis and the extent of cancer. (author)

  20. A closer look at cervical smear uptake and results pre- and post- introduction of the national screening programme.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, F

    2012-02-01

    Prior to the introduction of a national cervical screening programme, death rates from cervical cancer in the Republic of Ireland were greater than the death rates in all other regions in Britain and Northern Ireland. The following audit compares the impact of the national cervical screening programme, established on 1 September \\'08, on uptake and results per age group screened before and after its implementation. This retrospective audit was carried out in a four-doctor practice with approximately 1554 GMS and 5000 private patients. Data over a ten month period in \\'08\\/\\'09 was collected from the practice record of cervical smears and compared to the same period in \\'07\\/\\'08. A cohort of 534 Irish urban women was included. A total number of 148 women were screened between October 2007 and July 2008 compared with 386 women screened over the same months in 2008\\/2009. Increase in uptake was most marked in the 25-44 years age group, 100 (\\'07-\\'08) vs. 303 (\\'08-\\'09). The majority of results for both time periods were negative (85% 07\\/08, 81% 08\\/09). There was a higher number of HSIL in \\'08-\\'09 (an increase from 1% to 3.37% of the total screened). This audit clearly supports the introduction of the national cervical screening programme showing both an increase in uptake and a increased pick-up of high grade lesions.

  1. Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake among Women in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria: A Community-Based Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idowu, A.; Olowookere, S. A.; Fagbemi, A.T.; Ogunlaja, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in developing countries. Screening is one of the most cost effective control strategies for the disease. This study assessed the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women. Methodology. This cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage sampling technique among 338 participants in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A pretested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results. Only 8.0% of the respondents had ever been screened for cancer of the cervix. The proportion of women who had ever been screened was significantly higher among those who demonstrated positive attitude to screening (81.5%, P= 0.001), respondents who were aware of the disease (100.0%, p=0.001), and those who were aware of cervical cancer screening (88.9%, P=0.001). Respondents who had negative attitude had 63% lesser odds of being screened compared to those who had positive attitudes towards screening (AOR; 0.37, 95% CI; 0.0-0.28). Conclusion. There is urgent need to improve the knowledge base and attitude of Nigerian women to enhance cervical cancer screening uptake among them.

  2. Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake among Women in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria: A Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibola Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cancer of the cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in developing countries. Screening is one of the most cost effective control strategies for the disease. This study assessed the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women. Methodology. This cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage sampling technique among 338 participants in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A pretested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. Only 8.0% of the respondents had ever been screened for cancer of the cervix. The proportion of women who had ever been screened was significantly higher among those who demonstrated positive attitude to screening (81.5%, p=0.001, respondents who were aware of the disease (100.0%, p=0.001, and those who were aware of cervical cancer screening (88.9%, p=0.001. Respondents who had negative attitude had 63% lesser odds of being screened compared to those who had positive attitudes towards screening (AOR; 0.37, 95% CI; 0.01–0.28. Conclusion. There is urgent need to improve the knowledge base and attitude of Nigerian women to enhance cervical cancer screening uptake among them.

  3. Mammography Screening Uptake among Female Health Care Workers in Primary Health Care Centers in Palestine - Motivators and Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Zaher; Sholi, Hisham; Sholi, Suha; Sholi, Mohammad; Lahaseh, Rawya

    2016-01-01

    Early detection remains the cornerstone of breast cancer control in terms of outcome and survival. Thus far the only breast cancer screening method proven effective is mammography. The awareness of female health care workers (HCW) about breast cancer prevention is of vital importance, as their beliefs and behavior may have a major impact on other women. This study was designed to assess mammography screening uptake among female healthcare workers at primary healthcare centers, and to identify the primary motivators and barriers that affect uptake results. A cross sectional study design was used to assess mammography screening by 299 female healthcare workers who completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed demographics, screening uptake, motivators and barriers. The mean age was 46 years (within age of risk). The majority (95.1%) demonstrated adequate knowledge about breast cancer and mammography screening and 50% of the participants reported having at least one mammogram; however only 21% of them had regularly scheduled mammograms. The most frequent reported motivator was the perceived benefit that early detection of breast cancer is important for its management (89.6%), followed by the belief that mammography can detect breast cancer before its symptoms appear (84.4%). On the other hand, the most frequent barrier reported was being busy (46.7%), followed by the lack of perceived susceptibility (41.5%). Mammography screening was found to be sub-optimal in a population of HCW's with 50 % stating that they received a mammogram at least once, and a minority reported regular screening. There is a pressing need for educational programs aimed at removing the barriers that limit compliance with recommendations for mammography screening, and to emphasize the importance of early detection in breast cancer treatment. Ensuring the availability and accessibility of screening services, particularly for healthcare workers within their work settings are other

  4. Examining Student Work for Evidence of Teacher Uptake of Educative Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismack, Amber Schultz; Arias, Anna Maria; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify evidence in student work of teachers' uptake of educative features in educative curriculum materials. These are features in curriculum materials designed with the specific intent of supporting teacher learning and enactment. This study was prompted by previous work on educative curriculum materials and the…

  5. UPTAKE AND PERFORMANCE OF CLINICAL BREAST EXAM SCREENING BY TRAINED LAYWOMEN IN MALAWI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutnik, L; Lee, C; Msosa, V

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer awareness and early detection are limited in sub-saharan Africa. Resource limitations make screening mammography or clinical breast examination (CBE) by physicians or nurses impractical in many settings. We aimed to assess feasibility and performance of CBE by laywomen in urban health clinics. Four laywomen were trained to deliver breast cancer educational talks and conduct CBE. Eligible women were 30 years, with no prior breast cancer or breast surgery, and clinic attendance for reasons other than a breast concern. Women with abnormal CBE were referred to a study surgeon. All palpable masses confirmed by surgeon examination were pathologically sampled. Patients with abnormal screening CBE but normal surgeon examination underwent breast ultrasound confirmation. Among 1220 eligible women, 1000 (82%) agreed to CBE. Lack of time (69%) was the commonest reason for refusal. Educational talk attendance was associated with higher CBE participation (83% versus 77%, P¼ 0.012). Among 1000 women screened, 7% had abnormal CBE. Of 45 women with normal CBE randomized to physician examination, 43 had normal examinations and two had axillary lymphadenopathy not detected by CBE. Sixty of 67 women (90%) with abnormal CBE attended the referral visit. Of these, 29 (48%) had concordant abnormal physician examination. Thirty-one women (52%) had discordant normal physician examination, all of whom also had normal breast ultrasounds. Compared with physician examination, sensitivity for CBE by laywomen was 94% (confidence interval (CI, 79%-99%), specificity 58% (CI, 46%-70%), positive predictive value 48% (CI, 35%-62%), and negative predictive value 96% (CI, 85%-100%). Of 13 women who underwent recommended pathologic sampling of a breast lesion, two had cytologic dysplasia and all others benign results. CBE uptake in Lilongwe clinics was high. CBE by laywomen compared favourably with physician examination and followup was good. Our intervention can serve as a model for wider

  6. The Role of Learning Disability Nurses in Promoting Cervical Screening Uptake in Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer L.; Coulson, Neil S.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women…

  7. Barriers to uptake among high-risk individuals declining participation in lung cancer screening: a mixed methods analysis of the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Noor; Lifford, Kate J; Carter, Ben; McRonald, Fiona; Yadegarfar, Ghasem; Baldwin, David R; Weller, David; Hansell, David M; Duffy, Stephen W; Field, John K; Brain, Kate

    2015-07-14

    The current study aimed to identify the barriers to participation among high-risk individuals in the UK Lung Cancer Screening (UKLS) pilot trial. The UKLS pilot trial is a randomised controlled trial of low-dose CT (LDCT) screening that has recruited high-risk people using a population approach in the Cambridge and Liverpool areas. High-risk individuals aged 50-75 years were invited to participate in UKLS. Individuals were excluded if a LDCT scan was performed within the last year, if they were unable to provide consent, or if LDCT screening was unable to be carried out due to coexisting comorbidities. Statistical associations between individual characteristics and UKLS uptake were examined using multivariable regression modelling. In those who completed a non-participation questionnaire (NPQ), thematic analysis of free-text data was undertaken to identify reasons for not taking part, with subsequent exploratory linkage of key themes to risk factors for non-uptake. Comparative data were available from 4061 high-risk individuals who consented to participate in the trial and 2756 who declined participation. Of those declining participation, 748 (27.1%) completed a NPQ. Factors associated with non-uptake included: female gender (OR=0.64, pemotional barriers. Smokers were more likely to report emotional barriers to participation. A profile of risk factors for non-participation in lung screening has emerged, with underlying reasons largely relating to practical and emotional barriers. Strategies for engaging high-risk, hard-to-reach groups are critical for the equitable uptake of a potential future lung cancer screening programme. The UKLS trial was registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Register under the reference 78513845. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. A Comparison of Colorectal Cancer Screening Uptake Among Average-Risk Insured American Indian/Alaska Native and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, David G.; Chubak, Jessica; Bogart, Andy; Dillard, Denise A.; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Buchwald, Dedra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women have among the lowest rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Whether screening disparities persist with equal access to health care is unknown. Methods Using administrative data from 1996-2007, we compared CRC screening events for 286 AI/AN and 14,042 White women aged 50 years and older from a health maintenance organization in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Results The proportion of AI/AN and White women screened for CRC at age 50 was similar (13.3% vs. 14.0%, p =.74). No differences were seen in the type of screening test. Time elapsed to first screening among AI/AN women who were not screened at age 50 did not differ from White women (hazard ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.8-1.3). Conclusions Uptake for CRC screening was similar among insured AI/AN and White women, suggesting that when access to care is equal, racial disparities in screening diminish. PMID:23974386

  9. Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors among Women in Rural Uganda: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlance Ndejjo

    Full Text Available In developing countries, inadequate access to effective screening for cervical cancer often contributes to the high morbidity and mortality caused by the disease. The largest burden of this falls mostly on underserved populations in rural areas, where health care access is characterized by transport challenges, ill equipped health facilities, and lack of information access. This study assessed uptake of cervical cancer screening and associated factors among women in rural Uganda.This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in Bugiri and Mayuge districts in eastern Uganda and utilised quantitative data collection methods. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire on cervical cancer screening among females aged between 25 and 49 years who had spent six or more months in the area. Data were entered in Epidata 3.02 and analysed in STATA 12.0 statistical software. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed.Of the 900 women, only 43 (4.8% had ever been screened for cervical cancer. Among respondents who were screened, 21 (48.8% did so because they had been requested by a health worker, 17 (39.5% had certain signs and symptoms they associated with cervical cancer while 16 (37.2% did it voluntarily to know their status. Barriers to cervical cancer screening were negative individual perceptions 553 (64.5% and health facility related challenges 142 (16.6%. Other respondents said they were not aware of the screening service 416 (48.5%. The independent predictors of cervical cancer screening were: being recommended by a health worker [AOR = 87.85, p<0.001], knowing where screening services were offered [AOR = 6.24, p = 0.004], and knowing someone who had ever been screened [AOR = 9.48, p = 0.001].The prevalence of cervical cancer screening is very low in rural Uganda. Interventions to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening should be implemented so as to improve access to the service in rural areas.

  10. Changes in geographic variation in the uptake of cervical cancer screening in Taiwan: possible effects of "leadership style factor"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shu-Ti; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2014-01-01

    Wennberg proposed the "practice style factor" to explain the large variations in the use of medical care. As a corollary, we propose the "leadership style factor" of the director of the city/county bureau of public health to explain changes in geographic variation in the uptake of cervical cancer screening. We first calculated the triennial Pap smear rates for women aged 30-69 years from 1997 through 2010 for each city/county in Taiwan and the rate difference and rate ratio between the highest and the lowest city/county to illustrate the geographic variation in the uptake of cervical cancer screening. We then created an expert panel to conduct a hypothesis generation process to examine the possible effects of "leadership style factors" in explaining the changes. The Pap smear rate in Taiwan as a whole was 35% in 1997 and increased to 56% in 2001, and was then stable until 2010 (55%). In 2002, the geographic variation in the Pap smear rate was the smallest, ranging from 49% in Penghu County to 63% in I-lan County, with a rate ratio of 1.28. Unfortunately, the rate ratio increased to 1.49 in 2010, the rate being lowest in Penghu County (42%) and highest in Tainan City (63%). We identified four cities/counties with unique patterns of change in Pap smear rates, which were highly associated with the leadership style of the director of the city/county bureau of public health. Despite the launch of an organized cancer screening program in Taiwan, geographic variation in the uptake of cervical cancer screening still exists and has increased during the past decade. The "leadership style factor" of the director of the city/county bureau of public health might play a plausible role in explaining the pattern of change in geographic variation in the use of cervical cancer screening in Taiwan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cancer risk awareness and screening uptake in individuals at higher risk for colon cancer: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Bishehsari, Faraz; Delavari, Alireza; Barzin, Gilda; Amani, Mohammad; Majidi, Azam; Sadjadi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-12-20

    We aimed to measure cancer knowledge and feasibility of a screening colonoscopy among a cohort of individuals at higher risk of colon cancer. This study was conducted as part of an ongoing screening cohort, in which first degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with colon cancer are invited to participate in a free of charge screening colonoscopy. We enrolled 1017 FDRs in the study between 2013 and 2014 measuring their data on demographics, cancer knowledge and colonoscopy uptake. A p value of aware of their increased risk for cancer, near 35.0% had ever heard about colonoscopy with 22% aware of the correct age to start screening. Comparing cancer knowledge of FDRs at high risk versus those at moderate risk, we recorded non-significant differences (p>0.05). Almost two-thirds of FDRs expressed willingness to undergo a colonoscopy and 49.2% completed the procedure, of which 12.8% had advanced neoplasm. Our data indicated that remarkable numbers of FDRs were not still informed of their cancer risk or never received a physician recommendation for screening. The desirable uptake at first invitation, which would be higher over successive invitations, supports the feasibility of a family-based recruitment approach for early screening. This has promising implications to introduce targeted screening colonoscopy into the healthcare system in Iran and other developing nations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Newborn screening for proximal urea cycle disorders: Current evidence supporting recommendations for newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J Lawrence; Brody, Linnea L; Pino, Gisele; Rinaldo, Piero

    2018-04-20

    Current newborn screening (NBS) for urea cycle disorders (UCD) is incomplete as only distal UCDs are included in most NBS programs by measuring elevated amino acid concentrations. NBS for the proximal UCDs involves the detection in NBS spots of low citrulline values, a finding which is often overlooked because it is considered to be inadequate. We retrospectively analyzed NBS blood spots from known UCD patients comparing the utility of the Region 4 Stork (R4S) interpretive tools to conventional cutoff based interpretation. This study shows the utility of R4S tools in detecting all UCDs, and provides evidence to support the nomination to add proximal UCDs to the recommended uniform screening panel. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatic FDG Uptake is not associated with hepatic steatosis but with visceral fat volume in cancer screening

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    Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Joo; Kin, Keun Young; Kim, Hee Young; Kim, So Jung [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the relation between visceral fat volume and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)uptake of the liver measured by maximum or mean standardized uptake value. We retrospectively analyzed 96 consecutive records of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)performed for cancer screening between May 2011 and December 2011. Subjects were divided into 2 groups according to Hounsfield unit (HU)of the liver comparing with that of the spleen. The control group (20 women, 56 men)demonstrating HU of the liver equal or greater than that of the spleen included 76 patients, while the fatty liver group (2 Women, 18 men)showing HU of the liver less than that of the spleen included 20 patients. We compared FDG uptake of the liver and visceral fat volume between two groups. We evaluated correlation of hepatic FDG uptake measured by maximum or mean standardized uptake value (SUV)with visceral fat volume and attenuation. The fatty liver disease group showed higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST)of (24.42{+-}7.22, p=0.012), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)of (25.16{+-}11.68, p=0.011), body mass index (BMI)of (24.58{+-}3.29, p=0.021), and visceral fat volume (3063.53{+-}1561.42, p=0.011)than the control group. There were no statistically significant differences of mean standardized uptake value of the liver (liver SUV{sup mean})(2.73{+-}0.19, p=0.723), maximum standardized uptake value of the liver (liver SUV{sup max})(3.39{+-}0.53, p=0.8248)and liver SUV{sup mean}/spleen SUV{sup mean}(1.13{+-}0.10, p=0.081)between the two groups. Strong correlations were shown between liver SUV{sup mean} and BMI (r=0.609, p<0.001)and between liver SUV{sup mean} and visceral fat volume (r=0.457, p<0.001). Liver SUV{sup max} was also strongly correlated with BMI (r=0.622, p=0.001)and visceral fat volume (r=0.547, p<0.001). There was no significant association of mean attenuation value of the liver (liver HU{sup mean})with liver SUV{sup mean} (r=0.003, p=0.979)or liver SUV{sup max} (r

  14. Hepatic FDG Uptake is not associated with hepatic steatosis but with visceral fat volume in cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Joo; Kin, Keun Young; Kim, Hee Young; Kim, So Jung

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relation between visceral fat volume and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)uptake of the liver measured by maximum or mean standardized uptake value. We retrospectively analyzed 96 consecutive records of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)performed for cancer screening between May 2011 and December 2011. Subjects were divided into 2 groups according to Hounsfield unit (HU)of the liver comparing with that of the spleen. The control group (20 women, 56 men)demonstrating HU of the liver equal or greater than that of the spleen included 76 patients, while the fatty liver group (2 Women, 18 men)showing HU of the liver less than that of the spleen included 20 patients. We compared FDG uptake of the liver and visceral fat volume between two groups. We evaluated correlation of hepatic FDG uptake measured by maximum or mean standardized uptake value (SUV)with visceral fat volume and attenuation. The fatty liver disease group showed higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST)of (24.42±7.22, p=0.012), alanine aminotransferase (ALT)of (25.16±11.68, p=0.011), body mass index (BMI)of (24.58±3.29, p=0.021), and visceral fat volume (3063.53±1561.42, p=0.011)than the control group. There were no statistically significant differences of mean standardized uptake value of the liver (liver SUV mean )(2.73±0.19, p=0.723), maximum standardized uptake value of the liver (liver SUV max )(3.39±0.53, p=0.8248)and liver SUV mean /spleen SUV mean (1.13±0.10, p=0.081)between the two groups. Strong correlations were shown between liver SUV mean and BMI (r=0.609, p mean and visceral fat volume (r=0.457, p max was also strongly correlated with BMI (r=0.622, p=0.001)and visceral fat volume (r=0.547, p mean )with liver SUV mean (r=0.003, p=0.979)or liver SUV max (r=-0.120, p=0.244). Hepatic FDG uptake quantified as SUV mean of SUV max is not correlated with hepatic steatosis but with visceral fat volume in cancer screening

  15. Influences on uptake of reproductive health services in Nsangi community of Uganda and their implications for cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirembe Florence

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed or referred with cervical cancer in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital have advanced disease. Plans are underway for systematic screening programmes based on visual inspection, as Pap smear screening is not feasible for this low resource country. Effectiveness of population screening programmes requires high uptake and for cervical cancer, minimal loss to follow up. Uganda has poor indicators of reproductive health (RH services uptake; 10% postnatal care attendance, 23% contraceptive prevalence, and 38% skilled attendance at delivery. For antenatal attendance, attendance to one visit is 90%, but less than 50% for completion of care, i.e. three or more visits. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using eight focus group discussions with a total of 82 participants (16 men, 46 women and 20 health workers. We aimed to better understand factors that influence usage of available reproductive health care services and how they would relate to cervical cancer screening, as well as identify feasible interventions to improve cervical cancer screening uptake. Results Barriers identified after framework analysis included ignorance about cervical cancer, cultural constructs/beliefs about the illness, economic factors, domestic gender power relations, alternative authoritative sources of reproductive health knowledge, and unfriendly health care services. We discuss how these findings may inform future planned screening programmes in the Ugandan context. Conclusion Knowledge about cervical cancer among Ugandan women is very low. For an effective cervical cancer-screening programme, awareness about cervical cancer needs to be increased. Health planners need to note the power of the various authoritative sources of reproductive health knowledge such as paternal aunts (Sengas and involve them in the awareness campaign. Cultural and economic

  16. Uptake and Predictors of Anal Cancer Screening in Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Rajan, Shirani D.; Bhatia, Rohini; Cranston, Ross D.; Plankey, Michael W.; Silvestre, Anthony; Ostrow, David G.; Wiley, Dorothy; Shah, Nisha; Brewer, Noel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated attitudes about and acceptance of anal Papanicolaou (Pap) screening among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. Free anal Pap screening (cytology) was offered to 1742 MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, who reported history of, attitudes about, and experience with screening. We explored predictors of declining screening with multivariate logistic regression. Results. A history of anal Pap screening was uncommon among non–HIV-infected MSM, but more common among HIV-infected MSM (10% vs 39%; P < .001). Most participants expressed moderate or strong interest in screening (86%), no anxiety about screening (66%), and a strong belief in the utility of screening (65%). Acceptance of screening during this study was high (85%) across all 4 US sites. Among those screened, most reported it was “not a big deal” or “not as bad as expected,” and 3% reported that it was “scary.” Declining to have screening was associated with Black race, anxiety about screening, and low interest, but not age or HIV status. Conclusions. This study demonstrated high acceptance of anal Pap screening among both HIV-infected and non–HIV-infected MSM across 4 US sites. PMID:23865658

  17. A Qualitative Methodological Framework to Assess Uptake of Evidence on Social Determinants of Health in Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew; Baum, Frances; MacDougall, Colin; Newman, Lareen; McDermott, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Despite abundant evidence on social determinants of health (SDH) and health inequities, effective uptake of the evidence in health policies of high-income countries has been limited. Health policies might acknowledge evidence on SDH but still direct most strategies towards biomedical and behavioural interventions. This article reports on a…

  18. Screening for bioactive metabolites in plant extracts modulating glucose uptake and fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Kotowska, Dorota Ewa; C. B. Olsen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes...

  19. The role of learning disability nurses in promoting cervical screening uptake in women with intellectual disabilities: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer L; Coulson, Neil S

    2014-06-01

    Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women with intellectual disabilities to access cervical screening in order to examine their role in promoting attendance and elucidate potential barriers and facilitators to uptake. Ten participants recruited from a specialist learning disability service completed a semi-structured interview and data were analysed using experiential thematic analysis. Identified individual barriers included limited health literacy, negative attitudes and beliefs and competing demands; barriers attributed to primary care professionals included time pressures, limited exposure to people with intellectual disabilities and lack of appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills. Attendance at cervical screening was facilitated by prolonged preparation work undertaken by learning disability nurses, helpful clinical behaviours in the primary care context and effective joint working. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. HPV immunisation and increased uptake of cervical screening in Scottish women; observational study of routinely collected national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, T J; McFadden, M; Pollock, K G J; Kavanagh, K; Cuschieri, K; Cruickshank, M; Nicoll, S; Robertson, C

    2016-03-01

    To measure the uptake of first invitation to cervical screening by vaccine status in a population-based cohort offered HPV immunisation in a national catch-up campaign. A retrospective observational study of routinely collected data from the Scottish Cervical Screening Programme. Data were extracted and linked from the Scottish Cervical Call Recall System, the Scottish Population Register and the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. Records from 201 023 women born between 1 January 1988 and 30 September 1993 were assessed. Women born in or after 1990 were eligible for the national catch-up programme of HPV immunisation. Attendance for screening was within 12 months of the first invitation at age 20 years. There was a significant decline in overall attendance from the 1988 cohort to the 1993 cohort with the adjusted attendance ratio of the 1988 cohort being 1.49 times (95% CI 1.46-1.52) that of the 1993 cohort. Immunisation compensated for this decrease in uptake with unvaccinated individuals having a reduced ratio of attendance compared with those fully vaccinated (RR=0.65, 95% CI 0.64-0.65). Not taking up the opportunity for HPV immunisation was associated with an attendance for screening below the trend line for all women before the availability of HPV immunisation. HPV immunisation is not associated with the reduced attendance for screening that had been feared. Immunised women in the catch-up cohorts appear to be more motivated to attend than unimmunised women, but this may be a result of a greater awareness of health issues. These results, while reassuring, may not be reproduced in routinely immunised women. Continued monitoring of attendance for the first smear and subsequent routine smears is needed.

  1. Increased uptake and improved outcomes of bowel cancer screening with a faecal immunochemical test: results from a pilot study within the national screening programme in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Sue; Mathews, Christopher; Day, T J; Smith, Steve; Seaman, Helen E; Snowball, Julia; Halloran, Stephen P

    2017-09-01

    The National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England uses a guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBt). A quantitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for haemoglobin (Hb) has many advantages, including being specific for human blood, detecting Hb at a much lower concentration with a single faecal sample and improved uptake. In 2014, a large comparative pilot study was performed within BCSP to establish the acceptability and diagnostic performance of FIT. Over a 6-month period, 40 930 (1 in 28) subjects were sent a FIT (OC-SENSOR) instead of a gFOBt. A bespoke FIT package was used to mail FIT sampling devices to and from FIT subjects. All participants positive with either gFOBt or FIT (cut-off 20 µg Hb/g faeces) were referred for follow-up. Subgroup analysis included cut-off concentrations, age, sex, screening history and deprivation quintile. While overall uptake increased by over 7 percentage points with FIT (66.4% vs 59.3%, OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.33 to 1.38), uptake by previous non-responders almost doubled (FIT 23.9% vs gFOBt 12.5%, OR 2.20, 95% CI 2.10 to 2.29). The increase in overall uptake was significantly higher in men than women and was observed across all deprivation quintiles. With the conventional 20 µg/g cut-off, FIT positivity was 7.8% and ranged from 5.7% in 59-64-year-old women to 11.1% in 70-75-year-old men. Cancer detection increased twofold and that for advanced adenomas nearly fivefold. Detection rates remained higher with FIT for advanced adenomas, even at 180 µg Hb/g. Markedly improved participation rates were achieved in a mature gFOBt-based national screening programme and disparities between men and women were reduced. High positivity rates, particularly in men and previous non-respondents, challenge the available colonoscopy resource, but improvements in neoplasia detection are still achievable within this limited resource. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  2. Determinants of Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake Among Women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözmen, Kaan; Unal, Belgin; Sakarya, Sibel; Dinc, Gonul; Yardim, Nazan; Keskinkilic, Bekir; Ergör, Gül

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on breast and cervical cancer screening among women 30 years and older in Turkey. We used data from the National Chronic Diseases and Risk Factors Survey conducted by the Ministry of Health in 2011. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of sociodemographic factors, lifestyle variables, and cancer screening. Overall, 22.0% of women ever had a Pap smear test for cervical cancer screening and 19.0% ever had a mammography for breast cancer screening(n = 6846). Individuals with a university degree, social security, doing moderate physical activity, and consuming 5 portions of fruit or vegetable/day were more likely to receive Pap smear test and mammography. Residing in the eastern region and living in rural area was associated with lower likelihood of receiving both types of screening. © 2016 APJPH.

  3. HIV screening at health facilities and community pharmacies in Kenya : Enhancing test uptake and early diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugo, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite a tremendous scale-up of antiretroviral therapy, as many as 54% of HIV-infected persons globally remain undiagnosed hence are not on treatment. This thesis presents findings from a series of studies conducted in Coastal Kenya aiming to enhance HIV test uptake and early diagnosis. We found

  4. Self-perceived Mental Health Status and Uptake of Fecal Occult Blood Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Canada: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestin Hategekimana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: While colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most preventable causes of cancer mortality, it is one of the leading causes of cancer death in Canada where CRC screening uptake is suboptimal. Given the increased rate of mortality and morbidity among mental health patients, their condition could be a potential barrier to CRC screening due to greater difficulties in adhering to behaviours related to long-term health goals. Using a population-based study among Canadians, we hypothesize that self-perceived mental health (SPMH status and fecal occult blood test (FOBT uptake for the screening of CRC are associated. Methods: The current study is cross-sectional and utilised data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to assess whether SPMH is independently associated with FOBT uptake among a representative sample of 11386 respondents aged 50-74 years. Results: Nearly half of the respondents reported having ever had FOBT for CRC screening, including 37.28% who have been screened within two years of the survey and 12.41% who had been screened more than two years preceding the survey. Respondents who reported excellent mental health were more likely to have ever been screened two years or more before the survey (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.00-4.43 and to have been screened in the last two years preceding the survey (AOR = 1.53; 95% CI, 0.86-2.71 than those reported poor mental health status. Conclusion: This study supports the association between SPMH status and FOBT uptake for CRC screening. While the efforts to maximize CRC screening uptake should be deployed to all eligible people, those with poor mental health may need more attention.

  5. Characteristics of first-trimester screening of non-responders in a high-uptake population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Hanne Trap; Wulff, Camilla Bernt; Ekelund, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to compare demographic, social and reproductive health-related medical factors between women who did and women who did not undergo combined first-trimester screening (cFTS) and to examine their reasons for declining a screening offer, especially whether non-participation......INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to compare demographic, social and reproductive health-related medical factors between women who did and women who did not undergo combined first-trimester screening (cFTS) and to examine their reasons for declining a screening offer, especially whether non...... with the following factors: country of origin other than Denmark (p ... of a conscious choice based on ethical considerations, rather than being the result of a lack of information. However, a low response rate decreases the strength of our conclusions. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  6. Uptake of a colorectal cancer screening blood test in people with elevated risk for cancer who cannot or will not complete a faecal occult blood test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Erin L; Cock, Charles; Meng, Rosie; Cole, Stephen R; Fraser, Robert J L; Young, Graeme P

    2017-03-31

    Participation rates in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes using faecal occult blood tests (FOBTs) are low. Nonparticipation is commonly attributed to psychosocial factors, but some medical conditions also prevent screening. These barriers might be partially overcome if a blood test for CRC screening was available. This study determined whether people who had always declined screening by FOBT would participate if offered a blood test. An audit of registrants within a personalized CRC screening programme was undertaken to determine the reasons for regular nonparticipation in FOBT. Consistent nonparticipants (n=240) were randomly selected and invited for CRC screening with a blood test. Demographic characteristics and the reasons for prior FOBT nonparticipation were collected by means of a questionnaire. Nonparticipation in the screening programme could be classified as either behavioural (8.6%), with consistent noncompliance, or due to medical contraindications (8.5%), which included chronic rectal bleeding, being deemed unsuitable by a health professional, and needing personal assistance. Blood test uptake was 25%, with participation in the medical contraindications group greater than that in the behavioural group (43 vs. 12%, Pprocrastination and dislike of the test, but these were not associated with blood test uptake (P>0.05). There is a subgroup of the community who have medical reasons for nonparticipation in CRC screening with FOBT but will participate if offered a blood test. The option of a blood test does not, however, improve uptake in those who admit to behavioural reasons for noncompliance with screening.

  7. Incentives in Diabetic Eye Assessment by Screening (IDEAS): study protocol of a three-arm randomized controlled trial using financial incentives to increase screening uptake in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judah, Gaby; Vlaev, Ivo; Gunn, Laura; King, Dominic; King, Derek; Valabhji, Jonathan; Darzi, Ara; Bicknell, Colin

    2016-03-18

    Diabetes is an increasing public health problem in the UK and globally. Diabetic retinopathy is a microvascular complication of diabetes, and is one of the leading causes of blindness in the UK working age population. The diabetic eye screening programme in England aims to invite all people with diabetes aged 12 or over for retinal photography to screen for the presence of diabetic retinopathy. However, attendance rates are only 81 %, leaving many people at risk of preventable sight loss. This is a three arm randomized controlled trial to investigate the impact of different types of financial incentives (based on principles from behavioral economics) on increasing attendance at diabetic eye screening appointments in London. Eligible participants will be aged 16 or over, and are those who have been invited to screening appointments annually, but who have not attended, or telephoned to rearrange an appointment, within the last 24 months. Eligible participants will be randomized to one of three conditions: 1. Control condition (usual invitation letter) 2. Fixed incentive condition (usual invitation letter, including a voucher for £10 if they attend their appointment) 3. Probabilistic incentive condition (invitation letter, including a voucher for a 1 in 100 chance of winning £1000 if they attend their appointment). Participants will be sent invitation letters, and the primary outcome will be whether or not they attend their appointment. One thousand participants will be included in total, randomized with a ratio of 1.4:1:1. In order to test whether the incentive scheme has a differential impact on patients from different demographic or socio-economic groups, information will be recorded on age, gender, distance from screening center, socio-economic status and length of time since they were last screened. A cost-effectiveness analysis will also be performed. This study will be the first trial of financial incentives for improving uptake of diabetic eye screening. If

  8. Completing the cervical screening pathway: Factors that facilitate the increase of self-collection uptake among under-screened and never-screened women, an Australian pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, E; Anderson, S; Hawkes, D; Saville, M; Arabena, K

    2018-02-01

    To examine factors that enhance under-screened and never-screened women's completion of the self-collection alternative pathway of the Renewed National Cervical Screening Program (ncsp) in Victoria, Australia. With the Australian ncsp changing, starting on 1 December 2017, the Medical Services Advisory Committee (msac) recommended implementing human papillomavirus (hpv) testing using a self-collected sample for under-screened and never-screened populations. In response, a multi-agency group implemented an hpv self-collection pilot project to trial self-collection screening pathways for eligible women. Quantitative data were collected on participation rates and compliance rates with follow-up procedures across three primary health care settings. Forty women who self-collected were interviewed in a semi-structured format, and seven agency staff completed in-depth interviews. Qualitative data were used to identify and understand clinical and personal enablers that assisted women to complete self-collection cervical screening pathways successfully. Eighty-five per cent (10 women) of participants who tested positive for hpv successfully received their results and completed follow-up procedures as required. Two remaining participants also received hpv-positive results. However, agencies were unable to engage them in follow-up services and procedures. The overall participation rate in screening (self-collection or Pap test) was 85.7% (84 women), with 79 women self-collecting. Qualitative data indicated that clear explanations on self-collection, development of trusting, empathetic relationships with health professionals, and recognition of participants' past experiences were critical to the successful completion of the self-collection pathway. When asked about possible inhibitors to screening and to following up on results and appointments, women cited poor physical and mental health, as well as financial and other structural barriers. A well-implemented process, led by

  9. Uptake of faecal occult blood test colorectal cancer screening by different ethnic groups in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutekom, M.; van Rijn, A. F.; Dekker, E.; Blaauwgeers, H.; Stronks, K.; Fockens, P.; Essink-Bot, M.-L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the participation rates in CRC screening with a FOBT among various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Individuals (n = 10 054) were invited by mail and grouped by country of birth. Overall participation rate was 49%. Participation among ethnic minority groups was significantly lower

  10. Barriers to Cervical Cancer and Breast Cancer Screening Uptake in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rakibul M; Billah, Baki; Hossain, Md Nassif; Oldroyd, John

    2017-07-27

    Background: Cervical cancer (CCa) and breast cancer (BCa) are the two leading cancers in women worldwide. Early detection and education to promote early diagnosis and screening of CCa and BCa greatly increases the chances for successful treatment and survival. Screening uptake for CCa and BCa in low and middle - income countries (LMICs) is low, and is consequently failing to prevent these diseases. We conducted a systematic review to identify the key barriers to CCa and BCa screening in women in LMICs. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search using Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, CINHAL Plus, and Google scholar to retrieve all English language studies from inception to 2015. This review was done in accordance with the PRISMA-P guidelines. Results: 53 eligible studies, 31 CCa screening studies and 22 BCa screening studies, provided information on 81,210 participants. We found fewer studies in low-income and lower - middle - income countries than in upper - middle - income countries. Lack of knowledge about CCa and BCa, and understanding of the role of screening were the key barriers to CCa and BCa screening in LMICs. Factors that are opportunities for knowledge acquisition, such as level of education, urban living, employment outside the home, facilitated CCa and BCa screening uptake in women in LMICs. Conclusions: Improvements to CCa and BCa screening uptake in LMICs must be accompanied by educational interventions which aim to improve knowledge and understanding of CCa and BCa and screening to asymptomatic women. It is imperative for governments and health policy makers in LMICs to implement screening programmes, including educational interventions, to ensure the prevention and early detection of women with CCa and BCa. These programmes and policies will be an integral part of a comprehensive population-based CCa and BCa control framework in LMICs. Creative Commons Attribution License

  11. A community-based trial of educational interventions with fecal immunochemical tests for colorectal cancer screening uptake among blacks in community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Shannon M; Davis, Stacy N; Williams, Kimberly R; Zhao, Xiuhua; Govindaraju, Swapomthi K; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Lin, Hui-Yi; Sutton, Steven K; Roethzeim, Richard R; Shibata, David; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K

    2016-11-15

    Intervention studies among individuals in diverse community settings are needed to reduce health disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and mortality rates. The current study compared the efficacy of 2 intervention conditions promoting CRC screening among black individuals. Black individuals ages 50 to 75 years (N = 330) were recruited in community settings in 4 Tampa Bay counties. After obtaining consent and conducting a baseline interview to assess sociodemographic and health-related variables, participants received either a culturally targeted CRC photonovella booklet plus a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) kit or a standard CRC screening brochure plus an FIT kit. The primary outcome was FIT kit screening uptake. FIT screening uptake at 6 months was 86.7% overall (90.3% in the brochure group and 81.9% in the photonovella group). Controlling for baseline between-group differences, there was no influence of intervention on FIT kit uptake (P = .756). Significant predictors of not returning an FIT kit included being unable to work (P = .010), having higher religious belief scores (P = .015), and living farther from the cancer center (P = .015). Providing FIT kits and educational print materials to black individuals in community settings resulted in high rates of CRC screening. The study also identified subgroups of participants who were less likely to return an FIT kit and provides insight for future interventions. Cancer 2016;122:3288-3296. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  12. A cluster randomized trial of strategies to increase uptake amongst young women invited for their first cervical screen: The STRATEGIC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, H; Gittins, M; Cruickshank, M; Moseley, C; Fletcher, S; Albrow, R; Gray, A; Brabin, L; Torgerson, D; Crosbie, E J; Sargent, A; Roberts, C

    2018-06-01

    Objectives To measure the feasibility and effectiveness of interventions to increase cervical screening uptake amongst young women. Methods A two-phase cluster randomized trial conducted in general practices in the NHS Cervical Screening Programme. In Phase 1, women in practices randomized to intervention due for their first invitation to cervical screening received a pre-invitation leaflet and, separately, access to online booking. In Phase 2, non-attenders at six months were randomized to one of: vaginal self-sample kits sent unrequested or offered; timed appointments; nurse navigator; or the choice between nurse navigator or self-sample kits. Primary outcome was uplift in intervention vs. control practices, at 3 and 12 months post invitation. Results Phase 1 randomized 20,879 women. Neither pre-invitation leaflet nor online booking increased screening uptake by three months (18.8% pre-invitation leaflet vs. 19.2% control and 17.8% online booking vs. 17.2% control). Uptake was higher amongst human papillomavirus vaccinees at three months (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.69-2.53, p < 0.001). Phase 2 randomized 10,126 non-attenders, with 32-34 clusters for each intervention and 100 clusters as controls. Sending self-sample kits increased uptake at 12 months (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.20-1.91, p = 0.001), as did timed appointments (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.14-1.74, p = 0.001). The offer of a nurse navigator, a self-sample kits on request, and choice between timed appointments and nurse navigator were ineffective. Conclusions Amongst non-attenders, self-sample kits sent and timed appointments achieved an uplift in screening over the short term; longer term impact is less certain. Prior human papillomavirus vaccination was associated with increased screening uptake.

  13. [CT-Screening for Lung Cancer - what is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, Iris; Reck, Martin

    2018-04-01

    In patients with lung cancer treatment opportunities and prognosis are correlated to the stage of disease with a chance for curative treatment in patients with early stage disease. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer is of paramount importance for improving the prognosis of lung cancer patients.The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) has already shown that low-dose CT increases the number of identified early stage lung cancer patients and reduces lung cancer related mortality. Critically considered in terms of CT-screening are false-positive results, overdiagnosis and unessential invasive clarification. Preliminary results of relatively small European trials haven´t yet confirmed the results of the NLST-study.Until now Lung Cancer Screening by low dose CT-scan or other methods is neither approved nor available in Germany.To improve the efficacy of CT-Screening and to introduce early detection of lung cancer in standard practice, additional, complementing methods should be further evaluated. One option might be the supplementary analysis of biomarkers in liquid biopsies or exhaled breath condensates. In addition, defining the high-risk population is of great relevance to identify candidates who might benefit of early detection programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Motivators and barriers to mammography screening uptake by female health-care workers in primary health-care centres: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Zaher; Sholi, Hisham; Sholi, Suha B; Sholi, Mohammad B; Lahaseh, Rawya

    2018-02-21

    Mammography screening is an effective tool for early detection and management of breast cancer. Female health-care workers' awareness of breast cancer screening is important because their beliefs and behaviours could influence other women. The aim of this study was to assess mammography screening uptake by female health-care workers at primary health-care centres and to identify the primary motivators and barriers that affect uptake. This cross-sectional study included all governmental primary health-care centres in the West Bank. Governorates were grouped into three regions as follows: north West Bank (Nablus, Jenin, Tulkarm, Tubas, Qalqiliya, and Salfit), middle West Bank (Jerusalem, Jericho, and Ramallah), and south West Bank (Hebron, and Bethlehem). The study population included all female health-care workers older than 40 years. Those who performed mammography for a suspected mass or other breast abnormalities were excluded. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, knowledge about mammography screening, the extent and regularity of mammography screening, and motivators and barriers influencing their mammography screening uptake. The rate of mammography screening uptake was calculated. χ 2 test and t tests were used to assess screening motivators and barriers. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the An-Najah National University. Participation was voluntary, and written consent was obtained from each participant. 299 female health-care workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 46 years (SD 4·7). 284 (95%) women had adequate knowledge about breast cancer and mammography screening, and 149 (50%) women reported having had at least one mammogram. 62 (21%) women had had regular scheduled mammograms. The most frequent reported motivators were the perceived benefit that early detection of breast cancer is important for its management (269 [90

  15. Using online adverts to increase the uptake of cervical screening amongst "real Eastenders": an opportunistic controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ray B; Soler-Lopez, Mar; Zahra, Daniel; Shankleman, Judith; Trenchard-Mabere, Esther

    2013-03-26

    Cervical screening uptake has increased as a result of occurrences of cervical cancer in TV 'soap operas' and in real life celebrities such as Jade Goody. Media analysis at the time of Jade Goody's death suggested the NHS did not take sufficient advantage of this opportunity to improve cervical screening rates. Google AdWords has been used to recruit and raise awareness of health but we were not aware of its use to supplement media events. This was an opportunistic service evaluation to accompany a cervical cancer storyline in Eastenders (a TV 'soap opera'). We ran an AdWords campaign based on keywords such as 'Eastenders', and 'cervical cancer' in a one mile radius in East London, linked to one webpage giving details of 10 practices and other links on cervical cancer. We recorded costs of adverts and setting up the webpage. We used routine statistics from Tower Hamlets, City and Hackney, and Newham Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) of the number of smears, eligible populations, and coverage by practice by month from September 2010 to January 2012 to compare the ten intervention practices with controls. Eight people per day in the target area viewed the project webpage. The cost of setting up the website and running Google AdWords was £1320 or £1.88 per person viewing the webpage. Unlike Jade Goody's death, there was no major impact from the Eastenders' storyline on Google searches for cervical cancer. There was considerable monthly variation in the number of smear tests in the 3 PCTs. The AdWords campaign may have had some effect on smear rates but this showed, at best, a marginal statistical difference. Assuming a 'real' effect, the intervention may have resulted in 110 'extra' women being screened but there was no change in coverage. Although the Eastenders storyline seemed to have no effect on interest in cervical cancer or screening, the AdWords campaign may have had some effect. Given the small scale exploratory nature of the study this was not statistically

  16. Global Forum 2015 dialogue on "From evidence to policy - thinking outside the box": perspectives to improve evidence uptake and good practices in the African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigia, Joses Muthuri; Pannenborg, Charles Ok; Amore, Luis Gabriel Cuervo; Ghannem, Hassen; IJsselmuiden, Carel; Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet

    2016-07-18

    The Global Forum 2015 panel session dialogue entitled "From evidence to policy - thinking outside the box" was held on 26 August 2015 in the Philippines to debate why evidence was not fully translated into policy and practice and what could be done to increase its uptake. This paper reports the reasons and possible actions for increasing the uptake of evidence, and highlights the actions partners could take to increase the use of evidence in the African Region. The Global Forum 2015 debate attributed African Region's low uptake of evidence to the big gap in incentives and interests between research for health researchers and public health policy-makers; limited appreciation on the side of researchers that public health decisions are based on multiple and complex considerations; perception among users that research evidence is not relevant to local contexts; absence of knowledge translation platforms; sub-optimal collaboration and engagement between industry and research institutions; lack of involvement of civil society organizations; lack of engagement of communities in the research process; failure to engage the media; limited awareness and debate in national and local parliaments on the importance of investing in research and innovation; and dearth of research and innovation parks in the African Region. The actions needed in the Region to increase the uptake of evidence in policy and practice include strengthening NHRS governance; bridging the motivation gap between researchers and health policy-makers; restoring trust between researchers and decision-makers; ensuring close and continuous intellectual intercourse among researchers, ministry of health policy-makers and technocrats during the life course of research projects or programmes; proactive collaboration between academia and industry; regular briefings of civil society, media, relevant parliamentary committees and development partners; development of vibrant knowledge translation platforms; development of

  17. Does journal club membership improve research evidence uptake in different allied health disciplines: a pre-post study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizarondo Lucylynn M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although allied health is considered to be one 'unit' of healthcare providers, it comprises a range of disciplines which have different training and ways of thinking, and different tasks and methods of patient care. Very few empirical studies on evidence-based practice (EBP have directly compared allied health professionals. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a structured model of journal club (JC, known as iCAHE (International Centre for Allied Health Evidence JC, on the EBP knowledge, skills and behaviour of the different allied health disciplines. Methods A pilot, pre-post study design using maximum variation sampling was undertaken. Recruitment was conducted in groups and practitioners such as physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech pathologists, social workers, psychologists, nutritionists/dieticians and podiatrists were invited to participate. All participating groups received the iCAHE JC for six months. Quantitative data using the Adapted Fresno Test (McCluskey & Bishop and Evidence-based Practice Questionnaire (Upton & Upton were collected prior to the implementation of the JC, with follow-up measurements six months later. Mean percentage change and confidence intervals were calculated to compare baseline and post JC scores for all outcome measures. Results The results of this study demonstrate variability in EBP outcomes across disciplines after receiving the iCAHE JC. Only physiotherapists showed statistically significant improvements in all outcomes; speech pathologists and occupational therapists demonstrated a statistically significant increase in knowledge but not for attitude and evidence uptake; social workers and dieticians/nutritionists showed statistically significant positive changes in their knowledge, and evidence uptake but not for attitude. Conclusions There is evidence to suggest that a JC such as the iCAHE model is an effective method for improving the EBP knowledge

  18. Evidence for a plasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductase involved in nitrate uptake of Chlorella sorokiniana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischner, R.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    Anti-nitrate-reductase (NR) immunoglobulin-G (IgG) fragments inhibited nitrate uptake into Chlorella cells but had no affect on nitrate uptake. Intact anti-NR serum and preimmune IgG fragments had no affect on nitrate uptake. Membrane-associated NR was detected in plasma-membrane (PM) fractions isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning. The PM-associated NR was not removed by sonicating PM vesicles in 500 mM NaCl and 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and represented up to 0.8% of the total Chlorella NR activity. The PM NR was solubilized by Triton X-100 and inactivated by Chlorella NR antiserum. Plasma-membrane NR was present in ammonium-grown Chlorella cells that completely lacked soluble NR activity. The subunit sizes of the PM and soluble NRs were 60 and 95 kDa, respectively, as determined by sodium-dodecyl-sulfate electrophoresis and western blotting.

  19. Determinants of Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening Services at a No-cost Reproductive Health Clinic Managed by Nurse-Midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osingada, Charles P; Ninsiima, Gloria; Chalo, Rose N; Muliira, Joshua K; Ngabirano, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer (CC) has been rising in sub-Saharan Africa, and health authorities in this region have responded by increasing the availability of cheap or no-cost CC screening services (CCSS), public health education, and others. However, the efforts have not yet resulted into the expected uptake of CCSS. The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of uptake of CCSS at a no-cost reproductive health clinic managed by nurse-midwives. A descriptive design and a structured interview questionnaire were used to collect data from 236 women attending the reproductive health clinic. Logistic regression statistics were used to examine the determinants of uptake of CCSS. The mean age of participants was 28.7 years, and only 29% had received CC screening. The significant determinants of uptake of CCSS were concern about the gender of the healthcare professional (HCP) (odds ratio [OR], 5.03; P = .001), age older than 25 years (OR, 3.09; P = .005), contraceptive use (OR, 0.28; P = .02), encouragement by HCPs (OR, 0.16; P = .00), and perceived quality of CCSS (OR, 0.08; P = .00). Gender of the HCP and encouragement or reminders by the HCP influence uptake of CCSS. Because nurse-midwives have successfully led strategies to promote other integrated reproductive health services, they can also play a key role in enhancing uptake of CCSS in resource-poor settings. Interventions to enhance service quality and deliberate policies requiring HCP to recommend encourage and remind clients may help to enhance uptake of CCSS in resource-poor settings.

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening Service Uptake and Associated Factors among Age Eligible Women in Mekelle Zone, Northern Ethiopia, 2015: A Community Based Study Using Health Belief Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinsermu Bayu

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, with about 500,000 new patients diagnosed and over 250,000 deaths every year. Cervical cancer screening offers protective benefits and is associated with a reduction in the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and cervical cancer mortality. But there is very low participation rate in screening for cervical cancer among low and middle-income countries.This study aimed to determine cervical cancer screening service uptake and its associated factor among age eligible women in Mekelle zone, northern Ethiopia, 2015.A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Mekelle zone among age eligible women from February to June 2015. Systematic sampling technique was used to select 1286 women in to the study. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Data was entered and cleaned using EPINFO and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software package. Bivariate and Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess association between dependent and independent variables with 95% CI and p-value less than 0.05 was set for association.The study revealed that among 1186 age eligible women, only 235(19.8% have been screened for cervical cancer. Age (AOR = 1.799, 95%CI = 1.182-2.739, history of multiple sexual partners (AOR = 1.635, 95%CI = 1.094-2.443, history of sexually transmitted disease (AOR = 1.635,95%CI = 1.094-2.443, HIV sero status (AOR = 5.614, 95%CI = 2.595-12.144, perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer (AOR = 2.225, 95%CI = 1.308-3.783, perceived barriers to premalignant cervical lesions screening (AOR = 2.256, 95%CI = 1.447-3.517 and knowledge on cervical cancer and screening (AOR = 2.355, 95%CI = 1.155-4.802 were significant predictors of cervical cancer screening service uptake.Magnitude of cervical cancer screening service uptake among age eligible women is still unacceptably low. Age of the women, history of multiple sexual partners

  1. Mechanisms regulating brain docosahexaenoic acid uptake: what is the recent evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Lacombe, R J Scott; Bazinet, Richard P

    2018-03-01

    To summarize recent advances pertaining to the mechanisms regulating brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) uptake. DHA is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid highly enriched in neuronal membranes and it is implicated in several important neurological processes. However, DHA synthesis is extremely limited within the brain. There are two main plasma pools that supply the brain with DHA: the nonesterified pool and the lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPtdCho) pool. Quantitatively, plasma nonesterified-DHA (NE-DHA) is the main contributor to brain DHA. Fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) in addition to fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) are key players that regulate brain uptake of NE-DHA. However, the plasma half-life of lysoPtdCho-DHA and its brain partition coefficient are higher than those of NE-DHA after intravenous administration. The mechanisms regulating brain DHA uptake are more complicated than once believed, but recent advances provide some clarity notably by suggesting that FATP1 and FABP5 are key contributors to cellular uptake of DHA at the blood-brain barrier. Elucidating how DHA enters the brain is important as we might be able to identify methods to better deliver DHA to the brain as a potential therapeutic.

  2. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: three public policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, Frida S; Beran, Tanya N

    2012-01-10

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Less than one quarter (22.6%) of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03) and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10) were significantly associated with screening uptake. Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of the disease must include specific information on how to prevent it

  3. Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyimo Frida S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is an important public health problem worldwide, which comprises approximately 12% of all cancers in women. In Tanzania, the estimated incidence rate is 30 to 40 per 100,000 women, indicating a high disease burden. Cervical cancer screening is acknowledged as currently the most effective approach for cervical cancer control, and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The aim of the study was to identify the most important factors related to the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted with a sample of 354 women aged 18 to 69 years residing in Moshi Rural District. A multistage sampling technique was used to randomly select eligible women. A one-hour interview was conducted with each woman in her home. The 17 questions were modified from similar questions used in previous research. Results Less than one quarter (22.6% of the participants had obtained cervical cancer screening. The following characteristics, when examined separately in relation to the uptake of cervical cancer screening service, were significant: husband approval of cervical cancer screening, women's level of education, women's knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention, women's concerns about embarrassment and pain of screening, women's preference for the sex of health provider, and women's awareness of and distance to cervical cancer screening services. When examined simultaneously in a logistic regression, we found that only knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention (OR = 8.90, 95%CI = 2.14-16.03 and distance to the facility which provides cervical cancer screening (OR = 3.98, 95%CI = 0.18-5.10 were significantly associated with screening uptake. Conclusions Based on the study findings, three recommendations are made. First, information about cervical cancer must be presented to women. Second, public education of

  4. Newborn screening for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy: further evidence high throughput screening is feasible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theda, Christiane; Gibbons, Katy; Defor, Todd E; Donohue, Pamela K; Golden, W Christopher; Kline, Antonie D; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Panny, Susan R; Hubbard, Walter C; Jones, Richard O; Liu, Anita K; Moser, Ann B; Raymond, Gerald V

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is characterized by adrenal insufficiency and neurologic involvement with onset at variable ages. Plasma very long chain fatty acids are elevated in ALD; even in asymptomatic patients. We demonstrated previously that liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry measuring C26:0 lysophosphatidylcholine reliably identifies affected males. We prospectively applied this method to 4689 newborn blood spot samples; no false positives were observed. We show that high throughput neonatal screening for ALD is methodologically feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lactose uptake driven by galactose efflux in Streptococcus thermophilus: Evidence for a galactose-lactose antiporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutkins, R.W.; Ponne, C.

    1991-01-01

    Galactose-nonfermenting (Gal - ) Streptococcus thermophilus TS2 releases galactose into the extracellular medium when grown in medium containing excess lactose. Starved and de-energized Gal - cells, however, could be loaded with galactose to levels approximately equal to the extracellular concentration (0 to 50 mM). When loaded cells were separated from the medium and resuspended in fresh broth containing 5 mM lactose, galactose efflux occurred. De-energized, galactose-loaded cells, resuspended in buffer or medium, accumulated [ 14 C]lactose at a greater rate and to significantly higher intracellular concentrations than unloaded cells. Uptake of lactose by loaded cells was inhibited more than that by unloaded cells in the presence of extracellular galactose, indicating that a galactose gradient was involved in the exchange system. When de-energized, galactose-loaded cells were resuspended in carbohydrate-free medium at pH 6.7, a proton motive force (Δp) of 86 to 90 mV was formed, whereas de-energized, nonloaded cells maintained a Δp of about 56 mV. However, uptake of lactose by loaded cells occurred when the proton motive force was abolished by the addition of an uncoupler or in the presence of a proton-translocating ATPase inhibitor. These results support the hypothesis that galactose efflux in Gal - S. thermophilus is electrogenic and that the exchange reaction (lactose uptake and galactose efflux) probably occurs via an antiporter system

  6. Screening for Syphilis: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Amy G; Pappas, Miranda; Daeges, Monica; Nelson, Heidi D

    2016-06-07

    Screening for syphilis infection is currently recommended for high-risk individuals, including those with previous syphilis infection, an infected sexual partner, HIV infection, or more than 4 sex partners in the preceding year. To update a 2004 systematic review of studies of syphilis screening effectiveness, test accuracy, and screening harms in nonpregnant adults and adolescents. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015 and Ovid MEDLINE (January 2004 to October 2015), with updated search through March 2016. English-language trials and observational studies of screening effectiveness, test accuracy, and screening harms in nonpregnant adults and adolescents. One investigator abstracted data, a second checked data for accuracy, and 2 investigators independently assessed study quality using predefined criteria. Transmission of disease, including HIV; complications of syphilis; diagnostic accuracy; and harms of screening. No evidence was identified regarding the effectiveness of screening on clinical outcomes or the effectiveness of risk assessment instruments; the harms of screening; or the effectiveness of screening in average-risk, nonpregnant adolescents or adults or high-risk individuals other than men who have sex with men (MSM) or men who are HIV positive. Four non-US studies indicated higher rates of syphilis detection with screening every 3 months vs 6 or 12 months for early syphilis in HIV-positive men or MSM. For example, there was an increased proportion of asymptomatic, higher-risk MSM in Australia (n = 6789 consultations) receiving a diagnosis of early syphilis when tested every 3 months vs annually (53% vs 16%, P = .001), but no difference among low-risk MSM. Treponemal and nontreponemal tests were accurate in asymptomatic individuals (sensitivity >85%, specificity >91%) in 3 studies but required confirmatory testing. Reverse sequence testing with an initial automated

  7. Optimal screening mammography reading volumes; evidence from real life in the East Midlands region of the NHS Breast Screening Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornford, E.; Reed, J.; Murphy, A.; Bennett, R.; Evans, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess real-life reader performance as a function of both volume of mammograms read and reading experience in a multicentre cohort. Materials and methods: Thirty-seven film readers from the East Midlands Breast Screening Programme had 3 years of consecutive screen reading results available for comparison. Markers of screening performance as the first film reader [cancer detection rates, small cancer detection rates, recall rates, positive predictive value of recall (PPV), and missed cancers] were compared with both volume of films read and years of film reading experience. For reading volume, readers were categorized according to film reading volume over the 3 year period: <15,000 (i.e., on average less than the recommended 5000/year); 15-<20,000; 20-<25,000; and ≥25,000. For years of experience, readers were categorized into the following groups: <5 years, 5-<10 years, 10-<15 years, and 15-<20 years. Results: There was no evidence to suggest a relationship between years of film reading experience and film-reading performance. For reading volume, there was a significant difference in the distribution of cancer-detection rate between the four groups (p = 0.01); however, there was no difference in small cancer-detection rates, missed cancers or PPV. The median cancer detection rate in the high-volume group (≥25,000 mammograms/3 years) was significantly lower than the other groups combined (6.9 per 1000 women screened versus 7.9 per 1000 women screened). The lowest median recall rate was also in the high-volume group, whilst those readers not meeting the NHSBSP minimum requirement had the highest median recall rate; however, there was borderline evidence to suggest a difference in the distribution of recall rates between the four groups. Conclusion: The data from the East Midlands do not provide any evidence for reducing the threshold volume of 5000 cases /year. However, there appears to be an upper limit above which reader performance deteriorates in

  8. Evaluating the evidence: direct-to-consumer screening tests advertised online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Kimberly M; Mackey, Timothy K; Liang, Bryan A

    2012-09-01

    Unsupervised online direct-to-consumer (DTC) access to medical services has rapidly expanded to medical screening tests, which have not been critically evaluated for their evidence basis. The objective of this study is to identify the scope of online-advertised DTC screening tests, outline the evidence for use of available DTC testing and suggest regulatory reform to address the relevant issues. An observational study of website advertisements, testing services and counselling/follow-up services for DTC testing was conducted. Data were collected from websites between 4 April and 1 June 2011. Each website was assessed for tests offered, advertised indications and availability of counselling/follow-up services. Advertised testing indications were compared with US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations and/or specialty guidelines and categorized as Supported, Against, Insufficient Evidence or No Guidance. Of 20 companies identified as offering DTC screening tests, 95% (19/20) do not clearly offer pretest counselling, post-test counselling and/or test follow-up. One hundred and twenty-seven different tests were identified. Only 19/127 (15%) could be Supported for screening in a target group selected for testing; 38/127 (30%) were given recommendations to avoid use in specific target group(s) selected for testing ('Against recommendations'); 29/127 (23%) had Insufficient Evidence of value, and for 64/127 (50%) No Guidance could be given. Only 4/127 (3%) tests were Supported for general screening use. Virtually all identified medical tests advertised and offered DTC are not recommended for use in screening by evidence-based guidelines. Limited oversight may lead to inaccurate self-diagnosis, treatment and wasted health resources.

  9. Screening women at high risk of breast cancer on the basis of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Ruth

    2001-01-01

    Geneticists are able to identify the risk of breast cancer. Strategies on offer include prevention, early diagnosis by screening, and prophylactic surgery. This paper analyses the evidence for offering screening. The radiation dose of mammography has been measured, but the risk is not fully known. Mammography screening of women of 40-50 years in the normal population has known effect. Little evidence is available for women under 40 years or for women with genetic susceptibility to breast cancer. Dense parenchymal pattern is associated with high grade cancers, and is both a risk factor and a reason for impaired screening sensitivity. Whether this applies to younger women or women at high risk is speculative. The pathological features of the cancers in gene carriers show differences from those occurring in normal women. This work should be correlated with imaging features. There is no literature to support the use of newer imaging methods in these women. Ultrasound and MRI avoid radiation and may be useful in dense breasts. SestaMIBI and PET scanning are not yet mature enough for screening, and may never have such a role. Any newer modality must be subjected to a formal randomised trial before being offered to screen women at high risk

  10. Scientific Evidence for Different Options for GDM Screening and Management: Controversies and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Caissutti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gestational diabetes (GDM affects up to 7% of pregnant women and is associated with several maternal and perinatal morbidities. International organizations suggest several different recommendations regarding how to screen and to manage GDM. Objective. We aimed to analyze the most important and employed guidelines about screening and management of GDM and we investigated existing related literature. Results. We found several different criteria for screening for GDM, for monitoring GDM, and for starting pharmacological therapy. When using IADPSG criteria, GDM rate increased, perinatal outcomes improved, and screening became cost-effective. Compared to no treatment, treatment of women meeting criteria for GDM by IADPSG criteria but not by other less strict criteria has limited evidence for an effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  11. Evidence-based screening for low bone mineral density in HIV-infected men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Patsi; Du, Ping; Haas, Richard E; Pugh, Linda C

    2014-01-01

    Low bone mineral density, which leads to osteoporosis and fracture risk, is an emerging clinical problem in HIV-infected patients. Our evidence-based practice project screened a convenience sample of 225 HIV-infected men for low bone mineral density using the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool, and of those men, 173 were also screened by quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus. One hundred twelve men had low bone mineral density by either or both screening methods. Seventy-one of these 112 men were tested by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and 73% had low bone mineral density. The positive protective value of the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool was 73% and for quantitative ultrasound was 88%. These results suggest that routine low bone mineral density screening should be included as standard practice for all HIV-infected patients. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Lung Screen Uptake Trial (LSUT): protocol for a randomised controlled demonstration lung cancer screening pilot testing a targeted invitation strategy for high risk and 'hard-to-reach' patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaife, Samantha L; Ruparel, Mamta; Beeken, Rebecca J; McEwen, Andy; Isitt, John; Nolan, Gary; Sennett, Karen; Baldwin, David R; Duffy, Stephen W; Janes, Samuel M; Wardle, Jane

    2016-04-20

    Participation in low-dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening offered in the trial context has been poor, especially among smokers from socioeconomically deprived backgrounds; a group for whom the risk-benefit ratio is improved due to their high risk of lung cancer. Attracting high risk participants is essential to the success and equity of any future screening programme. This study will investigate whether the observed low and biased uptake of screening can be improved using a targeted invitation strategy. A randomised controlled trial design will be used to test whether targeted invitation materials are effective at improving engagement with an offer of lung cancer screening for high risk candidates. Two thousand patients aged 60-75 and recorded as a smoker within the last five years by their GP, will be identified from primary care records and individually randomised to receive either intervention invitation materials (which take a targeted, stepped and low burden approach to information provision prior to the appointment) or control invitation materials. The primary outcome is uptake of a nurse-led 'lung health check' hospital appointment, during which patients will be offered a spirometry test, an exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) reading, and an LDCT if eligible. Initial data on demographics (i.e. age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation score) and smoking status will be collected in primary care and analysed to explore differences between attenders and non-attenders with respect to invitation group. Those who attend the lung health check will have further data on smoking collected during their appointment (including pack-year history, nicotine dependence and confidence to quit). Secondary outcomes will include willingness to be screened, uptake of LDCT and measures of informed decision-making to ensure the latter is not compromised by either invitation strategy. If effective at improving informed uptake of screening and reducing bias in participation, this invitation

  13. 18F-FDG uptake in the stomach on screening PET/CT: value for predicting Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Ogura, Mayumi; Suzawa, Naohisa; Horiki, Noriyuki; Katsurahara, Masaki; Ogura, Toru; Sakuma, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the value of 18 F-FDG uptake on screening PET/CT images for the prediction of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and chronic atrophic gastritis. Among subjects who underwent 18 F-FDG PET/CT for cancer screening from April 2005 to November 2015, PET/CT images were analyzed in 88 subjects who had gastrointestinal fiberscopy within 6 months. The volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed in the fornix, corpus and antrum of the stomach to determine maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and mean SUV (SUVmean). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic performance of SUV indicators in predicting H. pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis. SUV indicators of the stomach were significantly higher in subjects with H. pylori infection than those without (from P < 0.001 to P < 0.05). ROC analysis revealed that SUVmean had the highest performance in predicting H. pylori infection (AUC 0.807) and chronic atrophic gastritis (AUC 0.784). SUVmean exhibited the sensitivity of 86.5 % and the specificity of 70.6 % in predicting H. pylori infection, and the sensitivity of 75.0 % and 78.6 % in predicting chronic atrophic gastritis. Assessment of 18 F-FDG uptake in the stomach reflecting active inflammation is useful in predicting patients with H. pylori infection and subsequent chronic atrophic gastritis which is closely associated with the risk of gastric neoplasms

  14. Screens

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).

  15. [Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), cervical cancer incidence and screening uptake: differences among Northern, Central and Southern Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Chini, Francesco; Borgia, Piero; Guasticchi, Gabriella; Carozzi, Francesca Maria; Confortini, Massimo; Angeloni, Claudio; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Buonaguro, Franco Maria

    2012-01-01

    this article presents a review of evidences about Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer in Italy, highlighting geographical differences. two systematic reviews recently published were updated, one collecting studies on the prevalence of HPV types in Italy in the general population and the other collecting prevalence of HPV types in cervical pathologic samples.The search was updated to 31.10.2010 and performed exclusively in MedLine and references in retrieved papers. the prevalence of HPV types has been related with the incidence of cervical cancer and the spread of Pap tests and screening programs. the prevalence high risk HPV types is 8%in studies with population-based random sample, with no significant difference between Centre-North and South-Islands, however, the prevalence is slightly higher in the South than the Centre-North for women up to 54 years of age, whereas in older women the ratio is reversed. HPV 16 is the most common type, while HPV 18 is less frequent, 5% and 1% respectively. The average of HPV 16 positivity is 64% and 68% in CIN2/3 and invasive cancer respectively, while the average of HPV 18 is 7% and 11% in CIN2/3 and invasive cancer respectively. There are no significant differences by geographical area.The incidence of invasive cervical cancer in Italy has been decreasing in recent years changing from 9.2 to 7.7 per 100,000 inhabitants in 10 years. The incidence is lower in South-Islands. Pap test coverage is over 80% in Centre-North and less than 60%in South-Islands. cervical cancer incidence is lower in Southern Italy, while the Pap test coverage is much higher in Centre-Northern Italy. This paradox, until now, has been interpreted as a consequence of a lower HPV prevalence in Southern than Northern regions. Recent studies on HPV prevalence do not confirm this hypothesis. Our interpretation is that in Southern Italy we are facing an epidemiologic scenario in transition where the low cancer incidence is the consequence of a low HPV

  16. Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Uptake among Nigerian Women: Evidence from the National Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ofonime E

    2017-09-01

    Family planning is a key strategy in the control of fertility among women. This study sought to determine various factors that influence modern family planning use in Nigeria. The study used data from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2013. Analysis was carried out using Stata version 12.1. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine association between various factors and use of modern family planning methods. A total of 119,386 women aged 15-49 years participated in the study. The mean age of respondents was 35.9 ± 8.1 years. Overall, contraceptive prevalence rate of modern methods was 10.3%. The highest proportion of use was 26.7% in the South West, while the lowest was 2.7% in the North West. Predictors of modern family planning use were higher education (OR=4.49, 95% CI: 4.10-4.92), richest wealth quintile (OR=3.71 CI: 3.29-4.19), being from South West (OR=3.42, 95% CI: 3.15-3.70), age 25-49 years (OR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.42-1.69) and urban residence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.13) (p contraceptive use were education and wealth index. These indices were poorest in North Western Nigeria. Measures should be taken to improve female literacy and employment as these will most likely improve uptake of modern contraceptives among women in Nigeria.

  17. Renal handling of technetium-99m DMSA: Evidence for glomerular filtration and peritubular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Lange, M.J.; Piers, D.A.; Kosterink, J.G.; van Luijk, W.H.; Meijer, S.; de Zeeuw, D.; van der Hem, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    The finding of an enhanced excretion of [ 99m Tc]dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in patients with tubular reabsorption disorders prompted us to investigate the role of filtration in the renal handling of [ 99m Tc]DMSA. Our studies in human serum indicated that binding to serum proteins was approximately 90%. Chromatography of human urine and studies in rats showed that the complex was excreted unaltered into the urine. Renal extraction of [ 99m Tc]DMSA in a human volunteer was 5.8%. Continuous infusion of [ 99m Tc]DMSA in 13 individuals with normal renal function gave the following results (mean +/- s.d.): plasma clearance of [ 99m Tc]DMSA 34 +/- 4 ml/min, urinary clearance of [ 99m Tc]DMSA 12 +/- 3 ml/min. The calculated filtered load of [ 99m Tc]DMSA closely resembled the urinary clearance, whereas the plasma clearance was about three times faster. This indicates that peritubular uptake accounts for approximately 65% and filtration for approximately 35% of the renal handling of [ 99m Tc]DMSA

  18. Promoting community practitioners' use of evidence-based approaches to increase breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Teal, Randall; Barrett, Nadine; Leighton, Ashely; Steckler, Allan

    2013-07-01

    Many women do not get mammography screenings at the intervals recommended for early detection and treatment of breast cancer. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide) recommends a range of evidence-based strategies to improve mammography rates. However, nurses and others working in community-based settings make only limited use of these strategies. We report on a dissemination intervention that partnered the University of North Carolina with the Susan G. Komen Triangle Affiliate to disseminate Community Guide breast cancer screening strategies to community organizations. The intervention was guided by social marketing and diffusion of innovation theory and was designed to provide evidence and support via Komen's existing relationships with grantee organizations. The present study reports the findings from a formative evaluation of the intervention, which included a content analysis of 46 grant applications pre- and post intervention and focus groups with 20 grant recipients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Retinal screening acceptance, laser treatment uptake and follow-up response in diabetics requiring laser therapy in an urban diabetes care centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the acceptance of retinal screening, Laser uptake and subsequent follow-up in diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Centre of Diabetic Association of Pakistan (DAP), Karachi. Study Design: Observational case series. Place and Duration of Study: Diabetic Centre of Diabetic Association of Pakistan (DAP), Karachi, from January 2011 to December 2012. Methodology: All the diabetic patients were screened for Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) with non-Mydriatic Fundus Camera (NMFC). Patients with DR were examined by the ophthalmologist using fundus lens and slit lamp. DR was graded for severity on the basis of modified Airlie House Classification. Patients with Sight Threatening Diabetic Retinopathy (STDR) were advised Laser treatment. Each patient was followed-up for at least 6 months. The records of patients recommended Laser were retrieved, and called for re-examination. Results: Retinal screening was accepted by all of the 8368 registered diabetics attending DAP Centre. On fundus photography, 21.2% (1777) individuals were found to have DR. Seven hundred and five (39.5%) patients were found to have STDR. Laser was advised to 96.4% (680) of STDR patients; amongst whom 70.5% (480) accepted Laser treatment. Out of 480 patients who had Laser treatment, 21.2% (107) turned out for follow-up after 6 months. Conclusion: Acceptance of retinal screening and Laser application was good; but follow-up was suboptional. (author)

  20. Universal newborn screening for congenital CMV infection: what is the evidence of potential benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael J; Griffiths, Paul D; Aston, Van; Rawlinson, William D

    2014-09-01

    Congenital CMV infection is a leading cause of childhood disability. Many children born with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms and therefore are typically not diagnosed. A strategy of newborn CMV screening could allow for early detection and intervention to improve clinical outcomes. Interventions might include antiviral drugs or nonpharmaceutical therapies such as speech-language therapy or cochlear implants. Using published data from developed countries, we analyzed existing evidence of potential benefit that could result from newborn CMV screening. We first estimated the numbers of children with the most important CMV-related disabilities (i.e. hearing loss, cognitive deficit, and vision impairment), including the age at which the disabilities occur. Then, for each of the disabilities, we examined the existing evidence for the effectiveness of various interventions. We concluded that there is good evidence of potential benefit from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss that occurs by 9 months of age. Similarly, we concluded that there is fair evidence of potential benefit from antiviral therapy for children with hearing loss at birth and from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss occurring between 9 and 24 months of age and for children with CMV-related cognitive deficits. We found poor evidence of potential benefit for children with delayed hearing loss occurring after 24 months of age and for children with vision impairment. Overall, we estimated that in the United States, several thousand children with congenital CMV could benefit each year from newborn CMV screening, early detection, and interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Universal newborn screening for congenital CMV infection: what is the evidence of potential benefit?†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael J.; Griffiths, Paul D.; Aston, Van; Rawlinson, William D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Congenital CMV infection is a leading cause of childhood disability. Many children born with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms and therefore are typically not diagnosed. A strategy of newborn CMV screening could allow for early detection and intervention to improve clinical outcomes. Interventions might include antiviral drugs or nonpharmaceutical therapies such as speech-language therapy or cochlear implants. Using published data from developed countries, we analyzed existing evidence of potential benefit that could result from newborn CMV screening. We first estimated the numbers of children with the most important CMV-related disabilities (i.e. hearing loss, cognitive deficit, and vision impairment), including the age at which the disabilities occur. Then, for each of the disabilities, we examined the existing evidence for the effectiveness of various interventions. We concluded that there is good evidence of potential benefit from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss that occurs by 9 months of age. Similarly, we concluded that there is fair evidence of potential benefit from antiviral therapy for children with hearing loss at birth and from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss occurring between 9 and 24 months of age and for children with CMV-related cognitive deficits. We found poor evidence of potential benefit for children with delayed hearing loss occurring after 24 months of age and for children with vision impairment. Overall, we estimated that in the United States, several thousand children with congenital CMV could benefit each year from newborn CMV screening, early detection, and interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24760655

  2. How many "Get Screened" messages does it take? Evidence from colorectal cancer screening promotion in the United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Hawkins, Nikki A

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer screening has been widely promoted in the United States. We investigated the association between reported exposure to screening information during the past year and screening participation and knowledge. Data from the 2012 HealthStyles Fall survey of U.S. adults were examined using adjusted logistic regression to examine the frequency of exposure to screening information as a predictor of screening participation and knowledge; analyses were limited to participants aged ≥50years with no history of colorectal cancer or polyps (N=1714). Nearly half of the participants (44.9%) reported exposure to colorectal cancer screening information during the previous year. The most common sources of screening information were news reports, advertisements, and health care providers. Screening participation and knowledge consistently increased with the reported frequency of exposure to screening information, and these associations generally persisted when demographic variables were controlled. Compared with unexposed participants, significant gains in screening participation were associated with exposure to screening information 2-3 times (Adj. OR=1.84, p=0.001), 4-9 times (Adj. OR=2.00, p=0.001), and ≥10 times (Adj. OR=3.03, p<0.001) in the adjusted model. Increasing public exposure to screening promotion messages may augment screening participation and knowledge. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. What factors influence uptake of retinal screening among young adults with type 2 diabetes? A qualitative study informed by the theoretical domains framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Amelia J; Browne, Jessica L; Rees, Gwyneth; Speight, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Young adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D, 18-39years) face increased risk of vision loss from diabetic retinopathy (DR). Retinal screening is essential to detect DR, yet screening rates for this group are low and little is known about the underlying factors influencing this important behavior. Using the theoretical domains framework (TDF) to guide data collection and analysis, we explored screening barriers and facilitator, contrasting them with a comparator group of older adults with T2D (40+ years). Thirty semi-structured telephone interviews (10 younger, 20 older adults) were conducted. Data were coded into TDF domains with salience identified by "frequency" of reference. Screening facilitators and barriers were systematically compared between groups. Although many screening facilitators and barriers were shared by younger and older adults, additional factors highly relevant to the former included: social comparison with others ('social influences'); concern for the impact on the family unit, unrealistic optimism and perceived invulnerability ('beliefs about consequences'); lack of time and financial resources ('environmental context and resources'), and DR misconceptions ('knowledge'). This study demonstrated that young adult retinal screening behavior was influenced by additional social cognitive factors compared to older adults, providing a first-step evidence base for clinicians and other health professionals, and potential targets for future eye health and retinal screening interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Translations of Developmental Screening Instruments: An Evidence Map of Available Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Behadli, Ana F; Neger, Emily N; Perrin, Ellen C; Sheldrick, R Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Children whose parents do not speak English experience significant disparities in the identification of developmental delays and disorders; however, little is known about the availability and validity of translations of developmental screeners. The goal was to create a map of the scientific evidence regarding translations of the 9 Academy of Pediatrics-recommended screening instruments into languages other than English. The authors conducted a systematic search of Medline and PsycINFO, references of identified articles, publishers' Web sites, and official manuals. Through evidence mapping, a new methodology supported by AHRQ and the Cochrane Collaboration, the authors documented the extent and distribution of published evidence supporting translations of developmental screeners. Data extraction focused on 3 steps of the translation and validation process: (1) translation methods used, (2) collection of normative data in the target language, and (3) evidence for reliability and validity. The authors identified 63 distinct translations among the 9 screeners, of which 44 had supporting evidence published in peer-reviewed sources. Of the 63 translations, 35 had at least some published evidence regarding translation methods used, 28 involving normative data, and 32 regarding reliability and/or construct validity. One-third of the translations found were of the Denver Developmental Screening Test. Specific methods used varied greatly across screeners, as did the level of detail with which results were reported. Few developmental screeners have been translated into many languages. Evidence map of the authors demonstrates considerable variation in both the amount and the comprehensiveness of information available about translated instruments. Informal guidelines exist for conducting translation of psychometric instruments but not for documentation of this process. The authors propose that uniform guidelines be established for reporting translation research in peer

  5. Getting to uptake: do communities of practice support the implementation of evidence-based practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, Melanie A; Peters, Julia; Boydell, Katherine

    2009-02-01

    Practitioners are increasingly encouraged to adopt evidence-based practices (EBP) leading to a need for new knowledge translation strategies to support implementation and practice change. This study examined the benefits of a community of practice in the context of Ontario's children's mental health sector where organizations are mandated to adopt a standardized outcome measure to monitor client response to treatment. Readiness for change, practice change, content knowledge, and satisfaction with and use of implementation supports were examined among practitioners newly trained on the measure who were randomly assigned to a community of practice (CoP) or a practice as usual (PaU) group. CoP practitioners attended 6 sessions over 12 months; PaU practitioners had access to usual implementation supports. Groups did not differ on readiness for change or reported practice change, although CoP participants demonstrated greater use of the tool in practice, better content knowledge and were more satisfied with implementation supports than PaU participants. CoPs present a promising model for translating EBP knowledge and promoting practice change in children's mental health that requires further study.

  6. Trace element similarity groups in north Florida Spanish moss: evidence for direct uptake of aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheline, J.; Akselsson, R.; Winchester, J.W.

    1976-02-20

    The elemental composition of 10 samples of Spanish moss Tillandsia usneoides L. collected mainly in forested areas near Tallahassee, Florida, has been compared to the composition of the ambient aerosol particle background in the forest measured as a function of particle size. For forest samples, moss composition is similar to the composition of aerosol particles greater than about 0.5-..mu..m diameter for the elements S, Cl, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Pb, and possibly Cu. Elements relatively enriched in the moss fall into two groups, K, Rb, Zr and Ca, Sr, Mn, based on detailed association patterns. No evidence is found for an enrichment, relative to the ambient aerosol, of pollution-derived elements Pb, Br, V, and Ni, although those elements are found at higher concentrations in moss samples from locations nearer roadways or oil-fired power plants. The moss appears to have potential value as an indicator of time average aerosol composition for particles of greater than or equal to 0.5 ..mu..m, except for the enriched elements, which may have longer biological retention times. (auth)

  7. Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in adults: evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kenneth; Fajardo, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common, and screening for this condition in pregnant women is a well-established, evidence-based standard of current medical practice. Screening other groups of adults has not been shown to improve outcomes. To review new and substantial evidence on screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria, to support the work of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. English-language studies of adults (age >18 years) indexed in PubMed and the Cochrane Library and published from 1 January 2002 through 30 April 2007. For benefits of screening or treatment for screened populations, systematic reviews; meta-analyses; and randomized, controlled trials were included. For harms of screening, systematic reviews; meta-analyses; randomized, controlled trials; cohort studies; case-control studies; and case series of large multisite databases were included. Two reviewers independently reviewed titles, abstracts, and full articles for inclusion. Two reviewers extracted data from studies on benefits of screening and treatment (including decreases in the incidence of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, symptomatic urinary tract infections, hypertension, and renal function decline). An updated Cochrane systematic review of 14 randomized, controlled trials of treatment supports screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. A randomized, controlled trial and a prospective cohort study show that screening nonpregnant women with diabetes for asymptomatic bacteriuria is unlikely to produce benefits. No new evidence on screening men for asymptomatic bacteriuria or on harms of screening was found. The focused search strategy may have missed some smaller studies on the benefits and harms of screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The available evidence continues to support screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women, but not in other groups of adults.

  8. Development and application of a fluorescent glucose uptake assay for the high-throughput screening of non-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Szu-Huei; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Hsieh, Chieh-Jui; Liu, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Song, Jen-Shin; Lee, Jinq-Chyi

    2015-07-10

    Sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are of current interest as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Efforts have been made to discover phlorizin-related glycosides with good SGLT2 inhibitory activity. To increase structural diversity and better understand the role of non-glycoside SGLT2 inhibitors on glycemic control, we initiated a research program to identify non-glycoside hits from high-throughput screening. Here, we report the development of a novel, fluorogenic probe-based glucose uptake system based on a Cu(I)-catalyzed [3+2] cycloaddition. The safer processes and cheaper substances made the developed assay our first priority for large-scale primary screening as compared to the well-known [(14)C]-labeled α-methyl-D-glucopyranoside ([(14)C]-AMG) radioactive assay. This effort culminated in the identification of a benzimidazole, non-glycoside SGLT2 hit with an EC50 value of 0.62 μM by high-throughput screening of 41,000 compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. "Pee-in-a-Pot": acceptability and uptake of on-site chlamydia screening in a student population in the Republic of Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, Deirdre

    2010-11-11

    Abstract Background The aim of the study was to explore the acceptability and uptake of on-campus screening using a youth friendly approach in two Third Level higher education institutions (HEIs). This study is part of wider research exploring the optimal setting for chlamydia screening in Ireland. Methods Male and female students were given the opportunity to take a free anonymous test for chlamydia during a one week programme of "pee-in-a-pot" days at two HEI campuses in the West of Ireland. The study was set up after extensive consultation with the two HEIs and advertised on the two campuses using a variety of media in the two weeks preceding the screening days. Screening involved the provision and distribution of testing packs at communal areas and in toilet facilities. In Ireland, chlamydia notifications are highest amongst 20-29 year olds and hence the screening criterion was aimed at 18-29 year olds. Urine samples were tested using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Following the screening days, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with participants about their experiences of the event. Results Out of 1,249 test kits distributed in two HEIs, 592 specimens were collected giving a return rate of 47.5%. Tests excluded (54) were due to labelling errors or ineligibility of participants\\' age. Two thirds of those tested were females and the mean age was 21 years. Overall,3.9% (21\\/538) of participants tested positive, 5% (17\\/336) among females and 2% (4\\/191) among males. Participant interviews identified factors which enhanced student participation such as anonymity, convenience, accessibility of testing, and the informal and non-medical approach to testing. Conclusions Screening for chlamydia using on-campus "pee-in-a-pot" days is an acceptable strategy in this population. This model can detect and treat asymptomatic cases of chlamydia and avoid many of the barriers associated with testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in

  10. There are calls for a national screening programme for prostate cancer: what is the evidence to justify such a national screening programme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A; Tait, C; Aboumarzouk, O; Somani, B K; Cohen, N P

    2013-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer in men and a major health issue worldwide. Screening for early disease has been available for many years, but there is still no national screening programme established in the United Kingdom. To assess the latest evidence regarding prostate cancer screening and whether it meets the necessary requirements to be established as a national programme for all men. Electronic databases and library catalogues were searched electronically and manual retrieval was performed. Only primary research results were used for the analysis. In recent years, several important randomised controlled trials have produced varied outcomes. In Europe the largest study thus far concluded that screening reduced prostate cancer mortality by 20%. On the contrary, a large American trial found no reduction in mortality after 7-10 years follow-up. Most studies comment on the adverse effects of screening - principally those of overdiagnosis and subsequent overtreatment. Further information about the natural history of prostate cancer and accuracy of screening is needed before a screening programme can be truly justified. In the interim, doctors and patients should discuss the risks, benefits and sequelae of taking part in voluntary screening for prostate cancer.

  11. Observational evidence for pollution-influenced selective uptake contributing to biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Russell, L. M.; Lee, A. K. Y.; McKinney, K. A.; Surratt, J. D.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2017-08-01

    During the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study, aerosol mass spectrometer measurements of submicron mass and single particles were taken at Look Rock, Tennessee. Their concentrations increased during multiday stagnation events characterized by low wind, little rain, and increased daytime isoprene emissions. Organic mass (OM) sources were apportioned as 42% "vehicle-related" and 54% biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA), with the latter including "sulfate-related bSOA" that correlated to sulfate (r = 0.72) and "nitrate-related bSOA" that correlated to nitrate (r = 0.65). Single-particle mass spectra showed three composition types that corresponded to the mass-based factors with spectra cosine similarity of 0.93 and time series correlations of r > 0.4. The vehicle-related OM with m/z 44 was correlated to black carbon, "sulfate-related bSOA" was on particles with high sulfate, and "nitrate-related bSOA" was on all particles. The similarity of the m/z spectra (cosine similarity = 0.97) and the time series correlation (r = 0.80) of the "sulfate-related bSOA" to the sulfate-containing single-particle type provide evidence for particle composition contributing to selective uptake of isoprene oxidation products onto particles that contain sulfate from power plants.

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  14. Screening for dementia in primary care: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustani, Malaz; Peterson, Britt; Hanson, Laura; Harris, Russell; Lohr, Kathleen N

    2003-06-03

    Dementia is a large and growing problem but is often not diagnosed in its earlier stages. Screening and earlier treatment could reduce the burden of suffering of this syndrome. To review the evidence of benefits and harms of screening for and earlier treatment of dementia. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, experts, and bibliographies of reviews. The authors developed eight key questions representing a logical chain between screening and improved health outcomes, along with eligibility criteria for admissible evidence for each question. Admissible evidence was obtained by searching the data sources. Two reviewers abstracted relevant information using standardized abstraction forms and graded article quality according to U.S. Preventive Services Task Force criteria. No randomized, controlled trial of screening for dementia has been completed. Brief screening tools can detect some persons with early dementia (positive predictive value caregiver interventions may delay nursing home placement of patients who have caregivers, the relevance of this finding for persons who do not yet have caregivers is uncertain. Other potential benefits and harms of screening have not been studied. Screening tests can detect undiagnosed dementia. In persons with mild to moderate clinically detected Alzheimer disease, cholinesterase inhibitors are somewhat effective in slowing cognitive decline. The effect of cholinesterase inhibitors or other treatments on persons with dementia detected by screening is uncertain.

  15. Economic evaluation of screening programs for hepatitis C virus infection: evidence from literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coretti S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Silvia Coretti,1 Federica Romano,1 Valentina Orlando,2 Paola Codella,1 Sabrina Prete,1 Eugenio Di Brino,1 Matteo Ruggeri1 1Post-Graduate School of Economics and Management (ALTEMS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; 2Center of Pharmacoeconomics (CIRFF, Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University, Naples, Italy Background: Hepatitis C is a liver infection caused by hepatitis C virus. Its main complications are cirrhosis and liver cancer. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, more than 185 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus and, of these, 350,000 die every year. Due to the high disease prevalence and the existence of effective (and expensive medical treatments able to dramatically change the prognosis, early detection programs can potentially prevent the development of serious chronic conditions, improve health, and save resources. Objective: To summarize the available evidence on the cost-effectiveness of screening programs for hepatitis C. Methods: A literature search was performed on PubMed and Scopus search engines. Trip database was queried to identify reports produced by the major Health Technology Assessment (HTA agencies. Three reviewers dealt with study selection and data extraction blindly. Results: Ten papers eventually met the inclusion criteria. In studies focusing on asymptomatic cohorts of individuals at general risk the cost/quality adjusted life year of screening programs ranged between US $4,200 and $50,000/quality adjusted life year gained, while in those focusing on specific risk factors the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranged between $848 and $128,424/quality adjusted life year gained. Age of the target population and disease prevalence were the main cost-effectiveness drivers. Conclusion: Our results suggest that, especially in the long run, screening programs represent a cost-effective strategy for the management of hepatitis C. Keywords: hepatitis C, screening

  16. The impact of a community intervention to improve cervical cancer screening uptake in the Amazon region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Von Zuben

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In the northern region of Brazil, cervical cancer is the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. There is considerable likelihood, however, that official incidence and mortality figures are greatly underestimated. The aim of this study was to estimate the repercussions from improvement in cervical cancer screening programs on the incidence of pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions in a municipality in this region. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a quasi-experimental study that assessed process dimensions relevant to the program objectives. The study comprised a sample of 2,226 women seen at primary healthcare units in Cruzeiro do Sul, a small city in the Brazilian Amazon region, from April 2003 to July 2004. METHODS: Women were recruited through local radio advertisements and by oral communication from the investigators. The women answered a structured questionnaire and underwent pelvic examination, which included Papanicolaou (Pap smears and naked-eye inspection of the cervix after applying diluted acetic acid. Women with positive Pap smears or abnormal gynecological examination were referred for colposcopy and possible biopsy, diathermic large loop excision of the transformation zone or conization. RESULTS: The results obtained were compared with historical official data retrieved from the Brazilian Ministry of Health’s database. Intervention resulted in a 40% increase in positive Pap smears and detection of cancer was nine times higher than had been observed in routine screening. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions in the intervention group was remarkably higher than among women seen during routine screening.

  17. Increased FDG uptake in the wall of the right atrium in people who participated in a cancer screening program with whole-body PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Ide, Michiru; Yasuda, Seiei; Takahashi, Wakoh; Shohtsu, Akira; Kubo, Atsushi

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of patients who showed increased FDG uptake in the wall of the right atrium. We have encountered 10 patients with increased activity in the wall of the right atrium among a total of 2,367 examinees who participated in our cancer screening program with whole-body PET. The mean age of these examinees was 62.9 yr, higher than that of the total population. All suffered from cardiac disorders, especially atrial fibrillation. FDG accumulated almost exclusively in the wall of the right atrium, whereas only slight activity was seen in the wall of the left atrium. Although the average size of the right atria was significantly enlarged, left atria were more severely dilated than right ones. Therefore overload does not seem to account for the FDG accumulation in the wall of the right atrium. In conclusion, the increased activity in the wall of the right atrium was a rare finding that was made in older people who suffered from cardiac disease. Although the mechanism of induction of the high metabolic state of glucose in the wall of the right atrium remains unclear, this unusual activity would be another false positive finding in cancer screening with whole-body FDG PET. (author)

  18. Evidence-based medical research on diagnostic criteria and screening technique of vascular mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-wei LIU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI is the prodromal syndrome of vascular dementia (VaD and key target for drug treatment. There is controversy over the diagnostic criteria and screening tools of VaMCI, which affects its clinical diagnosis. This paper aims to explore the clinical features, diagnostic criteria and screening technique of VaMCI.  Methods Taking "vascular mild cognitive impairment OR vascular cognitive impairment no dementia" as retrieval terms, search in PubMed database from January 1997 to March 2015 and screen relevant literatures concerning VaMCI. According to Guidance for the Preparation of Neurological Management Guidelines revised by European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS in 2004, evidence grading was performed on literatures. Results A total of 32 literatures in English were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, including 3 guidelines and consensus and 29 clinical studies. Seven literatures (2 on Level Ⅰ, 5 on Level Ⅱ studied on neuropsychological features in VaMCI patients and found reduced processing speed and executive function impairment were main features. Two literatures reported the diagnostic criteria of VaMCI, including VaMCI criteria published by American Heart Association (AHA/American Stroke Association (ASA in 2011 and "Diagnostic Criteria for Vascular Cognitive Disorders" published by International Society for Vascular Behavioral and Cognitive Disorders (VASCOG in 2014. Fifteen literatures (4 on LevelⅠ, 11 on Level Ⅱ described the diagnostic criteria of VaMCI used in clinical research, from which 6 operational diagnostic items were extracted. Fourteen literatures (4 on Level Ⅰ, 10 on Level Ⅱ described neuropsychological assessment tools for VaMCI screening, and found the 5-minute protocol recommended by National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN was being good consistency with other neuropsychological

  19. Fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The colorectal cancer (CRC) screening project was undertaken by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) in collaboration with the Cancer Care Ontario (CCO).In November 2007, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) MAS to conduct an evidence-based analysis of the available data with respect to colorectal cancer diagnosis and prevention. The general purpose of the project was to investigate the effectiveness, cost effectiveness, and safety of the various methods and techniques used for colorectal cancer screening in average risk people, 50 years of age and older.The options currently offered for colorectal cancer screening were reviewed and five technologies were selected for review:Computed tomographic (CT) colonographyMagnetic resonance (MR) colonographyWireless capsule endoscopy (PillCam Colon)Fecal occult blood test (FOBT)Flexible sigmoidoscopyIn this review, colonoscopy was considered as the "gold standard" technique by which the effectiveness of all other modalities could be evaluated. An economic analysis was also conducted to determine cost-effectiveness of different screening modalities.Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these technologies, as well as summary document that includes an economic analysis, all of which are presented at the MAS Web site: http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/techmn.html The objective of this evidence review is to examine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), including guaiac FOBT (gFOBT) and immunochemical FOBT (iFOBT), for use in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in asymptomatic, average-risk adults. Specifically: Is the use of gFOBT or iFOBT associated with a reduction in CRC and overall mortality?What are the sensitivity and specificity of gFOBT and iFOBT for the detection of 1) CRC and 2) large polyps (≥ 1 cm)? CRC is the most common cause of non-tobacco related cancer death in Canada. It has been estimated that in 2007, 7

  20. LOAD-ENHANCED MOVEMENT QUALITY SCREENING AND TACTICAL ATHLETICISM: AN EXTENSION OF EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Stephen M; Schmitz, Randy J; Rhea, Christopher K; Ross, Scott E

    2017-06-01

    Military organizations use movement quality screening for prediction of injury risk and performance potential. Currently, evidence of an association between movement quality and performance is limited. Recent work has demonstrated that external loading strengthens the relationship between movement screens and performance outcomes. Such loading may therefore steer us toward robust implementations of movement quality screens while maintaining their appeal as cost effective, field-expedient tools. The purpose of the current study was to quantify the effect of external load-bearing on the relationship between clinically rated movement quality and tactical performance outcomes while addressing the noted limitations. Crossover Trial. Fifty young adults (25 male, 25 female, 22.98 ± 3.09 years, 171.95 ± 11.46 cm, 71.77 ± 14.03 kg) completed the Functional Movement Screen™ with (FMS™W) and without (FMS™C) a weight vest in randomized order. Following FMS™ testing, criterion measures of tactical performance were administered, including agility T-Tests, sprints, a 400-meter run, the Mobility for Battle (MOB) course, and a simulated casualty rescue. For each performance outcome, regression models were selected via group lasso with smoothed FMS™ item scores as candidate predictor variables. For all outcomes, proportion of variance accounted for was greater in FMS™W (R 2 = ;0.22 [T-Test], 0.29 [Sprint], 0.17 [400 meter], 0.29 [MOB], and 0.11 [casualty rescue]) than in FMS™C (R 2 = ;0.00 [T-Test], 0.11 [Sprint], 0.00 [400 meter], 0.19 [MOB], and 0.00 [casualty rescue]). From the FMS™W condition, beneficial performance effects (ptactical performance ability. Future designs should seek to identify mechanisms explaining this effect. 3.

  1. Research, evidence and policymaking: the perspectives of policy actors on improving uptake of evidence in health policy development and implementation in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Juliet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of evidence in health policymaking plays an important role, especially in resource-constrained settings where informed decisions on resource allocation are paramount. Several knowledge translation (KT models have been developed, but few have been applied to health policymaking in low income countries. If KT models are expected to explain evidence uptake and implementation, or lack of it, they must be contextualized and take into account the specificity of low income countries for example, the strong influence of donors. The main objective of this research is to elaborate a Middle Range Theory (MRT of KT in Uganda that can also serve as a reference for other low- and middle income countries. Methods This two-step study employed qualitative approaches to examine the principal barriers and facilitating factors to KT. Step 1 involved a literature review and identification of common themes. The results informed the development of the initial MRT, which details the facilitating factors and barriers to KT at the different stages of research and policy development. In Step 2, these were further refined through key informant interviews with policymakers and researchers in Uganda. Deductive content and thematic analysis was carried out to assess the degree of convergence with the elements of the initial MRT and to identify other emerging issues. Results Review of the literature revealed that the most common emerging facilitating factors could be grouped under institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics, dissemination, partnerships and political context. The analysis of interviews, however, showed that policymakers and researchers ranked institutional strengthening for KT, research characteristics and partnerships as the most important. New factors emphasized by respondents were the use of mainstreamed structures within MoH to coordinate and disseminate research, the separation of roles between researchers and

  2. AIDS stigma as an obstacle to uptake of HIV testing: evidence from a Zimbabwean national population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambisa, William; Curtis, Sian; Mishra, Vinod

    2010-02-01

    Using the 2005-2006 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, we investigated the prevalence of HIV testing uptake within a sample of women (6839) and men (5315), and identified the independent effects of AIDS stigma on testing uptake, with particular emphasis on three pathways to testing: voluntary testing, testing when offered, and testing when required. The prevalence of self-reported HIV testing was higher among women (31%) than men (22%). For women, the main pathway to testing uptake was to accept testing when it is offered (46%), whereas for men it was voluntary testing (53%). In the logistic regression models, we found that social rejection stigma was inversely associated with uptake across all pathways of testing for women, but not men. As regards observed enacted stigma, respondents who both knew someone with HIV and had observed discrimination against someone with HIV were more likely to test for HIV through all pathways, while those who knew someone with HIV but had not observed stigma were more likely to test voluntarily. Individual characteristics important to the adoption of testing included high educational attainment, religion, exposure to mass media, and ever use of condoms; while being never married and self-perceived risk were barriers to testing. Programmatic strategies aimed at increasing HIV testing uptake should consider reducing stigma toward people living with HIV/AIDS and also addressing the role of agency and structure in individual's decision to be tested for HIV.

  3. Paid maternity leave and childhood vaccination uptake: Longitudinal evidence from 20 low-and-middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Heymann, Jody; Strumpf, Erin; Harper, Sam; Nandi, Arijit

    2015-09-01

    The availability of maternity leave might remove barriers to improved vaccination coverage by increasing the likelihood that parents are available to bring a child to the clinic for immunizations. Using information from 20 low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) we estimated the effect of paid maternity leave policies on childhood vaccination uptake. We used birth history data collected via Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to assemble a multilevel panel of 258,769 live births in 20 countries from 2001 to 2008; these data were merged with longitudinal information on the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) weeks of paid maternity leave guaranteed by each country. We used Logistic regression models that included country and year fixed effects to estimate the impact of increases in FTE paid maternity leave policies in the prior year on the receipt of the following vaccines: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) commonly given at birth, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP, 3 doses) commonly given in clinic visits and Polio (3 doses) given in clinic visits or as part of campaigns. We found that extending the duration of paid maternity leave had a positive effect on immunization rates for all three doses of the DTP vaccine; each additional FTE week of paid maternity leave increased DTP1, 2 and 3 coverage by 1.38 (95% CI = 1.18, 1.57), 1.62 (CI = 1.34, 1.91) and 2.17 (CI = 1.76, 2.58) percentage points, respectively. Estimates were robust to adjustment for birth characteristics, household-level covariates, attendance of skilled health personnel at birth and time-varying country-level covariates. We found no evidence for an effect of maternity leave on the probability of receiving vaccinations for BCG or Polio after adjustment for the above-mentioned covariates. Our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that more generous paid leave policies have the potential to improve DTP immunization coverage. Further work is needed to understand the health effects of

  4. Serologic Screening for Genital Herpes: An Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltner, Cynthia; Grodensky, Catherine; Ebel, Charles; Middleton, Jennifer C; Harris, Russell P; Ashok, Mahima; Jonas, Daniel E

    2016-12-20

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Vertical transmission of HSV can lead to fetal morbidity and mortality. To assess the evidence on serologic screening and preventive interventions for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adults and adolescents to support the US Preventive Services Task Force for an updated recommendation statement. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through March 31, 2016. Surveillance for new evidence in targeted publications was conducted through October 31, 2016. English-language randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing screening with no screening in persons without past or current symptoms of genital herpes; studies evaluating accuracy and harms of serologic screening tests for HSV-2; RCTs assessing preventive interventions in asymptomatic persons seropositive for HSV-2. Dual review of abstracts, full-text articles, and study quality; pooled sensitivities and specificities of screening tests using a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve analysis when at least 3 similar studies were available. Accuracy of screening tests, benefits of screening, harms of screening, reduction in genital herpes outbreaks. A total of 17 studies (n = 9736 participants; range, 24-3290) in 19 publications were included. No RCTs compared screening with no screening. Most studies of the accuracy of screening tests were from populations with high HSV-2 prevalence (greater than 40% based on Western blot). Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of the most commonly used test at the manufacturer's cutpoint were 99% (95% CI, 97%-100%) and 81% (95% CI, 68%-90%), respectively (10 studies; n = 6537). At higher cutpoints, pooled estimates were 95% (95% CI, 91%-97%) and 89% (95% CI, 82%-93%), respectively (7 studies; n = 5516). Use of this test at the manufacturer's cutpoint in a population of 100 000 with a prevalence of HSV-2 of 16% (the

  5. Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 mediate growth of Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability in metal-contaminated soil: evidence from DGT measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong; Guo, Junkang; Ju, Xuehai; Smith, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 may mediate plant growth and uptake of heavy metals, but little evidence from Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) measurement has been obtained to characterize the process. Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 on naturally Cd and Pb contaminated soils inoculated with and without Trichoderma asperellum strain C3 or Penicillium chrysogenum strain D4, to investigate plant growth, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability responses. Fungal inoculation increased plant biomass and shoot/root Cd and Pb concentrations. Elevated CO2 significantly increased plants biomass, but decreased Cd and Pb concentrations in shoot/root to various extents, leading to a metal dilution phenomenon. Total Cd and Pb uptake by plants, and DGT-measured Cd and Pb concentrations in rhizosphere soils, were higher in all fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 treatments than control treatments, with the combined treatments having more influence than either treatment alone. Metal dilution phenomenon occurred because the increase in DGT-measured bioavailable metal pools in plant rhizosphere due to elevated CO2 was unable to match the increase in requirement for plant uptake of metals due to plant biomass increase.

  6. Psycho-social influences upon older women's decision to attend cervical screening: A review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Kirsty A; Moss, Esther; Redman, Charles W E; Sherman, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide (WHO, 2016). In many developed countries the incidence of cervical cancer has been significantly reduced by the introduction of organised screening programmes however, in the UK, a fall in screening coverage is becoming a cause for concern. Much research attention has been afforded to younger women but age stratified mortality and incidence data suggest that older women's screening attendance is also worthy of study. This paper provides a review of current evidence concerning the psycho-social influences that older women experience when deciding whether to attend cervical screening. Few studies have focussed on older women and there are significant methodological issues with those that have included them in their samples. Findings from these studies indicate several barriers which may deter older women from screening, such as embarrassment and logistical issues. Drivers to screening include reassurance and a sense of obligation. Physical, social and emotional changes that occur as women age may also have an impact on attendance. This review concludes that there is a clear need for better understanding of the perceptions of older women specifically with regard to cervical cancer and screening. Future research should inform the design of targeted interventions and provision of information to enable informed decision-making regarding cervical screening among older women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Uptake of community-based, self-collected HPV testing vs. visual inspection with acetic acid for cervical cancer screening in Kampala, Uganda: preliminary results of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Erin; Pedersen, Heather N; Mitchell, Sheona M; Sekikubo, Musa; Mwesigwa, David; Singer, Joel; Biryabarema, Christine; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Money, Deborah M; Ogilvie, Gina S

    2015-10-01

    To compare two cervical cancer screening methods: community-based self-collection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Pilot randomised controlled trial of 500 women aged 30-65 in the community of Kisenyi, Uganda. Women randomised to self-collection-based HR-HPV testing provided a cervico-vaginal swab for HR-HPV, and results were provided by phone after laboratory testing. Women who tested HPV positive were referred for VIA at the local health unit. Women randomised to VIA underwent screening at the local health unit, where women who tested positive with VIA were provided cryotherapy at time of screening, as per local standard of care. Women were referred for colposcopy when indicated. Outcome measures were uptake of screening, HR-HPV prevalence, VIA result and treatment rates. In the HR-HPV arm, 248 of 250 (p < 0.01) women provided samples, while in the VIA arm, 121 of 250 (48.4%) women attended screening. Among the 73 of 248 HR-HPV-positive women, 45.2% (N = 33) attended VIA screening for follow-up, 21.2% (N = 7) of whom screened positive; five received treatment and two were missing clinical follow-up records. Of the 121 women in the VIA arm who attended screening, 13.2% (N = 16) screened positive; seven received cryotherapy, three refused treatment, five were referred to colposcopy; and one woman had suspected cervical cancer and received treatment after confirmatory testing. This pilot study demonstrated trial feasibility and willingness of the women to participate and be randomised successfully into the two arms. Self-collection-based cervical cancer screening had a higher uptake than VIA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Rationale and design of the HOME trial: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial of home-based human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling for increasing cervical cancer screening uptake and effectiveness in a U.S. healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Rachel L; Tiro, Jasmin A; Miglioretti, Diana L; Thayer, Chris; Beatty, Tara; Lin, John; Gao, Hongyuan; Kimbel, Kilian; Buist, Diana S M

    2018-01-01

    Women who delay or do not attend Papanicolaou (Pap) screening are at increased risk for cervical cancer. Trials in countries with organized screening programs have demonstrated that mailing high-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling kits to under-screened women increases participation, but U.S. data are lacking. HOME is a pragmatic randomized controlled trial set within a U.S. integrated healthcare delivery system to compare two programmatic approaches for increasing cervical cancer screening uptake and effectiveness in under-screened women (≥3.4years since last Pap) aged 30-64years: 1) usual care (annual patient reminders and ad hoc outreach by clinics) and 2) usual care plus mailed hrHPV self-screening kits. Over 2.5years, eligible women were identified through electronic medical record (EMR) data and randomized 1:1 to the intervention or control arm. Women in the intervention arm were mailed kits with pre-paid envelopes to return samples to the central clinical laboratory for hrHPV testing. Results were documented in the EMR to notify women's primary care providers of appropriate follow-up. Primary outcomes are detection and treatment of cervical neoplasia. Secondary outcomes are cervical cancer screening uptake, abnormal screening results, and women's experiences and attitudes towards hrHPV self-sampling and follow-up of hrHPV-positive results (measured through surveys and interviews). The trial was designed to evaluate whether a programmatic strategy incorporating hrHPV self-sampling is effective in promoting adherence to the complete screening process (including follow-up of abnormal screening results and treatment). The objective of this report is to describe the rationale and design of this pragmatic trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cervical cancer screening in adolescents: an evidence-based internet education program for practice improvement among advanced practice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Kim; McKeever, Amy E

    2015-02-01

    The literature reports great variation in the knowledge levels and application of the recent changes of cervical cancer screening guidelines into clinical practice. Evidence-based screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer offers healthcare providers the opportunity to improve practice patterns among female adolescents by decreasing psychological distress as well as reducing healthcare costs and morbidities associated with over-screening. The purpose of this pilot intervention study was to determine the effects of a Web-based continuing education unit (CEU) program on advanced practice nurses' (APNs) knowledge of current cervical cancer screening evidence-based recommendations and their application in practice. This paper presents a process improvement project as an example of a way to disseminate updated evidence-based practice guidelines among busy healthcare providers. This Web-based CEU program was developed, piloted, and evaluated specifically for APNs. The program addressed their knowledge level of cervical cancer and its relationship with high-risk human papillomavirus. It also addressed the new cervical cancer screening guidelines and the application of those guidelines into clinical practice. Results of the study indicated that knowledge gaps exist among APNs about cervical cancer screening in adolescents. However, when provided with a CEU educational intervention, APNs' knowledge levels increased and their self-reported clinical practice behaviors changed in accordance with the new cervical cancer screening guidelines. Providing convenient and readily accessible up-to-date electronic content that provides CEU enhances the adoption of clinical practice guidelines, thereby decreasing the potential of the morbidities associated with over-screening for cervical cancer in adolescents and young women. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  10. Screening tool for oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke - Part I: evidence of validity based on the content and response processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Tatiana Magalhães de; Cola, Paula Cristina; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Magalhães, Hipólito Virgílio; Magnoni, Carlos Daniel; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da

    2017-08-17

    The aim of the present study was to identify the evidence of validity based on the content and response process of the Rastreamento de Disfagia Orofaríngea no Acidente Vascular Encefálico (RADAVE; "Screening Tool for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Stroke"). The criteria used to elaborate the questions were based on a literature review. A group of judges consisting of 19 different health professionals evaluated the relevance and representativeness of the questions, and the results were analyzed using the Content Validity Index. In order to evidence validity based on the response processes, 23 health professionals administered the screening tool and analyzed the questions using a structured scale and cognitive interview. The RADAVE structured to be applied in two stages. The first version consisted of 18 questions in stage I and 11 questions in stage II. Eight questions in stage I and four in stage II did not reach the minimum Content Validity Index, requiring reformulation by the authors. The cognitive interview demonstrated some misconceptions. New adjustments were made and the final version was produced with 12 questions in stage I and six questions in stage II. It was possible to develop a screening tool for dysphagia in stroke with adequate evidence of validity based on content and response processes. Both validity evidences obtained so far allowed to adjust the screening tool in relation to its construct. The next studies will analyze the other evidences of validity and the measures of accuracy.

  11. The impact of brief messages on HSV-2 screening uptake among female defendants in a court setting: a randomized controlled trial utilizing prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexis M; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Dodge, Brian; Reece, Michael; Certo, David; Zimet, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic data demonstrate that women involved with the criminal justice system in the United States are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections, including herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Female defendants were recruited from a misdemeanor court to assess whether brief framed messages utilizing prospect theory could encourage testing for HSV-2. Participants were randomly assigned to a message condition (gain, loss, or control), completed an interviewer-administered survey assessing factors associated with antibody test uptake/refusal and were offered free point-of-care HSV-2 serologic testing. Although individuals in the loss-frame group accepted testing at the highest rate, an overall statistical difference in HSV-2 testing behavior by group (p ≤ .43) was not detected. The majority of the sample (74.6%) characterized receiving a serological test for HSV-2 as health affirming. However, this did not moderate the effect of the intervention nor was it significantly associated with test acceptance (p ≤ .82). Although the effects of message framing are subtle, the findings have important theoretical implications given the participants' characterization of HSV-2 screening as health affirming despite being a detection behavior. Implications of study results for health care providers interested in brief, low cost interventions are also explored.

  12. A nurse-facilitated depression screening program in an Army primary care clinic: an evidence-based project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackel, Edward E; McKennan, Madelyn S; Fox-Deise, Adrianna

    2010-01-01

    Depression, sometimes with suicidal manifestations, is a medical condition commonly seen in primary care clinics. Routine screening for depression and suicidal ideation is recommended of all adult patients in the primary care setting because it offers depressed patients a greater chance of recovery and response to treatment, yet such screening often is overlooked or omitted. The purpose of this study was to develop, to implement, and to test the efficacy of a systematic depression screening process to increase the identification of depression in family members of active duty soldiers older than 18 years at a military family practice clinic located on an Army infantry post in the Pacific. The Iowa Model of Evidence-Based Practice to Promote Quality Care was used to develop a practice guideline incorporating a decision algorithm for nurses to screen for depression. A pilot project to institute this change in practice was conducted, and outcomes were measured. Before implementation, approximately 100 patients were diagnosed with depression in each of the 3 months preceding the practice change. Approximately 130 patients a month were assigned a 311.0 Code 3 months after the practice change, and 140 patients per month received screenings and were assigned the correct International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision Code 311.0 at 1 year. The improved screening and coding for depression and suicidality added approximately 3 minutes to the patient screening process. The education of staff in the process of screening for depression and correct coding coupled with monitoring and staff feedback improved compliance with the identification and the documentation of patients with depression. Nurses were more likely than primary care providers to agree strongly that screening for depression enhances quality of care. Data gathered during this project support the integration of military and civilian nurse-facilitated screening for depression in the military primary care

  13. Impact of policy support on uptake of evidence-based continuous quality improvement activities and the quality of care for Indigenous Australians: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Ross; Matthews, Veronica; Larkins, Sarah; Thompson, Sandra; Burgess, Paul; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Bailie, Jodie; Cunningham, Frances; Kwedza, Ru; Clark, Louise

    2017-10-05

    To examine the impact of state/territory policy support on (1) uptake of evidence-based continuous quality improvement (CQI) activities and (2) quality of care for Indigenous Australians. Mixed-method comparative case study methodology, drawing on quality-of-care audit data, documentary evidence of policies and strategies and the experience and insights of stakeholders involved in relevant CQI programmes. We use multilevel linear regression to analyse jurisdictional differences in quality of care. Indigenous primary healthcare services across five states/territories of Australia. 175 Indigenous primary healthcare services. A range of national and state/territory policy and infrastructure initiatives to support CQI, including support for applied research. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: (i) Trends in the consistent uptake of evidence-based CQI tools available through a research-based CQI initiative (the Audit and Best Practice in Chronic Disease programme) and (ii) quality of care (as reflected in adherence to best practice guidelines). Progressive uptake of evidence-based CQI activities and steady improvements or maintenance of high-quality care occurred where there was long-term policy and infrastructure support for CQI. Where support was provided but not sustained there was a rapid rise and subsequent fall in relevant CQI activities. Health authorities should ensure consistent and sustained policy and infrastructure support for CQI to enable wide-scale and ongoing improvement in quality of care and, subsequently, health outcomes. It is not sufficient for improvement initiatives to rely on local service managers and clinicians, as their efforts are strongly mediated by higher system-level influences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Does access to a colorectal cancer screening website and/or a nurse-managed telephone help line provided to patients by their family physician increase fecal occult blood test uptake?: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clouston Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fecal occult blood test screening in Canada is sub-optimal. Family physicians play a central role in screening and are limited by the time constraints of clinical practice. Patients face multiple barriers that further reduce completion rates. Tools that support family physicians in providing their patients with colorectal cancer information and that support uptake may prove useful. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a patient decision aid (nurse-managed telephone support line and/or colorectal cancer screening website distributed by community-based family physicians, in improving colorectal cancer screening rates. Secondary objectives include evaluation of (disincentives to patient FOBT uptake and internet use among 50 to 74 year old males and females for health-related questions. Challenges faced by family physicians in engaging in collaborative partnerships with primary healthcare researchers will be documented. Methods/design A pragmatic, two-arm, randomized cluster controlled trial conducted in 22 community-based family practice clinics (36 clusters with 76 fee-for-service family physicians in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Each physician will enroll 30 patients attending their periodic health examination and at average risk for colorectal cancer. All physicians will follow their standard clinical practice for screening. Intervention group physicians will provide a fridge magnet to each patient that contains information facilitating access to the study-specific colorectal cancer screening decision aids (telephone help-line and website. The primary endpoint is patient fecal occult blood test completion rate after four months (intention to treat model. Multi-level analysis will include clinic, physician and patient level variables. Patient Personal Health Identification Numbers will be collected from those providing consent to facilitate analysis of repeat screening behavior. Secondary outcome

  15. Screening Children for Family Violence: A Review of the Evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Peggy; Nelson, Heidi D.; Klein, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND We wanted to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening children in primary health care settings for abuse and neglect resulting from family violence by examining the evidence on the performance of screening instruments and the effectiveness of interventions. METHODS We searched for relevant studies in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and reference lists. English language abstracts with original data about family violence against children focusing on screening and interventions initiated or based in health care settings were included. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations and settings, methods of assessment or intervention, and outcome measures, and applied a set of criteria to evaluate study quality. RESULTS All instruments designed to screen for child abuse and neglect were directed to parents, particularly pregnant women. These instruments had fairly high sensitivity but low specificity when administered in high-risk study populations and have not been widely tested in other populations. Randomized controlled trials of frequent nurse home visitation programs beginning during pregnancy that address behavioral and psychological factors indicated improved abuse measures and outcomes. No studies were identified about interventions in older children or harms associated with screening and intervention. CONCLUSIONS No trials of the effectiveness of screening in a health care setting have been published. Clinician referrals to nurse home visitation during pregnancy and in early childhood may reduce abuse in selected populations. There are no studies about harms of screening and interventions. PMID:15083858

  16. Application of Fragment Ion Information as Further Evidence in Probabilistic Compound Screening Using Bayesian Statistics and Machine Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegebriel, Michael; Zomer, Paul; Mol, Hans G.J.; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce an automated, efficient, and elegant model to combine all pieces of evidence (e.g., expected retention times, peak shapes, isotope distributions, fragment-to-parent ratio) obtained from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS/MS) data for screening

  17. Can hydrographic data provide evidence that the rate of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is increasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carlisle Thacker

    Full Text Available Predictions of the rate of accumulation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the Pacific Ocean near 32°S and 150°W based on the P16 surveys of 1991 and 2005 and on the P06 surveys of 1992 and 2003 underestimate the amount found in the P06 survey of 2009-2010, suggesting an increasing uptake rate. Assuming the accumulation rate to be constant over the two decades, analyses using all five surveys lead to upward revision of the rates based only on the first four. On the other hand, accumulation rates estimated for 2003-2010 are significantly greater than those for 1991-2003, again suggesting an increasing uptake rate. In addressing this question it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the repeat hydrography and consequent uncertainties of estimated accumulation rates.

  18. Breast cancer screening: Evidence of the effect of adjunct ultrasound screening in women with unilateral mammography-negative dense breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with the previous history of breast cancer are in risk of contralateral breast cancer. On the other hand, increased breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer and the sensitivity of detecting nonpalpable cancers in screening mammography in radiographically dense breasts is low. The use of ultrasonography in dense breast remains a controversial topic. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of routine ultrasonography in follow-up of women with the previous history of breast cancer and negative mammography but dense breasts. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 267 individuals with unilateral postmastectomy mammogram screened and 153 subjects assigned to study. There were 28 subjects with American College of Radiology (ACR breast density 2 and 125 with ACR breast density 3-4, which there was no new finding in their mammogram in comparison to previous studies. We assumed subjects with ACR breast density 3-4 as mammographic Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS category 0 for malignancy. Standard two-view mammogram was performed for all participants, and breast ultrasound (US examinations were performed by an expert radiologist in radial and anti-radial planes. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: The results showed that in subjects with ACR breast density 3-4, when there was no new density in two consecutive mammograms in comparison to previous studies, US also showed no possibility for malignancy (BI-RADS 1-2. And also in subjects with ACR breast density 2, when the mammographic results were BI-RADS 1-2, the US results was the same. Conclusion: Our data indicate that for the detection of breast cancer, sensitivity of US was not greater than mammography in patients with postmastectomy unilateral dense breast if there is not any new density.

  19. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased uptake of cervical screening by women with HIV infection in Auckland regardless of ethnicity, requirement for an interpreter or level of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michele; Handy, Rupert; Ingram, Joan; Nisbet, Mitzi; Ritchie, Stephen; Thomas, Mark; Briggs, Simon

    2016-07-15

    Current guidelines recommend that women with HIV infection receive annual cervical smears. We evaluated the uptake of annual cervical smears by women with HIV infection under the care of the Infectious Disease Service at Auckland City Hospital. In an attempt to identify potential barriers to regularly receiving an annual cervical smear, we invited the women to complete a questionnaire. The responses from women who had regularly received an annual cervical smear were compared with those who had not. The proportion of women who had received a cervical smear increased from 44% in 2001, to 73% in 2010 (p=0.001). Ninety-three women (76%) completed the study questionnaire. No statistically significant differences were found in the questionnaire responses between the women who had regularly received an annual cervical smear and those who had not. The proportion of women in this cohort who received a cervical smear in 2010 is comparable with other studies of women with HIV infection in New Zealand and overseas. We have not been able to identify barriers that prevent women with HIV infection in Auckland regularly receiving an annual cervical smear. We plan to encourage women who have not received a cervical smear in the previous 2-year period to have a cervical smear performed when they attend the Infectious Disease Clinic, and will continue to notify the National Cervical Screening Programme that all women who are newly diagnosed with HIV infection should have an annual recall code attached to future cervical smear reports. We expect that these interventions will further increase the proportion of women with HIV infection in Auckland who receive an annual cervical smear.

  1. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)–Based Population Screening for Prostate Cancer: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, G

    2015-01-01

    evidence of a PC mortality reduction in the American PLCO trial, which investigated a screening program in a setting where opportunistic screening was already common practice. Given that opportunistic PSA screening practices in Canada are similar, it is unlikely that the introduction of a formal PSA screening program would reduce PC mortality. PMID:26366236

  2. Further Evidence on the Weak and Strong Versions of the Screening Hypothesis in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambropoulos, Haris S.

    1992-01-01

    Uses Greek data for 1981 and 1985 to test screening hypothesis by replicating method proposed by Psacharopoulos. Credentialism, or sheepskin effect of education, directly challenges human capital theory, which views education as a productivity augmenting process. Results do not support the strong version of the screening hypothesis and suggest…

  3. Screening for cancer-related distress: Summary of evidence from tools to programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, P. E.; Johansen, C.; Mitchell, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    and critically discuss the findings of randomized trials of the effect of screening and to identify components necessary for future studies of the effectiveness of screening programmes. Methods. A search was made of the Embase/Medline and Web of Knowledge abstract databases from inception to September 2010. Our...

  4. Evidence for the role of the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation and the ocean heat uptake in hiatus prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Antonello; Triacca, Umberto; Attanasio, Alessandro

    2017-08-01

    The recent hiatus in global temperature at the surface has been analysed by several studies, mainly using global climate models. The common accepted picture is that since the late 1990s, the increase in anthropogenic radiative forcings has been counterbalanced by other factors, e.g., a decrease in natural forcings, augmented ocean heat storage and negative phases of ocean-atmosphere-coupled oscillation patterns. Here, simple vector autoregressive models are used for forecasting the temperature hiatus in the period 2001-2014. This gives new insight into the problem of understanding the ocean contribution (in terms of heat uptake and atmosphere-ocean-coupled oscillations) to the appearance of this recent hiatus. In particular, considering data about the ocean heat content until a depth of 700 m and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation is necessary for correctly forecasting the hiatus, so catching both trend and interannual variability. Our models also show that the ocean heat uptake is substantially driven by the natural component of the total radiative forcing at a decadal time scale, confining the importance of the anthropogenic influences to a longer range warming of the ocean.

  5. Chloroquine uptake, altered partitioning and the basis of drug resistance: evidence for chloride-dependent ionic regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiney, J A; Ferrer, A S; Cerami, A; Dzekunov, S; Roepe, P

    1999-01-01

    The biochemical mechanism of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum remains unknown. We postulated that chloroquine-resistant strains could alter ion fluxes that then indirectly control drug accumulation within the parasite by affecting pH and/or membrane potential ('altered partitioning mechanism'). Two principal intracellular pH-regulating systems in many cell types are the amiloride-sensitive Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), and the sodium-independent, stilbene-sensitive Cl-/HCO3- antiporter (AE). We report that under physiological conditions (balanced CO2 and HCO3-) chloroquine uptake and susceptibility are not altered by amiloride analogues. We also do not detect a significant difference in NHE activity between chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains via single cell photometry methods. AE activity is dependent on the intracellular and extracellular concentrations of Cl- and HCO3- ions. Chloroquine-resistant strains differentially respond to experimental modifications in chloride-dependent homeostasis, including growth, cytoplasmic pH and pH regulation. Chloroquine susceptibility is altered by stilbene DIDS only on chloroquine-resistant strains. Our results suggest that a Cl(-)-dependent system (perhaps AE) has a significant effect on the uptake of chloroquine by the infected erythrocyte, and that alterations of this biophysical parameter may be part of the mechanism of chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum.

  6. Variations in the management of the axilla in screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ: evidence from the UK NHS breast screening programme audit of screen detected DCIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, S; Hanby, A; Clements, K; Kearins, O; Lawrence, G; Dodwell, D; Bishop, H; Thompson, A

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and surgical management of screen-detected Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) remains controversial including a range of axillary approaches and consequent morbidity. This study examined the management of the axilla in all patients with DCIS presenting through the United Kingdom National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (UK NHS BSP). Retrospective analysis of the UK NHS BSP identified 26,696 women initially diagnosed with DCIS over the 8 years 1 April 2003-31 March 2011. The final breast pathology of these women was upgraded to invasive ductal cancer in 5564 (20.8%) women or micro-invasive cancer in 1031 (3.9%) women. At first operation, 5290 (26.3%) of the 20,094 women who had a final post-operative diagnosis of DCIS only underwent axillary surgery (72.4% at the time of mastectomy, 23.8% breast conservation surgery, 3.8% axillary surgery alone). Performance of axillary surgery reflected increasing tumour size, micro-invasion or increasing nuclear grade for the final diagnosis of DCIS. More extensive nodal surgery was performed in those undergoing mastectomy; 10.8% of women had more than 8 nodes removed. Overall, 12.0% of women with invasive cancer, 1.7% with micro-invasion, and 0.2% with DCIS alone, were ultimately node positive. Improved pre-operative sampling of DCIS, axillary assessment by ultrasound with needle biopsy for suspected metastases, risk stratification for sentinel node biopsy (for high grade or extensive DCIS) and avoiding axillary clearance for a pre-operative diagnosis of DCIS alone should reduce unnecessary axillary surgery. Standards using such criteria for axillary surgery in screen-detected DCIS should be integrated into the NHS BSP. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Digital Screen Time Limits and Young Children's Psychological Well-Being: Evidence From a Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K; Weinstein, Netta

    2017-12-13

    There is little empirical understanding of how young children's screen engagement links to their well-being. Data from 19,957 telephone interviews with parents of 2- to 5-year-olds assessed their children's digital screen use and psychological well-being in terms of caregiver attachment, resilience, curiosity, and positive affect in the past month. Evidence did not support implementing limits (< 1 or < 2 hr/day) as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics, once variability in child ethnicity, age, gender, household income, and caregiver educational attainment were considered. Yet, small parabolic functions linked screen time to attachment and positive affect. Results suggest a critical cost-benefit analysis is needed to determine whether setting firm limits constitutes a judicious use of caregiver and professional resources. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Behavioral and biochemical effects of the antidepressant bupropion (Wellbutrin): evidence for selective blockade of dopamine uptake in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B R; Hester, T J; Maxwell, R A

    1980-10-01

    Bupropion (BW 323U; Wellbutrin), a novel compound with antidepressant effects in man, was found to reduce immobility in an "experimental helplessness" forced swimming antidepressant test in rats as did imipramine and amitriptyline. Higher doses produced elevated locomotor activity in an automated open field and produced stereotyped sniffing which was contrasted with apomorphine. When bupropion or desmethylimipramine was given before intracisternal injections of 6-hydroxydopamine, bupropion produced a dose-related selective antagonism of the destruction of dopamine neurons, while under the same conditions, desmethylimipramine produced a dose-related selective antagonism of the destruction of noradrenergic neurons. Studies in which the dose of bupropion and the dose of 6-hydroxydopamine were varied revealed that a dose-related selective antagonism of dopamine depletion by 6-hydroxydopamine occurred when doses up to and including 50 mg/kg i.p. to bupropion were administered. Some antagonism of norepinephrine depletion also occurred at 100 mg/kg of bupropion i.p. Bupropion also selectively reversed the dopamine depletion produced by alpha-methyl-m-tyrosine, a finding which is consistent with the view that bupropion is a dopamine uptake inhibitor in vivo. The importance of dopamine systems for the behavioral effects of bupropion were also studied. When the locomotor stimulant effects of bupropion were tested in rats with chronic destruction of dopamine neurons produced by 6-hydroxydopamine, bupropion failed to elevate locomotor activity. Rats treated with procedures using 6-hydroxydopamine to produce relatively selective norepinephrine depletions responded to bupropion with locomotor activity stimulation like controls. Rats with similar depletions of either dopamine or norepinephrine were also tested for the ability of low doses of bupropion to reduce immobility in the "experimental helplessness" forced swim antidepressant test. Prior destruction of dopamine neurons

  9. START (screening tool to alert doctors to the right treatment)--an evidence-based screening tool to detect prescribing omissions in elderly patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, P J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Inappropriate prescribing encompasses acts of commission i.e. giving drugs that are contraindicated or unsuitable, and acts of omission i.e. failure to prescribe drugs when indicated due to ignorance of evidence base or other irrational basis e.g. ageism. There are considerable published data on the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing; however, there are no recent published data on the prevalence of acts of omission. The aim of this study was to calculate the prevalence of acts of prescribing omission in a population of consecutively hospitalised elderly people. METHODS: A screening tool (screening tool to alert doctors to the right treatment acronym, START), devised from evidence-based prescribing indicators and arranged according to physiological systems was prepared and validated for identifying prescribing omissions in older adults. Data on active medical problems and prescribed medicines were collected in 600 consecutive elderly patients admitted from the community with acute illness to a teaching hospital. On identification of an omitted medication, the patient\\'s medical records were studied to look for a valid reason for the prescribing omission. RESULTS: Using the START list, we found one or more prescribing omissions in 57.9% of patients. In order of prevalence, the most common prescribing omissions were: statins in atherosclerotic disease (26%), warfarin in chronic atrial fibrillation (9.5%), anti-platelet therapy in arterial disease (7.3%) and calcium\\/vitamin D supplementation in symptomatic osteoporosis (6%). CONCLUSION: Failure to prescribe appropriate medicines is a highly prevalent problem among older people presenting to hospital with acute illness. A validated screening tool (START) is one method of systematically identifying appropriate omitted medicines in clinical practice.

  10. Are Treponema pallidum specific rapid and point-of-care tests for syphilis accurate enough for screening in resource limited settings? Evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Jafari

    Full Text Available Rapid and point-of-care (POC tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests in blood and serum samples against Treponema pallidum (TP specific reference standards.Five electronic databases (1980-2012 were searched, data was extracted from 33 articles, and Bayesian hierarchical models were fit.In serum samples, against a TP specific reference standard point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI for the sensitivities of popular tests were: i Determine, 90.04% (80.45, 95.21, ii SD Bioline, 87.06% (75.67, 94.50, iii VisiTect, 85.13% (72.83, 92.57, and iv Syphicheck, 74.48% (56.85, 88.44, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.14% (96.37, 100, ii Visitect, 96.45% (91.92, 99.29, iii SD Bioline, 95.85% (89.89, 99.53, and iv Determine, 94.15% (89.26, 97.66. In whole blood samples, sensitivities were: i Determine, 86.32% (77.26, 91.70, ii SD Bioline, 84.50% (78.81, 92.61, iii Syphicheck, 74.47% (63.94, 82.13, and iv VisiTect, 74.26% (53.62, 83.68, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.58% (98.91, 99.96, ii VisiTect, 99.43% (98.22, 99.98, iii SD Bioline, 97.95%(92.54, 99.33, and iv Determine, 95.85% (92.42, 97.74.Rapid and POC treponemal tests reported sensitivity and specificity estimates comparable to laboratory-based treponemal tests. In resource limited settings, where access to screening is limited and where risk of patients lost to follow up is high, the introduction of these tests has already been shown to improve access to screening and treatment to prevent stillbirths and neonatal mortality due to congenital syphilis. Based on the evidence, it is concluded that rapid and POC tests are useful in resource limited settings with poor access to laboratories or screening

  11. Prostate-specific antigen: does the current evidence support its use in prostate cancer screening?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Although widely used, the value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer is controversial. Reasons for the controversy relate to PSA being less than an ideal marker in detecting early prostate cancer, the possibility that screening for prostate cancer may result in the overdetection and thus overtreatment of indolent disease and the lack of clarity as to the definitive or best treatment for men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Although the results from some randomized prospective trials suggest that screening with PSA reduces mortality from prostate cancer, the overall benefit was modest. It is thus currently unclear as to whether the modest benefit of reduced mortality outweighs the harms of overdetection and overtreatment. Thus, prior to undergoing screening for prostate cancer, men should be informed of the risks and benefits of early detection. Newly emerging markers that may complement PSA in the early detection of prostate cancer include specific isoforms of PSA and PCA3.

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  13. Radioiodine uptake measurements in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadireshn, A.; Kapur, S.C.; Samuel, J.R.; Mahajan, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of thyroid function can be carried out by measuring the uptake of orally administered radioactive iodine. The results of the thyroid uptake measurements for the period 1982-1987 in Christian Medical College, Ludhiana are presented here. About 3000 patients were screened during the analysis period. (author)

  14. Explaining variation in the uptake of HPV vaccination in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whynes David K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In England, two national programmes of HPV vaccination for girls have been instituted, a routine programme for 12- and 13-year-olds and a catch-up programme for 17- and 18-year-olds. Uptake rates across the country have been far from uniform, and this research sought to identify factors explaining the variation in uptake by locality. Methods An association between uptake, deprivation and ethnic background had been established in pilot research. The present analysis was conducted at an aggregate, Primary Care Trust (PCT, level for the first year of the programmes. Published measures of HPV vaccination uptake, material deprivation, ethnic composition of PCT populations, primary care quality, and uptake of cervical screening and of other childhood immunisations were collated. Strong evidence of collinearity amongst the explanatory variables required a factor analysis to be undertaken. This provided four independent factors, used thereafter in regression models to explain uptake by PCT. Results The factor analysis revealed that ethnic composition was associated with attitudes towards cervical screening and other childhood vaccinations, whilst material deprivation and quality of primary care were orthogonal. Ethnic composition, early childhood vaccination, cervical screening and primary care quality were found to be influential in predicting uptake in both the routine and the catch-up cohorts, although with a lower degree of confidence in the case of the last two independent variables. Lower primary care quality was significant in explaining a greater fall in vaccination uptake between the first two doses in the catch-up cohort. Greater deprivation was a significant explanatory factor for both uptake and the fall in uptake between doses for the catch-up cohort but not for uptake in the routine cohort. Conclusion These results for uptake of the first year of the national programme using aggregate data corroborate findings from

  15. Breast Cancer Screening and Social Media: a Content Analysis of Evidence Use and Guideline Opinions on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Anthony; Bryant, Tyler; Canner, Joseph K; Dredze, Mark; Camp, Melissa S; Nagarajan, Neeraja

    2018-06-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the best mammography screening practices. Twitter has become a powerful tool for disseminating medical news and fostering healthcare conversations; however, little work has been done examining these conversations in the context of how users are sharing evidence and discussing current guidelines for breast cancer screening. To characterize the Twitter conversation on mammography and assess the quality of evidence used as well as opinions regarding current screening guidelines, individual tweets using mammography-related hashtags were prospectively pulled from Twitter from 5 November 2015 to 11 December 2015. Content analysis was performed on the tweets by abstracting data related to user demographics, content, evidence use, and guideline opinions. Standard descriptive statistics were used to summarize the results. Comparisons were made by demographics, tweet type (testable claim, advice, personal experience, etc.), and user type (non-healthcare, physician, cancer specialist, etc.). The primary outcomes were how users are tweeting about breast cancer screening, the quality of evidence they are using, and their opinions regarding guidelines. The most frequent user type of the 1345 tweets was "non-healthcare" with 323 tweets (32.5%). Physicians had 1.87 times higher odds (95% CI, 0.69-5.07) of providing explicit support with a reference and 11.70 times higher odds (95% CI, 3.41-40.13) of posting a tweet likely to be supported by the scientific community compared to non-healthcare users. Only 2.9% of guideline tweets approved of the guidelines while 14.6% claimed to be confused by them. Non-healthcare users comprise a significant proportion of participants in mammography conversations, with tweets often containing claims that are false, not explicitly backed by scientific evidence, and in favor of alternative "natural" breast cancer prevention and treatment. Furthermore, users appear to have low approval and confusion regarding

  16. Non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI uptake by T lymphocytes: evidence for the selective acquisition of oligomeric ferric citrate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Arezes

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient in several biological processes such as oxygen transport, DNA replication and erythropoiesis. Plasma iron normally circulates bound to transferrin. In iron overload disorders, however, iron concentrations exceed transferrin binding capacity and iron appears complexed with low molecular weight molecules, known as non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI. NTBI is responsible for the toxicity associated with iron-overload pathologies but the mechanisms leading to NTBI uptake are not fully understood. Here we show for the first time that T lymphocytes are able to take up and accumulate NTBI in a manner that resembles that of hepatocytes. Moreover, we show that both hepatocytes and T lymphocytes take up the oligomeric Fe3Cit3 preferentially to other iron-citrate species, suggesting the existence of a selective NTBI carrier. These results provide a tool for the identification of the still elusive ferric-citrate cellular carrier and may also open a new pathway towards the design of more efficient iron chelators for the treatment of iron overload disorders.

  17. Study protocol: Addressing evidence and context to facilitate transfer and uptake of consultation recording use in oncology: A knowledge translation implementation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruether J Dean

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time period from diagnosis to the end of treatment is challenging for newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients have a substantial need for information, decision aids, and psychosocial support. Recordings of initial oncology consultations improve information recall, reduce anxiety, enhance patient satisfaction with communication, and increase patients' perceptions that the essential aspects of their disease and treatment have been addressed during the consultation. Despite the research evidence supporting the provision of consultation recordings, uptake of this intervention into oncology practice has been slow. The primary aim of this project is to conduct an implementation study to explicate the contextual factors, including use of evidence, that facilitate and impede the transfer and uptake of consultation-recording use in a sample of patients newly diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer. Methods Sixteen oncologists from cancer centres in three Canadian cities will participate in this three-phase study. The preimplementation phase will be used to identify and address those factors that are fundamental to facilitating the smooth adoption and delivery of the intervention during the implementation phase. During the implementation phase, breast and prostate cancer patients will receive a recording of their initial oncology consultation to take home. Patient interviews will be conducted in the days following the consultation to gather feedback on the benefits of the intervention. Patients will complete the Digital Recording Use Semi-Structured Interview (DRUSSI and be invited to participate in focus groups in which their experiences with the consultation recording will be explored. Oncologists will receive a summary letter detailing the benefits voiced by their patients. The postimplementation phase includes a conceptual framework development meeting and a seven-point dissemination strategy. Discussion Consultation

  18. Screening for speech and language delay in preschool children: systematic evidence review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Heidi D; Nygren, Peggy; Walker, Miranda; Panoscha, Rita

    2006-02-01

    PEDIATRICS (ISSN Numbers: Print, 0031-4005; Online, 1098-4275). Published in the public domain by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Speech and language development is a useful indicator of a child's overall development and cognitive ability and is related to school success. Identification of children at risk for developmental delay or related problems may lead to intervention services and family assistance at a young age, when the chances for improvement are best. However, optimal methods for screening for speech and language delay have not been identified, and screening is practiced inconsistently in primary care. We sought to evaluate the strengths and limits of evidence about the effectiveness of screening and interventions for speech and language delay in preschool-aged children to determine the balance of benefits and adverse effects of routine screening in primary care for the development of guidelines by the US Preventive Services Task Force. The target population includes all children up to 5 years old without previously known conditions associated with speech and language delay, such as hearing and neurologic impairments. Studies were identified from Medline, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases (1966 to November 19, 2004), systematic reviews, reference lists, and experts. The evidence review included only English-language, published articles that are available through libraries. Only randomized, controlled trials were considered for examining the effectiveness of interventions. Outcome measures were considered if they were obtained at any time or age after screening and/or intervention as long as the initial assessment occurred while the child was birth order, and family size. The performance characteristics of evaluation techniques that take or =2 screening techniques in 1 population, and comparisons of a single screening technique across different populations are lacking. Fourteen good- and fair-quality randomized, controlled trials of interventions

  19. n vivo retention of ingested Au NPs by Daphnia magna: No evidence for trans-epithelial alimentary uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R.; Kennaway, Gabrielle M.; Croteau, Marie-Noële; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Smith, Brian D.; Nogueira, António J.A.; Rainbow, Philip S.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    In vivo studies with Daphnia magna remain inconclusive as to whether engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are internalized into tissues after ingestion. Here we used a three-pronged approach to study the in vivo retention and efflux kinetics of 20 nm citrate stabilized Au NPs ingested by this key aquatic species. Daphnids were exposed to suspended particles (600 μg L−1) for 5 h after which they were depurated for 24 h in clean water containing algae. Light microscopy was used to follow the passage of Au NPs through the gastrointestinal tract, Au body burdens were determined by ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the presence and distribution of Au NPs in tissues. Results revealed that the elimination of Au NPs was bi-phasic. The fast elimination phase lasted −1 (±SE) which accounted for ∼75% of the ingested Au. The remaining ∼25% of the ingested Au NPs was eliminated at a 100-fold slower rate. TEM analysis revealed that Au NPs in the midgut were in close proximity to the peritrophic membrane after 1 and 24 h of depuration. There were no observations of Au NP uptake at the microvilli. Thus, although Au NPs were retained in the gut lumen, there was no observable internalization into the gut epithelial cells. Similar to carbon nanotubes and CuO NPs, our findings indicate that in daphnids the in vivo retention of Au NPs does not necessarily result in their internalization.

  20. Familial Screening for Left-Sided Congenital Heart Disease: What Is the Evidence? What Is the Cost?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Perry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the American Heart Association’s recommendation for familial screening of adults with congenital heart disease for bicuspid aortic valve, similar recommendations for other left-sided heart defects, such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS, have been proposed. However, defining at-risk populations for these heart defects based on genetics is less straightforward due to the wide variability of inheritance patterns and non-genetic influences such as environmental and lifestyle factors. We discuss whether there is sufficient evidence to standardize echocardiographic screening for first-degree relatives of children diagnosed with HLHS. Due to variations in the inclusion of cardiac anomalies linked to HLHS and the identification of asymptomatic individuals with cardiac malformations, published studies are open to interpretation. We conclude that familial aggregation of obstructive left-sided congenital heart lesions in families with history of HLHS is not supported and recommend that additional screening should adopt a more conservative definition of what truly constitutes this heart defect. More thorough consideration is needed before embracing familial screening recommendations of families of patients with HLHS, since this could inflict serious costs on healthcare infrastructure and further burden affected families both emotionally and financially.

  1. Evidence on the Relationship between Firm-Based Screening and the Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sarah; Sessions, John G.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the relationship between the signalling role of education and direct screening measures adopted by employers using a matched employee-employer data set drawn from the 1998 "Workplace Employee Relations Survey" for Great Britain. We identify which firms use personality/attitude and/or performance/competency tests during the…

  2. Chronic kidney-disease screening service quality: questionnaire survey research evidence from Taichung city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Robert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a serious public health problem in Taiwan and the world. The most effective, affordable treatments involve early prevention/detection/intervention, requiring screening. Successfully implementing CKD programs requires good patient participation, affected by patient perceptions of screening service quality. Service quality improvements can help make such programs more successful. Thus, good tools for assessing service quality perceptions are important. Aim: to investigate using a modified SERVQUAL questionnaire in assessing patient expectations, perceptions, and loyalty towards kidney disease screening service quality. Method 1595 kidney disease screening program patients in Taichung City were requested to complete and return a modified kidney disease screening SERVQUAL questionnaire. 1187 returned them. Incomplete ones (102 were culled and 1085 were chosen as effective for use. Paired t-tests, correlation tests, ANOVA, LSD test, and factor analysis identified the characteristics and factors of service quality. The paired t-test tested expectation score and perception score gaps. A structural equation modeling system examined satisfaction-based components' relationships. Results The effective response rate was 91.4%. Several methods verified validity. Cronbach's alpha on internal reliability was above 0.902. On patient satisfaction, expectation scores are high: 6.50 (0.82, but perception scores are significantly lower 6.14 (1.02. Older patients' perception scores are lower than younger patients'. Expectation and perception scores for patients with different types of jobs are significantly different. Patients higher on education have lower scores for expectation (r = -0.09 and perception (r = -0.26. Factor analysis identified three factors in the 22 item SERVQUAL form, which account for 80.8% of the total variance for the expectation scores and 86.9% of the total variance for the satisfaction

  3. Chronic kidney-disease screening service quality: questionnaire survey research evidence from Taichung City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deng-Juin; Li, Ya-Hsin; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Sheu, Ing-Cheau; Glen, Robert; Chou, Ming-Jen; Lee, Ching-Yi

    2009-12-19

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious public health problem in Taiwan and the world. The most effective, affordable treatments involve early prevention/detection/intervention, requiring screening. Successfully implementing CKD programs requires good patient participation, affected by patient perceptions of screening service quality. Service quality improvements can help make such programs more successful. Thus, good tools for assessing service quality perceptions are important. to investigate using a modified SERVQUAL questionnaire in assessing patient expectations, perceptions, and loyalty towards kidney disease screening service quality. 1595 kidney disease screening program patients in Taichung City were requested to complete and return a modified kidney disease screening SERVQUAL questionnaire. 1187 returned them. Incomplete ones (102) were culled and 1085 were chosen as effective for use. Paired t-tests, correlation tests, ANOVA, LSD test, and factor analysis identified the characteristics and factors of service quality. The paired t-test tested expectation score and perception score gaps. A structural equation modeling system examined satisfaction-based components' relationships. The effective response rate was 91.4%. Several methods verified validity. Cronbach's alpha on internal reliability was above 0.902. On patient satisfaction, expectation scores are high: 6.50 (0.82), but perception scores are significantly lower 6.14 (1.02). Older patients' perception scores are lower than younger patients'. Expectation and perception scores for patients with different types of jobs are significantly different. Patients higher on education have lower scores for expectation (r = -0.09) and perception (r = -0.26). Factor analysis identified three factors in the 22 item SERVQUAL form, which account for 80.8% of the total variance for the expectation scores and 86.9% of the total variance for the satisfaction scores. Expectation and perception score gaps in all 22

  4. 'Controversy'. Propaganda versus evidence based health promotion: the case of breast screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, A

    1999-01-01

    Breast cancer is a serious problem in the developed world, and the common perception of the risks of developing the disease are communicated to the public via a variety of means. This includes leaflets in doctors' surgeries, health promotion campaigns and invitations from well woman clinics to attend for various forms of screening. The national breast cancer screening programme in the UK has a very high compliance rate (which is vital) and a well oiled media machine. This article examines the way in which the risks of developing breast cancer are communicated to women of all ages in the UK, and speculates as to the reason behind the misleading manner in which health promoters offer this information.

  5. Do social and environmental screens influence ethical portfolio performance? Evidence from Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ortas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to test whether social and environmental screening processes could determine the financial performance of ethical or Socially Responsible Investment (SRI strategies in the European context. We compare the risk-adjusted returns and systematic risk levels obtained by the two mainstream SRI equity indexes in Europe with those achieved by their official benchmarks. We find that, although these SRI indexes do not underperform their benchmarks in terms of risk-adjusted returns, they experience higher levels of risk. Additionally, the results show that higher screening intensity results in higher risk for the SRI indexes. Furthermore, the underperformance in terms of risk associated with the SRI indexes is worse in periods when there is a market downturn. This may indicate that SRI indexes are more sensitive to changes in the market cycle, because SRI indexes include companies that are more affected by market fluctuations.

  6. Universal newborn screening for congenital CMV infection: what is the evidence of potential benefit?†

    OpenAIRE

    Cannon, Michael J.; Griffiths, Paul D.; Aston, Van; Rawlinson, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital CMV infection is a leading cause of childhood disability. Many children born with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms and therefore are typically not diagnosed. A strategy of newborn CMV screening could allow for early detection and intervention to improve clinical outcomes. Interventions might include antiviral drugs or nonpharmaceutical therapies such as speech-language therapy or cochlear implants. Using published data from developed countries,...

  7. Can conditional cash transfers improve the uptake of nutrition interventions and household food security? Evidence from Odisha's Mamata scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Raghunathan

    Full Text Available There is considerable global evidence on the effectiveness of cash transfers in improving health and nutrition outcomes; however, the evidence from South Asia, particularly India, is limited. In the context of India where more than a third of children are undernourished, and where there is considerable under-utilization of health and nutrition interventions, it is opportune to investigate the impact of cash transfer programs on the use of interventions. We study one conditional cash transfer program, Mamata scheme, implemented in the state of Odisha, in India that targeted pregnant and lactating women. Using survey data on 1161 households from three districts in the state of Odisha, we examine the effect of the scheme on eight outcomes: 1 pregnancy registration; 2 receipt of antenatal services; 3 receipt of iron and folic acid (IFA tablets; 4 exposure to counseling during pregnancy; 5 exposure to postnatal counseling; 6 exclusive breastfeeding; 7 full immunization; and 8 household food security. We conduct regression analyses and correct for endogeneity using nearest-neighbor matching and inverse-probability weighting models. We find that the receipt of payments from the Mamata scheme is associated with a 5 percentage point (pp increase in the likelihood of receiving antenatal services, a 10 pp increase in the likelihood of receiving IFA tablets, and a decline of 0.84 on the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. These results provide the first quantitative estimates of effects associated with the Mamata scheme, which can inform the design of government policies related to conditional cash transfers.

  8. Review of the evidence on the use of arbitration or consensus within breast screening: A systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, L; Szczepura, A; Moody, L; Whiteman, B

    2017-05-01

    A systematic scoping review was undertaken to establish the evidence base on arbitration and consensus in mammography reporting. Database searches were supplemented with hand searching of peer-reviewed journals, citation tracking, key author searching, grey literature and personal contact with experts. A 3-stage process was utilised to screen a large volume of literature (601) against the inclusion and exclusion criteria. 26 papers were retained. A lack of guidance and underpinning evidence to inform how best to use arbitration or consensus to resolve discordant reads. In particular, a lack of prospective studies to determine effectiveness in real-life clinical settings. The insufficiency of follow-up or reporting of true interval cancers compromised the ability to conclude the effectiveness of the processes. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adoption of an evidence-based colorectal cancer screening promotion program by community organizations serving Filipino Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Filipino Americans have low rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and high CRC mortality. To reduce this disparity, we conducted a dissemination trial in which we offered two levels of technical assistance to community organizations to disseminate an evidence-based CRC screening promotion program among their Filipino American members. This report describes the recruitment of organizations and adoption – the proportion and representativeness of organizations that decided to implement the program. Methods During the recruitment phase, we completed organizational assessments with 44 community-based organizations (previous partners in research, organizations that were referred to us, or new organizations) to assess their eligibility to participate (having ≥ 150 Filipino American members age 50+). We compared organizational characteristics of organizations that did and did not adopt our CRC screening promotion program. Results Twenty two of the 44 community organizations that completed the assessment adopted the CRC screening promotion program (50%). Adoption was highest among organizations that had previously partnered with us (11/14 = 79%) and among organizations that were referred to us by community partners (5/10 = 50%) and lowest among new organizations (6/20 = 30%). Few organizational differences were found between adopters and non-adopters. Conclusions The high rate of adoption among organizations that were referred by community partners or had partnered with us in the past underscores the importance of community resources, community-academic relationships, and partnership in the dissemination process. However, the moderate rate of adoption among new organizations and the demands of completing documentation and assessments in our trial to advance dissemination research raise questions regarding the generalizability of study findings. PMID:24618267

  10. Sex/Gender Differences in Screening for Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Evidence-Based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Spencer C; Boan, Andrea D; Bradley, Catherine; Carpenter, Laura A

    2018-03-30

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more often in boys than in girls; however, little is known about the nature of this sex/gender discrepancy or how it relates to diagnostic assessment practices. This study examined the performance of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in screening for ASD among boys and girls. Data were drawn from the South Carolina Children's Educational Surveillance Study, a population-based study of ASD prevalence among children 8-10 years of age. Analyses were conducted using SCQ data from 3,520 children, with direct assessment data from 272 with elevated SCQ scores. A bifactor model based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders's (5th ed.) two ASD symptom domains fit the data well and performed slightly better for girls. In the general population sample, girls exhibited fewer social communication/interaction and restricted-repetitive behavior symptoms than boys. In the direct assessment sample, however, girls with ASD showed greater impairment in social communication/interaction than boys with ASD. Items pertaining to social communication/interaction problems at ages 4-5 were among the most diagnostically efficient overall and particularly for girls. Similarly, receiver operating characteristic analyses suggested that the SCQ performs adequately among boys and well among girls. Results support the use of the SCQ in screening for ASD but do not indicate sex/gender-specific cutoffs. Girls with ASD may exhibit pronounced intraindividual deficits in social communication/interaction compared to male peers with ASD and female peers without ASD. Although more research is needed, careful attention to social communication/interaction deficits around 4-5 years of age may be especially useful for assessing ASD in girls.

  11. Review of the evidence on the use of arbitration or consensus within breast screening: A systematic scoping review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, L.; Szczepura, A.; Moody, L.; Whiteman, B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: A systematic scoping review was undertaken to establish the evidence base on arbitration and consensus in mammography reporting. Database searches were supplemented with hand searching of peer-reviewed journals, citation tracking, key author searching, grey literature and personal contact with experts. A 3-stage process was utilised to screen a large volume of literature (601) against the inclusion and exclusion criteria. 26 papers were retained. Key findings: A lack of guidance and underpinning evidence to inform how best to use arbitration or consensus to resolve discordant reads. In particular, a lack of prospective studies to determine effectiveness in real-life clinical settings. Conclusion: The insufficiency of follow-up or reporting of true interval cancers compromised the ability to conclude the effectiveness of the processes. - Highlights: • Lack of guidance to inform how best to use arbitration or consensus. • Insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of one strategy versus the other. • International variance in strategies to resolve discordant cases.

  12. Sexually transmitted infection screening uptake and knowledge of sexually transmitted infection symptoms among female sex workers participating in a community randomised trial in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Pamela K; Campos, Pablo E; Garcia, Patricia J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Buendia, Clara; Hughes, James P; Mejia, Carolina; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate condom use, sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening, and knowledge of STI symptoms among female sex workers in Peru associated with sex work venues and a community randomised trial of STI control. One component of the Peru PREVEN intervention conducted mobile-team outreach to female sex workers to reduce STIs and increase condom use and access to government clinics for STI screening and evaluation. Prevalence ratios were calculated using multivariate Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, clustering by city. As-treated analyses were conducted to assess outcomes associated with reported exposure to the intervention. Care-seeking was more frequent in intervention communities, but differences were not statistically significant. Female sex workers reporting exposure to the intervention had a significantly higher likelihood of condom use, STI screening at public health clinics, and symptom recognition compared to those not exposed. Compared with street- or bar-based female sex workers, brothel-based female sex workers reported significantly higher rates of condom use with last client, recent screening exams for STIs, and HIV testing. Brothel-based female sex workers also more often reported knowledge of STIs and recognition of STI symptoms in women and in men. Interventions to promote STI detection and prevention among female sex workers in Peru should consider structural or regulatory factors related to sex work venues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Association between mothers’ screening uptake and daughters’ HPV vaccination: a quasi-experimental study on the effect of an active invitation campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchini, Flavia; Campari, Cinzia; Perilli, Cinzia; Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Moscara, Luigi; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In Emilia-Romagna, the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination campaign started in 2008 offering free vaccines for 1996 and 1997 cohorts. Systematic active invitation was implemented for the 1997 cohort. Our study aimed at measuring the impact of the active invitation campaign on HPV vaccine coverage and on coverage inequalities in 11-year-old girls. Second, we evaluated the effect of the HPV vaccination campaign on participation in cervical cancer screening by mothers of target girls. Methods We collected information on vaccination status for girls residing in Reggio Emilia in 2008 and mothers’ screening history, before and after the 2008 vaccination campaign. Log-binomial regression models were performed to estimate Relative Risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of being vaccinated as regarded citizenship, siblings, mothers’ education, marital status and screening history, stratified by birth cohort. We also calculated RR of receiving a Pap test after the vaccination campaign as regarded education, daughter’s cohort and mothers’ decision to have their daughter vaccinated. Interaction between education and cohort in mothers overdue for Pap testing was calculated. Results Vaccination coverage was 46.3% for the uninvited cohort (1046/2260) and 77.9% for the invited cohort (1798/2307). In the uninvited cohort, daughters’ vaccination showed association with mothers’ education (8 to 11 years of education vs. graduated mothers, RR 1.61 95% CI 1.14–2.28), citizenship (foreigners vs. Italians, RR 0.45 95% CI 0.37–0.56) and screening history (regular vs. non-participant; RR 1.72 95% CI 1.26–2.36). In the invited cohort, only a slight association with screening history persisted (regular vs. non-participant; RR 1.20 95% CI 1.04–1.40). Highly educated under-screened mothers of the invited cohort showed a higher probability of receiving a Pap test after the vaccination campaign period (RR 1.27 95% CI 1.04–1.56) compared with

  14. Association between mothers' screening uptake and daughters' HPV vaccination: a quasi-experimental study on the effect of an active invitation campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Francesco; Baldacchini, Flavia; Campari, Cinzia; Perilli, Cinzia; Pascucci, Maria Grazia; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Moscara, Luigi; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi

    2017-09-25

    In Emilia-Romagna, the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination campaign started in 2008 offering free vaccines for 1996 and 1997 cohorts. Systematic active invitation was implemented for the 1997 cohort. Our study aimed at measuring the impact of the active invitation campaign on HPV vaccine coverage and on coverage inequalities in 11-year-old girls. Second, we evaluated the effect of the HPV vaccination campaign on participation in cervical cancer screening by mothers of target girls. We collected information on vaccination status for girls residing in Reggio Emilia in 2008 and mothers' screening history, before and after the 2008 vaccination campaign. Log-binomial regression models were performed to estimate Relative Risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of being vaccinated as regarded citizenship, siblings, mothers' education, marital status and screening history, stratified by birth cohort. We also calculated RR of receiving a Pap test after the vaccination campaign as regarded education, daughter's cohort and mothers' decision to have their daughter vaccinated. Interaction between education and cohort in mothers overdue for Pap testing was calculated. Vaccination coverage was 46.3% for the uninvited cohort (1046/2260) and 77.9% for the invited cohort (1798/2307). In the uninvited cohort, daughters' vaccination showed association with mothers' education (8 to 11 years of education vs. graduated mothers, RR 1.61 95% CI 1.14-2.28), citizenship (foreigners vs. Italians, RR 0.45 95% CI 0.37-0.56) and screening history (regular vs. non-participant; RR 1.72 95% CI 1.26-2.36). In the invited cohort, only a slight association with screening history persisted (regular vs. non-participant; RR 1.20 95% CI 1.04-1.40). Highly educated under-screened mothers of the invited cohort showed a higher probability of receiving a Pap test after the vaccination campaign period (RR 1.27 95% CI 1.04-1.56) compared with those not invited, CONCLUSION: Active invitation

  15. Screening the risk of bipolar spectrum disorders: Validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Paino, Mercedes; Muñiz, José

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gather sources of validity evidence of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) in young adults for its use as a screening tool for bipolar spectrum disorders. The sample was composed of 1,002 participants, 268 men (26.7%). The mean age of participants was 21.1 years (SD=3.9). The results showed that between 3 and 59% of the sample reported some hypomanic experience. Gender differences were found in the total score of the MDQ. The analysis of the internal structure by exploratory factor analysis yielded 2 factors, called Energy-Activity and Disinhibition-Attention. This dimensional structure was replicated in the exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and also had factorial equivalence by gender. Participants who met the cut-off points of the MDQ reported a worse perceived mental health status and more consummatory and anticipatory pleasure, compared to the low scores group. These findings indicate that the MDQ has adequate psychometric properties in non-clinical samples, and could be useful as a screening tool in psychopathology, with the possibility of optimizing strategies for early identification and prevention in individuals at high risk for bipolar disorders. Future studies should further explore the role of subclinical bipolar phenotype and conduct longitudinal studies in samples of the general population. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Screening for cerebrovascular disease in microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II): an evidence-based proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Luke D; Robertson, Fergus; Ganesan, Vijeya

    2013-04-01

    Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (OMIM 210720) is a rare autosomal recessive condition frequently associated with early-onset cerebrovascular disease. Presymptomatic detection and intervention could prevent the adverse consequences associated with this. We reviewed published cases of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II to ascertain prevalence and characteristics of cerebrovascular disease and use these data to propose an evidence-based approach to cerebrovascular screening. Of 147 cases identified, 47 had cerebrovascular disease (32%), including occlusive arteriopathy (including moyamoya) and cerebral aneurysmal disease. Occlusive disease occurred in younger individuals, and progression can be both rapid and clinically silent. A reasonable screening approach would be magnetic resonance imaging and angiography of the cervical and intracranial circulation at diagnosis, repeated at yearly intervals until 10 years, and every 2 years thereafter, unless clinical concerns occur earlier. At present it would appear that this needs to be life-long. Families and professionals should be alerted to the potential significance of neurologic symptoms and measures should be taken to maintain good vascular health in affected individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain MRI screening showing evidences of early central nervous system involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Reem Hamdy A; Sabry, Yousriah Y; Nasef, Amr A

    2011-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a multisystem autoimmune collagen disease where structural and functional abnormalities of small blood vessels prevail. Transient ischemic attacks, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhage have been reported as primary consequence of vascular central nervous system affection in systemic sclerosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered to be the most sensitive diagnostic technique for detecting symptomatic and asymptomatic lesions in the brain in cases of multifocal diseases. The objective of this study is to detect subclinical as well as clinically manifest cerebral vasculopathy in patients with systemic sclerosis using magnetic resonance imaging. As much as 30 female patients with systemic sclerosis aged 27-61 years old, with disease duration of 1-9 years and with no history of other systemic disease or cerebrovascular accidents, were enrolled. Age-matched female control group of 30 clinically normal subjects, underwent brain magnetic resonance examination. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in the form of white matter hyperintense foci of variable sizes were found in significantly abundant forms in systemic sclerosis patients on magnetic resonance evaluation than in age-related control group, signifying a form of CNS vasculopathy. Such foci showed significant correlation to clinical features of organic CNS lesion including headaches, fainting attacks and organic depression as well as to the severity of peripheral vascular disease with insignificant correlation with disease duration. In conclusion, subclinical as well as clinically manifest CNS ischemic vasculopathy is not uncommon in systemic sclerosis patients and magnetic resonance imaging is considered a sensitive noninvasive screening tool for early detection of CNS involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  18. Provider Training to Screen and Initiate Evidence-Based Pediatric Obesity Treatment in Routine Practice Settings: A Randomized Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, Rachel P; Kass, Andrea E; Hayes, Jacqueline F; Levine, Michele D; Garbutt, Jane M; Proctor, Enola K; Wilfley, Denise E

    This randomized pilot trial evaluated two training modalities for first-line, evidence-based pediatric obesity services (screening and goal setting) among nursing students. Participants (N = 63) were randomized to live interactive training or Web-facilitated self-study training. Pretraining, post-training, and 1-month follow-up assessments evaluated training feasibility, acceptability, and impact (knowledge and skill via simulation). Moderator (previous experience) and predictor (content engagement) analyses were conducted. Nearly all participants (98%) completed assessments. Both types of training were acceptable, with higher ratings for live training and participants with previous experience (ps pediatric obesity services. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative and mixed analyses to identify factors that affect cervical cancer screening uptake among lesbian and bisexual women and transgender men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael J; Mueller, Martina; Eliason, Michele J; Stuart, Gail; Nemeth, Lynne S

    2016-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure the prevalence of, and identify factors associated with, cervical cancer screening among a sample of lesbian, bisexual and queer women, and transgender men. Past research has found that lesbian, bisexual and queer women underuse cervical screening service. Because deficient screening remains the most significant risk factor for cervical cancer, it is essential to understand the differences between routine and nonroutine screeners. A convergent-parallel mixed methods design. A convenience sample of 21- to 65-year-old lesbian and bisexual women and transgender men were recruited in the USA from August-December 2014. Quantitative data were collected via a 48-item Internet questionnaire (N = 226), and qualitative data were collected through in-depth telephone interviews (N = 20) and open-ended questions on the Internet questionnaire. Seventy-three per cent of the sample was routine cervical screeners. The results showed that a constellation of factors influence the use of cervical cancer screening among lesbian, bisexual and queer women. Some of those factors overlap with the general female population, whereas others are specific to the lesbian, bisexual or queer identity. Routine screeners reported feeling more welcome in the health care setting, while nonroutine screeners reported more discrimination related to their sexual orientation and gender expression. Routine screeners were also more likely to 'out' to their provider. The quantitative and qualitative factors were also compared and contrasted. Many of the factors identified in this study to influence cervical cancer screening relate to the health care environment and to interactions between the patient and provider. Nurses should be involved with creating welcoming environments for lesbian, bisexual and queer women and their partners. Moreover, nurses play a large role in patient education and should promote self-care behaviours among lesbian women and transgender

  20. Evidence of arterial wall uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose on imaging can indicate recent or future cardiovascular events in high-risk patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulmier, B.; Khayat, R.; Duet, M.; Pierquet-Ghazzar, N.; Maunoury, C.; Sauvaget, E.; Faraggi, M.; Laissy, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    With this study, we sought to identify plaque inflammation as assessed by 18 FDG uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) as an independent cardiovascular risk factor in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. We compared 31 consecutive cancer patients presenting with visually enhanced 18 FDG uptake in arterial walls on PET/CT (Group 1) to a selection of 34 matched cancer patients not showing arterial uptake (Group 2). All patients were followed for two years before and six months after PET/CT... Cardiovascular events were classified as older (>6 months before PET/CT) or recent ( 18 FDG uptake was computed on non-attenuation corrected data by a AW/L ratio: mean Arterial Wall uptake/Lung uptake in a normal area, and by SUV on corrected data. A calcium score (CS) was also calculated. 18 FDG uptake and CS were higher in Group 1 than Group 2 (both p = 0.02), and older and recent cardiovascular events were significantly more frequent in Group 1 than Group 2 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.03. respectively). Among the following parameters: number of conventional risk factor, calcium score and presence of 18 FDG uptake, only the latter was significantly related to the occurrence of a recent event by multivariate analysis (p = 0.02). Patients with elevated arterial 18 FDG uptake have a high risk of immediate or future cardiovascular events. Arterial 18 FDG uptake is an indicator of evolving atherosclerotic process and can indicate future cardiovascular events. (authors)

  1. A prospective multiple case study of the impact of emerging scientific evidence on established colorectal cancer screening programs: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddie, Hannah; Dobrow, Mark J; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Rabeneck, Linda

    2012-06-01

    Health-policy decision making is a complex and dynamic process, for which strong evidentiary support is required. This includes scientifically produced research, as well as information that relates to the context in which the decision takes place. Unlike scientific evidence, this "contextual evidence" is highly variable and often includes information that is not scientifically produced, drawn from sources such as political judgement, program management experience and knowledge, or public values. As the policy decision-making process is variable and difficult to evaluate, it is often unclear how this heterogeneous evidence is identified and incorporated into "evidence-based policy" decisions. Population-based colorectal cancer screening poses an ideal context in which to examine these issues. In Canada, colorectal cancer screening programs have been established in several provinces over the past five years, based on the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or the fecal immunochemical test. However, as these programs develop, new scientific evidence for screening continues to emerge. Recently published randomized controlled trials suggest that the use of flexible sigmoidoscopy for population-based screening may pose a greater reduction in mortality than the FOBT. This raises the important question of how policy makers will address this evidence, given that screening programs are being established or are already in place. This study will examine these issues prospectively and will focus on how policy makers monitor emerging scientific evidence and how both scientific and contextual evidence are identified and applied for decisions about health system improvement. This study will employ a prospective multiple case study design, involving participants from Ontario, Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, and Quebec. In each province, data will be collected via document analysis and key informant interviews. Documents will include policy briefs, reports, meeting minutes, media

  2. Evidence on Synthesized Two-dimensional Mammography Versus Digital Mammography When Using Tomosynthesis (Three-dimensional Mammography) for Population Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat

    2017-09-28

    One limitation of using digital breast tomosynthesis (3-dimensional [3D] mammography) technology with conventional (2-dimensional [2D]) mammography for breast cancer (BC) screening is the increased radiation dose from dual acquisitions. To resolve this problem, synthesized 2D (s2D) reconstruction images similar to 2D mammography were developed using tomosynthesis acquisitions. The present review summarizes the evidence for s2D versus digital mammography (2D) when using tomosynthesis (3D) for BC screening to address whether using s2D instead of 2D (alongside 3D) will yield similar detection measures. Comparative population screening studies have provided consistent evidence that cancer detection rates do not differ between integrated 2D/3D (range, 5.45-8.5/1000 screens) and s2D/3D (range, 5.03-8.8/1000 screens). Also, although the recall measures were relatively heterogeneous across included studies, little difference was found between the 2 modalities. The mean glandular dose for s2D/3D was 55% to 58% of that for 2D/3D. In the context of BC screening, s2D/3D involves substantially less radiation than 2D/3D and provides similar detection measures. Thus, consideration of transitioning to tomosynthesis screening should aim to use s2D/3D to minimize harm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Different transport mechanisms for cadmium and mercury in Caco-2 cells: inhibition of Cd uptake by Hg without evidence for reciprocal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aduayom, Ismaeel; Campbell, Peter G.C.; Denizeau, Francine; Jumarie, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium/Hg interactions have been studied in the TC7 clone of the enterocytic-like Caco-2 cells to test the hypothesis that these metals may compete for intestinal transport. Comparison of the kinetic parameter values for 203 Hg(II) and 109 Cd(II) uptake in a serum-free medium revealed that Hg is accumulated much more rapidly and to higher concentrations. The very rapid uptake/binding step and the initial uptake rate of 109 Cd were both significantly inhibited by an excess of unlabeled Cd or Hg (apparent K i for Hg of 9.3 ± 1.2 μM) without reciprocal effects. 109 Cadmium uptake was highly sensitive to temperature and a significant fraction of accumulation (12%) was EDTA extractable. 203 Hg uptake remained insensitive to temperature or the EDTA washing procedure. However, the uptake of both tracers was half-decreased when an excess of the respective unlabeled metal was added in the stop solution, suggesting an exchange mechanism for adsorption. Cell pretreatment with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) led to a 30% decrease or a 73% increase in the 3-min specific transport of 109 Cd when NEM was still present in or removed from the uptake medium, respectively. NEM had no effect on 203 Hg uptake. Overall our results suggest the involvement of a saturable specific mechanism for Cd, which is highly sensitive to inhibition by Hg and NEM under some conditions, and a nonspecific passive diffusion for Hg. The Hg- or NEM-induced inhibition of Cd uptake likely involves a thiol-mediated reaction, but our results suggest that NEM pretreatment may activate other cellular mechanisms leading to a stimulatory effect

  4. Rapid screening of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in urine samples using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Petinal, Carmen; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria; Cela, Rafael

    2005-07-01

    In this paper a solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) method is proposed for a rapid analysis of some frequently prescribed selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI)-venlafaxine, fluvoxamine, mirtazapine, fluoxetine, citalopram, and sertraline-in urine samples. The SPME-based method enables simultaneous determination of the target SSRI after simple in-situ derivatization of some of the target compounds. Calibration curves in water and in urine were validated and statistically compared. This revealed the absence of matrix effect and, in consequence, the possibility of quantifying SSRI in urine samples by external water calibration. Intra-day and inter-day precision was satisfactory for all the target compounds (relative standard deviation, RSD, detection limits achieved were detected and tentatively identified.

  5. Cervical cancer screening and adherence to follow-up among Hispanic women study protocol: a randomized controlled trial to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duggan Catherine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the US, Hispanic women have a higher incidence of, and mortality from, cervical cancer than non-Hispanic white women. The reason for this disparity may be attributable to both low rates of screening and poor adherence to recommended diagnostic follow-up after an abnormal Pap test. The 'Cervical Cancer Screening and Adherence to Follow-up Among Hispanic Women' study is a collaboration between a research institution and community partners made up of members from community based organizations, the Yakima Valley Farm Workers Clinic and the Breast, Cervical, and Colon Health Program of the Yakima District . The study will assess the efficacy of two culturally-appropriate, tailored educational programs designed to increase cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women, based in the Yakima Valley, Washington, US. Methods/design A parallel randomized-controlled trial of 600 Hispanic women aged 21–64, who are non-compliant with Papanicolau (Pap test screening guidelines. Participants will be randomized using block randomization to (1 a control arm (usual care; (2 a low-intensity information program, consisting of a Spanish-language video that educates women on the importance of cervical cancer screening; or (3 a high-intensity program consisting of the video plus a ‘promotora’ or lay-community health educator-led, home based intervention to encourage cervical cancer screening. Participants who attend cervical cancer screening, and receive a diagnosis of an abnormal Pap test will be assigned to a patient navigator who will provide support and information to promote adherence to follow-up tests, and any necessary surgery or treatment. Primary endpoint: Participants will be tracked via medical record review at community-based clinics, to identify women who have had a Pap test within 7 months of baseline assessment. Medical record reviewers will be blinded to randomization arm. Secondary endpoint: An evaluation of the patient

  6. Trauma activation patients: evidence for routine alcohol and illicit drug screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Michael Dunham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistics from the National Trauma Data Bank imply that discretionary blood alcohol and urine drug testing is common. However, there is little evidence to determine which patients are appropriate for routine testing, based on information available at trauma center arrival. In 2002, Langdorf reported alcohol and illicit drug rates in Trauma Activation Patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is a retrospective investigation of alcohol and illicit drug rates in consecutive St. Elizabeth Health Center (SEHC trauma patients. SEHC Trauma Activation Patients are compared with the Langdorf Activation Patients and with the SEHC Trauma Nonactivation Patients. Minimum Rates are positive tests divided by total patients (tested and not tested. Activation patients: The minimum alcohol rates were: SEHC 23.1%, Langdorf 28.2%, combined 24.8%. The minimum illicit drug rates were: SEHC 15.7%, Langdorf 23.5, combined 18.3%. The minimum alcohol and/or illicit drug rates were: SEHC 33.4%, Langdorf 41.8%, combined 36.2%. Nonactivation patients: The SEHC minimum alcohol rate was 4.7% and the minimum illicit drug rate was 6.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and illicit drug rates were significantly greater for Trauma Activation Patients, when compared to Nonactivation Patients. At minimum, Trauma Activation Patients are likely to have a 1-in-3 positive test for alcohol and/or an illicit drug. This substantial rate suggests that Trauma Activation Patients, a readily discernible group at trauma center arrival, are appropriate for routine alcohol and illicit drug testing. However, discretionary testing is more reasonable for Trauma Nonactivation Patients, because minimum rates are low.

  7. Using Evidence-Based Interventions to Improve Cancer Screening in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, Amy; Carter, Aundrea; Kenney, Kristy; Myles, Zachary; Melillo, Stephanie; Royalty, Janet; Rice, Ketra; Gressard, Lindsay; Miller, Jacqueline W

    2016-01-01

    The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides cancer screening to low-income, un-, and underinsured women through more than 11 000 primary care clinics. The program is well-positioned to work with health systems to implement evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to increase screening among all women. To collect baseline data on EBI use, evaluation of EBIs, and related training needs among NBCCEDP grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a Web-based survey in late 2013 among NBCCEDP grantees for the period July 2012 to June 2013. This was the first systematic assessment of EBIs among NBCCEDP grantees. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's NBCCEDP. Primarily program directors/coordinators for all 67 NBCCEDP grantees. Data captured were used to assess implementation of 5 EBIs, their evaluation, and related training needs. Frequencies and proportions were determined. Cluster analysis identified grantees with similar patterns of EBI use for NBCCEDP clients and providers. On average, 4.1 of 5 EBIs were implemented per grantee for NBCCEDP clients and providers. Four clusters were identified including "high overall EBI users," "high provider EBI users," "high EBI users with no provider assessment and feedback," and "high client EBI users." Only 1.8 EBIs were implemented, on average, with non-NBCCEDP clients and providers. Fewer than half (n = 32, 47.8%) of grantees conducted process or outcome evaluation of 1 or more EBIs. Overall, 47.6% of grantees reported high or medium training needs for client-oriented EBIs and 54.3% for provider-oriented EBIs. The NBCCEDP grantees are implementing EBIs extensively with clients and providers. Increased EBI use among non-NBCCEDP clients/providers is needed to extend the NBCCEDP's reach and impact. Grantee training and technical assistance is necessary across EBIs. In addition, grantees' use of process and outcome evaluation of EBI implementation must be increased

  8. Selective information seeking: can consumers' avoidance of evidence-based information on colorectal cancer screening be explained by the theory of cognitive dissonance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence-based patient information (EBPI is a prerequisite for informed decision-making. However, presentation of EBPI may lead to irrational reactions causing avoidance, minimisation and devaluation of the information. Objective: To explore whether the theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making and useful to explain these phenomena. Setting and participants: 261 volunteers from Hamburg (157 women, ≥50 years old without diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Design and variables: Within an experiment we simulated information seeking on colorectal cancer screening. Consumers’ attitudes towards screening were surveyed using a rating scale from -5 (participate in no way to +5 (participate unconditionally (independent variable. Using a cover story, participants were asked to sort 5 article headlines according to their reading preferences. The headlines simulated the pro to contra variety of contents to be found in print media about colorectal cancer screening. The dependent variable was the sequence of article headlines. Results: Participants were very much in favour of screening with scores for faecal occult blood test of 4.0 (0.1 and for colonoscopy 3.3 (0.1. According to our hypothesis we found statistically significant positive correlations between the stimuli in favour of screening and attitudes and significant negative correlations between the stimuli against screening and attitudes. Conclusion: The theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making. It may explain some phenomena of irrational reactions to evidence-based patient information.

  9. Selective information seeking: can consumers' avoidance of evidence-based information on colorectal cancer screening be explained by the theory of cognitive dissonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckelberg, Anke; Kasper, Jürgen; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2007-08-27

    Evidence-based patient information (EBPI) is a prerequisite for informed decision-making. However, presentation of EBPI may lead to irrational reactions causing avoidance, minimisation and devaluation of the information. To explore whether the theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making and useful to explain these phenomena. 261 volunteers from Hamburg (157 women), >or=50 years old without diagnosis of colorectal cancer. DESIGN AND VARIABLES: Within an experiment we simulated information seeking on colorectal cancer screening. Consumers' attitudes towards screening were surveyed using a rating scale from -5 (participate in no way) to +5 (participate unconditionally) (independent variable). Using a cover story, participants were asked to sort 5 article headlines according to their reading preferences. The headlines simulated the pro to contra variety of contents to be found in print media about colorectal cancer screening. The dependent variable was the sequence of article headlines. Participants were very much in favour of screening with scores for faecal occult blood test of 4.0 (0.1) and for colonoscopy 3.3 (0.1). According to our hypothesis we found statistically significant positive correlations between the stimuli in favour of screening and attitudes and significant negative correlations between the stimuli against screening and attitudes. The theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making. It may explain some phenomena of irrational reactions to evidence-based patient information.

  10. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  11. Evidence for increased cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate in the rat hippocampus during kainic acid seizures. A microdialysis study using the "indicator diffusion' method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, T; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Using a newly developed technique, based on microdialysis, which allows cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate to be studied in awake animals, we investigated uptake of glutamate and aspartate in the hippocampal formation of rats during limbic seizures induced by systemical administration of ....... The results indicate that during KA-induced seizures, uptake of glutamate and aspartate is increased, possibly aimed at maintaining the extracellular homeostasis of these two excitatory amino acids.......Using a newly developed technique, based on microdialysis, which allows cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate to be studied in awake animals, we investigated uptake of glutamate and aspartate in the hippocampal formation of rats during limbic seizures induced by systemical administration...... of kainic acid (KA). With [14C]mannitol as an extracellular reference substance, the cellular extraction of the test substance [3H]D-aspartate was measured at different stages of seizure-activity. The results were compared to those obtained in a sham operated control group. During severe generalized clonic...

  12. Application of Fragment Ion Information as Further Evidence in Probabilistic Compound Screening Using Bayesian Statistics and Machine Learning: A Leap Toward Automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldegebriel, M.; Zomer, P.; Mol, H.G.J.; Vivó-Truyols, G.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce an automated, efficient, and elegant model to combine all pieces of evidence (e.g., expected retention times, peak shapes, isotope distributions, fragment-to-parent ratio) obtained from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS/MS) data for screening

  13. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E; Hall, Seth E; Wieland, Jamie R; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C; Mulligan, Christopher C

    2017-06-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Analytical Validation of a Portable Mass Spectrometer Featuring Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for High Throughput Forensic Evidence Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Zachary E.; Traub, Angelica; Fatigante, William L.; Mancias, Jose; O'Leary, Adam E.; Hall, Seth E.; Wieland, Jamie R.; Oberacher, Herbert; Gizzi, Michael C.; Mulligan, Christopher C.

    2017-06-01

    Forensic evidentiary backlogs are indicative of the growing need for cost-effective, high-throughput instrumental methods. One such emerging technology that shows high promise in meeting this demand while also allowing on-site forensic investigation is portable mass spectrometric (MS) instrumentation, particularly that which enables the coupling to ambient ionization techniques. While the benefits of rapid, on-site screening of contraband can be anticipated, the inherent legal implications of field-collected data necessitates that the analytical performance of technology employed be commensurate with accepted techniques. To this end, comprehensive analytical validation studies are required before broad incorporation by forensic practitioners can be considered, and are the focus of this work. Pertinent performance characteristics such as throughput, selectivity, accuracy/precision, method robustness, and ruggedness have been investigated. Reliability in the form of false positive/negative response rates is also assessed, examining the effect of variables such as user training and experience level. To provide flexibility toward broad chemical evidence analysis, a suite of rapidly-interchangeable ion sources has been developed and characterized through the analysis of common illicit chemicals and emerging threats like substituted phenethylamines. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. What are GPs' preferences for financial and non-financial incentives in cancer screening? Evidence for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicsic, Jonathan; Krucien, Nicolas; Franc, Carine

    2016-10-01

    General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in the delivery of preventive and screening services for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. In practice, GPs' involvement varies considerably across types of cancer and among GPs, raising important questions about the determinants of GPs' implication in screening activities: what is the relative impact of financial and non-financial incentives? Are GPs' preferences for financial and non-financial incentives cancer-specific? Is there preference heterogeneity and how much does it differ according to the screening context? This study investigates the determinants of GPs' involvement in cancer screening activities using the discrete choice experiment (DCE) methodology. A representative sample of 402 GPs' was recruited in France between March and April 2014. Marginal rates of substitution were used to compare GPs' preferences for being involved in screening activities across three types of cancers: breast, cervical, and colorectal. Variability of preferences was investigated using Hierarchical Bayes mixed logit models. The results indicate that GPs are sensitive to both financial and non-financial incentives, such as a compensated training and systematic transmission of information about screened patients, aimed to facilitate communication between doctors and patients. There is also evidence that the level and variability of preferences differ across screening contexts, although the variations are not statistically significant on average. GPs appear to be relatively more sensitive to financial incentives for being involved in colorectal cancer screening, whereas they have higher and more heterogeneous preferences for non-financial incentives in breast and cervical cancers. Our study provides new findings for policymakers interested in prioritizing levers to increase the supply of cancer screening services in general practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evidence to modify guidelines for routine retinopathy of prematurity screening to avoid childhood blindness in middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Paolah Meraz-Gutiérrez

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: These findings show that the valid guidelines at the time of the screening were based on a different population and were not sufficient to detect all ROP cases in a middle-income country. With the update of the Mexican guidelines established in July 2015, the patients from this study would have been screened. Therefore, review and modification of the current screening guidelines in other middle-income countries should be considered to include all babies at risk for ROP.

  17. HPV vaccination among French girls and women aged 14-23 years and the relationship with their mothers' uptake of Pap smear screening: a study in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutringer-Magnin, D; Cropet, C; Barone, G; Canat, G; Kalecinski, J; Leocmach, Y; Vanhems, P; Chauvin, F; Lasset, C

    2013-10-25

    HPV vaccination is recommended in France for girls aged 14 and for those aged 15-23 before sexual debut or who have become sexually active within the previous year. The first aim was to describe vaccination practice among 14-23-year-old girls visiting a general practitioner. A second objective was to investigate factors associated with starting vaccination among girls aged 14-18, in particular the regular practice of Pap-smear screening (PSS) by their mothers. A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to August 2009. A total of 87 general practitioners from the large Rhône-Alpes region contributed data on 502 girls/women who came for consultation. 231 (46.0%) of these girls/women had begun the process of HPV vaccination (68.2%, 56.9% and 18.7% of the 14-16, 17-20 and 21-23-year-olds respectively) of whom 139 (60.2%) had received all three doses. 92 girls/women (39.8%) had received only one or two doses at the time of study. However, in 71 (77.2%) cases, the gap between the last dose received and the time of study was within the between-dose interval recommended in the vaccination schedule. GPs reported that 16 (11.5%) had mentioned side effects following injections. Having a mother who practised regular PSS (Odds Ratio 6.2 [1.5-25.8]), having never lived with a partner (4.6 [1.6-13.5]) and vaccination against hepatitis B (3.2 [1.6-6.1]) were found to be independently correlated with the initiation of HPV vaccination among girls/women aged 14-18 years. Two years after the start of the programme, only half of girls/women aged 14-23 years had begun the process of HPV vaccination. HPV vaccination status was correlated with PSS in the mother, family status and hepatitis B vaccination. Such information may help to better target girls who are less likely to be vaccinated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction of 125I-labeled botulinum neurotoxins with nerve terminals. II. Autoradiographic evidence for its uptake into motor nerves by acceptor-mediated endocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.D.; Dolly, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    Using pharmacological and autoradiographic techniques it has been shown that botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is translocated across the motor nerve terminal membrane to reach a postulated intraterminal target. In the present study, the nature of this uptake process was investigated using electron microscopic autoradiography. It was found that internalization is acceptor-mediated and that binding to specific cell surface acceptors involves the heavier chain of the toxin. In addition, uptake was shown to be energy and temperature-dependent and to be accelerated by nerve stimulation, a treatment which also shortens the time course of the toxin-induced neuroparalysis. These results, together with the observation that silver grains were often associated with endocytic structures within the nerve terminal, suggested that acceptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for toxin uptake. Possible recycling of BoNT acceptors (an important aspect of acceptor-mediated endocytosis of toxins) at motor nerve terminals was indicated by comparing the extent of labeling in the presence and absence of metabolic inhibitors. On the basis of these collective results, it is concluded that BoNT is internalized by acceptor-mediated endocytosis and, hence, the data support the proposal that this toxin inhibits release of acetylcholine by interaction with an intracellular target

  19. Evidence for compromised metabolic function and limited glucose uptake in spermatozoa from the teratospermic domestic cat (Felis catus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Kimberly A; Wildt, David E; Anthony, Nicola M; Bavister, Barry D; Leibo, Stanley P; Penfold, Linda M; Marker, Laurie L; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2010-11-01

    Cheetahs and certain other felids consistently ejaculate high proportions (≥ 60%) of malformed spermatozoa, a condition known as teratospermia, which is prevalent in humans. Even seemingly normal spermatozoa from domestic cat teratospermic ejaculates have reduced fertilizing capacity. To understand the role of sperm metabolism in this phenomenon, we conducted a comparative study in the normospermic domestic cat versus the teratospermic cat and cheetah with the general hypothesis that sperm metabolic function is impaired in males producing predominantly pleiomorphic spermatozoa. Washed ejaculates were incubated in chemically defined medium containing glucose and pyruvate. Uptake of glucose and pyruvate and production of lactate were assessed using enzyme-linked fluorescence assays. Spermatozoa from domestic cats and cheetahs exhibited similar metabolic profiles, with minimal glucose metabolism and approximately equimolar rates of pyruvate uptake and lactate production. Compared to normospermic counterparts, pyruvate and lactate metabolism were reduced in teratospermic cat and cheetah ejaculates, even when controlling for sperm motility. Rates of pyruvate and lactate (but not glucose) metabolism were correlated positively with sperm motility, acrosomal integrity, and normal morphology. Collectively, our findings reveal that pyruvate uptake and lactate production are reliable, quantitative indicators of sperm quality in these two felid species and that metabolic function is impaired in teratospermic ejaculates. Furthermore, patterns of substrate utilization are conserved between these species, including the unexpected lack of exogenous glucose metabolism. Because glycolysis is required to support sperm motility and capacitation in certain other mammals (including dogs), the activity of this pathway in felid spermatozoa is a target for future investigation.

  20. Effect of thyroxine on cellular oxygen-consumption and glucose uptake: evidence of an effect of total T4 and not "free T4"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of cellular T4 and T3 uptake have indicated active transport of the hormones into the cell rather than passive diffusion of the non-protein bound fraction. In order to study the significance of the extracellular environment, oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined...... in human mononuclear blood cells. Cells were incubated in protein free medium and in human serum totally depleted of thyroid hormones by resin treatment and fixed amounts of T4 (total T4 = 0-50-100-5000 nmol/l; free T4 = 0-5-11-5600 pmol/l) were added. Thyroxine stimulated glucose uptake and oxygen......-consumption in a dose dependent manner but the T4 stimulation was dependent on the total concentration of T4 and did not differ between serum incubation or non-protein containing medium. Addition of ANS (100 mg/l) which inhibits binding of T4 to TBG, did not increase T4 effect in serum. Inhibition of the Na...

  1. Evidence-based investigation of the influence of computer-aided detection of polyps on screening of colon cancer with CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC), also known as virtual colonoscopy, is a CT examination of the colon for colorectal neoplasms. Recent large-scale clinical trials have demonstrated that CTC yields sensitivity comparable to optical colonoscopy in the detection of clinically significant polyps in a screening population, making CTC a promising technique for screening of colon cancer. For CTC to be a clinically practical means of screening, it must reliably and consistently detect polyps with high accuracy. However, high-level expertise is required to interpret the resulting CT images to find polyps, resulting in variable diagnostic accuracy among radiologists in the detection of polyps. A key technology to overcome this problem and to bring CTC to prime time for screening of colorectal cancer is computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps. CAD automatically detects the locations of suspicious polyps in CTC images and presents them to radiologists. CAD has the potential to increase diagnostic performance in the detection of polyps as well as to reduce variability of the diagnostic accuracy among radiologists. This paper presents an evidence-based investigation of the influence of CAD on screening of colon cancer with CTC by describing the benefits of using CAD in the diagnosis of CTC, the fundamental CAD scheme for the detection of polyps in CTC, its detection performance, the effect on the improvement of detection performance, as well as the current and future challenges in CAD. (author)

  2. Synthetic peptides corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH)-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induce uptake of 45Ca++ by liposomes: evidence for calcium-conducting transmembrane channel formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, P.; Santa-Coloma, T.A.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. (Department of Biochemistry, Albany Medical College, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-06-01

    We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated influx of 45Ca++ in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via activation of voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. We have further shown that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein or activation of adenylate cyclase. In the present study, we have identified regions of human FSH-beta-subunit which appear to be involved in mediating calcium influx. We screened 11 overlapping peptide amides representing the entire primary structure of hFSH-beta-subunit for their effects on 45Ca++ flux in FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induced uptake of 45Ca++ in a concentration-related manner. This effect of hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) was also observed in liposomes lacking incorporated FSH receptor. Reducing membrane fluidity by incubating liposomes (containing no receptor) with hFSH-beta-(1-15) or hFSH-beta-(51-65) at temperatures lower than the transition temperatures of their constituent phospholipids resulted in no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference in 45Ca++ uptake. The effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187, however, was abolished. Ruthenium red, a voltage-independent calcium channel antagonist, was able to completely block uptake of 45Ca++ induced by hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) whereas nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker specific for L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, was without effect. These results suggest that in addition to its effect on voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, interaction of FSH with its receptor may induce formation of transmembrane aqueous channels which also facilitate influx of extracellular calcium.

  3. In vitro and in vivo evidence for active brain uptake of the GHB analogue HOCPCA by the monocarboxylate transporter subtype 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiesen, Louise; Kehler, Jan; Clausen, Rasmus P

    2015-01-01

    and in vivo, and to investigate the hypothesis that HOCPCA, like GHB, is a substrate for the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). For in vitro uptake studies, MCT1, 2 and 4 were recombinantly expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the previously reported radioligand [(3)H]HOCPCA was used (as substrate......). HOCPCA inhibited the uptake of the endogenous MCT substrate L-[(14)C]lactate, and [(3)H]HOCPCA was shown to act as substrate for MCT1 and 2 (Km values in the low millimolar range). Introducing single point amino acid mutations into positions essential for MCT function supported that HOCPCA binds...... to the endogenous substrate pocket of MCTs. MCT1-mediated brain entry of HOCPCA (10 mg/kg s.c.) was further confirmed in vivo in mice by co-administration of increasing doses of the MCT inhibitor [(R)-5-(3-hydroxypyrrolidine-1-carbonyl)-1-isobutyl-3-methyl-6-(quinolin-4-ylmethyl)thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H...

  4. Seasonal changes in food uptake by the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond: Evidence from C and N stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenlong; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Shin, Paul K. S.; Wang, Fang

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the seasonal changes in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope values of several typical food sources of Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond, including particulate organic matter (POM), macroalgae, benthic microalgae and animals such as nematode and copepod. The stable isotope technique was used to quantify relative contributions of various sources to the food uptake by A. japonicus. The results showed that significant changes occurred in the C and N stable isotope values of sea cucumber food sources due to the seasonality of micro- or macroalgae prosperity and the fluctuation of environmental conditions. The sea cucumber A. japonicus exhibited corresponding alterations in feeding strategy in response to the changes in food conditions. Calculation with a stable isotope mixing model showed that macroalgae was the principal food source for A. japonicus throughout the 1-yr investigation, with the relative contribution averaging 28.1%-63.2%. The relative contributions of other food sources such as copepod and nematode, POM, benthic microalgae to the total food uptake by sea cucumber averaged 22.6%-39.1%, 6.3% -22.2%, 2.8%-6.5%, and 2.8%-4.2%, respectively. Together these results indicated that the seasonal changes in food sources led to the obvious temporal differences in the relative contribution of various food sources utilized by A. japonicus. Such findings provide the basic scientific information for improving the aquaculture techniques of A. japonicus, particularly for optimizing the food environment of A. japonicus culture in farm ponds.

  5. Evidence for a dihydropyridine-sensitive and conotoxin-insensitive release of noradrenaline and uptake of calcium in adrenal chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, P. J.; Marriott, D. B.; Boarder, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    1. It has been suggested that neuronal voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) may be divided into dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive (L) and DHP-insensitive (N and T), and that both the L and the N type channels are attenuated by the peptide blocker omega-conotoxin. Here the effects of omega-conotoxin on release of noradrenaline and uptake of calcium in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells were investigated. 2. Release of noradrenaline in response to 25 mM K+, 65 mM K+, 10 nM bradykinin or 10 microM prostaglandin E1 was not affected by omega-conotoxin in the range 10 nM-1 microM. 3. 45Ca2+ uptake stimulated by high K+ and prostaglandin was attenuated by 1 microM nitrendipine and enhanced by 1 microM Bay K 8644; these calcium fluxes were not modified by 20 nM omega-conotoxin. 4. With superfused rat brain striatal slices in the same medium as the above cell studies, release of dopamine in response to 25 mM K+ was attenuated by 20 nM omega-conotoxin. 5. These results show that in these neurone-like cells, release may be effected by calcium influx through DHP-sensitive but omega-conotoxin-insensitive VSCC, a result inconsistent with the suggestion that omega-conotoxin blocks both L-type and N-type neuronal calcium channels. PMID:2470457

  6. Can colorectal cancer mass-screening organization be evidence-based? Lessons from failures: The experimental and pilot phases of the Lazio program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Sabrina

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening programmes should be organized to translate theoretical efficacy into effectiveness. An evidence-based organizational model of colorectal cancer screening (CRCS should assure feasibility and high compliance. Methods A multidisciplinary Working Group (WG, reviewed literature and guidelines to define evidence-based recommendations. The WG identified the need for further local studies: physicians' CRCS attitudes, the effect of test type and provider on compliance, and individual reasons for non-compliance. A survey of digestive endoscopy services was conducted. A feasibility study on a target population of 300.000 has begun. Results Based on the results of population trials and on literature review the screening strategy adopted was Faecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT every two years for 50–74 year olds and, for positives, colonoscopy. The immunochemical test was chosen because it has 20% higher compliance than the Guaiac. GPs were chosen as the preferred provider also for higher compliance. Since we observed that distance is the major determinant of non-compliance, we choose GPs because they are the closest providers, both geographically and emotionally, to the public. The feasibility study showed several barriers: GP participation was low, there were administrative problems to involve GPs; opportunistic testing by the GPs; difficulties in access to Gastroenterology centres; difficulties in gathering colonoscopy results; little time given to screening activity by the gastroenterology centre. Conclusion The feasibility study highlighted several limits of the model. Most of the barriers that emerged were consequences of organisational choices not supported by evidence. The principal limit was a lack of accountability by the participating centres.

  7. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    : The main limitation of this report is that we relied only on published results. Most of research has been conducted in countries other than Germany. The fulfilment of the criteria for introduction of screening depends on contextual factors. More data from Germany are needed in order to answer the main questions concerning acceptance, use of selection criteria to identify subgroups and economical aspects of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in Germany. Conclusions: The criteria for introduction of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis are partially fulfilled. The available evidence indicates that the success of a screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis will depend on the implementation of strategies for uptake enhancement and probably on the participation of men as well. A pilot project should be conducted in order to assess cost-effectiveness, acceptance and feasibility of different screening strategies in Germany. On the light of the available evidence, the inclusion of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in the benefit basket without embedding it in a multifaceted programme targeting primary prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and participation in screening cannot be recommende.

  8. Structural Validity of the MACI Psychopathy and Narcissism Scales: Evidence of Multidimensionality and Implications for Use in Research and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Da Silva, Kimberley S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties and predictive validity of three self-report scales (the Psychopathy Content Scale, the Psychopathy-16 scale, and the Egotistic scale) derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) to screen for the presence of psychopathic and narcissistic personality characteristics. Exploratory…

  9. Seasonal Changes in Food Uptake by the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in a Farm Pond: Evidence from C and N Stable Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhenlong; GAO Qinfeng; DONG Shuanglin; Paul K.S. Shin; WANG Fang

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the seasonal changes in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope values of several typical food sources of Apostichopus japonicus in a farm pond,including particulate organic matter (POM),macroalgae,benthic microalgae and animals such as nematode and copepod.The stable isotope technique was used to quantify relative contributions of various sources to the food uptake by A.japonicus.The results showed that significant changes occurred in the C and N stable isotope values of sea cucumber food sources due to the seasonality of micro-or macroalgae prosperity and the fluctuation of environmental conditions.The sea cucumber A.japonicus exhibited corresponding alterations in feeding strategy in response to the changes in food conditions.Calculation with a stable isotope mixing model showed that macroalgae was the principal food source for A.japonicus throughout the 1-yr investigation,with the relative contribution averaging 28.1%-63.2%.The relative contributions of other food sources such as copepod and nematode,POM,benthic microalgae to the total food uptake by sea cucumber averaged 22.6%-39.1%,6.3%-22.2%,2.8%-6.5%,and 2.8%-4.2%,respectively.Together these results indicated that the seasonal changes in food sources led to the obvious temporal differences in the relative contribution of various food sources utilized by A.japonicus.Such findings provide the basic scientific information for improving the aquaculture techniques of A.japonicus,particularly for optimizing the food environment of A.japonicus culture in farm ponds.

  10. Cervical screening in HPV-vaccinated populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfell, K

    2018-06-01

    Cervical screening with cytology has been the basis for substantial reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in most high-income countries over the last few decades. More recently, there have been two key, parallel developments which have prompted a major re-consideration of cervical screening. The first is the emergence of evidence on the improved sensitivity of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing compared to cytology, and the second is the large-scale deployment of prophylactic vaccination against HPV. A key challenge to be overcome before HPV screening could be introduced into national cervical screening programs was the specificity of an infection, for detection of precancerous lesions. This has been done in three ways: (1) by considering the appropriate age for starting HPV screening (30 years in unvaccinated populations and 25 years in populations with mature vaccination programs and high vaccine uptake) and the appropriate screening interval; (2) via development of clinical HPV tests, which are (by design) not as sensitive to low viral loads; and (3) by introducing effective triaging for HPV-positive women, which further risk-stratifies women before referral for diagnostic evaluation. This review discusses these major developments and describes how the benefits of HPV screening are being optimized in both unvaccinated and vaccinated populations.

  11. Four-hour quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based comprehensive chromosome screening and accumulating evidence of accuracy, safety, predictive value, and clinical efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treff, Nathan R; Scott, Richard T

    2013-03-15

    Embryonic comprehensive chromosomal euploidy may represent a powerful biomarker to improve the success of IVF. However, there are a number of aneuploidy screening strategies to consider, including different technologic platforms with which to interrogate the embryonic DNA, and different embryonic developmental stages from which DNA can be analyzed. Although there are advantages and disadvantages associated with each strategy, a series of experiments producing evidence of accuracy, safety, clinical predictive value, and clinical efficacy indicate that trophectoderm biopsy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) may represent a useful strategy to improve the success of IVF. This Biomarkers in Reproductive Medicine special issue review summarizes the accumulated experience with the development and clinical application of a 4-hour blastocyst qPCR-based CCS technology. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrating evidence-based practices for increasing cancer screenings in safety net health systems: a multiple case study using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuting; Kegler, Michelle C; Cotter, Megan; Emily, Phillips; Beasley, Derrick; Hermstad, April; Morton, Rentonia; Martinez, Jeremy; Riehman, Kara

    2016-08-02

    Implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) to increase cancer screenings in safety net primary care systems has great potential for reducing cancer disparities. Yet there is a gap in understanding the factors and mechanisms that influence EBP implementation within these high-priority systems. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), our study aims to fill this gap with a multiple case study of health care safety net systems that were funded by an American Cancer Society (ACS) grants program to increase breast and colorectal cancer screening rates. The initiative funded 68 safety net systems to increase cancer screening through implementation of evidence-based provider and client-oriented strategies. Data are from a mixed-methods evaluation with nine purposively selected safety net systems. Fifty-two interviews were conducted with project leaders, implementers, and ACS staff. Funded safety net systems were categorized into high-, medium-, and low-performing cases based on the level of EBP implementation. Within- and cross-case analyses were performed to identify CFIR constructs that influenced level of EBP implementation. Of 39 CFIR constructs examined, six distinguished levels of implementation. Two constructs were from the intervention characteristics domain: adaptability and trialability. Three were from the inner setting domain: leadership engagement, tension for change, and access to information and knowledge. Engaging formally appointed internal implementation leaders, from the process domain, also distinguished level of implementation. No constructs from the outer setting or individual characteristics domain differentiated systems by level of implementation. Our study identified a number of influential CFIR constructs and illustrated how they impacted EBP implementation across a variety of safety net systems. Findings may inform future dissemination efforts of EBPs for increasing cancer screening in similar settings. Moreover

  13. Application of Fragment Ion Information as Further Evidence in Probabilistic Compound Screening Using Bayesian Statistics and Machine Learning: A Leap Toward Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldegebriel, Michael; Zomer, Paul; Mol, Hans G J; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel

    2016-08-02

    In this work, we introduce an automated, efficient, and elegant model to combine all pieces of evidence (e.g., expected retention times, peak shapes, isotope distributions, fragment-to-parent ratio) obtained from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS/MS) data for screening purposes. Combining all these pieces of evidence requires a careful assessment of the uncertainties in the analytical system as well as all possible outcomes. To-date, the majority of the existing algorithms are highly dependent on user input parameters. Additionally, the screening process is tackled as a deterministic problem. In this work we present a Bayesian framework to deal with the combination of all these pieces of evidence. Contrary to conventional algorithms, the information is treated in a probabilistic way, and a final probability assessment of the presence/absence of a compound feature is computed. Additionally, all the necessary parameters except the chromatographic band broadening for the method are learned from the data in training and learning phase of the algorithm, avoiding the introduction of a large number of user-defined parameters. The proposed method was validated with a large data set and has shown improved sensitivity and specificity in comparison to a threshold-based commercial software package.

  14. Diselenolane-mediated cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Nicolas; Poblador-Bahamonde, Amalia I; Zong, Lili; Bartolami, Eline; Hildebrandt, Jana; Weigand, Wolfgang; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    The emerging power of thiol-mediated uptake with strained disulfides called for a move from sulfur to selenium. We report that according to results with fluorescent model substrates, cellular uptake with 1,2-diselenolanes exceeds uptake with 1,2-dithiolanes and epidithiodiketopiperazines with regard to efficiency as well as intracellular localization. The diselenide analog of lipoic acid performs best. This 1,2-diselenolane delivers fluorophores efficiently to the cytosol of HeLa Kyoto cells, without detectable endosomal capture as with 1,2-dithiolanes or dominant escape into the nucleus as with epidithiodiketopiperazines. Diselenolane-mediated cytosolic delivery is non-toxic (MTT assay), sensitive to temperature but insensitive to inhibitors of endocytosis (chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, wortmannin, cytochalasin B) and conventional thiol-mediated uptake (Ellman's reagent), and to serum. Selenophilicity, the extreme CSeSeC dihedral angle of 0° and the high but different acidity of primary and secondary selenols might all contribute to uptake. Thiol-exchange affinity chromatography is introduced as operational mimic of thiol-mediated uptake that provides, in combination with rate enhancement of DTT oxidation, direct experimental evidence for existence and nature of the involved selenosulfides.

  15. Evidence-based information on mammography screening in Austria--reality or more pie in the sky?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rásky, É; Groth, S

    2013-03-01

    Health literacy is gaining increasing importance in prevention and health care. This is the case for patients and for health-care professionals. Information and risk communication should comply with defined criteria and strengthen health literacy as they are a prerequisite for informed decision making. In this study, we analyse the content of the printed information material (brochures and pamphlets) on mammography screening for consumers that were distributed in Austria in 2011. The evaluation of the 11 brochures shows that the content does not comply with the prerequisites for informed decision making. Since the last study - published in 2004 - the situation has only slightly improved. The authors reemphasise the need for a targeted multimodal information campaign. This is particularly important as a systematic national mammography screening program in compliance with the guidelines of the European Commission will be introduced in Austria in 2013. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Prostate-Specific Antigen-Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Joshua J; Weyrich, Meghan S; Durbin, Shauna; Liu, Yu; Bang, Heejung; Melnikow, Joy

    2018-05-08

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among US men. To systematically review evidence on prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based prostate cancer screening, treatments for localized prostate cancer, and prebiopsy risk calculators to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. Searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Registries and Databases from July 1, 2011, through July 15, 2017, with a surveillance search on February 1, 2018. English-language reports of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of screening; cohort studies reporting harms; RCTs and cohort studies of active localized cancer treatments vs conservative approaches (eg, active surveillance, watchful waiting); external validations of prebiopsy risk calculators to identify aggressive cancers. One investigator abstracted data; a second checked accuracy. Two investigators independently rated study quality. Prostate cancer and all-cause mortality; false-positive screening results, biopsy complications, overdiagnosis; adverse effects of active treatments. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted for treatment harms. Sixty-three studies in 104 publications were included (N = 1 904 950). Randomization to PSA screening was not associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer mortality in either a US trial with substantial control group contamination (n = 76 683) or a UK trial with low adherence to a single PSA screen (n = 408 825) but was associated with significantly reduced prostate cancer mortality in a European trial (n = 162 243; relative risk [RR], 0.79 [95% CI, 0.69-0.91]; absolute risk reduction, 1.1 deaths per 10 000 person-years [95% CI, 0.5-1.8]). Of 61 604 men screened in the European trial, 17.8% received false-positive results. In 3 cohorts (n = 15 136), complications requiring hospitalization occurred in 0.5% to 1.6% of men undergoing biopsy after abnormal screening findings. Overdiagnosis was estimated to occur in 20.7% to 50

  17. Use of an evidence-based protocol to screen for sleep-disordered breathing in a heart failure disease management clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Shelby L; Traverse, Ramona D

    2014-01-01

    Undiagnosed and untreated sleep-disordered breathing can lead to negative health outcomes and increased utilization of health resources among patients with heart failure. The purpose of this evidence-based practice project was to implement and evaluate a new multifaceted sleep-disordered breathing screening protocol in a heart failure disease management clinic. The combined use of a symptoms questionnaire, the Epworth sleepiness scale, and overnight pulse oximetry was significantly more effective in identifying patients with a positive diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing than using the Epworth sleepiness scale alone (P < .05).

  18. In vivo fate of a behaviorally potent ACTH 4-9 analog; evidence for its specific uptake in the brain septal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoef, J.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of ACTH-like neuropeptides on conditioned avoidance behavior and their tentative central sites of action are reviewed. The in vivo fate of the [ 3 H]-ACTH 4-9 analog after various routes of peripheral administration in mice and rats are described, in particular, the uptake of intact peptide in the brain is emphasized, since ACTH-like neuropeptides elicit their behavioral activities by directly affecting the central nervous system. Subsequently, the metabolic profiles of the ACTH 4-9 analog in plasma and brain tissue are reported. The distribution of the [ 3 H]-ACTH 4-9 analog throughout the rat brain is studied after intraventricular injection to allow detection in small brain areas and nuclei and to limit (peripheral) proteolysis. Finally, the effects of increased and decreased circulating levels of both ACTH-like peptides and structurally non-related but behaviorally active neuropeptides on the central distribution profile of intraventricularly injected [ 3 H]-ACTH 4-9 analog are reviewed

  19. Determinants in the uptake of the Human Papillomavirus vaccine: a systematic review based on European studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eFernández de Casadevante

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Since 2006, two Human Papillomavirus vaccines (HPVV have been licensed to protect women against the virus that causes cervical cancer. However, worldwide coverage remains unequal. Studies from the USA found strong evidence for differences in HPVV uptake by ethnicity and healthcare coverage. As the profile of ethnic groups and the healthcare system in the USA differ from countries in Europe where HPVV is free in most of the countries, we conducted a systematic review in order to analyze the determinants of HPVV uptake in Europe.Methods We performed a systematic Pubmed, Scopus and Science Direct search to find articles published from HPVV availability in European countries until April 2014. No age restriction was applied. We included all studies assessing factors associated with HPVV uptake. Uptake refers to either initiation and/or completion of the three dose vaccination program. Results Out of the 23 eligible studies, 14 were retrospective reviews of data, six were cross-sectional surveys and three were prospective cohort studies. Higher HPVV uptake was associated with ethnic majority populations, higher socio-economic status, regular cervical screening participation by the mother and having received previous childhood vaccinations.Conclusions Since the vaccine is offered for free in most of the European countries, the findings suggest that ethno-cultural and educational factors play an important role when it comes to HPVV uptake. Girls who were undervaccinated had also a lower uptake of standard childhood vaccines and mothers who were less likely to attend cervical cancer screening. This may indicate, that only few parents have specific concerns with HPVV, and that preventive health care should seek ways to target these vulnerable groups.

  20. Scoring the home falls and accidents screening tool for health professionals (HOME FAST-HP): Evidence from one epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lynette; Byles, Julie

    2018-03-30

    Falls in older people are a major public health concern. To target falls prevention interventions, screening tools need to be able to identify older people at greater risk of falling. This study aimed to investigate the screening capacity of the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool for health professionals (HOME FAST-HP), and to identify the best cut-off score to identify older people at higher risk of falls using the HOME FAST-HP. The study used cross-sectional data from a random sample of 650 women from the 1921 to 1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Selected women were sent a postal survey including the HOME FAST-HP, falls history, and other health factors. Scores on the home fast were calculated and the cut-point for optimal sensitivity and specificity of the HOME FAST-HP in relation to falls was assessed using a Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. A total of 567 older women participated (response rate 87%). The mean age of participants was 77.5 yrs (95% CI 77.31-77.70). A total of 153 participants (27%) reported a fall in the previous six months. The mean number of hazards using the HOME FAST-HP was 9.74 (95% CI 9.48-10.01), range 2-22. Non-fallers had a mean of 9.6 hazards (95% CI 9.32-9.91) and fallers had a mean of 10.63 hazards (95% CI 10.08-11.19) which was a significant difference (t = 3.41, P = 0.001). The area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) was 0.58 (95% CI 0.53-0.64). A HOME FAST-HP cut-off score of 9 was associated with the optimal sensitivity for falls (73.9%), with specificity (37.9%), and positive predictive value was 30.6% and negative predictive value was 79.7%. The HOME FAST-HP can be used as a screening tool to identify fallers with a cut-off score of nine indicating a higher risk of falling. © 2018 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  1. Histochemical evidence for the differential surface labeling, uptake, and intracellular transport of a colloidal gold-labeled insulin complex by normal human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, G A; Wolken, K W

    1981-10-01

    A colloidal gold-labeled insulin-bovine serum albumin (GIA) reagent has been developed for the ultrastructural visualization of insulin binding sites on the cell surface and for tracing the pathway of intracellular insulin translocation. When applied to normal human blood cells, it was demonstrated by both visual inspection and quantitative analysis that the extent of surface labeling, as well as the rate and degree of internalization of the insulin complex, was directly related to cell type. Further, the pathway of insulin (GIA) transport via round vesicles and by tubulo-vesicles and saccules and its subsequent fate in the hemic cells was also related to cell variety. Monocytes followed by neutrophils bound the greatest amount of labeled insulin. The majority of lymphocytes bound and internalized little GIA, however, between 5-10% of the lymphocytes were found to bind considerable quantities of GIA. Erythrocytes rarely bound the labeled insulin complex, while platelets were noted to sequester large quantities of the GIA within their extracellular canalicular system. GIA uptake by the various types of leukocytic cells appeared to occur primarily by micropinocytosis and by the direct opening of cytoplasmic tubulo-vesicles and saccules onto the cell surface in regions directly underlying surface-bound GIA. Control procedures, viz., competitive inhibition of GIA labeling using an excess of unlabeled insulin in the incubation medium, preincubation of the GIA reagent with an antibody directed toward porcine insulin, and the incorporation of 125I-insulin into the GIA reagent, indicated the specificity and selectivity of the GIA histochemical procedure for the localization of insulin binding sites.

  2. Histochemical evidence for the differential surface labeling, uptake, and intracellular transport of a colloidal gold-labeled insulin complex by normal human blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, G.A.; Wolken, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    A colloidal gold-labeled insulin-bovine serum albumin (GIA) reagent has been developed for the ultrastructural visualization of insulin binding sites on the cell surface and for tracing the pathway of intracellular insulin translocation. When applied to normal human blood cells, it was demonstrated by both visual inspection and quantitative analysis that the extent of surface labeling, as well as the rate and degree of internalization of the insulin complex, was directly related to cell type. Further, the pathway of insulin (GIA) transport via round vesicles and by tubulo-vesicles and saccules and its subsequent fate in the hemic cells was also related to cell variety. Monocytes followed by neutrophils bound the greatest amount of labeled insulin. The majority of lymphocytes bound and internalized little GIA, however, between 5-10% of the lymphocytes were found to bind considerable quantities of GIA. Erythrocytes rarely bound the labeled insulin complex, while platelets were noted to sequester large quantities of the GIA within their extracellular canalicular system. GIA uptake by the various types of leukocytic cells appeared to occur primarily by micropinocytosis and by the direct opening of cytoplasmic tubulo-vesicles and saccules onto the cell surface in regions directly underlying surface-bound GIA. Control procedures, viz., competitive inhibition of GIA labeling using an excess of unlabeled insulin in the incubation medium, preincubation of the GIA reagent with an antibody directed toward porcine insulin, and the incorporation of 125I-insulin into the GIA reagent, indicated the specificity and selectivity of the GIA histochemical procedure for the localization of insulin binding sites

  3. Evidence for the functional involvement of members of the TRP channel family in the uptake of Na(+) and NH4 (+) by the ruminal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, Julia; Braun, Hannah S; Schrapers, Katharina T; Martens, Holger; Stumpff, Friederike

    2016-08-01

    Large quantities of protein are degraded in the fermentative parts of the gut to ammonia, which is absorbed, detoxified to urea, and excreted, leading to formation of nitrogenous compounds such as N2O that are associated with global warming. In ruminants, channel-mediated uptake of NH4 (+) from the rumen predominates. The molecular identity of these channels remains to be clarified. Ruminal cells and epithelia from cows and sheep were investigated using patch clamp, Ussing chamber, microelectrode techniques, and qPCR. In patch clamp experiments, bovine ruminal epithelial cells expressed a conductance for NH4 (+) that could be blocked in a voltage-dependent manner by divalent cations. In the native epithelium, NH4 (+) depolarized the apical potential, acidified the cytosol and induced a rise in short-circuit current (I sc) that persisted after the removal of Na(+), was blocked by verapamil, enhanced by the removal of divalent cations, and was sensitive to certain transient receptor potential (TRP) channel modulators. Menthol or thymol stimulated the I sc in Na(+) or NH4 (+) containing solutions in a dose-dependent manner and modulated transepithelial Ca(2+) fluxes. On the level of messenger RNA (mRNA), ovine and bovine ruminal epithelium expressed TRPA1, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM6, and TRPM7, with any expression of TRPV6 marginal. No bands were detected for TRPV1, TRPV5, or TRPM8. Functional and molecular biological data suggest that the transport of NH4 (+), Na(+), and Ca(2+) across the rumen involves TRP channels, with TRPV3 and TRPA1 emerging as prime candidate genes. TRP channels may also contribute to the transport of NH4 (+) across other epithelia.

  4. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials examining the effectiveness of breast and cervical cancer screening interventions for ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dorothy N S; So, Winnie K W

    2015-10-01

    To examine the effect that breast and/or cervical cancer screening programmes for ethnic minority women have on their knowledge of and beliefs about breast or cervical cancer and screening, and on their screening intentions and uptake rates. Recommendations are also made for the format and content of such programmes, based on existing evidence. A comprehensive literature search was carried out both manually and by means of five electronic databases. The findings are summarised and synthesised in narrative fashion. The ten RCTs included here were conducted among ethnic minority women in the United States or Canada, where breast or cervical cancer screening programmes have led to improvements in screening intentions, knowledge of cervical cancer and pap test uptake. The Breast Cancer Screening Belief Scale and self-reporting were the methods commonly used to measure outcomes. The shared characteristics of both countries' programmes were that they were theory- and language-based, the instruction took place in a community setting, the materials were culturally relevant, the content highlighted key messages about breast or cervical cancer and screening measures, and there were multiple intervention strategies. Breast or cervical cancer screening programmes in Western countries have demonstrated improvements in knowledge of the disease, screening intentions and pap test uptake, although evidence on the effectiveness of the interventions has been limited. The common characteristics of programmes are identified, but a comprehensive model is still needed to link these characteristics with other factors and mediators influencing outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radioiodine uptake in inactive pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakheet, S.M.; Powe, J.; Al Suhaibani, H.; Hammami, M.M.; Bazarbashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection. We have seen such accumulation in six thyroid cancer patients with a history of previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis. We also review the causes of false-positive radioiodine uptake in lung infection/inflammation. Eight foci of radioiodine uptake were seen on six iodine-123 diagnostic scans. In three foci, the uptake was focal and indistinguishable from thyroid cancer pulmonary metastases from thyroid cancer. In the remaining foci, the uptake appeared nonsegmental, linear or lobar, suggesting a false-positive finding. The uptake was unchanged, variable in appearance or non-persistent on follow-up scans and less extensive than the fibrocystic changes seen on chest radiographs. In the two patients studied, thyroid hormone level did not affect the radioiodine lung uptake and there was congruent gallium-67 uptake. None of the patients had any evidence of thyroid cancer recurrence or of reactivation of tuberculosis and only two patients had chronic intermittent chest symptoms. Severe bronchiectasis, active tuberculosis, acute bronchitis, respiratory bronchiolitis, rheumatoid arthritis-associated lung disease and fungal infection such as Allescheria boydii and aspergillosis can lead to different patterns of radioiodine chest uptake mimicking pulmonary metastases. Pulmonary scarring secondary to tuberculosis may predispose to localized radioiodine accumulation even in the absence of clinically evident active infection. False-positive radioiodine uptake due to pulmonary infection/inflammation should be considered in thyroid cancer patients prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary metastases. (orig.)

  6. A Policy-into-Practice Intervention to Increase the Uptake of Evidence-Based Management of Low Back Pain in Primary Care: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Helen; Davies, Stephanie Joy; Parsons, Richard; Quintner, John Louis; Schug, Stephan Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent non-specific low back pain (nsLBP) is poorly understood by the general community, by educators, researchers and health professionals, making effective care problematic. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a policy-into-practice intervention developed for primary care physicians (PCPs). Methods To encourage PCPs to adopt practical evidence-based approaches and facilitate time-efficient, integrated management of patients with nsLBP, we developed an interdisciplinary evidence-based, practical pain education program (gPEP) based on a contemporary biopsychosocial framework. One hundred and twenty six PCPs from primary care settings in Western Australia were recruited. PCPs participated in a 6.5-hour gPEP. Self-report measures recorded at baseline and at 2 months post-intervention included PCPs' attitudes, beliefs (modified Health Care Providers Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS), evidence-based clinical practices (knowledge and skills regarding nsLBP management: 5-point Likert scale with 1 =  nil and 5 =  excellent) and practice behaviours (recommendations based on a patient vignette; 5-point Likert scale). Results Ninety one PCPs participated (attendance rate of 72%; post-intervention response rate 88%). PCP-responders adopted more positive, guideline-consistent beliefs, evidenced by clinically significant HC-PAIRS score differences (mean change  = −5.6±8.2, ppain education program set within a framework that aligns health policy and practice, encourages PCPs to adopt more self-reported evidence-based attitudes, beliefs and clinical behaviours in their management of patients with nsLBP. However, further research is required to determine cost effectiveness of this approach when compared with other modes of educational delivery and to examine PCP behaviours in actual clinical practice. PMID:22662264

  7. Integrating themes, evidence gaps, and research needs identified by workshop on iron screening and supplementation in iron-replete pregnant women and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannon, Patsy M; Stover, Patrick J; Taylor, Christine L

    2017-12-01

    This report addresses the evidence and the uncertainties, knowledge gaps, and research needs identified by participants at the NIH workshop related to iron screening and routine iron supplementation of largely iron-replete pregnant women and young children (6-24 mo) in developed countries. The workshop presentations and panel discussions focused on current understanding and knowledge gaps related to iron homeostasis, measurement of and evidence for iron status, and emerging concerns about supplementing iron-replete members of these vulnerable populations. Four integrating themes emerged across workshop presentations and discussion and centered on 1 ) physiologic or developmental adaptations of iron homeostasis to pregnancy and early infancy, respectively, and their implications, 2 ) improvement of the assessment of iron status across the full continuum from iron deficiency anemia to iron deficiency to iron replete to iron excess, 3 ) the linkage of iron status with health outcomes beyond hematologic outcomes, and 4 ) the balance of benefit and harm of iron supplementation of iron-replete pregnant women and young children. Research that addresses these themes in the context of the full continuum of iron status is needed to inform approaches to the balancing of benefits and harms of screening and routine supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. An evidence-based treatment algorithm for colorectal polyp cancers: results from the Scottish Screen-detected Polyp Cancer Study (SSPoCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, C H; Ventham, N T; Mansouri, D; Wilson, M; Ramsay, G; Mackay, C D; Parnaby, C N; Smith, D; On, J; Speake, D; McFarlane, G; Neo, Y N; Aitken, E; Forrest, C; Knight, K; McKay, A; Nair, H; Mulholland, C; Robertson, J H; Carey, F A; Steele, Rjc

    2018-02-01

    Colorectal polyp cancers present clinicians with a treatment dilemma. Decisions regarding whether to offer segmental resection or endoscopic surveillance are often taken without reference to good quality evidence. The aim of this study was to develop a treatment algorithm for patients with screen-detected polyp cancers. This national cohort study included all patients with a polyp cancer identified through the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme between 2000 and 2012. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the impact of clinical, endoscopic and pathological variables on the rate of adverse events (residual tumour in patients undergoing segmental resection or cancer-related death or disease recurrence in any patient). These data were used to develop a clinically relevant treatment algorithm. 485 patients with polyp cancers were included. 186/485 (38%) underwent segmental resection and residual tumour was identified in 41/186 (22%). The only factor associated with an increased risk of residual tumour in the bowel wall was incomplete excision of the original polyp (OR 5.61, p=0.001), while only lymphovascular invasion was associated with an increased risk of lymph node metastases (OR 5.95, p=0.002). When patients undergoing segmental resection or endoscopic surveillance were considered together, the risk of adverse events was significantly higher in patients with incomplete excision (OR 10.23, p<0.001) or lymphovascular invasion (OR 2.65, p=0.023). A policy of surveillance is adequate for the majority of patients with screen-detected colorectal polyp cancers. Consideration of segmental resection should be reserved for those with incomplete excision or evidence of lymphovascular invasion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Factors influencing the decision to attend screening for cancer in the UK: a meta-ethnography of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B; Bedford, L; Kendrick, D; Vedhara, K; Robertson, J F R; das Nair, R

    2017-05-09

    This review aimed to better understand experiences of being invited to cancer screening and associated decision-making. Qualitative evidence explaining UK cancer screening attendance decisions was systematically identified. Data were extracted and meta-ethnography used to identify shared themes, synthesize findings and generate higher level interpretations. Thirty-four studies met inclusion criteria. They related to uptake of breast, cervical, colorectal, prostate, ovarian and lung cancer screening. Three primary themes emerged from the synthesis. 'Relationships with the health service' shaped decisions, influenced by trust, compliance with power, resistance to control or surveillance and perceived failures to meet cultural, religious and language needs. 'Fear of cancer screening' was both a motivator and barrier in different ways and to varying degrees. Strategies to negotiate moderate fear levels were evident. 'Experiences of risk' included the creation of alternative personal risk discourses and the use of screening as a coping strategy, influenced by disease beliefs and feelings of health and wellness. The findings highlight the importance of the provider-patient relationship in screening uptake and enrich our understanding of how fear and risk are experienced and negotiated. This knowledge can help promote uptake and improve the effectiveness of cancer screening. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? Part I: Critical appraisal of the evidence for the presence, biosynthesis and uptake of steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander P

    2012-11-01

    The consensus view is that vertebrate-type steroids are present in mollusks and perform hormonal roles which are similar to those that they play in vertebrates. Although vertebrate steroids can be measured in molluscan tissues, a key question is 'Are they formed endogenously or they are picked up from their environment?'. The present review concludes that there is no convincing evidence for biosynthesis of vertebrate steroids by mollusks. Furthermore, the 'mollusk' genome does not contain the genes for key enzymes that are necessary to transform cholesterol in progressive steps into vertebrate-type steroids; nor does the mollusk genome contain genes for functioning classical nuclear steroid receptors. On the other hand, there is very strong evidence that mollusks are able to absorb vertebrate steroids from the environment; and are able to store some of them (by conjugating them to fatty acids) for weeks to months. It is notable that the three steroids that have been proposed as functional hormones in mollusks (i.e. progesterone, testosterone and 17β-estradiol) are the same as those of humans. Since humans (and indeed all vertebrates) continuously excrete steroids not just via urine and feces, but via their body surface (and, in fish, via the gills), it is impossible to rule out contamination as the sole reason for the presence of vertebrate steroids in mollusks (even in animals kept under supposedly 'clean laboratory conditions'). Essentially, the presence of vertebrate steroids in mollusks cannot be taken as reliable evidence of either endogenous biosynthesis or of an endocrine role. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Colorectal cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intention among Indigenous Western Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christou Aliki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are significantly less likely to participate in colorectal cancer (CRC screening compared to non-Indigenous people. This study aimed to identify important factors influencing the decision to undertake screening using Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT among Indigenous Australians. Very little evidence exists to guide interventions and programmatic approaches for facilitating screening uptake in this population in order to reduce the disparity in colorectal cancer outcomes. Methods Interviewer-administered surveys were carried out with a convenience sample (n = 93 of Indigenous Western Australians between November 2009-March 2010 to assess knowledge, awareness, attitudes and behavioural intent in regard to CRC and CRC screening. Results Awareness and knowledge of CRC and screening were low, although both were significantly associated with exposure to media advertising (p = 0.008; p  Conclusions Improving CRC related knowledge and confidence to carry out the FOBT self-screening test through education and greater promotion of screening has the potential to enhance Indigenous participation in CRC screening. These findings should guide the development of interventions to encourage screening uptake and reduce bowel cancer related deaths among Indigenous Australians.

  12. Perspectives on cervical cancer screening among educated Muslim women in Dubai (the UAE): a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah; Woolhead, Gillian

    2015-10-24

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the seventh leading cause of death among women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with most deaths attributed to late detection of this cancer. The UAE lacks a national CC screening programme. Thus, cervical screening is only performed opportunistically during women's visits to health facilities. CC screening rates in the UAE are as low as 16.9 %, and little is known about the perspectives of the nation's educated Muslim women regarding screening. Consequently, the aim of this study is to explore Muslim women's perspectives towards cervical screening in Dubai to promote strategies for increasing its uptake, thereby leading to a decrease in morbidity and mortality associated with CC. Interpretivist and social constructivist epistemological approaches were applied for this qualitative study. Data were obtained through 13 in-depth interviews. Purposive and snowballing methods were used to recruit six South Asian women and seven Emirati women living in Dubai. Thematic content analysis was concurrently applied with comparative analysis to the data. Four themes regarding women's perceptions of CC emerged from the data. First, CC was considered a 'silent disease' that could be detected with early screening. However, it was also associated with extramarital sexual relations, which negatively influenced screening uptake. Second, women's fear, pain and embarrassment, along with cultural influences, deterred them from undergoing screening. Third, a growing mistrust of allopathic medicine and impersonal healthcare promoted a negative view of screening. Last, women became aware of screening mainly when they were pregnant or receiving fertility treatment. The study highlighted a number of important factors relating to cultural, religious and sexual behaviour that shaped educated Muslim women's perspectives on CC screening. Evidently, the current opportunistic approach to screening is flawed. A national awareness programme on CC screening should be

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements at four to ... medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days for the radiotracer to ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of ... potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. ... eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and other metallic accessories should be left ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  19. Introducing the Adults with Chronic Healthcare Needs (ACHCN) definition and screening instrument: Rationale, supporting evidence and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Stephen P; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Altman, Barbara M; Bethell, Christina D; Carle, Adam C; Druss, Benjamin G; Houtrow, Amy J; Reichard, Amanda; Chan, Leighton

    2018-04-01

    Among working age adults in the United States, there is a large, heterogeneous population that requires ongoing and elevated levels of healthcare and related services. At present, there are conflicting approaches to the definition and measurement of this population in health services research. An expert panel was convened by the National Institutes of Health with the objective of developing a population-level definition of Adults with Chronic Healthcare Needs (ACHCN). In addition, the panel developed a screening instrument and methods for its use in health surveys to identify and stratify the population consistently. The panel employed multiple methods over the course of the project, including scoping literature reviews, quantitative analyses from national data sources and cognitive testing. The panel defined the ACHCN population as "Adults (age 18-65) with [1] ongoing physical, cognitive, or mental health conditions or difficulties functioning who [2] need health or related support services of a type or amount beyond that needed by adults of the same sex and similar age." The screener collects information on chronic health conditions, functional difficulties, and elevated use of or unmet need for healthcare services. Adapted from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau definition that identifies Children with Special Healthcare Needs, aligned with the ACS-6 disability measure, and consistent with the HHS Multiple Chronic Condition Framework, this definition and screener provide the research community with a common denominator for the identification of ACHCN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing Willingness to Test for HIV among Men who have Sex with Men Using Conjoint Analysis, Evidence for Uptake of the FDA-approved at-Home HIV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Brooks, Ronald; Bolan, Robert K.; Flynn, Risa

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States represent a vulnerable population with lower rates of HIV testing. There are various specific attributes of HIV testing that may impact willingness to test (WTT) for HIV. Identifying specific attributes influencing patients’ decisions around WTT for HIV is critical to ensure improved HIV testing uptake. This study examined WTT for HIV by using conjoint analysis, an innovative method for systematically estimating consumer preferences across discrete attributes. WTT for HIV was assessed across eight hypothetical HIV testing scenarios varying across seven dichotomous attributes: location (home vs. clinic), price (free vs. $50), sample collection (finger prick vs. blood), timeliness of results (immediate vs. 1–2 weeks), privacy (anonymous vs. confidential), results given (by phone vs. in-person), and type of counseling (brochure vs. in-person). Seventy-five MSM were recruited from a community based organization providing HIV testing services in Los Angeles to participate in conjoint analysis. WTT for HIV score was based on a 100-point scale. Scores ranged from 32.2 to 80.3 for eight hypothetical HIV testing scenarios. Price of HIV testing (free vs. $50) had the highest impact on WTT (impact score=31.4, SD=29.2, p<.0001), followed by timeliness of results (immediate vs. 1–2 weeks) (impact score=13.9, SD=19.9, p=<.0001) and testing location (home vs. clinic) (impact score=10.3, SD=22.8, p=.0002). Impacts of other HIV testing attributes were not significant. Conjoint analysis method enabled direct assessment of HIV testing preferences and identified specific attributes that significantly impact WTT for HIV among MSM. This method provided empirical evidence to support the potential uptake of the newly FDA-approved over-the-counter HIV home-test kit with immediate results, with cautionary note on the cost of the kit. PMID:23651439

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  2. Depression recognition and capacity for self-report among ethnically diverse nursing homes residents: Evidence of disparities in screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Audrey; Reinhardt, Joann P; Ramirez, Mildred; Ellis, Julie M; Silver, Stephanie; Burack, Orah; Eimicke, Joseph P; Cimarolli, Verena; Teresi, Jeanne A

    2017-12-01

    To examine agreement between Minimum Data Set clinician ratings and researcher assessments of depression among ethnically diverse nursing home residents using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Although depression is common among nursing homes residents, its recognition remains a challenge. Observational baseline data from a longitudinal intervention study. Sample of 155 residents from 12 long-term care units in one US facility; 50 were interviewed in Spanish. Convergence between clinician and researcher ratings was examined for (i) self-report capacity, (ii) suicidal ideation, (iii) at least moderate depression, (iv) Patient Health Questionnaire severity scores. Experiences by clinical raters using the depression assessment were analysed. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used to examine concordance and Cohen's kappa to examine agreement between clinicians and researchers. Moderate agreement (κ = 0.52) was observed in determination of capacity and poor to fair agreement in reporting suicidal ideation (κ = 0.10-0.37) across time intervals. Poor agreement was observed in classification of at least moderate depression (κ = -0.02 to 0.24), lower than the maximum kappa obtainable (0.58-0.85). Eight assessors indicated problems assessing Spanish-speaking residents. Among Spanish speakers, researchers identified 16% with Patient Health Questionnaire scores of 10 or greater, and 14% with thoughts of self-harm whilst clinicians identified 6% and 0%, respectively. This study advances the field of depression recognition in long-term care by identification of possible challenges in assessing Spanish speakers. Use of the Patient Health Questionnaire requires further investigation, particularly among non-English speakers. Depression screening for ethnically diverse nursing home residents is required, as underreporting of depression and suicidal ideation among Spanish speakers may result in lack of depression recognition and referral for evaluation and

  3. Community-based human-elephant conflict mitigation: The value of an evidence-based approach in promoting the uptake of effective methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donny Gunaryadi

    Full Text Available Human-elephant conflict (HEC is a serious threat to elephants and can cause major economic losses. It is widely accepted that reduction of HEC will often require community-based methods for repelling elephants but there are few tests of such methods. We tested community-based crop-guarding methods with and without novel chili-based elephant deterrents and describe changes in farmers' willingness to adopt these methods following our demonstration of their relative effectiveness. In three separate field-trials that took place over almost two years (October 2005 -May 2007 in two villages adjacent to Way Kambas National Park (WKNP in Indonesia, we found that community-based crop-guarding was effective at keeping Asian elephants (Elephas maximus out of crop fields in 91.2% (52 out of 57, 87.6% (156 out of 178, and 80.0% (16 out of 20 of attempted raids. Once the method had been shown to be effective at demonstration sites, farmers in 16 villages around WKNP voluntarily adopted it during the July 2008 to March 2009 period and were able to repel elephants in 73.9% (150 out of 203 of attempted raids, with seven villages repelling 100% of attempted raids. These 16 villages had all experienced high levels of HEC in the preceding years; e.g. they accounted for >97% of the 742 HEC incidents recorded for the entire park in 2006. Our work shows, therefore, that a simple evidence-based approach can facilitate significant reductions in HEC at the protected area scale.

  4. Impact of non-clinical community-based promotional campaigns on bowel cancer screening engagement: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Angelita; Morris, Julia N; Preen, David

    2016-10-01

    This paper reviewed the relationship between non-clinical, client-oriented promotional campaigns to raise bowel cancer awareness and screening engagement. An integrative literature review using predefined search terms was conducted to summarise the accumulated knowledge. Data was analysed by coding and categorising, then synthesized through development of themes. Eighteen of 116 studies met inclusion criteria. Promotional campaigns had varying impact on screening uptake for bowel cancer. Mass media was found to moderately increase screening, predominately amongst "worried well". Small media used in conjunction with other promotional activities, thus its effect on screening behaviours was unclear. One-on-one education was less effective and less feasible than group education in increasing intention to screen. Financial support was ineffective in increasing screening rates when compared to other promotional activities. Screening engagement increased because of special events and celebrity endorsement. Non-clinical promotional campaigns did impact uptake of bowel cancer screening engagement. However, little is evident on the effect of single types of promotion and most research is based on clinician-directed campaigns. Cancer awareness and screening promotions should be implemented at community and clinical level to maximize effectiveness. Such an approach will ensure promotional activities are targeting consumers, thus strengthening screening engagement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, A. A.; Halligan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide. There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use. Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing. The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests. In addition, their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can...

  6. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  7. Rates and predictors of colorectal cancer screening by race among motivated men participating in a prostate cancer risk assessment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael J.; Ruth, Karen; Giri, Veda N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Screening by fecal occult blood test and lower endoscopy have lowered colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, but compliance gaps persist. Of concern are possible disparities in uptake of CRC screening between White and African American (AA) men. Our goal was to assess for disparities in uptake of CRC screening among men participating in a high-risk prostate cancer clinic. If present, such disparities could support hypotheses for further research examining racial differences in awareness and patient preferences in undergoing CRC screening. Methods Baseline data on a racially diverse cohort of men age 50–69 at increased risk of prostate cancer collected via the prostate cancer risk assessment program (PRAP) at Fox Chase Cancer Center were analyzed. Predictors of uptake of CRC screening were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Results Compared to Whites, AA men had statistically significantly lower uptake of fecal occult blood testing (AA 49.0% vs White 60.7%, p=0.035), lower endoscopy (AA 44.1% vs White 58.5%, p=0.011), and any CRC screening (AA 66.2% vs White 76.3%, p=0.053). Predictors of uptake of lower endoscopy among AA men included older age (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.87–6.97), family history of CRC (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.30–9.25), and insurance status (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.04–3.46). Conclusion Despite awareness of cancer risk and motivation to seek prostate cancer screening through a specialized prostate cancer risk assessment program, evidence supporting compliance gaps with CRC screening among men was found. Tailored messages to younger AA men with and without a family history of CRC are needed. PMID:21751189

  8. [Weak evidence concerning sedentary lifestyle and its association with cardio-metabolic illness among young people. "Junk food" and late evenings in front of the screen part of a complex connection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröberg, Andreas; Raustorp, Anders

    2015-06-16

    During recent decades there has been a rapidly growing interest in youths' sedentary behaviour and its association with cardio-metabolic health. Currently there is little-to-no evidence for a cross-sectional and longitudinal association between volume and pattern (bouts and breaks) of objectively measured sedentary behavior and body weight in youth. Likewise, there is little-to-no evidence for a cross-sectional association between volume and pattern of objectively measured sedentary behavior and other markers for cardio-metabolic risk in youth. However, there is sufficient evidence for a cross-sectional and longitudinal association between screen-time and body weight and blood pressure and blood lipids. Furthermore, there is evidence for a cross-sectional association between youths' screen-time and clustered metabolic risk and insulin resistance. Overall, the level of evidence was low and, therefore, caution is required when interpreting the results.

  9. Hg uptake in ureteral obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrez, J.P.; Bourguignon, M.; Raynaud, C.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of a total obstruction the results obtained with the Hg uptake test, as indeed with other functional tests, inform on the value of the kidney function at the time but have no prognostic value where repair possibilities are concerned. Some preliminary results seem to show however that very soon after the obstacle is removed, by the 10th or 15th day perhaps, quantitative functional tests may once more be used to evaluate the functional prognosis. This would mean that by waiting about two weeks after the disappearance of a total obstruction the Hg uptake test may again be used in all confidence. In order to check this deduction, which is based on slender evidence but which nevertheless has important practical implications, the measurement of the Hg uptake rate during the days following removal of the obstacle appears essential. In long-standing partial obstructions the Hg uptake rate gives an accurate assessment of the functional balance and helps considerably in the choice of therapy [fr

  10. Reasons for low uptake of referrals to ear and hearing services for children in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Bright

    Full Text Available Early detection and appropriate intervention for children with hearing impairment is important for maximizing functioning and quality of life. The lack of ear and hearing services in low income countries is a significant challenge, however, evidence suggests that even where such services are available, and children are referred to them, uptake is low. The aim of this study was to assess uptake of and barriers to referrals to ear and hearing services for children in Thyolo District, Malawi.This was a mixed methods study. A survey was conducted with 170 caregivers of children who were referred for ear and hearing services during community-based screening camps to assess whether they had attended their referral and reasons for non-attendance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 caregivers of children who did not take up their referral to explore in-depth the reasons for non-uptake. In addition, 15 stakeholders were interviewed. Thematic analysis of the interview data was conducted and emerging trends were analysed.Referral uptake was very low with only 5 out of 150 (3% children attending. Seven main interacting themes for non-uptake of referral were identified in the semi-structured interviews: location of the hospital, lack of transport, other indirect costs of seeking care, fear and uncertainty about the referral hospital, procedural problems within the camps, awareness and understanding of hearing loss, and lack of visibility and availability of services.This study has highlighted a range of interacting challenges faced by families in accessing ear and hearing services in this setting. Understanding these context specific barriers to non-uptake of ear and hearing services is important for designing appropriate interventions to increase uptake.

  11. Hydrogen uptake by Azolla-Anabaena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Freitas, J.R. de; Silva, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrogen uptake in the Azolla-Anabaena system is studied. Tritium is used as tracer. Plants are incubated under different atmosphere composition: a) Air + 3 H 2 ; b) Air + CO 2 + 3 H 2 + CO; c) Air + 3 H 2 + CO; d) Air + CO 2 + 3 H 2 + CO to study the pathway of absorbed hydrogen in the Azolla - Anabaena system. Azolla-Anabaena showed greater hydrogen uptake under argonium atmosphere than under air. Carbon monoxide decreased hydrogen uptake. There are evidences of recycling of the hydrogen evolved through notrogenease. (Author) [pt

  12. Thyroid uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid gland is altered by the iodine content of diet or drugs. American diet has a high iodine content because each slice of the white bread contains nearly 150μg of iodine due to the bleaching process employed in the production of the bread. This carrier content of iodine reduces the uptake so much, that the normal American uptakes are usually three to four times lower than the uptakes in the developing countries. The other drawback of the thyroid uptake test is that it is affected by the iodine containing drugs. Anti-diarrhoea medications are quire common in the developing countries and many of them contain iodine moiety. Without a reliable drug history, a low thyroid uptake value may lead to a misleading conclusion

  13. What Prevents Men Aged 40-64 Years from Prostate Cancer Screening in Namibia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangmennaang, J.; Mkandawire, P.; Luginaah, I.

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of evidence demonstrates the public health burden of prostate cancer in SSA, relatively little is known about the underlying factors surrounding the low levels of testing for the disease in the context of this region. Using Namibia Demographic Health Survey dataset (NDHS, 2013), we examined the factors that influence men’s decision to screen for prostate cancer in Namibia. Methods. We use complementary log-log regression models to explore the determinants of screening for prostate cancer. We also corrected for the effect of unobserved heterogeneity that may affect screening behaviours at the cluster level. Results. The results show that health insurance coverage (OR = 2.95, ) is an important predictor of screening for prostate cancer in Namibia. In addition, higher education and discussing reproductive issues with a health worker (OR = 2.02, P = 0.05) were more likely to screening for prostate cancer. Conclusions. A universal health insurance scheme may be necessary to increase uptake of prostate cancer screening. However it needs to be acknowledged that expanded screening can have negative consequences and any allocation of scarce resources towards screening must be guided by evidence obtained from the local context about the costs and benefits of screening.

  14. Cost-effectiveness of computed tomography colonography in colorectal cancer screening: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanly, Paul; Skally, Mairead; Fenlon, Helen; Sharp, Linda

    2012-10-01

    The European Code Against Cancer recommends individuals aged ≥ 50 should participate in colorectal cancer screening. CT-colonography (CTC) is one of several screening tests available. We systematically reviewed evidence on, and identified key factors influencing, cost-effectiveness of CTC screening. PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane library were searched for cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analyses of CTC-based screening, published in English, January 1999 to July 2010. Data was abstracted on setting, model type and horizon, screening scenario(s), comparator(s), participants, uptake, CTC performance and cost, effectiveness, ICERs, and whether extra-colonic findings and medical complications were considered. Sixteen studies were identified from the United States (n = 11), Canada (n = 2), and France, Italy, and the United Kingdom (1 each). Markov state-transition (n = 14) or microsimulation (n = 2) models were used. Eleven considered direct medical costs only; five included indirect costs. Fourteen compared CTC with no screening; fourteen compared CTC with colonoscopy-based screening; fewer compared CTC with sigmoidoscopy (8) or fecal tests (4). Outcomes assessed were life-years gained/saved (13), QALYs (2), or both (1). Three considered extra-colonic findings; seven considered complications. CTC appeared cost-effective versus no screening and, in general, flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal occult blood testing. Results were mixed comparing CTC to colonoscopy. Parameters most influencing cost-effectiveness included: CTC costs, screening uptake, threshold for polyp referral, and extra-colonic findings. Evidence on cost-effectiveness of CTC screening is heterogeneous, due largely to between-study differences in comparators and parameter values. Future studies should: compare CTC with currently favored tests, especially fecal immunochemical tests; consider extra-colonic findings; and conduct comprehensive sensitivity analyses.

  15. Rates of detection of developmental problems at the 18-month well-baby visit by family physicians' using four evidence-based screening tools compared to usual care: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R E; Spragins, W; Mazloum, G; Cronkhite, M; Maru, G

    2016-05-01

    Early and regular developmental screening can improve children's development through early intervention but is insufficiently used. Most developmental problems are readily evident at the 18-month well-baby visit. This trial's purpose is to: (1) compare identification rates of developmental problems by GPs/family physicians using four evidence-based tools with non-evidence based screening, and (2) ascertain whether the four tools can be completed in 10-min pre-visit on a computer. We compared two approaches to early identification via random assignment of 54 families to either: 'usual care' (informal judgment including ad-hoc milestones, n = 25); or (2) 'Evidence-based' care (use of four validated, accurate screening tools, n = 29), including: the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS), the PEDS-Developmental Milestones (PEDS-DM), the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) and PHQ9 (maternal depression). In the 'usual care' group four (16%) and in the evidence-based tools group 18 (62%) were identified as having a possible developmental problem. In the evidence-based tools group three infants were to be recalled at 24 months for language checks (no specialist referrals made). In the 'usual care' group four problems were identified: one child was referred for speech therapy, two to return to check language at 24 months and a mother to discuss depression. All forms were completed on-line within 10 min. Despite higher early detection rates in the evidence-based care group, there were no differences in referral rates between evidence-based and usual-care groups. This suggests that clinicians: (1) override evidence-based screening results with informal judgment; and/or (2) need assistance understanding test results and making referrals. Possible solutions are improve the quality of information obtained from the screening process, improved training of physicians, improved support for individual practices and acceptance by the regional

  16. Nudging in screening: Literature review and ethical guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Stanak, Michal

    2018-03-27

    Nudging is the purposeful alteration of choices presented to people that aims to make them choose in predicted ways. While nudging has been used to assure high uptake and good outcome of screening programs, it has been criticized for being paternalistic, undermining free choice, and shared decision making. Accordingly, the objective of this study is to explore a) nudging strategies identified in screening, b) arguments for and against nudging; and on basis of this, to c) suggest a tentative conclusion on how to handle nudging in screening. Literature searches in Ovid MEDLINE and PsycINFO for combinations of screening and nudging. Screening based on content analysis of titles, abstracts, and articles. 239 references were identified and 109 were included. Several forms of nudging were identified: framed information, default bias, or authority bias. Uptake and public health outcome were the most important goals. Arguments for nudging were bounded rationality, unavoidability, and beneficence, while lack of transparency, crowding out of intrinsic values, and paternalism were arguments against it. The analysis indicates that nudging can be acceptable for screenings with (high quality) evidence for high benefit-harm ratio (beneficence), where nudging does not infringe other ethical principles, such as justice and non-maleficence. In particular, nudging should not only focus on attendance rates, but also on making people "better choosers." Four specific recommendations follow from the review and the analysis: 1) Nudging should be addressed in an explicit and transparent manner. 2) The means of nudging have to be in proportion to the benefit-harm ratio. 3) Disagreement on the evidence for either benefits or harms warrants special care. 4) Assessing and assuring the intended outcome of nudging appears to be crucial, as it can be context dependent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical health, lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health of entering graduate health professional students: Evidence to support screening and early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek Melnyk, Bernadette; Slevin, Caitlin; Militello, Lisa; Hoying, Jacqueline; Teall, Alice; McGovern, Colleen

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the physical health, lifestyle beliefs and behaviors, and mental health among first-year health professional graduate students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe these attributes as well as to explore the relationships among them. A descriptive correlational study was conducted on the baseline data from a wellness onboarding intervention study with 93 health sciences students from seven different colleges within a large public land grant university in the Midwest United States. Nearly 40% of the sample was overweight/obese, and 19% of students had elevated total cholesterol levels. Only 44% met the recommended 30 min of exercise 5 days per week. Forty-one percent reported elevated depressive symptoms and 28% had elevated anxiety. Four students reported suicidal ideation. Inverse relationships existed among depression/anxiety and healthy lifestyle beliefs/behaviors. Students entering health professional schools are at high risk for depression, anxiety, and unhealthy behaviors, which could be averted through screening and early evidence-based interventions. Assessing the physical health, lifestyle behaviors, and mental health of first-year health sciences professional students is important to identify health problems and modifiable at-risk behaviors so that early interventions can be implemented to improve outcomes. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. Uptake of benzyladenine by excised watermelon cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampugnani, M G; Fantelli, R; Longo, G P; Longo, C P; Rossi, G

    1981-07-01

    The uptake of 8-[(14)C]N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) was studied in excised watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.) cotyledons 24 hours after the start of imbibition. The passive nature of this uptake is suggested by the following evidence: (a) no sign of saturation on increasing external concentration of BA; (b) no decrease in uptake under conditions that inhibit ATP synthesis; (c) no change in amount of radioactivity absorbed when cotyledons are frozen and thawed before the uptake test. About two-thirds of the radioactivity taken up is released after 12 hours of washing. If the washing is performed at 2 C very little radioactivity is released.There seems to be a correlation between the level of radioactivity (i.e. of BA + derivatives) present in the cotyledons and the magnitude of hormonal responses that are observed four days after uptake. This relationship holds regardless of whether a given level of radioactivity has been reached after a short period of uptake or after a long period of uptake followed by washing.

  19. Xe-133 accumulation in fatty liver: hepatic uptake and washout correlated with pulmonary and mesenteric retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Xe-133 uptake in patients with fatty livers is described and compared with uptake and retention in lungs, blood and mesenteric fat and with normal hepatic uptake. In the absence of obstructive lung disease or excessive obesity, Xe-133 uptake and retention is a valuable means of screening patients for the presence of fatty liver. Although non-specific for the etiology of fatty liver, the test is an effective and non-invasive method of detection which merits further application. (author)

  20. International Cancer Screening Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cancer Screening Network promotes evidence-based cancer screening implementation and evaluation with cooperation from multilateral organizations around the globe. Learn more about how ICSN aims to reduce the global burden of cancer by supporting research and international collaboration.

  1. Summary of the evidence of breast cancer service screening outcomes in Europe and first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    To construct a European 'balance sheet' of key outcomes of population-based mammographic breast cancer screening, to inform policy-makers, stakeholders and invited women. From the studies reviewed, the primary benefit of screening, breast cancer mortality reduction, was compared with the main harms, over-diagnosis and false-positive screening results (FPRs). Pooled estimates of breast cancer mortality reduction among invited women were 25% in incidence-based mortality studies and 31% in case-control studies (38% and 48% among women actually screened). Estimates of over-diagnosis ranged from 1% to 10% of the expected incidence in the absence of screening. The combined estimate of over-diagnosis for screened women, from European studies correctly adjusted for lead time and underlying trend, was 6.5%. For women undergoing 10 biennial screening tests, the estimated cumulative risk of a FPR followed by non-invasive assessment was 17%, and 3% having an invasive assessment. For every 1000 women screened biennially from age 50-51 until age 68-69 and followed up to age 79, an estimated seven to nine lives are saved, four cases are over-diagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by non-invasive assessment with a negative result and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of saving a woman's life by population-based mammographic screening of appropriate quality is greater than that of over-diagnosis. Service screening in Europe achieves a mortality benefit at least as great as the randomized controlled trials. These outcomes should be communicated to women offered service screening in Europe.

  2. Dementia Screening Accuracy is Robust to Premorbid IQ Variation: Evidence from the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-III and the Test of Premorbid Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Joshua; Scior, Katrina; Mandy, William; Charlesworth, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Scores on cognitive screening tools for dementia are associated with premorbid IQ. It has been suggested that screening scores should be adjusted accordingly. However, no study has examined whether premorbid IQ variation affects screening accuracy. To investigate whether the screening accuracy of a widely used cognitive screening tool for dementia, the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination-III (ACE-III), is improved by adjusting for premorbid IQ. 171 UK based adults (96 memory service attendees diagnosed with dementia and 75 healthy volunteers over the age of 65 without subjective memory impairments) completed the ACE-III and the Test of Premorbid Function (TOPF). The difference in screening performance between the ACE-III alone and the ACE-III adjusted for TOPF was assessed against a reference standard; the presence or absence of a diagnosis of dementia (Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or others). Logistic regression and receiver operating curve analyses indicated that the ACE-III has excellent screening accuracy (93% sensitivity, 94% specificity) in distinguishing those with and without a dementia diagnosis. Although ACE-III scores were associated with TOPF scores, TOPF scores may be affected by having dementia and screening accuracy was not improved by accounting for premorbid IQ, age, or years of education. ACE-III screening accuracy is high and screening performance is robust to variation in premorbid IQ, age, and years of education. Adjustment of ACE-III cut-offs for premorbid IQ is not recommended in clinical practice. The analytic strategy used here may be useful to assess the impact of premorbid IQ on other screening tools.

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about your thyroid’s size, shape, position and function that is often unattainable using other imaging procedures. ... thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Scan and Uptake Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does ... they offer the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ... small hand-held device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... its radioactivity over time. It may also pass out of your body through your urine or stool ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedures within the last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you ... a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a ...

  17. Summary of the evidence of breast cancer service screening outcomes in Europe and first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    To construct a European 'balance sheet' of key outcomes of population-based mammographic breast cancer screening, to inform policy-makers, stakeholders and invited women.......To construct a European 'balance sheet' of key outcomes of population-based mammographic breast cancer screening, to inform policy-makers, stakeholders and invited women....

  18. The Impact of Providing Vision Screening and Free Eyeglasses on Academic Outcomes: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Title I Elementary Schools in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glewwe, Paul; West, Kristine L.; Lee, Jongwook

    2018-01-01

    More than 20 percent of all school-aged children in the United States have vision problems, and low-income and minority children are disproportionately likely to have unmet vision care needs. Vision screening is common in U.S. schools, but it remains an open question whether screening alone is sufficient to improve student outcomes. We implemented…

  19. Chlamydia screening is not cost-effective at low participation rates: evidence from a repeated register-based implementation study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, G. Ardine; Over, Eelco A. B.; Schmid, Boris V.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Welte, Robert; Op de Coul, Eline L. M.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.

    2015-01-01

    In three pilot regions of The Netherlands, all 16-29 year olds were invited to participate in three annual rounds of Chlamydia screening. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of repeated Chlamydia screening, based on empirical data. A mathematical model was employed to

  20. Attitude of antenatal patients in Enugu toward HIV screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reason for declining HIV Screening was that AIDS has no known cure, followed by fear of positive result. Conclusion: The awareness and attitude of Nigeria pregnant women towards HIV Screening and uptake of the test is good. Educational level has a significant effect on the uptake and perceived benefit of the test.

  1. Preferences for Mental Health Screening Among Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Dawn E; Biringer, Anne; McDonald, Sheila W; Heaman, Maureen I; Lasiuk, Gerri C; Hegadoren, Kathy M; McDonald, Sarah D; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; Sword, Wendy; Kingston, Joshua J; Jarema, Karly M; Vermeyden, Lydia; Austin, Marie-Paule

    2015-10-01

    The process of mental health screening can influence disclosure, uptake of referral, and treatment; however, no studies have explored pregnant women's views of methods of mental health screening. The objectives of this study are to determine pregnant women's comfort and preferences regarding mental health screening. Pregnant women were recruited (May-December 2013) for this cross-sectional descriptive survey from prenatal classes and maternity clinics in Alberta, Canada, if they were aged >16 years and spoke/read English. Descriptive statistics summarized acceptability of screening, and multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with women's comfort with screening methods. Analysis was conducted in January-December 2014. The participation rate was 92% (N=460/500). Overall, 97.6% of women reported that they were very (74.8%) or somewhat (22.8%) comfortable with mental health screening in pregnancy. Women were most comfortable with completing paper- (>90%) and computer-based (>82%) screening in a clinic or at home, with fewest reporting comfort with telephone-based screening (62%). The majority of women were very/somewhat comfortable with provider-initiated (97.4%) versus self-initiated (68.7%) approaches. Women's ability to be honest with their provider about emotional health was most strongly associated with comfort with each method of screening. The majority of pregnant women viewed prenatal mental health screening favorably and were comfortable with a variety of screening methods. These findings provide evidence of high acceptability of screening--a key criterion for implementation of universal screening--and suggest that providers can select from a variety of screening methods best suited for their clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrative review of cervical cancer screening in Western Asian and Middle Eastern Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Suhailah; Skirton, Heather; Clark, Maria T; Donaldson, Craig

    2017-12-01

    Population-based screening programs have resulted in minimizing mortality and morbidity from cervical cancer. The aim of this integrative review was to explore the factors influencing access of women from Western Asian and Middle Eastern Arab countries to cervical cancer screening. A systematic search for studies conducted in Arab countries in those regions, and published in English between January 2002 and January 2017, was undertaken. Thirteen papers were selected and subjected to quality appraisal. A three step analysis was used, which involved a summary of the evidence, analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data, and integration of the results in narrative form. Few population-based cervical cancer screening programs had been implemented in the relevant countries, with low knowledge of, and perceptions about, cervical screening among Arab women, the majority of whom are Muslim. Factors affecting the uptake of cervical cancer screening practices were the absence of organized, systematic programs, low screening knowledge among women, healthcare professionals' attitudes toward screening, pain and embarrassment, stigma, and sociocultural beliefs. Policy changes are urgently needed to promote population-based screening programs. Future research should address the promotion of culturally-sensitive strategies to enable better access of Arab Muslim women to cervical cancer screening. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  4. Meta-analysis of screening and case finding tools for depression in cancer: evidence based recommendations for clinical practice on behalf of the Depression in Cancer Care consensus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alex J; Meader, Nick; Davies, Evan; Clover, Kerrie; Carter, Gregory L; Loscalzo, Matthew J; Linden, Wolfgang; Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Carlson, Linda E; Zabora, James

    2012-10-01

    To examine the validity of screening and case-finding tools used in the identification of depression as defined by an ICD10/DSM-IV criterion standard. We identified 63 studies involving 19 tools (in 33 publications) designed to help clinicians identify depression in cancer settings. We used a standardized rating system. We excluded 11 tools without at least two independent studies, leaving 8 tools for comparison. Across all cancer stages there were 56 diagnostic validity studies (n=10,009). For case-finding, one stem question, two stem questions and the BDI-II all had level 2 evidence (2a, 2b and 2c respectively) and given their better acceptability we gave the stem questions a grade B recommendation. For screening, two stem questions had level 1b evidence (with high acceptability) and the BDI-II had level 2c evidence. For every 100 people screened in advanced cancer, the two questions would accurately detect 18 cases, while missing only 1 and correctly reassure 74 with 7 falsely identified. For every 100 people screened in non-palliative settings the BDI-II would accurately detect 17 cases, missing 2 and correctly re-assure 70, with 11 falsely identified as cases. The main cautions are the reliance on DSM-IV definitions of major depression, the large number of small studies and the paucity of data for many tools in specific settings. Although no single tool could be offered unqualified support, several tools are likely to improve upon unassisted clinical recognition. In clinical practice, all tools should form part of an integrated approach involving further follow-up, clinical assessment and evidence based therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Text Messaging Interventions on Cancer Screening Rates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Catherine; Lopez, Jennifer; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Sherman, Scott E; Liang, Peter S

    2017-08-24

    Despite high-quality evidence demonstrating that screening reduces mortality from breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers, a substantial portion of the population remains inadequately screened. There is a critical need to identify interventions that increase the uptake and adoption of evidence-based screening guidelines for preventable cancers at the community practice level. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been effective in promoting behavioral change in various clinical settings, but the overall impact and reach of text messaging interventions on cancer screening are unknown. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of text messaging interventions on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers. We searched multiple databases for studies published between the years 2000 and 2017, including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, to identify controlled trials that measured the effect of text messaging on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, or lung cancers. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Our search yielded 2238 citations, of which 31 underwent full review and 9 met inclusion criteria. Five studies examined screening for breast cancer, one for cervical cancer, and three for colorectal cancer. No studies were found for lung cancer screening. Absolute screening rates for individuals who received text message interventions were 0.6% to 15.0% higher than for controls. Unadjusted relative screening rates for text message recipients were 4% to 63% higher compared with controls. Text messaging interventions appear to moderately increase screening rates for breast and cervical cancer and may have a small effect on colorectal cancer screening. Benefit was observed in various countries, including resource-poor and non-English-speaking populations. Given the paucity of data, additional research is needed to better quantify the effectiveness of this promising intervention

  6. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lent Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic

  7. Thyroid uptake software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Dolores; Arista, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    The DETEC-PC software was developed as a complement to a measurement system (hardware) able to perform Iodine Thyroid Uptake studies. The software was designed according to the principles of Object oriented programming using C++ language. The software automatically fixes spectrometric measurement parameters and besides patient measurement also performs statistical analysis of a batch of samples. It possesses a PARADOX database with all information of measured patients and a help system with the system options and medical concepts related to the thyroid uptake study

  8. Radiocolloid Uptake in the Pancreas Islet Cell Tumor: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, W. J.; Chung, S. K.; Yeon, S. K.; Shinn, K. S.; Bahk, Y. W. [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    Colloid uptake in various hepatic conditions such as focal nodular hyperplasia, regenerating nodular in the cirrhotic liver, hamartoma, hemangioma and rarely hepatoma has been documented. Extrahepatic tumors may show colloid uptake and they include splenic hemangioma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, breast carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. The mechanism of colloid uptake in those lesions is associated with phagocytic activity in or around the tumors. We report a pancreas islet cell tumor that showed colloid uptake on {sup 99m}Tc-phytate liver scan without histologic evidence of phagocytosis by tumor cells or infiltration of phagocytes in the tumor. Microscopically the tumor was highly vascular and showed diffuse hemorrhage throughout the tumor. We postulated that extravasation of the colloid into the tumor interstitium caused nonspecific colloid uptake in this tumor. It is expected that hemorrhagic tumor may show nonspecific colloid uptake without phagocytosis in or about the lesion.

  9. Radiocolloid Uptake in the Pancreas Islet Cell Tumor: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W. J.; Chung, S. K.; Yeon, S. K.; Shinn, K. S.; Bahk, Y. W.

    1994-01-01

    Colloid uptake in various hepatic conditions such as focal nodular hyperplasia, regenerating nodular in the cirrhotic liver, hamartoma, hemangioma and rarely hepatoma has been documented. Extrahepatic tumors may show colloid uptake and they include splenic hemangioma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, breast carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma. The mechanism of colloid uptake in those lesions is associated with phagocytic activity in or around the tumors. We report a pancreas islet cell tumor that showed colloid uptake on 99m Tc-phytate liver scan without histologic evidence of phagocytosis by tumor cells or infiltration of phagocytes in the tumor. Microscopically the tumor was highly vascular and showed diffuse hemorrhage throughout the tumor. We postulated that extravasation of the colloid into the tumor interstitium caused nonspecific colloid uptake in this tumor. It is expected that hemorrhagic tumor may show nonspecific colloid uptake without phagocytosis in or about the lesion.

  10. Patient and primary care provider attitudes and adherence towards lung cancer screening at an academic medical center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy K. Duong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low dose CT (LDCT for lung cancer screening is an evidence-based, guideline recommended, and Medicare approved test but uptake requires further study. We therefore conducted patient and provider surveys to elucidate factors associated with utilization. Patients referred for LDCT at an academic medical center were questioned about their attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs on lung cancer screening. Adherent patients were defined as those who met screening eligibility criteria and completed a LDCT. Referring primary care providers within this same medical system were surveyed in parallel about their practice patterns, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs about screening. Eighty patients responded (36%, 48 of whom were adherent. Among responders, non-Hispanic patients (p = 0.04 were more adherent. Adherent respondents believed that CT technology is accurate and early detection is useful, and they trusted their providers. A majority of non-adherent patients (79% self-reported an intention to obtain a LDCT in the future. Of 36 of 87 (41% responding providers, only 31% knew the correct lung cancer screening eligibility criteria, which led to a 37% inappropriate referral rate from 2013 to 2015. Yet, 75% had initiated lung cancer screening discussions, 64% thought screening was at least moderately effective, and 82% were interested in learning more of the 33 providers responding to these questions. Overall, patients were motivated and providers engaged to screen for lung cancer by LDCT. Non-adherent patient “procrastinators” were motivated to undergo screening in the future. Additional follow through on non-adherence may enhance screening uptake, and raising awareness for screening eligibility through provider education may reduce inappropriate referrals.

  11. Proposed key characteristics of male reproductive toxicants as a method for organizing and screening mechanistic evidence for non-cancer outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adoption of systematic review practices for risk assessment includes integration of evidence obtained from experimental, epidemiological, and mechanistic studies. Although mechanistic evidence plays an important role in mode of action analysis, the process of sorting and anal...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  13. Radioactive uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1986-01-01

    The fundamentals of radionuclide uptake by plants, both by leaves and roots are presented. Iodine, cesium, strontium and ruthenium are considered and a table of the measured concentrations in several agricultural plants shortly after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Another table gives the Cs and Sr transfer factors soil plants for some plants. By using them estimates of future burden can be obtained.

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  16. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  17. Promoting breast screening in Glasgow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L; Dobson, H; McGuire, F

    2000-03-01

    To establish whether there is a role for advertising in the promotion of the Breast Screening Programme and what the role of advertising might be. Four hundred and sixty questionnaires were completed by women attending their breast screening appointment. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the static unit at Calder Street and the mobile unit in Govan. The advertising (budget 30,000 Pounds) campaign ran over an eight week period in the Govan, Paisley Road West and Cardonald areas of Glasgow. Media used included press advertising, The Glasgow Underground, adshells, bus advertising (interiors) and poster distribution via local outlets. Forty-two per cent of the sample were aware of the campaign. Ninety-seven per cent liked the campaign images. Eighty eight per cent felt that breast screening should be advertised more. Screening uptake increased in the areas covered by the advertising campaign. Govan -58%-71% and Ibrox (Paisley Road West and Cardonald) -59%-61%. Women were very supportive of the role of advertising for the Breast Screening Programme. In particular they found the campaign images and messages reassuring, supportive and credible. Their views suggest that the role of advertising should be: To raise awareness of the service To make women more conscious of the benefits of screening To change public perceptions of the screening process However, it is recognised that a fully integrated approach is required for the promotion of the service to account for the improvement in uptake, as advertising cannot be expected to work in isolation.

  18. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of 45Ca2+ by proteoliposomes and cultured rat sertoli cells: Evidence for involvement of voltage-activated and voltage-independent calcium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported incorporation into liposomes of Triton X-100-solubilized FSH receptor-G-protein complexes derived from purified bovine calf testis membranes. In the present study we have used this model system to show that FSH induces flux of 45Ca2+ into such proteoliposomes in a hormone-specific concentration-dependent manner. FSH, inactivated by boiling, had no stimulatory effect on 45Ca2+ flux, nor did isolated alpha- or beta-subunits of FSH. Addition of GTP (or its analogs 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate and guanosine-5'-O-[3-thiotriphosphate]) or sodium fluoride (in the presence or absence of GTP or its analogs) failed to induce 45Ca2+ flux into proteoliposomes, suggesting that the uptake of 45Ca2+ was receptor, and not G-protein, related. Voltage-independent (ruthenium red and gadolinium chloride) and voltage-activated (methyoxyverapamil and nifedipine) calcium channel-blocking agents reduced FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ flux into proteoliposomes to control levels. FSH also induced uptake of 45Ca2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells. Ruthenium red and gadolinium chloride had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake or estradiol secretion by cultured rat Sertoli cells, nor did methoxyverapamil or nifedipine. All four calcium channel blockers, however, were able to reduce FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake to basal levels and FSH-stimulated conversion of androstenedione to estradiol by up to 50%, indicating an involvement of Ca2+ in FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. Our results suggest that the well documented changes in intracellular calcium levels consequent to FSH binding may be due, at least in part, to an influx of calcium through FSH receptor-regulated calcium channels

  19. Incidence and characteristics of uterine leiomyomas with FDG uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Inubushi, Masayuki; Kido, Aki; Miyagawa, Masao; Inoue, Takeshi; Shinohara, Katsura; Kajihara, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas sometimes show focal 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography (PET) images that may result in a false-positive diagnosis for malignant lesions. This study was conducted to investigate the incidence and characteristics of uterine leiomyomas that showed FDG uptake. We reviewed FDG-PET and pelvic magnetic resonance (MR) images of 477 pre-menopausal (pre-MP, age 42.1±7.3 years) and 880 post-MP (age 59.9±6.8 years) healthy women who underwent these tests as parts of cancer screening. Of 1357, 323 underwent annual cancer screening four times, 97 did three times, 191 did twice, and the rest were screened once. Focal FDG uptake (maximal standardized uptake value >3.0) in the pelvis was localized and characterized on co-registered PET/MR images. Uterine leiomyomas were found in 164 pre-MP and 338 post-MP women. FDG uptake was observed in 18 leiomyomas of 17 of the 164 (10.4%) pre-MP women and in 4 leiomyomas of 4 of the 338 (1.2%) post-MP women. The incidence was significantly higher in pre-MP women than in post-MP women (chi-square, P<0.001). Of the 22, 13 showed signal intensity equal to or higher than that of the myometrium on T2-weighted MR images, which suggested abundant cellularity, whereas the majority of leiomyomas without FDG uptake showed low signal intensity. Of the 13 women, 12 examined more than twice showed substantial changes in the level of FDG uptake in leiomyomas each year with FDG uptake disappearing or newly appearing. These changes were observed frequently in relation with menopause or menstrual phases. Leiomyomas with focal FDG uptake were seen in both pre- and post-MP women with a higher incidence in pre-MP women. Abundant cellularity and hormonal dependency may explain a part of the mechanisms of FDG uptake in leiomyomas. It is important to know that the level of FDG uptake in leiomyomas can change and newly appearing FDG uptake does not necessarily mean malignant transformation. (author)

  20. Cancer screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, R; Anderson, R; Cefalu, C; Sidani, M

    2001-03-15

    Numerous medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines. Faced with the broad, and sometimes conflicting, range of recommendations for cancer screening, family physicians must determine the most reasonable and up-to-date method of screening. Major medical organizations have generally achieved consensus on screening guidelines for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer screening in women ages 50 to 70, clinical breast examination and mammography are generally recommended every one or two years, depending on the medical organization. For cervical cancer screening, most organizations recommend a Papanicolaou test and pelvic examination at least every three years in patients between 20 and 65 years of age. Annual fecal occult blood testing along with flexible sigmoidoscopy at five-year to 10-year intervals is the standard recommendation for colorectal cancer screening in patients older than 50 years. Screening for prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Some organizations recommend digital rectal examination and a serum prostate-specific antigen test for men older than 50 years, while others do not. In the absence of compelling evidence to indicate a high risk of endometrial cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and ovarian cancer, almost no medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines for these types of cancer.

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index ...

  3. The Spatial Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Infections and Associated Determinants--An Application of a Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression for Evidence-Based Screening Interventions in Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhl, Boris; Heil, Jeanne; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Schweikart, Jürgen; Krafft, Thomas; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infections are a major cause for liver diseases. A large proportion of these infections remain hidden to care due to its mostly asymptomatic nature. Population-based screening and screening targeted on behavioural risk groups had not proven to be effective in revealing these hidden infections. Therefore, more practically applicable approaches to target screenings are necessary. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial epidemiological methods may provide a more feasible basis for screening interventions through the identification of hotspots as well as demographic and socio-economic determinants. Analysed data included all HCV tests (n = 23,800) performed in the southern area of the Netherlands between 2002-2008. HCV positivity was defined as a positive immunoblot or polymerase chain reaction test. Population data were matched to the geocoded HCV test data. The spatial scan statistic was applied to detect areas with elevated HCV risk. We applied global regression models to determine associations between population-based determinants and HCV risk. Geographically weighted Poisson regression models were then constructed to determine local differences of the association between HCV risk and population-based determinants. HCV prevalence varied geographically and clustered in urban areas. The main population at risk were middle-aged males, non-western immigrants and divorced persons. Socio-economic determinants consisted of one-person households, persons with low income and mean property value. However, the association between HCV risk and demographic as well as socio-economic determinants displayed strong regional and intra-urban differences. The detection of local hotspots in our study may serve as a basis for prioritization of areas for future targeted interventions. Demographic and socio-economic determinants associated with HCV risk show regional differences underlining that a one-size-fits-all approach even within small geographic

  4. Mortality of non-participants in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2014-01-01

    The selective uptake of screening by healthy participants and its impact on the evaluation of screening effectiveness in non-randomized studies have been discussed, but hardly studied. We quantified excess mortality among cervical screening non-participants compared to participants. Based on Dani...

  5. Breast cancer screening awareness, knowledge, and practice among arab women in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra E Elobaid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer screening can reduce morbidity and mortality and improve the survival rate for this malignancy. Low participation in screening programs has been attributable to many factors including lack of knowledge. The aim of this study was to assess breast cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and practices among women of screening age (≥40 years old in the city of Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 using the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM. Four out of twelve cultural and religious community centers in Al Ain city were randomly selected. Two hundred and forty seven women were interviewed. Chi Square test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Despite the increase in the uptake of screening modalities in our study group, a lack of knowledge about breast cancer screening is still evident. Almost half (44.8% of women who never had a Clinical Breast Exam (CBE and 44.1% of women who never had a mammography expressed a lack of knowledge about the existence of these screening techniques. Nearly one third of the participants interpreted the presence of a breast lump incorrectly and, moreover, expressed fewer worries about the nature of the lump than would normally be expected. CONCLUSIONS: The National screening program needs to be improved and directed towards more efficient and targeted utilization of resources. Healthcare professionals play a major role in alerting women to the importance of periodic screening.

  6. Toxicology screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003578.htm Toxicology screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A toxicology screen refers to various tests that determine the ...

  7. The effects of pH and temperature on phosphate and nitrate uptake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of pH and temperature on nutrient uptake efficiency of 3 wastewater protozoan isolates (Aspidisca (A), Trachelophyllum (B) and Peranema (C)) that have previously been screened for nutrient uptake ability. The study was carried out in shake flask at pH 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 ...

  8. Cervical cancer screening and psychosocial barriers perceived by patients. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska-Durawa, Alicja; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at integrating research discussing the role of perceived psychosocial barriers in cervical cancer screening (CCS) uptake. In particular, we analyzed the evidence for the associations between CCS uptake and perceived psychosocial barriers and frequency of psychosocial barriers identified by women. A systematic search of peer-reviewed papers published until 2011 in 8 databases yielded 48 original studies, analyzing data obtained from 155 954 women. The majority of studies (k = 43) applied correlational design, while 5 had experimental design. Experimental research indicated a positive effect of 75% of psychosocial interventions targeting barriers. The interventions resulted in a significant increase of CCS uptake. Overall 100% of correlational studies indicated that perceiving lower levels of barriers significantly predicted higher CCS uptake. 53 psychosocial barriers were listed in at least 2 original correlational studies: 9.5% of barriers were related to CCS facilities/environment, 67.9% dealt with personal characteristics of the patient, and 22.6% addressed social factors. As many as 35.9% of perceived barriers referred to negative emotions related to CCS examination procedures and collecting CCS results, whereas 25.7% of barriers referred to prior contacts with health professionals. Leaflets or discussion on psychosocial barriers between patients and health professionals involved in CCS might increase CCS uptake and thus reduce cervical cancer mortality rates. Communication skills training for health professionals conducting CCS might focus on the most frequently reported barriers, referring to emotions related to CCS examination and collecting CCS results.

  9. Screening for type 2 diabetes: a short report for the National Screening Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, N R; Shyangdan, D; Taylor-Phillips, S; Suri, G; Hall, B

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been increasing, owing to increases in overweight and obesity, decreasing physical activity and the changing demographic structure of the population. People can develop T2DM without symptoms and up to 20% may be undiagnosed. They may have diabetic complications, such as retinopathy, by the time they are diagnosed, or may suffer a heart attack, without warning. Undiagnosed diabetes can be detected by raised blood glucose levels. The aim of this review was to provide an update for the UK National Screening Committee (NSC) on screening for T2DM. As this review was undertaken to update a previous Health Technology Assessment review published in 2007, and a more recent Scottish Public Health Network review, searches for evidence were restricted from 2009 to end of January 2012, with selected later studies added. The databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, MEDLINE-in-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Index. The case for screening was considered against the criteria used by the NSC to assess proposed population screening programmes. Population screening for T2DM does not meet all of the NSC criteria. Criterion 12, on optimisation of existing management, has not been met. A report by the National Audit Office (NAO) gives details of shortcomings. Criterion 13 requires evidence from high-quality randomised controlled trials that screening is beneficial. This has not been met. The Ely trial of screening showed no benefit. The ADDITION trial was not a trial of screening, but showed no benefit in cardiovascular outcomes from intensive management in people with screen-detected T2DM. Criterion 18 on staffing and facilities does not appear to have been met, according to the NAO report. Criterion 19 requires that all other options, including prevention, should have been considered. A large proportion of cases of T2DM could be prevented if people avoided becoming

  10. Colorectal cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intention among Indigenous Western Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Aliki; Thompson, Sandra C

    2012-07-18

    Indigenous Australians are significantly less likely to participate in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening compared to non-Indigenous people. This study aimed to identify important factors influencing the decision to undertake screening using Faecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT) among Indigenous Australians. Very little evidence exists to guide interventions and programmatic approaches for facilitating screening uptake in this population in order to reduce the disparity in colorectal cancer outcomes. Interviewer-administered surveys were carried out with a convenience sample (n = 93) of Indigenous Western Australians between November 2009-March 2010 to assess knowledge, awareness, attitudes and behavioural intent in regard to CRC and CRC screening. Awareness and knowledge of CRC and screening were low, although both were significantly associated with exposure to media advertising (p = 0.008; p < 0.0001). Nearly two-thirds (63%; 58/92) of respondents reported intending to participate in screening, while a greater proportion (84%; 77/92) said they would participate on a doctor's recommendation. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression demonstrated that independent predictors of screening intention were, greater perceived self-efficacy (OR = 19.8, 95% CI = 5.5-71.8), a history of cancer screening participation (OR = 6.8, 95% CI = 2.0-23.3) and being aged 45 years or more (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.2-16.5). A higher CRC knowledge score (medium vs. low: OR = 9.9, 95% CI = 2.4-41.3; high vs. low: 13.6, 95% CI = 3.4-54.0) and being married or in a de-facto relationship (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 2.1-22.5) were also identified as predictors of intention to screen with FOBT. Improving CRC related knowledge and confidence to carry out the FOBT self-screening test through education and greater promotion of screening has the potential to enhance Indigenous participation in CRC screening. These findings should guide the development of interventions to encourage screening uptake and

  11. Is there a strategy I iron uptake mechanism in maize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzhen; Zhou, Xiaojin; Chen, Jingtang; Chen, Rumei

    2018-04-03

    Iron is a metal micronutrient that is essential for plant growth and development. Graminaceous and nongraminaceous plants have evolved different mechanisms to mediate Fe uptake. Generally, strategy I is used by nongraminaceous plants like Arabidopsis, while graminaceous plants, such as rice, barley, and maize, are considered to use strategy II Fe uptake. Upon the functional characterization of OsIRT1 and OsIRT2 in rice, it was suggested that rice, as an exceptional graminaceous plant, utilizes both strategy I and strategy II Fe uptake systems. Similarly, ZmIRT1 and ZmZIP3 were identified as functional zinc and iron transporters in the maize genome, along with the determination of several genes encoding Zn and Fe transporters, raising the possibility that strategy I Fe uptake also occurs in maize. This mini-review integrates previous reports and recent evidence to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of Fe uptake in maize.

  12. Disparities in the use of screening magnetic resonance imaging of the breast in community practice by race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jennifer S; Hill, Deirdre A; Wellman, Robert D; Hubbard, Rebecca A; Lee, Christoph I; Wernli, Karen J; Stout, Natasha K; Tosteson, Anna N A; Henderson, Louise M; Alford-Teaster, Jennifer A; Onega, Tracy L

    2016-02-15

    Uptake of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coupled with breast cancer risk assessment offers the opportunity to tailor the benefits and harms of screening strategies for women with differing cancer risks. Despite the potential benefits, there is also concern for worsening population-based health disparities. Among 316,172 women aged 35 to 69 years from 5 Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries (2007-2012), the authors examined 617,723 negative screening mammograms and 1047 screening MRIs. They examined the relative risks (RRs) of MRI use by women with a college or technical school were 43% more likely and those who had at least a college degree were 132% more likely to receive an MRI compared with those with a high school education or less. Among women with a ≥20% lifetime risk, there was no statistically significant difference noted with regard to the use of screening MRI by race or ethnicity, but high-risk women with a high school education or less were less likely to undergo screening MRI than women who had graduated from college (RR, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.63). Uptake of screening MRI of the breast into clinical practice has the potential to worsen population-based health disparities. Policies beyond health insurance coverage should ensure that the use of this screening modality reflects evidence-based guidelines. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  13. Retinopathy of prematurity screening criteria and workload ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larger infants require screening to include a few outliers, but they ... Making local screening criteria narrower on the basis of a limited evidence base may be dangerous. Risk factors for CSROP in larger infants need to be researched.

  14. Retinopathy of prematurity screening criteria and workload ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larger infants require screening to include a few outliers, but they require ... Making local screening criteria narrower on the basis of a limited evidence base may be dangerous. Risk factors for CSROP in larger infants need to be researched.

  15. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non-immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of paramount importance.

  16. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non- immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of para‐ mount importance.

  17. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info About Us News Physician ... pregnant or if they are breastfeeding. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and breastfeeding ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... imaging tests to: determine if the gland is working properly help ... condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us ... pregnant or if they are breastfeeding. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and breastfeeding ...

  1. Enablers and Barriers to Large-Scale Uptake of Improved Solid Fuel Stoves: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzzolo, Elisa; Stanistreet, Debbi; Pope, Daniel; Bruce, Nigel G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Globally, 2.8 billion people rely on household solid fuels. Reducing the resulting adverse health, environmental, and development consequences will involve transitioning through a mix of clean fuels and improved solid fuel stoves (IS) of demonstrable effectiveness. To date, achieving uptake of IS has presented significant challenges. Objectives: We performed a systematic review of factors that enable or limit large-scale uptake of IS in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted systematic searches through multidisciplinary databases, specialist websites, and consulting experts. The review drew on qualitative, quantitative, and case studies and used standardized methods for screening, data extraction, critical appraisal, and synthesis. We summarized our findings as “factors” relating to one of seven domains—fuel and technology characteristics; household and setting characteristics; knowledge and perceptions; finance, tax, and subsidy aspects; market development; regulation, legislation, and standards; programmatic and policy mechanisms—and also recorded issues that impacted equity. Results: We identified 31 factors influencing uptake from 57 studies conducted in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. All domains matter. Although factors such as offering technologies that meet household needs and save fuel, user training and support, effective financing, and facilitative government action appear to be critical, none guarantee success: All factors can be influential, depending on context. The nature of available evidence did not permit further prioritization. Conclusions: Achieving adoption and sustained use of IS at a large scale requires that all factors, spanning household/community and program/societal levels, be assessed and supported by policy. We propose a planning tool that would aid this process and suggest further research to incorporate an evaluation of effectiveness. Citation: Rehfuess EA, Puzzolo E, Stanistreet D, Pope D, Bruce

  2. Patients with sickle cell disease are frequently excluded from the benefits of transcranial doppler screening for the risk of stroke despite extensive and compelling evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Laranja Gomes Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Transcranial doppler (TCD is a strategic component of primary stroke prevention in children with sickle cell disease (SCD. This study was conducted to examine the TCD characteristics of children with SCD in nine different medical centers in Brazil. Methods: Transcranial doppler was performed in accordance with the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia Protocol. Results: Of the 396 patients, 69.5% had homozygous SS hemoglobin. The TCD result was abnormal in 4.8%, conditional in 12.6%, inadequate in 4.3% and abnormally low in 1% of patients. The highest mean flow velocities were 121±23.83cm/s and 124±27.21cm/s in the left and right middle cerebral artery respectively. A total of 28.8% patients (mean age 9.19±5.92 years were evaluated with TCD for the first time. Conclusions: The SCD patients were evaluated with TCD at an older age, representing an important missed opportunity for stroke prevention. Since TCD screening in patients with SCD is important to detect those at high risk for stroke, it is recommended that this screening should be made more readily available.

  3. Thyroid Uptake Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Tuan; Nguyen Thi Bao My; Nguyen Van Sy

    2007-01-01

    The NED-UP.M7 is a complete thyroid uptake and analysis system specifically designed for nuclear medicine. Capable of performing a full range of studies this system provides fast, accurate results for Uptake Studies. The heart of the NED-UP.M7 is a microprocessor-controlled 2048 channel Compact Multi-Channel Analyzer, coupled to a 2 inch x 2 inch NaI(Tl) detector with a USB personal computer interface. The system offers simple, straight-forward operation using pre-programmed isotopes, and menudriven prompts to guide the user step by step through each procedure. The pre-programmed radionuclides include I-123, I-125, I-131, Tc-99m and Cs-137. The user-defined radionuclides also allow for isotope identification while the printer provides hard copy printouts for patient and department record keeping. The included software program running on PC (Windows XP-based) is a user friendly program with menudriven and graphic interface for easy controlling the system and managing measurement results of patient on Excel standard form. (author)

  4. Elevated sacroilac joint uptake ratios in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Smet, A.A.; Mahmood, T.; Robinson, R.G.; Lindsley, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint radiographs and radionuclide sacroiliac joint uptake ratios were obtained on 14 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Elevated joint ratios were found unilaterally in two patients and bilaterally in seven patients when their lupus was active. In patients whose disease became quiescent, the uptake ratios returned to normal. Two patients had persistently elevated ratios with continued clinical and laboratory evidence of active lupus. Mild sacroiliac joint sclerosis and erosions were detected on pelvic radiographs in these same two patients. Elevated quantitative sacroiliac joint uptake ratios may occur as a manifestation of active systemic lupus erythematosus

  5. Depression Screening and Patient Outcomes in Cancer : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Milette, Katherine; Coyne, James C.; Stefanek, Michael E.; Ziegelstein, Roy C.; Arthurs, Erin; Leavens, Allison; Palmer, Steven C.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Thombs, Brett D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several practice guidelines recommend screening for depression in cancer care, but no systematic reviews have examined whether there is evidence that depression screening benefits cancer patients. The objective was to evaluate the potential benefits of depression screening in cancer

  6. Comparative effectiveness and acceptability of home-based and clinic-based sampling methods for sexually transmissible infections screening in females aged 14-50 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odesanmi, Tolulope Y; Wasti, Sharada P; Odesanmi, Omolola S; Adegbola, Omololu; Oguntuase, Olubukola O; Mahmood, Sajid

    2013-12-01

    Home-based sampling is a strategy to enhance uptake of sexually transmissible infection (STI) screening. This review aimed to compare the screening uptake levels of home-based self-sampling and clinic-based specimen collection for STIs (chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis), gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) and trichomoniasis) in females aged 14-50 years. Acceptability and effect on specimen quality were determined. Sixteen electronic databases were searched from inception to September 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the uptake levels of home-based self-sampling and clinic-based sampling for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis in females aged 14-50 years were eligible for inclusion. The risk of bias in the trials was assessed. Risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes were meta-analysed. Of 3065 papers, six studies with seven RCTs contributed to the final review. Compared with clinic-based methods, home-based screening increased uptake significantly (P=0.001-0.05) in five trials and was substantiated in a meta-analysis (RR: 1.55; 95% confidence interval: 1.30-1.85; P=0.00001) of two trials. In three trials, a significant preference for home-based testing (P=0.001-0.05) was expressed. No significant difference was observed in specimen quality. Sampling was rated as easy by a significantly higher number of women (P=0.01) in the clinic group in one trial. The review provides evidence that home-based testing results in greater uptake of STI screening in females (14-50 years) than clinic-based testing without compromising quality in the developed world. Home collection strategies should be added to clinic-based screening programs to enhance uptake.

  7. Screening of the USH1G gene among Spanish patients with Usher syndrome. Lack of mutations and evidence of a minor role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Elena; Jaijo, Teresa; Beneyto, Magdalena; Nájera, Carmen; Morera, Constantino; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio; Ayuso, Carmen; Millán, Jose

    2007-09-01

    The Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disorder characterized by the association of sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and, in some cases, vestibular dysfunction. The USH1G gene, encoding SANS, has been found to cause both Usher syndrome type I and atypical Usher syndrome. 109 Spanish unrelated patients suffering from Usher syndrome type I, type II, type III and unclassified Usher syndrome were screened for mutations in this gene, but only eight different changes without a clear pathogenic effect have been detected. Based on these results as well as previous studies in other populations where mutational analysis of this gene has been carried out, one can conclude that USH1G has a minor involvement in Usher syndrome pathogenesis.

  8. Improving access to screening for people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Anna; Turner, Sue; Giraud-Saunders, Alison

    2014-11-04

    People with learning disabilities have poorer health than their non-disabled peers, and are less likely to access screening services than the general population. The National Development Team for Inclusion and the Norah Fry Research Centre developed a toolkit and guidance to improve uptake of five national (English) screening programmes (one of which is delivered through local programmes), based on work to improve access by people with learning disabilities in the south west peninsula of the UK. This article describes the findings in relation to the five English screening programmes and suggests ways to improve uptake of cancer screening by people with learning disabilities.

  9. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cause of female genital cancer and female cancer deaths in developing countries such as Nigeria. The most recent government estimates put the number of new cases at 25,000 per year. According to the latest global estimates, 493, 000 new cases occur each year and ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    year and 274,000 women die of the disease annually. ... and the overall knowledge was equally poor. ... population and HPV in women with cervical cancer. 6 ..... This finding is similar to the study done among rural women in. 28 india.

  11. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits. When there is not enough evidence to judge benefits and harms, the Task Force does not ... nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and nurses. selectively offer Decide whether screening is right for a patient on ...

  12. Phosphorus deficiency enhances molybdenum uptake by tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuwinkel, H.; Kirkby, E.A.; Le Bot, J.; Marschner, H.

    1992-01-01

    Water culture experiments are described which provide conclusive evidence that Mo uptake by tomato plants is markedly enhanced by P deficiency. In a longterm experiment, which ran for 11 days, in marked contrast to the uptake of other nutrients, a three fold higher Mo uptake rate was observed after only four days of withdrawal of P from the nutrient medium. In contrast to the gradual increase in pH of the nutrient medium of the plants supplied with P, the pH in the medium of the -P plants fell. Throughout the growth of these plants net H+ efflux could be accounted for by excess cation over anion uptake, indicating that organic acid extrusion plays no major role in the observed fall in pH. Further evidence that Mo uptake is enhanced in P deficient tomato plants is provided in short-term nutrient solution experiments (1h and 4h) using radioactive molybdenum (99Mo). Compared with P sufficient plants, the uptake rates of 99Mo by P deficient plants were three to five times higher after 1h and nine to twelve times higher after 4h. Resupplying P during the uptake periods to deficient plants reduced the uptake rate of 99Mo to values similar to those of P sufficient plants. It is concluded that the uptake of molybdate occurs via phosphate binding/ transporting sites at the plasma membrane of root cells. Further support for this conclusion comes from exchange experiments with non-labelled molybdenum, which show a much larger amount of 99Mo exchangeable from the roots of P deficient plants

  13. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  14. Screening for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T

    2001-04-01

    of referrals, types of suspected skin cancers, biopsies, confirmed skin cancers, and stages and thickness of skin cancers. For studies that reported test performance, we recorded the definition of a suspicious lesion, the "gold-standard" determination of disease, and the number of true positive, false positive, true negative, and false negative test results. When possible, positive predictive values, likelihood ratios, sensitivity, and specificity were recorded. No randomized or case-control studies have been done that demonstrate that routine screening for melanoma by primary care providers reduces morbidity or mortality. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are very common, but detection and treatment in the absence of formal screening are almost always curative. No controlled studies have shown that formal screening programs will improve this already high cure rate. While the efficacy of screening has not been established, the screening procedures themselves are noninvasive, and the follow-up test, skin biopsy, has low morbidity. Five studies from mass screening programs reported the accuracy of skin examination as a screening test. One of these, a prospective study, tracked patients with negative results to determine the number of patients with false-negative results. In this study, the sensitivity of screening for skin cancer was 94% and specificity was 98%. Several recent case-control studies confirm earlier evidence that risk of melanoma rises with the presence of atypical moles and/or many common moles. One well-done prospective study demonstrated that risk assessment by limited physical exam identified a relatively small (fair. We found no studies that assessed the effectiveness of periodic skin examination by a clinician in reducing melanoma mortality. Both self-assessment of risk factors or clinician examination can classify a small proportion of patients as at highest risk for melanoma. Skin cancer screening, perhaps using a risk

  15. Disordered gambling as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the South Oaks Gambling Screen: evidence for a common etiologic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutske, Wendy S; Zhu, Gu; Meier, Madeline H; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-08-01

    In a previous article, we demonstrated in a large twin study that disordered gambling (DG), as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV), ran in families, that about half of the variation in liability for DG was due to familial factors, and that all of this was explained by shared genetic rather than shared environmental influences (Slutske, Zhu, Meier, & Martin, 2010). The purpose of the present study is to extend this work to include an alternative conceptualization of DG that is provided by the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) item set in order to (a) compare the magnitude of the familial resemblance obtained when using the two definitions of DG (based on the DSM-IV and the SOGS), (b) examine the extent to which the 2 definitions tap the same underlying sources of genetic and environmental variation, and (c) examine whether the same results will be obtained among men and women. The results of bivariate twin model-fitting analyses suggested that DG, as defined by the DSM-IV and the SOGS, substantially overlapped at the etiologic level among both men and women, which supports the construct validity of both the DSM and the SOGS conceptualizations of DG. This study highlights the utility of twin studies for appraising the validity of the diagnostic nomenclature. © 2011 American Psychological Association

  16. Aquaporins and root water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is one of the most critical resources limiting plant growth and crop productivity, and root water uptake is an important aspect of plant physiology governing plant water use and stress tolerance. Pathways of root water uptake are complex and are affected by root structure and physiological res...

  17. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  18. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  19. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  20. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  1. Industrial screening programs for workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    Industrial screening efforts to identify classes of workers who are more susceptible to workplace hazards, by virtue of their fertility, genetic, or lifestyle characteristics, represent a relatively new approach to reducing workplace risks. Screening has already raised some important economic, legal, social, medical, and moral questions. Employers, employees, administrative agencies, and the courts are offering different, often conflicting answers. Ultimately the acceptability of various screening schemes rests upon judgments about how a society justifies the distribution of risk. The questions that industrial screening programs raise are only partially answered by empirical evidence; the rest is a matter of values

  2. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, Monica Ramona

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden and is the most common cause of mortality from cancer in Europe. Over the last two decades robust evidence from randomised clinical trials and case-control series have confirmed that the mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by screening. The challenge over the next decade is how to implement this in clinical practice. This is what we set out to answer with this thesis. Not all individuals are equal when it comes to screening and tho...

  3. Screen dealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The screen dealing system provides a facility whereby buyers and sellers of spot thermal coal can make bids and offers via the medium of the Reuters screen. A sale results when a market participant notifies his acceptance of a price to a central dealing desk. Use of the system is available to all genuine participants in the coal trade. This paper reports that it provides a focus for information and for the visible making of coal prices. For years screen trading has been used successfully to trade other commodities. At last coal is being traded electronically. It makes sense. It works. Users like it

  4. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  5. Brain docosahexaenoic acid uptake and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, R J Scott; Chouinard-Watkins, Raphaël; Bazinet, Richard P

    2018-02-08

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most abundant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the brain where it serves to regulate several important processes and, in addition, serves as a precursor to bioactive mediators. Given that the capacity of the brain to synthesize DHA locally is appreciably low, the uptake of DHA from circulating lipid pools is essential to maintaining homeostatic levels. Although, several plasma pools have been proposed to supply the brain with DHA, recent evidence suggests non-esterified-DHA and lysophosphatidylcholine-DHA are the primary sources. The uptake of DHA into the brain appears to be regulated by a number of complementary pathways associated with the activation and metabolism of DHA, and may provide mechanisms for enrichment of DHA within the brain. Following entry into the brain, DHA is esterified into and recycled amongst membrane phospholipids contributing the distribution of DHA in brain phospholipids. During neurotransmission and following brain injury, DHA is released from membrane phospholipids and converted to bioactive mediators which regulate signaling pathways important to synaptogenesis, cell survival, and neuroinflammation, and may be relevant to treating neurological diseases. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive overview of brain DHA metabolism, encompassing many of the pathways and key enzymatic regulators governing brain DHA uptake and metabolism. In addition, we focus on the release of non-esterified DHA and subsequent production of bioactive mediators and the evidence of their proposed activity within the brain. We also provide a brief review of the evidence from post-mortem brain analyses investigating DHA levels in the context of neurological disease and mood disorder, highlighting the current disparities within the field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Airport Screening Fact Sheet Adopted: May 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan ... a safe level. An American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society industry standard states that the maxi- mum ...

  7. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  8. Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How accurate is carrier screening? No test is perfect. In a small number of cases, test results ... in which an egg is removed from a woman’s ovary, fertilized in a laboratory with the man’s ...

  9. Social disparities in access to breast and cervical cancer screening by women living in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo-Rodrigues, I; Jiménez-García, R; Hernández-Barrera, V; Carrasco-Garrido, P; Jiménez-Trujillo, I; López de Andrés, A

    2015-07-01

    To describe uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening by women living in Spain, analyse the possible associated social and health factors, and compare uptake rates with those obtained in previous surveys. Cross-sectional study using data from the 2011 Spanish national health survey. Uptake of breast cancer screening was analysed by asking women aged 40-69 years whether they had undergone mammography in the previous two years. Uptake of cervical cancer screening was analysed by asking women aged 25-65 years whether they had undergone cervical cytology in the previous three years. Independent variables included sociodemographic characteristics, and variables related to health status and lifestyle. Seventy-two percent of women had undergone mammography in the previous two years. Having private health insurance increased the probability of breast screening uptake four-fold [odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.71-5.79], and being an immigrant was a negative predictor for breast screening uptake. Seventy percent of women had undergone cervical cytology in the previous three years. Higher-educated women were more likely to have undergone cervical cancer screening (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.97-3.40), and obese women and women living in rural areas were less likely to have undergone cervical cancer screening. There have been no relevant improvements in uptake rates of either breast or cervical cancer screening since 2006. Uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening could be improved in Spain, and uptake rates have stagnated over recent years. Social disparities have been detected with regard to access to these screening tests, indicating that it is necessary to continue researching and optimizing prevention programmes in order to improve uptake and reduce these disparities. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lactate uptake against a concentration gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Nielsen, Hans Boye

    2014-01-01

    The recently published article by Jalloh et al (Jalloh I, Helmy A, Shannon RJ, Gallagher CN, Menon D, Carpenter K, Hutchinson P. Lactate uptake by the injured human brain - evidence from an arterio-venous gradient and cerebral microdialysis study. J Neurotrauma. 2013 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print......]) concludes that lactate may be transported across the blood brain barrier into the brain against a concentration gradient. Unfortunately the authors have misinterpreted the concept of analytical imprecision and their conclusion is based on analytical artifact. As the topic of lactate transport into the brain...

  11. Zirconium intermetallics and hydrogen uptake during corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1987-04-01

    The routes by which hydrogen can enter zirconium alloys containing second phase particles during corrosion are discussed. Both direct diffusion through the bulk of the oxide film, and migration through second phase particles that intersect the surface are considered. An examination of results for hydrogen uptake by zirconium alloys during the early stages of oxidation, when the oxide film is still coherent, suggests that for Zr, Zr-1%Cu and Zr-1%Fe the hydrogen enters by diffusing through the bulk ZrO 2 film, whereas for the Zircaloys the primary migration route may be through the intermetallics. The steps in the latter process are discussed and the evidence available on the properties of the intermetallics collated. A comparison of these data with results for hydrogen uptake by two series of ternary alloys (Zr-1%Nb - 1%X, Zr-1%Cu - 1%X) suggests that high hydrogen uptakes often correlate with intermetallics with high hydrogen solubilities and vice versa. The properties of Zr(Fe/Cr) 2+x intermetallics are examined in an attempt to understand the behaviour of the Zircaloys, and it is concluded that present data establishing composition and unit cell dimensions for such intermetallic particles are not of sufficient accuracy to permit a correlation

  12. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  13. Uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Vetter, R.J.; Christian, J.E.; Kessler, W.V.; McFee, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of cadmium in corn (Zea mays) treated at various time intervals after planting and sampled at various times after treatment were measured. Cadmium was found to accumulate in all parts sampled. As shown in field studies, stems and leaves generally concentrated more cadmium than did husks, cobs, kernels, silks, or tassels. Samples of stems and leaves from corn treated 23 days after planting and sampled 5 days later exhibited higher concentrations of cadmium than samples taken 25, 45, 65, or 85 days after treatment. Concentrations generally decreased with time. Greenhouse studies showed that corn exposed to cadmium for the longest period of time accumulated the greatest total cadmium. The highest cadmium concentrations were found in the base or lowest leaves sampled 45 days after planting; this suggests a useful technique for quick screening corn crops for cadmium pollution

  14. A Low-Cost, Simplified Platform of Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for Rapid, Forensic Evidence Screening on Portable Mass Spectrometric Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Fedick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Portable mass spectrometers (MS are becoming more prevalent due to improved instrumentation, commercialization, and the robustness of new ionization methodologies. To increase utility towards diverse field-based applications, there is an inherent need for rugged ionization source platforms that are simple, yet robust towards analytical scenarios that may arise. Ambient ionization methodologies have evolved to target specific real-world problems and fulfill requirements of the analysis at hand. Ambient ionization techniques continue to advance towards higher performance, with specific sources showing variable proficiency depending on application area. To realize the full potential and applicability of ambient ionization methods, a selection of sources may be more prudent, showing a need for a low-cost, flexible ionization source platform. This manuscript describes a centralized system that was developed for portable MS systems that incorporates modular, rapidly-interchangeable ionization sources comprised of low-cost, commercially-available parts. Herein, design considerations are reported for a suite of ambient ionization sources that can be crafted with minimal machining or customization. Representative spectral data is included to demonstrate applicability towards field processing of forensic evidence. While this platform is demonstrated on portable instrumentation, retrofitting to lab-scale MS systems is anticipated.

  15. Does gallium uptake in the pulmonary hila predict involvement by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, P.E.; Groshar, D.; Hooper, H.R.; Palmer, M.; Catz, Z.; Belch, A.; McEwan, A.

    1992-01-01

    67 Ga imaging of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is useful for evaluating the presence of viable tumour in a residual mass after treatment. However, we have frequently seen gallium uptake in the pulmonary hila without other evidence of lymphoma. To study the significance of this finding, 79 patients with intermediate grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were reviewed. Thirty-seven (47%) had abnormal hilar gallium uptake. Twenty-three of these could be fully evaluated, and only five (22%) had hilar lymphoma. A pattern of bilateral, symmetric hilar uptake was seen in 19 patients, but only one had evidence of lymphoma. In 15 cases, this pattern was seen only on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The aetiology of this uptake remains unknown. It is not treatment related, as 12 patients had hilar gallium uptake prior to chemotherapy. Unless confirmed by other methods, hilar gallium uptake should not be attributed to lymphoma, and should not influence patient management. (Author)

  16. Reasons for accepting or declining Down syndrome screening in Dutch prospective mothers within the context of national policy and healthcare system characteristics : a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Boeije, Hennie; Iedema-Kuiper, Rita; Schielen, Peter C J I; Visser, Gerard H A; Bensing, Jozien M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uptake rates for Down syndrome screening in the Netherlands are low compared to other European countries. To investigate the low uptake, we explored women's reasons for participation and possible influences of national healthcare system characteristics. Dutch prenatal care is

  17. Technetium uptake by Sinapis Alba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.; Ter Meer-Bekk, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    Transfer factors for pertechnetate uptake was determined for Sinapis Alba cultured hydroponically. For the freshly harvested, undried plants transfer factors were found between 13 and 40 depending on the growth period. (author)

  18. Questioning screening | Kent | Obstetrics and Gynaecology Forum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article raises new evidence about screening and argues for the evaluation in all screening on a benefits/harms ratio and then the choice being agreed by the care-giver and patient. As the evidence changes, so do our prejudices come under scrutiny. Are we prepared to objectively review our position in the light of new ...

  19. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie Mia Katrine; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...

  20. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  1. Physiological FDG uptake in the ovaries after hysterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Inubushi, Masayuki; Ozawa, Fukujiro; Kido, Aki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    It is known that focal 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake is physiologically seen in the ovaries and uterus of premenopausal women in correlation with the menstrual cycle, which may cause false-positive diagnoses on the images of FDG positron emission tomography (PET). The objective of this study was to clarify whether women of reproductive age after hysterectomy whose ovaries were preserved, also showed physiological ovarian FDG uptake. We reviewed 26 women after hysterectomy (age 51.1±5.0 years), who underwent annual cancer screening, including FDG-PET and pelvic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, three times. Seven women (age 45.9±5.8 years, range 34-52 years) had at least one ovary, showing changes in its appearance including the size and number of follicles on MR images each year, which suggested that the ovary was functioning. Four of the seven women showed focal FDG uptake (standardized uptake value 4.2±1.1) that corresponded to the normal ovaries on five PET examinations. Another group of 19 women (age 53.1±3.1 years, range 47-59 years) who had small ovaries without changes on MR images each year did not show FDG uptake in the ovaries. Physiological FDG uptake observed in the ovaries of women of reproductive age even after hysterectomy is reasonably common. As it is not easy to determine the hormonal cycle in these women, it is essential to correlate focal FDG uptake in the pelvis with anatomical and morphological findings on MR images to avoid false-positive diagnoses. (author)

  2. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.-I.

    1982-01-01

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  3. Evidence-Based Occupational Hearing Screening I: Modeling the Effects of Real-World Noise Environments on the Likelihood of Effective Speech Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soli, Sigfrid D; Giguère, Christian; Laroche, Chantal; Vaillancourt, Véronique; Dreschler, Wouter A; Rhebergen, Koenraad S; Harkins, Kevin; Ruckstuhl, Mark; Ramulu, Pradeep; Meyers, Lawrence S

    corrections environments. The likelihood of effective speech communication at communication distances of 0.5 and 1 m was often less than 0.50 for normal vocal effort. Likelihood values often increased to 0.80 or more when raised or loud vocal effort was used. Effective speech communication at and beyond 5 m was often unlikely, regardless of vocal effort. ESII modeling of nonstationary real-world noise environments may prove an objective means of characterizing their impact on the likelihood of effective speech communication. The normative reference provided by these measures predicts the extent to which hearing impairments that increase the ESII value required for effective speech communication also decrease the likelihood of effective speech communication. These predictions may provide an objective evidence-based link between the essential hearing-critical job task requirements of public safety and law enforcement personnel and ESII-based hearing assessment of individuals who seek to perform these jobs.

  4. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  5. Correlation of hepatic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with fatty liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    Liver demonstrates heterogeneous FDG uptake and sometimes it shows abnormally increased uptake even though there is no malignant tissue. However, there was no previous study to correlate these various pattern of hepatic FDG uptake with benign liver disease. Therefore, we evaluated the significance of hepatic FDG uptake associated with various clinical factors including fatty liver, liver function tests and lipid profiles. We reviewed a total of 188 patients (male/female: 120/68, mean age: 50 {+-} 9) who underwent PET/CT for screening of malignancy. Patients with DM, impaired glucose tolerance, previous severe hepatic disease or long-term medication history were excluded. The FDG uptake in liver was analyzed semi-quantitatively using ROI on transaxial images (segment 8) and we compared mean standardized uptake value (SUV) between fatty liver and non-fatty liver group. We also evaluated the correlation between hepatic FDG uptake and various clinical factors including serum liver function test (ALT, AST), {gamma} -GT, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration. The effect of alcoholic history and body mass index on hepatic FDG uptake was analyzed within the fatty liver patients. The hepatic FDG uptake of fatty liver group was significantly higher than that of non-fatty liver group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration showed significant correlation with hepatic FDG uptake. However, there was no significant correlation between other factors (ALT, AST, and {gamma} -GT) and FDG uptake. Also there was no difference of mean SUV between normal and abnormal groups on the basis of alcoholic history and body mass index within fatty liver patients. Fatty liver and high serum triglyceride concentration were the independent factors affecting hepatic FDG uptake according to multivariate analysis. In conclusion, hepatic FDG uptake was strongly correlated with fatty liver and serum triglyceride concentration.

  6. Correlation of hepatic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake with fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee; Hong, Seon Pyo; Joh, Chul Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam

    2006-01-01

    Liver demonstrates heterogeneous FDG uptake and sometimes it shows abnormally increased uptake even though there is no malignant tissue. However, there was no previous study to correlate these various pattern of hepatic FDG uptake with benign liver disease. Therefore, we evaluated the significance of hepatic FDG uptake associated with various clinical factors including fatty liver, liver function tests and lipid profiles. We reviewed a total of 188 patients (male/female: 120/68, mean age: 50 ± 9) who underwent PET/CT for screening of malignancy. Patients with DM, impaired glucose tolerance, previous severe hepatic disease or long-term medication history were excluded. The FDG uptake in liver was analyzed semi-quantitatively using ROI on transaxial images (segment 8) and we compared mean standardized uptake value (SUV) between fatty liver and non-fatty liver group. We also evaluated the correlation between hepatic FDG uptake and various clinical factors including serum liver function test (ALT, AST), γ -GT, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration. The effect of alcoholic history and body mass index on hepatic FDG uptake was analyzed within the fatty liver patients. The hepatic FDG uptake of fatty liver group was significantly higher than that of non-fatty liver group. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration showed significant correlation with hepatic FDG uptake. However, there was no significant correlation between other factors (ALT, AST, and γ -GT) and FDG uptake. Also there was no difference of mean SUV between normal and abnormal groups on the basis of alcoholic history and body mass index within fatty liver patients. Fatty liver and high serum triglyceride concentration were the independent factors affecting hepatic FDG uptake according to multivariate analysis. In conclusion, hepatic FDG uptake was strongly correlated with fatty liver and serum triglyceride concentration

  7. Intestinal uptake of bone seeking radiotracer: possible mechanisms and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Kim, C. G.; Park, S. A.; Chang, J. A. [WonKwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the frequency of intestinal accumulation of Tc-99m 3, 3-diphosphono-1, 2-propanedicarboxylic acid (DPD) on bone scans, describe the patterns of intestinal Tc-99m DPD uptake and discuss the possible mechanisms of this unusual finding. Three thousand, one hundred and ninety-four consecutive patients have been evaluated for intestinal Tc-99m DPD uptake on bone scans. A whole-body bone scan and various spot views were obtained to evaluate the location and intensity of intestinal uptake. Delayed scan and SPECT study were performed to define characteristics of intestinal uptake in some of patients. Available reports of co-relative radiologic imaging, endoscopic studies and laboratory tests were also reviewed to explain the intestinal uptake. Eighteen (9 female, 9 male) patients out of 3194 with a mean age of 57 years showed intestinal Tc-99m DPD uptake. The locations of intestinal uptake were well dispersed throughout the abdomen. The majority of the cases showed lower intensity than iliac spine (12/18, 67%). Eight patients didn't show significant change of uptake characteristics on the delayed images, while intestinal uptake traveled distally in nine patients. Two cases were revealed uptake of peritoneal carcinomatosis with small amount ascites and three cases were revealed tumoral uptake of intestine. Four patients with gastritis showed similar characteristic of intestinal uptake. Six cases of distally traveled intestinal uptake suggested intraluminal Tc-99m DPD activity such as gastrointestinal bleeding. However, stool occult blood tests were negative in three patients, and there is no clinical evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in other three patients. Intestinal Tc-99m DPD uptake can be observed in 0.5% of bone scans. The mechanism of intestinal uptake is still unclear in some of the patients. Delayed imaging additional spot views and SPECT studies help in the differentiation of this finding from possible

  8. Emerging role of HPV self-sampling in cervical cancer screening for hard-to-reach women: Focused literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madzima, Tina R; Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha

    2017-08-01

    To provide a focused critical review of the literature on the acceptability, feasibility, and uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling among hard-to-reach women. A focused search to obtain relevant literature published in English between 1997 and 2015 was done using PubMed and EMBASE using search terms including HPV self-test or HPV self-sample or HPV kit in combination with acceptability or feasibility . Only studies that focused on never-screened or underscreened populations were included in this review. Human papillomavirus self-sampling was found to be highly acceptable and feasible among these hard-to-reach women across most studies. Mailing of self-sampling kits has been shown to increase participation among hard-to reach women. Some concerns remain regarding adherence to further follow-up among high-risk women with positive test results for HPV after screening. There is a strong body of evidence to support the usefulness of HPV self-sampling in increasing participation of hard-to-reach women in screening programs (level I evidence). Convenience, privacy, ease of use, and, likely, cost-effectiveness of HPV self-sampling are driving forces in its emerging role in cervical cancer screening among hard-to-reach women. Key barriers to participation could be addressed by overcoming disparities in HPV-related knowledge and perceptions about cervical cancer screening. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  9. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  10. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an efficient and cost-effective method to identify children with visual impairment or eye conditions that are likely to lead ... main goal of vision screening is to identify children who have or are at ... visual impairment unless treated in early childhood. Other problems that ...

  11. Characterization of iron uptake from hydroxamate siderophores by Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allnutt, F.C.T.

    1985-01-01

    Iron uptake by Chlorella vulgaris from ferric-hydroxamate siderophores and the possible production of siderophores by these algae was investigated. No production of siderophores or organic acids was observed. Iron from the two hydroxamate siderophores tested, ferrioximine B (Fe 3+ -DFOB) and ferric-rhodotorulate (Fe 3+ -RA), was taken up at the same rate as iron chelated by citrate or caffeate. Two synthetic chelates, Fe 3+ -EDTA and Fe 3+ -EDDHA, provided iron at a slower rate. Iron uptake was inhibited by 50 μM CCCP or 1 mM vanadate. Cyanide (100 μM KCN) or 25 μM antimycin A failed to demonstrate a link between uptake and respiration. Labeled iron ( 55 Fe) was taken up while labeled ligands ([ 14 C] citrate or RA) were not accumulated. Cation competition from Ni 2+ and Co 2+ observed using Fe 3+ -DFOB and Fe 3+ -RA while iron uptake from Fe 3+ -citrate was stimulated. Iron-stress induced iron uptake from the hydroxamate siderophores. Ferric reduction from the ferric-siderophores was investigated with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and bathophenathroline disulfonate (BPDS). Ferric reduction was induced by iron-stress and inhibited by CCCP. A close correlation between iron uptake and ferric reduction was measured by the EPR method. Ferric reduction measured by the BPDS method was greater than that measure by EPR. BPDS reduction was interpreted to indicate a potential for reduction while EPR measures the physiological rate of reduction. BPDS inhibition of iron uptake and ferricyanide interference with reduction indicate that reduction and uptake occur exposed to the external medium. Presumptive evidence using a binding dose response curve for Fe 3+ -DFOB indicated that a receptor may be involved in this mechanism

  12. Root uptake of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of elements by plant roots is one of the important pathways of entry of many elements into the food chain of man. Data are cited showing plutonium concentration ratios, plant/soil, ranging from 10 -10 to 10 -3 . Concentration ratios for americium range from 10 -7 to 10 +1 . Limited experiments with curium and neptunium indicate that root uptake of curium is similar to that of americium and that plant uptake of neptunium is substantially larger than that of curium and americium. The extreme ranges of concentration ratios cited for plutonium and americium are due to a number of causes. Experimental conditions such as very intensive cropping will lead to abnormally high concentration ratios. In some experiments, addition of chelating agents markedly increased plant root uptake of transuranic elements. Particle size and composition of the source material influenced uptake of the transuranics by plants. Translocation within the plant, and soil factors such as pH and organic matter content, all affect concentration ratios

  13. Using the Frailty Assessment for Care Planning Tool (FACT) to screen elderly chronic kidney disease patients for frailty: the nurse experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Heather; Moorhouse, Paige; Mallery, Laurie; Landry, David; Tennankore, Karthik

    2018-01-01

    Recent evidence supports the prognostic significance of frailty for functional decline and poor health outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet, despite the development of clinical tools to screen for frailty, little is known about the experiential impact of screening for frailty in this setting. The Frailty Assessment for Care Planning Tool (FACT) evaluates frailty across 4 domains: mobility, function, social circumstances, and cognition. The purpose of this qualitative study was as follows: 1) explore the nurse experience of screening for frailty using the FACT tool in a specialized outpatient renal clinic; 2) determine how, if at all, provider perceptions of frailty changed after implementation of the frailty screening tool; and 3) determine the perceived factors that influence uptake and administration of the FACT screening tool in a specialized clinical setting. A semi-structured interview of 5 nurses from the Nova Scotia Health Authority, Central Zone Renal Clinic was conducted. A grounded theory approach was used to generate thematic categories and analysis models. Four primary themes emerged in the data analysis: "we were skeptical", "we made it work", "we learned how", and "we understand". As the renal nurses gained a sense of confidence in their ability to implement the FACT tool, initial barriers to implementation were attenuated. Implementation factors - such as realistic goals, clear guidelines, and ongoing training - were important factors for successful uptake of the frailty screening initiative. Nurse participants reported an overall positive experience using the FACT method to screen for frailty and indicated that their understanding of the multiple dimensions and subtleties of "frailty" were enhanced. Future nurse-led FACT screening initiatives should incorporate those factors identified as being integral to program success: realistic goals, clear guidelines, and ongoing training. Adopting the evaluation of frailty as a priority

  14. Awareness of cervical cancer and willingness to participate in screening program: Public health policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somdatta Patra

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The country's national program advocates for opportunistic and targeted screening of women. An understanding of the factors that influences womens' willingness to participate in screening program is essential for the success of such programs. Hence, this study emphasizes the need for dissemination of knowledge about various aspects of cancer cervix which is critical for uptake of any screening program in a developing country.

  15. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  16. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  17. Incidental Focal 18F FDG Uptake in the Prostate: Clinical Significance and Differential Diagnostic Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Suk Kyong; Choi, Joon Young; Yoo, Jang; Cheon, Miju; Lee, Ji Young; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Lee, Eun Jeong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae

    2011-01-01

    The extent and intensity of 18F FDG uptake in prostate cancer patients are known to be variable, and the clinical significance of focal 18F fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18F FDG) uptake that is incidentally found on positron emission tomography (PET) has not been established. We investigated the clinical significance of incidental focal prostate uptake of 18F FDG on PET/computed tomography (CT) and analyzed differential findings on PET/CT Between malignant and benign uptake. A total of 14,854 whole body 18F FDG PET/CT scans (4,806 that were conducted during cancer screening and 10,048 that were conducted to evaluate suspected of alleged cancer outside of the prostate) were retrospectively reviewed to determine the presence, location, multiplicity reviewed to determine the presence, location, multiplicity and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of focal prostate uptake and combined calcification. The final diagnosis determined by serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level and biopsy was compared with PET findings. Incidental focal prostate uptake was observed in 148 of 14,854 scans (1.0%). Sixty seven of these 148 subjects who had diagnostic confirmation were selected for further analysis. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in nine of 67 subjects (13.4%). The remaining 58 subjects had no malignancy in the prostate based on normal serum PSA level (n=53), or elevated serum PSA level with a negative biopsy result (n=5). While 84.6% (11/13) of malignant uptake was peripherally located in the prostate glands, 60.2% (50/83) of benign uptake was centrally located (p 18F FDG uptake un the prostate is not common, the incidence of cancer with focal uptake is not low. Therefore, these findings deserve further evaluation. The location of the focal prostate uptake may help with the selection of high risk prostate cancer patients.

  18. Lactate, Glucose and Oxygen Uptake in Human Brain During Recovery from Maximal Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojiro, I.; Schmalbruch, I.K.; Quistorff, B.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake......Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake...

  19. Newborn screening for galactosaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lak, Rohollah; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Davari, Majid; Nouhi, Mojtaba; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-12-23

    Classical galactosaemia is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase. This is a rare and potentially lethal condition that classically presents in the first week of life once milk feeds have commenced. Affected babies may present with any or all of the following: cataracts; fulminant liver failure; prolonged jaundice; or Escherichia coli sepsis. Once the diagnosis is suspected, feeds containing galactose must be stopped immediately and replaced with a soya-based formula. The majority of babies will recover, however a number will not survive. There are long-term complications of galactosaemia, despite treatment, including learning disabilities and female infertility. It has been postulated that galactosaemia could be detected on newborn screening and this would prevent the immediate severe liver dysfunction and sepsis. To assess whether there is evidence that newborn screening for galactosaemia prevents or reduces mortality and morbidity and improves clinical outcomes in affected neonates and the quality of life in older children. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and conference abstract books. We also searched online trials registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of the most recent search of Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Group's Trials Register: 18 December 2017.Date of the most recent search of additional resources: 11 October 2017. Randomised controlled studies and controlled clinical studies, published or unpublished comparing the use of any newborn screening test to diagnose infants with galactosaemia and presenting a comparison between a screened population versus a non-screened population. No studies of newborn screening for galactosaemia were found. No studies were identified for inclusion in the

  20. Cervical cancer screening and psychosocial barriers perceived by patients. A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska-Durawa, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study This study aimed at integrating research discussing the role of perceived psychosocial barriers in cervical cancer screening (CCS) uptake. In particular, we analyzed the evidence for the associations between CCS uptake and perceived psychosocial barriers and frequency of psychosocial barriers identified by women. Material and methods A systematic search of peer-reviewed papers published until 2011 in 8 databases yielded 48 original studies, analyzing data obtained from 155 954 women. The majority of studies (k = 43) applied correlational design, while 5 had experimental design. Results Experimental research indicated a positive effect of 75% of psychosocial interventions targeting barriers. The interventions resulted in a significant increase of CCS uptake. Overall 100% of correlational studies indicated that perceiving lower levels of barriers significantly predicted higher CCS uptake. 53 psychosocial barriers were listed in at least 2 original correlational studies: 9.5% of barriers were related to CCS facilities/environment, 67.9% dealt with personal characteristics of the patient, and 22.6% addressed social factors. As many as 35.9% of perceived barriers referred to negative emotions related to CCS examination procedures and collecting CCS results, whereas 25.7% of barriers referred to prior contacts with health professionals. Conclusions Leaflets or discussion on psychosocial barriers between patients and health professionals involved in CCS might increase CCS uptake and thus reduce cervical cancer mortality rates. Communication skills training for health professionals conducting CCS might focus on the most frequently reported barriers, referring to emotions related to CCS examination and collecting CCS results. PMID:25520573

  1. Plant-uptake of uranium: Hydroponic and soil system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.; Carr, P.; Burkhardt, M.

    2001-01-01

    Limited information is available on screening and selection of terrestrial plants for uptake and translocation of uranium from soil. This article evaluates the removal of uranium from water and soil by selected plants, comparing plant performance in hydroponic systems with that in two soil systems (a sandy-loam soil and an organic-rich soil). Plants selected for this study were Sunflower (Helianthus giganteus), Spring Vetch (Vicia sativa), Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa), Juniper (Juniperus monosperma), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea), and Bush Bean (Phaseolus nanus). Plant performance was evaluated both in terms of the percent uranium extracted from the three systems, as well as the biological absorption coefficient (BAC) that normalized uranium uptake to plant biomass. Study results indicate that uranium extraction efficiency decreased sharply across hydroponic, sandy and organic soil systems, indicating that soil organic matter sequestered uranium, rendering it largely unavailable for plant uptake. These results indicate that site-specific soils must be used to screen plants for uranium extraction capability; plant behavior in hydroponic systems does not correlate well with that in soil systems. One plant species, Juniper, exhibited consistent uranium extraction efficiencies and BACs in both sandy and organic soils, suggesting unique uranium extraction capabilities.

  2. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... need to set a timeline for implementing lung cancer screening....

  3. Uptake of Radionuclide Metals by SPME Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-01

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ( 239/240 Pu, 238 U, 237 Np, 85 Sr, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 226 Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection

  4. Uptake of uranium from sea water by microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Horikoshi, Takao; Nakajima, Akira

    1978-01-01

    The uptake of uranium from aqueous systems especially from sea water by various microalgae was investigated. The freshwater microalgae, Chlorella regularis, Scenedesmus bijuga, Scenedesmus chloreloides, Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlamydomonas angulosa, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, accumulated relatively large amounts of uranium from the solution containing uranium only. The concentration factors of the above mentioned algae were: Chlorella regularis 3930, Chlamydomonas 2330 - 3400, Scenedesmus 803 - 1920. The uptake of uranium from sea water by Chlorella regularis was inhibited markedly by the co-existence of carbonate ions. Chlorella cells could take up a great quantity of uranium from decarbonated sea water. The uptake of uranium was affected by the pH of sea water, and the amount of uranium absorbed was maximum at pH 5. The experiment was carried out to screen marine microalgae which have the ability to accumulate a large amount of uranium from sea water. The uptake of uranium from sea water by marine microalgae of different species turned out to be in the following decreasing order: Synechococcus > Chlamydomonas >> Chlorella > Dunaliella > Platymonas > Calothrix > Porphyridium. The amount of uranium absorbed differed markedly with different species of marine microalgae. (author)

  5. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN...

  6. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.; Meinken, G.E.; Larson, S.M.; Grunbaum, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate

  7. Octreotide Uptake in Parathyroid Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Karaçavuş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The patient with a history of bone pain and muscle weakness, was thought to have oncogenic osteomalacia as a result of biochemical investigations and directed to Nuclear Medicine Department for a whole-body bone scintigraphy and 111In-octreotide scintigraphy. There was no focal pathologic tracer uptake, but generalized marked increase in skeletal uptake on bone scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy showed accumulation of octreotide in the region of the left lobe of the thyroid gland in the neck. Thereafter, parathyroid scintigraphy was performed with technetium-99m labeled metroxy-isobutyl-isonitryl (99mTc-MIB and MIBI scan demonstrated radiotracer uptake at the same location with octreotide scintigraphy. The patient underwent left inferior parathyroidectomy and histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid adenoma may show octreotide uptake. Octreotide scintigraphy may be promising and indicate a possibility of using somatostatin analogues for the medical treatment of somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid tumors. (MIRT 2012;21:77-79

  8. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbrook, Bronte

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 30 0 S to 50 0 S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing

  9. Water screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutepov, A.I.; Fedotov, I.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-01-01

    The invention refers to ventilation and can be used for repair-fitting operations in a blasting-dangerous gas condition, for example, during elimination of gas-oil gushers, repair of gas-oil pipelines, equipment etc. In order to improve safety of labor, the nozzle adapters of the water collector are oriented towards each other. The collector is installed on a support with the possibility of rotating and vertical movement. The proposed screen excludes the possibility of blasting-dangerous concentrations of gases and guarantees extinguishing of the impact spark during operation of the tool.

  10. RBC Antibody Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  11. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  12. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  13. FDG uptake in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, M. J.; Cho, H. J.; Cho, E. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kang, W. J.; Lee, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate histopathologic features of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) to predict FDG uptake on PET. 153 patients(102 men; mean age, 55 y) were diagnosed with AGC by surgery were included in this study. PET images were evaluated by visual and semi-quantitative analysis of FDG uptake in primary tumors. Primary tumors size were measured and divided according to Borrmann classification. Tumor histology was classified under WHO classification, depth of invasion and Iymphovascular invasion. The tumors were also grouped by high cellular(cellularity = 50%) and low cellular group (<50%). Microscopic growth type was based on Lauren classification. Stromal fibrosis degree and inflammatory cell infiltration amount was graded as low(none∼mild), or high(moderate∼severe). Lymph node metastases was assessed in all patients. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate differences in SUV as to histopathologic factors. Of the 153 patients, 21 patients(14%) had primary tumor invisible on initial whole body images. After water ingestion, the tumors became visible in 15 of the 21 patients due to disappearance of physiologic stomach uptake. Polypoid or ulcerofungating tumors, high cellularity, intestinal growth pattern, and larger tumors significantly predicted increased tumor SUVs. Well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma tended to show high cellularity and intestinal growth pattern. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma had diverse spectrum of histopathology. Signet ring cell carcinomas were mostly ulceroinfiltrative or diffusely infiltrative in macroscopic type and diffuse in microscopic tumor growth. Mucinous adenocarcinomas were mostly low in cellularity. FDG uptake patterns are useful in representing histopathologic characteristics of the entire tumor in gastric cancers. The degree of FDG uptake depends on tumor size, macroscopic type, cellularity, and microscopic growth pattern and it shows no association with well known important prognostic

  14. What Disorders Are Newborns Screened for in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... core conditions and 26 secondary conditions. The committee’s recommendations are based on the Newborn Screening: Towards a Uniform Screening Panel and System (PDF - 975 KB) and on current research evidence, ...

  15. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For testicular cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test. Review the limited evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for testicular cancer using ultrasound, physical examination, and self-examination in this expert-reviewed summary.

  16. Intact tropical forests, new evidence they uptake carbon actively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available According to a paper recently published on Nature, tropical forests play as active carbon sink, absorbing 1.3·109 tons of carbon per year on a global scale. Functional interpretation is not clear yet, but a point is quite easy to realize: tropical forests accumulate and contain more carbon than any other vegetation cover and, if their disruption goes on at current rates, these ecosystems could revert to be a “carbon bomb”, releasing huge amount of CO2 to the atmosphere.

  17. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, Juergen; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Schiebler, Mark L.; Beek, Edwin J.R. van; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  18. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, Juergen, E-mail: Juergen.biederer@uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologie Darmstadt, Gross-Gerau County Hospital, 64521 Gross-Gerau (Germany); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Centre, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schiebler, Mark L. [Department of Radiology, UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vogel-Claussen, Jens [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Hannover (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  19. In vivo effect of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine on calcium uptake in several tissues in the rat: Evidence for a physiological role for calcium as the first messenger for the prompt action of thyroid hormone at the level of the plasma membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, J.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium has been shown in vitro to serve as the first messenger for the rapid effect of thyroid hormone at the level of the plasma membrane. In the present study the physiological relevance of this mechanism is examined in the whole animal. To this end, the effect of T3 on 45calcium uptake and sugar 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake, an effect that requires extracellular calcium, and the influence of calcium blockers thereon were measured in ventricles, atria, diaphragm, fat, and liver in the rat. In the first three tissues, T3 produced comparable changes in 45Ca uptake and 2-DG uptake (T3 increased 2-DG uptake in fat, where 45Ca uptake was undetected, and had no effect in liver); this activity was blocked by the calcium channel blocker cadmium. The effect of T3 on 45Ca uptake, like its effect on the in vivo uptake of 2-DG described previously, was biphasic and time related; at physiological doses of 0.01 and 0.1 micrograms/100 g BW, T3 increased 45Ca uptake, whereas at greater (pharmacological) doses of 1 and 100 micrograms/100 g BW, T3 was without effect or inhibited 45Ca uptake. In ventricles and atria, the stimulatory effect of T3 on 45Ca uptake was very rapid within 2 min, at which time it was at or near maximum (50-90% above control) and then declined gradually and was not seen after 10-20 min. Of the several calcium blockers employed, verapamil (organic) and cadmium (inorganic) were found to be the most effective. Verapamil and cadmium produced a rapid, transient, and dose-related inhibition of 45Ca uptake in the tissues examined (except fat tissue where, under the experimental conditions employed, 45Ca uptake was undetected). Verapamil, given iv (200 micrograms/100 g BW) or ip (1 mg/100 g BW), reduced tissue 45Ca uptake by 50-90% within 2 or 10 min, respectively, and then its inhibitory effect diminished rapidly and was not seen after 20-30 min

  20. Provider Perspectives on Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening Among Refugee Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ornelas, India J; Do, H Hoai; Magarati, Maya; Jackson, J Carey; Taylor, Victoria M

    2017-06-01

    Many refugees in the United States emigrated from countries where the incidence of cervical cancer is high. Refugee women are unlikely to have been screened for cervical cancer prior to resettlement in the U.S. National organizations recommend cervical cancer screening for refugee women soon after resettlement. We sought to identify health and social service providers' perspectives on promoting cervical cancer screening in order to inform the development of effective programs to increase screening among recently resettled refugees. This study consisted of 21 in-depth key informant interviews with staff from voluntary refugee resettlement agencies, community based organizations, and healthcare clinics serving refugees in King County, Washington. Interview transcripts were analyzed to identify themes. We identified the following themes: (1) refugee women are unfamiliar with preventive care and cancer screening; (2) providers have concerns about the timing of cervical cancer education and screening; (3) linguistic and cultural barriers impact screening uptake; (4) provider factors and clinic systems facilitate promotion of screening; and (5) strategies for educating refugee women about screening. Our findings suggest that refugee women are in need of health education on cervical cancer screening during early resettlement. Frequent messaging about screening could help ensure that women receive screening within the early resettlement period. Health education videos may be effective for providing simple, low literacy messages in women's native languages. Appointments with female clinicians and interpreters, as well as clinic systems that remind clinicians to offer screening at each appointment could increase screening among refugee women.

  1. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake without exercise testing in Korean healthy adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Won; Park, Shin-Goo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Jung-Man; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Byoung-Gwon

    2012-08-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake is generally accepted as the most valid and reliable index of cardiorespiratory fitness and functional aerobic capacity. The exercise test for measuring maximal oxygen uptake is unsuitable for screening tests in public heath examinations, because of the potential risks of exercise exertion and time demands. We designed this study to determine whether work-related physical activity is a potential predictor of maximal oxygen uptake, and to develop a maximal oxygen uptake equation using a non-exercise regression model for the cardiorespiratory fitness test in Korean adult workers. Study subjects were adult workers of small-sized companies in Korea. Subjects with history of disease such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma and angina were excluded. In total, 217 adult subjects (113 men of 21-55 years old and 104 women of 20-64 years old) were included. Self-report questionnaire survey was conducted on study subjects, and maximal oxygen uptake of each subject was measured with the exercise test. The statistical analysis was carried out to develop an equation for estimating maximal oxygen uptake. The predictors for estimating maximal oxygen uptake included age, gender, body mass index, smoking, leisure-time physical activity and the factors representing work-related physical activity. The work-related physical activity was identified to be a predictor of maximal oxygen uptake. Moreover, the equation showed high validity according to the statistical analysis. The equation for estimating maximal oxygen uptake developed in the present study could be used as a screening test for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in Korean adult workers.

  2. Barriers to Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Singapore: a Mixed Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Chetna; Bilger, Marcel; Liu, Joy; Finkelstein, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake in Singapore, women's perceived barriers to screening need to be identified and overcome. Using data from both focus groups and surveys, we aimed to assess perceived barriers and motivations for breast and cervical cancer screening. We conducted 8 focus groups with 64 women, using thematic analysis to identify overarching themes related to women's attitudes towards screening. Based on recurring themes from focus groups, several hypotheses regarding potential barriers and motivations to screen were generated and tested through a national survey of 801 women aged 25-64. Focus group participants had misconceptions related to screening, believing that the procedures were painful. Cost was an issue, as well as efficacy and fatalism. By identifying barriers to and motivators for screening through a mixed-method design that has both nuance and external validity, this study offers valuable suggestions to policymakers to improve breast and cervical cancer screening uptake in Singapore.

  3. Breast cancer screening utilization among women from Muslim majority countries in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kim, Eliane; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Ellison, Lisa; Graves, Erin; Glazier, Richard H

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer screening disparities continue to prevail with immigrant women being at the forefront of the under screened population. There is a paucity of knowledge about the role of religious affiliation or cultural orientation on immigrant women's cancer screening uptake. This study examined differences in uptake of breast cancer screening among women from Muslim and non- Muslim majority countries in Ontario, Canada. A cohort of 1,851,834 screening-eligible women living in Ontario during April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was created using linked health and social administrative databases. The study found that being born in a Muslim majority country was associated with lower breast cancer screening uptake after adjusting for region of origin, neighbourhood income, and primary care-related factors. However, screening uptake in Muslim majority countries varied by world region with the greatest differences found in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Screening uptake was lower for women who had no primary care provider, were in a traditional fee-for service model of primary care, had a male physician, had an internationally trained physician, resided in a low income neighbourhood, and entered Canada under the family class of immigration. Religion may play a role in screening uptake, however, the variation in rates by regions of origin, immigration class, and access to primary care providers alludes to confluence of socio-demographic, cultural beliefs and practices, immigration trajectories and system level factors. Facilitating access for immigrant women to regular primary care providers, particularly female providers and enrollment in primary care models could enhance screening uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A high-content subtractive screen for selecting small molecules affecting internalization of GPCRs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kwon, Y-J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available was screened against seven agonist-induced GPCR internalization cell models as well as transferrin uptake in human embryonic kidney cells. Molecules acting on a single receptor were identified through excluding pan-specific compounds affecting housekeeping...

  5. Cellular uptake: lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Giulio; Bang, Eun-Kyoung; Montenegro, Javier; Matile, Stefan

    2015-07-04

    The objective of this Feature Article is to reflect on the importance of established and emerging principles of supramolecular organic chemistry to address one of the most persistent problems in life sciences. The main topic is dynamic covalent chemistry on cell surfaces, particularly disulfide exchange for thiol-mediated uptake. Examples of boronate and hydrazone exchange are added for contrast, comparison and completion. Of equal importance are the discussions of proximity effects in polyions and counterion hopping, and more recent highlights on ring tension and ion pair-π interactions. These lessons from supramolecular organic chemistry apply to cell-penetrating peptides, particularly the origin of "arginine magic" and the "pyrenebutyrate trick," and the currently emerging complementary "disulfide magic" with cell-penetrating poly(disulfide)s. They further extend to the voltage gating of neuronal potassium channels, gene transfection, and the delivery of siRNA. The collected examples illustrate that the input from conceptually innovative chemistry is essential to address the true challenges in biology beyond incremental progress and random screening.

  6. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03 Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  7. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew G.; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Xray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  8. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  9. Pitfalls and Opportunities in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. van Putten (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of death from cancer in the Western world. Screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality. The first evidence that colorectal cancer screening could effectively reduce mortality dates

  10. Strength of recommendations in WHO guidelines using GRADE was associated with uptake in national policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Syed Muhammad Umar; Cooke, Graham; Kranzer, Katharina; Norris, Susan L; Olliaro, Piero; Ford, Nathan

    2015-06-01

    This study assesses the extent to which the strength of a recommendation in a World Health Organization (WHO) guideline affects uptake of the recommendation in national guidelines. The uptake of recommendations included in HIV and TB guidelines issued by WHO from 2009 to 2013 was assessed across guidelines from 20 low- and middle-income countries in Africa and Southeast Asia. Associations between characteristics of recommendations (strength, quality of the evidence, type) and uptake were assessed using logistic regression. Eight WHO guidelines consisting of 109 strong recommendations and 49 conditional recommendations were included, and uptake assessed across 44 national guidelines (1,255 recommendations) from 20 countries. Uptake of WHO recommendations in national guidelines was 82% for strong recommendations and 61% for conditional recommendations. The odds of uptake comparing strong recommendations and conditional recommendations was 1.9 (95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.7), after adjustment for quality of evidence. Higher levels of evidence quality were associated with greater uptake, independent of recommendation strength. Guideline developers should be confident that conditional recommendations are frequently adopted. The fact that strong recommendations are more frequently adopted than conditional recommendations underscores the importance of ensuring that such recommendations are justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Outcomes of domestic violence screening at an acute London trust: are there missed opportunities for intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Bartley, Angela; Bayly, Jude; Dutey-Magni, Peter; Edwards, Sarah; Madge, Sara; Miller, Charlotte; Nicholas, Rachel; Radhakrishnan, Sheila; Sathia, Leena; Swarbrick, Helen; Blaikie, Dee; Rodger, Alison

    2016-01-04

    Domestic violence screening is advocated in some healthcare settings. Evidence that it increases referral to support agencies or improves health outcomes is limited. This study aimed to (1) investigate the proportion of hospital patients reporting domestic violence, (2) describe characteristics and previous hospital attendances of affected patients and (3) assess referrals to an in-house domestic violence advisor from Camden Safety Net. A series of observational studies. Three outpatient clinics at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust. 10,158 patients screened for domestic violence in community gynaecology, genitourinary medicine (GUM) and HIV medicine clinics between 1 October 2013 and 30 June 2014. Also 2253 Camden Safety Net referrals over the same period. (1) Percentage reporting domestic violence by age group gender, ethnicity and clinic. (2) Rates of hospital attendances in the past 3 years for those screening positive and negative. (3) Characteristics, uptake and risk assessment results for hospital in-house domestic violence referrals compared with Camden Safety Net referrals from other sources. Of the 10,158 patients screened, 57.4% were female with a median age of 30 years. Overall, 7.1% reported ever-experiencing domestic violence, ranging from 5.7% in GUM to 29.4% in HIV services. People screening positive for domestic violence had higher rates of previous emergency department attendances (rate ratio (RR) 1.63, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.48), emergency inpatient admissions (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.37 to 3.84) and day-case admissions (RR 2.03, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.43) than those screening negative. The 77 hospital referrals to the hospital-based domestic violence advisor during the study period were more likely to be taken up and to be classified as high risk than referrals from elsewhere. Selective screening for domestic violence in high-risk hospital clinic populations has the potential to identify affected patients and promote good uptake of referrals for in

  12. Screening for chlamydial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H D; Helfand, M

    2001-04-01

    To examine data on the effectiveness of screening for chlamydial infection by a physician or other health care professional. Specifically, we examine the evidence that early treatment of chlamydial infection improves health outcomes, as well as evidence of the effectiveness of screening strategies in nonpregnant women, pregnant women, and men, and the accuracy of tests used for screening. This review updates the literature since the last recommendation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force published in 1996. We searched the topic of chlamydia in the MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, and Cochrane Library databases from January 1994 to July 2000, supplemented by reference lists of relevant articles and from experts in the field. Articles published prior to 1994 and research abstracts were cited if particularly important to the key questions or to the interpretation of included articles. A single reader reviewed all English abstracts. Articles were selected for full review if they were about Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infections in nonpregnant women, pregnant women, or men and were relevant to key questions in the analytic framework. Investigators read the full-text version of the retrieved articles and applied additional eligibility criteria. For all topics, we excluded articles if they did not provide sufficient information to determine the methods for selecting subjects and for analyzing data. We systematically reviewed three types of studies about screening in nonpregnant women that relate to three key questions: (1) studies about the effectiveness of screening programs in reducing prevalence rates of infection, (2) studies about risk factors for chlamydial infection in women, and (3) studies about chlamydial screening tests in women. Our search found too few studies on pregnant women to systematically review, although pertinent studies are described. We systematically reviewed two types of studies about screening in men: (1) studies about prevalence rates and

  13. Seeing the electroporative uptake of cell-membrane impermeable fluorescent molecules and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kisoo; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Soon-Geul; Lee, Won Gu

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents direct visualization of uptake directionality for cell-membrane impermeant fluorescent molecules and fluorescence-doped nanoparticles at a single-cell level during electroporation. To observe directly the uptake direction, we used microchannel-type electroporation that can generate a relatively symmetric and uniform electric field. For all the image frames during electroporation, fluorescence intensities that occurred at cell membranes in both uptake directions toward the electrodes have been sequentially recorded and quantitatively analyzed pixel by pixel. In our experiments, we found that fluorescent molecules, even not labeled to target biomolecules, had their own uptake direction with different intensities. It is also observed that the uptake intensity toward the cell membrane had a maximal value at a certain electric voltage, not at the highest value of voltages applied. The results also imply that the uptake direction of fluorescence-doped nanoparticles can be determined by a net surface charge of uptake materials and sizes in the electroporative environments. In summary, we performed a quantitative screening and direct visualization of uptake directionality for a set of fluorescent molecules and fluorescence-doped nanoparticles using electric-pulsation. Taking a closer look at the uptake direction of exogenous materials will help researchers to understand an unknown uptake phenomenon in which way foreign materials are inclined to move, and furthermore to design functional nanoparticles for electroporative gene delivery.This paper presents direct visualization of uptake directionality for cell-membrane impermeant fluorescent molecules and fluorescence-doped nanoparticles at a single-cell level during electroporation. To observe directly the uptake direction, we used microchannel-type electroporation that can generate a relatively symmetric and uniform electric field. For all the image frames during electroporation, fluorescence intensities

  14. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced...

  15. Evidence based policy-making: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, FW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of facilitating the uptake of evidence, for example, scientific research findings, into the policymaking process is multifaceted and thus complex. It is therefore important for scientists to understand this process in order to influence...

  16. Factors affecting the uptake of new medicines in secondary care - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, D; Mason, A

    2008-08-01

    The rate of uptake of new medicines in the UK is slower than in many other OECD countries. The majority of new medicines are introduced initially in secondary care and prescribed by specialists. However, the reasons for relatively low precribing levels are poorly understood. This review explores the determinants of uptake of new medicines in secondary care. Nine electronic databases were searched covering the period 1992-2006. Once the searches had been run, records were downloaded and those which evaluated uptake of new medicines in secondary care were identified. UK studies were of primary interest, although research conducted in other countries was also reviewed if relevant. With the exception of 'think pieces', eligibility was not limited by study design. Studies published in languages other than English were excluded from the review. Determinants of uptake in secondary care were classified using Bonair and Persson's typology for determinants of the diffusion of innovation. Almost 1400 records were screened for eligibility, and 29 studies were included in the review. Prescribing of new medicines in secondary care was found to be subject to a number of interacting influences. The support structures which exist within secondary care facilitate access to other colleagues and shape prescribing practices. Clinical trial investigators and physicians who sit on decision-making bodies such as Drug and Therapeutic Committees (DTCs) appear to have a special influence due to their proximity to their research and understanding of evidence base. Pharmaceutical representatives may also influence prescribing decisions through funding of meetings and academic detailing, but clinicians are wary of potential bias. Little evidence on the influence of patients upon prescribing decisions was identified. The impact of clinical guidelines has been variable. Some guidelines have significantly increased the uptake of new medicines, but others have had little discernible impact despite

  17. Lectins as endocytic ligands: an assessment of lectin binding and uptake to rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaddoumi, Mohamed; Lee, Vincent H L

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the binding and uptake pattern of three plant lectins in rabbit conjunctival epithelial cells (RCECs) with respect to their potential for enhancing cellular macromolecular uptake. Three fluorescein-labeled plant lectins (Lycoperison esculentum, TL; Solanum tuberosum, STL; and Ulex europaeus 1, UEA-1) were screened with respect to time-, concentration-, and temperature-dependent binding and uptake. Chitin (30 mg/ml) and L-alpha-fucose (10 mM) were used as inhibitory sugars to correct for nonspecific binding of TL or STL and UEA-1, respectively. Confocal microscopy was used to confirm internalization of STL. The binding and uptake of all three lectins in RCECs was time-dependent (reaching a plateau at 1-2 h period) and saturable at 1-h period. The rank order of affinity constants (km) was STL>TL>UEA-1 with values of 0.39>0.48>4.81 microM, respectively. However, maximal, specific binding/uptake potential was in the order UEA-1>STL>TL with values of 53.7, 52.3, and 15.0 nM/mg of cell protein, respectively. Lectins showed temperature dependence in their uptake, with STL exhibiting the highest endocytic capacity. Internalized STL was visualized by confocal microscopy to be localized to the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Based on favorable binding and uptake characteristics, potato lectin appears to be a useful candidate for further investigation as an ocular drug delivery system.

  18. Downstream mechanisms of nitric oxide-mediated skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Troy L; Lynch, Gordon S; McConell, Glenn K

    2010-12-01

    There is evidence that nitric oxide (NO) is required for the normal increases in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction, but the mechanisms involved have not been elucidated. We examined whether NO regulates glucose uptake during skeletal muscle contractions via cGMP-dependent or cGMP-independent pathways. Isolated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from mice were stimulated to contract ex vivo, and potential NO signaling pathways were blocked by the addition of inhibitors to the incubation medium. Contraction increased (P contraction by ∼50% (P contraction; however, DTT attenuated (P contraction-stimulated glucose uptake (by 70%). NOS inhibition and antioxidant treatment reduced contraction-stimulated increases in protein S-glutathionylation and tyrosine nitration (P skeletal muscle glucose uptake during ex vivo contractions via a cGMP/PKG-, AMPK-, and p38 MAPK-independent pathway. In addition, it appears that NO and ROS may regulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake during contraction through a similar pathway.

  19. [3H]Dopamine uptake by platelet storage granules in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabey, J.M.; Graff, E.; Oberman, Z.; Lerner, A.; Sigal, M.

    1992-01-01

    [ 3 H]Dopamine (DA) uptake by platelet storage granules was determined in 26 schizophrenic male patients, paranoid type (14 acute stage; 12 in remission) and 20 age-matched, normal controls. maximum velocity (Vmax) of DA uptake was significantly higher in acute patients, than patients in remission or controls (p>0.05). The apparent Michaelis constant (kM) of DA uptake in acute patients was also significantly different from chronic patients a substantial diminution of DA uptake, while haloperidol produced a substantial diminution of DA uptake, while haloperidol (10 -4 , 10 -5 M) did not affect the assay. Considering that a DA disequilibrium in schizophrenia may be expressed not only in the brain, but also in the periphery and that an increased amount of DA accumulated in the vesicles, implies that an increased quantity of catecholamine is available for release, our findings suggest additional evidence for the role of DA overactivity in the pathophysiology of this disorder

  20. Inorganic carbon uptake during photosynthesis. II. Uptake by isolated Asparagus mesophyll cells during isotopic disequilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espie, G.S.; Owttrim, G.W.; Colman, B.

    1986-01-01

    The species of inorganic carbon (CO 2 or HCO 3 - ) taken up as a source of substrate for photosynthetic fixation by isolated Asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cells is investigated. Discrimination between CO 2 or HCO 3 - transport, during steady state photosynthesis, is achieved by monitoring the changes (by 14 C fixation) which occur in the specific activity of the intracellular pool of inorganic carbon when the inorganic carbon present in the suspending medium is in a state of isotopic disequilibrium. Quantitative comparisons between theoretical (CO 2 or HCO 3 - transport) and experimental time-courses of 14 C incorporation, over the pH range of 5.2 to 7.5, indicate that the specific activity of extracellular CO 2 , rather than HCO 3 - , is the appropriate predictor of the intracellular specific activity. It is concluded, therefore, that CO 2 is the major source of exogenous inorganic carbon taken up by Asparagus cells. However, at high pH (8.5), a component of net DIC uptake may be attributable to HCO 3 - transport, as the incorporation of 14 C during isotopic disequilibrium exceeds the maximum possible incorporation predicted on the basis of CO 2 uptake alone. The contribution of HCO 3 - to net inorganic carbon uptake (pH 8.5) is variable, ranging from 5 to 16%, but is independent of the extracellular HCO 3 - concentration. The evidence for direct HCO 3 - transport is subject to alternative explanations and must, therefore, be regarded as equivocal. Nonlinear regression analysis of the rate of 14 C incorporation as a function of time indicates the presence of a small extracellular resistance to the diffusion of CO 2 , which is partially alleviated by a high extracellular concentration of HCO 3 -

  1. Factors affecting gastric uptake in whole body FDG-PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomemori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Mami; Nakahara, Tadaki; Wu, Jin; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Uno, Kimiichi; Abe, Kinji; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi [Nishidai Clinic Diagnostic Imaging Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) is very useful for the detection and staging of tumors. However, FDG is also accumulated in the normal tissues in various degrees. This physiological FDG uptake is often seen in intestine, making confusion with malignant tumor. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the stomach. A total of 136 people who underwent cancer screening or staging of tumors except for gastric cancer using FDG whole-body PET was examined (mean age: 55.6 yrs). All subjects fasted for at least 4 hours before the PET study and were administrated with FDG intravenously (mean FDG dose: 308.9 MBq). Emission images were acquired on a whole-body PET scanner and images were reconstructed without attenuation correction. The intensity of gastric uptake of FDG whole-body PET image was visually classified into 3 grades; grade 2 = the intensity of gastric uptake more than pulmonary uptake, grade 1 = the intensity of gastric uptake equal to or less than pulmonary uptake, grade 0 = no contrast between gastric uptake and background. Twenty-eight subjects (20.6%) were classified into grade 2, 42 subjects (30.9%) were grade 1 and 66 subjects (48.5%) were grade 0. Subjects' age, fasting time, FDG dose, serum glucose level, free fatty acid level and insulin level were not significantly correlated with the intensity of gastric uptake. But the subjects with higher gastric uptake tended to have anti-Helicobactor pylori (H. pylori) antibodies. The rate of having anti-H.pylori antibodies in the grade 2 group is significantly higher than the grade 1 group (85.7% vs. 72.5%, p<0.05), and that of the grade 1 group is significantly higher than the grade 0 group (72.5% vs. 42.2%, p<0.01). Gastric uptake was observed in about half of subjects. Especially, approximately 20% of all showed high gastric uptake, which was associated with H.pylori infection. Therefore, most of the subjects

  2. Factors affecting gastric uptake in whole body FDG-PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomemori, Takashi; Kitagawa, Mami; Nakahara, Tadaki; Wu, Jin; Nakagawa, Keiichi; Uno, Kimiichi; Abe, Kinji; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) is very useful for the detection and staging of tumors. However, FDG is also accumulated in the normal tissues in various degrees. This physiological FDG uptake is often seen in intestine, making confusion with malignant tumor. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the stomach. A total of 136 people who underwent cancer screening or staging of tumors except for gastric cancer using FDG whole-body PET was examined (mean age: 55.6 yrs). All subjects fasted for at least 4 hours before the PET study and were administrated with FDG intravenously (mean FDG dose: 308.9 MBq). Emission images were acquired on a whole-body PET scanner and images were reconstructed without attenuation correction. The intensity of gastric uptake of FDG whole-body PET image was visually classified into 3 grades; grade 2 = the intensity of gastric uptake more than pulmonary uptake, grade 1 = the intensity of gastric uptake equal to or less than pulmonary uptake, grade 0 = no contrast between gastric uptake and background. Twenty-eight subjects (20.6%) were classified into grade 2, 42 subjects (30.9%) were grade 1 and 66 subjects (48.5%) were grade 0. Subjects' age, fasting time, FDG dose, serum glucose level, free fatty acid level and insulin level were not significantly correlated with the intensity of gastric uptake. But the subjects with higher gastric uptake tended to have anti-Helicobactor pylori (H. pylori) antibodies. The rate of having anti-H.pylori antibodies in the grade 2 group is significantly higher than the grade 1 group (85.7% vs. 72.5%, p<0.05), and that of the grade 1 group is significantly higher than the grade 0 group (72.5% vs. 42.2%, p<0.01). Gastric uptake was observed in about half of subjects. Especially, approximately 20% of all showed high gastric uptake, which was associated with H.pylori infection. Therefore, most of the subjects with high

  3. DNA Uptake by Transformable Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1999-03-31

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  4. DNA UPTAKE BY TRANSFORMABLE BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    1999-09-07

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  5. Breast cancer screening-opportunistic use of registry and linked screening data for local evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, David; Farshid, Gelareh; Gill, Grantley; Kollias, Jim; Koczwara, Bogda; Karapetis, Chris; Adams, Jacqui; Joshi, Rohit; Keefe, Dorothy; Powell, Kate; Fusco, Kellie; Eckert, Marion; Buckley, Elizabeth; Beckmann, Kerri

    2017-06-01

    Screening has been found to reduce breast cancer mortality at a population level in Australia, but these studies did not address local settings where numbers of deaths would generally have been too low for evaluation. Clinicians, administrators, and consumer groups are also interested in local service outcomes. We therefore use more common prognostic and treatment measures and survivals to gain evidence of screening effects among patients attending 4 local hospitals for treatment. To compare prognostic, treatment, and survival measures by screening history to determine whether expected screening effects are occurring. Employing routine clinical registry and linked screening data to investigate associations of screening history with these measures, using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Screened women had a 10-year survival from breast cancer of 92%, compared with 78% for unscreened women; and 79% of screened surgical cases had breast conserving surgery compared with 64% in unscreened women. Unadjusted analyses indicated that recently screened cases had earlier tumor node metastasis stages, smaller diameters, less nodal involvement, better tumor differentiation, more oestrogen and progesterone receptor positive lesions, more hormone therapy, and less chemotherapy. Radiotherapy tended to be more common in screening participants. More frequent use of adjunctive radiotherapy applied when breast conserving surgery was used. Results confirm the screening effects expected from the scientific literature and demonstrate the value of opportunistic use of available registry and linked screening data for indicating to local health administrations, practitioners, and consumers whether local screening services are having the effects expected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Decreased uptake after fractionated ablative doses of iodine-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hurng-Sheng [Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Surgery, Changhua, Taiwan (Taiwan); Hseu, Huey-Herng [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Education and Research, Taichung (Taiwan); Lin, Wan-Yu; Wang, Shyh-Jen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung, Taiwan (Taiwan); Liu, Yao-Chi [Department of Surgery, General Surgery, National Defense Medical Center, Taipe (Taiwan)

    2005-02-01

    In an attempt to obviate the necessity for hospitalisation, the ablative dose of {sup 131}I in the treatment of thyroid cancer is divided into two or three fractions at weekly intervals in some hospitals with no special bed for {sup 131}I treatment. Thyroid stunning has been observed in patients receiving a {sup 131}I dose between 74 and 370 MBq (2-10 mCi). However, the influence of {sup 131}I uptake after administration of a higher dose, such as 1,110-1,850 MBq of {sup 131}I, has never been reported. In this study, we evaluated the degree of reduction in {sup 131}I uptake after patients received 1,480 MBq of {sup 131}I and evaluated the clinical value of fractionated ablative doses of {sup 131}I. Thirty-five patients with functional thyroid cancer received a total of 4,440 MBq (120 mCi) of {sup 131}I which was divided into three fractions administered at weekly intervals. In all patients two {sup 131}I whole-body scans were performed. The first scan was performed directly prior to the second dose of {sup 131}I (7 days after the first administration of {sup 131}I), and the second scan was performed 7 days after the second administration of {sup 131}I and directly prior to the third administration. Regions of interest including the neck and lungs were drawn to calculate the uptake of {sup 131}I in the thyroid remnant and possible cervical lymph node and lung metastases. The mean uptake of {sup 131}I was 2.73% 7 days after the first administration, and decreased significantly to 0.26% 7 days after the second administration. The mean decrease was as high as 80.7%. The decrease in {sup 131}I uptake was significant in all patients except the two with lung metastases. In the two patients with lung metastases, no definite evidence of decreased uptake was noted; the uptake of {sup 131}I in the lung metastases even increased on the second {sup 131}I image in one of these patients. After administration of 1,480 MBq of {sup 131}I, the decreased uptake was significant in all

  7. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  8. Screening for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer screening is checking for cancer in people who don't have symptoms. Screening tests can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, but cancer screening can have harms as well as benefits.

  9. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000355.htm Screen time and children To use the sharing features on ... videos is considered unhealthy screen time. Current Screen Time Guidelines Children under age 2 should have no ...

  11. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Inferring foliar water uptake using stable isotopes of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Gregory R; Lehmann, Marco M; Cernusak, Lucas A; Arend, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T W

    2017-08-01

    A growing number of studies have described the direct absorption of water into leaves, a phenomenon known as foliar water uptake. The resultant increase in the amount of water in the leaf can be important for plant function. Exposing leaves to isotopically enriched or depleted water sources has become a common method for establishing whether or not a plant is capable of carrying out foliar water uptake. However, a careful inspection of our understanding of the fluxes of water isotopes between leaves and the atmosphere under high humidity conditions shows that there can clearly be isotopic exchange between the two pools even in the absence of a change in the mass of water in the leaf. We provide experimental evidence that while leaf water isotope ratios may change following exposure to a fog event using water with a depleted oxygen isotope ratio, leaf mass only changes when leaves are experiencing a water deficit that creates a driving gradient for the uptake of water by the leaf. Studies that rely on stable isotopes of water as a means of studying plant water use, particularly with respect to foliar water uptake, must consider the effects of these isotopic exchange processes.

  13. Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, S.M.; Jones, R.J.; Brenner, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos were determined in vitro utilizing a 14 C-sugar solution incubation method. Hexose uptake rates were greater than those for sucrose, however, all showed biphasic kinetics. Glucose and fructose saturable components were evidence at <50 mM and sucrose at <5 mM. Chemical inhibitors (CCCP, DNP, NaCN, and PCMBS) and low temperature reduced sugar uptake. Sucrose influx was pH dependent while glucose was not. Embryos maintained a high sucrose to hexose ratio throughout development. At 25 days after pollination sucrose levels exceeded 200 mM while hexose levels remained below 5 mM. Glucose was rapidly converted to sucrose upon transport into the embryo. These circumstantial data indicate that sugar uptake by immature maize embryos is metabolically dependent and carrier mediated. Furthermore, sucrose transport appears to occur against its concentration gradient involving a H+/sucrose cotransport mechanism, while glucose influx is driven by its concentration gradient and subsequent metabolism

  14. Proximal Tubules Have the Capacity to Regulate Uptake of Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Mark C; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Flores, Brittany; Lai, Xianyin; Myslinski, Jered; Pandit, Sweekar; Sandoval, Ruben M; Wean, Sarah E; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M; Wiggins, Roger C; Witzmann, Frank A; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence from multiple studies supports the concept that both glomerular filtration and proximal tubule (PT) reclamation affect urinary albumin excretion rate. To better understand these roles of glomerular filtration and PT uptake, we investigated these processes in two distinct animal models. In a rat model of acute exogenous albumin overload, we quantified glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) and PT uptake of Texas Red-labeled rat serum albumin using two-photon intravital microscopy. No change in GSC was observed, but a significant decrease in PT albumin uptake was quantified. In a second model, loss of endogenous albumin was induced in rats by podocyte-specific transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin receptor. In these albumin-deficient rats, exposure to diphtheria toxin induced an increase in albumin GSC and albumin filtration, resulting in increased exposure of the PTs to endogenous albumin. In this case, PT albumin reabsorption was markedly increased. Analysis of known albumin receptors and assessment of cortical protein expression in the albumin overload model, conducted to identify potential proteins and pathways affected by acute protein overload, revealed changes in the expression levels of calreticulin, disabled homolog 2, NRF2, angiopoietin-2, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that a regulated PT cell albumin uptake system can respond rapidly to different physiologic conditions to minimize alterations in serum albumin level. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Screening from the epidemiological point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, N.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of screening is to identify disease in a clinically inapparent stage in order to treat more effectively. However, the required application of a test to large subsets of the population implies risks which cannot be ignored. Thus, the introduction of a test for use in screening without previously established evidence of a benefit which exceeds potential harm by far cannot be justified. With regard to cancer, evidence of effectiveness has been proven for screening on cervical (Papsmear), breast (mammography) and colorectal (faecal occult blood test) cancer. The routine application of a screening procedure which has been proven effective provides the benefit in terms of mortality reduction seen in the trials only if the entire screening chain, from the test over potentially required assessment to treatment, is offered with highest quality and is under permanent quality control. (orig.) [de

  16. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0 2 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO 2 and total concentration of dissolved C0 2 , sea-air pCO 2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0 2 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0 2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0 2 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  17. Following patient pathways to psycho-oncological treatment: Identification of treatment needs by clinical staff and electronic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Fanny L; Meraner, Verena; Holzner, Bernhard; Singer, Susanne; Virgolini, Irene; Gamper, Eva M

    2018-04-01

    In this retrospective investigation of patient pathways to psycho-oncological treatment (POT), we compared the number of POT referrals before and after implementation of electronic screening for POT needs and investigated psychosocial predictors for POT wish at a nuclear medicine department. We extracted medical chart information about number of referrals and extent of follow-up contacts. During standard referral (November 2014 to October 2015), POT needs were identified by clinical staff only. In the screening-assisted referral period (November 2015 to October 2016), identification was supported by electronic screening for POT needs. Psychosocial predictors for POT wish were examined using logistic regression. We analysed data from 487 patients during standard referral (mean age 56.4 years; 60.2% female, 88.7% thyroid carcinoma or neuroendocrine tumours) of which 28 patients (5.7%) were referred for POT. Of 502 patients in the screening-assisted referral period (mean age 57.0 years; 55.8% female, 86.6% thyroid carcinoma or neuroendocrine tumours), 69 (13.7%) were referred for POT. Of these, 36 were identified by psycho-oncological (PO) screening and 33 by clinical staff. After PO-screening implementation, referrals increased by a factor of 2.4. The strongest predictor of POT wish was depressive mood (P patients visited the PO outpatient unit additionally to inpatient PO consultations. Our results provide evidence from a real-life setting that PO screening can foster POT referrals, reduce barriers to express the POT wish, and hence help to meet psychosocial needs of this specific patient group. Differences between patients' needs, wish, and POT uptake should be further investigated. © 2018 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Influence of inhibitors of serotonin uptake on intestinal epithelium and colorectal carcinomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Tutton, P. J.; Barkla, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that in certain tissues, including colonic carcinomas, cell proliferation may be promoted by serotonin, and indirect evidence suggests that the effects of this amine on colonic tumours involves a cellular-uptake mechanism. In the present study, two specific inhibitors of serotonin uptake, Citalopram and Fluoxetine, are examined for their effects on cell proliferation and tumour growth. Each of the agents was found to suppress cell division in dimethylhydrazine-indu...

  19. Is the tide turning against breast screening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Herein I argue that mammographic screening has not delivered on its fundamental premise: to reduce the incidence of advanced breast cancer. Indeed, achieving this goal is required if screening is to reduce breast cancer mortality or mastectomy use. Rather, screening has caused substantial...... increases in the incidence of in situ and early invasive cancers. Moreover, evidence indicates that these screen-detected cancers are unlikely to be cases that were 'caught early', but instead represent women who would not have been diagnosed in the absence of screening and who, as a result, have received...... harmful, unnecessary treatment. If true, these observations raise the specter that screening creates breast cancer patients and that this practice carries little or no benefit....

  20. Ethical issues in cancer screening and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutynski, Anya

    2012-06-01

    November 2009's announcement of the USPSTF's recommendations for screening for breast cancer raised a firestorm of objections. Chief among them were that the panel had insufficiently valued patients' lives or allowed cost considerations to influence recommendations. The publicity about the recommendations, however, often either simplified the actual content of the recommendations or bypassed significant methodological issues, which a philosophical examination of both the science behind screening recommendations and their import reveals. In this article, I discuss two of the leading ethical considerations at issue in screening recommendations: respect for patient autonomy and beneficence and then turn to the most significant methodological issues raised by cancer screening: the potential biases that may infect a trial of screening effectiveness, the problem of base rates in communicating risk, and the trade-offs involved in a judgment of screening effectiveness. These issues reach more broadly, into the use of "evidence-based" medicine generally, and have important implications for informed consent.

  1. Richtlijn 'screening en diagnostiek van het mammacarcinoom' (herziening).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, H.M.; Tuut, M.K.; den Heeten, G.J.; Asperen, C.J.; de Bock, G.H.; Rutqers, E.J.; Westenend, P.J.; Smit, G.M.; Benraadt, J.

    2008-01-01

    Revised practice guideline 'Screening and diagnosis of breast cancer' The evidence-based revision of the practice guideline 'Screening and diagnosis of breast cancer' was necessitated by new insights, for instance on the cost-effectiveness of screening modalities other than mammography. Mammography

  2. Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Seiji; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Hiromatsu, Yuji; Kaida, Hayato; Miyake, Ikuyo; Uchida, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

  3. Pre-screening Discussions and Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing for Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Guixiang; Hall, Ingrid J

    2015-08-01

    For many men, the net benefit of prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests may be small. Many major medical organizations have issued recommendations for prostate cancer screening, stressing the need for shared decision making before ordering a test. The purpose of this study is to better understand associations between discussions about benefits and harms of PSA testing and uptake of the test among men aged ≥40 years. Associations between pre-screening discussions and PSA testing were examined using self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Unadjusted prevalence of PSA testing was estimated and AORs were calculated using logistic regression in 2014. The multivariate analysis showed that men who had ever discussed advantages of PSA testing only or discussed both advantages and disadvantages were more likely, respectively, to report having had a test within the past year than men who had no discussions (ptesting with their healthcare providers were more likely (AOR=2.75, 95% CI=2.00, 3.79) to report getting tested than men who had no discussions. Discussions of the benefits or harms of PSA testing are positively associated with increased uptake of the test. Given the conflicting recommendations for prostate cancer screening and increasing importance of shared decision making, this study points to the need for understanding how pre-screening discussions are being conducted in clinical practice and the role played by patients' values and preferences in decisions about PSA testing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Colonic uptake patterns of F-18-FDG PET in asymptomatic adults: comparison with colonoscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, Moon Sun; Cho, Yoo Kyung; Jung, Sung Ae; Shim, Ki Nam; Lee, Hong Soo

    2005-01-01

    Physiologic intestinal FDG uptake is frequently observed in asymptomatic individuals for cancer screening FDG PET. Colonic FDG accumulation is a well-known confusing findings that interfere true cancer detection or cause false positive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern and intensity of colonic uptake in whole body FDG PET in asymptomatic healthy adults and to correlate them with colonoscopic findings. We reviewed retrospectively 64 subjects (age: 27-87, M:F=31:33) who underwent both FDG PET and colonoscopy for cancer screening. FDG uptake patterns were classified as focal, segmental and diffuse. Maximum SUV were measured. The PET results were compared with colonoscopic and histologic findings. In 13 patients FDG bowel uptake was interpreted as focal, in 17 patients as segmental and in 34 patients as diffuse uptake. Six adenomas (17.6%, average diameter=5.0 mm) were found in diffuse pattern, 7 adenomas (41.1%, 5.6 mm) in segmental and 4 adenomas and 1 adenocarcinoma (38.5%, 16.4 mm) in focal uptake pattern. In patients with focal uptake, four were non-adenomatous pathologic lesions (30.8%, 2 intestinal tuberculosis, 2 mucosal ulcer). There is no difference of mean SUV between patients with adenoma and with negative colonoscopic results in each group of intestinal FDG pattern (Diffuse: 1.7 ± 0.1 vs 1.9 ± 0.5, Segmental: 4.8 ± 3.6 vs 4.2 ± 1.2, Focal: 6.5 ± 4.7 vs 3.5 ± 1.3). Large adenomas (>1 cm) can be detected more in the focal uptake pattern (4 out of 5) rather than in segmental (1 out of 7) or diffuse uptake (none) and had higher SUV (6.3 ± 4.8) than small adenomas (3.5 ± 3.0)(statistically insignificant). Focal FDG uptake is associated more often with large adenoma and other pathologic findings in colonoscopy. Segmental uptake cannot discriminate presence of adenoma from negative results, while diffuse pattern may have more chance to be normal

  5. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  6. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Richter, Erik

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1.5 h......-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting muscle may only increase if glycogen...

  7. Cell uptake survey of pegylated nanographene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, M; Portolés, M T; Marques, P A A P; Feito, M J; Matesanz, M C; Ramírez-Santillán, C; Gonçalves, G; Cruz, S M A; Nieto, A; Vallet-Regi, M

    2012-11-23

    Graphene and more specifically, nanographene oxide (GO) has been proposed as a highly efficient antitumoral therapy agent. Nevertheless, its cell uptake kinetics, its influence in different types of cells and the possibility of controlling cellular internalization timing, is still a field that remains unexplored. Herein, different cell types have been cultured in vitro for several incubation periods in the presence of 0.075 mg ml(-1) pegylated GO solutions. GO uptake kinetics revealed differences in the agent's uptake amount and speed as a function of the type of cell involved. Osteoblast-like cells GO uptake is higher and faster without resulting in greater cell membrane damage. Moreover, the dependence on the commonly used PEG nature (number of branches) also influences the viability and cell uptake speed. These facts play an important role in the future definition of timing parameters and selective cell uptake control in order to achieve an effective therapy.

  8. Cell uptake survey of pegylated nanographene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, M; Nieto, A; Vallet-Regi, M; Portolés, M T; Feito, M J; Matesanz, M C; Ramírez-Santillán, C; Marques, P A A P; Gonçalves, G; Cruz, S M A

    2012-01-01

    Graphene and more specifically, nanographene oxide (GO) has been proposed as a highly efficient antitumoral therapy agent. Nevertheless, its cell uptake kinetics, its influence in different types of cells and the possibility of controlling cellular internalization timing, is still a field that remains unexplored. Herein, different cell types have been cultured in vitro for several incubation periods in the presence of 0.075 mg ml −1 pegylated GO solutions. GO uptake kinetics revealed differences in the agent’s uptake amount and speed as a function of the type of cell involved. Osteoblast-like cells GO uptake is higher and faster without resulting in greater cell membrane damage. Moreover, the dependence on the commonly used PEG nature (number of branches) also influences the viability and cell uptake speed. These facts play an important role in the future definition of timing parameters and selective cell uptake control in order to achieve an effective therapy. (paper)

  9. TfR Binding Peptide Screened by Phage Display Technology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To screen an hTfR affinity peptide and investigate its activity in vitro. Methods: hTfR ... Keywords: Peptide, hTfR, Transferrin receptor, Phage display technology, Enhanced green ..... mediated uptake of peptides that bind the human.

  10. School scoliosis screening programme-a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirin, J; Bakri, R; Buang, S N; Abdullah, A T; Shapie, A

    2010-12-01

    A systematic review on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of school scoliosis screening programme was carried out. A total of 248 relevant titles were identified, 117 abstracts were screened and 28 articles were included in the results. There was fair level of evidence to suggest that school scoliosis screening programme is safe, contributed to early detection and reduction of surgery. There was also evidence to suggest that school-based scoliosis screening programme is cost-effective. Based on the above review, screening for scoliosis among school children is recommended only for high risk group such as girls at twelve years of age.

  11. Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgari, Evgenia; Spanakis, Elias; Dobs, Adrian Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR), obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a descriptive review of several mechanisms that can explain the IR among women with PCOS, other risk factors for the development of diabetes, and the screening methods used for the detection of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS. Few mechanisms can explain IR in women with PCOS such as obesity, insulin receptor signaling defects, and inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Women with PCOS have additional risk factors for the development of glucose intolerance such as family history of diabetes, use of oral contraceptives, anovulation, and age. The Androgen Society in 2007 and the Endocrine Society in 2013 recommended using oral glucose tolerance test as a screening tool for abnormal glucose tolerance in all women with PCOS. The approach to detection of glucose intolerance among women with PCOS varies among health care providers. Large prospective studies are still needed for the development of guidelines with strong evidence. When assessing risk of future diabetes in women with PCOS, it is important to take into account the method used for screening as well as other risk factors that these women might have.

  12. Gastric gallium-67 uptake in gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, E.L.; Tisdale, P.L.; Zielonka, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Even though Ga-67 imaging has been used widely in the diagnosis of malignant as well as inflammatory lesions, its uptake in the stomach has been reported in the literature mainly in gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. As shown in this case, intense gastric uptake of the radionuclide may be seen in common gastritis without malignancy. Perhaps the benign gastric uptake of Ga-67 deserves more emphasis

  13. Radioiodine uptake by plants from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabova, T.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake and accumulation of radioiodine by wheat, maize and peas from various types of soil have been studied. The uptake depends on the type of soil, on its content of organic matter and on the amount of fertilizer. Radioiodine is mainly accumulated in the roots. Accumulation in above-ground plant parts decreases in the following order: wheat, maize, peas. Uptake was highest from humus and clay soils and lowest from black and meadow soils. Application of chloride fertilizer or carrier iodine lead to an increase of radioiodine uptake in the whole plant. (author)

  14. Physiological FDG uptake in the palatine tonsils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Joji; Okamura, Terue; Shakudo, Miyuki

    2001-01-01

    In clinical F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies of the head and neck region, remarkable symmetric tonsillar FDG uptake is sometimes observed. We determined the incidence and degree of tonsillar FDG uptake and investigated the significance of tonsillar FDG uptake. Between June 1998 and August 1998, we obtained informed consent from 17 patients who were scheduled to undergo a FDG-PET study for their own disease (11 men and 6 women; aged 22 to 77 yr) and who did not have head and neck disease to perform FDG-PET scanning of the head and neck region in addition to their target organs. The incidence and degree of tonsillar FDG uptake were determined. Remarkable tonsillar FDG uptake was found in 9 patients. The SUVs of these FDG uptakes ranged from 2.48 to 6.75, with a mean of 4.29±1.20 (SD). Tonsillar FDG uptakes in the remaining 8 patients were not remarkable, and their SUVs ranged from 1.93 to 3.31, with a mean of 2.46±0.45. Head and neck disease does not appear to have been responsible for the increase in tonsillar FDG uptake. Differences among tonsillar FDG uptake in these 17 patients without head and neck disease appear to reflect differences in activity of ''physiological'' inflammation of the palatine tonsils. (author)

  15. Critical assessment of the test of 131I radioiodine uptake in the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Roehling, S.; Vana, S.; Zamrazil, V.

    1979-01-01

    The value of radioiodine 131 I uptake by the thyroid gland was studied to differentiate the functional disorders of the thyroid gland by analysing a smaller group of patients using the classical method and the computer method for the evaluation of 2500 determinations. The conclusion may be drawn that the uptake of radioiodine was caused by a disturbance of the thyroid gland function only in a minority of cases whereas in the others it is dependent on the intake of iodine or of goitrogens. It is therefore not suitable as a screening method for the diagnosis of thyroid gland diseases. It is, however, useful for the differentation of various types of hyperthyroidism. (author)

  16. Development of a Colorectal Cancer Screening Intervention for Iranian Adults: Appling Intervention Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharati, Fereshteh; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Bashirian, Saeid; Bagheri, Fahimeh; Faradmal, Javad

    2017-08-27

    Background: While the incidence rate of the colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing over the last three decades in Iran, very limited interventions to increase CRC screening have been developed for Iranian population. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of Intervention Mapping (IM) for applying theory and evidence and considering local contexts to develop a CRC screening program among adults in Iran. Materials and Methods: From April 2014 to July 2016 following the IM process, six steps were formulated and implemented. First a need assessment was conducted involving relevant stakeholders and using focus groups discussions (n=10), individual interviews (n=20), and a household survey (n= 480). Then a matrix of change objectives was developed for each behavioral outcome and theoretical methods and their practical applications were identified to guide intervention development and implementation. A multi-component intervention was developed and piloted. Decision on suitable parts of intervention was made based on feedback of pilot study. Finally, evaluation plan including process and outcome evaluation was generated and conducted to inform future scale up. Results: The needs assessment highlighted factors affecting CRC screening including knowledge, self efficacy, social support and perceived benefit and barriers (financial problems, fear of detection of cancer and etc). Results of needs assessment were used to develop next steps IM. The program utilized methods like information delivery, modeling, and persuasion. Practical applications included video presentation, group discussion, role playing and postcards.This program was assessed through a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Results showed that there were significant differences in CRC screening uptake between intervention groups and control (Pintervention addressing CRC screening among Iranian population. Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. Small Screen Technology Use among Indigenous Boarding School Adolescents from Remote Regions of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie; Oliver, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of small screen technology by adolescents is widespread, particularly in industrial nations. Whether the same is true for Australian Aboriginal youth is less clear as there is a dearth of research in this regard. Therefore, in this exploratory study the use of small screen technology by Indigenous students was examined. Twenty-four…

  18. The impact of community health educators on uptake of cervical and breast cancer prevention services in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K; Onyeka, Tonia C; Odugu, Boniface U; Dim, Cyril C

    2017-06-01

    To determine the impact of trained community health educators on the uptake of cervical and breast cancer screening, and HPV vaccination in rural communities in southeast Nigeria. A prospective population-based intervention study, with a before-and-after design, involved four randomly selected communities in southeast Nigeria from February 2014 to February 2016. Before the intervention, baseline data were collected on the uptake of cervical and breast cancer prevention services. The intervention was house-to-house education on cervical cancer and breast cancer prevention. Postintervention outcome measures included the uptake of cervical and breast cancer screening, and HPV vaccination within 6 months of intervention. In total, 1327 women were enrolled. Before the intervention, 42 (3.2%) women had undergone cervical cancer screening; afterwards, 897 (67.6%) women had received screening (Pbreast examination was performed for 59 (4.4%) women before and 897 (67.6%) after the intervention (Pbreast cancer prevention education was associated with significant increases in the uptake of cervical cancer screening, clinical breast examination, and HPV vaccination. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  19. The Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, Nigel M.; Giardini, Mario E.; Bastawrous, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Complications of diabetes mellitus, namely diabetic retinopathy and diabetic maculopathy, are the leading cause of blindness in working aged people. Sufferers can avoid blindness if identified early via retinal imaging. Systematic screening of the diabetic population has been shown to greatly reduce the prevalence and incidence of blindness within the population. Many national screening programs have digital fundus photography as their basis. In the past 5 years several techniques and adapters have been developed that allow digital fundus photography to be performed using smartphones. We review recent progress in smartphone-based fundus imaging and discuss its potential for integration into national systematic diabetic retinopathy screening programs. Some systems have produced promising initial results with respect to their agreement with reference standards. However further multisite trialling of such systems’ use within implementable screening workflows is required if an evidence base strong enough to affect policy change is to be established. If this were to occur national diabetic retinopathy screening would, for the first time, become possible in low- and middle-income settings where cost and availability of trained eye care personnel are currently key barriers to implementation. As diabetes prevalence and incidence is increasing sharply in these settings, the impact on global blindness could be profound. PMID:26596630

  20. Determinants of a GP visit and cervical cancer screening examination in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Michael Labeit

    Full Text Available In the UK, women are requested to attend a cervical cancer test every 3 years as part of the NHS Cervical Screening Programme. This analysis compares the determinants of a cervical cancer screening examination with the determinants of a GP visit in the same year and investigates if cervical cancer screening participation is more likely for women who visit their GP.A recursive probit model was used to analyse the determinants of GP visits and cervical cancer screening examinations. GP visits were considered to be endogenous in the cervical cancer screening examination. The analysed sample consisted of 52,551 observations from 8,386 women of the British Household Panel Survey.The analysis showed that a higher education level and a worsening self-perceived health status increased the probability of a GP visit, whereas smoking decreased the probability of a GP visit. GP visits enhanced the uptake of a cervical cancer screening examination in the same period. The only variables which had the same positive effect on both dependent variables were higher education and living with a partner. The probability of a cervical cancer screening examination increased also with previous cervical cancer screening examinations and being in the recommended age groups. All other variables had different results for the uptake of a GP visit or a cervical cancer screening examination.Most of the determinants of visiting a GP and cervical cancer screening examination differ from each other and a GP visit enhances the uptake of a smear test.

  1. New nitrogen uptake strategy: specialized snow roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Makarov, Mikhail I; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Ivanov, Viktor B; Akhmetzhanova, Assem A; Tekeev, Dzhamal K; Ermak, Anton A; Salpagarova, Fatima S; Kozhevnikova, Anna D; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2009-08-01

    The evolution of plants has yielded a wealth of adaptations for the acquisition of key mineral nutrients. These include the structure, physiology and positioning of root systems. We report the discovery of specialized snow roots as a plant strategy to cope with the very short season for nutrient uptake and growth in alpine snow-beds, i.e. patches in the landscape that remain snow-covered well into the summer. We provide anatomical, chemical and experimental (15)N isotope tracking evidence that the Caucasian snow-bed plant Corydalis conorhiza forms extensive networks of specialized above-ground roots, which grow against gravity to acquire nitrogen directly from within snow packs. Snow roots capture nitrogen that would otherwise partly run off down-slope over a frozen surface, thereby helping to nourish these alpine ecosystems. Climate warming is changing and will change mountain snow regimes, while large-scale anthropogenic N deposition has increased snow N contents. These global changes are likely to impact on the distribution, abundance and functional significance of snow roots.

  2. Uptake of DNA by cancer cells without a transfection reagent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Kong

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of glucose uptake and may obtain pre-formed, diet-derived fatty acids from the bloodstream to boost their rapid growth; they may also use nucleic acid from their microenvironment. The study of processing nucleic acid by cancer cells will help improve the understanding of the metabolism of cancer. DNA is commonly packaged into a viral or lipid particle to be transferred into cells; this process is called transfection in laboratory. Cancer cells are known for having gene mutations and the evolving ability of endocytosis. Their uptake of DNAs might be different from normal cells; they may take in DNAs directly from the environment. In this report, we studied the uptake of DNAs in cancer cells without a transfection reagent. Methods A group of DNA fragments were prepared with PCR and labeled with isotope phosphorous-32 to test their uptake by Huh 7 (liver cancer and THLE3 (normal liver cells after incubation overnight by counting radioactivity of the cells’ genomic DNA. Multiple cell lines including breast cancer and lung cancer were tested with the same method. DNA molecules were also labeled with fluorescence to test the location in the cells using a kit of “label it fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH” from Mirus (USA. Results The data demonstrated that hepatocellular carcinoma cells possess the ability to take in large DNA fragments directly without a transfection reagent whereas normal liver cells cannot. Huh7 and MDA-MB231 cells displayed a significantly higher Rhodamine density in the cytoplasmic phagosomes and this suggests that the mechanism of uptake of large DNA by cancer cells is likely endocytosis. The efficacy of uptake is related to the DNA’s size. Some cell lines of lung cancer and breast cancer also showed similar uptake of DNA. Conclusions In the present study, we have revealed the evidence that some cancer cells, but not nontumorigenic cells, can take DNA

  3. Studies on the T3 suppression test with reference to the thyrodial 123I uptake in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Akira; Inukai, Toshihiko; Ohshima, Kihachi; Shimomura, Yohnosuke; Kobayashi, Setsuo

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-three patients with Graves' disease had been treated with methylmercaptoimidazole (MMI). They were prescribed a maintenance dose of antithyroid drug (MMI, 5 mg/day) at the time of a T 3 suppression test. The 3-hour and 24-hour thyroidal 123 I uptake after T 3 administration (75 μg/day, 2 weeks) were measured (post T 3 uptake). In 38 patients whose post T 3 uptake was below 35% in post T 3 24-hour uptake, treatment was stopped. The T 3 suppression test was then repeated 1 and 3 months later. During a one-year follow up, 26 remained well, while 12 relapsed within 6 to 12 months. We have observed a good correlation between 3-hour uptake and 24-hour uptake of 123 I after T 3 administration (r=0.847, p 3 suppression, most patients with MMI withdrawal produced a marked overshoot of post T 3 3-hour and 24-hour uptake at one month. Retrospective analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in circulating thyroid hormone levels between remission and relapse groups. The present study provides evidence that 3-hour uptake values are able to be substituted for 24-hour uptake values during a T 3 suppression test. In addition, overshoot of thyroidal uptake after antithyroid drug withdrawal was observed in 3-hour values, similar to 24-hour values. (author)

  4. Unmasking the Role of Uptake Transporters for Digoxin Uptake Across the Barriers of the Central Nervous System in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal S Taskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of uptake transporter (organic anion–transporting polypeptide [Oatp] in the disposition of a P-glycoprotein (P-gp substrate (digoxin at the barriers of central nervous system, namely, the blood-brain barrier (BBB, blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB, and brain-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB, was studied using rat as a preclinical species. In vivo chemical inhibition of P-gp and Oatp was achieved using elacridar and rifampicin, respectively. Our findings show that (1 digoxin had a low brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (B/P (0.07 in rat; (2 in the presence of elacridar, the B/P of digoxin increased by about 12-fold; (3 rifampicin administration alone did not change the digoxin B/P significantly when compared with digoxin B/P alone; (4 rifampicin administration along with elacridar resulted only in 6-fold increase in the B/P of digoxin; (5 similar fold changes and trends were seen with the spinal cord-to-plasma concentration ratio of digoxin, indicating the similarity between BBB and the BSCB; and (6 unlike BBB and BSCB, the presence of rifampicin further increased the cerebrospinal fluid-to-plasma concentration ratio (CSF/P for digoxin, suggesting a differential orientation of the uptake transporters at the BCSFB (CSF to blood compared with the BBB (blood to brain. The observations for digoxin uptake, at least at the BBB and the BSCB, advocate the importance of uptake transporters (Oatps. However, the activity of such uptake transporters became evident only after inhibition of the efflux transporter (P-gp.

  5. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Kevin; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV max , and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV max with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  6. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A SCREENING APPROACH TO DETECT THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS THAT INHIBIT THE HUMAN SODIUM IODIDE SYMPORTER (NIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data pertaining to a NIS-expressing cell line, hNIS-HEK293T-EPA, and its screening capabilities for determining inhibitors of NIS-mediated iodide uptake. This...

  8. Uptake of organic nitrogen by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgny Nasholm; Knut Kielland; Ulrika. Ganeteg

    2009-01-01

    Languishing for many years in the shadow of plant inorganic nitrogen (N) nutrition research, studies of organic N uptake have attracted increased attention during the last decade. The capacity of plants to acquire organic N, demonstrated in laboratory and field settings, has thereby been well established. Even so, the ecological significance of organic N uptake for...

  9. Gallium 67 uptake in thymic rebound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, R.; Sabio, H.; Teates, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    We have reported a case of localized thymic enlargement and uptake of gallium 67 in a child who had received antineoplastic chemotherapy. The enlarged thymus showed normal histology, a picture consistent with thymic rebound after nonspecific stress. This case further demonstrates the need to consider thymic rebound as a cause of gallium 67 uptake in children with neoplastic diseases

  10. Uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong; Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou; Ding Bingyang

    2005-01-01

    The review covers results at home and abroad in terms of uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes, and suggests pteridophytes' significance in phytoremediation; the mechanisms related to uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes and some methods and means used for research on the mechanism are also introduced; the authors' viewpoints on future development trends are presented in this paper. (authors)

  11. Nitrogen uptake kinetics of freshly isolated zooxanthellae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; Rajkumar, R.

    that for nitrate [2.8 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1] and urea [0.37 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1]. Half-saturation constants for uptake of the three nitrogen compounds were in the range of 10-15 mu mol.l/1. Generally, uptake of any one nitrogen substrate appears to be inhibit...

  12. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  13. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author)

  14. Uptake and transport of chromium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, V.; D'souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The uptake of chromium, an important soil and water pollutant, by five different plant species was examined in nutrient culture experiments using chromium-51 as a tracer. The concentration in aerial tissues of both trivalent and hexavalent forms of chromium was the greatest in peas followed by beans, tomato and the cereals over identical uptake periods. The uptake of 51 Cr 3+ was, in general, greater than 51 CrO 4 2- . Studies with bean plants indicated that shoot uptake of both forms of chromium decreased with increasing pH and salt concentration of the external solution. Concentrations of 10 -4 M and 10 -5 M DNP inhibited 51 Cr uptake by bean shoots. (author)

  15. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  16. Systematic review of the effect of immunization mandates on uptake of routine childhood immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cecilia; Robinson, Joan L

    2016-06-01

    The efficacy of immunization mandates for childcare or school entry is a long-standing controversy. The United States (US) adopted school entry immunization mandates in the 1800s, while most countries still do not have mandates. The objective of this systematic review was to analyze the evidence that immunization uptake increases with mandates. A search was conducted for studies that compared immunization uptake in a population prior to and after mandates, or in similar populations with one group having and the other not having mandates. Data were extracted and synthesized qualitatively due to the heterogeneity of study design. Eleven before-and-after studies and ten studies comparing uptake in similar populations with and without mandates were included. Studies were from the US (n = 18), France (n = 1) and Canada (n = 2). Eleven of the 21 studies looked at middle school mandates. All but two studies showed at least a trend towards increased uptake with mandates. Higher uptake was associated with a more long-standing mandate. Immunization mandates have generally led to increased short-term and long-term uptake in the group to whom the mandate applies. Many studies have centered around middle school mandates in the US and there is a paucity of studies of childcare mandates or of studies of mandates in other countries or in settings with relatively high baseline immunization uptake. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Using the Frailty Assessment for Care Planning Tool (FACT to screen elderly chronic kidney disease patients for frailty: the nurse experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffatt H

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Heather Moffatt,1 Paige Moorhouse,1,2 Laurie Mallery,1,2 David Landry,1 Karthik Tennankore2 1Nova Scotia Health Authority, Halifax, NS, Canada; 2Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, CanadaPurpose: Recent evidence supports the prognostic significance of frailty for functional decline and poor health outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet, despite the development of clinical tools to screen for frailty, little is known about the experiential impact of screening for frailty in this setting. The Frailty Assessment for Care Planning Tool (FACT evaluates frailty across 4 domains: mobility, function, social circumstances, and cognition. The purpose of this qualitative study was as follows: 1 explore the nurse experience of screening for frailty using the FACT tool in a specialized outpatient renal clinic; 2 determine how, if at all, provider perceptions of frailty changed after implementation of the frailty screening tool; and 3 determine the perceived factors that influence uptake and administration of the FACT screening tool in a specialized clinical setting.Methods: A semi-structured interview of 5 nurses from the Nova Scotia Health Authority, Central Zone Renal Clinic was conducted. A grounded theory approach was used to generate thematic categories and analysis models.Results: Four primary themes emerged in the data analysis: “we were skeptical”, “we made it work”, “we learned how”, and “we understand”. As the renal nurses gained a sense of confidence in their ability to implement the FACT tool, initial barriers to implementation were attenuated. Implementation factors – such as realistic goals, clear guidelines, and ongoing training – were important factors for successful uptake of the frailty screening initiative.Conclusion: Nurse participants reported an overall positive experience using the FACT method to screen for frailty and indicated that their understanding of the multiple dimensions and subtleties of

  18. Determination of maximum physiologic thyroid uptake and correlation with 24-hour RAI uptake value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duldulao, M.; Obaldo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In hyperthyroid patients, thyroid uptake values are overestimated, sometimes approaching or exceeding 100%. This is physiologically and mathematically impossible. This study was undertaken to determine the maximum physiologic thyroid uptake value through a proposed simple method using a gamma camera. Methodology: Twenty-two patients (17 females and 5 males), with ages ranging from 19-61 y/o (mean age ± SD; 41 ± 12), with 24-hour uptake value of >50%, clinically hyperthyroid and referred for subsequent radioactive iodine therapy were studied. The computed maximum physiologic thyroid uptake was compared with the 24-hour uptake using the paired Student t-test and evaluated using linear regression analysis. Results: The computed physiologic uptake correlated poorly with the 24-hour uptake value. However, in the male subgroup, there was no statistically significant difference between the two (p=0.77). Linear regression analysis gives the following relationship: physiologic uptake (%) = 77.76 - 0.284 (24-hour RAI uptake value). Conclusion: Provided that proper regions of interest are applied with correct attenuation and background subtraction, determination of physiologic thyroid uptake may be obtained using the proposed method. This simple method may be useful prior to I-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism especially when a single uptake determination is performed. (author)

  19. Psychosocial consequences of skin cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Markham Risica; Natalie H. Matthews; Laura Dionne; Jennifer Mello; Laura K. Ferris; Melissa Saul; Alan C. Geller; Francis Solano; John M. Kirkwood; Martin A. Weinstock

    2018-01-01

    Screening for melanoma may save lives, but may also cause patient distress. One key reason that preventative visual skin examinations for skin cancer are not currently recommended is the inadequate available evidence to assess potential harm to psychosocial wellbeing. We investigated potential psychological harms and benefits of skin examinations by conducting telephone surveys in 2015 of 187 screened participants; all were ≥35 years old. Participants had their skin examined by practitioners ...

  20. Moessbauer study of iron uptake in cucumber root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, K.; Kuzmann, E., E-mail: kuzmann@para.chem.elte.hu [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Chemistry (Hungary); Fodor, F. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Department of Plant Physiology and Molecular Plant Biology (Hungary); Vertes, A. [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Chemistry (Hungary); Kamnev, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the uptake and distribution of iron in the root of cucumber plants grown in