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Sample records for scottish suicide rates

  1. Changes in Scottish suicide rates during the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rob; Stark, Cameron; Humphry, Roger W; Selvaraj, Sivasubramaniam

    2006-06-23

    It is believed that total reported suicide rates tend to decrease during wartime. However, analysis of suicide rates during recent conflicts suggests a more complex picture, with increases in some age groups and changes in method choice. As few age and gender specific analyses of more distant conflicts have been conducted, it is not clear if these findings reflect a change in the epidemiology of suicide in wartime. Therefore, we examined suicide rates in Scotland before, during and after the Second World War to see if similar features were present. Data on deaths in Scotland recorded as suicide during the period 1931-1952, and population estimates for each of these years, were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland. Using computer spreadsheets, suicide rates by gender, age and method were calculated. Forward stepwise logistic regression was used to assess the effect of gender, war and year on suicide rates using SAS V8.2. The all-age suicide rate among both men and women declined during the period studied. However, when this long-term decline is taken into account, the likelihood of suicide during the Second World War was higher than during both the pre-War and post-War periods. Suicide rates among men aged 15-24 years rose during the Second World War, peaking at 148 per million (41 deaths) during 1942 before declining to 39 per million (10 deaths) by 1945, while the rate among men aged 25-34 years reached 199 per million (43 deaths) during 1943 before falling to 66 per million (23 deaths) by 1946. This was accompanied by an increase in male suicides attributable to firearms and explosives during the War years which decreased following its conclusion. All age male and female suicide rates decreased in Scotland during World War II. However, once the general background decrease in suicide rates over the whole period is accounted for, the likelihood of suicide among the entire Scottish population during the Second World War was elevated. The overall

  2. Service contacts prior to death in people dying by suicide in the Scottish Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Cameron R; Vaughan, Susan; Huc, Sara; O'Neill, Noelle

    2012-01-01

    Many people who die by suicide have been in contact with health services prior to their death. This study examined service contacts in people in urban and rural areas of the Scottish Highlands. Highland residents dying by suicide or undetermined intent in 2001-2004 were identified using routine death records. Health service databases were searched to identify general hospital, mental health and general practice notes. 177 residents died in the time period (136 males). At least one type of record was identified on 175 people, including general practice records (167 people, 94.4%), psychiatric hospital records (n=87, 49.2%) and general hospital records (n=142, 80.2%). Of these, 52.5% had been in contact with at least one health service in the month before their death, including 18.6% with mental health services, and 46.4% with general practice. In total, 68.9% had a previous diagnosis of mental illness, 52.5% of substance misuse problems, and 40.1% of self-harm. The commonest mental illness diagnosis was depression (n=97, 54.8%). There was no difference in rates of GP contact in rural and urban areas. Of those dying in urban areas, 32% had been in contact with mental health services in the previous month, compared with 21% in Accessible Rural/Accessible Small Towns, and 11% in Remote Rural/Remote Small Towns (prural areas were less likely to have had contact with mental health services in the year before their death (prural than urban areas, and this finding increased with greater rurality.

  3. Suicide in Scottish military veterans: a 30-year retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, B P; Mackay, D F; Smith, D J; Pell, J P

    2017-07-01

    Although reassuring data on suicide risk in UK veterans of the 1982 Falklands conflict and 1991 Gulf conflict have been published, there have been few studies on long-term overall suicide risk in UK veterans. To examine the risk of suicide in a broad population-based cohort of veterans in Scotland, irrespect ive of length of service or exposure to conflict, in comparison with people having no record of military service. A retrospective 30-year cohort study of 56205 veterans born 1945-85 and 172741 matched non-veterans, using Cox proportional hazard models to compare the risk of suicide and fatal self-harm overall, by sex, birth cohort, length of service and year of recruitment. There were 267 (0.48%) suicides in the veterans compared with 918 (0.53%) in non-veterans. The difference was not statistically significant overall [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.13]. The incidence was lower in younger veterans and higher in veterans aged over 40. Early service leavers were at non-significantly increased risk (adjusted HR 1.13; 95% CI 0.91-1.40) but only in the older age groups. Women veterans had a significantly higher risk of suicide than non-veteran women (adjusted HR 2.44; 95% CI 1.32-4.51, P suicide did not differ significantly between veterans and non-veterans, for either sex. The Scottish Veterans Health Study adds to the emerging body of evidence that there is no overall difference in long-term risk of suicide between veterans and non-veterans in the UK. However, female veterans merit further study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. The Social Norms of Suicidal and Self-Harming Behaviours in Scottish Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody Quigley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the suicidal and self-harming behaviour of individuals is often associated with similar behaviours in people they know, little is known about the impact of perceived social norms on those behaviours. In a range of other behavioural domains (e.g., alcohol consumption, smoking, eating behaviours perceived social norms have been found to strongly predict individuals’ engagement in those behaviours, although discrepancies often exist between perceived and reported norms. Interventions which align perceived norms more closely with reported norms have been effective in reducing damaging behaviours. The current study aimed to explore whether the Social Norms Approach is applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviours in adolescents. Participants were 456 pupils from five Scottish high-schools (53% female, mean age = 14.98 years, who completed anonymous, cross-sectional surveys examining reported and perceived norms around suicidal and self-harming behaviour. Friedman’s ANOVA with post-hoc Wilcoxen signed-ranks tests indicated that proximal groups were perceived as less likely to engage in or be permissive of suicidal and self-harming behaviours than participants’ reported themselves, whilst distal groups tended towards being perceived as more likely to do so. Binary logistic regression analyses identified a number of perceived norms associated with reported norms, with close friends’ norms positively associated with all outcome variables. The Social Norms Approach may be applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviour, but associations between perceived and reported norms and predictors of reported norms differ to those found in other behavioural domains. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are considered.

  5. The Social Norms of Suicidal and Self-Harming Behaviours in Scottish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Jody; Rasmussen, Susan; McAlaney, John

    2017-03-15

    Although the suicidal and self-harming behaviour of individuals is often associated with similar behaviours in people they know, little is known about the impact of perceived social norms on those behaviours. In a range of other behavioural domains (e.g., alcohol consumption, smoking, eating behaviours) perceived social norms have been found to strongly predict individuals' engagement in those behaviours, although discrepancies often exist between perceived and reported norms. Interventions which align perceived norms more closely with reported norms have been effective in reducing damaging behaviours. The current study aimed to explore whether the Social Norms Approach is applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviours in adolescents. Participants were 456 pupils from five Scottish high-schools (53% female, mean age = 14.98 years), who completed anonymous, cross-sectional surveys examining reported and perceived norms around suicidal and self-harming behaviour. Friedman's ANOVA with post-hoc Wilcoxen signed-ranks tests indicated that proximal groups were perceived as less likely to engage in or be permissive of suicidal and self-harming behaviours than participants' reported themselves, whilst distal groups tended towards being perceived as more likely to do so. Binary logistic regression analyses identified a number of perceived norms associated with reported norms, with close friends' norms positively associated with all outcome variables. The Social Norms Approach may be applicable to suicidal and self-harming behaviour, but associations between perceived and reported norms and predictors of reported norms differ to those found in other behavioural domains. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are considered.

  6. Inter-regional variations in suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodic, Helena Korosec; Agius, Mark; Pregelj, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a significant public health problem. Suicide alone represents the 10th leading cause of death worldwide. Suicide is a complex phenomenon and may be the result of an interaction of biological, psychological and socioeconomic factors. Although there are many differences in suicide rates between different countries in the world, some studies reported huge differences of suicide rates between different regions within the same country as well. The studies that investigated the regional differences in suicide rates were gathered in the present article. The studies revealed that depression frequently remained unidentified and thus untreated and could contribute to high regional suicide rates. It could be speculated that access to services, which increases the possibility of diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders, could have an impact on regional suicide rates. Thus the availability of services may be relevant in explaining geographical variations in suicide incidence. Many studies reported that suicide was a major public health issue of particular concern among rural populations, which experienced a consistently higher suicide rate than urban areas considering the availability of psychiatric services, was typically less available in rural regions. As suggested in some studies, it seems that socioeconomic factors outweighed climatic factors in explaining regional differences in the suicide rate but further research is needed.

  7. Rising longitudinal trajectories in suicide rates: The role of firearm suicide rates and firearm legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Selby, Edward A; Butterworth, Sarah E

    2017-07-01

    Firearms account for approximately half of all US suicide deaths each year despite being utilized in only a small minority of suicide attempts. We examined the extent to which overall suicide rates fluctuated relative to firearm and non-firearm suicide rates across a period of 16years (1999-2015). We further tested the notion of means substitution by examining the association between firearm suicide rates and non-firearm suicide rates. Lastly, we examined the extent to which the presence of specific laws related to handgun ownership previously shown cross-sectionally to be associated with lower suicide rates (universal background checks, mandatory waiting periods) were associated with an attenuated trajectory in suicide rates across the study period. As anticipated, whereas decreases in firearm suicide rates were associated with decreases in overall suicide rates (b=0.46, SE=0.07, pfirearm suicides were not associated with off-setting increases in suicides by other methods (b=-0.04, SE=0.05, p=0.36). Furthermore, the absence of universal background check (b=0.12, SE=0.05, p=0.028) and mandatory waiting period (b=0.16, SE=0.06, p=0.008) laws was associated with a more steeply rising trajectory of statewide suicide rates. These results mitigate concerns regarding means substitution and speak to the potential high yield impact of systematically implemented means safety prevention efforts focused on firearms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed.

  9. An Application of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide to Prison Suicide Rates in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2005-01-01

    E. Durkheim (1897) suggested that the societal rate of suicide might be explained by societal factors, such as marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The current study examined male prison suicide rates and suicide rates for men in the total population in the United States and found that variables based on Durkheim's theory of suicide explained…

  10. Tolerance of suicide, religion and suicide rates : an ecological and individual study in 19 Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Halpern, D; Leon, D; Lewis, G

    Background. Negative associations between religion and suicide, in individuals and countries, may be mediated by the degree to which suicide is tolerated. Methods. Linear regression was used to examine ecological associations between suicide tolerance, religion and suicide rates in 19 Western

  11. [Religion and suicide - part 2: confessions, religiousness, secularisation and national suicide rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kristina; Zitterl, Werner; Stompe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    National suicide rates differ remarkably. The influence of religion on the frequency of suicides was already stressed by Durkheim, however, character and dimension of this influence are still unclear. Our study claims to assess the association between (a) the distribution of believers of different religions, (b) the secularization, (c) the religiousness and the national suicide rates by gender. Data of the distribution of religious confessions and of the religiousness of the inhabitants of the single countries were correlated with the national suicide rates and illustrated by means of Scatter/Dot-Plots. Independent of gender, low suicide rates were found in Islamic countries. Buddhist countries showed high suicide rates in women, and countries with a high percentage of inhabitants without confession high suicide rates in men. Only catholic countries showed an association between secularisation and suicide rates. In countries with a high proportion of religious inhabitants we found low suicide rates. Although none of the World religions support the human right of suicide, the mosaic religions of resurrection refuse suicide more strictly than the Eastern religions of reincarnation. All in all our study supports the hypothesis that religiousness can be seen as a protective factor against suicide.

  12. Historical accumulation rates of mercury in four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs over the past 2000 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, John G., E-mail: J.G.Farmer@ed.ac.uk [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland (United Kingdom); Anderson, Peter [Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, Scotland (United Kingdom); Cloy, Joanna M.; Graham, Margaret C. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland (United Kingdom); MacKenzie, Angus B.; Cook, Gordon T. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, East Kilbride, G75 0QF, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The historical accumulation rates of mercury resulting from atmospheric deposition to four Scottish ombrotrophic peat bogs, Turclossie Moss (northeast Scotland), Flanders Moss (west-central), Red Moss of Balerno (east-central) and Carsegowan Moss (southwest), were determined via analysis of {sup 210}Pb- and {sup 14}C-dated cores up to 2000 years old. Average pre-industrial rates of mercury accumulation of 4.5 and 3.7 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} were obtained for Flanders Moss (A.D. 1-1800) and Red Moss of Balerno (A.D. 800-1800), respectively. Thereafter, mercury accumulation rates increased to typical maximum values of 51, 61, 77 and 85 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1}, recorded at different times possibly reflecting local/regional influences during the first 70 years of the 20th century, at the four sites (TM, FM, RM, CM), before declining to a mean value of 27 {+-} 15 {mu}g m{sup -2} y{sup -1} during the late 1990s/early 2000s. Comparison of such trends for mercury with those for lead and arsenic in the cores and also with direct data for the declining UK emissions of these three elements since 1970 suggested that a substantial proportion of the mercury deposited at these sites over the past few decades originated from outwith the UK, with contributions to wet and dry deposition arising from long-range transport of mercury released by sources such as combustion of coal. Confidence in the chronological reliability of these core-derived trends in absolute and relative accumulation of mercury, at least since the 19th century, was provided by the excellent agreement between the corresponding detailed and characteristic temporal trends in the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb isotopic ratio of lead in the {sup 210}Pb-dated Turclossie Moss core and those in archival Scottish Sphagnum moss samples of known date of collection. The possibility of some longer-term loss of volatile mercury released from diagenetically altered older peat cannot, however, be excluded by the findings of this

  13. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2016-01-01

    on a sample of 85 adolescents (90.6% females) who participated at follow-up (85.9%) out of the 99 (49.7%) baseline respondents. All adolescents were recruited from a specialized suicide-prevention clinic in Denmark. Through multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined whether baseline suicidal......Objectives: Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at a high risk of suicide. Methods: The study was conducted in 2014...... behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally...

  14. Household firearm ownership and suicide rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah; Hemenway, David

    2002-09-01

    In the United States, more people kill themselves with firearms than with all other methods combined. A central question regarding the relation between firearms and suicide is whether the ready availability of firearms increases the suicide rate, rather than merely increasing the proportion of suicides from guns. We used publicly available data for the nine regions and 50 states in the United States over a 10-year period (1988-1997) to examine the association between levels of household firearm ownership and rates of suicide, firearm suicide, and non-firearm suicide by age groups and gender. In both regional and state-level analyses, for the U.S. population as a whole, for both males and females, and for virtually every age group, a robust association exists between levels of household firearm ownership and suicide rates. Where firearm ownership levels are higher, a disproportionately large number of people die from suicide.

  15. Association of suicide rates, gun ownership, conservatism and individual suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kposowa, Augustine J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the association of suicide rates, firearm ownership, political conservatism, religious integration at the state level, and individual suicide risk. Social structural and social learning and social integration theories were theoretical frameworks employed. It was hypothesized that higher suicide rates, higher state firearm availability, and state conservatism elevate individual suicide risk. Data were pooled from the Multiple Cause of Death Files. Multilevel logistic regression models were fitted to all deaths occurring in 2000 through 2004 by suicide. The state suicide rate significantly elevated individual suicide risk (AOR = 1.042, CI = 1.037, 1.046). Firearm availability at the state level was associated with significantly higher odds of individual suicide (AOR = 1.004, CI = 1.003, 1.006). State political conservatism elevated the odds of individual suicides (AOR = 1.005, CI = 1.003, 1.007), while church membership at the state level reduced individual odds of suicide (AOR = 0.995, CI = 0.993, 0.996). The results held even after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variables at the individual level. It was concluded that the observed association between individual suicide odds and national suicide rates, and firearm ownership cannot be discounted. Future research ought to focus on integrating individual level data and contextual variables when testing for the impact of firearm ownership. Support was found for social learning and social integration theories.

  16. The Association Between Gun Ownership and Statewide Overall Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Houtsma, Claire

    2018-04-01

    An extensive body of research has demonstrated an association between gun ownership and suicide that extends beyond the effects of a range of covariates. We aimed to expand on extant research by examining the extent to which gun ownership predicts statewide overall suicide rates beyond the effects of demographic, geographic, religious, psychopathological, and suicide-related variables. By extending the list of covariates utilized, considering those covariates simultaneously, and using more recent data, we sought to present a more stringent test. Gun ownership predicted statewide overall suicide rates, with the full model accounting for more than 92% of the variance in statewide suicide rates. The correlation between firearm suicide rates and the overall suicide rate was significantly stronger than the correlation between nonfirearm suicide rates and the overall suicide rate. These findings support the notion that access to and familiarity with firearms serves as a robust risk factor for suicide. Therefore, means safety efforts aimed at reducing accessibility and increasing safe storage of firearms would likely have a dramatic impact on statewide overall suicide rates. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  17. How Does Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide Affect Rates of Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David Albert; Paton, David

    2015-10-01

    Several US states have legalized or decriminalized physician-assisted suicide (PAS) while others are considering permitting PAS. Although it has been suggested that legalization could lead to a reduction in total suicides and to a delay in those suicides that do occur, to date no research has tested whether these effects can be identified in practice. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by examining the association between the legalization of PAS and state-level suicide rates in the United States between 1990 and 2013. We used regression analysis to test the change in rates of nonassisted suicides and total suicides (including assisted suicides) before and after the legalization of PAS. Controlling for various socioeconomic factors, unobservable state and year effects, and state-specific linear trends, we found that legalizing PAS was associated with a 6.3% (95% confidence interval 2.70%-9.9%) increase in total suicides (including assisted suicides). This effect was larger in the individuals older than 65 years (14.5%, CI 6.4%-22.7%). Introduction of PAS was neither associated with a reduction in nonassisted suicide rates nor with an increase in the mean age of nonassisted suicide. Legalizing PAS has been associated with an increased rate of total suicides relative to other states and no decrease in nonassisted suicides. This suggests either that PAS does not inhibit (nor acts as an alternative to) nonassisted suicide, or that it acts in this way in some individuals but is associated with an increased inclination to suicide in other individuals.

  18. Changes in suicide rates following media reports on celebrity suicide: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Fu, King-wa; Yip, Paul S F; Fong, Daniel Y T; Stack, Steven; Cheng, Qijin; Pirkis, Jane

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of studies indicate that sensationalist reporting of suicide is associated with increases in suicide rates, but in the light of some negative findings, the issue has remained controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the best current evidence on the association between celebrity suicide stories and subsequent suicides. Literature searches of six data sources (Medline, Psychlit, Communication Abstracts, Education Resources Information Center, Dissertation Abstracts and Australian Public Affairs Database (APAIS)) were conducted. Studies were included if they (1) adopted an ecological design, (2) focused on celebrity suicide, (3) had completed suicide as outcome variable, (4) analysed suicide rates across all suicide methods, (5) used data from after World War II and (6) satisfied basic quality criteria. 10 studies with totally 98 suicides by celebrities met the criteria. The pooled estimate indicated a change in suicide rates (suicides per 100 000 population) of 0.26 (95% CI 0.09 to 0.43) in the month after a celebrity suicide. There was substantial heterogeneity between studies, which was explained by the type of celebrity (entertainment elite vs others) and the region of study, as indicated by mixed-effects meta-regression. The region-of-study-specific effect of reporting a suicide by an entertainment celebrity was 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.73) in North America, 0.58 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.68) in Asia, 0.36 (95% CI -0.10 to 0.61) in Australia and 0.68 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.85) in Europe. There was no indication of publication bias. Reports on celebrity suicide are associated with increases in suicides. Study region and celebrity type appear to have an impact on the effect size.

  19. Rising Indigenous suicide rates in Kimberley and implications for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anita; Chapman, Murray; McHugh, Cate; Sng, Adelln; Balaratnasingam, Sivasankaran

    2016-12-01

    This audit examined the demographics of Indigenous Australians dying by suicide in the Kimberley region of Western Australia during the period 2005-2014. This is a de-identified retrospective audit of reported suicide deaths provided to Kimberley Mental Health and Drug Service during the period 2005-2014. Variables such as age, sex, method of suicide, previous engagement with mental health services, locality and ethnicity were assessed. Indigenous suicide rates in the Kimberley region have dramatically increased in the last decade. There is also an overall trend upwards in Indigenous youth suicide and Indigenous female suicides. These findings highlight the need for culturally informed, and youth focussed, suicide prevention interventions within the Kimberley region. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  20. The Impact of Celebrity Suicide on Subsequent Suicide Rates in the General Population of Korea from 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyun; Choi, Nari; Kim, Seog Ju; Kim, Soohyun; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-04-01

    The association between celebrity suicide and subsequent increase in suicide rates among the general population has been suggested. Previous studies primarily focused on celebrity suicides in the 2000s. To better understand the association, this study examined the impacts of celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates using the data of Korean celebrity suicides between 1990 and 2010. Nine celebrity suicides were selected by an investigation of media reports of suicide deaths published in three major newspapers in Korea between 1990 and 2010. Suicide mortality data were obtained from the National Statistical Office of Korea. Seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average models with intervention analysis were used to test the impacts of celebrity suicides, controlling for seasonality. Six of the 9 celebrity suicides had significant impacts on suicide rates both in the total population and in the same gender- or the same age-subgroups. The incident that occurred in the 1990s had no significant impact on the overall suicide rates, whereas the majority of the incidents in the 2000s had significant influences for 30 or 60 days following each incident. The influence of celebrity suicide was shown to reach its peak following the suicide death of a renowned actress in 2008. The findings may suggest a link between media coverage and the impact of celebrity suicide. Future studies should focus more on the underlying processes and confounding factors that may contribute to the impact of celebrity suicide on subsequent suicide rates.

  1. The effects of a celebrity suicide on suicide rates in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Paul S F; Fu, K W; Yang, Kris C T; Ip, Brian Y T; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chen, Eric Y H; Lee, Dominic T S; Law, Frances Y W; Hawton, Keith

    2006-07-01

    Deaths of celebrities, especially by suicide, can be followed by an increase in population suicide rates, particularly where there is extensive media reporting. We have examined the impact on suicides following the death of a famous Hong Kong pop singer whose death from suicide by jumping from a height, occurred on 1st April 2003, and resulted in extensive and often dramatic media coverage. Data on suicides were obtained from the Hong Kong Census and Statistics Department and the Coroner's Court. The numbers of suicides in 2003 before and after the death of celebrity were compared to the same period in 1998-2002. The case files and suicide notes of people who died by suicide in 2003 were also studied qualitatively. There was a significant increase in suicides following the celebrity death, compared with the average over the preceding three months as well as the corresponding monthly average during 1998-2002. It was particularly marked in a subgroup comprising males, aged 25-39 years, many of whom died by jumping. The name of the celebrity was often mentioned in case files and suicide notes. The statistical results in showing the excess of suicides were based on aggregated data only. This study provides further confirmation of the potential harmful consequences of sensational and excessive reporting of celebrity deaths.

  2. The associations between state veteran population rates, handgun legislation, and statewide suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael; Capron, Daniel W

    2016-03-01

    Within the US, veterans exhibit an elevated suicide rate, with firearms serving as the most common method. Research has demonstrated that several state laws regulating handgun ownership are associated with lower suicide rates. Publically available databases were utilized to extract relevant data. Statewide veteran population rates (per 100,000) predicted overall suicide rates, firearm suicide rates, and the proportion of suicides by firearms. Furthermore, the association between veteran population and overall suicide rate was largely explained by the elevated proportion of suicides by firearms in states with higher veteran populations. Lastly, results demonstrated states without handgun legislation in place exhibited higher veteran populations. Findings indicate veterans may impact statewide suicide rates through their propensity to use firearms as their method and that the tendency for veterans to live in states without handgun legislation may exacerbate this phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased use of antidepressants and decreasing suicide rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Canudas-Romo, V; Conwell, Y

    2008-01-01

    -based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 50 years and older living in Denmark between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2000 (N = 2,100,808). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide rates are calculated according to current antidepressant treatment status (no treatment, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA...... 100,000, recipients of antidepressants contributed to the decline by 0.9 suicides. Women redeeming antidepressant prescriptions accounted for 0.4 suicides of the observed reduction of 3.3 per 100,000. The average suicide rates for men receiving TCA and SSRI were 153.3 and 169.0 per 100,000 person......-years, respectively. Among older women, both TCA and SSRI users had an average suicide rate of 68.8 per 100,000 over the period examined. CONCLUSIONS: Just a small proportion of older adults dying by suicide were found to be in treatment with antidepressants at the time of death. Individuals in active treatment...

  4. The Effects of Gun Ownership Rates and Gun Control Laws on Suicide Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Gius

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the effects of gun control laws and gun ownership rates on state-level suicide rates. Using the most recent data on suicide rates, gun control measures, and gun ownership rates, the results of the present study suggest that states that require handgun permits have lower gun-related suicide rates, and states that have higher gun ownership rates have higher gun-related suicide rates. Regarding non-gun suicides, results suggest that stricter gun c...

  5. Relationship of suicide rates to economic variables in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Kawohl, Wolfram; Theodorakis, Pavlos N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates. AIMS: The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates. METHOD: Data was gathered and analysed from 29 Europ...

  6. Suicide rates in China from 2002 to 2011: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Yip, Paul S F

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to present the time trend of suicide rate among people aged 15 or above in China over the period 2002-2011 and (2) to examine the current profile of completed suicides during 2009-2011. Data on suicide rate in 2002-2011 were provided by the Chinese Ministry of Health (MOH). The trends of region-, gender-, and age-specific suicide rates were examined using Poisson regression models. The mean number of completed suicides for each cohort during 2009-2011 was calculated and a mean national suicide rate was estimated. The overall suicide rate decreased significantly over the past decade, but rates in young males and rural older adults did not reduce and in fact increased among older adults in both urban and rural areas towards the end of the study period. For 2009-2011, 44 % of all suicides occurred among those aged 65 or above and 79 % among rural residents. The estimated mean national suicide rate was 9.8 per 100,000 and was slightly higher for males than females. The benefits of economic growth, such as higher employment and more educational opportunities for the rural population in particular, may have contributed to the reduced suicide rate in China. However, the recent rapid changes in socioeconomic conditions could have increased stress levels and resulted in more suicides, especially among the elderly. Despite the significant reduction reported here, the latest figures suggest the declining trend is reversing. It will be important to continue monitoring the situation and to examine how urbanization and economic changes affect the well-being of 1.3 billion Chinese.

  7. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. All suicides in Denmark between 1970 and 2000 were examined with regard to method used for suicide. Overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality was compared...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate....

  8. Dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rate in industrialized nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Tran, Ulrich S

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ecological association of dietary tryptophan intake and suicide rates across industrialized nations. Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the rate-limiting precursor of serotonin biosynthesis. The serotonergic system has been strongly implicated in the neurobiology of suicide. Contemporary male and female suicide rates for the general population (42 countries) and the elderly (38 countries) were correlated with national estimates of dietary tryptophan intake. Measures of tryptophan intake were significantly negatively associated to national suicide rates. Controlling for national affluence, total alcohol consumption and happiness levels slightly attenuated these associations, but left all of them negative. The effect is an ecological (group-level) finding. Estimated per capita tryptophan supply is only a proxy for actual consumption. Developed nations ranking high in dietary tryptophan intake rank low in suicide rates, independent of national wealth, alcohol intake and happiness.

  9. National intelligence, suicide rate, and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Across 73 countries around the world, national intelligence estimates predicted significant increments in the variance of male and female suicide rates over and above the predictive contributions of the cognitive and hedonic facets of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, and unhappiness). This new result adds to current evidence for cognitive ability as an ecologic (aggregate-level) correlate of suicide prevalence.

  10. Firearms regulation and declining rates of male suicide in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Mathieu; Robitaille, Yvonne; Hamel, Denis; St-Laurent, Danielle

    2010-08-01

    To examine whether significant changes in method-specific male suicide rates occurred in the province of Quebec after stronger firearms regulations were introduced in Canada in 1991; to ascertain whether more stringent firearms regulations influence firearms and total suicide trends among men and to determine whether different results are obtained according to the statistical methods used. Descriptive analyses of time trends in method-specific suicide rates for men from 1981 to 2006 using Joinpoint regression models and pre-post firearms regulation analyses. Quebec (Canada). PATIENTS OR SUBJECTS: Men who have commited suicide aged 15-34, 35-64 and 65 years and over, based on the Quebec mortality database, 1981-2006. A national firearms control initiative enacted in 1991. The Joinpoint regression models suggest that firearm suicide rates declined towards the end of the 1990 s. Since 1996, the pace of decline was twice as great in men aged 15-34 years (annual percentage change (APC) -11.1%) compared with men aged 35-64 years (APC -5.6%). Total suicide rates also declined among men aged 15-34 and 35-64 years during this period. Pre-post firearms regulation Poisson regression analyses failed to detect the specific point in time when significant changes in the trend occurred. Male firearm suicide rates declined following the introduction of restrictive firearms regulations in Canada. Whether this represents a causal relationship requires further study.

  11. Female labour force participation and suicide rates in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Mengni; Lui, Carrie S M; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-12-01

    The current study aims to illustrate male to female suicide rate ratios in the world and explore the correlations between female labour force participation rates (FLPR) and suicide rates of both genders. Further, whether the relationship of FLPR and suicide rates vary according to the human capabilities of a given country are examined. Using suicide data obtained from the World Health Organization Statistical Information System, suicide gender ratios of 70 countries are illustrated. Based on the level of Human Development Index (HDI) and FLPR, the Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC) was used to determine the optimal number of clusters of those countries. Graphic illustrations of FLPR and gender-specific suicide rates, stratified by each cluster were presented, and Pearson's correlation coefficients calculated. Three clusters are identified, there was no correlation between FLPR and suicide rates in the first cluster where both the HDI and FLPR were the highest (Male: r = 0.29, P = 0.45; Female: r = 0.01, P = 0.97); whereas in Cluster 2, higher level of FLPR corresponded to lower suicide rates in both genders, although the statistical significance was only found in females (Male: r = -0.32, P = 0.15; Female: r = -0.48, P = 0.03). In Cluster 3 countries where HDI/FLPR were relatively lower, increased FLPR was associated with higher suicide rates for both genders (Male: r = 0.32, P = 0.04; Female: r = 0.32, P = 0.05). The relationship between egalitarian gender norms and suicide rates varies according to national context. A greater egalitarian gender norms may benefit both genders, but more so for women in countries equipped with better human capabilities. Although the beneficial effect may reach a plateau in countries with the highest HDI/FLPR; whereas in countries with relatively lower HDI/FLPR, increased FLPR were associated with higher suicide rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Seasonal changes in 24-h patterns of suicide rates : a study on train suicides in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houwelingen, CAJ; Beersma, DGM; Houwelingen, Cornelis A.J. van

    2001-01-01

    Background: Annual patterns in suicide rates, peaking near the summer solstice, are well documented. It has been suggested that day length or total hours of sunshine has an impact on suicide rates. If these environmental factors are involved, we would expect changes in the daily pattern of suicide

  13. A changing epidemiology of suicide? The influence of birth cohorts on suicide rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie A

    2014-08-01

    The increases in suicide among middle-aged baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1964) in the United States since 1999 suggest a changing epidemiology of suicide. Using data from 1935 to 2010, this paper conducts age-period-cohort analyses to determine the impact of cohorts in shaping temporal patterns of suicide in the United States. The analysis demonstrates that age, period and cohort effects are all important in determining suicide trends. Net of age and period effects, the cohort pattern of suicide rates is U-shaped, with cohorts born between 1915 and 1945 possessing among the very lowest suicide rates. Suicide rates begin to rise with boomers and subsequent cohorts exhibit increasingly higher rates of suicide. The general pattern exists for both men and women but is especially pronounced among males. The average suicide rate over the entire period for males is about 28 per 100,000, 95% CI [27.4, 28.7]. For males born in 1930-34, the suicide rate is estimated to be 17.4 per 100,000, 95% CI [15.9, 18.8]; for males born between 1955 and 1959, the rate is essentially the same as the average for the period while for males born between 1985 and 1989, the suicide rate is estimated to be 37.8 per 100,000, 95% CI [33.1, 43.4]. The results dispute popular claims that boomers exhibit an elevated suicide rate relative to other generations, but boomers do appear to have ushered in new cohort patterns of suicide rates over the life course. These patterns are interpreted within a Durkheimian framework that suggests weakened forms of social integration and regulation among postwar cohorts may be producing increased suicide rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Durkheim, social integration and suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaszewski, A; Manthorpe, J

    This second paper of six on the application of sociology in health care considers the work of Emile Durkheim. He was concerned with the production of social order through relationships and shared values. Durkheim conceived social phenomena as 'social facts' which could be studied, and his treatment of suicide as a case study of social fact is discussed here. His work on the processes of social cohesion has influenced the work of sociologists up to the present day.

  15. Suicide rates and information seeking via search engines: A cross-national correlational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian

    2017-11-27

    The volume of Google searches for suicide-related terms is positively associated with suicide rates, but previous studies used data from specific, restricted geographical contexts, thus, limiting the generalizability of this finding. We investigated the correlation between suicide-related search volume and suicide rates of 50 nations from five continents. We found a positive correlation between suicide rates and search volume, even after controlling for the level of industrialization. Results give credence to the global existence of a correlation. However, the reason why suicide-related search volume is higher in countries with higher suicide rates is still unclear and up to future research.

  16. Handgun Legislation and Changes in Statewide Overall Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C; Butterworth, Sarah E

    2017-04-01

    To examine the extent to which 4 laws regulating handgun ownership were associated with statewide suicide rate changes. To test between-group differences in statewide suicide rate changes between 2013 and 2014 in all 50 states and the District of Columbia with and without specific laws, we ran analyses of covariance. We found significant differences in suicide rate changes from 2013 to 2014 in states with mandatory waiting periods and universal background checks relative to states without such laws. States with both laws differed significantly from those with neither. No significant differences in rate changes were noted for open carry restrictions or gun lock requirements. Some state laws regulating aspects of handgun acquisition may be associated with lower statewide suicide rates. Laws regulating handgun storage and carrying practices may have a smaller effect, highlighting that legislation is likely most useful when its focus is on preventing gun ownership rather than regulating use and storage of guns already acquired. Public Health Implications. The findings add to the increasing evidence in support of a public health approach to the prevention of suicide via firearms, focusing on waiting periods and background checks.

  17. Trends in Hanging and Firearm Suicide Rates in Australia: Substitution of Method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, Diego; Dwyer, Jonathan; Firman, David; Neulinger, Kerryn

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the increase in the rate of suicide by hanging and an apparently simultaneous decrease in the rate of suicide by firearm as hypothetical evidence that Australian males have substituted one method of suicide for another. Individual suicide method choice may be related to independent changes in the social acceptability of each…

  18. The reliability of suicide rates: an analysis of railway suicides from two sources in fifteen European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Alexandre; Scheerder, Gert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2011-06-01

    National suicide data are an underestimation of the actual number of suicides but are often assumed to be reliable and useful for scientific research. The aim of this study is to contribute to the discussion of the reliability of suicide mortality data by comparing railway suicides from two data sources. Data for the railway suicides and the concurrent causes of death of fifteen European countries were collected from the European Detailed Mortality Database and the European Railway Agency (ERA). Suicide rates, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. The suicide data from the ERA were significantly higher than the national data for six out of fifteen countries. In three countries, the ERA registered significantly more railway suicides compared to the sum of the national suicides and undetermined deaths. In Italy and France, the ERA statistics recorded significantly more railway related fatalities than the national statistical offices. In total the ERA statistics registered 34% more suicides and 9% more railway fatalities compared with the national statistics. The findings of this study concern railway suicides and they cannot be extrapolated to all types of suicides. Further, the national suicide statistics and the ERA data are not perfectly comparable, due to the different categorisations of the causes of death. Based on the data for railway suicides, it seems that the underestimation of suicide rates is significant for some countries, and that the degree of underestimation differs substantially among countries. Caution is needed when comparing national suicide rates. There is a need for standardisation of national death registration procedures at the European level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of media reporting of the suicide of a celebrity on suicide rates: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Andrew T A; Hawton, Keith; Lee, Charles T C; Chen, Tony H H

    2007-12-01

    The impact of media reporting of suicides of entertainment celebrities may affect suicide rates due to an imitation effect. We investigated the impact on suicides of the media reporting of the suicide of a male television celebrity. All suicides during 2003-2005 in Taiwan (n = 10,945) were included in this study. A Poisson time series autoregression analysis was conducted to examine whether there was an increase in suicides during the 4-week period after extensive media reporting of the celebrity suicide. After controlling for seasonal variation, calendar year, temperature, humidity and unemployment rate, there was a marked increase in the number of suicides during the 4-week period after media reporting (relative risk = 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31). The increase was in men (relative risk = 1.30, 95% CI 1.14-1.50) and for the individuals using the same highly lethal method (hanging) as the TV actor did (relative risk = 1.51, 95% CI 1.25-1.83). However, the age groups in which the increase occurred were younger than the age of the celebrity. The extensive media reporting of the celebrity suicide was followed by an increase in suicides with a strong implication of a modelling effect. The results provide further support for the need for more restrained reporting of suicides as part of suicide prevention strategies to decrease the imitation effect.

  20. Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid Supplementation on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Serum Lipids in Scottish Men with Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Sagara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA on coronary heart disease risks in 38 middle-aged men with hypertension and/or hypercholesterolemia in Scotland, a five-week double-blind placebo-controlled dietary supplementation with either 2 g of DHA or active placebo (1 g of olive oil was conducted. Percent composition of DHA in plasma phospholipids increased significantly in DHA group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased significantly in DHA group, but not in placebo group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C increased significantly, and total cholesterol (TC/HDL-C and non-HDL-C/HDL-C ratios decreased significantly in both groups. There was no change in TC and non-HDL-C. We conclude that 2 g/day of DHA supplementation reduced coronary heart disease risk factor level improving blood pressure, heart rate, and lipid profiles in hypertensive, hypercholesterolemic Scottish men who do not eat fish on a regular basis.

  1. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Hern?ndez-Alvarado, Mervyn Manuel; Gonz?lez-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Z?rate, Carlos Alfonso; Fres?n, Ana; Ju?rez-Rojop, Isela E.; L?pez-Narv?ez, Mar?a Lilia; Villar-Soto, Mario; Genis-Mendoza, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i) the method of suicide; (ii) age group and (iii) gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging ...

  2. Effect of the First World War on suicide rates in Ireland: an investigation of the 1864-1921 suicide trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mugtaba; Parnell, Andrew C

    2015-10-01

    Since the proposition of the social integration theory by Émile Durkheim, macro-sociological changes have been speculated to affect suicide rates. This study investigates the effect of the First World War on Irish suicide rates. We applied an interrupted time series design of 1864-1921 annual Irish suicide rates. The 1864-1913 suicide rates exhibited a slow-rising trend with a sharp decline from the year 1914 onwards. The odds for death by suicide for males during the 1914-1918 period was 0.811 (95% CI 0.768-0.963). Irish rates of suicide were significantly reduced during the First World War, most notably for males. None. © 2015 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence.

  3. Effect of the First World War on suicide rates in Ireland: an investigation of the 1864–1921 suicide trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the proposition of the social integration theory by Émile Durkheim, macro-sociological changes have been speculated to affect suicide rates. This study investigates the effect of the First World War on Irish suicide rates. We applied an interrupted time series design of 1864–1921 annual Irish suicide rates. The 1864–1913 suicide rates exhibited a slow-rising trend with a sharp decline from the year 1914 onwards. The odds for death by suicide for males during the 1914–1918 period was 0.811 (95% CI 0.768–0.963). Irish rates of suicide were significantly reduced during the First World War, most notably for males. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © 2015 The Royal College of Psychiatrists. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703742

  4. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds. The Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. All suicides in Denmark between 1970 and 2000 were examined with regard to method used for suicide. Overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality was compared...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate...

  5. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojae Myung

    Full Text Available The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects.

  6. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Woojae; Lee, Geung-Hee; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Kim, Doh Kwan; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects.

  7. Adolescent suicide in Australia: rates, risk and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Patricia M

    2013-07-01

    Adolescent suicide rates in Australia have fallen significantly during recent years. The incidence, however, clearly remains a serious concern for young people, parents, professionals and policy makers. Some groups of Australian youth appear to be at heightened risk. Adolescents within the welfare system, indigenous, rural and refugee youth, along with same sex attracted young people often need very careful monitoring and support. Young men continue to take their lives more frequently than young women. Prevention programmes in Australia aim to develop resilience in young people, families and communities that can serve as protection against self harm and suicide. The improvement of mental health literacy, a fostering of adolescent self-efficacy and better access to early intervention strategies are currently privileged in national and state policies related to young people in Australia. More work is needed, however, to achieve a well integrated mental health framework capable of effectively addressing adolescent suicide prevention into the twenty-first century.

  8. Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Lynge, Inge

    2006-01-01

    in the capital, a later peak in the rest of West Greenland, and high and increasing rates in remote East Greenland. Suicidal thoughts occur more often in young people who grew up in homes with a poor emotional environment, alcohol problems and violence. There is a definite correlation with several aspects...

  9. Suicide Rates and State Laws Regulating Access and Exposure to Handguns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C

    2015-10-01

    Using previous research, we examined the impact of 4 handgun laws (waiting periods, universal background checks, gun locks, and open carrying regulations) on suicide rates. We used publicly available databases to collect information on statewide laws, suicide rates, and demographic characteristics for 2013. Each law was associated with significantly lower firearm suicide rates and the proportion of suicides resulting from firearms. In addition, each law, except for that which required a waiting period, was associated with a lower overall suicide rate. Follow-up analyses showed a significant indirect effect on overall suicide rates through the proportion of suicides by firearms, indicating that the reduced overall suicide rate was attributable to fewer suicide attempts, fewer handguns in the home, suicide attempts using less lethal means, or a combination of these factors. States that implemented any of these laws saw a decreased suicide rate in subsequent years, whereas the only state that repealed 1 of these laws saw an increased suicide rate. Our results were supportive of a potentially vital role in suicide prevention for state legislation that limits access and exposure to handguns.

  10. Suicide Rates and State Laws Regulating Access and Exposure to Handguns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Joye C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Using previous research, we examined the impact of 4 handgun laws (waiting periods, universal background checks, gun locks, and open carrying regulations) on suicide rates. Methods. We used publicly available databases to collect information on statewide laws, suicide rates, and demographic characteristics for 2013. Results. Each law was associated with significantly lower firearm suicide rates and the proportion of suicides resulting from firearms. In addition, each law, except for that which required a waiting period, was associated with a lower overall suicide rate. Follow-up analyses showed a significant indirect effect on overall suicide rates through the proportion of suicides by firearms, indicating that the reduced overall suicide rate was attributable to fewer suicide attempts, fewer handguns in the home, suicide attempts using less lethal means, or a combination of these factors. States that implemented any of these laws saw a decreased suicide rate in subsequent years, whereas the only state that repealed 1 of these laws saw an increased suicide rate. Conclusions. Our results were supportive of a potentially vital role in suicide prevention for state legislation that limits access and exposure to handguns. PMID:26270305

  11. The impact of indiscriminate media coverage of a celebrity suicide on a society with a high suicide rate: epidemiological findings on copycat suicides from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju Ji, Nam; Young Lee, Weon; Seok Noh, Maeng; Yip, Paul S F

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the extent to which the indiscriminate media coverage of the famous young actress Lee Eun-ju's suicide in 2005 affected suicides overall and in specific subgroups (by age, gender, and suicide method) in a suicide-prone society, South Korea. South Korea's 2003-2005 suicide data (n=34,237) were obtained from death certificate records of the National Statistical Office (NSO). Data was analyzed with Poisson time series auto-regression models. After adjusting for confounding factors (such as seasonal variation, calendar year, temperature, humidity, and unemployment rate), there was a significant increase in suicide (RR=1.40, 95%, CI=1.30-1.51, no. of excess mortalities=331; 95% CI=267-391) during the 4 weeks after Lee's suicide. This increase was more prominent in subgroups with similar characteristics to the celebrity. In particular, the relative risk of suicide during this period was the largest (5.24; 95% CI=3.31-8.29) in young women who used the same suicide method as the celebrity. Moreover, the incidence of these copycat suicides during the same time significantly increased in both genders and in all age subgroups among those who committed suicide using the same method as the celebrity (hanging). It is difficult to prove conclusively that the real motivation of the suicides was Lee's death. The findings from this study imply that, if the media indiscreetly reports the suicide of a celebrity in a suicide-prone society, the copycat effect can be far-reaching and very strong, particularly for vulnerable people. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Suicide and general elections in Austria: do preceding regional suicide rate differentials foreshadow subsequent voting behavior swings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Formann, Anton K; Fülöp, Gerhard; Sonneck, Gernot

    2003-05-01

    Suicide-epidemiological research on short-term effects of elections on national/regional suicide and parasuicide incidence has yielded contradictory evidence. Reversing the cause-effect relationship of this line of research we investigated whether preceding regional suicide rates are related to subsequent election results. For Austria's 121 districts, we regressed averaged standardized suicide rates for the preceding period (1988-1994) on political parties' subsequent electoral gains/losses (1999-to-1995) while controlling for a set of 12 domain-relevant psychosocial/economic indices. Stepwise weighted multiple regression led to a significant model. The 1999-to-1995 electoral gains/losses of two opposition parties, together with the population variation caused by migration balance and by births/deaths balance, accounted for a substantial part (30%) of the variability in preceding district-level suicide rates. Various other social indices failed to contribute further substantial increments to this model. This finding suggests that variations in preceding regional suicide incidence might be mirrored in subsequent changes in voting behavior. A speculative post hoc explanation for the finding is offered: on a community level, suicide's aftermath might produce socially and politically alienated survivors of suicide who co-shape swings towards opposition parties in subsequent general elections. The finding calls for more research on suicide's long-term aftermath. Within-country replicability and cross-national generalizability await further investigation. At present, the factor/mechanism accounting for this finding is neither well-established nor has been directly tested.

  13. Relationship of suicide rates to economic variables in Europe: 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Kawohl, Wolfram; Theodorakis, Pavlos N; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Navickas, Alvydas; Höschl, Cyril; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Sorel, Eliot; Rancans, Elmars; Palova, Eva; Juckel, Georg; Isacsson, Goran; Jagodic, Helena Korosec; Botezat-Antonescu, Ileana; Warnke, Ingeborg; Rybakowski, Janusz; Azorin, Jean Michel; Cookson, John; Waddington, John; Pregelj, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Hranov, Luchezar G; Stevovic, Lidija Injac; Pezawas, Lucas; Adida, Marc; Figuera, Maria Luisa; Pompili, Maurizio; Jakovljević, Miro; Vichi, Monica; Perugi, Giulio; Andreassen, Ole; Andrasen, Ole; Vukovic, Olivera; Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Varnik, Peeter; Bech, Per; Dome, Peter; Winkler, Petr; Salokangas, Raimo K R; From, Tiina; Danileviciute, Vita; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Benhalima, Jonas Forsman; Grady, Anne; Leadholm, Anne Katrine Kloster; Soendergaard, Susan; Nordt, Carlos; Lopez-Ibor, Juan

    2014-12-01

    It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates. The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates. Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation. There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged. Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support there being a clear causal relationship between the current economic crisis and an increase in the suicide rate. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  14. National Suicide Rates a Century after Durkheim: Do We Know Enough to Estimate Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Cynthia A.; Yip, Paul S.; Corcoran, Paul; Bossarte, Robert M.; Lawrence, Bruce A.; Currier, Glenn W.

    2010-01-01

    Durkheim's nineteenth-century analysis of national suicide rates dismissed prior concerns about mortality data fidelity. Over the intervening century, however, evidence documenting various types of error in suicide data has only mounted, and surprising levels of such error continue to be routinely uncovered. Yet the annual suicide rate remains the…

  15. SELF-RATED EXPECTATIONS OF SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR PREDICT FUTURE SUICIDE ATTEMPTS AMONG ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; King, Cheryl A

    2016-06-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the predictive validity and clinical utility of a brief measure assessing youths' own expectations of their future risk of suicidal behavior, administered in a psychiatric emergency (PE) department; and determine if youths' ratings improve upon a clinician-administered assessment of suicidal ideation severity. The outcome was suicide attempts up to 18 months later. In this medical record review study, 340 consecutively presenting youths (ages 13-24) seeking PE services over a 7-month period were included. Subsequent PE visits and suicide attempts were retrospectively tracked for up to 18 months. The 3-item scale assessing patients' perception of their own suicidal behavior risk and the clinician-administered ideation severity scale were used routinely at the study site. Cox regression results showed that youths' expectations of suicidal behavior were independently associated with increased risk of suicide attempts, even after adjusting for key covariates. Results were not moderated by sex, suicide attempt history, or age. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses indicated that self-assessed expectations of risk improved the predictive accuracy of the clinician-administered suicidal ideation measure. Youths' ratings indicative of lower confidence in maintaining safety uniquely predicted follow-up attempts and provided incremental validity over and above the clinician-administered assessment and improved its accuracy, suggesting their potential for augmenting suicide risk formulation. Assessing youths' own perceptions of suicide risk appears to be clinically useful, feasible to implement in PE settings, and, if replicated, promising for improving identification of youth at risk for suicidal behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Economic Recession, Alcohol, and Suicide Rates: Comparative Effects of Poverty, Foreclosure, and Job Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Kaplan, Mark S; Huguet, Nathalie; Caetano, Raul; Giesbrecht, Norman; McFarland, Bentson H

    2017-04-01

    Suicide rates and the proportion of alcohol-involved suicides rose during the 2008-2009 recession. Associations between county-level poverty, foreclosures, and unemployment and suicide rates and proportion of alcohol-involved suicides were investigated. In 2015, National Violent Death Reporting System data from 16 states in 2005-2011 were utilized to calculate suicide rates and a measure of alcohol involvement in suicides at the county level. Panel models with year and state fixed effects included county-level measures of unemployment, foreclosure, and poverty rates. Poverty rates were strongly associated with suicide rates for both genders and all age groups, were positively associated with alcohol involvement in suicides for men aged 45-64 years, and negatively associated for men aged 20-44 years. Foreclosure rates were negatively associated with suicide rates for women and those aged ≥65 years but positively related for those aged 45-64 years. Unemployment rate effects on suicide rates were mediated by poverty rates in all groups. Population risk of suicide was most clearly associated with county-level poverty rates, indicating that programs addressing area poverty should be targeted for reducing suicide risk. Poverty rates were also associated with increased alcohol involvement for men aged 45-64 years, indicating a role for alcohol in suicide for this working-aged group. However, negative associations between economic indicators and alcohol involvement were found for four groups, suggesting that non-economic factors or more general economic effects not captured by these indicators may have played a larger role in alcohol-related suicide increases. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic growth and suicide rate changes: a case in China from 1982 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Ma, J; Jia, C; Sun, J; Guo, X; Xu, A; Li, W

    2010-04-01

    It is to estimate the trend of suicide rate changes during the past three decades in China and try to identify its social and economic correlates. Official data of suicide rates and economic indexes during 1982-2005 from Shandong Province of China were analyzed. The suicide data were categorized for the rural / urban location and gender, and the economic indexes include GDP, GDP per capita, rural income, and urban income, all adjusted for inflation. We found a significant increase of economic development and decrease of suicide rates over the past decades under study. The suicide rate decrease is correlated with the tremendous growth of economy. The unusual decrease of Chinese suicide rates in the past decades is accounted for within the Chinese cultural contexts and maybe by the Strain Theory of Suicide. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Suicide and schizophrenia: a systematic review of rates and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hor, Kahyee; Taylor, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Risk assessment is a core skill in psychiatry. Risk prediction for suicide in schizophrenia is known to be complex. We undertook a systematic review of all original studies concerning suicide in schizophrenia published since 2004. We found 51 data-containing studies (from 1281 studies screened) that met our inclusion criteria, and ranked these by standardized quality criteria. Estimates of rates of suicide and risk factors associated with later suicide were identified, and the risk factors we...

  19. Why has the continuous decline in German suicide rates stopped in 2007?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Hegerl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whereas German suicide rates had a clear decreasing tendency between 1991 and 2006, they increased from 2007 to 2010. Deeper analyses of suicide data might help to understand better this change. The aim of this study was to analyze 1 whether recent trends can be related to changes in specific suicide methods and diverge by gender and age; 2 whether the decrease of suicide rates before 2007 as well as the increase from 2007 to 2010 are driven by the same suicide method. METHODS: Analyses were based on suicide data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany. For 1998-2010, 136.583 suicide cases of men and women with known age and suicide method could be identified. These data were analyzed by joinpoint regression analysis, allowing identification of the best fitting point in time ("joinpoint" at which the suicide rate significantly changes in magnitude or direction. RESULTS: The national downward trend between 1998 and 2007 was mainly due to corresponding changes in self-poisoning by other means than drugs (e.g., pesticides (annual percentage change (APC ≤ -4.33, drowning (APC ≤ -2.73, hanging (APC ≤ -2.69 and suicides by firearms (APC ≤ -1.46 in both genders. Regarding the overall increase of age-adjusted suicide rates in Germany 2007-2010, mainly the increase of self-poisoning (e.g., by drugs and "being overrun" (APC ≥ 1.50 contributed to this trend. LIMITATIONS: The true suicide rates might have been underestimated because of errors in the official death certificates. CONCLUSIONS: Increase in suicide rates in Germany since 2007 went along with corresponding changes for "being overrun" and "self-poisoning". Copycat suicides following the railway suicide of the goalkeeper Robert Enke partly contributed to the results. Thus, prevention of Werther effects and limitation of the availability of high pack sizes for drugs are of special relevance for the reversal of this trend.

  20. Suicide and schizophrenia: a systematic review of rates and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hor, Kahyee; Taylor, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Risk assessment is a core skill in psychiatry. Risk prediction for suicide in schizophrenia is known to be complex. We undertook a systematic review of all original studies concerning suicide in schizophrenia published since 2004. We found 51 data-containing studies (from 1281 studies screened) that met our inclusion criteria, and ranked these by standardized quality criteria. Estimates of rates of suicide and risk factors associated with later suicide were identified, and the risk factors were grouped according to type and strength of association with suicide. Consensus on the lifetime risk of suicide was a rate of approximately 5%. Risk factors with a strong association with later suicide included being young, male, and with a high level of education. Illness-related risk factors were important predictors, with number of prior suicide attempts, depressive symptoms, active hallucinations and delusions, and the presence of insight all having a strong evidential basis. A family history of suicide, and comorbid substance misuse were also positively associated with later suicide. The only consistent protective factor for suicide was delivery of and adherence to effective treatment. Prevention of suicide in schizophrenia will rely on identifying those individuals at risk, and treating comorbid depression and substance misuse, as well as providing best available treatment for psychotic symptoms.

  1. Impact of Firearm Availability and Gun Regulation on State Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kposowa, Augustine; Hamilton, David; Wang, Katy

    2016-12-01

    Past studies on suicide have investigated the association of firearm ownership and suicide risk in the United States. The aim of the present study was to build on previous work by examining the impact of firearm storage practices and the strictness of firearm regulation on suicide rates at the state level. Data were compiled from primarily three sources. Suicide and firearm ownership information was obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Strictness of handgun regulation was derived from figures available at the Law Center to Prevent Violence, and controls were taken from the US Bureau of the Census. Mixed models were fitted to the data. Household firearm ownership was strongly associated with both suicide by all mechanisms, and firearm suicide. Storage practices had especially elevated consequences on suicide rates. Percent with loaded guns and gun readiness increased suicide rates, and strictness of gun regulation reduced suicide rates. Ready access to firearms can make a difference between life and death. Loaded and unlocked firearms within reach become risk factors for fatal outcomes from suicidal behavior. Future research might want to examine ways of obtaining more recent data on individual firearm ownership. This study proposes several policy recommendations for suicide prevention. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. Firearm Ownership and Suicide Rates Among US Men and Women, 1981–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between state-level firearm ownership rates and gender-specific, age-adjusted firearm and total suicide rates across all 50 US states from 1981 to 2013. Methods. We used panel data for all 50 states that included annual overall and gender-specific suicide and firearm suicide rates and a proxy for state-level household firearm ownership. We analyzed data by using linear regression and generalized estimating equations to account for clustering. Results. State-level firearm ownership was associated with an increase in both male and female firearm-related suicide rates and with a decrease in nonfirearm-related suicide rates. Higher gun ownership was associated with higher suicide rates by any means among male, but not among female, persons. Conclusions. We found a strong relationship between state-level firearm ownership and firearm suicide rates among both genders, and a relationship between firearm ownership and suicides by any means among male, but not female, individuals. Policy implications. For male persons, policies that reduce firearm ownership will likely reduce suicides by all means and by firearms. For female persons, such policies will likely reduce suicides by firearms. PMID:27196643

  3. Firearm Ownership and Suicide Rates Among US Men and Women, 1981-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Rothman, Emily F

    2016-07-01

    To examine the relationship between state-level firearm ownership rates and gender-specific, age-adjusted firearm and total suicide rates across all 50 US states from 1981 to 2013. We used panel data for all 50 states that included annual overall and gender-specific suicide and firearm suicide rates and a proxy for state-level household firearm ownership. We analyzed data by using linear regression and generalized estimating equations to account for clustering. State-level firearm ownership was associated with an increase in both male and female firearm-related suicide rates and with a decrease in nonfirearm-related suicide rates. Higher gun ownership was associated with higher suicide rates by any means among male, but not among female, persons. We found a strong relationship between state-level firearm ownership and firearm suicide rates among both genders, and a relationship between firearm ownership and suicides by any means among male, but not female, individuals. For male persons, policies that reduce firearm ownership will likely reduce suicides by all means and by firearms. For female persons, such policies will likely reduce suicides by firearms.

  4. Love and suicide: the structure of the Affective Intensity Rating Scale (AIRS and its relation to suicidal behavior.

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    Zimri S Yaseen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicide has been linked to intense negative affect. However, little is known about the range of affects experienced by suicidal persons, or the separate effects of affect valence and intensity. We examine a novel self-report scale, the 17-item Affective Intensity Rating Scale (AIRS, and its relation to suicidality in a high-risk sample. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients presenting with suicidality were recruited from the Emergency Department in a large urban hospital, and completed a battery of assessments there. Structure of the AIRS was assessed using Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis with Oblimin rotation. Convergent and divergent validity were assessed by regressing AIRS subscales against Brief Symptom Inventory subscales. Relation to suicidality was assessed by regression of suicide attempt status against scale and subscale scores, and individual items and two-way item interactions, along with significant clinical and demographic factors. 176 subjects were included in analyses. Three reliable subscales were identified within the AIRS measure: positive feelings towards self, negative feelings towards self, and negative feelings towards other. Only individual AIRS items associated significantly with suicide attempt status; strong 'feelings of love' associated positively with actual suicide attempt, while 'feelings of calm' and 'positive feelings towards self' associated negatively. Interaction analyses suggest 'calm' moderates the association of 'love' with suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Factor analysis of the AIRS is consistent with a circumplex model of affect. Affective dimensions did not predict suicidal behavior, but intense feelings of love, particularly in the absence of protective feelings of calm or positive self-view associated with current attempt.

  5. Suicide by shooting is correlated to rate of gun licenses in Austrian counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Kapusta, Nestor D; Sonneck, Gernot

    2006-08-01

    Shooting as method of suicide has increased considerably in Austria over recent decades and represented 23.5% of all suicides among men during the period 1990-2000. It is thought that the availability of guns could lead to their use in acts of suicide, and therefore we investigated the numbers of gun licenses (which constitutes ownership of guns and permission to carry a gun) in the nine Austrian counties and their correlation with suicides by shooting and other methods. We studied registered suicides, including the method used, between 1990 and 2000 in Austria and the numbers of gun licenses held in the nine counties of Austria in the same period. We found a strong correlation between the average gun license rate for the period 1990-2000 and suicides by shooting (r = 0.967), and only very weak correlation, and for some of the years under investigation a negative correlation, with other methods of committing suicide (r = 0.117) and the suicide rate in general (r = 0.383). As shooting as a method of suicide has increased in Austria in recent decades, and is a highly lethal method, the finding that the shooting suicide rate is related to the extent of gun ownership deserves attention, especially as there is evidence that restriction of gun ownership is an important factor in suicide prevention.

  6. Ethnocultural aspects of suicide in young people: a systematic literature review part 1: Rates and methods of youth suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Erminia; Martin, Graham

    2007-04-01

    The study of ethnocultural aspects of suicidal behaviour is, at the moment, still a neglected area. The relatively few studies available are mainly on adults; young people usually are not examined separately. The authors reviewed 82 publications on youth suicide that have addressed, to different degrees, the ethnicity/culture of the population studied. Following a description of the main characteristics shared by these researches (e.g., predominance of studies on Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics; lack of qualitative methodology, etc.), the rates and methods of youth suicide, from a cross-cultural perspective are discussed.

  7. Decrease in Suicide Rates after a Change of Policy Reducing Access to Firearms in Adolescents: A Naturalistic Epidemiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Gad; Werbeloff, Nomi; Halperin, Demian; Shmushkevitch, Mordechai; Weiser, Mark; Knobler, Haim Y.

    2010-01-01

    The use of firearms is a common means of suicide. We examined the effect of a policy change in the Israeli Defense Forces reducing adolescents' access to firearms on rates of suicide. Following the policy change, suicide rates decreased significantly by 40%. Most of this decrease was due to decrease in suicide using firearms over the weekend.…

  8. The effectiveness of suicide prevention programmes: urban and gender disparity in age-specific suicide rates in a Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, F-W; Liao, S-C; Wu, C-Y; Lee, M-B

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of suicide prevention programmes is an important issue worldwide today. The impact of urbanization and gender is controversial in suicide rates. Hence, this study adjusted on potential risk factors and secular changes for suicide rates in gender and rural/urban areas. Observational study. A Suicide Prevention Center was established by the Executive Yuan in Taiwan in 2005 and tried to carry out suicidal intervention in the community in every city and town. There were two phases, including the first phase of the programme from 2005 to 2008, and the second phase of the programme from 2009 to 2013. The crude suicide rates data from the period of 1991-2013, which recruited nine urban and 14 rural areas in Taiwan, were extracted from the Taiwanese national mortality data file. The suicide rates in two areas of Taiwan (Taipei city and Yilan County) were further used to compare the differences between urban and rural areas. The results show that unemployment increased the suicide rate in men aged 45-64 years and in women older than 65 years of age in Taiwan. High divorce and unemployment rates resulted in increased suicide rates in men in the city, whereas emotional distress was the main cause of suicides in men in rural areas. The main method of suicide was jumping from a high building for both sexes in the city, whereas drowning was the most common method of suicide for men in rural areas. Following the intervention programme, suicide behaviour began to decrease in all urban and rural areas of Taiwan. This study showed the cumulative effect of the intervention programme in decreasing the suicide rate in Taiwan. Moreover, the gender-specific suicidal rate and disparity in suicidal methods in urban and rural areas should be considered in further preventive strategies in Taiwan. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Availability of mental health service providers and suicide rates in Slovenia: a nationwide ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korosec Jagodic, Helena; Rokavec, Tatjana; Agius, Mark; Pregelj, Peter

    2013-10-28

    To investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and prevalence of mental disorders on regional differences in the suicide rate in Slovenia. The effects of different socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and mental disorders factors on suicide rates from 2000-2009 were analyzed using a general linear mixed model (GLMM). Pearson correlations were used to explore the direction and magnitude of associations. Among socioeconomic factors, unemployment rate ranked as the most powerful predictor of suicide and an increase of one unit in the unemployment rate increased regional suicide rate by 2.21 (β=2.21, 95% confidence intervals [CI]=1.87-2.54, Psuicide rate and an increase of one unit in marriage/divorce ratio reduced regional suicide rate by 1.16 (β=-1.16, 95% CI=-2.20 to -0.13, Psuicide rate and reduced regional suicide rate by 2.95 (β=-2.95, 95% CI=-4.60 to -1.31, P=0.002). Another negatively correlated factor was the antidepressant/anxiolytic ratio higher than 0.5, which reduced the regional suicide rate by 2.32 (β=-2.32, 95% CI=-3.75 to -0.89, P=0.003). Among mental health disorders, only the prevalence of alcohol use disorders was significantly related to the regional suicide rates and an increase of one unit in the prevalence of alcohol use disorders per 1000 inhabitants increased the regional suicide rate by 0.02 (β=0.02, 95% CI=0.01- 0.03, P=0.008). Besides unemployment, which was a very strong predictor of suicide rates, unequal availability of mental health services and quality of depressive disorder treatment may contribute to variations in suicide rates in different regions.

  10. Household firearm ownership and rates of suicide across the 50 United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Lippmann, Steven J; Azrael, Deborah; Hemenway, David

    2007-04-01

    The current investigation explores the association between rates of household firearm ownership and suicide across the 50 states. Prior ecologic research on the relationship between firearm prevalence and suicide has been criticized for using problematic proxy-based, rather than survey-based, estimates of firearm prevalence and for failing to control for potential psychological risk factors for suicide. We address these two criticisms by using recently available state-level survey-based estimates of household firearm ownership, serious mental illness, and alcohol/illicit substance use and dependence. Negative binomial regression was used to assess the relationship between household firearm ownership rates and rates of firearm, nonfirearm, and overall suicide for both sexes and for four age groups. Analyses controlled for rates of poverty, urbanization, unemployment, mental illness, and drug and alcohol dependence and abuse. US residents of all ages and both sexes are more likely to die from suicide when they live in areas where more households contain firearms. A positive and significant association exists between levels of household firearm ownership and rates of firearm and overall suicide; rates of nonfirearm suicide were not associated with levels of household firearm ownership. Household firearm ownership levels are strongly associated with higher rates of suicide, consistent with the hypothesis that the availability of lethal means increases the rate of completed suicide.

  11. A closer look at the increase in suicide rates in South Korea from 1986–2005

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    Chun Heeran

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide rates have recently been decreasing on average among OECD countries, but increasing trends have been detected in South Korea, particularly since the 1997 economic crisis. There have been no detailed analyses about the changes of the suicide rates over time periods in Korea. We examined trends in both absolute and proportional suicide rates over the time period of economic development, crisis, and recovery (1986 – 2005 as well as in birth cohorts from 1924 to 1978. Methods We used data on total mortality and suicide rates from 1986 to 2005 published online by the Korean National Statistical Office (NSO and extracted data for individuals under 80 years old. The analyses of the trends for 1 the sex-age-specific total mortality rate, 2 the sex-age-specific suicide rate, and 3 the sex-age-specific proportional suicide rate in 1986–2005 were conducted. To demonstrate the birth cohort effect on the proportional suicide rate, the synthetic birth cohort from 1924 to 1978 from the successive cross-sectional data was constructed. Results Age standardized suicide rates in South Korea increased by 98% in men (from 15.3 to 30.3 per 100,000 and by 124% in women (from 5.8 to 13.0 per 100,000. In both genders, the proportional increase in suicide rates was more prominent among the younger group aged under 45, despite the absolute increase being attributed to the older group. There were distinct cohort effects underlying increasing suicide rates particularly among younger age groups. Conclusion Increasing suicide rates in Korea was composed of a greater absolute increase in the older group and a greater proportional increase in the younger group.

  12. Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see ... event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. But women and teens report ...

  13. Solar radiation increases suicide rate after adjusting for other climate factors in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Hee-Jung; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Yu Jin; Choi, Nari; An, Hyonggin; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that suicide rates have significant seasonal variations. There is seasonal discordance between temperature and solar radiation due to the monsoon season in South Korea. We investigated the seasonality of suicide and assessed its association with climate variables in South Korea. Suicide rates were obtained from the National Statistical Office of South Korea, and climatic data were obtained from the Korea Meteorological Administration for the period of 1992-2010. We conducted analyses using a generalized additive model (GAM). First, we explored the seasonality of suicide and climate variables such as mean temperature, daily temperature range, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Next, we identified confounding climate variables associated with suicide rate. To estimate the adjusted effect of solar radiation on the suicide rate, we investigated the confounding variables using a multivariable GAM. Suicide rate showed seasonality with a pattern similar to that of solar radiation. We found that the suicide rate increased 1.008 times when solar radiation increased by 1 MJ/m 2 after adjusting for other confounding climate factors (P Solar radiation has a significant linear relationship with suicide after adjusting for region, other climate variables, and time trends. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Association of rates of household handgun ownership, lifetime major depression, and serious suicidal thoughts with rates of suicide across US census regions

    OpenAIRE

    Hemenway, D; Miller, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Cross sectional studies in the United States often find a significant positive association between levels of household firearm ownership and suicide rates. This study investigates whether the association can be explained by differences in levels of mental health.

  15. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012

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    Mervyn Manuel Hernández-Alvarado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i the method of suicide; (ii age group and (iii gender. Methods: The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Results: Suicide by hanging was a common choice of suicide method for Mexicans. The rate of suicide by hanging increased from 5.80 to 6.49 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012, a rate percentage increase of 11.89%. Conclusions: Hanging was found to be the most common choice of suicide in the Mexican population, probably because the materials required are easily available and the method does not require complicated techniques, especially in the 55–64 age group. Strategies for prevention and intervention should be developed for the Mexican population considering suicide rates by age group and gender.

  16. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alvarado, Mervyn Manuel; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Fresán, Ana; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; López-Narváez, María Lilia; Villar-Soto, Mario; Genis-Mendoza, Alma

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide, the suicide rate is decreasing. To examine changes in the rates of completed suicide in the Mexican population from 2003 to 2012, we analyzed these changes according to: (i) the method of suicide; (ii) age group and (iii) gender. The data analyzed were obtained from governmental organizations from the State of Tabasco, Mexico. The data provided 1836 cases of subjects born and residing in Tabasco, who completed suicide in this state. Suicide by hanging was a common choice of suicide method for Mexicans. The rate of suicide by hanging increased from 5.80 to 6.49 per 100,000 persons between 2003 and 2012, a rate percentage increase of 11.89%. Hanging was found to be the most common choice of suicide in the Mexican population, probably because the materials required are easily available and the method does not require complicated techniques, especially in the 55-64 age group. Strategies for prevention and intervention should be developed for the Mexican population considering suicide rates by age group and gender.

  17. Decomposing change in China's suicide rate, 1990-2010: ageing and urbanisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Feng; Yip, Paul S F; Law, Yik Wa

    2017-02-01

    The study empirically quantifies the contributions of age composition and urbanisation to changes in the suicide rate in China over the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2010. A decompositional method was used to quantify the absolute and relative contributions of the age structure; the age-specific proportion of the urban population and the suicide rate of each age-specific, gender-specific and urban/rural cohort to the overall suicide rates in the two 10-year intervals. In the period between 1990 and 2000, a significant decline in the suicide rate among younger age groups (especially young rural women) was identified as the main driving force of the downward trend in the overall suicide rate. In 2000-2010, the rate of decline in suicide was predominantly explained by the drop in the suicide rate among all age groups in rural areas, with the exception of those aged over 80. The positive impact of urbanisation on the decline of the suicide rate has gradually diminished relative to the earlier period. As the positive impact of urbanisation on suicide rates is diminishing, further urbanisation and rapid change in society may induce stress and adjustment problems that are not conducive to the promotion of well-being. Furthermore, as China is facing the prospects of slower economic growth and a rapidly ageing population, suicides among older adults may also be elevated, particularly among those in rural areas with insufficient healthcare and social support. In order to maintain the decreasing trend of suicide in China, it is important for the Chinese government to pay more attention to the mental well-being of the population and to mitigate the stress of urban life and to provide timely support to older adults especially in rural areas. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Suicide in Recent Onset Psychosis Revisited: Significant Reduction of Suicide Rate over the Last Two Decades - A Replication Study of a Dutch Incidence Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stynke Castelein

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare the suicide risk over the past decade following recent onset psychosis to findings from the eighties and nineties in the same catchment area and to identify predictors of suicide in the context of the Psychosis Recent Onset Groningen-Survey (PROGR-S. A medical file search was carried out to determine the current status of all patients admitted between 2000 and 2009. The suicide rate was compared with a study executed in 1973-1988 in the same catchment area. Predictors of suicide were investigated using Cox regression. The status of 424 of the 614 patients was known in July 2014. Suicide occurred in 2.4% of patients with psychosis disorders (n = 10; mean follow-up 5.6 years; 6 out of 10 suicides took place within two years. Within two decades, the suicide rate dropped from 11% (follow-up 15 years, 8.5% after 5 years to 2.4%. The Standardized Mortality Rate (SMR of suicides compared with the general population was 41.6. A higher age was the only significant predictor for suicide. Neuroticism, living situation, disorganized and negative symptoms, and passive coping style all showed a trend for significance. A significant reduction in the suicide rate was found for people with psychosis over the past decades. Given the high SMR, suicide research should be given the highest priority. Identifying predictors may contribute to further reduction of suicide among patients with psychosis.

  19. Relationship of suicide rates to economic variables in Europe: 2000-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoulakis, K.N.; Kawohl, W.; Theodorakis, P.N.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Navickas, A.; Hoshl, C.; Lecic-Tosevski, D.; Sorel, E.; Rancans, E.; Palova, E.; Juckel, G.; Isacsson, G.; Korosec Jagodic, H.; Botezat-Antonescu, I.; Warmke, I.; Rybakowski, J.; Azorin, J.M.; Cookson, J.; Waddington, J.; Pregelj, P.; Demyttenaere, K.; Hranov, L.G.; Stevovic, L.I.; Pezawas, L.; Adida, M.; Figuera, M.L.; Pompili, M.; Jakovljevic, M.; Vichi, M.; Perugi, G.; Andreasen, O.; Vukovic, O.; Mavrogiorgou, P.; Vamik, P.; Bech, P.; Dome, P.; Winkler, P.; Salokangas, R.K.R.; From, T.; Danileviciute, V.; Gonda, X; Rihmer, Z.; Benhalima, J.F.; Grady, A.; Kloster Leadholm, A.K.; Soendergaard, S.; Nordt, C.; Lopez-Ibor, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates. Aims: The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates. Method: Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European

  20. Testing the hypothesis of the natural suicide rates: Further evidence from OECD data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Antonio Rodriguez; Halicioglu, Ferda

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides further evidence on the hypothesis of the natural rate of suicide using the time series data for 15 OECD countries over the period 1970–2004. This hypothesis suggests that the suicide rate of a society could never be zero even if both the economic and the social conditions wer...

  1. Regional suicide rates in the Netherlands : does religion still play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    Background This study examined the nature of ecological associations between 'religiousness' and suicide rates (1985-1994) in the 11 provinces in the Netherlands. Methods Indices of religiousness, obtained from a nationwide survey were used as aggregate predictors of provincial suicide rates in

  2. Suicide rate trends in the Slovak Republic in 1993-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazinova, Alexandra; Moravansky, Norbert; Gulis, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicide is a significant public health issue worldwide, resulting in loss of lives, and burdening societies. AIMS: To describe and analyze the time trends of suicide rates (SRs) in the Slovak Republic in 1993-2015 for targeted suicide prevention strategies. METHODS: Data for this study...... were obtained from the mortality database of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Crude and standardized annual SRs were calculated. Trends and relative risks of suicide according to age and sex were analyzed by joinpoint regression and negative binomial regression. RESULTS: In total......, there were 14,575 suicides in the Slovak Republic in the period 1993-2015 (85.3% were men). The overall average age-standardized SR for the study period was 11.45 per 100,000 person years. The rate increases with age, the highest is in men aged 75+ (42.74 per 100,000 person years). Risk of suicide is six...

  3. A study of the impact of thirteen celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates in South Korea from 2005 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, King-wa; Chan, C H

    2013-01-01

    A number of ecological studies have found a pattern of increasing suicide rates after suicides of several Asian entertainment celebrities. However, the finding may be subject to positive outcome bias where cases with no perceived impact may be routinely excluded. In this study, we deploy interrupted time-series analysis using ARIMA transfer function models to investigate systematically the impact of thirteen celebrity suicides on subsequent suicide rates in South Korea. We find that three out of eleven cases were found to be followed by a significant increase in suicide rate, while controlling for seasonality, secular trends, and unemployment rates. Such significant increases could last for nine weeks. Non-significance cases may be attributable to the small amount of media coverage, the "displacement" effect of preceding case, and the negative connotation of celebrity deaths. We therefore conclude that whether or not the impacts were detected may be largely conditioned by various contextual factors. Current evidence based on ecological studies is insufficient to draw a firm conclusion. Further studies using multiple approaches should be developed.

  4. Regional analysis of big five personality factors and suicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Extending cross-national and intranational studies on possible aggregate-level associations between personality dimensions and suicide prevalence, this study examined the associations of the Big Five personality factors and suicide rates across 32 regions of the Russian Federation. Failing to replicate one key finding of similar geographic studies, namely, a correspondence of higher suicide rates with lower Agreeableness and Conscientiousness (i.e., higher Psychoticism) scores, higher suicide rates corresponded to higher Agreeableness scores. This effect was obtained with one available data source (regional-level Big Five ratings based on the National Character Survey), but not with another (based on the NEO-PI-R measure). All in all, regional suicide rates across Russia were dissociated from regional variation in personality dimensions.

  5. Suicide rate in schizophrenia in the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaräisänen, Antti; Miettunen, Jouko; Räsänen, Pirkko; Fenton, Wayne; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli-Tuulie Jeannette; Isohanni, Matti

    2009-12-01

    Suicide rate among schizophrenia patients may vary for several reasons, one of the most important being the time point of the suicide during the illness process. However, prospective studies on suicide risk in population-based cohort of individuals with new-onset schizophrenia have been lacking. The data were collected for 10,934 individuals alive in Finland at the age of 16 from the genetically homogenous, population-based Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort ascertained already during mid-pregnancy. The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register was used until the end of 1997 (age 31) to identify cases with mental disorder. Case records were scrutinized and diagnoses were re-checked for DSM-III-R criteria. One hundred subjects met the DSM-III-R criteria for schizophrenia. Deaths by the end of year 2005 (age 39) were ascertained from death certificates. Suicides (n = 7) accounted for 50% of all the deaths at age from 16 to 39. Seven (7.0%) subjects with schizophrenia had committed suicide; suicide rate being 2.9% (1/35) for women and 9.2% (6/65) for men. Furthermore, 71% of suicides in schizophrenia occurred during the first 3 years after onset of illness. The suicide rate for patients with new-onset schizophrenia followed until the age of 39 was high and accounted for half of the deaths. Great majority of the suicides took place during the first years of the illness.

  6. Low validity of Google Trends for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ulrich S; Andel, Rita; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Till, Benedikt; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Voracek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that search volumes of the most popular search engine worldwide, Google, provided via Google Trends, could be associated with national suicide rates in the USA, UK, and some Asian countries. However, search volumes have mostly been studied in an ad hoc fashion, without controls for spurious associations. This study evaluated the validity and utility of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of suicide rates in the USA, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Suicide-related search terms were systematically collected and respective Google Trends search volumes evaluated for availability. Time spans covered 2004 to 2010 (USA, Switzerland) and 2004 to 2012 (Germany, Austria). Temporal associations of search volumes and suicide rates were investigated with time-series analyses that rigorously controlled for spurious associations. The number and reliability of analyzable search volume data increased with country size. Search volumes showed various temporal associations with suicide rates. However, associations differed both across and within countries and mostly followed no discernable patterns. The total number of significant associations roughly matched the number of expected Type I errors. These results suggest that the validity of Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates is low. The utility and validity of search volumes for the forecasting of suicide rates depend on two key assumptions ("the population that conducts searches consists mostly of individuals with suicidal ideation", "suicide-related search behavior is strongly linked with suicidal behavior"). We discuss strands of evidence that these two assumptions are likely not met. Implications for future research with Google Trends in the context of suicide research are also discussed.

  7. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2014-01-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified...... as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than...... suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death...

  8. Availability of mental health service providers and suicide rates in Slovenia: a nationwide ecological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korošec Jagodič, Helena; Rokavec, Tatjana; Agius, Mark; Pregelj, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and prevalence of mental disorders on regional differences in the suicide rate in Slovenia. Methods The effects of different socioeconomic factors, mental health service availability, and mental disorders factors on suicide rates from 2000-2009 were analyzed using a general linear mixed model (GLMM). Pearson correlations were used to explore the direction and magnitude of associations. Results Among socioeconomic factors, unemployment rate ranked as the most powerful predictor of suicide and an increase of one unit in the unemployment rate increased regional suicide rate by 2.21 (β = 2.21, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.87-2.54, P < 0.001). On the other hand, higher marriage/divorce ratio was negatively related to the suicide rate and an increase of one unit in marriage/divorce ratio reduced regional suicide rate by 1.16 (β = -1.16, 95% CI = -2.20 to -0.13, P < 0.031). The most influential mental health service availability parameter was higher psychiatrist availability (4 psychiatrists and more working at outpatient clinics per 100 000 inhabitants), which was negatively correlated with the suicide rate and reduced regional suicide rate by 2.95 (β = -2.95, 95% CI = -4.60 to -1.31, P = 0.002). Another negatively correlated factor was the antidepressant/anxiolytic ratio higher than 0.5, which reduced the regional suicide rate by 2.32 (β = -2.32, 95% CI = -3.75 to -0.89, P = 0.003). Among mental health disorders, only the prevalence of alcohol use disorders was significantly related to the regional suicide rates and an increase of one unit in the prevalence of alcohol use disorders per 1000 inhabitants increased the regional suicide rate by 0.02 (β = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.01- 0.03, P = 0.008). Conclusions Besides unemployment, which was a very strong predictor of suicide rates, unequal availability of mental

  9. The Association Between State Laws Regulating Handgun Ownership and Statewide Suicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazem, Lauren R.; Law, Keyne C.; Houtsma, Claire; LeTard, Rachel; Moberg, Fallon; Martin, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of 3 state laws (permit to purchase a handgun, registration of handguns, license to own a handgun) on suicide rates. Methods. We used 2010 data from publicly available databases and state legislatures to assess the relationships between our predictors and outcomes. Results. Results largely indicated that states with any of these laws in place exhibited lower overall suicide rates and suicide by firearms rates and that a smaller proportion of suicides in such states resulted from firearms. Furthermore, results indicated that laws requiring registration and license had significant indirect effects through the proportion of suicides resulting from firearms. The latter results imply that such laws are associated with fewer suicide attempts overall, a tendency for those who attempt to use less-lethal means, or both. Exploratory longitudinal analyses indicated a decrease in overall suicide rates immediately following implementation of laws requiring a license to own a handgun. Conclusions. The results are thus supportive of the potential of handgun legislation to have an impact on suicide rates. PMID:25880944

  10. Does the environment affect suicide rates in Spain? A spatiotemporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Maite; Santurtún, Ana; Zarrabeitia, María T

    2017-06-05

    Suicide is an important public health problem, it represents one of the major causes of unnatural death, and there are many factors that affect the risk of suicidal behaviour. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by suicide in Spain and its relationship with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. A retrospective study was performed, in which deaths by suicide, sex and age group in 50 Spanish provinces between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed. The annual trend of suicide mortality was assessed using Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient. Seasonality and monthly and weekly behaviour were evaluated by performing the ANOVA test and the Bonferroni adjustment. Finally, the relationship between GDP per capita and suicide was studied. Between 2000 and 2012, 42,905adult people died by suicide in Spain. The annual average incidence rate was 95 suicides per million population. The regions located in the south and in the northwest of the country registered the highest per capita mortality rates. There is a decreasing trend in mortality by suicide over the period studied (CC=-.744; P=.0004) in adults over the age of 64, and a seasonal behaviour was identified with summer maximum and autumn minimum values (f=.504; Pintervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. An ecological analysis of prison overcrowding and suicide rates in England and Wales, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Esther F J C; Sutherland, Alex; Molleman, Toon

    Prisoners are at a greatly increased risk of suicides compared to the general population. Differences in suicide risk can be partly explained by individual risk factors, but the contribution of prison characteristics remains unclear. Overcrowded prisons have higher suicide rates, but this may be related to prison function, security level, population size and turnover. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of each of these prison characteristics to suicide rates, using data from the Ministry of Justice for adult prisons in England and Wales from 2000 to 2014. Negative binomial regression analysis showed that larger population size, higher turnover, higher security and public management were associated with higher suicide rates. When controlling for these factors, overcrowding was not found to be related to suicide rates. Questions remain about the causal mechanisms underlying variation in prison suicides and the impact of the lived experience of overcrowding. Further research is needed to examine the relative contribution of prison and prisoner characteristics to suicides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Rate and Characteristics of Suicide Attempters in the Native Hawaiian Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Noelle; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Surveyed native Hawaiian high school students (n=1,779) for symptoms of psychopathology and suicide attempts in the previous 6 months. Seventy-seven students reported making a suicide attempt. There were no significant differences in prevalence rates for males and females. Depression, anxiety, aggression, substance abuse symptoms, and low family…

  13. Modeling of the temporal patterns of fluoxetine prescriptions and suicide rates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Milane

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the potential association of antidepressant use and suicide at a population level, we analyzed the associations between suicide rates and dispensing of the prototypic SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine in the United States during the period 1960-2002.Sources of data included Centers of Disease Control and US Census Bureau age-adjusted suicide rates since 1960 and numbers of fluoxetine sales in the US, since its introduction in 1988. We conducted statistical analysis of age-adjusted population data and prescription numbers. Suicide rates fluctuated between 12.2 and 13.7 per 100,000 for the entire population from the early 1960s until 1988. Since then, suicide rates have gradually declined, with the lowest value of 10.4 per 100,000 in 2000. This steady decline is significantly associated with increased numbers of fluoxetine prescriptions dispensed from 2,469,000 in 1988 to 33,320,000 in 2002 (r(s = -0.92; p < 0.001. Mathematical modeling of what suicide rates would have been during the 1988-2002 period based on pre-1988 data indicates that since the introduction of fluoxetine in 1988 through 2002 there has been a cumulative decrease in expected suicide mortality of 33,600 individuals (posterior median, 95% Bayesian credible interval 22,400-45,000.The introduction of SSRIs in 1988 has been temporally associated with a substantial reduction in the number of suicides. This effect may have been more apparent in the female population, whom we postulate might have particularly benefited from SSRI treatment. While these types of data cannot lead to conclusions on causality, we suggest here that in the context of untreated depression being the major cause of suicide, antidepressant treatment could have had a contributory role in the reduction of suicide rates in the period 1988-2002.

  14. Associations Between the Macroeconomic Indicators and Suicide Rates in India: Two Ecological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Senthilkumar, P; Gayathri, K; Shyamsundar, G; Jacob, K S

    2015-01-01

    While western studies have focused on the importance of psychiatric illnesses in the complex pathways leading to suicides, several Indian studies have highlighted the important contributions by economic, social, and cultural factors. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that annual national suicide rates and suicide rates of the different states in India were associated with macroeconomic indices. Data from the National crime records bureau, Ministry of finance, labour bureau, Government of India, population commission, and planning commission official portals, World Bank and the United Nations were accessed. We assessed the correlations of annual national and state-wise suicide rates with macroeconomic, health, and other indices using ecological study design for India, and for its different states and union territories. We documented statistically significant associations between the suicide rates and per capita gross domestic product, consumer price index, foreign exchange, trade balance, total health expenditure as well as literacy rates. As recent economic growth in India is associated with increasing suicide rates, macroeconomic policies emphasizing equitable distribution of resources may help curtailing the population suicide rates in India.

  15. Male suicide rates in German prisons and the role of citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Kettner, Mattias; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Freitag, Christine M

    2017-01-01

    Prisoners are at a particularly high risk of suicide. In contrast to other psychosocial risk factors it remains unclear to what degree the risk of suicide differs between prisoners with local citizenship and foreigners. In order to provide more detailed information for suicide prevention in prisons, this study aims to compare suicide rates (SR) between these populations in German criminal custody. Based on a German national database of completed suicide in custody, suicides by prisoners were analysed and compared with epidemiological data of the prison population and the general population, stratified for German and foreign citizenship. Data analysis was adjusted for differences in the age distribution of both populations by calculating standard mortality ratios (SMR) for suicide. SR were higher in prisoners with German citizenship than those with foreign citizenship (SR = 76.5 vs. SR = 42.8, Pcitizenship was comparable in juvenile and adult prisoners, indicating its relevance to both the juvenile and adult detention systems. Imprisonment is associated with a substantially increased risk of suicide in both German and non-German citizens, a finding which needs to be taken into consideration by the justice system. The lower suicide risk in non-German citizens is independent of whether or not they are in custody.

  16. Male suicide rates in German prisons and the role of citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, Thomas; Kettner, Mattias; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Freitag, Christine M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Prisoners are at a particularly high risk of suicide. In contrast to other psychosocial risk factors it remains unclear to what degree the risk of suicide differs between prisoners with local citizenship and foreigners. In order to provide more detailed information for suicide prevention in prisons, this study aims to compare suicide rates (SR) between these populations in German criminal custody. Methods Based on a German national database of completed suicide in custody, suicides by prisoners were analysed and compared with epidemiological data of the prison population and the general population, stratified for German and foreign citizenship. Data analysis was adjusted for differences in the age distribution of both populations by calculating standard mortality ratios (SMR) for suicide. Results SR were higher in prisoners with German citizenship than those with foreign citizenship (SR = 76.5 vs. SR = 42.8, Pcitizenship was comparable in juvenile and adult prisoners, indicating its relevance to both the juvenile and adult detention systems. Conclusion Imprisonment is associated with a substantially increased risk of suicide in both German and non-German citizens, a finding which needs to be taken into consideration by the justice system. The lower suicide risk in non-German citizens is independent of whether or not they are in custody. PMID:28591187

  17. Elderly Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elderly Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • The elderly (ages 65 and older) made up 13. ... population; they accounted for 16.37% of all suicides in the US. • The rate of suicides for ...

  18. Increasing Suicide Rates Among Middle-age Persons and Interventions to Manage Patients with Psychiatric Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Chakravarthy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data and trends related to suicide rates in the United States (U.S.. Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in U.S. adults, and rates are increasing across all geographic regions. There is a significant increase in the suicide rate among adults in the 35-64 age range. We present findings from the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on current resources and barriers to psychiatric care. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(1:11–13.

  19. Scottish economic bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The evidence of recovery in the United Kingdom (UK) economy, which had tentatively emerged in the second half of 1992, became stronger in the first half of this year. Examination of the components of total final demand shows that the UK has a longstanding preference to consume rather than to save and invest. Government policy in the 1990s will seek to create the conditions in which this balance can be altered. Given that consumer spending accounts for over half of final demand, the behaviour of the consumer remains a key determinant of the timing and strength of economic recovery. Data for the service sector in Scotland show that employment levels have held up much better than in Great Britain as a whole, although there is some evidence of the later impact of the recession on Scotland. The short-term prospects for the Scottish economy continue to be critically dependent on the export sector, given the depreciation of sterling since the suspension of exchange rate mechanism (ERM) membership, the fall in short-term UK interest rates and the continued improvement in relative manufacturing unit costs. The principal worry concerns the demand prospects in Scotland's major export markets, especially in Europe. Most independent economic forecasters expect that gross domestic product (GDP) growth in Scotland will be below that of the UK in 1993 and 1994. However, the unemployment rate is expected to remain lower in Scotland than in the UK over this period. (author)

  20. Decreased suicide rate after induced abortion, after the Current Care Guidelines in Finland 1987-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Karalis, Elina; Ulander, Veli-Matti

    2015-02-01

    Women with a recent induced abortion have a 3-fold risk for suicide, compared to non-pregnant women. The increased risk was recognised in unofficial guidelines (1996) and Current Care Guidelines (2001) on abortion treatment, highlighting the importance of a check-up 2 - 3 weeks after the termination, to monitor for mental health disorders. We studied the suicide trends after induced abortion in 1987 - 2012 in Finland. We linked the Register on Induced Abortions (N = 284,751) and Cause-of-Death Register (N = 3798 suicides) to identify women who had committed suicide within 1 year after an induced abortion (N = 79). The abortion rates per 100,000 person-years were calculated for 1987 - 1996 (period with no guidelines), 1997 - 2001 (with unofficial guidelines) and 2002 - 2012 (with Current Care Guidelines). The suicide rate after induced abortion declined by 24%, from 32.4/100,000 in 1987 - 1996 to 24.3/100,000 in 1997 - 2001 and then 24.8/100,000 in 2002 - 2012. The age-adjusted suicide rate among women aged 15 - 49 decreased by 13%; from 11.4/100,000 to 10.4/100,000 and 9.9/100,000, respectively. After induced abortions, the suicide rate increased by 30% among teenagers (to 25/100,000), stagnated for women aged 20 - 24 (at 32/100,000), but decreased by 43% (to 21/100,000) for women aged 25 - 49. The excess risk for suicide after induced abortion decreased, but the change was not statistically significant. Women with a recent induced abortion still have a 2-fold suicide risk. A mandatory check-up may decrease this risk. The causes for the increased suicide risk, including mental health prior to pregnancy and the social circumstances, should be investigated further. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  1. Chain of Care for Patients with Intentional Self-Harm: An Effective Strategy to Reduce Suicide Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Mehlum, Lars; Gjertsen, Finn; Moller, Bjorn

    2009-01-01

    Chain of care for patients with intentional self-harm was important in the Norwegian national action plan to prevent suicide. In this study there were two aims: (1) to calculate the potential effects of chain of care on reducing suicide rates, and (2) to assess whether suicide rates decreased more in areas where chain of care had been implemented…

  2. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Bøggild, Henrik; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-11-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for suicides was 99.8% in Finland and 13.2% in Denmark. Almost all of these autopsies were conducted as forensic autopsies. In the age group ≥71 years, Danish suicides outnumbered Finnish suicides (410 versus 283). The total autopsy rate was lower in the more senior age group in Denmark (19.5%, 9.9%, 5.6%), whereas it was consistently high in Finland (99.8%, 99.9%, 99.6%). Among Danish deaths due to poisonings, the autopsy rate was 89.5% when these were classified as accidents, but only 20.7% for cases classified as suicides. The number of deaths in the two Danish subgroups was comparable (550 versus 553). In Denmark, the decision regarding the need, if any, for a forensic autopsy is made during the external forensic examination of the body. Our study showed that the limited use

  3. The Politics of Hope and Despair: The Effect of Presidential Election Outcomes on Suicide Rates*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Timothy J.; Dunn, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This article examines the effect of election outcomes on suicide rates by combining the theory of social integration developed by Durkheim with the models of rational choice used in economics. Methods Theory predicts that states with a greater percentage of residents who supported the losing candidate would tend to exhibit a relative increase in suicide rates. However, being around others who also supported the losing candidate may indicate a greater degree of social integration at the local level, thereby lowering relative suicide rates. We therefore use fixed-effects regression of state suicide rates from 1981 to 2005 on state election outcomes during presidential elections to determine which effect is stronger. Results We find that the local effect of social integration is dominant. The suicide rate when a state supports the losing candidate will tend to be lower than if the state had supported the winning candidate—4.6 percent lower for males and 5.3 percent lower for females. Conclusion Social integration works at many levels; it not only affects suicide risk directly, but can mediate other shocks that influence suicide risk. PMID:20645463

  4. The age structures and marital status differences of married and not married male suicide rates: 12 developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    Male suicide rates, circa 1960, specific to age and marital status for 12 developed countries show married men with lower suicide rates than not married men. This results in differences in the age structures of married and not married suicide rates. We test three explanations of lower married than not married suicide rates: 1) Gibbs and Martin's (1964) marital status integration hypothesis; 2) marital status differences in norms regarding the acceptability of suicide; and 3) Durkheim's societal integration theory. All three explanations are supported by multivariate regressions. The strongest support is for societal integration. The models explain over 80% of the variance in both married and not married male age-specific suicide rates. These regression equations generate predicted suicide rates and these predicted rates are then used to see if they account for the observed age structures of married and not married men. They do in 19 of 24 tests.

  5. Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impossible. In a military setting, the impact effects morale, unit cohesion, and ultimately unit effectiveness. 2.1 ... are considered to be personal protective factors:  Attitudes, values, and norms prohibiting suicide, for example strong beliefs ...

  6. The effect of altitude and climate on the suicide rates in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asirdizer, Mahmut; Kartal, Erhan; Etli, Yasin; Tatlisumak, Ertugrul; Gumus, Orhan; Hekimoglu, Yavuz; Keskin, Sıddık

    2018-02-01

    Suicide is one of the most important public health problems. There was an association between suicide and several factors such as psychiatric diseases and psychological characteristics, somatic illness, cultural, socioeconomic, familial, occupational and individual risk factors. Also, high altitude and climatic factors including high temperature, cloudiness, more sunshine and low rainfalls were defined as some of these risk factors in the literature. In this study, we aimed to investigate correlation between suicide rates and altitudes of all cities in Turkey and between suicide rates and climatic factors including Rainfall Activity Index, Winter Mean Temperatures, Summer Mean Temperatures and Temperature Difference between January and July previously defined by several authors in the broad series in Turkey. In Turkey, 29865 suicidal deaths occurred in 10 years period between 2006 and 2015. Of them, 21020 (70.4%) were males and 8845 (29.6%) were females. In this study, we found that high altitude above 1500 m, winter median temperature lower than -10 °C and hard temperature changes above 25 °C between winter and summer of settlements were important factors that affected on female suicide rates appropriate to knowledge which defined in previous studies. In conclusion, we suggested that the associations among suicide rates with altitudes and climate should be studied in wider series obtained from different countries for reaching more reliable results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. The political economy of farmers' suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan; King, Lawrence

    2014-03-26

    A recent Lancet article reported the first reliable estimates of suicide rates in India. National-level suicide rates are among the highest in the world, but suicide rates vary sharply between states and the causes of these differences are disputed. We test whether differences in the structure of agricultural production explain inter-state variation in suicides rates. This hypothesis is supported by a large number of qualitative studies, which argue that the liberalization of the agricultural sector in the early-1990s led to an agrarian crisis and that consequently farmers with certain socioeconomic characteristics-cash crops cultivators, with marginal landholdings, and debts-are at particular risk of committing suicide. The recent Lancet study, however, contends that there is no evidence to support this hypothesis. We report scatter diagrams and linear regression models that combine the new state-level suicide rate estimates and the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crop cultivation, and indebted farmers. When we include all variables in the regression equation there is a significant positive relationship between the percentage of marginal farmers, cash crop production, and indebted farmers, and suicide rates. This model accounts for almost 75% of inter-state variation in suicide rates. If the proportion of marginal farmers, cash crops, or indebted farmers were reduced by 1%, the suicide rate--suicides per 100,000 per year--would fall by 0 · 437, 0 · 518 or 0 · 549 respectively, when all other variables are held constant. Even if the Indian state is unable to enact land reforms due to the power of local elites, interventions to stabilize the price of cash crops and relieve indebted farmers may be effective at reducing suicide rates.

  8. A correlation between increases in suicide rates and increases in male unemployment rates in Mie prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Ken; Tanii, Hisashi; Fukunaga, Tatsushige; Abe, Shuntaro; Nishimura, Yukika; Kaiya, Hisanobu; Nata, Masayuki; Okazaki, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    The number of suicides in Japan has increased from approximately 22,000 per year in 1988-1997 to over 30,000 per year since then. It has also increased in Mie prefecture during that period. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between annual suicide rates in Mie prefecture, Japan from 1996-2002 and the annual unemployment rate in Japan from 1996-2002 among males. Among the results, annual suicide rates in total correlated with the unemployment rate in Japan, but the relation was not statistically significant: r(7)=0.76, r(2)(7)=0.58, p=0.05 (y=3.54x+6.37); the rates in males, however, correlated significantly with the unemployment rate in Japan: r(7)=0.85, r(2)(7)=0.73, p=0.01 (y=5.72x+4.49). In addition, we found that annual suicide rates in total correlated significantly with the male unemployment rates. When a patient is unemployed and in a bad situation, the medical staff and the family should be aware of the correspondence between suicide rates and unemployment.

  9. Suicide and the 2008 economic recession: Who is most at risk? Trends in suicide rates in England and Wales 2001–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coope, Caroline; Gunnell, David; Hollingworth, William; Hawton, Keith; Kapur, Nav; Fearn, Vanessa; Wells, Claudia; Metcalfe, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The negative impacts of previous economic recessions on suicide rates have largely been attributed to rapid rises in unemployment in the context of inadequate social and work protection programmes. We have investigated trends in indicators of the 2008 economic recession and trends in suicide rates in England and Wales in men and women of working age (16–64 years old) for the period 2001–2011, before, during and after the economic recession, our aim was to identify demographic groups whose suicide rates were most affected. We found no clear evidence of an association between trends in female suicide rates and indicators of economic recession. Evidence of a halt in the previous downward trend in suicide rates occurred for men aged 16–34 years in 2006 (95% CI Quarter 3 (Q3) 2004, Q3 2007 for 16–24 year olds & Q1 2005, Q4 2006 for 25–34 year olds), whilst suicide rates in 35–44 year old men reversed from a downward to upward trend in early 2010 (95% CI Q4 2008, Q2 2011). For the younger men (16–34 years) this change preceded the sharp increases in redundancy and unemployment rates of early 2008 and lagged behind rising trends in house repossessions and bankruptcy that began around 2003. An exception were the 35–44 year old men for whom a change in suicide rate trends from downwards to upwards coincided with peaks in redundancies, unemployment and rises in long-term unemployment. Suicide rates across the decade rose monotonically in men aged 45–64 years. Male suicide in the most-to-medium deprived areas showed evidence of decreasing rates across the decade, whilst in the least-deprived areas suicide rates were fairly static but remained much lower than those in the most-deprived areas. There were small post-recession increases in the proportion of suicides in men in higher management/professional, small employer/self-employed occupations and fulltime education. A halt in the downward trend in suicide rates amongst men aged 16–34 years, may have begun

  10. [Association between inequality and suicide rate in Colombia (1994-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Income inequality is directly related to the mental health of the population. However, the relationship between income inequality and suicide rates in Colombia has still not been explored. To estimate the relationship between inequality and suicide rates in Colombia from 1994 to 2013. An ecological study was conducted, in which the correlation was estimated (Spearman) between inequality (Gini coefficient) and suicide rate between 1994 and 2013, according to official information available from the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE), and the National Institute of Forensic Science and Forensic Medicine. A Gini coefficient between 0.53 and 0.60 (median, 0.65 [interquartile range, 0.54-0.57]) was observed, and suicide rates were between 3.84 and 5.26 (median, 4.20 [4.08-4.86]). The correlation between inequality and suicide rates was positive and statistically significant (r=.70; pColombia. It is important to achieve greater equity in the distribution of income to reduce suicide rate in the country. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Male suicide rates in German prisons and the role of citizenship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Radeloff

    Full Text Available Prisoners are at a particularly high risk of suicide. In contrast to other psychosocial risk factors it remains unclear to what degree the risk of suicide differs between prisoners with local citizenship and foreigners. In order to provide more detailed information for suicide prevention in prisons, this study aims to compare suicide rates (SR between these populations in German criminal custody.Based on a German national database of completed suicide in custody, suicides by prisoners were analysed and compared with epidemiological data of the prison population and the general population, stratified for German and foreign citizenship. Data analysis was adjusted for differences in the age distribution of both populations by calculating standard mortality ratios (SMR for suicide.SR were higher in prisoners with German citizenship than those with foreign citizenship (SR = 76.5 vs. SR = 42.8, P<0.01. This association was not specific to the prison population, as the higher SR in citizens compared to non-citizens (SR = 19.3 vs. SR = 9.0, P<0.01 were also found in the general population. The association between prison suicide and citizenship was comparable in juvenile and adult prisoners, indicating its relevance to both the juvenile and adult detention systems.Imprisonment is associated with a substantially increased risk of suicide in both German and non-German citizens, a finding which needs to be taken into consideration by the justice system. The lower suicide risk in non-German citizens is independent of whether or not they are in custody.

  12. Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Chatzikosta, Isaia; Pastiadis, Konstantinos; Zanis, Prodromos; Kawohl, Wolfram; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Navickas, Alvydas; Höschl, Cyril; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Sorel, Eliot; Rancans, Elmars; Palova, Eva; Juckel, Georg; Isacsson, Goran; Jagodic, Helena Korosec; Botezat-Antonescu, Ileana; Rybakowski, Janusz; Azorin, Jean Michel; Cookson, John; Waddington, John; Pregelj, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Hranov, Luchezar G; Stevovic, Lidija Injac; Pezawas, Lucas; Adida, Marc; Figuera, Maria Luisa; Jakovljević, Miro; Vichi, Monica; Perugi, Giulio; Andreassen, Ole A; Vukovic, Olivera; Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Varnik, Peeter; Dome, Peter; Winkler, Petr; Salokangas, Raimo K R; From, Tiina; Danileviciute, Vita; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan; Forsman, Jonas; Grady, Anne; Hyphantis, Thomas; Dieset, Ingrid; Soendergaard, Susan; Pompili, Maurizio; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that suicidal rates vary considerably among European countries and the reasons for this are unknown, although several theories have been proposed. The effect of economic variables has been extensively studied but not that of climate. Data from 29 European countries covering the years 2000-2012 and concerning male and female standardized suicidal rates (according to WHO), economic variables (according World Bank) and climate variables were gathered. The statistical analysis included cluster and principal component analysis and categorical regression. The derived models explained 62.4 % of the variability of male suicidal rates. Economic variables alone explained 26.9 % and climate variables 37.6 %. For females, the respective figures were 41.7, 11.5 and 28.1 %. Male suicides correlated with high unemployment rate in the frame of high growth rate and high inflation and low GDP per capita, while female suicides correlated negatively with inflation. Both male and female suicides correlated with low temperature. The current study reports that the climatic effect (cold climate) is stronger than the economic one, but both are present. It seems that in Europe suicidality follows the climate/temperature cline which interestingly is not from south to north but from south to north-east. This raises concerns that climate change could lead to an increase in suicide rates. The current study is essentially the first successful attempt to explain the differences across countries in Europe; however, it is an observational analysis based on aggregate data and thus there is a lack of control for confounders.

  13. Change in suicide rates in Switzerland before and after firearm restriction resulting from the 2003 “Army XXI” reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisch, Thomas; Steffen, Timur; Habenstein, Astrid; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    Firearms are the most common method of suicide among young men in Switzerland. From March 2003 through February 2004, the number of Swiss soldiers was halved as a result of an army reform (Army XXI), leading to a decrease in the availability of guns nationwide. The authors investigated the patterns of the overall suicide rate and the firearm suicide rate before and after the reform. Using a naturalistic study design, the authors compared suicide rates before (1995–2003) and after the intervention (2004–2008) in the affected population (men ages 18–43) and in two comparison groups (women ages 18–44 and men ages 44–53). Data were received from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Interrupted time series analysis was used to control for preexisting temporal trends. Alternative methods (Poisson regression, autocorrelation analysis, and surrogate data tests) were used to check validity. The authors found a reduction in both the overall suicide rate and the firearm suicide rate after the Army XXI reform. No significant increases were found for other suicide methods overall. An increase in railway suicides was observed. It was estimated that 22% of the reduction in firearm suicides was substituted by other suicide methods. The attenuation of the suicide rate was not compensated for during the follow-up years. Neither of the comparison groups showed statistically significant changes in firearm suicide rate and overall suicide rate. The restriction of firearm availability in Switzerland resulting from the Army XXI reform was followed by an enduring decrease in the general suicide rate.

  14. How to decrease suicide rates in both genders? An effectiveness study of a community-based intervention (EAAD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Székely

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The suicide rate in Hungary is high in international comparison. The two-year community-based four-level intervention programme of the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD is designed to improve the care of depression and to prevent suicidal behaviour. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a regional community-based four-level suicide prevention programme on suicide rates. METHOD: The EAAD programme was implemented in Szolnok (population 76,311, a town in a region of Hungary with an exceptionally high suicide rate. Effectiveness was assessed by comparing changes in suicide rates in the intervention region after the intervention started with changes in national suicide rates and those in a control region (Szeged in the corresponding period. RESULTS: For the duration of the programme and the follow-up year, suicide rates in Szolnok were significantly lower than the average of the previous three years (p = .0076. The suicide rate thus went down from 30.1 per 100,000 in 2004 to 13.2 in 2005 (-56.1 %, 14.6 in 2006 (-51.4 % and 12.0 in 2007 (-60.1 %. This decrease of annual suicide rates in Szolnok after the onset of the intervention was significantly stronger than that observed in the whole country (p = .017 and in the control region (p = .0015. Men had the same decrease in suicide rates as women. As secondary outcome, an increase of emergency calls to the hotline service (200% and outpatient visits at the local psychiatry clinic (76% was found. CONCLUSIONS: These results seem to provide further support for the effectiveness of the EAAD concept. Whilst the majority of suicide prevention programs mainly affect female suicidal behaviour, this programme seems to be beneficial for both sexes. The sustainability and the role of the mediating factors (social service and health care utilization, community attitudes about suicide should be key points in future research.

  15. Did the suicide barrier work after all? Revisiting the Bloor Viaduct natural experiment and its impact on suicide rates in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Redelmeier, Donald A; Kiss, Alex; Nishikawa, Yasunori; Cheung, Amy H; Levitt, Anthony J; Pirkis, Jane

    2017-06-19

    This research aims to determine the long-term impact of the Bloor Street Viaduct suicide barrier on rates of suicide in Toronto and whether media reporting had any impact on suicide rates. Natural experiment. City of Toronto, Canada; records at the chief coroner's office of Ontario 1993-2003 (11 years before the barrier) and 2004-2014 (11 years after the barrier). 5403 people who died by suicide in the city of Toronto. Changes in yearly rates of suicide by jumping at Bloor Street Viaduct, other bridges including nearest comparison bridge and walking distance bridges, and buildings, and by other means. Suicide rates at the Bloor Street Viaduct declined from 9.0 deaths/year before the barrier to 0.1 deaths/year after the barrier (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.005, 95% CI 0.0005 to 0.19, p=0.002). Suicide deaths from bridges in Toronto also declined significantly (IRR 0.53, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.71, psuicide at the Bloor Street Viaduct were associated with an increase in suicide-by-jumping from bridges the following year. The current study demonstrates that, over the long term, suicide-by-jumping declined in Toronto after the barrier with no associated increase in suicide by other means. That is, the barrier appears to have had its intended impact at preventing suicide despite a short-term rise in deaths at other bridges that was at least partially influenced by a media effect. Research examining barriers at other locations should interpret short-term results with caution. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Impact of the Tunisian Revolution on homicide and suicide rates in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khelil, Mehdi; Gharbaoui, Meriem; Farhani, Fethia; Zaafrane, Malek; Harzallah, Hana; Allouche, Mohamed; Zhioua, Mongi; Hamdoun, Moncef

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the impact of the Tunisian Revolution on suicide and homicide patterns in Tunisia. It is a retrospective, cross-sectional study, including all the cases of homicides and suicides that occurred during an 8-year period (2007-2014) in Northern Tunisia. We compared data before and after the revolution. After the revolution, the number of suicides rose 1.7 times, with a prevalence rising from 1.8 to 3.12 suicides per 100,000 persons per year. Homicides rose 1.3 times after the revolution. For both manner of death, victims were mostly males, aged between 20 and 39 years, living in urban areas. Hanging and self-immolation rose, respectively, 1.8 and 3 times after 2011. We observed suicide cases most frequently occurred in public places and in front of public administration after 2011. Homicide victims' profile and circumstances showed a single variation which is an increase in number of cases happening in rural areas. Our results proved a short-term impact of the transition period on homicides and suicides. Urgent preventive measures are needed especially to decrease the suicide rates.

  17. How do Durkheimian variables impact variation in national suicide rates when proxies for depression and alcoholism are controlled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernquist, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Sociological research on Durkheim's theories of egoistic and anomic suicide has given Durkheim continued support more than a century after Durkheim published his work. Recent criticism by Breault (1994), though, argues that Durkheim's theories of suicide actually have not been empirically supported given the lack of psychological variables included in sociological research on suicide rates. Using proxy measures of depression and alcoholism, two known psychological variables to impact suicide, as well as classic Durkheimian variables, suicide rates in eight European countries from 1973-1997 were examined. Results indicate that Durkheim's theories of egoism and anomie, while not completely supported in statistical analysis of suicide rates, received moderate support. Results suggest the continued usefulness of Durkheim's work in aggregate analyses of suicide.

  18. Impact of income inequality and other social determinants on suicide rate in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Borges Machado

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze whether income inequality and other social determinants are associated with suicide rate in Brazil. METHOD: This study used panel data from all 5,507 Brazilian municipalities from 2000 to 2011. Suicide rates were calculated by sex and standardized by age for each municipality and year. The independent variables of the regression model included the Gini Index, per capita income, percentage of individuals with up to eight years of education, urbanization, average number of residents per household, percentage of divorced people, of Catholics, Pentecostals, and Evangelicals. A multivariable negative binomial regression for panel data with fixed-effects specification was performed. RESULTS: The Gini index was positively associated with suicide rates; the rate ratio (RR was 1.055 (95% CI: 1.011-1.101. Of the other social determinants, income had a significant negative association with suicide rates (RR: 0.968, 95% CI: 0.948-0.988, whereas a low-level education had a positive association (RR: 1.015, 95% CI: 1.010-1.021. CONCLUSIONS: Income inequality represents a community-level risk factor for suicide rates in Brazil. The decrease in income inequality, increase in income per capita, and decrease in the percentage of individuals who did not complete basic studies may have counteracted the increase in suicides in the last decade. Other changes, such as the decrease in the mean residents per household, may have contributed to their increase. Therefore, the implementation of social policies that may improve the population's socioeconomic conditions and reduce income inequality in Brazil, and in other low and middle-income countries, can help to reduce suicide rates.

  19. Impact of income inequality and other social determinants on suicide rate in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daiane Borges; Rasella, Davide; Dos Santos, Darci Neves

    2015-01-01

    To analyze whether income inequality and other social determinants are associated with suicide rate in Brazil. This study used panel data from all 5,507 Brazilian municipalities from 2000 to 2011. Suicide rates were calculated by sex and standardized by age for each municipality and year. The independent variables of the regression model included the Gini Index, per capita income, percentage of individuals with up to eight years of education, urbanization, average number of residents per household, percentage of divorced people, of Catholics, Pentecostals, and Evangelicals. A multivariable negative binomial regression for panel data with fixed-effects specification was performed. The Gini index was positively associated with suicide rates; the rate ratio (RR) was 1.055 (95% CI: 1.011-1.101). Of the other social determinants, income had a significant negative association with suicide rates (RR: 0.968, 95% CI: 0.948-0.988), whereas a low-level education had a positive association (RR: 1.015, 95% CI: 1.010-1.021). Income inequality represents a community-level risk factor for suicide rates in Brazil. The decrease in income inequality, increase in income per capita, and decrease in the percentage of individuals who did not complete basic studies may have counteracted the increase in suicides in the last decade. Other changes, such as the decrease in the mean residents per household, may have contributed to their increase. Therefore, the implementation of social policies that may improve the population's socioeconomic conditions and reduce income inequality in Brazil, and in other low and middle-income countries, can help to reduce suicide rates.

  20. Rates and correlates of suicidal ideation among stroke survivors: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Pompili, Maurizio; Lillia, Nicoletta; Crocamo, Cristina; Salemi, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    A better understanding of the epidemiological impact of suicidal ideation after stroke is required to identify subjects needing personalised interventions. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate rates and correlates of suicidal ideation among stroke survivors. We searched via Ovid, Medline, Embase and PsycInfo from database inception until August 2016. Predefined outcomes were (1) rates of suicidal ideation based on random-effects pooled proportion and (2) relevant sociodemographic and clinical correlates, using random-effects odds ratio (OR) or standardised mean difference (SMD) for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Fifteen studies and 13 independent samples, accounting for 10 400 subjects, were included in meta-analyses. The pooled proportion of suicidal ideation among stroke survivors was 11.8% (7.4% to 16.2%), with high heterogeneity across studies (I 2 =97.3%). Current (OR=11.50; psuicidal ideation. Moreover, suicidal ideation was less likely in stroke survivors who were married (OR=0.63; psuicidal ideation. Thus, there is enough evidence to support the use of routine screening and early interventions to prevent and treat suicidal ideation after stroke, especially among subjects carrying specific correlates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. The Effects of Significant International Sports Events on Hungarian Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozsonyi, Karoly; Osvath, Peter; Fekete, Sandor; Bálint, Lajos

    2016-03-01

    Several studies found a significant relationship between important sport events and suicidal behavior. We set out to investigate whether there is a significant relationship between the raw suicide rate and the most important international sports events (Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup, UEFA European Championship) in such an achievement-oriented society as the Hungarian one, where these sport events receive great attention. We examined suicide cases occurring over 15,706 days between January 1, 1970, and December 31, 2012 (43 years), separately for each gender. Because of the age-specific characteristics of suicide, the effects of these sport events were analyzed for the middle-aged (30-59 years old) and the elderly (over 60 years old) generations as well as for gender-specific population groups. The role of international sport events was examined with the help of time-series intervention analysis after cyclical and seasonal components were removed. Intervention analysis was based on the ARIMA model. Our results showed that only the Olympic Games had a significant effect in the middle-aged population. Neither in the older male nor in any of the female age groups was a relationship between suicide and Olympic Games detected. The Olympic Games seem to decrease the rate of suicide among middle-aged men, slightly but significantly.

  2. Social psychological variables in populations contrasted by income and suicide rate: Durkheim revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrada-Noli, M

    1997-08-01

    The ten richest and ten poorest municipalities of Sweden were investigated with respect to national statistics to assess the relationship between suicide incidence, discrete social psychological variables associated with welfare admittance among the elderly, and income of municipality. The relative frequency of suicide was 1.6 times greater for Swedes from the low-income municipalities than for those from the high-income ones. The group of municipalities with the highest suicide rate had a significantly higher proportion of older people in need of municipal social assistance at their homes and also a significantly higher proportion of elderly living in municipality-managed 'service-homes.' The findings replicate earlier investigations and suggest social psychological indicators denoting less favourable economic and social resources are also associated with both an increased suicide rate and a decreased county or municipal income. Some theoretical issues of the socioeconomic and of the external restraint hypotheses of the incidence of suicide, contradicted by the present findings as well as of Durkheim's hypothesis of social control are discussed. Further, we suggest the consideration of negative socioeconomic conditions as a risk factor amid psychiatric clinical assessments of risk for suicidal behaviour.

  3. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K.; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Cha, Christine B.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lee, Sing

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior. PMID:18653727

  4. Community-based screening intervention for depression affects suicide rates among middle-aged Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, H; Sakashita, T

    2017-06-01

    It has been suggested that screening interventions may be effective for suicide prevention. Few studies, however, have reported their effects on outcome measures, including death by suicide among middle-aged adults. We used a quasi-experimental parallel cluster design with matched community-based intervention and control municipalities (total eligible population: 90 000) in Japan. At-risk residents within the intervention area were invited for universal depression screening and subsequent care/support. We compared changes in suicide incidence of adults aged 40-64 years for the 4-year pre- and post-implementation periods in the intervention group with the control group and the whole country. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of the outcomes were adjusted for age group, gender and interaction terms, using mixed-effects negative binomial regression models. Suicide rates among intervention and control subgroups were compared. The screening procedure was offered to 52% of the intervention group, and 61% of those contacted responded over the implementation period. Suicide rates decreased more in the intervention group [IRR 0.57, 95% (CI) 0.41-0.78; F 1,36 = 12.52, p = 0.001] than the control group (IRR proportion 1.63, 95% CI 1.06-2.48; F 1,82 = 5.20, p = 0.025) or the whole country (IRR proportion 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.34; F 1,42 = 8.21, p = 0.006). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the results from the primary analysis. There were lower suicide rates among both respondents and non-respondents to the screening than in the control group during the implementation period. Prevention efforts involved in the depression screening intervention were probably successful in reducing suicide rates.

  5. Effects of changes in permit-to-purchase handgun laws in Connecticut and Missouri on suicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crifasi, Cassandra K; Meyers, John Speed; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W

    2015-10-01

    In 2013, more than 40,000 individuals died from suicide in the United States. Restricting access to lethal means has the potential to prevent suicide, as suicidal thoughts are often transient. Permit-to-purchase (PTP) laws for handguns could potentially reduce suicides by making it more difficult for persons at risk of suicide to purchase a handgun. We used a quasi-experimental research design with annual, state-level suicide data to evaluate changes to PTP laws in Connecticut and Missouri. Data were analyzed for 1981-2012. We used synthetic control modeling as the primary method to estimate policy effects. This methodology provided better prediction of pre-PTP-law-change trends in the two states with PTP law changes than econometric models and is thus likely to provide more accurate estimates of policy effects. The synthetic control model estimated a 15.4% reduction in firearm suicide rates associated with Connecticut's PTP law. Missouri's PTP law repeal was associated with a 16.1% increase in firearm suicide rates. Evidence that PTP laws were associated with non-firearm suicide rates was mixed in Connecticut and negative in Missouri. The findings are consistent with prior research linking firearm availability to increased risk of suicide and lower suicide risks associated with PTP handgun laws. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Temporal changes in suicide rates for persons treated and not treated with antidepressants in Denmark during 1995-1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, L; Kvist, K; Lopez, A G

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the temporal changes in suicide rate among patients treated with antidepressants with the change in suicide rate among persons who have not been treated with antidepressants during 1995-1999. METHOD: In a historic prospective national pharmacoepidemiological register linkage...... study by using four Danish registers we included 438,625 patients who had purchased antidepressants, and compared them with 1,199,057 population based control persons. The annual rate of suicide was estimated using Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: The suicide rate decreased for persons treated...... with antidepressants as well as for persons not treated with antidepressants. The proportion of persons, who committed suicide and who had not been treated with antidepressants decreased. The reduction in suicide rate was more pronounced among persons treated with SSRIs or older antidepressants than among persons...

  7. Discussion based on analysis of the suicide rate and the average disposable income per household in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Nishimura, Y; Okazazi, Y; Fukunaga, T

    2014-08-01

    Suicide is one of the major social issues in Japan. According to a report of the National Policy Agency, there were approximately 22 000 to 24 000 annual suicides between 1994 and 1997 and there have been over 30 000 annual suicides in Japan since 1998. For these reasons, we think it is important to discuss the economic factor related to suicides in recent years. In this study, we examined suicide rates and the average disposable income per household in Japan in the last 15 years (ie 1994-2008) and discuss the statistical analysis of the average disposable income per household and the associated suicide rates. During the research period, annual suicide rates per 100 000 population in Japan ranged from 16.9 to 25.5 among the total population, from 23.1 to 38.0 among men, and from 10.9 to 14.7 among women. The annual average disposable income per household (ten thousand yen) ranged from 424.0 to 549.9. The average disposable income per household was related to the suicide rate among the total population and among men. The average disposable income per household was not related to the suicide rate among women. We believe that this discussion will be useful in developing specific suicide preventive measures.

  8. The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C–SSRS): Has the “Gold Standard” Become a Liability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Jennifer M.; Sheehan, David V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The Columbia– Suicide Severity Rating Scale has become the gold standard for the assessment of suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical trials. Criticism of the instrument has been mounting. We examine whether the instrument meets widely accepted psychometric standards and maps to the United States Food and Drug Administration’s most recent 2012 algorithm for assessment of suicidal phenomena. Our goal is to determine if the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale should be retained as the preferred instrument for assessment of suicidal ideation and behavior. Method: Standard psychometric criteria dictate that categorizations to avoid type I and type II errors should be comprehensive and address the full spectrum (i.e., all dimensions) of a phenomenon. The criteria should also be well defined and consistent, and the wording throughout should be unambiguous. We examine the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale in terms of these criteria. Results: The Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale does not address the full spectrum of suicidal ideation or behavior. As a result, it has the potential to miss many combinations of suicidal ideation and behavior that present to clinicians in practice (type II error). Potential misclassifications (type I and II errors) are compounded by flawed navigation instructions; mismatches in category titles, definitions, and probes; and wording that is susceptible to multiple interpretations. Further, the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale in its current form does not map to the 2012 Food and Drug Administration’s draft classification algorithm for suicidal ideation and behavior. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale is conceptually and psychometrically flawed and does not map to the Food and Drug Administration’s new standards. A new gold standard for assessment of suicidality may be warranted. PMID:25520890

  9. Elevated rates of suicidal behavior in gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, C; Tremblay, P

    2000-01-01

    Both clinical and epidemiological literature point to elevated rates of suicidal behaviors in gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth (GLBY). Recent North American and New Zealand studies of large populations (especially the US Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from several states) indicate that gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents (males in particular) can have rates of serious suicide attempts at least four times those of apparently heterosexual youth. There are various reasons why this figure is likely to be an underestimate. Reasons for these elevated rates of suicidal behavior include a climate of homophobic persecution in schools, and sometimes in family and community--values and actions that stigmatize homosexuality and that the youth who has not yet "come out" has to endure in silence.

  10. Suicide rates in five-year age-bands after the age of 60 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Bhat, Ravi; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    website. RESULTS: In men, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the seven five-year age-bands from 60-64 years to 90-94 years age-band, and then declined slightly for the 95-99 year age-band. In women, suicide rates continued to increase for each of the six five-year age-bands from 60-64 years...... to 85-89 years age-bands, and then declined slightly for the 90-94 years and 95-99 years age-bands. CONCLUSIONS: The overall global suicide rates for each of the eight five-year age-bands are sufficiently large for them to constitute a public health concern. This is especially important given...

  11. The relationship between sales of SSRI, TCA and suicide rates in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahl Per-Henrik

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the period 1990-2006, strong and almost equivalent increases in sales figures of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs were observed in all Nordic countries. The sales figures of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs dropped in Norway and Sweden in the nineties. After 2000, sales figures of TCAs have been almost constant in all Nordic countries. The potentially toxic effect of TCAs in overdose was an important reason for replacing TCAs with SSRIs when treating depression. We studied whether the rapid increase in sales of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in TCAs in the period 1990-98 were associated with a decline in suicide rates. Methods Aggregated suicide rates for the period 1975-2006 in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden were obtained from the national causes-of-death registries. The sales figures of antidepressants were provided from the wholesale registers in each of the Nordic countries. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results There was no statistical association (P = 1.0 between the increase of sales figures of SSRIs and the decline in suicide rates. There was no statistical association (P = 1.0 between the decrease in the sale figures of TCAs and change in suicide rates either. Conclusions We found no evidence for the rapid increase in use of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in sales of TCAs being associated with a decline in the suicide rates in the Nordic countries in the period 1990-98. We did not find any inverse relationship between the increase in sales of SSRIs and declining suicide rates in four Nordic countries.

  12. The relationship between sales of SSRI, TCA and suicide rates in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahl, Per-Henrik; De Leo, Diego; Ekeberg, Øivind; Hjelmeland, Heidi; Dieserud, Gudrun

    2010-08-06

    In the period 1990-2006, strong and almost equivalent increases in sales figures of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were observed in all Nordic countries. The sales figures of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) dropped in Norway and Sweden in the nineties. After 2000, sales figures of TCAs have been almost constant in all Nordic countries. The potentially toxic effect of TCAs in overdose was an important reason for replacing TCAs with SSRIs when treating depression. We studied whether the rapid increase in sales of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in TCAs in the period 1990-98 were associated with a decline in suicide rates. Aggregated suicide rates for the period 1975-2006 in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) were obtained from the national causes-of-death registries. The sales figures of antidepressants were provided from the wholesale registers in each of the Nordic countries. Data were analysed using Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. There was no statistical association (P = 1.0) between the increase of sales figures of SSRIs and the decline in suicide rates. There was no statistical association (P = 1.0) between the decrease in the sale figures of TCAs and change in suicide rates either. We found no evidence for the rapid increase in use of SSRIs and the corresponding decline in sales of TCAs being associated with a decline in the suicide rates in the Nordic countries in the period 1990-98. We did not find any inverse relationship between the increase in sales of SSRIs and declining suicide rates in four Nordic countries.

  13. Increased use of antidepressants and decreasing suicide rates: a population-based study using Danish register data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Canudas-Romo, V.; Conwell, Yeates

    2008-01-01

    -based record linkage. PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 50 years and older living in Denmark between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2000 (N = 2,100,808). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide rates are calculated according to current antidepressant treatment status (no treatment, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA...... 100,000, recipients of antidepressants contributed to the decline by 0.9 suicides. Women redeeming antidepressant prescriptions accounted for 0.4 suicides of the observed reduction of 3.3 per 100,000. The average suicide rates for men receiving TCA and SSRI were 153.3 and 169.0 per 100,000 person......-years, respectively. Among older women, both TCA and SSRI users had an average suicide rate of 68.8 per 100,000 over the period examined. CONCLUSIONS: Just a small proportion of older adults dying by suicide were found to be in treatment with antidepressants at the time of death. Individuals in active treatment...

  14. Sex and age trends in Australia's suicide rate over the last decade: Something is still seriously wrong with men in middle and late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Richard A

    2016-11-30

    Despite significant investment in mental health and suicide intervention strategies in Australia, the extent of change in suicide rates over the last decade is unclear. This paper analyses sex and age trajectories in suicide rates over the last decade in Australia. Age Standardized Suicide Rates from 2004 to 2013 were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and reflect rates of suicide per 100,000 within age and sex cohorts. Age-related suicide rates were consistent over the last decade. For both males and females, there were increases in mid-life suicide rates before declining around 55-65 years of age. However, rates of suicide in men increased in late-life with rates for those aged 70-79 comparable with those in mid-life. Rates amongst men aged 85+ were consistently the highest rates over the decade. Positively, there was decline in suicide rates among younger men aged 20-34 years. However, more consistently, for both sexes across most age cohorts, there were either increases or no change in suicide rate. Apart from declines in younger-adult males, analysis of age-standardized suicide rates indicate no improvement in suicide rates. High suicide rates amongst middle-aged and older males remain a significant public health issue that needs to be addressed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does Unstable Employment Have an Association with Suicide Rates among the Young?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chungah; Cho, Youngtae

    2017-04-28

    Although a growing body of literature has indicated that unemployment has a positive association with suicide, the dynamic aspects of unstable employment have not yet been considered in suicidology. This study explored the association between employment stability and completed suicide among people aged 25-34 years in 20 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries with time-series data (1994-2010). In order to consider the different aspects of unstable employment, we tested the impacts of employment protection legislation indicators as another proxy of job insecurity (employed, but unstable) apart from unemployment rates. Covariates, including economic growth rates, GDP per capita, fertility rates, and divorce rate, were controlled for. The analysis was designed to be gender- and age-specific, where observations with ages of 25-29 were separated from those with ages of 30-34. Random effect models were applied to examine changes over time in suicide rates, and other models were presented to check robustness. The results showed that it is a low level of employment protection, rather than unemployment itself, that was associated with increased suicide rates among all of the studied populations. The magnitude of the effect differed by gender.

  16. An evaluation of state firearm regulations and homicide and suicide death rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengart, M; Cummings, P; Nathens, A; Heagerty, P; Maier, R; Rivara, F

    2005-04-01

    To determine if any of five different state gun laws were associated with firearm mortality: (1) "shall issue" laws permitting an individual to carry a concealed weapon unless restricted by another statute; (2) a minimum age of 21 years for handgun purchase; (3) a minimum age of 21 years for private handgun possession; (4) one gun a month laws which restrict handgun purchase frequency; and (5) junk gun laws which ban the sale of certain cheaply constructed handguns. A cross sectional time series study of firearm mortality from 1979 to 1998. All 50 states and the District of Columbia. All residents of the United States. Firearm homicides, all homicides, firearm suicides, and all suicides. When a "shall issue" law was present, the rate of firearm homicides was greater, RR 1.11 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.24), than when the law was not present, as was the rate of all homicides, RR 1.08 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.17), although this was not statistically significant. No law was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the rates of firearm homicides or total homicides. No law was associated with a statistically significant change in firearm suicide rates. A "shall issue" law that eliminates most restrictions on carrying a concealed weapon may be associated with increased firearm homicide rates. No law was associated with a statistically significant reduction in firearm homicide or suicide rates.

  17. Firearm legislation reform in the European Union: impact on firearm availability, firearm suicide and homicide rates in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Nestor D; Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Krall, Christoph; Sonneck, Gernot

    2007-09-01

    The availability of firearms in homes and at aggregate levels is a risk factor for suicide and homicide. One method of reducing access to suicidal means is the restriction of firearm availability through more stringent legislation. To evaluate the impact of firearm legislation reform on firearm suicides and homicides as well as on the availability of firearms in Austria. Official statistics on suicides, firearm homicides and firearm licences issued from 1985 to 2005 were examined. To assess the effect of the new firearm law, enacted in 1997, linear regression and Poisson regressions were performed using data from before and after the law reform. The rate of firearm suicides among some age groups, percentage of firearm suicides, as well as the rate of firearm homicides and the rate of firearm licences, significantly decreased after a more stringent firearm law had been implemented. Our findings provide evidence that the introduction of restrictive firearmlegislation effectively reduced the rates of firearm suicide and homicide. The decline in firearm-related deaths seems to have been mediated by the legal restriction of firearm availability. Restrictive firearm legislation should be an integral part of national suicide prevention programmes in countries with high firearm suicide rates.

  18. Homicide and suicide rates associated with implementation of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, J; Cook, P J

    2000-08-02

    In February 1994, the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act established a nationwide requirement that licensed firearms dealers observe a waiting period and initiate a background check for handgun sales. The effects of this act have not been analyzed. To determine whether implementation of the Brady Act was associated with reductions in homicide and suicide rates. Analysis of vital statistics data in the United States for 1985 through 1997 from the National Center for Health Statistics. Total and firearm homicide and suicide rates per 100,000 adults (>/=21 years and >/=55 years) and proportion of homicides and suicides resulting from firearms were calculated by state and year. Controlling for population age, race, poverty and income levels, urban residence, and alcohol consumption, the 32 "treatment" states directly affected by the Brady Act requirements were compared with the 18 "control" states and the District of Columbia, which had equivalent legislation already in place. Changes in rates of homicide and suicide for treatment and control states were not significantly different, except for firearm suicides among persons aged 55 years or older (-0.92 per 100,000; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.43 to -0.42). This reduction in suicides for persons aged 55 years or older was much stronger in states that had instituted both waiting periods and background checks (-1.03 per 100,000; 95% CI, -1.58 to -0.47) than in states that only changed background check requirements (-0.17 per 100,000; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.75). Based on the assumption that the greatest reductions in fatal violence would be within states that were required to institute waiting periods and background checks, implementation of the Brady Act appears to have been associated with reductions in the firearm suicide rate for persons aged 55 years or older but not with reductions in homicide rates or overall suicide rates. However, the pattern of implementation of the Brady Act does not permit a reliable

  19. Examining the Relationship Between Past Orientation and US Suicide Rates: An Analysis Using Big Data-Driven Google Search Queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghyun; Lee, Hojun; Choi, Munkee

    2016-02-11

    Internet search query data reflect the attitudes of the users, using which we can measure the past orientation to commit suicide. Examinations of past orientation often highlight certain predispositions of attitude, many of which can be suicide risk factors. To investigate the relationship between past orientation and suicide rate by examining Google search queries. We measured the past orientation using Google search query data by comparing the search volumes of the past year and those of the future year, across the 50 US states and the District of Columbia during the period from 2004 to 2012. We constructed a panel dataset with independent variables as control variables; we then undertook an analysis using multiple ordinary least squares regression and methods that leverage the Akaike information criterion and the Bayesian information criterion. It was found that past orientation had a positive relationship with the suicide rate (P ≤ .001) and that it improves the goodness-of-fit of the model regarding the suicide rate. Unemployment rate (P ≤ .001 in Models 3 and 4), Gini coefficient (P ≤ .001), and population growth rate (P ≤ .001) had a positive relationship with the suicide rate, whereas the gross state product (P ≤ .001) showed a negative relationship with the suicide rate. We empirically identified the positive relationship between the suicide rate and past orientation, which was measured by big data-driven Google search query.

  20. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  1. Young Peoples' Opinions about the Causes of, and Solutions to, New Zealand's High Youth Suicide Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heled, Edna; Read, John

    2005-01-01

    In response to an open-ended question about the causes of New Zealand's high youth suicide rate, 384 young adults most commonly cited pressure to conform and perform, followed by financial worries, abuse and neglect, problems with alcohol or drugs, and boredom. Depression was cited by 5 percent and mental illness by only 1 percent. Recommended…

  2. Relationship of suicide rates with climate and economic variables in Europe during 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Chatzikosta, Isaia; Pastiadis, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that suicidal rates vary considerably among European countries and the reasons for this are unknown, although several theories have been proposed. The effect of economic variables has been extensively studied but not that of climate. METHODS: Data from 29 European cou...

  3. Mortality rate and years of life lost from unintentional injury and suicide in South India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anuradha; Konradsen, Flemming; John, Jacob

    2006-01-01

    We calculated mortality rates and years of life lost because of unintentional injuries and suicides using community based information obtained prospectively over a 7-year period, from 1998 to 2004, among a rural and peri-urban population of 108,000 in South India. Per 100,000 population the total...... over the study period while 18.9% of all deaths in the population were attributable to unintentional injuries and suicides in the same period. The high burden is particularly notable in the 15-29 age group, where up to 70% of years of life lost are due to injury. The burden of injuries reported...... in this study is significantly higher than the figures reflected in available reports for India and is likely due to the under reporting in routine mortality statistics, particularly of suicides....

  4. Factor analyses of the Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS) and the Risk-Rescue Rating Scale (RRRS): toward the identification of homogeneous subgroups of suicidal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misson, Hélène; Mathieu, Flavie; Jollant, Fabrice; Yon, Liova; Guillaume, Sébastien; Parmentier, Claire; Raust, Aurélie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Slama, Frédéric; Leboyer, Marion; Bellivier, Frank; Courtet, Philippe

    2010-02-01

    Suicidal behavior is a heterogeneous entity, determined by multiple factors. This heterogeneity has major implications for clinical management of patients and identification of risk factors. Our study aims at identifying homogeneous subgroups of patients with suicidal behavior. We used two validated questionnaires to assess the intent (Suicidal Intent Scale, SIS) and lethality (Risk-Rescue Rating Scale, RRRS) of the most severe suicide attempt in a sample of 608 patients recruited consecutively. We first explored the factorial structure of the two scales, using a principal component analysis, and then tested the relationship between sub-scores identified and subtypes of suicide attempts (violent, serious overdose) using a backward logistic regression. A four-factor structure was retained for the SIS (conception, preparation, precautions and communication). The RRRS, for which a factorial structure has not been previously published, had a three-factor structure (medical damage, implementation and rescue conditions). This structure was valid, stable and clinically relevant. Serious suicide attempts were characterized by less communication and more precautions against discovery, whereas violent attempts were associated with higher risk acts. Neither violent nor serious attempts were characterized by more planning. The SIS and RRRS were assessed retrospectively, and so could have been influenced by recall bias. Finally, censoring bias may have affected our results. The characterization of suicidal behaviors using SIS and RRRS sub-scores constitutes a first step toward the identification of homogeneous subgroups of suicide attempters. Prospective studies are needed to test the predictive value of these sub-scores for subsequent suicidal acts. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of impact of geographic characteristics on suicide rate and visualization of result with Geographic Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Mayumi; Kubota, Takafumi; Tsubaki, Hiroe; Yamauchi, Keita

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study was to understand the geographic characteristics of Japanese communities and the impact of these characteristics on suicide rates. We calculated the standardized mortality ratio from suicide statistics of 3318 municipalities from 1972 to 2002. Correlation analysis, multi-regression analysis and generalized additive model were used to find the relation between topographic and climatic variables and suicide rate. We visualized the relation between geographic characteristics and suicide rate on the map of Wakayama Prefecture, using the Geographic Information System. Our study showed that the geographic characteristics of each community are related with its suicide rate. The strongest factor among the geographic characteristics to increase the suicide rate was the slope of the habitable land. It is necessary to take the characteristics of each community into consideration when we work out measures of suicide prevention. Visualization of the findings on the local map should be helpful to promote understanding of problems and to share the information among various parties in charge of suicide prevention. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Validation of a Spanish version of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Halabí, Susana; Sáiz, Pilar A; Burón, Patricia; Garrido, Marlén; Benabarre, Antoni; Jiménez, Esther; Cervilla, Jorge; Navarrete, María Isabel; Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Álvarez, Leticia; Muñiz, José; Posner, Kelly; Oquendo, María A; García-Portilla, María Paz; Bobes, Julio

    2016-01-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the C-SSRS (Sp-CSSRS). Data are from a naturalistic, cross-sectional, multicentre, validation study, including 467 psychiatric outpatients, 242 of whom had a history of suicide attempt. The study measures were: C-SSRS; the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS); the Beck Suicide Intent Scale; the Medical Damage Scale. Construct validity: Pearson coefficient between the C-SSRS severity (C-Sev) and intensity (C-Int) of ideation subscale scores was 0.44 (P<.000) for the total sample. Likewise, Pearson coefficient between C-Sev score and HDRS item 3 was 0.56 (P<.000). For the sub-sample of patients with suicide attempt, significant Pearson correlations were found between the C-Sev and the Beck Suicide Intent Scale scores (r=0.22; P=.001). Discriminant validity: Significant differences were found in C-Sev and C-Int scores between patients with and without suicide attempt (P<.000). The C-Sev score discriminated between patients based on HDRS item 3 (P<.009). Sensitivity to change: Linear regression showed that a one-unit decrease in HDRS item 3 corresponded to a decrease of 5.08 units in the C-Sev score (P=.141). A one-unit change in HDRS item 3 corresponded to a change of 13.51 on the C-Int assessments (P=.007). Cronbach's alpha was 0.53 for C-Int. The principal component analysis identified 2 components that explain 55.66% of the total variance (C-Int). The data support that the Sp-C-SSRS is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing suicidal ideation and behaviour in daily clinical practice and research settings. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Suicide rates in Shandong, China, 1991-2010: rapid decrease in rural rates and steady increase in male-female ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiandong; Guo, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jiyu; Jia, Cunxian; Xu, Aiqiang

    2013-04-25

    China has one of the highest suicide rates in the world; however, the recent trends in suicide have not been adequately studied. This study aimed to examine the potential changes in the rates and characteristics in a Chinese population. Data on suicide deaths in 1991-2010 were extracted from the Shandong Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) mortality dataset based on ICD-10 codes. The temporal trend in age-adjusted suicide rates for each subpopulation was tested using log-linear Poisson regression analysis. From 1991 to 2010, there was a marked decrease in the overall suicide rate in Shandong, with an average reduction of 8% per year. The decrease trend was stronger in rural than in urban areas and more evident in females than in males. Similar decreases were observed for all age groups. Pesticide ingestion and hanging remained the top two methods for suicide. There are likely quality concerns in the morality data, such as underreporting and misclassification, as well as low accuracy in determining the underlying causes of deaths. The representativeness of the DSP system may also be problematic due to the rapid changes in economy and demography. Completed suicides in Shandong have sharply declined over the past 20 years. Higher rates in females versus males and in rural versus urban areas, which were previously considered to be distinguishing features of suicide in China, are becoming less pronounced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adolescent Suicide Rates Between 1990 and 2009: Analysis of Age Group 15-19 Years Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current analysis is to analyze suicide rates in adolescents aged 15-19 years in decades between 1990 and 2009 worldwide. Suicide data were obtained from the World Health Organization Mortality Database and population data from the World Bank Data set. In total, 81 countries or territories, having data at least for 5 years in 1990-1999 and in 2000-2009, were included in the analysis. Additional analysis for regional trends with 57 countries was performed. Over the decades considered, analysis showed a declining trend in the overall suicide rate for males from 10.30 to 9.51 per 100,000 (p = .076), and for females from 4.39 to 4.18 (p = .472). The average suicide rate showed a significant decline for both genders in Europe, dropping from 13.13 to 10.93 (p = .001) in males and from 3.88 to 3.34 in females (p = .038). There was a significant increase in South American countries for males, from 7.36 to 11.47 (p = .016), and a close to significant rise for females, from 5.59 to 7.98 (p = .053). Although other world regions did not show significant trends, there were several significant changes at country level. Reasons behind the decrease in Western countries could potentially be related to the overall improvements in global health; the possible contribution of suicide prevention activities remains unclear. Increases in several South American countries might be related to economic recession and its impact on adolescents from diverse cultural backgrounds, and partly also to improvements in mortality registration. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential correlation of suicide and homicide rates according to geographical areas: A study with population-level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Gonda, Xenia

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigated the relationship of suicide and homicide rates internationally. WHO database mortality data for 82 countries concerning suicide, homicides, and cancer and traffic accidents as controls were used. The analysis included Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. Worldwide homicidal rates explained 55.42%, 43.86% and 41.7% of male and 22.0%, 22.14% and 13.25% of female suicides for 2000, 2005 and 2010 respectively. In Europe there was a positive correlation between male suicide rates and all homicide rates including homicide rates in both genders, in male victims, and in female victims. In America there is no significant correlation. In Asia there is a significant correlation of male suicidal rates only with homicide rates of female victims. We observed marked and interesting differences in the pattern of association between Europe and the Americas. Overall the current paper suggests that at least in some human populations, suicidality and homicidality share common etiopathogenetic substrates and could be triggered by the same internal or external events or might develop based on common genetic background. Empirically it has been suggested that suicide is related to higher living standards while murder is related to poor quality of life and lower living standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A population-based analysis of increasing rates of suicide mortality in Japan and South Korea, 1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sun Y; Reither, Eric N; Masters, Ryan K

    2016-04-23

    In the past two decades, rates of suicide mortality have declined among most OECD member states. Two notable exceptions are Japan and South Korea, where suicide mortality has increased by 20 % and 280 %, respectively. Population and suicide mortality data were collected through national statistics organizations in Japan and South Korea for the period 1985 to 2010. Age, period of observation, and birth cohort membership were divided into five-year increments. We fitted a series of intrinsic estimator age-period-cohort models to estimate the effects of age-related processes, secular changes, and birth cohort dynamics on the rising rates of suicide mortality in the two neighboring countries. In Japan, elevated suicide rates are primarily driven by period effects, initiated during the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. In South Korea, multiple factors appear to be responsible for the stark increase in suicide mortality, including recent secular changes, elevated suicide risks at older ages in the context of an aging society, and strong cohort effects for those born between the Great Depression and the aftermath of the Korean War. In spite of cultural, demographic and geographic similarities in Japan and South Korea, the underlying causes of increased suicide mortality differ across these societies-suggesting that public health responses should be tailored to fit each country's unique situation.

  11. A population-based analysis of increasing rates of suicide mortality in Japan and South Korea, 1985–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Y. Jeon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past two decades, rates of suicide mortality have declined among most OECD member states. Two notable exceptions are Japan and South Korea, where suicide mortality has increased by 20 % and 280 %, respectively. Methods Population and suicide mortality data were collected through national statistics organizations in Japan and South Korea for the period 1985 to 2010. Age, period of observation, and birth cohort membership were divided into five-year increments. We fitted a series of intrinsic estimator age-period-cohort models to estimate the effects of age-related processes, secular changes, and birth cohort dynamics on the rising rates of suicide mortality in the two neighboring countries. Results In Japan, elevated suicide rates are primarily driven by period effects, initiated during the Asian financial crisis of the late 1990s. In South Korea, multiple factors appear to be responsible for the stark increase in suicide mortality, including recent secular changes, elevated suicide risks at older ages in the context of an aging society, and strong cohort effects for those born between the Great Depression and the aftermath of the Korean War. Conclusion In spite of cultural, demographic and geographic similarities in Japan and South Korea, the underlying causes of increased suicide mortality differ across these societies—suggesting that public health responses should be tailored to fit each country’s unique situation.

  12. Suicide rates across income levels: Retrospective cohort data on 1 million participants collected between 2003 and 2013 in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Uk; Oh, In-Hwan; Jeon, Hong Jin; Roh, Sungwon

    2017-06-01

    The relation of income and socioeconomic status with suicide rates remains unclear. Most previous studies have focused on the relationship between suicide rates and macroeconomic factors (e.g., economic growth rate). Therefore, we aimed to identify the relationship between individuals' socioeconomic position and suicide risk. We analyzed suicide mortality rates across socioeconomic positions to identify potential trends using observational data on suicide mortality collected between January 2003 and December 2013 from 1,025,340 national health insurance enrollees. We followed the subjects for 123.5 months on average. Socioeconomic position was estimated using insurance premium levels. To examine the hazard ratios of suicide mortality in various socioeconomic positions, we used Cox proportional hazard models. We found that the hazard ratios of suicide showed an increasing trend as socioeconomic position decreased. After adjusting for gender, age, geographic location, and disability level, Medicaid recipients had the highest suicide hazard ratio (2.28; 95% CI, 1.87-2.77). Among the Medicaid recipients, men had higher hazard ratios than women (2.79; 95% CI, 2.17-3.59 vs. 1.71; 95% CI, 1.25-2.34). Hazard ratios also varied across age groups. The highest hazard ratio was found in the 40-59-year-old group (3.19; 95% CI, 2.31-4.43), whereas the lowest ratio was found in those 60 years and older (1.44; 95% CI, 1.09-1.87). Our results illuminate the relationship between socioeconomic position and suicide rates and can be used to design and implement future policies on suicide prevention. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between suicide rate and economic growth and stock market in the People's Republic of China: 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Honglei; Xu, Lin; Shao, Yechang; Li, Liping; Wan, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the features of suicide rate and its association with economic development and stock market during the past decade in the People's Republic of China. Official data were gathered and analyzed in the People's Republic of China during the period 2004-2013. Nationwide suicide rate was stratified by four year age-groups, sex, urban/rural areas, and regions (East, Central, and West). Annual economic indexes including gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and rural and urban income per capita were all adjusted for inflation. Variation coefficient of market index (VCMI) was also included as an economic index to measure the fluctuation of the stock market. Negative binomial regression was performed to examine the time trend of region-level suicide rates and effects of sex, age, urban/rural area, region, and economic index on the suicide rates. Suicide rates of each age-group, sex, urban/rural area, and region were generally decreased from 2004 to 2013, while annual GDP per capita and rural and urban income per capita were generally increased by year. VCMI fluctuated largely, which peaked around 2009 and decreased after that time. Negative binomial regression showed that the decreased suicide rate in East and Central rural areas was the main cause of the decrease in suicide rate in the People's Republic of China. Suicide rate in the People's Republic of China for the study period increased with age and was higher in rural than in urban area, higher in males than in females, and the highest in the Central region. When GDP per capita increased by 2,787 RMB, the suicide rate decreased by 0.498 times. VCMI showed no significant relationship with suicide rate in the negative binomial regression. Suicide rate decreased in 2004-2013; varied among different age-groups, sex, urban/rural areas, and regions; and was negatively associated with the economic growth in the People's Republic of China. Stock market showed no relationship with

  14. The association between changes in household firearm ownership and rates of suicide in the United States, 1981-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M; Azrael, D; Hepburn, L; Hemenway, D; Lippmann, S J

    2006-06-01

    To explore whether recent declines in household firearm prevalence in the United States were associated with changes in rates of suicide for men, women, and children. This time series study compares changes in suicide rates to changes in household firearm prevalence, 1981-2002. Multivariate analyses adjust for age, unemployment, per capita alcohol consumption, and poverty. Regional fixed effects controlled for cross sectional, time invariant differences among the four census regions. Standard errors of parameter estimates are adjusted to account for serial autocorrelation of observations over time. Over the 22 year study period household firearm ownership rates declined across all four regions. In multivariate analyses, each 10% decline in household firearm ownership was associated with significant declines in rates of firearm suicide, 4.2% (95% CI 2.3% to 6.1%) and overall suicide, 2.5% (95% CI 1.4% to 3.6%). Changes in non-firearm suicide were not associated with changes in firearm ownership. The magnitude of the association between changes in household firearm ownership and changes in rates of firearm and overall suicide was greatest for children: for each 10% decline in the percentage of households with firearms and children, the rate of firearm suicide among children 0-19 years of age dropped 8.3% (95% CI 6.1% to 10.5%) and the rate of overall suicide dropped 4.1% (2.3% to 5.9%). Changes in household firearm ownership over time are associated with significant changes in rates of suicide for men, women, and children. These findings suggest that reducing availability to firearms in the home may save lives, especially among youth.

  15. The association between changes in household firearm ownership and rates of suicide in the United States, 1981–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M; Azrael, D; Hepburn, L; Hemenway, D; Lippmann, S J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore whether recent declines in household firearm prevalence in the United States were associated with changes in rates of suicide for men, women, and children. Methods This time series study compares changes in suicide rates to changes in household firearm prevalence, 1981–2002. Multivariate analyses adjust for age, unemployment, per capita alcohol consumption, and poverty. Regional fixed effects controlled for cross sectional, time invariant differences among the four census regions. Standard errors of parameter estimates are adjusted to account for serial autocorrelation of observations over time. Results Over the 22 year study period household firearm ownership rates declined across all four regions. In multivariate analyses, each 10% decline in household firearm ownership was associated with significant declines in rates of firearm suicide, 4.2% (95% CI 2.3% to 6.1%) and overall suicide, 2.5% (95% CI 1.4% to 3.6%). Changes in non‐firearm suicide were not associated with changes in firearm ownership. The magnitude of the association between changes in household firearm ownership and changes in rates of firearm and overall suicide was greatest for children: for each 10% decline in the percentage of households with firearms and children, the rate of firearm suicide among children 0–19 years of age dropped 8.3% (95% CI 6.1% to 10.5%) and the rate of overall suicide dropped 4.1% (2.3% to 5.9%). Conclusion Changes in household firearm ownership over time are associated with significant changes in rates of suicide for men, women, and children. These findings suggest that reducing availability to firearms in the home may save lives, especially among youth. PMID:16751449

  16. Reducing the suicide rate among veterinary surgeons: how the profession can help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, R E W; Hoskin, B D

    2005-10-01

    A short communication on page 415 of this issue of The Veterinary Record draws attention to the high suicide rate among members of the veterinary profession. In this article, Professor Richard Halliwell, who has recently chaired a series of meetings on this matter at the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, and Mr Brian Hoskin, chairman of the Veterinary Benevolent Fund, describe some of the support mechanisms available to veterinary surgeons and discuss what more might be done.

  17. Cyclicity of Suicides May Be Modulated by Internal or External - 11-Year Cycles: An Example of Suicide Rates in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, B. D.; Atanassova, P. A.; Rachkova, M. I.

    2009-12-01

    Multicomponent cyclicity in monthly suicides (periods T = 18, 46 and 198 months) was found and close similarity with heliogeophysical activity (HGA) suggested by Dimitrov in 1999. The current report aimed at scrutinizing the results on suicide annual cyclicity (seasonality) in Slovenia as reported by Oravecz et al in 2007 as well as at analyzing suicide data from Finland in this regard. We postulated that: (i) trans-year (12-24 months) or far-trans-year long-term cycles of suicides might interfere with their seasonality; and (ii) associations to environmental factors with alike cyclicity (e.g. HGA, temperature) could exist. Annual suicide incidence from Oulu, Finland over years 1987-1999 was analyzed. Annual data on solar activity (sunspot index Rz or Wolf number), planetary geomagnetic activity (aa-index) and local daily mean temperatures were used. The exploration of underlying chronomes (time structures) was done by periodogram regression analysis with trigonometric approximation. We analyzed temporal dynamics, revealed cyclicity, decomposed and reconstructed significant cycles and correlated the time series data. Suicide seasonality in Slovenia during the years 1971-2002 (n=384 months, peak May-June) was considered and, although some discrepancies and methodological weaknesses were suspected, we further hypothesized about trans-year and/or longer (far-transyear) cyclic components. Suicide incidence data from Finland indicated that the 12.5-year cyclic component (or trend) was almost parallel (coherent) to the cyclic heliogeophysical parameters and similar to local decreasing temperature dynamics. Also, 8-year and 24.5-year cycles were revealed. A correlation between the 12.5-year suicide cycle and 11-year solar cycle was found (R=0.919, p=0.000009). Above findings on cyclicity and temporal correlations of suicides with cyclic environmental factors, even being still preliminary, might not only allow for further more specific analyses. They might also corroborate

  18. Interrelation between the prevalence rate of suicides and the length of working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Korotkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that overworking as well as deficiency of work (plenty of free time are major factors of a suicide on an individual level which allows when passing to the level of a real social group (employees to suppose of existence of a certain optimum of working time or a parabolic (U-shaped connection between the suicide rate and an average duration of working time. From the theoretical point of view the supposed parabolic dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average duration of working time of employees is described from the point of view of suicidology: excessive increase of working time is an external tendency which prevents satisfaction of actual needs of an employee and limits physically the space (off-work time for their realization. Multidirectional tendencies form a life conflict which has crucial significance when transferring to a suicidal phase. The objective of this article consists in a qualitative assessment of an influence of “an average duration of working time” on the level of prevalence of suicides when other things are fixed (economic, social, religious and others in a relatively stable social situation. For the econometric analysis, reliable and comparable data of the European database of detailed mortality data of the World Health Organization and Eurostat are used for 22 European countries for the period from 1998 till 2012. Based on analysis of a dynamics of the studied variables different hypothesis have been made: 1 about existence of statistically significant linear or logarithmic dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average factual duration of working time inside a country 2 about existence of a parabolic (U-shaped dependence of the level of prevalence of suicides from an average factual duration of working time between countries. A set of panel unit root tests and stationarity testify that the examined variables are unsteady variables with integratedness order I(1. The

  19. Suicide rates and socioeconomic factors in Eastern European countries after the collapse of the Soviet Union: trends between 1990 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; Milner, Allison; Värnik, Peeter

    2013-07-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the various Eastern European (EE) countries adapted in different ways to the social, political and economic changes. The present study aims to analyse whether the factors related to social integration and regulation are able to explain the changes in the suicide rate in EE. A separate analysis of suicide rates, together with the undetermined intent mortality (UD), was performed. A cross-sectional time-series design and applied a panel data fixed-effects regression technique was used in analyses. The sample included 13 countries from the former Soviet bloc between 1990 and 2008. Dependent variables were gender-specific age-adjusted suicide rates and suicide plus UD rates. Independent variables included unemployment, GDP, divorce rate, birth rate, the Gini index, female labour force participation, alcohol consumption and general practitioners per 100,000 people. Male suicide and suicide or UD rates had similar predictors, which suggest that changes in suicide were related to socioeconomic disruptions experienced during the transition period. However, male suicide rates in EE were not associated with alcohol consumption during the study period. Even so, there might be underestimation of alcohol consumption due to illegal alcohol and differences between methodologies of calculating alcohol consumption. However, predictors of female suicide were related to economic integration and suicide or UD rates with domestic integration. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Scottish science fiction: writing Scottish literature back into history

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Gavin

    2010-01-01

    The increasing vigour of Scottish literature since the 1980s has led not only to a revival in literary fiction, but also to a growing diversification into other narrative genres. The detective story – in the form of so-called “tartan noir” – has been the most obvious popular genre to undergo revival, but science fiction has also blossomed in the work of authors such as Alasdair Gray, Iain (M.) Banks, and Ken MacLeod. In this article, I trace something of the problematic history of Scottish sc...

  1. Increased mortality rate and suicide in Swedish former elite male athletes in power sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, A-S; Moberg, T; Ehrnborg, C; Eriksson, B O; Fahlke, C; Rosén, T

    2014-12-01

    Physical training has been shown to reduce mortality in normal subjects, and athletes have a healthier lifestyle after their active career as compared with normal subjects. Since the 1950s, the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been frequent, especially in power sports. The aim of the present study was to investigate mortality, including causes of death, in former Swedish male elite athletes, active 1960-1979, in wrestling, powerlifting, Olympic lifting, and the throwing events in track and field when the suspicion of former AAS use was high. Results indicate that, during the age period of 20-50 years, there was an excess mortality of around 45%. However, when analyzing the total study period, the mortality was not increased. Mortality from suicide was increased 2-4 times among the former athletes during the period of 30-50 years of age compared with the general population of men. Mortality rate from malignancy was lower among the athletes. As the use of AAS was marked between 1960 and 1979 and was not doping-listed until 1975, it seems probable that the effect of AAS use might play a part in the observed increased mortality and suicide rate. The otherwise healthy lifestyle among the athletes might explain the low malignancy rates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Rates and Predictors of Suicidal Ideation During the First Year After Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardier, Charles H.; Fann, Jesse R.; Temkin, Nancy R.; Barber, Jason K.; Dikmen, Sureyya S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined rates of suicidal ideation (SI) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and investigated whether demographic characteristics, preinjury psychiatric history, or injury-related factors predicted SI during the first year after injury. Methods. We followed a cohort of 559 adult patients who were admitted to Harborview Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, with a complicated mild to severe TBI between June 2001 and March 2005. Participants completed structured telephone interviews during months 1 through 6, 8, 10, and 12 after injury. We assessed SI using item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results. Twenty-five percent of the sample reported SI during 1 or more assessment points. The strongest predictor of SI was the first PHQ-8 score (i.e., PHQ-9 with item 9 excluded) after injury. Other significant multivariate predictors included a history of a prior suicide attempt, a history of bipolar disorder, and having less than a high school education. Conclusions. Rates of SI among individuals who have sustained a TBI exceed those found among the general population. Increased knowledge of risk factors for SI may assist health care providers in identifying patients who may be vulnerable to SI after TBI. PMID:24832143

  3. The Associations between Infant Homicide, Homicide, and Suicide Rates: An Analysis of World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large, Matthew; Nielssen, Olav; Lackersteen, Steven; Smith, Glen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found that rates of homicide of children aged under one (infant homicide) are associated with rates of suicide, but not with rates of homicide. Linear regression was used to examine associations among infant homicide, homicide, and suicide in samples of regions in the United States and other countries. Infant homicide rates…

  4. Epidemiology of youth suicide and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Scottye J; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people in the U.S. and represents a significant public health problem worldwide. This review focuses on recent developments in our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior. The suicide rate among children and adolescents in the U.S. has increased dramatically in recent years and has been accompanied by substantial changes in the leading methods of youth suicide, especially among young girls. Much work is currently underway to elucidate the relationships between psychopathology, substance use, child abuse, bullying, internet use, and youth suicidal behavior. Recent evidence also suggests sex-specific and moderating roles of sex in influencing risk for suicide and suicidal behavior. Empirical research into the causal mechanisms underlying youth suicide and suicidal behavior is needed to inform early identification and prevention efforts.

  5. Demographic trends in suicide in the UK and Ireland 1980-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, O C; Kelleher, C; Malone, K M

    2015-03-01

    Ireland has the 17th highest suicide rate in the EU and the 4th highest among 15-24-year-old males (WHO 2012). Suicide is the leading cause of death in this age group; death by hanging accounted for 69 % of suicides in 2010. This study examines youth suicide rates from 1980 to 2010 in Ireland and compares them to the rates in Northern Ireland, Scotland, England and Wales. Irish data were obtained from the Central Statistics Office and their annual reports on Vital Statistics. Northern Irish data were obtained from the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency website; Scottish data were from the General Register Office for Scotland and English/Welsh data from the Office for National Statistics website. There has been a threefold increase in young male suicide in Ireland over the past three decades (8.9-29.7 per 100,000). In contrast, there has been approximately a threefold reduction in deaths by road traffic accidents in young men in the same period (42.7-16.2 per 100,000). Suicide rates in young men are similar in Scotland and Northern Ireland for the same period but are 50 % lower in England and Wales. Despite the rates of hanging as a method of suicide increasing in all jurisdictions, the overall rate in England and Wales has continued to decline. The suicide rate in Ireland remains very high and strategies to address this are urgently required. Our study indicates that national suicide prevention strategies can be effective.

  6. An analysis of suicide trends in Scotland 1950-2014: comparison with England & Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougall, Nadine; Stark, Cameron; Agnew, Tim; Henderson, Rob; Maxwell, Margaret; Lambert, Paul

    2017-12-20

    Scotland has disproportionately high rates of suicide compared with England. An analysis of trends may help reveal whether rates appear driven more by birth cohort, period or age. A 'birth cohort effect' for England & Wales has been previously reported by Gunnell et al. (B J Psych 182:164-70, 2003). This study replicates this analysis for Scotland, makes comparisons between the countries, and provides information on 'vulnerable' cohorts. Suicide and corresponding general population data were obtained from the National Records of Scotland, 1950 to 2014. Age and gender specific mortality rates were estimated. Age, period and cohort patterns were explored graphically by trend analysis. A pattern was found whereby successive male birth cohorts born after 1940 experienced higher suicide rates, in increasingly younger age groups, echoing findings reported for England & Wales. Young men (aged 20-39) were found to have a marked and statistically significant increase in suicide between those in the 1960 and 1965 birth cohorts. The 1965 cohort peaked in suicide rate aged 35-39, and the subsequent 1970 cohort peaked even younger, aged 25-29; it is possible that these 1965 and 1970 cohorts are at greater mass vulnerability to suicide than earlier cohorts. This was reflected in data for England & Wales, but to a lesser extent. Suicide rates associated with male birth cohorts subsequent to 1975 were less severe, and not statistically significantly different from earlier cohorts, suggestive of an amelioration of any possible influential 'cohort' effect. Scottish female suicide rates for all age groups converged and stabilised over time. Women have not been as affected as men, with less variation in patterns by different birth cohorts and with a much less convincing corresponding pattern suggestive of a 'cohort' effect. Trend analysis is useful in identifying 'vulnerable' cohorts, providing opportunities to develop suicide prevention strategies addressing these cohorts as they age.

  7. An Ecological Study on the Spatially Varying Relationship between County-Level Suicide Rates and Altitude in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoehun Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a serious but preventable public health issue. Several previous studies have revealed a positive association between altitude and suicide rates at the county level in the contiguous United States. We assessed the association between suicide rates and altitude using a cross-county ecological study design. Data on suicide rates were obtained from a Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS, maintained by the U.S. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC. Altitude data were collected from the United States Geological Survey (USGS. We employed an ordinary least square (OLS regression to model the association between altitude and suicide rates in 3064 counties in the contiguous U.S. We conducted a geographically weighted regression (GWR to examine the spatially varying relationship between suicide rates and altitude after controlling for several well-established covariates. A significant positive association between altitude and suicide rates (average county rates between 2008 and 2014 was found in the dataset in the OLS model (R2 = 0.483, p < 0.001. Our GWR model fitted the data better, as indicated by an improved R2 (average: 0.62; range: 0.21–0.64 and a lower Akaike Information Criteria (AIC value (13,593.68 vs. 14,432.14 in the OLS model. The GWR model also significantly reduced the spatial autocorrelation, as indicated by Moran’s I test statistic (Moran’s I = 0.171; z = 33.656; p < 0.001 vs. Moran’s I = 0.323; z = 63.526; p < 0.001 in the OLS model. In addition, a stronger positive relationship was detected in areas of the northern regions, northern plain regions, and southeastern regions in the U.S. Our study confirmed a varying overall positive relationship between altitude and suicide. Future research may consider controlling more predictor variables in regression models, such as firearm ownership, religion, and access to mental health services.

  8. Do Generous Unemployment Benefit Programs Reduce Suicide Rates? A State Fixed-Effect Analysis Covering 1968–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M. Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic recession has led to increases in suicide, but whether US state unemployment insurance programs ameliorate this association has not been examined. Exploiting US state variations in the generosity of benefit programs between 1968 and 2008, we tested the hypothesis that more generous unemployment benefit programs reduce the impact of economic downturns on suicide. Using state linear fixed-effect models, we found a negative additive interaction between unemployment rates and benefits among the US working-age (20–64 years) population (β = −0.57, 95% confidence interval: −0.86, −0.27; P unemployment rates on suicide is offset by the presence of generous state unemployment benefit programs, though estimated effects are small in magnitude. PMID:24939978

  9. Do generous unemployment benefit programs reduce suicide rates? A state fixed-effect analysis covering 1968-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-07-01

    The recent economic recession has led to increases in suicide, but whether US state unemployment insurance programs ameliorate this association has not been examined. Exploiting US state variations in the generosity of benefit programs between 1968 and 2008, we tested the hypothesis that more generous unemployment benefit programs reduce the impact of economic downturns on suicide. Using state linear fixed-effect models, we found a negative additive interaction between unemployment rates and benefits among the US working-age (20-64 years) population (β = -0.57, 95% confidence interval: -0.86, -0.27; P unemployment rates on suicide is offset by the presence of generous state unemployment benefit programs, though estimated effects are small in magnitude. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Long-Term Effects of a Screening Intervention for Depression on Suicide Rates among Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hirofumi; Sakashita, Tomoe

    2016-04-01

    To explore the long-term impact of a universal screening intervention for depression on suicide rates among older community-dwelling adults, with gender as an effect modifier. Controlled cohort study reporting long-term follow-up of previous research. Two sets of three municipalities in Japan were assigned as intervention and control regions and compared with the surrounding zone and prefecture. Intervention area residents aged 60 years and older (14,291) were invited to participate in a 2-year intervention (2005-2006). Four population-based dynamic cohorts of residents aged 65 years and older (1999-2010) were included as subjects, 6 years before and after the intervention started. At-risk residents within the intervention region (4,918) were invited for a two-step screening program; 2,552 participated in the program linked with care/support services for 2 years. An education program open to the public was held. Changes in suicide from a 6-year baseline to the 2-year intervention and a 4-year follow-up in the intervention region (11,700 adults ≥65 years) were compared with a matched control and two comparison areas using mixed-effects negative binomial regression models. Suicide rates among older adults exposed to screening were compared with those of the control region. Suicide rates in the intervention region decreased by 48%, which was significantly greater than in the three comparison areas. The program's benefits lasted longer for women than men. Screening exposure may be associated with decreased suicide risk over the 4-year follow-up. Universal screening may decrease suicide rates among older adults, with potential gender differences in treatment response. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between leukotriene-modifying agent prescriptions dispensed and rate of suicide deaths by county in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumock GT

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Glen T Schumock1, Robert D Gibbons2, Todd A Lee1,3,4,6, Min J Joo4, Robert J Valuck5, Leslie T Stayner61Center for Pharmacoeconomic Research, and Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Center for Health Statistics, and Departments of Medicine and Health Studies, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Center for Management of Complex Chronic Care, Hines VA Hospital, Hines, IL, USA; 4Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 6Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USABackground: The US Food and Drug Administration has issued warnings about a potential link between leukotriene receptor-modifying agents (LTMA and suicide. These warnings are based on case reports and there is controversy about the association. While spontaneous reporting of suicide-related events attributed to LTMA has risen dramatically, these data may be biased by the warnings. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between LTMA and suicide deaths using event data preceding the Food and Drug Administration warnings.Methods: We conducted a mixed-effects Poisson regression analysis of the association between LTMA prescriptions dispensed and suicide deaths at the county level. Counts of suicide deaths in each US county, stratified by race, age group, gender, and year were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics for the period January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2006. Counts of LTMA prescriptions dispensed in each US county were obtained from IMS Health Incorporated. The model estimated the overall suicide rate conditional on LTMA use, adjusted for age, gender, race, year

  12. An Extension and Test of Sutherland's Concept of Differential Social Organization: The Geographic Clustering of Japanese Suicide and Homicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, Robert D.; Shin, Dong-Joon; Richardson, Kelly K.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to explain the spatial patterning of violence, we expanded Sutherland's (1947) concept of differential social organization to include the level of deviance exhibited by neighboring areas. To test the value of this extension, the geographic clustering of Japanese suicide and homicide rates is assessed using 1985 and 1995 data for…

  13. Suicide Mortality, Suicidal Ideation and Psychological Problems in Dutch Anaesthesiologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, M.C.A.; Liem, A.L.; Dongen, van E.P.A.; Carels, I.C.; Egmond, van M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reveal an elevated suicide rate for anaesthesiologists. We sought to examine anaesthesiologist suicide mortality and its underlying explanatory factors. Two studies were conducted in order to establish the suicide mortality figures among Dutch anaesthesiologists and to investigate

  14. Relationship between suicide rate and economic growth and stock market in the People’s Republic of China: 2004–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Honglei; Xu, Lin; Shao, Yechang; Li, Liping; Wan, Chengsong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to estimate the features of suicide rate and its association with economic development and stock market during the past decade in the People’s Republic of China. Methods Official data were gathered and analyzed in the People’s Republic of China during the period 2004–2013. Nationwide suicide rate was stratified by four year age-groups, sex, urban/rural areas, and regions (East, Central, and West). Annual economic indexes including gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and rural and urban income per capita were all adjusted for inflation. Variation coefficient of market index (VCMI) was also included as an economic index to measure the fluctuation of the stock market. Negative binomial regression was performed to examine the time trend of region-level suicide rates and effects of sex, age, urban/rural area, region, and economic index on the suicide rates. Results Suicide rates of each age-group, sex, urban/rural area, and region were generally decreased from 2004 to 2013, while annual GDP per capita and rural and urban income per capita were generally increased by year. VCMI fluctuated largely, which peaked around 2009 and decreased after that time. Negative binomial regression showed that the decreased suicide rate in East and Central rural areas was the main cause of the decrease in suicide rate in the People’s Republic of China. Suicide rate in the People’s Republic of China for the study period increased with age and was higher in rural than in urban area, higher in males than in females, and the highest in the Central region. When GDP per capita increased by 2,787 RMB, the suicide rate decreased by 0.498 times. VCMI showed no significant relationship with suicide rate in the negative binomial regression. Conclusion Suicide rate decreased in 2004–2013; varied among different age-groups, sex, urban/rural areas, and regions; and was negatively associated with the economic growth in the People’s Republic of

  15. The Scottish viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, K.J.W.

    1977-01-01

    At Dounreay we have one of the major successes in Highland development in the post-war world. The plant there provided direct employment for 2100 and indirect employment for probably a further 800 or more. If the decision goes against a fast reactor programme the numbers employed will fall to around 500 - an economic disaster for an area in which alternative employment is scarce and by no means easy to establish. The development of a nuclear programme will create very significant employment in sectors of British industry which need such orders for their survival. Some important sectors of British industry will virtually disappear unless the nuclear programme moves ahead in the next few years. Without a major expansion of nuclear-based power in Britain we must reconcile ourselves to a no growth or painfully slow growth future. If the fast reactor programme is not begun in this decade we face annual rates of growth in U.K. GDP in the early decades of next century of 2% and below. To get unemployment back to a barely 'acceptable' level of 750,000 requires an average growth rate in excess of 3% p.a. If the U.K. decides to take the next major step in the development of nuclear power, the maximum advantage is to be gained by taking the decision sooner rather than later. Delay will lose the industrial advantages in the export field and face us with a temporary energy gap with very serious consequences. The very heavy expenditure involved in a major expansion of our nuclear programme should be spread over the period for which we enjoy the maximum benefit from North Sea oil, perhaps the only period during which the country would be able or willing to carry through such investment. (author)

  16. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  17. Duration of unemployment and suicide in Australia over the period 1985-2006: an ecological investigation by sex and age during rising versus declining national unemployment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Andrew; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between unemployment and suicide may be sensitive to demographic factors, national unemployment rates, and length of time without employment. This study investigated these factors in relation to suicide in Australia for the period 1985-2006, in an ecological study. The outcome variable was annual suicide rate by age group, sex and the eight states and territories over 22 years of observation (total observations=1760). The main predictor variable was the average duration of unemployment in the population, categorised into three time periods (4 weeks). Poisson regression models were used to investigate the relationship between duration of unemployment and suicide over the years 1985-2006 in a series of cross-sectional analyses. Interaction analyses indicated significant differences during periods of declining or increasing labour market opportunity and by age group. During periods of declining unemployment rates in the country, longer durations of unemployment were associated with higher male suicide rates. During periods of increasing unemployment in the country, longer unemployment duration was associated with lower male suicide rates. Effect modification was also apparent by age-group, with stronger associations between unemployment duration and male suicide evident in those aged 25-34 and 55-64, and weaker associations in those aged 15-24 and 44-54 years. Longer length of unemployment was not associated with an increase in female suicide rates. The labour market opportunities in Australia modified the effect of duration of unemployment on suicide, and the effect was more prominent in men and older age groups. This may reflect social norms and acceptability about unemployment, as well as life-stage influences associated with transitions into and out of the labour market.

  18. Investigation of the marked and long-standing spatial inhomogeneity of the Hungarian suicide rate: a spatial regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Lajos; Dome, Peter; Daroczi, Gergely; Gonda, Xenia; Rihmer, Zoltan

    2014-02-01

    In the last century Hungary had astonishingly high suicide rates characterized by marked regional within-country inequalities, a spatial pattern which has been quite stable over time. To explain the above phenomenon at the level of micro-regions (n=175) in the period between 2005 and 2011. Our dependent variable was the age and gender standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide while explanatory variables were factors which are supposed to influence suicide risk, such as measures of religious and political integration, travel time accessibility of psychiatric services, alcohol consumption, unemployment and disability pensionery. When applying the ordinary least squared regression model, the residuals were found to be spatially autocorrelated, which indicates the violation of the assumption on the independence of error terms and - accordingly - the necessity of application of a spatial autoregressive (SAR) model to handle this problem. According to our calculations the SARlag model was a better way (versus the SARerr model) of addressing the problem of spatial autocorrelation, furthermore its substantive meaning is more convenient. SMR was significantly associated with the "political integration" variable in a negative and with "lack of religious integration" and "disability pensionery" variables in a positive manner. Associations were not significant for the remaining explanatory variables. Several important psychiatric variables were not available at the level of micro-regions. We conducted our analysis on aggregate data. Our results may draw attention to the relevance and abiding validity of the classic Durkheimian suicide risk factors - such as lack of social integration - apropos of the spatial pattern of Hungarian suicides. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Suicide and suicidal behaviors in Mexico: Retrospective and current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2010-01-01

    To summarize the epidemiology of completed suicide and suicidal behavior in Mexico. National data registries on mortality from the year 1970 to 2007 and cross-sectional surveys were used to analyze suicide mortality and suicidal behavior. The suicide rate grew 275% from 1970 to 2007. Suicide has been increasing among Mexicans 15-29 years old since 1970. In adults aged 18-29 years the lifetime prevalence of ideation was 9.7%, and attempt 3.8%. About 6,601,210 Mexicans had suicidal thoughts, 593,600 attempted suicide and 99,731 used some sort of medical service as a direct consequence of the latter in the year prior to the survey. Suicide and suicide-related behaviors are significant public health problems and, as such, actions are urgently required to identify and treat persons with suicidal thoughts, assess suicidal risk in patients with psychiatric disorders and implement population interventions.

  20. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  1. Emile Durkheim and altruistic suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Altruistic suicides are marked by cultural approval and benefit the social order. They occur in social groups where there is a low value placed on the individual. The principle loci of altruistic suicide are primitive societies and the modern military. Subtypes of altruistic suicide (obligatory, optional, acute) are delineated and evaluated. Military suicide rates are seen as being inversely related to civilian suicide rates. Key limitations of Durkheim's model are discussed including his exaggerating the prevalence of obligatory suicide. Suggested points of departure for future research on altruistic suicide include comparative analyses of suicide in the modern military, and application of the concept of optional altruistic suicide to the impact of suicide acceptability on national suicide rates.

  2. Suicide rates and income in São Paulo and Brazil: a temporal and spatial epidemiologic analysis from 1996 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Daniel H; Brunoni, Andre R; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2012-08-28

    In a classical study, Durkheim noted a direct relation between suicide rates and wealth in the XIX century France. Since that time, several studies have verified this relationship. It is known that suicide rates are associated with income, although the direction of this association varies worldwide. Brazil presents a heterogeneous distribution of income and suicide across its territory; however, evaluation for an association between these variables has shown mixed results. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between suicide rates and income in Brazil, State of São Paulo (SP), and City of SP, considering geographical area and temporal trends. Data were extracted from the National and State official statistics departments. Three socioeconomic areas were considered according to income, from the wealthiest (area 1) to the poorest (area 3). We also considered three regions: country-wide (27 Brazilian States and 558 Brazilian micro-regions), state-wide (645 counties of SP State), and city-wide (96 districts of SP city). Relative risks (RR) were calculated among areas 1, 2, and 3 for all regions, in a cross-sectional approach. Then, we used Joinpoint analysis to explore the temporal trends of suicide rates and SaTScan to investigate geographical clusters of high/low suicide rates across the territory. Suicide rates in Brazil, the State of SP, and the city of SP were 6.2, 6.6, and 5.4 per 100,000, respectively. Taking suicide rates of the poorest area (3) as reference, the RR for the wealthiest area was 1.64, 0.88, and 1.65 for Brazil, State of SP, and city of SP, respectively (p for trend <0.05 for all analyses). Spatial cluster of high suicide rates were identified at Brazilian southern (RR = 2.37), state of SP western (RR = 1.32), and city of SP central (RR = 1.65) regions. A direct association between income and suicide were found for Brazil (OR = 2.59) and the city of SP (OR = 1.07), and an inverse association for the state of SP (OR = 0

  3. Impact of macro-level socio-economic factors on rising suicide rates in South Korea: panel-data analysis in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jihyung; Knapp, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The rapid increase in suicide rates in South Korea, particularly in the aftermath of the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s, compares with the declining suicide rates observed in most other OECD countries over the same period. This study aimed to examine an array of macro-level societal factors that might have contributed to the rising suicide trend in South Korea. We first investigated whether this trend was unique to South Korea, or ubiquitous across five Asian countries/areas that are geographically and culturally similar (South Korea, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan), using WHO mortality data and national statistics (1980-2009). Age-standardised suicide rates (per 100,000 population) were calculated for each gender and age group (15-24, 25-44, 45-64, and 65+) for each country. Both panel data and country-specific time-series analyses were employed to investigate the impact of economic change and social integration/regulation on suicide. Despite similarities in geography and culture, the rising trend of suicide rates was unique to South Korea. This atypical trend was most apparent for people aged 65 and over, which was in sharp contrast to the decreasing suicide trends observed in the other four Asian countries. The results of the panel data analyses generally pointed to a negative relationship between economic growth and suicide rates, particularly for working-aged people. The results of the time-series analyses further suggested that low levels of social integration, as indicated by rising divorce rates, may also have a role in rising suicide rates in South Korea, particularly for older people. Furthermore, the association between suicide rates and economic adversity (unemployment and economic downturn) was most salient among middle-aged men in South Korea. Compared to four other East Asian countries/areas (Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan), South Korea has uniquely experienced a rising trend of suicide rates over the past three decades

  4. Increased rates of body dissatisfaction, depressive symptoms, and suicide attempts in Jamaican teens with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt-Poulose, Komal; James, Kenneth; Reid, Marvin; Harrison, Abigail; Asnani, Monika

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to examine the association of body image and weight perceptions with risk of depression and suicidal attempts in Jamaican adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Adolescents with SCD and a national sample of Jamaican adolescents completed a questionnaire examining body image, weight perceptions, and risk for depression. Perceived and desired body images were similar for both groups. Adolescents with SCD had higher levels of "negative body satisfaction" (43.9% vs. 33.9%; P = 0.03), risk for depression (28.7% vs. 19.3%; P = 0.01), and attempted suicide (12.4% vs. 6.6%; P = 0.02) than national sample. Risk of depression was higher in those who perceived themselves to be over or underweight, and lower in those with more friends and attending school. Females and those with body image dissatisfaction were more likely to have attempted suicide. Within the SCD adolescents, girls were at greater odds of having mental health issues. Jamaican adolescents with SCD have significantly higher rates of negative body satisfaction and depressive symptoms, and nearly twice the rate of attempted suicide, compared with their healthy peers. This underscores the need for healthcare professionals to better explore and discuss healthy weight, body satisfaction, and coping with the demands and uncertainties of having a chronic illness with Jamaican adolescents with SCD, even while promoting body acceptance and good self-esteem. Screening for mood disorders is strongly recommended and gender-specific interventions should be developed. Healthcare professionals need to encourage positive social interactions that improve adolescents' mental health. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Suicide and Suicidal Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with an unsupportive family or in a hostile environment Attempted suicide before Children and teenagers Suicide in children and teenagers often ... 10, 2015. Kennebeck S, et al. Suicidal behavior in children and ... murder-suicide. American Journal of Men's Health. In press. Accessed April 10, ...

  6. Suicidality in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A.

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and completed suicide appear common in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Available evidence indicates that approximately 80% of individuals with BDD experience lifetime suicidal ideation and 24% to 28% have attempted suicide. Although data on completed suicide are limited and preliminary, the suicide rate appears markedly high. These findings underscore the importance of recognizing and effectively treating BDD. However, BDD is underrecognized in clinical settings even though it is relatively common and often presents to psychiatrists and other mental health practitioners, dermatologists, surgeons, and other physicians. This article reviews available evidence on suicidality in BDD and discusses how to recognize and diagnose this often secret disorder. Efficacious treatments for BDD, ie, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy, are also discussed. Although data are limited, it appears that SRIs often diminish suicidality in these patients. Additional research is greatly needed on suicidality rates, characteristics, correlates, risk factors, treatment, and prevention of suicidality in BDD. PMID:18449358

  7. Weaker gun state laws are associated with higher rates of suicide secondary to firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alban, Rodrigo F; Nuño, Miriam; Ko, Ara; Barmparas, Galinos; Lewis, Azaria V; Margulies, Daniel R

    2018-01-01

    Firearm-related suicides comprise over two-thirds of gun-related violence in the United States, and gun laws and policies remain under scrutiny, with many advocating for revision of the regulatory map for lawful gun ownership, aiming at restricting access and distribution of these weapons. However, the quantitative relationship between how strict gun laws are and the incidence of firearm violence with their associated mortality is largely unknown. We therefore, sought to explore the impact of firearm law patterns among states on the incidence and outcomes of firearm-related suicide attempts, utilizing established objective criteria. The National Inpatient Sample for the years 1998-2011 was queried for all firearm-related suicides. Discharge facilities were stratified into five categories (A, B, C, D, and F, with A representing states with the most strict and F representing states with the least strict laws) based on the Brady Campaign to prevent Gun Violence that assigns scorecards for every state. The primary outcomes were suicide attempts and in-hospital mortality per 100,000 populations by Brady state grade. During the 14-year study period, 34,994 subjects met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 42.0 years and 80.1% were male. A handgun was utilized by 51.8% of patients. The overall mortality was 33.3%. Overall, 22.0% had reported psychoses and 19.3% reported depression. After adjusting for confounding factors and using group A as reference, there were higher adjusted odds for suicide attempts for patients admitted in group C, D, and F category states (1.73, 2.09, and 1.65, respectively, all P gun laws, and these injuries tend to be associated with a higher mortality. Efforts aimed at nationwide standardization of firearm state laws are warranted, particularly for young adults and suicide-prone populations. III. Trauma Outcomes study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Controlling firearms use in Australia: has the 1996 gun law reform produced the decrease in rates of suicide with this method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieve, Helen; Barnes, Michael; De Leo, Diego

    2009-04-01

    Observed reductions in firearm suicides in Australia have been linked to the 1997 national firearms agreement (NFA) introduced following the 1996 Port Arthur massacre. The NFA placed strong access restrictions on firearms. To assess the impact of legislative restrictions on the incidence of firearm suicide in Queensland and explore alternative or contributory factors behind observed declines. The Queensland suicide register (QSR) provided detailed information on all male suicides in Queensland (1990-2004), with additional data for Australia (1968-2004) accessed from other official sources. Trends in suicide rates pre/post NFA, and in method selection, were assessed using negative binomial regressions. Changing method selection patterns were examined using a cohort analysis of 5 years of age classes for Australian males. The observed reduction in firearms suicides was initiated prior to the 1997 introduction of the NFA in Queensland and Australia, with a clear decline observed in Australian figures from 1988. No significant difference was found in the rate pre/post the introduction of the NFA in Queensland; however, a significant difference was found for Australian data, the quality of which is noticeably less satisfactory. A marked age-difference in method choice was observed through a cohort analysis demonstrating both time and age influences. Within sequential birth cohorts, rates of firearms suicides decreased in younger males but increased in hanging suicides; this trend was far less marked in older males. The implemented restrictions may not be responsible for the observed reductions in firearms suicide. Data suggest that a change in social and cultural attitudes could have contributed to the shift in method preference.

  9. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, YY; Yip, PSF; Lee, WJ; Hagihara, A; Gunnell, D; Chang, S

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Every year, almost one million people die by suicide globally; suicide is the fifth leading cause of death in women aged 15–49 and the sixth leading cause of death in men in the same age group. Most people who take their own life are mentally ill. For others, stressful events (the loss of a partner, for example) have made life seem worthless or too painful to bear. Strategies to reduce suicide rates include better treatment of mental illness and programs that help ...

  10. The Scottish Ten Project: Collaborative Heritage Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.; Rawlinson, A.; Mitchell, D. S.; McGregor, H. C.; Parsons, R.

    2013-07-01

    The Scottish Ten project is a five-year initiative of the Scottish Government to digitally document significant heritage sites around the world for future generations both in Scotland and overseas. The project is fundamentally grounded in collaboration and is delivered by Historic Scotland and the Digital Design Studio at Glasgow School of Art, in partnership with CyArk. In addition, the Scottish Ten team collaborate with local partners at each site to deliver products which will be of use to site managers in the ongoing conservation, management and interpretation of their sites. The project utilises diverse 3D data capture methods, as appropriate for each site, but the foundation of the documentation lies in terrestrial laser scanning. This paper explores the collaborations, methodologies and gives brief case studies from one Scottish and one international site.

  11. Suicide rate in relation to the Human Development Index and other health related factors: A global ecological study from 91 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Armanmehr, Vajihe; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Somayeh

    2017-06-01

    There has been no worldwide ecological study on suicide as a global major public health problem. This study aimed to identify the variations in suicide specific rates using the Human Development Index (HDI) and some health related variables among countries around the world. In this ecological study, we obtained the data from the World Bank Report 2013. The analysis was restricted to 91 countries for which both the epidemiologic data from the suicide rates and HDI were available. Overall, the global prevalence of suicide rate was 10.5 (95% confidence intervals: 8.8, 12.2) per 100,000 individuals, which significantly varied according to gender (16.3 in males vs. 4.6 in females, psuicide rate varies greatly between countries with different development levels. Our findings also suggest that male gender and HDI components are associated with an increased risk of suicide behaviors. Hence, detecting population subgroups with a high suicide risk and reducing the inequality of socioeconomic determinants are necessary to prevent this disorder around the world. Copyright © 2017 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Suicidal behavior and ethnicity of young females in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: rates and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, D.D.; Eikelenboom, M.; Smit, J.H.; van de Looij-Jansen, P.; Saharso, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Although Western Europe is becoming increasingly multicultural, ethnic minorities are scarcely included in studies of suicidology. We investigated the prevalence of non-fatal suicidal behavior and examined risk factors in non-western female immigrant adolescents compared to majority

  13. Associations between Physical Activity and Reduced Rates of Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations among types of physical activity and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Participants: Participants included 43,499 college students aged 18 to 25 who completed the 2005 National College Health Assessment conducted by the American College Health Association. Methods:…

  14. Music education and experience in Scottish prisons

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kirstin

    2012-01-01

    This research presents the first empirical study of music provision in Scottish prisons and explores the potential benefits of music engagement for prisoners, with a focus on young offenders’ experience. The scope of the study begins with an investigation into music provision in prisons throughout Scotland by means of a small-scale survey. This survey showed that despite a lack of documentation, music is currently present in Scottish prisons and has been previously, albeit inte...

  15. The suicidal desire of Tolstoy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Pridmore, William

    2011-06-01

    To explore whether a healthy, successful individual may experience suicidal desires. Examination of "A Confession" by Leo Tolstoy. Confirmation that a physically and mentally healthy, well resourced individual may experience suicidal desires. To reduce suicide rates, a broader understanding of the factors which contribute to suicidal desires is required.

  16. Suicide in Recent Onset Psychosis Revisited : Significant Reduction of Suicide Rate over the Last Two Decades - A Replication Study of a Dutch Incidence Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castelein, Stynke; Liemburg, Edith J.; de Lange, Jill S.; van Es, Frank D.; Visser, Ellen; Aleman, Andre; Bruggeman, Richard; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare the suicide risk over the past decade following recent onset psychosis to findings from the eighties and nineties in the same catchment area and to identify predictors of suicide in the context of the Psychosis Recent Onset Groningen-Survey (PROGR-S). A medical file search

  17. Incidence rates of suicidal behaviors and treated depression in patients with and without psoriatic arthritis using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Katrina Wilcox; Li, Lin; Peng, Michael; Shah, Kamal; Paris, Maria; Jick, Susan

    2016-09-01

    To estimate rates of suicidal behaviors and treated depression in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in comparison to non-PsA patients. Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we conducted a cohort study of patients with PsA compared to non-PsA patients. Patients with codes for suicidal behaviors (ideation, attempts, and suicide) and treated depression (diagnosis plus anti-depressant prescription) recorded during follow-up were identified as cases. We estimated incidence rates (IRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each outcome and stratified results in the PsA cohort by receipt of systemic PsA drugs. The rates of suicide ideation, attempt, and suicide were similar for PsA and non-PsA patients [IRR = 0.99 (95%CI: 0.67-1.47), IRR = 1.07 (95%CI: 0.86-1.34), and 0.34 (95%CI: 0.05-2.48), respectively] and rates of suicidal behaviors were slightly higher among PsA patients who received PsA drugs compared to those who did not. PsA patients had slightly higher rate of treated depression compared to non-PsA patients [IRR = 1.38 (95%CI: 1.27-1.49)] and were significantly higher in PsA patients who received drugs [IRR = 1.59 (95%CI: 1.35-1.86)]. Rate of depression was higher in patients with PsA compared to non-PsA patients. The rate of suicidal behaviors was similar between the two cohorts.

  18. Mysore study: A study of suicide notes

    OpenAIRE

    Namratha, P.; Kishor, M.; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Raman, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. Objective: The aim...

  19. Toward suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V A

    1999-10-01

    Suicide is an important mode of death. There are many psychiatrically ill patients in therapy running different degree of suicide risk. The risk of death by suicide is with almost all psychiatric illnesses, but it is found more with depressive disease, schizophrenia and personality disorder. Many studies have reported higher incidences of suicide attempts and suicide among alcoholics, which is often precipitated by family crises. Drug problems, low threshold for tolerance of day to day frustration, unemployement and poor parenting are major causes for youth suicide.There is biological evidence of suicidal behaviour. Fall in the level of serotonin and 5-HIAA in the CSF and in hind brain is found in subjects dying from suicide. Researchers have found decreased melatonin level in depression and suicide attempters. Long term therapy with antidepressants (Tricyclics), mood stabilizers (lithium and valproate) and new SSRIs prevent relapses and lessen suicide. It was concluded that general hospital doctors are in position of reducing suicide rates. Education of physician in detection of depression and suicide prevention will result in decline in number of suicides. The important measures include limiting the ability of methods of self-harm, antidepressants, paracetamol and insecticides.

  20. Schizophrenia and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Cetin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is one of the major causes of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. Follow-up studies have estimated that 4-5% of these patients die by suicide. Reducing the high rates of suicide in schizophrenia is possible with understanding of predictive risk factors. Various studies have identified risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia patients. Clinical risk factors include previous suicide attempts, comorbid depression, feelings of hopelessness, concept of insight and substance abuse. Biopsychosocial factors, such as a high intelligence quotient and high level of premorbid functioning, have also been associated with an increased risk of suicide in patients with schizophrenia. The risk of suicide is considered to be highest in the early course of illness. Antipsychotic drugs, in particular clozapine and antidepressants may be helpful in reducing the risk of suicide in schizophrenia.

  1. Child and adolescent mental health problems in Tyva Republic, Russia, as possible risk factors for a high suicide rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R; Semenova, Nadezhda B

    2016-04-01

    High rates of child mental health problems in the Russian Federation have recently been documented; the rates of youth suicide are among the highest in the world. Across the Russian regions, Republic of Tyva has one of the highest rates of child and adolescent suicide and the lowest life expectancy at birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associations of mental health problems in Native Tyvinian children and adolescents using internationally recognised measures and diagnoses. A two-stage, two-phase design involved selection of schools in five rural settlements in Western Tyva and two schools in the capital city followed by selection of Native Tyvinian children in grades 3-4 (ages 9-10) and 6-7 (ages 14-15). In the first phase, a screening measure of psychopathology, the Rutter Teacher Questionnaire, was obtained on 1048 children with a 97% participation rate. In the second phase, more detailed psychiatric assessments were carried out for subgroups of screen-positive and screen-negative children. The prevalence of mental health problems was about 25%, ranging from 40% in adolescent boys from rural areas to 9% in adolescent girls from the city. The patterning of disorders and risk factors were similar to those in other countries, rural areas were associated with an increased risk of psychopathology. The findings indicate that there is an urgent need for interventions to reduce risk in this population and provide effective help for Tyvinian children and adolescents with mental health problems.

  2. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S F; Lee, Won Jin; Hagihara, Akihito; Gunnell, David

    2014-04-01

    Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i) time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995-2011 and (ii) whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries. We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996-2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%), but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997-1999), followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998-2001), Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999-2001), Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999-2003), and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006-2008). No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females), but not in Japan (for males), the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group in Taiwan and Hong

  3. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Sen Chang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995-2011 and (ii whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries.We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996-2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%, but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997-1999, followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998-2001, Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999-2001, Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999-2003, and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006-2008. No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females, but not in Japan (for males, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group

  4. Relationship between suicide rate and economic growth and stock market in the People’s Republic of China: 2004–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin HL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Honglei Yin,1,2 Lin Xu,3 Yechang Shao,2,4 Liping Li,5 Chengsong Wan2 1Department of Psychiatry, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Finance, School of Economics and Commerce, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 4Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 5Injury Prevention Research Center, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, People’s Republic of China Objectives: The objective of this study was to estimate the features of suicide rate and its association with economic development and stock market during the past decade in the People’s Republic of China.Methods: Official data were gathered and analyzed in the People’s Republic of China during the period 2004–2013. Nationwide suicide rate was stratified by four year age-groups, sex, urban/rural areas, and regions (East, Central, and West. Annual economic indexes including gross domestic product (GDP per capita and rural and urban income per capita were all adjusted for inflation. Variation coefficient of market index (VCMI was also included as an economic index to measure the fluctuation of the stock market. Negative binomial regression was performed to examine the time trend of region-level suicide rates and effects of sex, age, urban/rural area, region, and economic index on the suicide rates.Results: Suicide rates of each age-group, sex, urban/rural area, and region were generally decreased from 2004 to 2013, while annual GDP per capita and rural and urban income per capita were generally increased by year. VCMI fluctuated largely, which peaked around 2009 and decreased after that time. Negative binomial regression showed that the decreased suicide rate in East and Central rural areas was the main cause of the

  5. Suicide and suicidal behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more likely to choose violent methods, such as shooting themselves. As a result, suicide attempts by men ... wanting to go out Suddenly having trouble in school or work Talking about death or suicide, or ...

  6. Suicide and Suicidal Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a minister, spiritual leader or someone in your faith community Call a suicide hotline Make an appointment with your doctor, other health care provider or mental health provider Suicidal thinking ...

  7. A socio-hydrological comparative assessment explaining regional variances in suicide rate amongst farmers in Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. den Besten

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Maharashtra is one of the states in India that has witnessed one of the highest rates of farmer suicides as proportion of total number of suicides. Most of the farmer suicides in Maharashtra are from semi-arid divisions such as Marathwada where cotton has been historically grown. Other dominant crops produced include cereals, pulses, oilseeds and sugarcane. Cotton (fibers, oilseeds and sugarcane providing highest value addition per unit cultivated area and cereals and pulses the least. Hence it is not surprising that smallholders take risks growing high value crops without “visualising” the risks it entails such as those corresponding to price and weather shocks.We deploy recently developed smallholder socio-hydrology modelling framework to understand the underlying dynamics of the crisis. It couples the dynamics of six main variables that are most relevant at the scale of a smallholder: water storage capacity (root zone storage and other ways of water storage, capital, livestock, soil fertility and fodder biomass. The hydroclimatic variability is accounted for at sub-annual scale and influences the socio-hydrology at annual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms (e.g., adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers, selling livestocks of smallholders when they face adverse conditions, such as high variability in rainfall or in agricultural prices. The model is applied to two adjoining divisions of Maharashtra: Marathwada and Desh. The former is the division with relatively higher farmer suicide rates than the latter. Diverse spatial data sets of precipitation, potential evaporation, soil, agricultural census based farm inputs, cropping pattern and prices are used to understand the dynamics of small farmers in these divisions, and to attribute farmer distress rates to soil types, hydroclimatic variability and crops grown.Comparative socio-hydrologic assessment across the two regions confirms existing narratives: low

  8. A socio-hydrological comparative assessment explaining regional variances in suicide rate amongst farmers in Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Besten, Nadja I.; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-05-01

    Maharashtra is one of the states in India that has witnessed one of the highest rates of farmer suicides as proportion of total number of suicides. Most of the farmer suicides in Maharashtra are from semi-arid divisions such as Marathwada where cotton has been historically grown. Other dominant crops produced include cereals, pulses, oilseeds and sugarcane. Cotton (fibers), oilseeds and sugarcane providing highest value addition per unit cultivated area and cereals and pulses the least. Hence it is not surprising that smallholders take risks growing high value crops without "visualising" the risks it entails such as those corresponding to price and weather shocks.We deploy recently developed smallholder socio-hydrology modelling framework to understand the underlying dynamics of the crisis. It couples the dynamics of six main variables that are most relevant at the scale of a smallholder: water storage capacity (root zone storage and other ways of water storage), capital, livestock, soil fertility and fodder biomass. The hydroclimatic variability is accounted for at sub-annual scale and influences the socio-hydrology at annual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms (e.g., adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers, selling livestocks) of smallholders when they face adverse conditions, such as high variability in rainfall or in agricultural prices. The model is applied to two adjoining divisions of Maharashtra: Marathwada and Desh. The former is the division with relatively higher farmer suicide rates than the latter. Diverse spatial data sets of precipitation, potential evaporation, soil, agricultural census based farm inputs, cropping pattern and prices are used to understand the dynamics of small farmers in these divisions, and to attribute farmer distress rates to soil types, hydroclimatic variability and crops grown.Comparative socio-hydrologic assessment across the two regions confirms existing narratives: low (soil) water storage

  9. Multiple sclerosis and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Pavisian, Bennis

    2017-06-01

    Mortality rates are elevated in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) relative to the general population. There is, however, some uncertainty whether suicide contributes to this. Epidemiological data suggest that the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for suicide in MS is approximately twice that of the general population with younger males in the first few years following diagnosis most at risk. Rates of suicidal intent, a potential harbinger of more self-destructive behavior, are also elevated, but the frequency with which intent is followed by suicide is not known. Depression, severity of depression, social isolation, and alcohol abuse are associated with thoughts of suicide. The variables linked with suicide and suicidal intent are therefore well defined and should be readily available from routine clinical inquiry. While vigilance on the part of clinicians is required, particularly in the context of high-risk patients, it is also recognized that prevention is dependent on full disclosure of intent.

  10. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hern?ndez-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552

    OpenAIRE

    Fern?ndez-Ni?o, Juli?n Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled “Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012” [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept “prevalence” is not correctly used.[...

  11. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled “Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012” [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept “prevalence” is not correctly used.[...

  12. Suicide: Incidence or Prevalence? Comments on Hernández-Alvarado et al. Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 552.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    I recently reviewed the paper published in this journal by Hernández-Alvarado et al., titled "Increase in Suicide Rates by Hanging in the Population of Tabasco, Mexico between 2003 and 2012" [1], and I noticed that the epidemiological concept "prevalence" is not correctly used.[...].

  13. Consistency in suicide rates in twenty-two developed countries by gender over time 1874--78, 1974--76, and 1998--2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lars; Pritchard, Colin

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the relative levels of suicide rates among the 22 developed countries were consistent over time 1974--76 v 2000--02 and to compare Durkheim's 11 European countries 1874--78 with their modern counterparts, including the 1984--86 period associated with the European recession. Data from the WHO of All Age "General Population Suicide Rates" (GPSR) by sex were calculated to obtain 3-year averages for the end-points. To determine the consistency of the levels of suicides a series of Spearman Rank Order correlations are calculated for each period. Highly significant correlations are found for men, women and total suicide rates between 1974--76 and 1998--2000, and for the Durkheim countries for the three review periods, indicating despite within-national variations over time, the relative rates between countries was consistent. This consistency suggests a certain national "suicide tradition" based on a complex interaction between cultural, sociological, recording/administrative, and genetic factors.

  14. Childhood Maltreatment, Self-Esteem, and Suicidal Ideation in a Low-Ses Emerging Adult Sample: The Moderating Role of Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprey, Erinn Bernstein; Oshri, Assaf; Liu, Sihong

    2018-02-21

    Objectives Childhood maltreatment is associated with risk for suicidal ideation later in life, yet more research is needed on the indirect effects and bioregulatory protective factors in this association. The present study aimed to investigate the indirect influence of childhood maltreatment on suicidal ideation in emerging adulthood via level of self-esteem, and examine the moderating role of heart rate variability (HRV; a proxy for emotion regulation) in this indirect association. Methods The study included a sample of 167 non-metropolitan emerging adults (M age  = 21.17, 55.8% female) of low-socioeconomic status (low-SES). HRV data was obained using an electrocardigram, whereas childhood maltreatment, suicidal ideation, and self-esteem data were obtained via self-report. Results Childhood maltreatment was indirectly associated with suicidal ideation via reduced self-esteem. HRV buffered this indirect association. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment poses a risk for the development of suicidal ideation. Interventions that bolster self-esteem and emotion regulation may reduce suicide risk for emerging adults with a history of childhood maltreatment.

  15. The Scottish Independence Referendum and After

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keating

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish independence referendum on 18 September 2014 produced an apparently decisive result, with 45 per cent for independence and 55 per cent against. Yet, it has not settled the constitutional issue. There was a huge public engagement in the campaign, which has left a legacy for Scottish and UK politics. Scotland has been reinforced as a political community. The losing Yes side has emerged in better shape and more optimistic, while the winners have struggled to formulate the better autonomy package they had promised. Public opinion continues to favour maximum devolution short of independence. Scotland is a case of the kind of spatial rescaling that is taking place more generally across Europe, as new forms of statehood and of sovereignty evolve. Scottish public opinion favours more self-government but no longer recognizes the traditional nation-state model presented in the referendum question.

  16. Firearms and suicide in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, C H; Lewin, T

    1990-12-01

    Australia has a moderate overall suicide rate but an extremely high male firearm suicide rate. Using data covering the years 1961-1985, a series of multiple regression based analyses were performed. During this period, overall suicide rates fell but firearm suicides remained constant with a resulting increase in the proportion of suicides by firearms. There has been an increase in suicides in the young offset by a decline in the elderly. Young males showed the greatest proportional increase in the use of firearms. A limited regional analysis supported the hypothesis that lack of legislative restrictions on long guns in Queensland with a greater household prevalence of such weapons and different cultural attitudes were associated with higher overall and firearm suicide rates. Such findings are consistent with reports from North America, although trends in Australia are more modest. Reducing the availability and cultural acceptance of firearms is likely to decrease suicide rates, especially in males.

  17. Suicidal Behavior in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Aslan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The size of the elderly population is expected to increase dramatically in the next decades worldwide, also in Turkey. In accordance with these demographic changes, psychiatric disorders in late life, including suicide becomes much important. Elderly suicide is a very serious public health problem. Suicide rates in both males and females generally increase with age. However, the pattern is different in every nation. Suicidal behaviour in old age exists as a spectrum ranging from death wishes to completed suicide. Risk factors for suicide in old age are male sex, lower socioeconomic status, social isolation, having personality traits like hopelessness and dependency on others etc., the presence of psychiatric and physical disorders and previous suicidal behaviour. The most common cause for elderly suicide, as for all suicides, is untreated depression. Thus, elderly depression needs to be recognized and treated. The treatment of depressive disorder and other psychiatric diorders in late life, counselling in crisis situations and prevention of social isolation in elderly people are the major points for the prevention of suicide in old age. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between elderly and suicidal behavior. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 294-309

  18. Suicide inside: a systematic review of inpatient suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Len; Banda, Tumi; Nijman, Henk

    2010-05-01

    The literature on inpatient suicides was systematically reviewed. English, German, and Dutch articles were identified by means of the electronic databases PsycInfo, Cochrane, Medline, EMBASE psychiatry, CINAHL, and British Nursing Index. In total, 98 articles covering almost 15,000 suicides were reviewed and analyzed. Rates and demographic features connected to suicides varied substantially between articles, suggesting distinct subgroups of patients committing suicide (e.g., depressed vs. schizophrenic patients) with their own suicide determinants and patterns. Early in the admission is clearly a high-risk period for suicide, but risk declines more slowly for patients with schizophrenia. Suicide rates were found to be associated with admission numbers, and as expected, previous suicidal behavior was found to be a robust predictor of future suicide. The methods used for suicide are linked to availability of means. Timing and location of suicides seem to be associated with absence of support, supervision, and the presence of family conflict. Although there is a strong notion that suicides cluster in time, clear statistical evidence for this is lacking. For prevention of suicides, staff need to engage with patients' family problems, and reduce absconding without locking the door. Future research should take into account the heterogeneous subgroups of patients who commit suicide, with case-control studies addressing these separately.

  19. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior among Transgender Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virupaksha, H G; Muralidhar, Daliboyina; Ramakrishna, Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Suicide rate and suicidal tendencies among transgender persons are considerably high compared to general population. Hence, this review is an attempt to understand the issues around the suicide and suicidal behavior among transgender persons. The literature search conducted using three sources, i.e., electronic databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, PsycInfo), manual search (library catalog), and gray literature (consultation with experts). The suicide attempt rate among transgender persons ranges from 32% to 50% across the countries. Gender-based victimization, discrimination, bullying, violence, being rejected by the family, friends, and community; harassment by intimate partner, family members, police and public; discrimination and ill treatment at health-care system are the major risk factors that influence the suicidal behavior among transgender persons. In spite of facing a number of hardships in their day-to-day life, the transgender community holds a number of resiliency factors. Further, this community needs to be supported to strengthen their resiliency factors and draw culturally sensitive and transgender-inclusive suicide prevention strategies and increase protective factors to tackle this high rate of suicidality.

  20. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment.

  1. Jan Culik on the Scottish independence referendum

    OpenAIRE

    Culik, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A live interview with Jan Culik on the results and the political circumstances of the referendum on Scottish independence, broadcast from the BBC Pacific Quay studios. The interview was transmitted on Friday 19th September, 2014, by the nationwide Czech public service Radio (Radiozurnal) from 10 to 11 am.

  2. Suicidal Behavior in Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedriye Oncu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Suicide associated mortality rates are notable for eating disorders. Crude mortality rate associated with suicide, varies between 0% and 5.3% in patients with eating disorders. Prominent risk factors for suicidal behavior among these patients are subtype of the eating disorders, comorbid psychiatric diagnosis (e.g. depression, alcohol and substance abuse, personality disorders, ultrarapid drug metabolism, history of childhood abuse and particular family dynamics. In this article, suicidal behavior and associated factors in eating disorders are briefly reviewed.

  3. Interactive Voice Response and Text-based Self-report Versions of the Electronic Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale Are Equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, Chad; Mundt, James C; Greist, John H; Paty, Jean; Tiplady, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Our study objective was to compare the equivalence of a new version of the electronic Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale that was administered on a tablet device with the existing interactive voice response version in order to support the prospective monitoring of suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical trials and clinical practice. Design: This was a randomized, crossover-equivalence study with no treatment intervention. Setting: The study setting was a psychiatric hospital. Participants: Fifty-eight recently admitted psychiatric inpatients and 28 employees of the hospital site were included in the study. Mean age was 41.0 years (standard deviation=12.5), and 59 percent were female. Measurements: Participants completed both tablet and interactive voice response versions in randomized order, with a 25-minute break between administrations. Finally, participants completed a second administration of the first administered version. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Kappa coefficients were used to evaluate agreement across modalities. Results: High levels of agreement were observed for most severe lifetime (ICC=0.88) and recent (ICC=0.79) ideation, occurrence of actual lifetime (Kappa=0.81) and recent (Kappa=0.73) suicide attempts, and occurrence of lifetime interrupted attempts (Kappa=0.78), aborted attempts (Kappa=0.54), and preparatory behaviors (Kappa=0.77), as well as non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (Kappa=0.73). Scores from both modes significantly differentiated psychiatric patients and hospital employee controls, and the test-retest reliability of both modes was excellent. Conclusions: These results support the validity and reliability of the new tablet-based electronic Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. This will allow the inclusion of the electronic Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale in a wider range of clinical studies, particularly where a tablet is also being used to collect other study data.

  4. Inpatient treatment of major depression in Austria between 1989 and 2009: impact of downsizing of psychiatric hospitals on admissions, suicide rates and outpatient psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyssoki, B; Willeit, M; Blüml, V; Höfer, P; Erfurth, A; Psota, G; Lesch, O M; Kapusta, N D

    2011-09-01

    During the last 20 years Austrian psychiatric services underwent fundamental changes, as a focus was set on downsizing psychiatric hospitals. Little is known about how restructuring of mental health services affected patients with major depression and suicide rates. Monthly hospital discharges from all hospitals in Austria with the diagnosis of unipolar major depression as primary reason for inpatient treatment were obtained for the time period between 1989 and 2008. These data were correlated with relevant parameters from the general health system, such as number of hospital beds, suicide rate, density of psychotherapists and sales of antidepressants. While the number of psychiatric beds was reduced by almost 30%, the total annual numbers of inpatient treatment episodes for depression increased by 360%. This increase was stronger for men than for women. Further on this development was accompanied by a decrease in the suicide rate and an improvement in the availability of professional outpatient mental health service providers. Only aggregated patient data and no single case histories were available for this study. The validity of the correct diagnosis of unipolar major depression must be doubted, as most likely not all patients were seen by a clinical expert. Our data show that although inpatient treatment for unipolar major depression dramatically increased, reduction of psychiatric beds did not lead to an increase of suicide rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Suicide, a social fact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudelot, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Treating suicide as a social fact means disregarding its individual and dramatic dimensions. Sociologists do not reason on the basis of specific cases but by studying the variations, in space and time, of suicide rates. Their contribution relates essentially to a renewed perspective on society: suicide is in fact a very accurate indicator of the intensity and quality of the bonds which unite or isolate individuals in a society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Suicide notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, I; Farmer, R; Catalan, J

    1993-07-01

    Detailed case reports of incidents of suicide and attempted suicide on the London Underground railway system between 1985 and 1989 were examined for the presence of suicide notes. The incidence of note-leaving was 15%. Notes provided little insight into the causes of suicide as subjectively perceived, or strategies for suicide prevention.

  7. How the Timing of a Patient’s Self-ratings of Suicidality and the Relationship to the Recipient Affect Patient Responses: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study explores to what extent, if any, a subject’s reporting varies depending upon whom the subject believes will view the data and the relationship the subject has with the reviewer. It also explores the variance in reporting if several days pass between the timeframe in question and the time of data collection. Method: The subject answered three suicidality-related scales (the Sheehan-Suicidality Tracking Scale, the Suicidality Modifiers, and the Alphs Dichotomous Impulsivity and Hopelessness Two Questions) for 24 distinct timeframes. The scales were rated three different ways for each timeframe. The first was for only the patient. Immediately afterward, the scales were answered for the subject’s therapist. A few days later, the scales were again answered by the patient, but only for the patient. The three different interviews for the same timeframe were compared to investigate any deviations. Results: This case study found clinically relevant deviations between the three ratings completed for the same timeframe. Conclusion: This case study illustrates that a patient’s reporting of his or her symptoms of suicidality using a patient-rated scale can vary depending upon the context, distance from timeframe in question, and the patient’s relationship with the reviewer of the data. PMID:25520898

  8. Psychometric Adaptation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale as a Self-Rated Suicide Risk Screening Instrument Among Nigerian University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloba, Olutayo; Awe, Oluwatosin; Adelola, Aderopo; Olatunji, Philemon; Aloba, Tolulope

    2018-03-01

    Globally, suicide is the most important cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. The factor that correlates most significantly with suicide is hopelessness. The aim is to explore the psychometric adaptation of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) as a suicide risk evaluation tool among Nigerian university students. A total of 554 Nigerian students completed the BHS and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Suicide risk level among them was determined by interviewing them with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Suicidality module. Cronbach's alpha for the 16-item BHS was 0.87. It exhibited satisfactory concurrent validity with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Suicidality module and the subscales of the DASS among the students. The 2-factor model of the BHS-16 exhibited satisfactory indices of fitness (goodness of fit index = 0.930; parsimonious goodness of fit index = 0.601; comparative fit index = 0.934; incremental fit index = 0.936; Tucker-Lewis index = 0.910; root mean square error of approximation = 0.059; χ 2 / df = 1.9). Receiver operating characteristics curve indicated that the best cutoff score for those categorized as high suicide risk was 7 (sensitivity 0.700, specificity 0.908, AUC = 0.897). The BHS has satisfactory psychometric properties as a suicide risk screening tool among Nigerian university students.

  9. Suicide in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a complex term. Suicide attempts are common in women, but completed suicide rates are higher in men. Several demographic factors, stressful life events, previous suicide attempts, childhood abuse, physical or psychiatric disorders are risk factors for suicide. Suicide rates in a variety of mental disorders is more than the normal population. Data on rates and risk factors of suicide in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders are limited. Present data are often associated with patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. Lifetime suicidal ideation rates in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder is within a range of 36-63%. Any comorbid psychiatric diagnosis is an important risk factor for suicide in this disorder. This article aims to review the relationship between suicide and obsessive compulsive and related disorders [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 402-413

  10. Effects of perceived job insecurity on depression, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health in Korea: a population-based panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Seok; Hong, Yun-Chul; Yook, Ji-Hoo; Kang, Mo-Yeol

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effects of job security on new development of depressive episode, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health. Data from the Korea Welfare Panel Study from 2012 to 2015 were analysed. A total of 2912 waged workers self-assessed their depressive episode, suicide ideation, and health annually by answering the questionnaire. Participants were divided into three groups according to the level of job security: high, intermediate and low. To evaluate the influence of job security, we performed survival analysis after stratification by gender with adjustment for covariates. The result was further stratified by whether the respondent was the head of household. After adjusting for covariates, men in low job security group showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for depression (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60), suicide ideation (HR 3.25, 95% CI 1.72-6.16), and decline in self-rated health (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.16-2.59). Women showed significantly higher HR of depression in the intermediate (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.87) and low (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.12-1.99) job security group. Male head of household with low job security showed significantly higher HR of depression, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health. Non-head-of-household women with intermediate and low job security showed higher risk of depression than those with high job security. We found that perceived job insecurity is associated with the new development of depressive episode, suicide ideation, and decline in self-rated health.

  11. Suicidal Behavior among Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Glorisa; Roberts, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the scientific literature related to suicidal behavior among Latino youth. Discusses the conceptualizations of culture, and how culture may influence behavior and psychopathology, in particular, suicidal behavior. Reviews the literature that discusses rates of suicidal behavior, risk, and protective factors associated with this behavior…

  12. X chromosome and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, L M; Zouk, H; Himmelman, C; Turecki, G

    2011-02-01

    Suicide completion rates are significantly higher in males than females in most societies. Although gender differences in suicide rates have been partially explained by environmental and behavioral factors, it is possible that genetic factors, through differential expression between genders, may also help explain gender moderation of suicide risk. This study investigated X-linked genes in suicide completers using a two-step strategy. We first took advantage of the genetic structure of the French-Canadian population and genotyped 722 unrelated French-Canadian male subjects, of whom 333 were suicide completers and 389 were non-suicide controls, using a panel of 37 microsatellite markers spanning the entire X chromosome. Nine haplotype windows and several individual markers were associated with suicide. Significant results aggregated primarily in two regions, one in the long arm and another in the short arm of chromosome X, limited by markers DXS8051 and DXS8102, and DXS1001 and DXS8106, respectively. The second stage of the study investigated differential brain expression of genes mapping to associated regions in Brodmann areas 8/9, 11, 44 and 46, in an independent sample of suicide completers and controls. Six genes within these regions, Rho GTPase-activating protein 6, adaptor-related protein complex 1 sigma 2 subunit, glycoprotein M6B, ribosomal protein S6 kinase 90  kDa polypeptide 3, spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase 1 and THO complex 2, were found to be differentially expressed in suicide completers.

  13. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-08

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  14. Gabapentin and suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Robert D; Hur, Kwan; Brown, C Hendricks; Mann, J John

    2010-12-01

    On 16 December 2008, FDA issued a class warning for antiepileptic drugs and suicidal thoughts and behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if the antiepileptic drug gabapentin increases risk of suicide attempt in patients to which it was prescribed for various indications. We conducted a pharmacoepidemiologic study in which suicide attempt rates were compared before and after gabapentin was prescribed. We used the PharMetrics medical claims database to study the relationship between gabapentin and suicide attempts in a cohort of 131,178 patients with a 1-year window of information before and after initial prescription. Patients had diagnoses of epilepsy, pain disorders, bipolar illness, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders. Overall, there was no significant difference in suicide attempt rates before (3.48/1000 patient years--PY) versus after (3.45/1000 PY) gabapentin prescription. Pre-prescription suicide attempt rates were five times higher in psychiatric populations compared with non-psychiatric populations leading us to analyze the two groups separately. No drug effect was detected in the non-psychiatric populations. Significant reductions in suicide attempt rates were seen for bipolar disorder (47.85/1000 PY versus 31.46/1000 PY), major depressive disorder (17.30/1000 PY versus 12.66/1000 PY), and other psychiatric disorders (12.84/1000 PY versus 10.14/1000 PY). Person-time analysis revealed an overall significant reduction in suicide attempt rates (2.01/1000 PY on drug versus 2.30/1000 PY off drug). This study finds that gabapentin does not increase risk of suicide attempts in non-psychiatric populations and is associated with a reduction in suicide attempt risk in patients with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Firearms and youth suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J H; Mościcki, E K

    1986-01-01

    The firearm suicide rate for persons aged 10 to 24 has increased from 2.3 per 100,000 in 1933 to 5.5 per 100,000 in 1982. Over the same period, the suicide rate for this age group by all methods other than firearms has only risen from 2.5 to 3.3. The most dramatic rise in the firearm suicide rate has occurred primarily since 1970, notably among males aged 15 to 24. During the 1960s and 1970s there was a substantial increase in the number of civilian firearms in the United States. PMID:3752329

  16. Selecting Suicide Ideation Assessment Instruments: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Jackson, Jessica; Bardhoshi, Gerta; Duncan, Kelly; Atalay, Zumra

    2018-01-01

    Psychometric meta-analyses and reviews were provided for four commonly used suicidal ideation instruments: the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, the Suicide Ideation Questionnaire, the Suicide Probability Scale, and Columbia--Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Practical and technical issues and best use recommendations for screening and outcome…

  17. Is organizational change associated with increased rates of readmission to general hospital in suicide attempters? A 10-year prospective catchment area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlum, Lars; Jørgensen, Trond; Diep, Lien My; Nrugham, Latha

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine predictors for readmissions in patients admitted to a general hospital emergency ward for suicide attempts before and after organizational changes potentially affecting the chain of care. Socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected by clinicians from 1997 thru 2007. Data from the periods before and after 2004--when the hospital changed its catchment area--were compared. A substantial increase in readmission rates in the period after the organizational change was observed. This increase was not associated with any of the socio-demographic or clinical patient characteristics. Although no causal connection can be inferred, the observed association between organizational change and readmission rates could indicate that established post-discharge care systems for suicide attempters may be vulnerable to such change.

  18. Googling suicide: surfing for suicide information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Patricia R; Harms, Samara E; Noble, Jeffrey M

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the types of resources a suicidal person might find through search engines on the Internet. We were especially interested in determining the accessibility of potentially harmful resources, such as prosuicide forums, as such resources have been implicated in completed suicides and are known to exist on the Web. Using 5 popular search engines (Google, Yahoo!, Ask.com, Lycos, and Dogpile) and 4 suicide-related search terms (suicide, how to commit suicide, suicide methods, and how to kill yourself), we collected quantitative and qualitative data about the search results. The searches were conducted in August and September 2006. Several coraters assigned codes and characterizations to the first 30 Web sites per search term combination (and "sponsored links" on those pages), which were then confirmed by consensus ratings. Search results were classified as being prosuicide, antisuicide, suicide-neutral, not a suicide site, or error (i.e., page would not load). Additional information was collected to further characterize the nature of the information on these Web sites. Suicide-neutral and anti-suicide pages occurred most frequently (of 373 unique Web pages, 115 were coded as suicide-neutral, and 109 were anti-suicide). While pro-suicide resources were less frequent (41 Web pages), they were nonetheless easily accessible. Detailed how-to instructions for unusual and lethal suicide methods were likewise easily located through the searches. Mental health professionals should ask patients about their Internet use. Depressed, suicidal, or potentially suicidal patients who use the Internet may be especially at risk. Clinicians may wish to assist patients in locating helpful, supportive resources online so that patients' Internet use may be more therapeutic than harmful.

  19. Antidepressants and Suicide Risk: A Comprehensive Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tatarelli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The annual worldwide suicide rate currently averages approximately 13 per 100,000 individuals per year (0.013% per year, with higher average rates for men than for women in all but a few countries, very low rates in children, and relatively high rates in elderly men. Suicide rates vary markedly between countries, reflecting in part differences in case-identification and reporting procedures. Rates of attempted suicide in the general population average 20–30 times higher than rates of completed suicide, but are probably under-reported. Research on the relationship between pharmacotherapy and suicidal behavior was rare until a decade ago. Most ecological studies and large clinical studies have found that a general reduction in suicide rates is significantly correlated with higher rates of prescribing modern antidepressants. However, ecological, cohort and case-control studies and data from brief, randomized, controlled trials in patients with acute affective disorders have found increases, particularly in young patients and particularly for the risk of suicide attempts, as well as increases in suicidal ideation in young patients. whether antidepressants are associated with specific aspects of suicidality (e.g., higher rates of completed suicide, attempted suicide and suicidal ideation in younger patients with major affective disorders remains a highly controversial question. In light of this gap this paper analyzes research on the relationship between suicidality and antidepressant treatment.

  20. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Mandelli, Laura; Iosue, Miriam; Andrisano, Costanza; Roy, Alec

    2011-01-01

    Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies. PMID:22408588

  1. Controlling Access to Suicide Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Iosue

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. Methods: This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords “suicide means”, “suicide method”, “suicide prediction” or “suicide prevention” and other relevant keywords. Results: A number of factors may influence an individual’s decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing “safe rooms” in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs, as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Conclusions: Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

  2. Controlling access to suicide means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Mandelli, Laura; Iosue, Miriam; Andrisano, Costanza; Roy, Alec

    2011-12-01

    Restricting access to common means of suicide, such as firearms, toxic gas, pesticides and other, has been shown to be effective in reducing rates of death in suicide. In the present review we aimed to summarize the empirical and clinical literature on controlling the access to means of suicide. This review made use of both MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library databases, identifying all English articles with the keywords "suicide means", "suicide method", "suicide prediction" or "suicide prevention" and other relevant keywords. A number of factors may influence an individual's decision regarding method in a suicide act, but there is substantial support that easy access influences the choice of method. In many countries, restrictions of access to common means of suicide has lead to lower overall suicide rates, particularly regarding suicide by firearms in USA, detoxification of domestic and motor vehicle gas in England and other countries, toxic pesticides in rural areas, barriers at jumping sites and hanging, by introducing "safe rooms" in prisons and hospitals. Moreover, decline in prescription of barbiturates and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), as well as limitation of drugs pack size for paracetamol and salicylate has reduced suicides by overdose, while increased prescription of SSRIs seems to have lowered suicidal rates. Restriction to means of suicide may be particularly effective in contexts where the method is popular, highly lethal, widely available, and/or not easily substituted by other similar methods. However, since there is some risk of means substitution, restriction of access should be implemented in conjunction with other suicide prevention strategies.

  3. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  4. Suicide death and hospital-treated suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands: a national registry-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosen, S.; Kunst, A.E.; Stronks, K.; van Oostrum, I.E.A.; Uitenbroek, D.G.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    Several suicide and suicidal behaviour risk factors are highly prevalent in asylum seekers, but there is little insight into the suicide death rate and the suicidal behaviour incidence in this population. The main objective of this study is to assess the burden of suicide and hospital-treated

  5. Suicide in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeter Värnik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which is 1.4% of total mortality and 15% of injury mortality. The suicide rate for the world as a whole is estimated at 11.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male–female rate ratio of suicide is estimated to be highest in the European Region (4.0 and the lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (1.1. Among males the highest suicide rate in the 15–29 age group is in the SE Asian region, in the 45–59 age group in European males and for ages above 60 in the Western Pacific region. Females from SE Asia have a remarkably high suicide rate among 15–29-year-olds and from age 45 in the Western Pacific region. The leading country is currently Lithuania, with a suicide rate of 34.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Also among males the suicide rate is the highest in Lithuania at 61.2. Among females South Korea with 22.1 is at the top of world suicide rates. Conclusions: During the past six decades, according to the WHO Japan, Hungary, and Lithuania have topped the list of world countries by suicide rate, but if the current trends continue South Korea will overtake all others in a few years. The heart of the problem of suicide mortality has shifted from Western Europe to Eastern Europe and now seems to be shifting to Asia. China and India are the biggest contributors to the absolute number of suicides in the world.

  6. Train suicides in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houwelingen, Cornelis A J; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Beersma, Domien G M

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about train suicide and factors influencing its prevalence. This study tests the hypotheses that railway density, railway transportation volume, familiarity with railway transportation and population density contribute to train suicide. It also tests the relationship between train suicide and general population suicide and examines the prevalence and the characteristics of high-risk locations and their contribution to the grand total of train suicides. Trends in train suicides were compared with trends in railway track length, train kilometres, passenger kilometres and national suicide figures over the period 1950-2007. The geographical distribution over the national network over the period 1980-2007 was studied. Data were obtained from The Netherlands Railways, Prorail and Statistics Netherlands. 1. The incidence of train suicides is unrelated to railway parameters. 2. Being familiar with railway transportation as a passenger is not a contributory factor. 3. Train suicide rates are unrelated to regional population density. 4. The incidence of train suicides parallels that of general population suicides. 5. Half of the train suicides took place at a limited number of locations, the most important of which were situated within a village or town and were close to a psychiatric hospital. Most conclusions are based on correlational relationships between variables. 1. Train suicide trends reflect trends in general population suicides. 2. Increased train transportation does not lead to more train suicides. 3. The prevention of train suicide at high-risk locations (HRLs) in built-up areas and near psychiatric hospitals deserves first priority. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Suicide in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, M; Ilic, I

    2016-03-15

    Suicide remains a significant public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the mortality trend of suicide in Serbia for the years 1991-2014. Data on persons who died of suicide and self-inflicted injury (site codes E950-E959 revision 9 and X60-X84 revision 10 of the International Classification of Diseases to classify death, injury and cause of death) were obtained from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. The age standardized rate was calculated by direct method (per 100,000 persons, using Segi's World population as standard population). Average annual percentage change (AAPC) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed for trend using the joinpoint regression analysis. Total 33,930 (24,016 men and 9914 women) suicide deaths occurred in Serbia during the observed period, with the average annual age-standardized mortality rate being 12.7 per 100,000 inhabitants (19.5 per 100,000 in men and 6.7 per 100,000 in women). Suicide mortality in all age groups was higher among men than women. In both genders, suicide rates were highest in the oldest age group. Significantly decreased trend in suicide mortality was recorded continuously from 1991 to 2014 (AAPC=-1.9%, 95%CI -2.2 to -1.6). The most frequently used suicide method in both genders was hanging, strangulation or suffocation with 61.2% off all suicides. Changes in mortality rates were significant both for suicide by firearms, air guns and explosives (AAPC=-1.5% (AAPC=-1.5% in men and -3.1%-3.1% in women) and for suicide by hanging, strangulation, and suffocation (AAPC=-1.2% (AAPC=-1.2% in men and -3.0%-3.0% in women). In men, nonsignificant increase in suicide by firearms, air guns and explosives observed during the period 1991-1997 (by +6.1% per year) was followed by a significant decrease until 2014 (by -3.1% per year). The significantly increased mortality in suicide by firearms, air guns, and explosives was observed in older men (aged 40-69 years and 80

  8. Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence rates, correlates, and targeted interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marta; Galling, Britta; Correll, Christoph U

    2013-08-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) is associated with poor outcomes, including suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA). However, frequencies and risk factors of SI/SA and targeted intervention trials for SI/SA in PBD have not been reviewed systematically. We conducted a systematic PubMed review, searching for articles reporting on prevalences/incidences, correlates and intervention studies targeting SI/SA in PBD. Weighted means were calculated, followed by an exploratory meta-regression of SI and SA correlates. Fourteen studies (n = 1595), in which 52.1% of patients were male and the mean age was 14.4 years, reported data on SI/SA prevalence (N = 13, n = 1508) and/or correlates (N = 10, n = 1348) in PBD. Weighted mean prevalences were: past SI = 57.4%, past SA = 21.3%, current SI = 50.4%, and current SA = 25.5%; incidences (mean 42 months of follow-up) were: SI = 14.6% and SA = 14.7%. Regarding significant correlates, SI (N = 3) was associated with a higher percentage of Caucasian race, narrow (as opposed to broad) PBD phenotype, younger age, and higher quality of life than SA. Significant correlates of SA (N = 10) included female sex, older age, earlier illness onset, more severe/episodic PBD, mixed episodes, comorbid disorders, past self-injurious behavior/SI/SA, physical/sexual abuse, parental depression, family history of suicidality, and poor family functioning. Race, socioeconomic status, living situation, and life events were not clearly associated with SA. In a meta-regression analysis, bipolar I disorder and comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were significantly associated with SA. Only one open label study targeting the reduction of SI/SA in PBD was identified. SI and SA are very common but under-investigated in PBD. Exploration of predictors and protective factors is imperative for the establishment of effective preventive and intervention strategies, which are urgently needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  9. Suicide on Death Row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2016-11-01

    Despite the level of supervision of inmates on death row, their suicide rate is higher than both the male prison population in the United States and the population of males over the age of 14 in free society. This study presents suicide data for death row inmates from 1978 through 2010. For the years 1978 through 2010, suicide rates on death row were higher than that for the general population of males over the age of 15 and for state prisons for all but 2 years. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. National Office of Suicide Prevention Annual Report 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2007-01-01

    National Office of Suicide Prevention Annual Report 2006 Suicidal behaviour is a major public health problem in Ireland. In particular it is a significant cause of death among young men aged 18 â?" 35, while overall suicide rates in Ireland are lower than the EU average, youth suicide rates are fifth highest. Risk factors for suicide include depression, schizophrenia and alcohol but suicide trends over time in many countries are influenced by major social changes especially those which re...

  11. HPT axis, CSF monoamine metabolites, suicide intent and depression severity in male suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jussi; Samuelsson, Mats; Nordström, Anna-Lena; Nordström, Peter

    2008-11-01

    A lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in depressed women has been associated with violent suicide attempts, suicidal intent, higher lethality and suicide risk. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) levels are related to suicidal behaviour. We studied the HPT axis function in twelve male suicide attempters and eight healthy volunteers submitted to lumbar puncture and to TRH test. Suicidal behaviour and depression severity were assessed. There was no association between deltamaxTSH and violent suicidality or subsequent suicide. The deltamaxTSH correlated with CSF HVA in suicide attempters. The plasma T3 showed a negative correlation with the Beck Suicide Intent Scale and the Montgomery Asberg Depression rating scale. Dopaminergic regulatory mechanisms on the thyroid hormone activity may be altered in male suicide attempters.

  12. Firearms and suicide in the United States: is risk independent of underlying suicidal behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Barber, Catherine; White, Richard A; Azrael, Deborah

    2013-09-15

    On an average day in the United States, more than 100 Americans die by suicide; half of these suicides involve the use of firearms. In this ecological study, we used linear regression techniques and recently available state-level measures of suicide attempt rates to assess whether, and if so, to what extent, the well-established relationship between household firearm ownership rates and suicide mortality persists after accounting for rates of underlying suicidal behavior. After controlling for state-level suicide attempt rates (2008-2009), higher rates of firearm ownership (assessed in 2004) were strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with nonfirearm suicide (2008-2009). Furthermore, suicide attempt rates were not significantly related to gun ownership levels. These findings suggest that firearm ownership rates, independent of underlying rates of suicidal behavior, largely determine variations in suicide mortality across the 50 states. Our results support the hypothesis that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond the baseline risk and help explain why, year after year, several thousand more Americans die by suicide in states with higher than average household firearm ownership compared with states with lower than average firearm ownership.

  13. Suicide among Arab-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arab-American (AA populations in the US are exposed to discrimination and acculturative stress-two factors that have been associated with higher suicide risk. However, prior work suggests that socially oriented norms and behaviors, which characterize recent immigrant ethnic groups, may be protective against suicide risk. Here we explored suicide rates and their determinants among AAs in Michigan, the state with the largest proportion of AAs in the US.ICD-9/10 underlying cause of death codes were used to identify suicide deaths from among all deaths in Michigan between 1990 and 2007. Data from the 2000 U.S. Census were collected for population denominators. Age-adjusted suicide rates among AAs and non-ethnic whites were calculated by gender using the direct method of standardization. We also stratified by residence inside or outside of Wayne County (WC, the county with the largest AA population in the state. Suicide rates were 25.10 per 100,000 per year among men and 6.40 per 100,000 per year among women in Michigan from 1990 to 2007. AA men had a 51% lower suicide rate and AA women had a 33% lower rate than non-ethnic white men and women, respectively. The suicide rate among AA men in WC was 29% lower than in all other counties, while the rate among AA women in WC was 20% lower than in all other counties. Among non-ethnic whites, the suicide rate in WC was higher compared to all other counties among both men (12% and women (16%.Suicide rates were higher among non-ethnic white men and women compared to AA men and women in both contexts. Arab ethnicity may protect against suicide in both sexes, but more so among men. Additionally, ethnic density may protect against suicide among Arab-Americans.

  14. Learning technology in Scottish higher education ‐ a survey of the views of senior managers, academic staff and ‘experts’

    OpenAIRE

    Haywood, Jeff; Anderson, Charles; Coyle, Helen; Day, Kate; Haywood, Denise; Macleod, Hamish

    2000-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of the Scottish Learning Technology Dissemination Initiative (LTDI), a survey was conducted of the views of academic staff, members of computer‐assisted learning and staff development units, and senior managers in all Scottish higher education institutions (HEIs). Most respondents across all subject areas and types of institutions (including those who rated themselves as less experienced with use of C&IT in teaching than their colleagues) believed that learning techno...

  15. Prison suicide in 12 countries: an ecological study of 861 suicides during 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Grann, Martin; Kling, Boo; Hawton, Keith

    2011-03-01

    Although suicide rates among prisoners are high and vary between countries, it is uncertain whether this reflects the importation of risk from the general population or is associated with incarceration rates. We collected data on suicides and undetermined deaths in 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, England and Wales, Finland, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden) directly from their prison administrations for 2003-2007. These were compared with rates of suicides in the general population separately by gender using Pearson's correlations. In addition, they were compared with rates of incarceration. Linear regression was used to examine any association after adjustment for rates of incarceration. Data were collected on 861 suicides in prison, of which 810 were in men. In the men, crude relative rates of suicide were at least three times higher than the general population. Western European countries had similar rates of prisoner suicide which were mostly higher than those in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. There was no association between rates of suicide in prisoners and general population rates or rates of incarceration. In the women, inmate suicide rates varied widely and were mostly raised compared with rates in the general population. In addition, these rates did not appear to be associated with general population rates of suicide. Rates of prison suicide do not reflect general population suicide rates, suggesting that variations in prison suicide rates reflect differences in criminal justice systems including, possibly, the provision of psychiatric care in prison.

  16. Reduction in young male suicide in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Cameron; Stockton, Diane; Henderson, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Rates of suicide and undetermined death increased rapidly in Scotland in the 1980's and 1990's. The largest increases were in men, with a marked increase in rates in younger age groups. This was associated with an increase in hanging as a method of suicide. National suicide prevention work has identified young men as a priority group. Routinely collected national information suggested a decrease in suicide rates in younger men at the beginning of the 21st century. This stu...

  17. Suicide among older psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin

    2006-01-01

    .1-0.3). In combination with other types of disorder, affective disorders were found to modify an increased risk of suicide. First versus later admission for depression was a better predictor for suicide than age at first hospitalization for depression (before or after age 60 years). More than half of suicides occurred......OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted...... to a psychiatric hospital. METHOD: All persons aged 60 and older living in Denmark who were hospitalized with psychiatric disorders during 1990-2000 were included in the study. Using a case-control design and logistic regression analysis, the authors calculated the suicide risk associated with specific patient...

  18. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... remember the good times and develop a more positive outlook. ( Back to top. ) If You Are Feeling Suicidal If you have begun to think of suicide, it's important to recognize these thoughts for what they are: expressions of a treatable, ...

  19. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Podcast Series Q&A Peer Inspiration Life Unlimited Stories Life Unlimited Awards DBSA Honorary Advisory Board I'm Living ... suicide. As depression begins to lift, a person's energy and planning capabilities may return before the suicidal ...

  20. Celebrity suicides and their differential influence on suicides in the general population: a national population-based study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Woojae; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Yeung, Albert; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Doh Kwan; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-04-01

    Although evidence suggests that there is an increase in suicide rates in the general population following celebrity suicide, the rates are heterogeneous across celebrities and countries. It is unclear which is the more vulnerable population according to the effect sizes of celebrity suicides to general population. All suicide victims in the general population verified by the Korea National Statistical Office and suicides of celebrity in South Korea were included for 7 years from 2005 to 2011. Effect sizes were estimated by comparing rates of suicide in the population one month before and after each celebrity suicide. The associations between suicide victims and celebrities were examined. Among 94,845 suicide victims, 17,209 completed suicide within one month after 13 celebrity suicides. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that suicide victims who died after celebrity suicide were significantly likely to be of age 20-39, female, and to die by hanging. These qualities were more strongly associated among those who followed celebrity suicide with intermediate and high effect sizes than lower. Younger suicide victims were significantly associated with higher effect size, female gender, white collar employment, unmarried status, higher education, death by hanging, and night-time death. Characteristics of celebrities were significantly associated with those of general population in hanging method and gender. Individuals who commit suicide after a celebrity suicide are likely to be younger, female, and prefer hanging as method of suicide, which are more strongly associated in higher effect sizes of celebrity suicide.

  1. Suicidal behaviour and suicide prevention in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Brian M

    2014-10-01

    Despite a general decline in late life suicide rates over the last 30 years, older people have the highest rates of suicide in most countries. In contrast, non-fatal suicidal behaviour declines with age and more closely resembles suicide than in younger age groups. There are difficulties in the detection and determination of pathological suicidal ideation in older people. Multiple factors increase suicide risk ranging from distal early and mid-life issues such as child abuse, parental death, substance misuse and traumatic life experiences to proximal precipitants in late life such as social isolation and health-related concerns. Clinical depression is the most frequently identified proximal mental health concern and in many cases is a first episode of major depression. Recent studies have identified changes on neuroimaging and neurocognitive factors that might distinguish suicidal from non-suicidal depression in older people. Strategies for suicide prevention need to be 'whole of life' and, as no single prevention strategy is likely to be successful alone, a multi-faceted, multi-layered approach is required. This should include optimal detection and management of depression and of high risk individuals as available evidence indicates that this can reduce suicidal behaviour. How best to improve the quality of depression management in primary and secondary care requires further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing characteristics of suicide attempters with suicidal ideation and those without suicidal ideation treated in the emergency departments of general hospitals in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Li, Haiyan; Hou, Jinglin; Chen, Wei; Tan, Shanyong; Chen, Xu; Qin, Xiaoxia

    2018-02-03

    Suicide attempts are more frequent than suicides, and suicidal ideation has been identified as an important precursor of both attempted and completed suicide. In this study, we compare the characteristics of suicide attempters with suicidal ideation and suicide attempters without suicidal ideation who were treated in the emergency departments of general hospitals in China. We identified 166 people as having suicidal ideation and 73 people who did not have suicidal ideation. The suicide attempters with suicidal ideation were more likely to be more depressed, older, have a lower score on life quality, female, divorced and unemployed, report having religious beliefs, have a suicide attempt history and a psychiatric diagnosis, and intend to reduce pain as motives. However, the suicide attempters without suicidal ideation were more likely to have a more self-rescue ideation and were more impulsive, and to threaten or intend revenge on others as motives. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of suicidal ideation in the suicide attempters: a higher score on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, religious beliefs, non-impulsive suicide attempts, and a psychiatric diagnosis. The results indicate the importance of developing different interventions for the two groups to prevent future suicide in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Suicide Protective Factors Among Trans Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, Ch?rie; Smith, Nathan Grant

    2013-01-01

    A recent study indicated a suicide attempt rate of 41?% among trans (e.g., trans, transgender, transexual/transsexual, genderqueer, two-spirit) individuals. Although this rate is alarming, there is a dearth of literature regarding suicide prevention for trans individuals. A vital step in developing suicide prevention models is the identification of protective factors. It was hypothesized that social support from friends, social support from family, optimism, reasons for living, and suicide re...

  4. Progress with the Scottish Trading Arrangements Group (STAG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, A.

    1998-01-01

    Since November 1996 STAG has operated as a forum to allow traders in the Scottish market to consider trading arrangements which will facilitate competition while coping with foreseeable trading requirements beyond the 1998 franchise break. The author has promoted the interest of renewables generators on behalf of the Scottish Renewables Forum throughout this process. An Interim Report summarising the high level options considered was submitted to OFFER in June 1997. This paper summarises the interim report content and draws on other aspects of the Scottish market to review the future prospects in Scotland for trading electricity form wind energy schemes. (Author)

  5. Delusions and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunebaum, M F; Oquendo, M A; Harkavy-Friedman, J M; Ellis, S P; Li, S; Haas, G L; Malone, K M; Mann, J J

    2001-05-01

    Delusions have been considered a risk factor for suicidal behavior. To determine whether specific delusion types are related to suicidal behaviors, the authors compared the clinical characteristics of patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia who did and did not have a history of suicide attempts. After admission for inpatient or outpatient psychiatric treatment, 429 patients (ages 14-72 years; 47.1% male; and 73.0% Caucasian) were assessed with a structured clinical interview that generated axis I and II diagnoses. In addition, their psychiatric symptoms, history of suicide attempts, and overall functioning were rated. Data for three diagnostic subgroups (223 patients with major depression, 150 with schizophrenia, and 56 with bipolar disorder) were analyzed separately. Multivariate analyses did not find evidence of a relationship between delusions and history of suicidal ideation or suicide attempts in any of the diagnostic groups. This study did not find evidence that the presence of delusions distinguished persons with or without a history of suicide attempt.

  6. Attitudes of adolescents toward suicidal behavior: permissiveness of suicidal behavior as a risk factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Arnautovska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, the social convictions and norms have influenced the recognition and presence of suicidal behaviour in different ways. However, previous research findings regarding the connection between suicidal behaviour and attitudes towards suicide have not arrived at a clear conclusion. The present research explores adolescents' attitudes toward suicide. The aim was to examine the relation between the permissive attitude toward suicide on one side and certain suicide risk factors and satisfaction in different domains of psychical functioning on the other side. Data was collected on 423high school students in three Slovenian cities, chosen on the basis of different regional suicide rates, with an Attitudes towards Suicide Questionnaire ATTS, Psychological Well-Being Scales PWBS, and questions about suicidal behaviour of adolescents and their surroundings. The results showed that the acceptance of suicide is proportional to the suicide rates of different regions. We concluded that permissive attitudes towards suicide could potentially lead to the increased risk of suicidal behaviour. Furthermore, the acceptance of suicide was, inter alia, significantly positively related to the self-reported probability of committing suicide, the presence of suicidal behaviour of the adolescent and his/her friends or other people he/she knows, while the connection with the subjective life satisfaction was negative. Considering the fact that there has been a trend of growing permissiveness towards suicide in society in the last few decades, the findings raise a question regarding the positive effects of such tolerance on suicide rates and support the justification of restrictive attitudes towards suicide as a protective factor of suicidal behaviour.

  7. Delayed increase in male suicide rates in tsunami disaster-stricken areas following the great east japan earthquake: a three-year follow-up study in Miyagi Prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2015-03-01

    Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas.

  8. Youth Suicide Trends in Finland, 1969-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Anniina; Rasanen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa; Keranen, Sirpa; Hakko, Helina

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are only a few recent studies on secular trends in child and adolescent suicides. We examine here trends in rates and methods of suicide among young people in Finland, where suicide rates at these ages are among the highest in the world. Methods: The data, obtained from Statistics Finland, consisted of all suicides (n = 901)…

  9. Developments in emergency planning within Scottish nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, A.

    2000-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear has recently completed a major program of improvements to its nuclear emergency facilities. The improvements include the construction of a purpose built Off-Site Emergency Centre for each of its two power stations and the development of a computer based information management system to facilitate the rapid distribution of information on an emergency to local, regional and national agencies. A computer code has also been developed to allow the rapid assessment of the effects of any accidental release on the local population. The improvements to the emergency facilities have been coupled with changes in local and national arrangements for dealing with a civil nuclear emergency. The use of airborne surveying techniques for rapidly determining levels of deposited activity following an accident is also being examined and preliminary airborne surveys have been carried out. (author)

  10. Restrictions in means for suicide: an effective tool in preventing suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. The effect on method-specific suicide rate and overall suicide rate of restrictions on availability of carbon monoxide, barbiturates, and dextropropoxyphene was examined. From 1970 to 2000......, overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality in Denmark were compared with official information about availability of barbiturates and analgesics and carbon monoxide in vehicle exhaust and household gas. Restrictions on availability of household gas with carbon monoxide content...... and barbiturates was associated with a decline in the number of suicides and suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds after controlling for the effect of calender year. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55 percent decrease in suicide rate....

  11. Suicidal ideation in inpatients with acute schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxakis, Vassilis; Havaki-Kontaxaki, Beata; Margariti, Maria; Stamouli, Sophia; Kollias, Costas; Christodoulou, George

    2004-07-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with a high rate of suicide. This study investigates the prevalence of suicidal ideation in a population of inpatients with acute schizophrenia, together with the clinical parameters associated with suicidal thoughts. We assessed 93 schizophrenia patients. We matched subjects for age and sex and compared subjects with and without suicidal thoughts. We performed stepwise multiple regression analysis to assess the association between specific clinical symptoms and suicidal ideation. Of the patients, 20.4% reported suicidal thoughts during the last 15 days. Severity of depressive symptoms, motor retardation, guilt feelings, pathological guilt, and self-depreciation predicted the patients' suicidal ideation. Suicidal thoughts are frequent among inpatients with acute schizophrenia. Prevention of suicidal behaviour should include helping patients improve their self-esteem and reducing depression and guilt feelings.

  12. Suicidal communication signifies suicidal intent in Chinese completed suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue Mei; Jia, Shu Hua

    2012-11-01

    Recognizing suicidal communication from the distressful catharsis in a high-risk group with suicidal tendencies is essential for suicide prevention. This study analyzes whether suicidal communication can indicate the severity of suicidal intent. Various types of suicidal communication are defined, and their clinical significance is further explored. A comprehensive analysis of the psychological autopsy data of 200 victims of completed suicide, including their general socio-demographic status, suicidal communication methods, previous suicide attempts, mental disorders, and psychosocial situation. Our results showed that 39.5% of all the subjects were suicidal communicators, 23.0% had previously attempted suicide, and 14.0% left suicide notes; 32.4% of 142 subjects free of physical disease suffered from mental disorders. Suicidal communication included verbal communication, behavioral communication, and suicidal notes. Younger people with a higher level of education were more inclined to communicate their suicidal intent by leaving a suicide note. Suicide notes, but not previous suicide attempts or psychosocial situation, were significantly correlated with suicidal intent. Suicidal communicators showed higher depression scores than non-communicators. Those who suffered from mood disorders with higher levels of both depression and suicidal intent were more likely to expose their intent through behavioral communication. The present study provides strong evidence that suicidal communication can indicate the severity of suicidal intent. Current findings help interpret high-risk, self-destructive behavior and consequently provide the theoretical basis for a feasible suicide prevention program.

  13. Sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters among the rural agrarian community of central India

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Kshirod Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Bhabulkar, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicides, attempted suicides and different form of suicidal behaviors are on the rise in most part of the world. It is generally assumed that official suicidal rate are underestimated from the true rate by 20-100 % due to prevailing socio-cultural issues, religious attitude, stigma attached, and legal process involved. Attempted suicides occur 8-20 times more frequently than complete suicide. Statistics on attempted suicide or deliberate self harm are not usually available officia...

  14. Cultural Aspects of Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D. Maharajh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies.

  15. Suicide Mortality of Suicide Attempt Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Emergency Room, Admitted Suicide Attempt Patients, and Admitted Nonsuicidal Psychiatric Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae W.; Park, Subin; Yi, Ki K.; Hong, Jin P.

    2012-01-01

    The suicide mortality rate and risk factors for suicide completion of patients who presented to an emergency room (ER) for suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, patients who presented to an ER for psychiatric problems other than suicide attempt and were discharged without psychiatric admission, psychiatric inpatients…

  16. The Scottish Constitutional Tradition: A Very British Radicalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmer W. Elliot

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent developments in Scottish nationalist constitutional thought during the period of 2002 to 2014, showing how the Scottish constitutional conversation has diverged from, but continues to be influenced by, the UK-wide constitutional conversation at Westminster. It presents Scottish nationalist constitutional thought as a ‘very British radicalism’, which is characterised by certain constitutional forms and ideas that are radical in a British context (such as popular sovereignty, proportional representation, a written constitution, and a commitment to covenantal socio-economic and environmental provisions while at the same time retaining a persistent ‘Britishness’ in terms of specific institutional proposals and ambivalence towards the principles of constitutional government. Finally, I will discuss possible designs of a future constitutional settlement in Scotland and the United Kingdom. Notably, I will explore how far the Scottish constitutional tradition might impact on the constitutional shape of the United Kingdom.

  17. SUICIDE IN RURAL COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hedge, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY 51 suicides in a rural community of Northern Karnataka were studied for incidence, age and sex distribution, methods adopted for suicides, and causes of suicides. Suicides in rural area did not show any difference from urban suicide pattern.

  18. A Polar Projection: The Northern Dimension in Modern Scottish Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Stachura, Michael Jon Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a transnational turn in recent Scottish literary criticism, this dissertation examines a transnational northern dimension in modern Scottish literature. Following a ‘No’ vote in an historic referendum on independence in 2014, the question of what Scotland and ‘Scottishness’ is in a post-referendum twenty-first century world is once again being debated and reimagined. Literature, as always in Scotland, will play a major role in this process. While the nation and national identity re...

  19. Annual report and accounts 1994/95: Scottish Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Annual Report and Accounts for Scottish Nuclear are presented for the year 1994/1995. Scottish Nuclear Limited produces about half of Scotland's electricity requirement in its advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) at Hunterston and Torness. It also has responsibility for decommissioning the Hunterston A Magnox nuclear power station. The role of the company in the international arena and as part of the United Kingdom's electric power industry, following privatisation, are discussed. (UK)

  20. Fresh Air Practices in English and Scottish Homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    This article presents anthropological research results on how and why English and Scottish families use the fresh air from outside into the home (FAFOH). The introducing exchange was often heard in the English and Scottish families visited. Throughout the entire study the opposite only occurred i...... in a few cases: The man opening the window, the woman closing it, in her own words: ”so that I stay snug”....

  1. National total survey of German adolescent suicide in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, D; Lempp, T; Herrmann, E; Kettner, M; Bennefeld-Kersten, K; Freitag, C M

    2015-02-01

    Incarcerated adolescents are a high-risk group for suicidal behaviour, but data on completed suicide are scarce in this population. The present study aimed at calculating relative risks (RR) of suicide in detention and identifying age-related risk factors. We compared data of a German national total survey of completed suicide of young detainees (14 to suicide deaths in non-incarcerated adolescents (N = 3,484) and incarcerated adults (N = 781). Prison suicide accounted for 2.3% of all suicide deaths in adolescents, but only 0.1% of this age group was detained. The RR = 23.0 for adolescent suicide in detention exceeded the RR = 7.7 of adults by far. In adults, suicide rates in pre-trial detention was fivefold higher than in criminal detention; suicide rates were more balanced in adolescent detainees. Our results underline the need for age-specific suicide prevention strategies in detention.

  2. Suicide among young people in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan-Davidson, Meaghen; Sanhueza, Antonio; Espinosa, Isabel; Escamilla-Cejudo, José Antonio; Maddaleno, Matilde

    2014-03-01

    To examine suicide mortality trends among young people (10-24 years of age(1)) in selected countries and territories of the Americas. An ecological study was conducted using a time series of suicide mortality data from 19 countries and one territory in the Region of the Americas from 2001 to 2008, comprising 90.3% of the regional population. The analyses included age-adjusted suicide mortality rates, average annual variation in suicide mortality rates, and relative risks for suicide, by age and sex. The mean suicide rate for the selected study period and countries/territory was 5.7/100,000 young people (10-24 years), with suicide rates higher among males (7.7/100,000) than females (2.4/100,000). Countries with the highest total suicide mortality rates among young people (10-24 years) were Guyana, Suriname, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chile, and Ecuador; countries with the lowest total suicide mortality rates included Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, and Brazil, and the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. During this period, there was a significant increase in suicide mortality rates among young people in the following countries: Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and Suriname; countries with significant decreases in suicide mortality rates included Canada, Colombia, Cuba, El Salvador, and Venezuela. The three leading suicide methods in the Americas were hanging, firearms, and poisoning. Some countries of the Americas have experienced a rise in adolescent and youth suicide during the study period, with males at a higher risk of committing suicide than females. Adolescent and youth suicide policies and programs are recommended, to curb this problem. Methodological limitations are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  4. Cultural influences on suicide in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Roxanne; Metraux, Daniel; Tohen, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Following the economic crash of the late 1990s, the suicide rate in Japan increased to a rate of over 30 000 people per year and has been one of the highest in the world. Cultural factors have influenced this high suicide rate, such as a tradition of honorable suicide as well as permissive attitudes towards suicide that remain in modern times. Additionally, the economic downturn, particularly the trend of unemployment in middle-aged men, also played a significant role in the high suicide rate. The suicide rate has started to decrease in recent years perhaps in part due to suicide prevention measures undertaken by the government. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate...

  6. Suicidality in a Sample of Arctic Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggarty, John M.; Cernovsky, Zack; Bedard, Michel; Merskey, Harold

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the association of suicidal ideation and behavior with depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse in a Canadian Arctic Inuit community. Inuit (N = 111) from a random sample of households completed assessments of anxiety and depression, alcohol abuse, and suicidality. High rates of suicidal ideation within the past week (43.6%), and…

  7. Suicide in South Asia: a scoping review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordans, Mark J D; Kaufman, Anne; Brenman, Natassia; Adhikar, Ramesh; Luitel, Nagendra; Tol, Wietse; Komproe, Ivan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/142349321

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, suicide is an important cause of mortality. In low- and middle income settings, it is difficult to find unequivocal data to establish suicide rates. The objective of this review is to synthesize the reporting of suicide incidence in six south Asian countries. Methods We

  8. Mysore study: A study of suicide notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namratha, P; Kishor, M; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Raman, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. The aim was to study the themes in suicide notes that might be useful in prevention strategies. A descriptive study of all suicide notes of those individuals who committed suicide between 2010 and 2013 available with Police Department, Mysore district was obtained and analyzed. A total of 22 suicide note were available. A majority of suicide note was in age group of 16-40 years (86%) and most were men (59%). All suicide notes were handwritten, the majority (70%) in regional language Kannada. Length of notes varied from just few words to few pages. Contents of suicide notes included apology/shame/guilt (80%), love for those left behind (55%) and instruction regarding practical affairs (23%). Most have blamed none for the act (50%). 23% mentioned that they are committing suicide to prove their innocence. 32% mentioned a last wish. The majority of suicidal note contained "guilt" which is a strong indicator of possible depression in deceased. Creating awareness about suicide among public and ensuring access to professionals trained in suicide prevention is need of the hour in this part of the world.

  9. The Scottish book mathematics from the Scottish café, with selected problems from the new Scottish book

    CERN Document Server

    Mauldin, R Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this book updates and expands upon a historically important collection of mathematical problems first published in the United States by Birkhäuser in 1981. These problems serve as a record of the informal discussions held by a group of mathematicians at the Scottish Café in Lwów, Poland, between the two world wars. Many of them were leaders in the development of such areas as functional and real analysis, group theory, measure and set theory, probability, and topology. Finding solutions to the problems they proposed has been ongoing since World War II, with prizes offered in many cases to those who are successful. In the 35 years since the first edition published, several more problems have been fully or partially solved, but even today many still remain unsolved and several prizes remain unclaimed. In view of this, the editor has gathered new and updated commentaries on the original 193 problems. Some problems are solved for the first time in this edition. Included again in full are ...

  10. Repeated suicide attempts and suicide among individuals with a first emergency department contact for attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyszyn, Izabela E.; Erlangsen, Annette; Hjorthoj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emergency departments are important, albeit underutilized, sites for suicide prevention. Preventive strategies and interventions could benefit from a greater understanding of factors influencing the course of suicide risk after emergency department contact due to attempted suicide...... = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22-2.49). The cumulative rates of repeated attempts and suicide deaths in the total sample were particularly high within the first week of the index attempt, reaching 3.6% and 0.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Preventive efforts need to target the period close to discharge from....... The aim of our study was 2-fold: to identify predictors of repeated suicide attempts and suicide and to investigate the timing of these events. Methods: Data from Danish nationwide, longitudinal registers were used in this prospective, population-based study of all individuals first presenting...

  11. Oral Health and Risk of Arthritis in the Scottish Population: Results from the Scottish Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Mohammed Abbood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the link between self-reported oral health and arthritis in the Scottish population using data from the Scottish Health Survey. Material and Methods: Data were available from 2008 to 2013 on self-reported arthritis, oral health conditions and oral hygiene habits from the Scottish Health Survey. Arthritis was defined in this survey by self-reported long standing illness, those who reported having arthritis, rheumatism and/or fibrositis. Oral conditions were defined by self-reported bleeding gums, toothache, biting difficulties and/or edentulousness. Oral hygiene habits were defined by self-reported brushing teeth and/or using dental floss on daily basis. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis adjusted for age, gender, qualification, smoking and body mass index. Results: Prevalence of self-reported arthritis was 9.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.03 to 9.57. Those who reported having bleeding gums (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.35 to 1.96, toothache (OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.5, biting difficulties (OR = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.62 to 2.34, and being edentulous (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.37 had an increased risk of arthritis. Brushing teeth (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 0.74 to 2.12, and using dental floss (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.39 were not associated with arthritis. Conclusions: Self-reported oral conditions were associated with increased risk of self-reported arthritis. Oral hygiene habits were not associated with self-reported arthritis. Further investigation is required to assess the causal association between oral hygiene, oral disease and arthritis.

  12. Suicide of Australians during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Pridmore, William

    2018-04-01

    National suicide rates fall during times of war. This fits with the notion of the population coming together against a common foe. But, what happens in the case of a war which is not fully supported, which draws the population and families apart? We consider this question by examining the Australian suicide rates during the divisive Vietnam War. We graphed and examined the Australian suicide figures for 1921-2010. We found clear evidence of a decrease in the suicide rate for World War II (consistent with other studies), but a marked elevation of suicide during the Vietnam War. The elevation of the Australian suicide rate during the Vietnam War is consistent with Durkheim's social integration model - when social integration is lessened, either by individual characteristics or societal characteristics, the risk of suicide rises.

  13. Latina Teen Suicide and Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrea J.; Wiggs, Christine Bracamonte; Valencia, Celina; Bauman, Sheri

    2013-01-01

    Latina adolescents experience depression and suicidal ideations in a disproportionate manner compared to their non-Latina counterparts. We investigate suicide and depressive symptoms among a state-wide sample (N = 650) of adolescent Latina girls with a focus on bullying as a predictor. Bullying rates are higher than previous studies have found for…

  14. Cultural Considerations in Adolescent Suicide Prevention and Psychosocial Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, David B.; Molock, Sherry Davis; Whitbeck, Leslie B.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Zayas, Luis H.; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama

    2008-01-01

    Ethnic groups differ in rates of suicidal behaviors among youths, the context within which suicidal behavior occurs (e.g., different precipitants, vulnerability and protective factors, and reactions to suicidal behaviors), and patterns of help-seeking. In this article, the authors discuss the cultural context of suicidal behavior among African…

  15. Assessing the impact of suicide exclusion periods on life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Paul; Pitt, David; Wang, Yan; Wu, Xueyuan; Watson, Ray; Huggins, Richard; Xu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of suicide-exclusion periods, common in life insurance policies in Australia, on suicide and accidental death rates for life-insured individuals. If a life-insured individual dies by suicide during the period of suicide exclusion, commonly 13 months, the sum insured is not paid. We examine whether a suicide-exclusion period affects the timing of suicides. We also analyze whether accidental deaths are more prevalent during the suicide-exclusion period as life-insured individuals disguise their death by suicide. We assess the relationship between the insured sum and suicidal death rates. Crude and age-standardized rates of suicide, accidental death, and overall death, split by duration since the insured first bought their insurance policy, were computed. There were significantly fewer suicides and no significant spike in the number of accidental deaths in the exclusion period for Australian life insurance data. More suicides, however, were detected for the first 2 years after the exclusion period. Higher insured sums are associated with higher rates of suicide. Adverse selection in Australian life insurance is exacerbated by including a suicide-exclusion period. Extension of the suicide-exclusion period to 3 years may prevent some "insurance-induced" suicides - a rationale for this conclusion is given.

  16. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  17. Pathological Gambling and Suicidality: An Analysis of Severity and Lethality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallum, Fiona; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the nature of suicidal behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers and its relationship to gambling characteristics and depression. High rates of suicidal ideation, suicidal plans, and attempts were found; however, no clear relationship was observed between suicidality and indices of gambling behavior. (Contains 37…

  18. The Netherlands and World War II, Jews and suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, W.C.; Luijkx, R.; van Tubergen, F.; Sher, L.; Vilens, A.

    2009-01-01

    World War II in the Netherlands lasted from May 1940 to May 1945. Suicide numbers peaked in these months, in the first case because of suicide by Jews, and in the second case because of suicide by collaborators with the German occupier. Suicide rates for Jews were higher in 1942 than in 1940 and

  19. Suicide and crisis management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Chavan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide among the general population is a major public health problem and thus is a cause of concern for India. Since suicide is the outcome of multiple factors including socioeconomic, cultural, religious, and political; intervention and prevention strategies will vary from region to region. The legal framework and guidelines in a country can influence the suicide rate by eliminating barriers to mental health services, by adopting and strictly implementing policies on access to firearms for persons with risk of suicide, providing services for treatment of substance abuse patients, and by training of school personnel so that they can identify and assist vulnerable youth in accessing help. Mental Healthcare Bill (MHCB, 2013, will soon become the guiding law for the treatment and rehabilitation of persons suffering from mental health issues. Although MHCB has been criticized on many fronts, it still has laudable provisions that attempt to address reducing treatment gap through the proposal of availability of minimum mental health facilities at primary health center, proposing comprehensive treatment facilities including rehabilitation and the proposal to remove attempted suicide from Section 309 of IPS, etc., which might contribute in suicide prevention and other mental health crisis situations.

  20. Income, employment and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalist, David E; Molinari, Noelle-Angelique M; Siahaan, Freddy

    2007-12-01

    Little is known about the labor market outcomes of people who have attempted suicide or thought about suicide. We used micro-level data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions 2001-2002 to examine the effects of suicidal behavior on income and employment. The data provide a representative sample of the U.S. population, with its primary purpose to provide information on alcohol use disorders for the civilian non-institutionalized population aged 18 and over. The data include employment, income, and other socioeconomic and demographic information on respondents. Since the survey included 43,093 people, the data include a large number of respondents who attempted suicide or thought about committing suicide. We estimated earnings regressions and logit and ordered logit employment regressions. We used methods of IV estimation as well as two stage linear probability models to address potential endogeneity of suicidal behavior while estimating regressions separately by sex, since there are significant differences in suicide rates, suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation between men and women. We find that suicide attempts and suicidal ideation are negatively related to personal income and the probability of employment. The effects differ by sex. Men and women who attempted suicide had mean earnings lower by 16 and 13 percent, respectively. This amount reflects the combined effect of suicidal behavior and mental illness. With instrumental variable regression, the magnitude of the effects becomes larger-for example, as much as 50 percent decrease in the income of males who attempted suicide. Thoughts of suicide negatively affect income but to a smaller extent. Logit and ordered logit regressions indicate that attempted suicide reduces the probability of fulltime employment by over 20 percentage points for men and approximately 17 percentage points for women. People who engaged in suicidal behavior reported significantly

  1. The impact of pesticide suicide on the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan: a spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Sen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide self-poisoning is the most commonly used suicide method worldwide, but few studies have investigated the national epidemiology of pesticide suicide in countries where it is a major public health problem. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in pesticide suicide and their impact on the spatial distribution of suicide in Taiwan. Methods Smoothed standardized mortality ratios for pesticide suicide (2002-2009 were mapped across Taiwan's 358 districts (median population aged 15 or above = 27 000, and their associations with the size of agricultural workforce were investigated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Results In 2002-2009 pesticide poisoning was the third most common suicide method in Taiwan, accounting for 13.6% (4913/36 110 of all suicides. Rates were higher in agricultural East and Central Taiwan and lower in major cities. Almost half (47% of all pesticide suicides occurred in areas where only 13% of Taiwan's population lived. The geographic distribution of overall suicides was more similar to that of pesticide suicides than non-pesticide suicides. Rural-urban differences in suicide were mostly due to pesticide suicide. Areas where a higher proportion of people worked in agriculture showed higher pesticide suicide rates (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] per standard deviation increase in the proportion of agricultural workers = 1.58, 95% Credible Interval [CrI] 1.44-1.74 and overall suicide rates (ARR = 1.06, 95% CrI 1.03-1.10 but lower non-pesticide suicide rates (ARR = 0.91, 95% CrI 0.87-0.95. Conclusion Easy access to pesticides appears to influence the geographic distribution of suicide in Taiwan, highlighting the potential benefits of targeted prevention strategies such as restricting access to highly toxic pesticides.

  2. Duration of daily TV/screen watching with cardiovascular, respiratory, mental and psychiatric health: Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy

    2015-01-01

    The link of duration of TV and/or screen watching and chronic health conditions by subtypes is unclear. Therefore, the relationship between TV and/or screen watching hours and cardiovascular, respiratory, mental and psychiatric health and well-being (happiness) was assessed in an independent population-based survey to identify correlations of various hours with health conditions. Data was retrieved from the Scottish Health Survey, 2012-2013. Information on demographics, lifestyle factors, self-reported health conditions and TV and/or screen watching duration in both Scottish adults and children was collected by annual household interviews. Chi-square test and survey weighted logistic and multi-nominal modelling were performed. 5527 (57.0%) Scottish adults aged 16-99 watched TV and/or screen daily for 3 + h on average. There was a trend toward more hypertension, angina, stroke, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and poor self-rated health and mental health. Reporting watching TV and/or screen for 4 + h, for 5 + h and for 8 + h was associated with higher rates of heart attack, heart murmur or other heart troubles and abnormal heart rhythms, respectively. 414 (20.7%) Scottish children aged 4-12 watched TV and/or screen for 3h or more. They tended to have poor self-rated health and life difficulties perceived as emotional and behavioural problems. There were associations between various hours of TV and/or screen watching (3+h) and poor health observed both in Scottish adults and children. Future educational and public health programmes minimising TV and/or screen watching in order to protect cardiovascular, respiratory, mental and psychiatric health might be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Wear Fast, Die Young: More Worn Teeth and Shorter Lives in Iberian Compared to Scottish Red Deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F J Pérez-Barbería

    Full Text Available Teeth in Cervidae are permanent structures that are not replaceable or repairable; consequently their rate of wear, due to the grinding effect of food and dental attrition, affects their duration and can determine an animal's lifespan. Tooth wear is also a useful indicator of accumulative life energy investment in intake and mastication and their interactions with diet. Little is known regarding how natural and sexual selection operate on dental structures within a species in contrasting environments and how these relate to life history traits to explain differences in population rates of tooth wear and longevity. We hypothesised that populations under harsh environmental conditions should be selected for more hypsodont teeth while sexual selection may maintain similar sex differences within different populations. We investigated the patterns of tooth wear in males and females of Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus in Southern Spain and Scottish red deer (C. e. scoticus across Scotland, that occur in very different environments, using 10343 samples from legal hunting activities. We found higher rates of both incisor and molar wear in the Spanish compared to Scottish populations. However, Scottish red deer had larger incisors at emergence than Iberian red deer, whilst molars emerged at a similar size in both populations and sexes. Iberian and Scottish males had earlier tooth depletion than females, in support of a similar sexual selection process in both populations. However, whilst average lifespan for Iberian males was 4 years shorter than that for Iberian females and Scottish males, Scottish males only showed a reduction of 1 year in average lifespan with respect to Scottish females. More worn molars were associated with larger mandibles in both populations, suggesting that higher intake and/or greater investment in food comminution may have favoured increased body growth, before later loss of tooth efficiency due to severe wear. These

  4. Cultural correlates of youth suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersley, Richard; Dear, Keith

    2002-12-01

    Youth suicide has risen in most developed nations over the past 50 years, especially among males, but the increase remains to be explained. Statistical analyses were used to examine associations between youth suicide rates in 11-21 mainly Western, developed nations and 32 socio-economic and cultural variables. The central hypothesis was that suicide rates would be correlated with various cultural measures of social attachment and integration, especially individualism. Socio-economic variables were included in the analysis to demonstrate the relative strength of the cultural associations. The study found a strong positive correlation between male youth suicide rates and subjective measures of health, optimism, and several indices of individualism, including personal freedom and control. Correlations between female youth suicide and individualism were smaller, attaining significance in only one instance. Male youth suicide and individualism were negatively correlated with older people's sense of parental duty. Correlations between suicide and other possibly relevant cultural variables--tolerance of suicide, belief in God and national pride--were not significant. The analysis of socio-economic variables yielded only one significant, but doubtful, correlation. The findings can be interpreted as supporting two very different hypotheses: that youth suicide represents "an island of misery in an ocean of happiness" or "the tip of an iceberg of suffering". In favouring the latter interpretation, and consistent with Durkheim's theories on suicide, it is argued that increased youth suicide reflects a failure of Western societies to provide appropriate sites or sources of social identity and attachment, and, conversely, a tendency to promote unrealistic or inappropriate expectations of individual freedom and autonomy.

  5. Molecular diversity of Scottish Cryptosporidium hominis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, A; Alexander, C L; Coyne, M; Brownlie, S; Smith-Palmer, A; Jones, B L

    2015-04-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis is one of the most prevalent protozoan parasites to infect humans where transmission is via the consumption of infective oocysts. This study describes sporadic cases in addition to the molecular diversity of outbreak cases in Scotland using the glycoprotein-60 subtyping tool. From a total of 187 C. hominis isolates, 65 were subjected to further molecular analysis and 46 were found to be the common IbA10G2 subtype. Unusual subtypes included four isolates belonging to the Ia family (IaA14R3, n = 12; IaA14R2, n = 1; IaA9G3, n = 1; IaA25R3, n = 2), two from the Id family (IdA24, n = 1; IdA17, n = 1) and one belonging to the Ie family, namely IeA11G3T3. These data contribute significantly to our knowledge and understanding of the molecular diversity of C. hominis isolates from outbreak investigations involving Scottish residents which will be beneficial for the management of future outbreaks.

  6. Civic community and nonmetropolitan White suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutlip, Anna C; Bankston, William B; Lee, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes whether rural White suicide rates are lower where civic participation is strong and where a strong social institutional structure exists. Negative binomial regression analyses of race/sex/age disaggregated suicide regressed on indices of civic community are conducted for a sample of more than 1400 nonmetropolitan counties. White male and female suicide rates are for the most part substantially lower in civically stronger communities. The pattern is evident for both younger and older age groups. Civically strong communities provide some insulation against structural sources of suicide, and public health officials should consider the civic infrastructure of communities when planning community level suicide intervention/prevention strategies.

  7. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    and pharmacotherapy studies specific to bipolar disorder. We conducted pooled, weighted analyses of suicide rates. RESULTS: The pooled suicide rate in bipolar disorder is 164 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [5, 324]). Sex-specific data on suicide rates identified a 1.7:1 ratio in men compared......OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts...... and deaths in bipolar disorder. METHODS: Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies...

  8. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the time trend by region of suicides...... and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. DESIGN: Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970-2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993-1994 and 2005-2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. RESULTS: Suicide rates were higher among men than...... women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital...

  9. [Seasons, circadian rhythms, sleep and suicidal behaviors vulnerability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, V; Geoffroy, P A; Bellivier, F

    2015-09-01

    Suicidal behaviors are common in the general population and are so a major public health problem. In order to improve suicide prevention and to reduce the mortality by suicide, it appears essential to better identify suicide risk factors. Seasonality, circadian rhythms and sleep abnormalities have been already associated with numerous psychiatric disorders. This review aimed to characterize the associations between seasonality, circadian rhythms, sleep and suicidal behaviors including suicide attempts and completed suicides. We conducted a literature search between 1973 and 2015 in PubMed databases using the following terms: ("suicide" OR "suicidality" OR "suicide attempts" OR "suicidal behavior") AND ("circadian rhythms" OR "seasons" OR "sleep"). Many studies confirm a specific seasonality for suicide with a higher peak of suicides in spring for both sex and a lower peak in autumn especially for women. This distribution seems to correlate with depressive symptoms (especially for the autumn peak), gender and different types of suicide. Regarding gender and type of suicide differences, males more commonly commit violent suicide with a higher rate of suicides in spring. Suicide behaviors appear to be influenced by climatic and biological factors like sunshine, daylight cycles, temperature, air pollutants, viruses, parasites and aeroallergens. Circadian variations exist in suicide rates depending on age with a morning peak for elder and an evening peak for youth. In addition, completed suicide peak in early morning whereas suicide attempts peak rather in later afternoon. Several biomarkers dysregulation like melatonin, serotonin and cortisol may be implicated in suicide circadian variations. Furthermore, specific sleep disorders like insomnia, nightmares and sleep deprivation are common risk factors of suicide and possibly independently of the presence of depressive symptoms. Finally, the efficacy of chronotherapeutics (such as luminotherapy, dark therapy, sleep

  10. Preventing adolescent suicide: a community takes action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirruccello, Linda M

    2010-05-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young people in the United States. The etiology of suicide in this population has eluded policy makers, researchers, and communities. Although many suicide prevention programs have been developed and implemented, few are evidence-based in their effectiveness in decreasing suicide rates. In one northern California community, adolescent suicide has risen above the state's average. Two nurses led an effort to develop and implement an innovative grassroots community suicide prevention project targeted at eliminating any further teen suicide. The project consisted of a Teen Resource Card, a community resource brochure targeted at teens, and education for the public and school officials to raise awareness about this issue. This article describes this project for other communities to use as a model. Risk and protective factors are described, and a comprehensive background of adolescent suicide is provided.

  11. Suicide in Guyana: Nurses' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Maureen; Groh, Carla; Gash, Jean

    Guyana, an English-speaking country on the north coast of South America, has the highest suicide rate in the world. Nurses are an integral part of the healthcare team working with patients experiencing psychological distress and are uniquely qualified to add to the discourse on factors contributing to the high suicide rate in Guyana. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of nurses and nurse assistants in Guyana related to suicide. Nine registered nurses and nurse assistants who worked at a private hospital in Georgetown, Guyana, were recruited to participate in a focus group. The focus group lasted approximately 70 minutes and was recorded. The audio recordings were later transcribed word for word. Four themes emerged from the data: family issues as they relate to the high suicide rate, suicide attempts as a cry for help, lack of support, and coping mechanisms used by nurses when caring for victims of attempted suicide. Nurses are uniquely positioned to intervene with families in crisis, whether it be suicide, suicide attempts, or the underlying factors of family dysfunction, child maltreatment, poverty, or alcoholism. Establishing forensic nursing as a specialty in Guyana would validate this important role through education and certification of nurses.

  12. Suicide in South Asia: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordans, Mark J D; Kaufman, Anne; Brenman, Natassia F; Adhikari, Ramesh P; Luitel, Nagendra P; Tol, Wietse A; Komproe, Ivan

    2014-12-24

    Globally, suicide is an important cause of mortality. In low- and middle income settings, it is difficult to find unequivocal data to establish suicide rates. The objective of this review is to synthesize the reporting of suicide incidence in six south Asian countries. We conducted a scoping review combining peer-reviewed studies (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE) with in-country searches for grey literature in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The review included mapping reported suicide rates, quality appraisals of the studies, use of definitions of suicide and means of committing suicide. In total, 114 studies and reports were included in the review, including 50 peer-reviewed publications. Reported suicide rates varied widely from 0.43/100,000 to 331.0/100,000. The average suicide rate across studies was found to be high compared to the world average, however many studies were of poor quality or not representative. The majority of studies failed to explicitly define suicide (84% of the published articles and 92% of the grey literature documents). Poisoning and hanging were consistently the most common methods of committing suicide on the sub-continent. The reported suicide rates in South Asia are high compared to the global average, but there is a paucity of reliable data on suicide rates in South Asia. Reports are likely to diminish rather than exaggerate the magnitude of suicide rates. There is an urgent need to establish new, or evaluate existing, national suicide surveillance systems in the South Asian countries.

  13. Suicides among persons with psychiatric hospitalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger, Nehama; Haklai, Ziona; Pugachova, Inna; Levav, Itzhak

    2015-01-01

    Persons with severe mental disorders have higher suicide rates than the general population. Their risk profile needs to be fully explored to better guide suicide preventive efforts. Downsizing the number of beds in psychiatric hospitals and high bed turnover may also affect the suicide risk. To investigate 1) Suicide rates among persons who were ever hospitalized in psychiatric facilities compared to the general population, 2) Associated sociodemographic and psychiatric factors, 3) Changes in rate over time, and 4) Timing of suicide deaths. We linked the National Psychiatric Case Register (NPCR) with the national database on causes of death. Suicides in the years 1981-2009 were analyzed for the study group of Israelis aged 18 and over ever hospitalized (N= 158,800). Suicide rates were computed by age, gender, psychiatric diagnosis and year of death, as well as agestandardized rates and rate ratios (RR) for persons in the NPCR compared with those never hospitalized. The proportion of suicides committed by the ever hospitalized from all suicides in the population was calculated. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for suicide were computed for the ever hospitalized based on the total suicide rates of the population. A multivariate logistic model investigated risk factors associated with suicide in the ever-hospitalized population. The age-standardized suicide rate of Jews and Others with a psychiatric hospitalization was 17.6 times higher than that of the non-hospitalized (95% CI 16.7-18.6) and 29.7 times higher for Arabs (95% CI 23.4- 37.9). The rates were higher among females and younger persons. In the years 2007-2009, 30% of all suicides of Jews and Others were committed by persons who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities. The SMRs of Jews and Others, which increased at the beginning of the study period, fell steadily until 1995. In recent years they have been rising since 2000 and 2005 among females and males, respectively. One fifth (19%) of suicides

  14. Epidemiology of suicide in Brazil (1980 - 2000: characterization of age and gender rates of suicide Epidemiologia do suicídio no Brasil (1980 - 2000: caracterização das taxas de suicídio por idade e gênero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Mello-Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the suicide rates in Brazil in recent decades, drawing comparisons with the worldwide epidemiological situation. METHODS: Descriptive analyses of Brazilian suicide data, relating to the 1980-2000 period and extracted from the DATASUS database. Brazilian suicide trends were examined by age and gender. RESULTS: The overall rate of suicide in Brazil increased 21% in 20 years. Men were found to be 2.3 to 4.0 times more likely to commit suicide than were women, and the highest suicide rates were found in the over-65 age group. The greatest increase in suicide rates (1900% was seen in the 15-24 age range. CONCLUSION: Brazilian suicide rates, although low, are consistent with the global trend toward growth. Although the highest rates are still seen among the elderly, members of the younger population have been killing themselves with ever-increasing frequency.OBJETIVOS: Descrever as taxas de suicídio do Brasil nas últimas décadas, bem como compará-las com a situação epidemiológica mundial. MÉTODOS: Análise descritiva dos dados brasileiros sobre o suicídio, extraídos a partir do banco de dados de DATASUS, cobrindo o período de 1980-2000. Foram examinadas as tendências de suicídio no Brasil quanto à distribuição etária e gênero. RESULTADOS: A taxa global de suicídio no Brasil cresceu 21% em 20 anos. Os homens se suicidaram de 2,3 a 4 vezes mais que as mulheres e os idosos acima de 65 anos apresentaram as maiores taxas de suicídio. O estrato de jovens entre 15 a 24 anos foi o grupo de maior crescimento (1.900%. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de suicídio no Brasil, embora baixa, segue a tendência mundial de crescimento. Os idosos apresentam as taxas mais altas, mas, em números absolutos, a população jovem está se matando cada vez mais.

  15. The impact of newspaper reporting of hydrogen sulfide suicide on imitative suicide attempts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Akihito; Abe, Takeru; Omagari, Megumi; Motoi, Midori; Nabeshima, Yoshihiro

    2014-02-01

    An analysis model based on monthly or fortnight data is inadequate to precisely evaluate the impact of media reporting of suicide on suicide rates as well as the time lag from exposure to the report of a suicide. Thus, we used daily time-series data and examined the association between newspaper articles on suicide and suicide attempts in Japan. The Box-Jenkins transfer function model was applied to daily time-series data for the period March 27-May 21, 2008. Newspaper articles on suicide using hydrogen sulfide at (t - 1) were related to suicide attempts at (t) (ps Newspaper articles on suicides using hydrogen sulfide on the front page at (t - 1) were related to suicide attempts at (t) (p newspaper articles about suicide at (t - 1) or (t - 3) on "copy-cat" suicide attempts became greater as the number of news articles violating the media suicide recommendations increased. The time lag between exposure to newspaper reports of suicide and attempts was 1 or 3 days, and the magnitude of the impact of front page articles was about four times as great as that of suicide articles in general.

  16. Suicide in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ajit; Zarate-Escudero, Sofia; Bhat, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The elderly population size is growing worldwide due increased life expectancy and decreased mortality in the elderly. This has lead to an increase in the number of centenarians, and their numbers are predicted to increase further. Little is known about suicide rates in centenarians....... METHODS: Data on the number of suicides (ICD-10 codes, X60-84) in entenarians of both gender for as many years as possible from 2000 were ascertained from three sources: colleagues, national statisics office websites and e-mail contact with the national statistics offices of as many countries as possible....... The number of centernarians for the corresponding years was estimated for each country using data provided by the United Nations website. RESULTS: Data were available from 17 countries. The suicide rate was 57 (95% confidence interval 45-69) per 100, 000 person years in men and 6.8 (95% confidence interval 5...

  17. The epidemiology of firearm suicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Michael P; Wintemute, Garen J

    2002-03-01

    Little attention has been given to the role of firearms in suicide. In 1998, firearms were the leading method of committing suicide for both men and women, responsible for three times the number of suicides compared to the next leading method. Understanding the epidemiology of firearm suicide will increase awareness of firearm suicide as a major public health problem. Rates of firearm suicide have changed little over the past two decades and have consistently exceeded rates of firearm homicide. The firearm suicide rate among men is approximately six times that of women. While firearm suicide rates are highest among the elderly, the majority (66%) of firearm suicides are among persons under 55 years of age. Firearm suicide rates among women of all ages have dropped modestly, while rates among elderly men have risen considerably. Whites have roughly twice the rate of firearm suicide as do blacks and other race/ethnicity groups. Individual-level empirical studies have consistently indicated that keeping firearms in the home is associated with an increased risk of suicide. For suicide prevention to be effective, the availability and use of firearms in suicides must be addressed.

  18. Male depression and suicide: What NPs should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Melissa; Oliffe, John L

    2015-11-15

    The discordant relationship between men's low rates of diagnosed depression and high male suicide rates continues to prevail in North America. NPs are in a unique position to prevent suicide through recognizing and addressing the gendered nature of men's depression.

  19. Perceived Stressors of Suicide and Potential Prevention Strategies for Suicide among Youths in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jin Kuan; van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.; Chan, Andrea Huan Wen

    2015-01-01

    The suicide rate among youths in Malaysia has increased over the years, giving rise to considerable public concern. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe potential stressors of suicide and suicide prevention strategies as perceived by youths in Malaysia aged 15-25 years. A qualitative approach was adopted and 625 students from…

  20. Suicide Attempts and Family History of Suicide in Three Psychiatric Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…

  1. Cashmere production from Scottish Cashmere kids and crossbreed Scottish Cashmere x Jonica kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Marsico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a much wider research programme to evaluate the possibility of producing valuable textile fibres, such as cashmere, from goat breeds reared in Italy. In order to achieve this, we have used crossbreeding. The first stage of the programme consisted of evaluating cashmere production in F1 kids obtained by crossing white-haired Jonica does, which have no secondary fibres, with Scottish Cashmere bucks. The trial lasted one year starting in March 2007, and took place in the Department of Animal Production of the University of Bari (Italy. We used 14 male kids: 7 Scottish Cashmere (SC group, and 7 F1 (SC x J group derived from crossing Scottish Cashmere bucks with does of the Jonica breed, commonly reared in southern Italy. All the parameters considered (live weight, number and active percentage of primary and secondary follicles, S/P ratio, patch weight, growth and length of guard hair and down, yield, down production and diameter, blood protein and T3 and T4 were significantly influenced (P<0.01 by age. Genotype also had a significant effect (P<0.01 on all parameters except for the active percentage of primary follicles and the blood protein level. The factors which influence down production showed the heterosis effect to a varying extent in F1, but they still produced significantly less than the SC group kids (38.5±4.04 vs 68.5±9.16 g; P<0.01. These results are largely due to both their low number of secondary follicles (30.0±1.46 vs 39.3±1.02; P<0.01, which also have a lower percentage of activity (64.7±2.47 vs 90.0±1.53; P<0.01, and also to the down length which was 28% shorter than in SC group. This genetic combination is clearly unsatisfactory so others must be sought, probably by using more rustic local breeds, as well as more productive breeds for crossbreeding.

  2. Associations between family suicide and personal suicidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean age was 13.3 years (range 13–15 years). There were significant associations between family suicide and students' self-reported involvement in physical fights, use of alcohol and concerns about physical health. Family suicide was associated with personal suicidal ideation, suicidal plans and suicide attempts.

  3. Borderline personality disorder in suicidal adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shirley; Gagnon, Kerry; Spirito, Anthony

    2013-05-01

    The diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescents has been controversial. Thus, few studies have examined BPD in suicidal adolescents, even though it is strongly associated with suicidal behaviours in adults. This study examines differences between suicidal adolescents with (n = 47) and without (n = 72) BPD on history and characteristics of suicidal behaviour, Axis I co-morbidity, affect regulation and aggression. Assessments were completed with both adolescents and parents, and consensus ratings based on best available data were analysed. BPD participants were more likely to have a history of suicide attempts and to have been admitted because of a suicide attempt (vs. suicidal ideation). There were no significant differences in self-injurious behaviours or degree of suicidal ideation. BPD participants also had more psychiatric co-morbidity and higher aggression scores but no significant differences in affective dysregulation compared with suicidal adolescents without BPD. Diagnostic stability over 6 months was modest. Our results demonstrate that, compared with other acutely suicidal adolescents, the clinical profile of BPD participants is unique and suggests an increased risk for suicidal behaviours. This extends upon other studies that support the construct validity of BPD during adolescence and suggests that BPD should be considered in suicide risk assessment for adolescents. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Inpatient suicide in a Chinese psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Hao, Yuantao; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Guo, Yangbo; Su, Jinghua; Lu, Huixian

    2008-08-01

    Little is known about the risk factors for suicide among psychiatric inpatients in China. In this study we identified the risk factors of suicide among psychiatric inpatients at Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital. All psychiatric inpatients who died by suicide during the 1956-2005 period were included in this study. Using a case-control design, 64 inpatients with schizophrenia who died by suicide were compared with a matched 64 controls. The results indicate that the rate of suicide was 133.1/100,000 admissions (95%CI 103.4-162.9). There were no significant differences in the method, location, or time of suicide between male and female inpatients. The number of hospitalizations was significantly larger in the suicide group than that in the control group. In logistic regression analyses, guilty thought, depressive mood, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempt 1 month before hospital admission were identified as independent predictors of suicide among inpatients with schizophrenia. The findings of risk factors for schizophrenic inpatient suicide should be taken into account when developing interventions to prevent suicide among these patients.

  5. Lithium and suicide prevention in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, V; Vaiva, G; Masson, M; Geoffroy, P A

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and recurrent psychiatric disorder. The severity of prognosis in BD is mainly linked to the high rate of suicide in this population. Indeed, patients with BD commit suicide 20 to 30 times more frequently than the general population, and half of the BD population with an early age of onset have a history of suicide attempt. International therapeutic guidelines recommend lithium (Li) as the first-line treatment in BD for its prophylactic action on depressive or manic episodes. In addition, Li is the only mood stabilizer that has demonstrated efficacy in suicide prevention. This effect of Li is unfortunately often unknown to psychiatrists. Thus, this review aims to highlight evidence about the preventive action of Li on suicide in BD populations. We conducted a literature search between April 1968 and August 2014 in PubMed database using the following terms: "lithium" AND "suicide" OR "suicidality" OR "suicide attempt". As confirmed by a recent meta-analysis, many studies show that Li has a significant effect on the reduction of suicide attempts and deaths by suicide in comparison to antidepressants or other mood-stabilisers in BD populations. Studies have demonstrated that long-term treatment with Li reduces suicide attempts by about 10% and deaths by suicide by about 20%. The combination of Li and an antidepressant could reduce suicidal behaviours by reducing suicidal ideation prior to depressive symptoms. It appears crucial for Li efficacy in suicide prevention to maintain the Li blood concentrations in the efficient therapeutic zone and to instate long-term Li treatment. The "impulsive-aggressive" endophenotype is associated with suicide in BD. The specific action of Li on the 5-HT serotoninergic system could explain the specific anti-suicidal effects of Li via the modulation of impulsiveness and aggressiveness. Furthermore, genetic variants of the glycogen synthase kinase 3α/β (GSK3α and β; proteins inhibited by Li) seem to

  6. Altitude, gun ownership, rural areas, and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namkug; Mickelson, Jennie B; Brenner, Barry E; Haws, Charlotte A; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A; Renshaw, Perry F

    2011-01-01

    The authors recently observed a correlation between state altitude and suicide rate in the United States, which could be explained by higher rates of gun ownership and lower population density in the intermountain West. The present study evaluated the relationship between mean county and state altitude in the United States and total age-adjusted suicide rates, firearm-related suicide rates, and non-firearm-related suicide rates. The authors hypothesized that altitude would be significantly associated with suicide rate. Elevation data were calculated with an approximate spatial resolution of 0.5 km, using zonal statistics on data sets compiled from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Suicide and population density data were obtained through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) WONDER database. Gun ownership data were obtained through the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. A significant positive correlation was observed between age-adjusted suicide rate and county elevation (r=0.51). Firearm (r=0.41) and non-firearm suicide rates (r=0.32) were also positively correlated with mean county elevation. When altitude, gun ownership, and population density are considered as predictor variables for suicide rates on a state basis, altitude appears to be a significant independent risk factor. This association may be related to the effects of metabolic stress associated with mild hypoxia in individuals with mood disorders.

  7. Generating an Inclusive Ethos? Exploring the Impact of Restorative Practices in Scottish Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jean; Lloyd, Gwynedd; McCluskey, Gillean; Maguire, Roseanne; Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED) established a project to pilot restorative practices (RPs) in schools in three local authorities (LAs) in Scotland. The pilot project was one strand of the Scottish Executive's range of initiatives to promote "Better Behaviour Better Learning" in Scottish schools and was to run…

  8. Risk factors that influence suicidal behavior in affective disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Albina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known in the literature that the incidence and prevalence of suicide and attempted suicide in psychiatric patients is significantly higher than in the general population. The paper examined risk factors for suicidal behavior in the category of admitted patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of sleep disorders and affective (Unipolar resp. Bipolar depression. Study activated by 80 patients, 40 in both diagnostic groups received treatment at the Special Psychiatric Hospital in Gornja Toponica near Nis. The work methodology used are: psychiatric interview, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD, and the C-SSRS (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale- assessment tool that assesses suicidal ideation and behavior. The study results show that there is a relationship between suicidal behavior (suicide attempts and suicidal ideation and the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder, positive history of previous suicide attempts, so that these factors are stronger, to the degree of suicidality higher. On this sample, clearly suicidal behavior, with the same purpose, intensity of suicidal thoughts and medical impairment after suicide attempts were significantly more frequent in patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder in the depressive phase of the illness. Patients with a previous suicide attempt, and poor personal and social circumstances had a higher rate of attempted suicide.

  9. Railway suicide in Belgium 1998-2009: incidence and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriessen, Karl; Krysinska, Karolina

    2012-01-01

    Belgium is a country with a high suicide rate (19.1/100,000 in 2004), and railway suicide poses a substantial safety and public health problem. This problem was addressed by the Suicide Prevention Unit of Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure), which collects relevant data and implements a prevention program. To present data on fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior on the Belgian railway network, including monthly and regional distribution and identification of hotspots; and to present the Infrabel suicide prevention program. Analysis of Infrabel data on railway suicide (1998-2009) and comparison with data on suicide in Belgium. A total of 1,092 railway suicides (1998-2009) and 557 suicide attempts (2003-2009) in Belgium (fatality rate of 54%) were studied. Monthly fluctuations were observed, with the majority of suicides occurring in Flanders, followed by Wallonia and Brussels. We identified 34 hotspots accounting for 35% of cases, mostly in Flanders. In 2004 railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium (railway suicide rate of 1.03/100,000). Such a major human and economic loss warrants implementation of prevention measures. Infrabel has initiated a comprehensive suicide prevention program which focuses mainly on safeguarding the suicide hotspots.

  10. A gradient of mercury concentrations in Scottish single malt whiskies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Neil L; Yang, Handong; Turner, Simon D

    2016-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in 26 Scottish single malt whiskies, and all found to be very low (mercury emissions and deposition over the last 200 years affecting concentrations in local waters used in whisky production. As UK atmospheric emissions of mercury have declined by 90 % since the 1970s, we suggest that whisky being produced today should have even lower Hg concentrations when consumed in 10- to 15-years time. This reduction may be compromised by the remobilisation of contaminants stored in catchment soils being transferred to source waters, but is very unlikely to raise the negligible health risk due to Hg from Scottish single malt whisky consumption.

  11. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom...... severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047......) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania....

  12. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania.

  13. Suicide risk among homeless population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Calvo-García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There exists little scientific production on autolytic behaviour in homeless people, despite the fact that it is one of the groups that is more at risk. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of previous attempted suicide and suicide risk and its connection with the main risk factors. In order to do so, central tendency and dispersion measures, correlations, contingence tables, and average comparison tables according to type of variable and normality were used. The Plutchik suicide-risk test was used in order to determine the risk of suicide, and specific tests for the main risk factors analysed. The main results show a 24.7% suicide rate and 45.2% (n = 66 displayed suicide risk. The main predictive factor of the risk of suicide was the daily consumption of alcohol (OR = 1.011, p less than .001, followed by being a woman (OR = 1.381, p = .021. It is necessary to design and apply suicide prevention strategies for this population.

  14. Scottish Sea Lochs: High Resolution Archives of North Atlantic Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard-Pedersen, N.; Austin, W. E.; Cage, A. G.; Shimmield, T. M.; Gillibrand, P. A.

    2002-12-01

    The sea lochs (fjords) of NW Scotland bridge the land-ocean interface in a region of Europe which is particularly well situated to monitor changes in westerly air flow. Inter-annual atmospheric circulation changes at this latitude are largely governed by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), in turn influencing both westerlies and precipitation. Comparing two extreme recent NAO years, circulation modelling results from Loch Sunart, NW Scotland, reveal a clear response to freshwater runoff and wind forcing in both magnitude and rate of deep-water renewal events. Scottish fjords, because of the relatively small impact which salinity has on d18Owater (0.18 % per salinity unit), potentially provide NW Europe's most useful study sites in coastal palaeoclimate research, particularly where palaeotemperature is the primary record of interest. New data from a high-resolution record (7 yr sample resolution), spanning the last two millennia, from the deepest part of the main basin of Loch Sunart illustrate significant multi-decadal to centennial scale variability in the sedimentary and stable isotope record of epibenthic foraminifera Cibicides lobatulus. The long-term pattern in benthic d18O appears to reflect bottom water temperature differences of 1-2§C, resolving climatic periods such as the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. Since the core site is connected with shelf waters (i.e. no shallow sill) it seems likely that this paleotemperature reflects changing shelf water, not the exchange process as a function of long-term runoff/wind forcing. Grain size data and XRF data point to catchment-wide responses (weathering and erosion) which appear to show the largest variability during the last millennium, driven either by rainfall and temperature and/or land-use. Pb-isotope data, constraining the modern and industrial period, suggest accelerated sedimentation rates over this interval. On-going work attempts to calibrate proxy data with instrumental historical data.

  15. Prevalence of coronary heart disease in Scotland: Scottish Heart Health Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, W C; Kenicer, M B; Tunstall-Pedoe, H; Clark, E C; Crombie, I K

    1990-01-01

    Data from 10,359 men and women aged 40-59 years from 22 districts in the Scottish Heart Health Study were used to describe the prevalence rates of coronary heart disease in Scotland in 1984-1986 and their relation to the geographical variation in mortality in these districts. Prevalence was measured by previous history, Rose chest pain questionnaire, and the Minnesota code of a 12 lead resting electrocardiogram. The prevalence of coronary heart disease in Scotland was high compared with studi...

  16. Suicide protective factors among trans adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Chérie; Smith, Nathan Grant

    2013-07-01

    A recent study indicated a suicide attempt rate of 41 % among trans (e.g., trans, transgender, transexual/transsexual, genderqueer, two-spirit) individuals. Although this rate is alarming, there is a dearth of literature regarding suicide prevention for trans individuals. A vital step in developing suicide prevention models is the identification of protective factors. It was hypothesized that social support from friends, social support from family, optimism, reasons for living, and suicide resilience, which are known to protect cis (non-trans) individuals, also protect trans individuals. A sample of self-identified trans Canadian adults (N = 133) was recruited from LGBT and trans LISTSERVs. Data were collected online using a secure survey platform. A three block hierarchical multiple regression model was used to predict suicidal behavior from protective factors. Social support from friends, social support from family, and optimism significantly and negatively predicted 33 % of variance in participants' suicidal behavior after controlling for age. Reasons for living and suicide resilience accounted for an additional 19 % of the variance in participants' suicidal behavior after controlling for age, social support from friends, social support from family, and optimism. Of the factors mentioned above, perceived social support from family, one of three suicide resilience factors (emotional stability), and one of six reasons for living (child-related concerns) significantly and negatively predicted participants' suicidal behavior. Overall, these findings can be used to inform the practices of mental health workers, medical doctors, and suicide prevention workers working with trans clients.

  17. Male depression and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W

    2001-03-01

    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  18. [Suicidal poisoning with benzodiazepines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Z; Sein Anand, J

    1997-01-01

    In the period from 1987 to 1996, 103 patients with suicidal benzodiazepines poisoning were treated, including 62 women and 41 men from 16 to 79 (mean 34) years old. 23 persons were poisoned only by benzodiazepines, in 80 remaining cases intoxications were mixed eg. including benzodiazepines and alcohol, tricyclic antidepressants, barbiturates, opioids, phenothiazines. The main causes of suicides were mainly depression, drug addiction and alcoholism. Nobody died in the benzodiazepines group, while mortality rate in the group of mixed poisoning was 4%. Prescribing benzodiazepines by physicians was quite often not justified and facilitated, among others, accumulation of the dose sufficient for suicide attempt. Flumazenil was efficient for leading out from coma in 86% of cases with poisoning only by benzodiazepines and 13% of cases with mixed intoxications mainly containing benzodiazepines and alcohol or carbamazepine.

  19. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. To analyze the time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970-2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993-1994 and 2005-2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. Suicide rates were higher among men than women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital, a continued increase to very high rates in remote East and North Greenland and a slow increase in villages relative to towns on the West Coast. Suicidal thoughts followed the regional pattern for completed suicides. Especially for women there was a noticeable increasing trend in the villages. The relative risk for suicide was highest among those who reported suicidal thoughts, but most suicides happened outside this high-risk group. Suicide rates and the prevalence of suicidal thoughts remain high in Greenland but different regional trends point towards an increased marginalization between towns on the central West Coast, villages and East and North Greenland. Different temporal patterns call for different regional strategies of prevention.

  20. Teen Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you believe your teen is at risk of suicide. Two common tests are the Patient Health Questionnaire for Adolescents (PHQ-A) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). These tests measure type, start, length, ...

  1. Clinical characteristics in schizophrenia patients with or without suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Erlend; Walby, Fredrik A; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Steen, Nils E; Lorentzen, Steinar; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Mehlum, Lars

    2013-10-09

    To investigate whether schizophrenia patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm have earlier age of onset of psychotic and depressive symptoms and higher levels of clinical symptoms compared to patients with only suicide attempts or without suicide attempt. Using a cross-sectional design, 251 patients (18-61 years old, 58% men) with schizophrenia treated at hospitals in Oslo and Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway, were assessed with a comprehensive clinical research protocol and divided into three groups based on their history of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm. Suicide attempts were present in 88 patients (35%); 52 had suicide attempts only (29%) and 36 had both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (14%). When compared with nonattempters and those with suicide attempts without non-suicidal self-harm, patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more frequently women, younger at the onset of psychotic symptoms, had longer duration of untreated psychosis, and had higher levels of current impulsivity/aggression and depression. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to repeat suicide attempts than patients with suicide attempts only. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm had different illness history and clinical characteristics compared to patients with only suicide attempts or patients without suicidal behavior. Our study suggests that patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm represent a distinct subgroup among patients with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior with their early onset of psychotic symptoms, high rate of repeated suicidal behavior and significant treatment delay.

  2. Clinical characteristics in schizophrenia patients with or without suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm - a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate whether schizophrenia patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm have earlier age of onset of psychotic and depressive symptoms and higher levels of clinical symptoms compared to patients with only suicide attempts or without suicide attempt. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, 251 patients (18–61 years old, 58% men) with schizophrenia treated at hospitals in Oslo and Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway, were assessed with a comprehensive clinical research protocol and divided into three groups based on their history of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm. Results Suicide attempts were present in 88 patients (35%); 52 had suicide attempts only (29%) and 36 had both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (14%). When compared with nonattempters and those with suicide attempts without non-suicidal self-harm, patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more frequently women, younger at the onset of psychotic symptoms, had longer duration of untreated psychosis, and had higher levels of current impulsivity/aggression and depression. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to repeat suicide attempts than patients with suicide attempts only. Conclusions Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm had different illness history and clinical characteristics compared to patients with only suicide attempts or patients without suicidal behavior. Our study suggests that patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm represent a distinct subgroup among patients with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior with their early onset of psychotic symptoms, high rate of repeated suicidal behavior and significant treatment delay. PMID:24106884

  3. Critical Components of Suicide Prevention Programs for Colleges and Universities: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Colleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite debate over whether or not college student suicide rates are greater or less than similar age groups not enrolled in higher education, the rates of college students experiencing suicide ideation, attempting suicide, and successfully committing suicide are indeed rising. A steady increase in these rates over the last 15 years is evidence…

  4. Completed suicide, depression, and RELN polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bučić, Marina; Pregelj, Peter; Zupanc, Tomaž; Videtič Paska, Alja

    2016-10-01

    Suicidal behavior is a complex phenomenon, an outcome of both environmental and genetic factors. In the present study, we looked for a potential association between suicide and the reelin gene as reelin has been associated previously with several psychiatric disorders, including depression. We analyzed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the reelin gene, rs2965087, rs7341475, and rs362691, in a population of 483 suicide victims and 332 healthy controls, all Caucasians. An analysis was carried out according to sex and the method of suicide. In a group of 77 suicide victims with psychological autopsy data, suicide threats, suicide in the family, and number of depression symptoms were also considered. Analysis of all three polymorphisms did not confirm an association with suicide in general. However, for subjects included in psychological autopsy study, association with previous announcement of suicide in the group of subjects with TT genotype for polymorphism rs2965087 was determined. Furthermore, the results pointed to an association with reported suicide in the family of suicide victims in case of the TT genotype. In contrast, the number of depressive symptoms, besides suicidal threats, was lower in the group with the TT genotype. Psychological autopsies can be associated with recall bias and the sample was rather small and therefore underpowered. The present investigation, performed on a study sample from a population with one of the highest suicide rates in the world, indicated an association between rs2965087 in the reelin gene and the expression of suicidal threats a month before suicide in contrast to other symptoms of depression.

  5. Long-term impact of celebrity suicide on suicidal ideation: results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, King-wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2007-06-01

    The short-term effect of celebrity suicide on the overall suicide rate is widely known, but long-term effects remain unclear. To examine whether celebrity suicide is associated with suicidal ideation over a longer period. This is a study on the effect of the suicide of a famous Hong Kong entertainment celebrity, who committed suicide on 1 April 2003, on suicide thoughts of the community. A population-based survey was conducted between December 2003 and July 2004. Respondents were asked about their suicidal ideation, psychological well-being, life events, and whether or not they had been affected by celebrity suicide. Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the People's Republic of China. 2016 respondents aged between 20 and 59 years. After controlling for some known suicide risk factors, celebrity suicide was shown to be independently associated with suicidal ideation. People who had indicated to have been affected by celebrity suicide were 5.93 times (95% CI 2.56% to 13.72%, p = 0) more likely to have severe level of suicidal ideation (Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire score > or = 31) than people who had not been affected. Respondents having greater anxiety symptoms, less reason for living and more focus on irrational values were also found to have had their suicide ideation affected by celebrity suicide. Celebrity suicide is a risk factor for suicidal ideation over a short term as well as over a long term. Raising awareness of the possible negative effect of celebrity suicide through suicide prevention programmes in the community is needed.

  6. Long‐term impact of celebrity suicide on suicidal ideation: results from a population‐based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, King‐wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2007-01-01

    Background The short‐term effect of celebrity suicide on the overall suicide rate is widely known, but long‐term effects remain unclear. Objective To examine whether celebrity suicide is associated with suicidal ideation over a longer period. Design This is a study on the effect of the suicide of a famous Hong Kong entertainment celebrity, who committed suicide on 1 April 2003, on suicide thoughts of the community. A population‐based survey was conducted between December 2003 and July 2004. Respondents were asked about their suicidal ideation, psychological well‐being, life events, and whether or not they had been affected by celebrity suicide. Setting Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the People's Republic of China. Participants 2016 respondents aged between 20 and 59 years. Results After controlling for some known suicide risk factors, celebrity suicide was shown to be independently associated with suicidal ideation. People who had indicated to have been affected by celebrity suicide were 5.93 times (95% CI 2.56% to 13.72%, p = 0) more likely to have severe level of suicidal ideation (Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire score ≧31) than people who had not been affected. Respondents having greater anxiety symptoms, less reason for living and more focus on irrational values were also found to have had their suicide ideation affected by celebrity suicide. Conclusions Celebrity suicide is a risk factor for suicidal ideation over a short term as well as over a long term. Raising awareness of the possible negative effect of celebrity suicide through suicide prevention programmes in the community is needed. PMID:17496264

  7. Do the Five Combinations of Suicidal Ideation in the FDA 2012 Draft Guidance Document and the C–SSRS Adequately Cover All Suicidal Ideation Combinations in Practice? A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Giddens, Jennifer M.; Sheehan, David V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The United States Food and Drug Administration’s newest classification system for suicidality assessment anchors suicidal ideation to various combinations of passive suicidal ideation, active suicidal ideation, method, intent, and plan. This is based upon the suicidal ideation categories in the Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Although there are 32 possible combinations of these suicidal ideation phenomena, the Food and Drug Administration’s 2012 system and the Columbia–Suic...

  8. Murray Pittock, ed., The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Romanticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Malzahn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Murray Pittock, ed., The Edinburgh Companion to Scottish Romanticism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2011. Pp. 251. ISBN 978-0-7486-3845-1 (hardback. £ 65.00. ISBN 978-0-7486-3846-8 (paperback. £ 21.99.

  9. Accounting for risk conflicts in Scottish salmon farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgakopoulos, G.; Thomson, I.; Kaldis, P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To offer a theoretical analysis, inspired by contemporary research into risk, of the social and environmental accounting processes observed in an empirical study on Scottish salmon farming. Methodology / Approach: This paper used a Grounded Theory approach. Empirical evidence was collected

  10. Scottish Power Annual Report and Accounts - 1996-97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The annual report and accounts of Scottish Power for 1996-97 outlines the operational and financial highlights of the year, and presents the reports of the Chairman and other Directors. Details are given of the financial year, the accounting policy, profits and losses, and company and shareholder information. (UK)

  11. Censorship Challenges to Books in Scottish Public Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelly; McMenemy, David

    2013-01-01

    Censorship challenges to books in UK public libraries have received renewed attention recently. This study sought to establish the incidence of censorship challenges to books in Scottish public libraries in the years 2005-2009 and the actions taken in response to these challenges. It was found that eight local authorities in Scotland had received…

  12. The Scottish Structural Proteomics Facility: targets, methods and outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oke, Muse; Carter, Lester G; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2010-01-01

    The Scottish Structural Proteomics Facility was funded to develop a laboratory scale approach to high throughput structure determination. The effort was successful in that over 40 structures were determined. These structures and the methods harnessed to obtain them are reported here. This report ...

  13. The decline in Australian young male suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Stephen; Page, Andrew N; Taylor, Richard J

    2007-02-01

    Since the late 1990s there has been a sharp downward trend in Australian young male suicide. It is possible that a major government youth suicide prevention initiative, the National Youth Suicide Prevention Strategy (NYSPS), implemented during 1995-1999 may have influenced the decline. In this article, we examine time trends in age- and means-specific male and female Australian suicide rates in relation to unemployment rates and the NYSPS. Based on Australian suicide data over the period 1966-2003, we assess secular changes in the 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide rate ratio in relation to the NYSPS, using interrupted time series analysis (ARIMA), since this was previously found to be significantly associated with the 20-24 year male unemployment to total employment ratio. Results show that a dramatic reduction in Australian young male (aged 20-34 years) suicide has occurred since 1997-1998, declining from approximately 40 per 100,000 in 1997-1998 to approximately 20 per 100,000 in 2003. Most of the decline is due to a decrease in suicide by hanging and to a lesser extent from motor vehicle carbon monoxide and other gases. Further, the previously established strong secular association (lasting over 3 decades from 1966) between the rate ratio of 20-24 year male suicide to total (crude) male suicide, and the rate ratio of 20-24 year male unemployment to total unemployment, appears to have been disrupted. ARIMA modelling of the suicide ratio against the initiative indicates a highly significant statistical association between the NYSPS and the suicide ratio reduction but not between the NYSPS and the unemployment indicator trend, suggesting a break in the link between young male suicide and unemployment. The recent sudden turnaround in Australian young male suicide trends and its extent appears to preclude explanations centring on slow-moving social indices traditionally associated with suicide, or on possible cohort effects. This sudden decrease

  14. Suicidal behavior in Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Diana; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is both a public and mental health problem, and is a leading cause of deaths, especially among adolescents. Two factors that contribute to the decision of adolescents to commit suicide are having a primary mood disorder and/or substance use. In the Indian culture, the family unit has both a positive and negative impact on suicide. The family serves as a protective factor that provides a strong support for the individual, but alternately creates an inseparable individual when seeking mental health care, which often complicates the situation. Due to the stigma, Indians typically perceive having a mental illness as shameful. Religion is integral to the Indian culture so much so that individuals often use herbal remedies, seek help from religious leaders, and attend religious establishments prior to obtaining a mental health evaluation in those that are subsequently deemed as mentally ill. Despite the fact that suicides are underreported and misdiagnosed in India, it is known that the highest rates are among those immigrating, Indians tend to switch the methods they use to commit suicide from ingestion of poison to hanging, which may reflect a lack of available poisonous substances or the influence of the host culture. Considering the high suicide rates in adolescents, the importance of providing psychoeducation, restricting access to lethal means, and promoting social integration in immigrants are various ways by which suicides in Indian adolescents can be avoided.

  15. Suicide prevention through means restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W.; Chang, Shu-Sen; Dawson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of 3-year phased bans of the pesticides dimethoate and fenthion in 2008–2010, and paraquat in 2009–2011, on suicide mortality in Sri Lanka. Methods: Age-standardised overall, sex-specific, and method-specific suicide rates were calculated using Sri Lankan police...... data (1989–2015). Using negative binomial regression models, we estimated the change in the rate and number of suicide deaths in post-ban years (2011–15) compared to those expected based on pre-ban trends (2001–10). Findings: Overall suicide mortality dropped by 21% between 2011 and 2015, from 18.......3 to 14.3 per 100,000. The decline in pesticide suicides during this same period was larger than for overall suicides: from 8.5 to 4.2 per 100,000, a 50% reduction. This was accompanied by a smaller concurrent rise in non-pesticide suicide mortality with a 2% increase (9.9 to 10.1 per 100,000). In 2015...

  16. A Google-based approach for monitoring suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Paola; Ustulin, Morena; Pizzorno, Enrico; Vichi, Monica; Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Amore, Mario

    2016-12-30

    People seeking information and news regarding suicide are likely to use the Internet. However, evidence of the relationship between suicide-related search volumes and national suicide-rates in different countries can be strikingly different. We aimed to investigate the relationship between suicide-rates and Google suicide-related search volumes in the Italian population (2008-2012) using the Italian mortality database that provided monthly national data concerning suicides (2008-2012). Moreover, this study aimed to identify future trends of national suicide rates on the basis of the results we obtained concerning the period 2013-14. Google Trends provided data of online monthly search-volumes of the term "suicide", "commit suicide" and "how to commit suicide" in Google Search and Google News (2008-2014). Google Search volumes for the term "suicide" lags suicide by three months (ρ=0.482, p-valueGoogle News search volumes for the three terms resulted in white noise. Apparently, online searches for suicide-related terms in Italy are more likely to be linked to factors other than suicidiality such as personal interest and suicide bereavement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gun control and suicide: possible impact of Canadian legislation to ensure safe storage of firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Jean

    2004-01-01

    In 1992, the Canadian Firearms Act aimed at ensuring safe storage of firearms was promulgated. This study compares suicide methods 6 years prior to the enactment of the law and 5 years after its enactment. The study encompassed 426 suicide cases from Abitibi-Témiscamingue (Northern Quebec), the region with the highest suicide rate and the highest firearm suicide rate in Quebec. Suicide by firearms decreased in the male and female population. Suicide by hanging increased among youths of both sexes, and suicide by poisoning doubled in the female population. A decrease in firearm suicides was most noticeable in the under-25 age group, although it was in this same age group that the general suicide rate increased the most. The reduction of firearm suicides was not accompanied by a decrease in overall suicide rates.

  18. Firearms and suicide in US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew; Warren, Molly; Hemenway, David; Azrael, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    On an average day in the USA more than 100 Americans die by suicide-half use firearms. Suicide rates overall and by firearms are higher, on average, in states where household firearm ownership is more common. In general this means in states where a greater proportion of the population lives in rural areas. The current ecological study focuses on the relation between measures of household firearm prevalence and suicide mortality in urban areas (metropolitan statistical areas and divisions) using survey-based measures of firearm ownership. Suicide rates (1999-2010) for metropolitan statistical areas that are comprised of large US cities come from death certificate records; rates of household firearm ownership come from the 2002 and 2004 Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System. Higher rates of firearm ownership are strongly associated with higher rates of overall suicide and firearm suicide, but not with non-firearm suicide. Stratification by gender, age and race did not materially affect the association between firearms and suicide. This study provides evidence consistent with previous case-control work and extends evidence from previous state- and region-level ecological studies that firearms in the home impose suicide risk above and beyond baseline. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Suicides in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: analysis of Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Suicide rates among Indigenous Australian children are higher than for other Australian children. The current study aimed to identify factors associated with Indigenous child suicide when compared to other Australian children. Using the Queensland Suicide Register, suicides in Indigenous children (10-14 years) and other Australian children in the same age band were compared. Between 2000 and 2010, 45 child suicides were recorded: 21 of Indigenous children and 24 of other Australian children. This corresponded to a suicide rate of 10.15 suicides per 100,000 for Indigenous children - 12.63 times higher than the suicide rate for other Australian children (0.80 per 100,000). Hanging was the predominant method used by all children. Indigenous children were significantly more likely to suicide outside the home, to be living outside the parental home at time of death, and be living in remote or very remote areas. Indigenous children were found to consume alcohol more frequently before suicide, compared to other Australian children. Current and past treatments of psychiatric disorders were significantly less common among Indigenous children compared to other Australian children. Western conceptualisation of mental illness may not adequately embody Indigenous people's holistic perspective regarding mental health. Further development of culturally appropriate suicide prevention activities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is required. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of suicide in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Hurtado-Ruíz, Gemma

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death among patients with schizophrenia. Suicide phenomenon's characterization is the best available approach for improved prediction and prevention of suicide. Patients at high risk for suicide need a more intensive monitoring and intervention. The aim of this review is to characterize, from a clinical-epidemiological point of view, the phenomenon of completed suicide in schizophrenia. We performed a systematic review to identify the most relevant studies published between 1994 and 2009, by searching on the international database Medline and among previous reviews references. Patients with schizophrenia experience higher mortality rates than the general population, especially due to the suicide. Most patients with schizophrenia who commit suicide are likely to be young and males, with a higher risk around illness onset and hospitalization periods. Previous suicide attempts are an important risk factor for completed suicide. Suicide risk is associated to psychotic positive symptoms, affective symptoms, depression and substance abuse. Treatment adherence is as protective factor. Patients with schizophrenia are likely to commit suicide by violent means. Suicide prevention should focus on treating affective symptoms and syndromes, improving treatment compliance and providing intensive monitoring to those patients at high risk of suicide, specially around hospitalization periods. Further studies are needed to clarify differential characteristics between suicide behaviour and completed suicide.

  1. Searching for suicide-related information on Chinese websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Cheng, Qijin; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang

    2017-12-01

    Growing concerns about cyber-suicide have prompted many studies on suicide information available on the web. However, very few studies have considered non-English websites. We aimed to analyze online suicide-related information accessed through Chinese-language websites. We used Taiwan's two most popular search engines (Google and Yahoo) to explore the results returned from six suicide-related search terms in March 2016. The first three pages listing the results from each search were analyzed and rated based on the attitude towards suicide (pro-suicide, anti-suicide, neutral/mixed, not a suicide site, or error). Comparisons across different search terms were also performed. In all, 375 linked webpages were included; 16.3% of the webpages were pro-suicide and 41.3% were anti-suicide. The majority of the pro-suicide sites were user-generated webpages (96.7%). Searches using the keywords 'ways to kill yourself' (31.7%) and 'painless suicide' (28.3%) generated much larger numbers of harmful webpages than the term 'suicide' (4.3%). We conclude that collaborative efforts with internet service providers and search engines to improve the ranking of anti-suicide webpages and websites and implement online suicide reporting guidelines are highly encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends and socio-economic determinants of suicide in India: 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Vikas; Page, Andrew; River, Jo; Armstrong, Gregory; Mayer, Peter

    2018-03-01

    To investigate trends and socio-economic determinants of suicide in India over the period of 2001-2013. Suicide rates between 2001 and 2013 were calculated using suicide statistics provided by National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) and census data provided by Census of India, stratified by sex, age group, and geographical region, to investigate trends in suicide over the study period. Multilevel negative binomial regression models were specified to investigate associations between state-level indicators of economic development, education, employment and religious factors and sex-specific suicide rates. Male suicide rates remained relatively steady (~ 14 per 100,000) while female suicide rates decreased over the study period (9 to 7 per 100,000). The age group of 45-59 years had the highest suicide rate among males while the age group of 15-29 years had the highest suicide rate among females. On average, higher male and female suicide rates were observed in states with: higher levels of development, higher levels of agricultural employment, higher levels of literacy, and higher proportions of people identifying with Hinduism. Higher male suicide rates were also observed in states with higher levels of unemployment. The process of modernization might be contributing towards higher suicide risk in more developed parts of India. Also, increase in farmer suicides since economic liberalization might be contributing towards higher suicide rates among more agricultural regions. Furthermore, ancient sanctions towards religious suicide are possibly still influencing modern Hindu suicides.

  3. Firearm suicide among older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamek, M E; Kaplan, M S

    1996-03-01

    Data from the Compressed Mortality File for the years 1979 to 1991 were analyzed to determine epidemiologic trends in the rates of suicide by firearms among three age groups of white and black men age 65 and older (65 to 74 years, 75 to 84 years, and 85 years and older). In 1991, among men age 65 and older, firearms accounted for 80 percent of all suicides. Firearm suicide rates increased significantly over time among white men in all three age groups, especially those age 75 and older, and among black men between the ages of 75 and 84. Clinicians should regularly conduct a firearm-availability history with elderly men who are depressed or suicidal.

  4. Attitudes and Perceptions of Suicide and Suicide Prevention Messages for Asian Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyata Thapa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the context of suicidal behaviors is critical for effective suicide prevention strategies. Although suicide is an important topic for Asian Americans, there is limited information about what Asian Americans’ attitudes are towards suicide and their perceptions about the effectiveness of prevention efforts. These questions are critical to examine to provide foundational knowledge for determining how best to intervene. In this study, Asian American (n = 87 and White (n = 87 participants completed self-report indexes on their knowledge of depression and suicide (e.g., estimates of suicide rates, coping attitudes (e.g., help-seeking and suicide prevention attitudes (e.g., usefulness of PSAs. The results indicate that in comparison to Whites, Asian Americans perceived suicidal behavior to be more common, perceived a stronger link between depression and suicide, less frequently endorsed help-seeking strategies, and reported more concern or distress after viewing a suicide prevention PSA. These preliminary results also suggest the possibility of cultural differences in perceptions of suicide prevention messages. The implications of these findings are discussed with a focus on providing recommendations for exploring suicide prevention efforts for Asian Americans.

  5. Suicide in U.S. Workplaces, 2003-2010: a comparison with non-workplace suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesman, Hope M; Konda, Srinivas; Hartley, Dan; Chaumont Menéndez, Cammie; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Suicide rates have risen considerably in recent years. National workplace suicide trends have not been well documented. The aim of this study is to describe suicides occurring in U.S. workplaces and compare them to suicides occurring outside of the workplace between 2003 and 2010. Suicide data originated from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injury database and the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Suicide rates were calculated using denominators from the 2013 Current Population Survey and 2000 U.S. population census. Suicide rates were compared among demographic groups with rate ratios and 95% CIs. Suicide rates were calculated and compared among occupations. Linear regression, adjusting for serial correlation, was used to analyze temporal trends. Analyses were conducted in 2013-2014. Between 2003 and 2010, a total of 1,719 people died by suicide in the workplace. Workplace suicide rates generally decreased until 2007 and then sharply increased (p=0.035). This is in contrast with non-workplace suicides, which increased over the study period (p=0.025). Workplace suicide rates were highest for men (2.7 per 1,000,000); workers aged 65-74 years (2.4 per 1,000,000); those in protective service occupations (5.3 per 1,000,000); and those in farming, fishing, and forestry (5.1 per 1,000,000). The upward trend of suicides in the workplace underscores the need for additional research to understand occupation-specific risk factors and develop evidence-based programs that can be implemented in the workplace. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Detecting suicidality on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridianne O'Dea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Twitter is increasingly investigated as a means of detecting mental health status, including depression and suicidality, in the population. However, validated and reliable methods are not yet fully established. This study aimed to examine whether the level of concern for a suicide-related post on Twitter could be determined based solely on the content of the post, as judged by human coders and then replicated by machine learning. From 18th February 2014 to 23rd April 2014, Twitter was monitored for a series of suicide-related phrases and terms using the public Application Program Interface (API. Matching tweets were stored in a data annotation tool developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO. During this time, 14,701 suicide-related tweets were collected: 14% were randomly (n = 2000 selected and divided into two equal sets (Set A and B for coding by human researchers. Overall, 14% of suicide-related tweets were classified as ‘strongly concerning’, with the majority coded as ‘possibly concerning’ (56% and the remainder (29% considered ‘safe to ignore’. The overall agreement rate among the human coders was 76% (average κ = 0.55. Machine learning processes were subsequently applied to assess whether a ‘strongly concerning’ tweet could be identified automatically. The computer classifier correctly identified 80% of ‘strongly concerning’ tweets and showed increasing gains in accuracy; however, future improvements are necessary as a plateau was not reached as the amount of data increased. The current study demonstrated that it is possible to distinguish the level of concern among suicide-related tweets, using both human coders and an automatic machine classifier. Importantly, the machine classifier replicated the accuracy of the human coders. The findings confirmed that Twitter is used by individuals to express suicidality and that such posts evoked a level of concern that warranted

  7. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  8. Predictive Factors of Suicide Attempt and Non-Suicidal Self-Harm in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Salman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide is the third cause of mortality in America, second leading cause of death in developed countries, and one of the major health problems. Self-harm is self-inflicted damage to one’s self with or without suicidal intent. In the present study, the predictive factors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm were evaluated in patients referred to emergency department (ED with these problem. Methods: The total number of 45 patients with suicide attempt or self-harm admitted to ED were included. Clinical symptoms, thoughts and behaviors of suicidal, and non-suicidal self-harm in these patients were evaluated at baseline. Suicidality, suicidal intent and ideation, non-suicidal self-injury, social withdrawal, disruptive behavior, and poor family functions were evaluated at admission time. Brief clinical visits were scheduled for the twelfth weeks. In the twelfth week, patients returned for their final visit to determine their maintenance treatment. Finally data were analyzed using chi-squared and multiple logistic regression. Results: Forty five patients were included in the study (56.1% female. The mean age of patients was 23.3±10.2 years (range: 15-75; 33.3% married. Significant association of suicide and self-injury was presented at the baseline and in the month before attempting (p=0.001. The most important predictive factors of suicide and self-harm based on univariate analysis were depression (suicidal and non-suicidal items of Hamilton depression rating scale, anxiety, hopelessness, younger age, history of non-suicidal self-harm and female gender (p<0.05. The participants’ quality of life analysis showed a significant higher quality in physical component summary (p=0.002, mental component summary (p=0.001, and general health (p=0.001 at follow up period. Conclusion: At the time of admission in ED, suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-harm are subsequent clinical markers for the patient attempting suicide again. The

  9. Suicide and euthanasia in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, Diego; Spathonis, Kym

    2003-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of suicide in the elderly indicate that, in the last few decades, there has been a relevant increase in suicide rates in old age in a number of Asian and Latin nations, with an almost parallel decrease in Anglo-Saxon counties. Mental disorders, particularly depression, physical illness, personality traits such as hostility, hopelessness, the inability to verbally express psychological pain and dependency on others, recent life events and losses are all factors that may contribute to suicide in later life. Compared with suicide in other age groups, mors voluntaris in late life is associated with the use of highly lethal methods, less ambivalence and impulsivity, and more determination and intent to die. Accordingly, elderly suicidal individuals are more likely than younger subjects to complete rather than attempt suicide. Some evidence suggests also that the characteristics of elderly individuals who attempt suicide may not overlap with those who complete suicide. Death thoughts and suicidal ideations are relatively rare among mentally healthy elderly adults, and are less predominant in this age bracket. However, whether elderly suicidal behaviour exists along a continuum, progressing in severity from death thoughts and suicidal ideation to suicide attempts and completed suicide, remains unclear. Assisted suicide and euthanasia in the elderly have been associated with the desire to escape chronic physical pain and suffering caused by terminal illness, and to relieve mental anguish and feelings of hopelessness, depression and extreme "tiredness of life." The role of the family and those treating chronically ill members is crucial in the final stages of life, particularly when autonomy and the ability of the elderly individual to make end-of-life decisions are compromised. The main aspects associated with these controversial phenomena, particularly from a transcultural perspective, are reviewed in this article.

  10. Preventing Suicide through Improved Training in Suicide Risk Assessment and Care: An American Association of Suicidology Task Force Report Addressing Serious Gaps in U.S. Mental Health Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, William M., Jr.; Allen, Michael H.; Feldman, Barry N.; Gutin, Nina J.; Jahn, Danielle R.; Kleespies, Phillip M.; Quinnett, Paul; Simpson, Skip

    2012-01-01

    There are twice as many suicides as homicides in the United States, and the suicide rate is rising. Suicides increased 12% between 1999 and 2009. Mental health professionals often treat suicidal patients, and suicide occurs even among patients who are seeking treatment or are currently in treatment. Despite these facts, training of most mental…

  11. Interpersonal relations and suicide ideation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jin, S

    1998-02-01

    This study is an examination of the effects of interpersonal relations on suicide ideation in a national sample of 1,433 individuals from China. The effect of gender as well as Chinese-Western comparisons are also examined. Suicide ideation rates (defined as thinking about committing suicide) and rates for planned suicide were significantly lower than those in most U.S. samples; Chinese women consistently scored higher than men in both areas. LISREL path analyses indicated that interpersonal conflict had the greatest direct and total effect on suicide ideation, and social isolation was the weakest predictor among the three measures of interpersonal relations. A path model using the Chinese data calls into question Durkheim's social integration theory for predicting suicide. Findings are discussed in relation to Chinese culture.

  12. Suicide Research and Adolescent Suicide Trends in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shahtahmasebi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been a number of claims and counterclaims from suicide research using time series and longitudinal data; in particular, the linkage of increased antidepressant prescriptions to a decrease in suicide rates. Suicide time series appear to have a memory compounded with seasonal and cyclic effects. Failure to take into account these properties may lead to misleading conclusions, e.g., a downward blip is interpreted as the result of current knowledge and public health policies, while an upward blip is explained as suicide being complex depending on many variables requiring further research. In previous publications, I argued that this misuse of time series data is the result of an uncritical acceptance of a medical model that links mental ill-health to suicide. The consequences of such research behaviour are further increases in antidepressant prescriptions and medications to those who should not be prescribed them, with adverse effects showing across the population, e.g., the prescription of antidepressants to very young children (some under 1 year of age in New Zealand. Moreover, the New Zealand Evidence-based Health Care Bulletin recommends an authoritarian approach for every interaction with a young person to check their psychosocial well-being. When viewed holistically, this kind of human behaviour makes researchers, policy makers (politicians, treatment, and practitioners, and society in general part of the problem rather than the solution. This paper explores some dynamic aspects of suicide, using only official data with particular reference to youth suicide, and suggests that the medical model of suicide is only an attempt to treat depression without addressing suicide, and recommends the creation of a unified database through understanding the society that individuals live in. It is hoped that this paper will stimulate debate and the collaboration of international experts regardless of their school of thought.

  13. High on Life? Medical Marijuana Laws and Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    Using state-level data for the period 1990 through 2007, we estimate the effect of legalizing medical marijuana on suicide rates. Our results suggest that the passage of a medical marijuana law is associated with an almost 5 percent reduction in the total suicide rate, an 11 percent reduction in the suicide rate of 20- through 29-year-old males, and a 9 percent reduction in the suicide rate of 30- through 39-year-old males. Estimates of the relationship between legalization and female suicide...

  14. Suicide attempts among the elderly in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Guk-Hee; Gega, Lina

    2017-05-01

    Among the one million suicide deaths worldwide each year, as many as 60% occur in Asia. The World Health Organization (WHO) found higher suicide rates among the elderly in rapidly industrialized Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and Singapore, compared to the corresponding rates of recently industrializing Asian countries like Vietnam and Sri Lanka (WHO, 2014). As a case in point, suicide rates in South Korea have been the highest in the world since 2003 and are rising especially among older people (Hong and Knapp, 2014). Suicide attempts and older age are strong predictors of completed suicide (Szanto et al., 2002; Simon et al., 2013) and, as such, are important in guiding our efforts for suicide prevention; however, most epidemiological studies focus on completed suicides across all ages rather than understanding the reasons behind suicide attempts in older populations.

  15. Suicidality, ethnicity and immigration in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, G; Orozco, R; Rafful, C; Miller, E; Breslau, J

    2012-06-01

    Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death in the USA. Suicide rates vary across ethnic groups. Whether suicide behavior differs by ethnic groups in the USA in the same way as observed for suicide death is a matter of current discussion. The aim of this report was to compare the lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt among four main ethnic groups (Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites) in the USA. Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine risk for lifetime suicidality by ethnicity and immigration among 15 180 participants in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys (CPES), a group of cross-sectional surveys. Suicide ideation was most common among Non-Hispanic Whites (16.10%), least common among Asians (9.02%) and intermediate among Hispanics (11.35%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (11.82%). Suicide attempts were equally common among Non-Hispanic Whites (4.69%), Hispanics (5.11%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (4.15%) and less common among Asians (2.55%). These differences in the crude prevalence rates of suicide ideation decreased but persisted after control for psychiatric disorders, but disappeared for suicide attempt. Within ethnic groups, risk for suicidality was low among immigrants prior to migration compared to the US born, but equalized over time after migration. Ethnic differences in suicidal behaviors are explained partly by differences in psychiatric disorders and low risk prior to arrival in the USA. These differences are likely to decrease as the US-born proportion of Hispanics and Asians increases.

  16. Suicide in Sri Lanka 1975-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Metcalfe, Chris; Fernando, Ravindra

    2014-01-01

    pesticides. We investigate these changes in suicide rates in relation to age, gender, method specific trends and birth-cohort and period effects, with the aim of informing preventative strategies. METHODS: Secular trends of suicide in relation to age, sex, method, birth-cohort and period effects were......BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka has experienced major changes in its suicide rates since the 1970s, and in 1995 it had one of the highest rates in the world. Subsequent reductions in Sri Lanka's suicide rates have been attributed to the introduction of restrictions on the availability of highly toxic...... investigated graphically using police data (1975-2012). Poisoning case-fatality was investigated using national hospital admission data (2004-2010). RESULTS: There were marked changes to the age-, gender- and method-specific incidence of suicide over the study period. Year on year declines in rates began in 17...

  17. De-Politicizing Youth Suicide Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Shahtahmasebi, Said

    2013-01-01

    Despite a large volume of research literature on suicide, the approach to suicide prevention is still firmly based on a medical model. Recently, the Chief Coroner in New Zealand expressed the view that current techniques have failed to reduce the suicide rate and a new approach is needed. However, the call for a new approach is often interpreted as disparities in access to mental health services so resources are directed to increase public access to them. Current evidence suggests that persis...

  18. Cell suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, E.; Coffigny, H.

    2000-01-01

    In the fight of the cell against the damages caused to its DNA by genotoxic agents and specially by ionizing radiations, the p53 protein plays a central part. It intervenes in the proliferation control and the differentiation but also in the keeping of genome integrity. It can direct the damages cells toward suicide, or apoptosis, to avoid the risk of tumor appearance that would be fatal to the whole organism. That is by the disordered state of cells suicide programs that the tumor cells are going to develop. The knowledge of apoptosis mechanisms, to eventually start them on demand, rises up broad hopes in the cancer therapy. (N.C.)

  19. Suicide death and hospital-treated suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands: a national registry-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oostrum Irene EA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several suicide and suicidal behaviour risk factors are highly prevalent in asylum seekers, but there is little insight into the suicide death rate and the suicidal behaviour incidence in this population. The main objective of this study is to assess the burden of suicide and hospital-treated non-fatal suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands and to identify factors that could guide prevention. Methods We obtained data on cases of suicide and suicidal behaviour from all asylum seeker reception centres in the Netherlands (period 2002-2007, age 15+. The suicide death rates in this population and in subgroups by sex, age and region of origin were compared with the rate in the Dutch population; the rates of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour were compared with that in the population of The Hague using indirect age group standardization. Results The study included 35 suicide deaths and 290 cases of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour. The suicide death rate and the incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour differed between subgroups by sex and region of origin. For male asylum seekers, the suicide death rate was higher than that of the Dutch population (N = 32; RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.37-2.83. No difference was found between suicide mortality in female asylum seekers and in the female general population of the Netherlands (N = 3; RR = 0.73; 95%CI 0.15-2.07. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was high in comparison with the population of The Hague for males and females from Europe and the Middle East/South West Asia, and low for males and females from Africa. Health professionals knew about mental health problems prior to the suicidal behaviour for 80% of the hospital-treated suicidal behaviour cases in asylum seekers. Conclusions In this study the suicide death rate was higher in male asylum seekers than in males in the reference population. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour

  20. Suicide death and hospital-treated suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands: a national registry-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosen, Simone; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien; van Oostrum, Irene E A; Uitenbroek, Daan G; Kerkhof, Ad J F M

    2011-06-21

    Several suicide and suicidal behaviour risk factors are highly prevalent in asylum seekers, but there is little insight into the suicide death rate and the suicidal behaviour incidence in this population. The main objective of this study is to assess the burden of suicide and hospital-treated non-fatal suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands and to identify factors that could guide prevention. We obtained data on cases of suicide and suicidal behaviour from all asylum seeker reception centres in the Netherlands (period 2002-2007, age 15+). The suicide death rates in this population and in subgroups by sex, age and region of origin were compared with the rate in the Dutch population; the rates of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour were compared with that in the population of The Hague using indirect age group standardization. The study included 35 suicide deaths and 290 cases of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour. The suicide death rate and the incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour differed between subgroups by sex and region of origin. For male asylum seekers, the suicide death rate was higher than that of the Dutch population (N = 32; RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.37-2.83). No difference was found between suicide mortality in female asylum seekers and in the female general population of the Netherlands (N = 3; RR = 0.73; 95%CI 0.15-2.07). The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was high in comparison with the population of The Hague for males and females from Europe and the Middle East/South West Asia, and low for males and females from Africa. Health professionals knew about mental health problems prior to the suicidal behaviour for 80% of the hospital-treated suicidal behaviour cases in asylum seekers. In this study the suicide death rate was higher in male asylum seekers than in males in the reference population. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was higher in several subgroups of asylum seekers than that in the

  1. Suicide death and hospital-treated suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands: a national registry-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Several suicide and suicidal behaviour risk factors are highly prevalent in asylum seekers, but there is little insight into the suicide death rate and the suicidal behaviour incidence in this population. The main objective of this study is to assess the burden of suicide and hospital-treated non-fatal suicidal behaviour in asylum seekers in the Netherlands and to identify factors that could guide prevention. Methods We obtained data on cases of suicide and suicidal behaviour from all asylum seeker reception centres in the Netherlands (period 2002-2007, age 15+). The suicide death rates in this population and in subgroups by sex, age and region of origin were compared with the rate in the Dutch population; the rates of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour were compared with that in the population of The Hague using indirect age group standardization. Results The study included 35 suicide deaths and 290 cases of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour. The suicide death rate and the incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour differed between subgroups by sex and region of origin. For male asylum seekers, the suicide death rate was higher than that of the Dutch population (N = 32; RR = 2.0, 95%CI 1.37-2.83). No difference was found between suicide mortality in female asylum seekers and in the female general population of the Netherlands (N = 3; RR = 0.73; 95%CI 0.15-2.07). The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was high in comparison with the population of The Hague for males and females from Europe and the Middle East/South West Asia, and low for males and females from Africa. Health professionals knew about mental health problems prior to the suicidal behaviour for 80% of the hospital-treated suicidal behaviour cases in asylum seekers. Conclusions In this study the suicide death rate was higher in male asylum seekers than in males in the reference population. The incidence of hospital-treated suicidal behaviour was higher in several

  2. Media representation of gender patterns of suicide in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S F; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Fan, Hsiang-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Extensive media reporting of suicide events has been indicated as a contributing factor to the upsurge in suicide rates in Taiwan in the past decade. The study compares gender differences in sociodemographic profiles and method of suicide selectively reported in the newspapers and all suicide cases registered in official death records. It also identifies gender differences in media reports of suicides. Articles reporting suicide news from four major newspapers in Taiwan (China Times, United Daily, Liberty Times, and Apple Daily) in 2009 were retrieved and analyzed. Gender differences in sociodemographic profiles of suicides reported in the newspapers and official records of all suicide deaths were compared. Any gender differences in newspaper depictions of contributing factors of suicide and situations surrounding the suicidal acts were compared. Newspapers in Taiwan tended to overreport unusual methods of suicide among men and extended suicide among women. The reasons for suicide in men were more frequently portrayed as work-related or after legal problems, whereas in women suicide was more frequently framed as due to mental illness or relationship problems. The news media tended to underreport mental illness as a reason for suicide in men. The analysis was based solely on news reporting in the four major newspapers during the year 2009. Media representation of suicide generally follow societal-gendered assumptions of acceptable/unacceptable behaviors. Media professionals should be more careful and responsible in reporting suicide news and avoid any gender bias in their framing of suicide stories. Sensitive rather than sensational reporting should be promoted in order not to reinforce the myths of suicides in the community.

  3. Depressive episodes with suicide attempts in severe depression: suicides and controls differ only in the later episodes of unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brådvik, Louise; Berglund, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of suicide attempts across the depressive episodes in suicides and controls with a severe depression. A blind record evaluation was performed of 100 suicide victims and matched controls admitted to the Department of Psychiatry between 1956 and 1969 and monitored to 2006. There was a similar number of episodes in suicides and controls and in the early episodes a similar number of suicide attempts in both groups. However, in the later episodes future suicides showed more suicide attempts as compared to controls. This was found for unipolar depression only. This difference was found despite previously shown similar rates of adequate treatment and improvement. In conclusion, more depressive episodes including suicide attempts appeared to be related to suicide.

  4. Suicide mortality gap between Francophones and Anglophones of Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Auger, Nathalie; Tamambang, Lum; Barry, Amadou D

    2013-07-01

    Few studies evaluate language-group differences in suicide mortality. This study assessed the suicide mortality gap between Francophones and Anglophones of Quebec, Canada according to age, sex, method, region and socioeconomic deprivation. Suicide decedents were extracted from the Quebec death file for 1989-2007 (N = 24,465). Age- and sex-specific suicide mortality rates were calculated for four periods (1989-1993, 1994-1998, 1999-2003, 2004-2007) for Francophones and Anglophones aged ≥10 years. Age-standardized rates of suicide by method, region, and level of social and material deprivation were calculated for each sex. Rate ratios and rate differences were estimated. Suicide rates for Francophones were two to three times higher than rates for Anglophones, and differences were greatest for adults aged 25-64 years. Francophone males had more than two times the rate of suicide by hanging or firearms than Anglophone males. Francophone females had twice the rate of hanging, poisoning or firearm suicide as Anglophone females, although precision was low. Francophone-Anglophone suicide mortality gaps were higher in urban areas despite lower suicide rates, and varied little across levels of social and material deprivation. There was a large suicide mortality gap between Francophones and Anglophones of Quebec; especially, among adults aged 25-64 years.

  5. Creating a Chinese suicide dictionary for identifying suicide risk on social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Lv

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary.Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts published on Sina Weibo (the largest social media service provider in China and two Chinese sentiment dictionaries (HowNet and NTUSD. Then, another three researchers were recruited to filter out irrelevant words. Finally, remaining words were further expanded using a corpus-based method. After building the Chinese suicide dictionary, we tested its performance in identifying suicide risk on Weibo. First, we made a comparison of the performance in both detecting suicidal expression in Weibo posts and evaluating individual levels of suicide risk between the dictionary-based identifications and the expert ratings. Second, to differentiate between individuals with high and non-high scores on self-rating measure of suicide risk (Suicidal Possibility Scale, SPS, we built Support Vector Machines (SVM models on the Chinese suicide dictionary and the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SCLIWC program, respectively. After that, we made a comparison of the classification performance between two types of SVM models.Results and Discussion. Dictionary-based identifications were significantly correlated with expert ratings in terms of both detecting suicidal expression (r = 0.507 and evaluating individual suicide risk (r = 0.455. For the differentiation between individuals with high and non-high scores on SPS, the Chinese suicide dictionary (t1: F1 = 0.48; t2: F1 = 0.56 produced a more accurate identification than SCLIWC (t1: F1 = 0.41; t2: F1 = 0.48 on

  6. Creating a Chinese suicide dictionary for identifying suicide risk on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Meizhen; Li, Ang; Liu, Tianli; Zhu, Tingshao

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Suicide has become a serious worldwide epidemic. Early detection of individual suicide risk in population is important for reducing suicide rates. Traditional methods are ineffective in identifying suicide risk in time, suggesting a need for novel techniques. This paper proposes to detect suicide risk on social media using a Chinese suicide dictionary. Methods. To build the Chinese suicide dictionary, eight researchers were recruited to select initial words from 4,653 posts published on Sina Weibo (the largest social media service provider in China) and two Chinese sentiment dictionaries (HowNet and NTUSD). Then, another three researchers were recruited to filter out irrelevant words. Finally, remaining words were further expanded using a corpus-based method. After building the Chinese suicide dictionary, we tested its performance in identifying suicide risk on Weibo. First, we made a comparison of the performance in both detecting suicidal expression in Weibo posts and evaluating individual levels of suicide risk between the dictionary-based identifications and the expert ratings. Second, to differentiate between individuals with high and non-high scores on self-rating measure of suicide risk (Suicidal Possibility Scale, SPS), we built Support Vector Machines (SVM) models on the Chinese suicide dictionary and the Simplified Chinese Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (SCLIWC) program, respectively. After that, we made a comparison of the classification performance between two types of SVM models. Results and Discussion. Dictionary-based identifications were significantly correlated with expert ratings in terms of both detecting suicidal expression (r = 0.507) and evaluating individual suicide risk (r = 0.455). For the differentiation between individuals with high and non-high scores on SPS, the Chinese suicide dictionary (t1: F 1 = 0.48; t2: F 1 = 0.56) produced a more accurate identification than SCLIWC (t1: F 1 = 0.41; t2: F 1 = 0.48) on different

  7. Celebrity suicide and its effect on further media reporting and portrayal of suicide: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshe, Devavrat; Karia, Sagar; Harshe, Sneha; Shah, Nilesh; Harshe, Gurudas; De Sousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a grave mental health problem in India, and suicide rates in India have risen over the past decades. Suicide reporting by the media is a common cause for spurts of suicides that may occur from time to time. The aim of the present study was to assess the change in trends in media reporting of suicide after a celebrity suicide. Suicide by the renowned actor Robin Williams was selected as the reference case. The top three Indian daily newspapers published in English having the highest circulation as per the Registrar of Newspapers, Government of India report were selected to be scanned in the study. These were the Times of India - Mumbai edition, Mumbai Mirror, and the Daily News Analysis - Mumbai edition. The authors screened all news stories in the three newspapers within a 6-month period (3 months prior and 3 months post the date of the reference suicide case), and these news reports were evaluated as per the suicide reporting guidelines for media laid down by the Indian Psychiatric Society. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test and descriptive statistics where appropriate. A total of 708 newspaper articles were identified on the basis of the guidelines mentioned above. Nearly 88% ( n = 623) of the articles directly covered suicide while 4.09% ( n = 29) focused on suicidal threats and 7.91% ( n = 56) focused on parasuicide behavior. There was a significantly greater increase in the total number of articles printed after the celebrity suicide ( n = 409) for all article types except teasers as compared to that before the celebrity suicide ( n = 299). There was a significantly greater increase in front page news on suicide after the celebrity suicide ( P = 0.0016), description of the method of suicide ( P = 0.0221), and the mention of the suicide notes ( P = 0.0002). Most articles after the celebrity suicide placed the blame on someone or the environment for the act ( P = 0.0001). A change in media trend toward reporting suicide was noted post a

  8. Homicide followed by suicide: remorse or revenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, C M

    1998-06-01

    Homicide is followed by the suicide of the assailant in around 4% of homicide-suicide episodes in England and Wales. The assailant is invariably a man who most commonly kills his spouse and/or children. Shooting is the most common method of suicide and homicide in these cases. It has been asserted that the low rate of homicide and relatively high rate of suicide in killers is a result of English killers internalizing their culture's abhorrence of killing. However, examination of homicide-suicide episodes indicate that in most episodes the decision to commit suicide has been taken before the decision to kill and that only a minority of suicides in assailants are out of remorse. Homicide followed by suicide is a distinct category of homicide which has features that differ from other forms of killing. These episodes are complex and do not reflect simple remorse following the killing. Homicide-suicide episodes in England are similar to those in countries with higher homicide rates.

  9. Suicidal Ideation of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents has One-Year Predictive Validity for Suicide Attempts in Girls Only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qingmei; Czyz, Ewa K.; Kerr, David C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Clinicians commonly incorporate adolescents’ self-reported suicidal ideation into formulations regarding adolescents’ risk for suicide. Data are limited, however, regarding the extent to which adolescent boys’ and girls’ reports of suicidal ideation have clinically significant predictive validity in terms of subsequent suicidal behavior. This study examined psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent boys’ and girls’ self-reported suicidal ideation as a predictor of suicide attempts during the first year following hospitalization. A total of 354 adolescents (97 boys; 257 girls; ages 13–17 years) hospitalized for acute suicide risk were evaluated at the time of hospitalization as well as 3, 6, and 12 months later. Study measures included the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Youth Self-Report, and Personal Experiences Screen Questionnaire. The main study outcome was presence and number of suicide attempt(s) in the year after hospitalization, measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Results indicated a significant interaction between suicidal ideation, assessed during first week of hospitalization, and gender for the prediction of subsequent suicide attempts. Suicidal ideation was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts for girls, but not boys. Baseline history of multiple suicide attempts was a significant predictor of subsequent suicide attempts across genders. Results support the importance of empirically validating suicide risk assessment strategies separately for adolescent boys and girls. Among adolescent boys who have been hospitalized due to acute suicide risk, low levels of self-reported suicidal ideation may not be indicative of low risk for suicidal behavior following hospitalization. PMID:23996157

  10. Scottish Academy of Fashion Showcase Exhibition at Inspace Edinburgh

    OpenAIRE

    Gillan, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Scottish Academy of Fashion (SAF) is an ambitious project to establish Scotland as a global centre for excellence in fashion related learning and commercially relevant research.Scotland has world-class education and globally recognised leaders in the fashion industry. It has a niche fashion and textile industry embedded in luxury fashion worldwide. Scotland attracts international talent to fashion-related education.SAF aims to develop an effective platform to combine these strengths, and ...

  11. "The apple at the glass": Halloween and Scottish poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Bold, V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores Halloween observances in eighteenth century Scotland, as represented in Robert Fergusson's 'Hallow Fair' and in the two 'Halloween' poems by Robert Burns and Janet Little. These three pieces, taken together, provide a comprehensive picture of Halloween customs--economic and cultural--in eighteenth century Scotland. Halloween provided a potent imaginative source of expression for eighteenth century Scottish poets like Fergusson, Burns and Little, and it is suggested, that t...

  12. Explaining Cost Efficiency of Scottish Farms: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Milne, Catherine E.; Leat, Philip M.K.; Cho, Woong Je

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the cost efficiency of Scottish farms is determined, variables that explain the relative cost efficiency by farm type are identified and implications discussed. A cost efficiency approach was selected as it can deal with farms producing multiple outputs (in contrast to production frontiers), and second because it can accommodate output constraints imposed by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). To estimate the stochastic cost frontier, a generalised multi-product translog cost ...

  13. Predisposing and Precipitating Risk Factors for Suicide Ideations and Suicide Attempts In Young and Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S KHUSHABI

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:To investigate the predisposing and precipitating risk factors for suicide ideations and suicide attempts in young and adolescent females,we tried to introduce a holistic model of suicidal behavior in young and adolescent girls. Methods: This study is based on the survey studies and was cross-sectional. Considering high rates of suicide attempts in provinces of Iran,three provinces (Kermanshah, Hamedan,Ilam which had the highest rates of completed suicide were selected. Then among female high school students (aged 14 to 21 years, in two stages a representative sample was selected by a multi-clusteral and simple randomized sampling methods. The research data were gathered by administering (1 The inventory of predisposing and precipitating factors of suicide, demographic and family characteristics (based on the literature review (2 Symptom Check List (SCL 90-R (3Suicidality Subscale of the Depressive Symptom Index (DSI-SS (4 Center for Epidemiological Studies (CED- SSI (5 Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS and (6 Child Abuse Self Report Scale (CASRS.Then,subjects were characterized by dividing them in to two categories: at risk,and low risk. The scores of 2 categories were analyzed and discussed. Results: Relationships were found between suicide ideations and psychological problems and disorders (especially depression.Also,the students who reported suicide ideation and suicide attempt had a history of being abused. Based on the results,predisposing and precipitating risk factors and also some protective factors of suicide ideations and suicide attempts were found and a theoretical model was presented.Conclusion: Some predisposing,precipitating and protective factors can predict suicide ideation and suicide attempts significantly.

  14. Suicide and undetermined deaths among youths and young adults in Latin America: comparison with the 10 major developed countries--a source of hidden suicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Colin; Hean, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    In Latin American (LA) and the major developed countries' (MDC) suicide and undetermined deaths are analyzed as methods of suicide and the number of undetermined deaths are similar, possibly containing hidden suicides. The goal was to test the likelihood that LA cultural attitudes lead to higher undetermined rates and more hidden suicides. We used 3-year WHO average mortality data to compare LA and MDC mortality by age and gender, and chi2 tests to examine any differences. In 13 LA countries younger-aged (15-34) men and women's suicides were higher than all-age rates, and undetermined deaths exceeded the suicide rates. Nine LA countries had significantly more undetermined younger-aged male deaths than females. Sixteen of 18 LA countries had significantly higher undetermined death rates than the MDC. LA younger-aged malefs24 146s differential suicide: Undetermined rates indicated they may contain substantial numbers of hidden suicides. Inadvertently, cultural attitudes to suicide may hinder prevention.

  15. “The tie that binds”: commerce, migration, and the Australian Scottish delegation of 1928

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Vincent Wilkie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available By examining the commercial and migratory connections forged between Australia and Scotland between the wars, this article extends discussions of the relationship between the Empire and the Scottish diaspora in Australia. Foreign trade and investment was central to Scotland’s role in the British Empire, and Scottish commercial activities in Australia had their own unique contexts and outcomes. The Australian Scottish Delegation of 1928 offers a distinct example of the commercial links forged between Australia and Scotland in the context of the Empire, and presents insights into the way in which Scottish émigrés imagined their role in the imperial project. Additionally, the linkage of economic development and migration during the interwar period took on a distinctive Scottish flavour with the delegation, and the selection of migrants for emigration offers insights into the ways in which delegates defined and understood the Scottish diaspora in Australia.

  16. Postcolonial suicide among Inuit in Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Indigenous youth suicide incidence is high globally, and mostly involves young males. However, the Inuit of Arctic Canada have a suicide rate that is among the highest in the world (and ten times that for the rest of Canada). The author suggests that suicide increase has emerged because of changes stemming in part from the Canadian government era in the Arctic in the 1950s and 1960s. The effects of government intervention dramatically affected kin relations, roles, and responsibilities, and affinal/romantic relationships. Suicide is embedded in these relationships. The author also discusses the polarization between psychiatric and indigenous/community methods of healing, demonstrating that government-based intervention approaches to mental health are not working well, and traditional cultural healing practices often take place outside of the mainstream clinics in these communities. The main questions of the paper are: Who should control suicide prevention? What is the best knowledge base for suicide prevention?

  17. Mediating Tragedy: Facebook, Aboriginal Peoples and Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Lee Carlson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some Australian Aboriginal communities experience suicide rates that are among the highest in the world. They are also, however, avid social media users—approximately 20% higher than the national average. This article presents some preliminary findings from a current national study, funded by the Australian Research Council, titled Aboriginal identity and community online: a sociological exploration of Aboriginal peoples’ use of online social media. The purpose of the study is to gain insights into how Aboriginal peoples utilise and interact on social media, and how these technologies can assist with suicide prevention strategies. It found that Aboriginal people are engaging with Facebook to both seek and offer help for issues relating to suicide and self-harm. An existing continuum of suicide prevention strategies was evident—from light emotional support to direct suicide intervention involving health services. These strategies can be leveraged to implement effective and appropriate suicide prevention programs.

  18. Suicide in Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a review of studies on suicide in children aged 14 years and younger. Articles were identified through a systematic search of Scopus, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO. Key words were "children, suicide, psychological autopsy, and case-study." Additional articles were identified through manual search of reference lists and discussion with colleagues. Fifteen published articles were identified, 8 psychological autopsy studies (PA), and 7 retrospective case-study series. Suicide incidence and gender asymmetry increases with age. Hanging is the most frequent method. Lower rates of psychopathology are evident among child suicides compared to adolescents. Previous suicide attempts were an important risk factor. Children were less likely to consume alcohol prior to suicide. Parent-child conflicts were the most common precipitant.

  19. Changing the Direction of Suicide Prevention in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenberg, Dan; Berman, Alan L

    2017-08-01

    It is axiomatic that the goal of suicide prevention is the prevention of suicide. Yet in spite of significant efforts to this end since the middle of the last century, and most notably in the last decade, the rate of suicide in the U.S. has not declined; rather, it has increased. To address this issue, Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE) brought together leading prevention specialists from other public health problems where successes have been achieved, representatives from countries where suicide rates have declined, and U.S. based suicide prevention researchers and program directors, to "think outside the box" and propose innovative, scalable approaches that might better drive success in achieving desired results from U.S. suicide prevention efforts. The recommendations should challenge our preconceptions and force us outside our own mental constraints to broaden our perspectives and suggest catalysts for real change in suicide prevention. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.

  1. Learnings from Durkheim and beyond: the economy and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, B Y

    2001-01-01

    This empirical study commemorates Durkheim's contribution to suicidology by reviewing his own and his followers' formulation of the relationship between the business cycle and suicide. Three distinctive sociological theories of suicide, including Durkheim's, were identified to link the suicide rate to the socio-economic environment of the society. A real-income hypothesis of suicide was developed to capture (a) the positive impact of the economy on suicide, (b) the curvilinear impact of the economy on suicide implied by Durkheim's proposition, and (3) the interplay of both economic and sociological variables on suicide. Another implication from the reformulation is that there may exist a positive natural rate of suicide for any society. These two hypotheses were tested using the 1990 census data for the continental states of the United States. Some conclusions and suggestions were drawn for future research.

  2. Psychological maltreatment and adolescents’ suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; DePanfilis, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to shed light on the questions: Do children, who are exposed to psychological maltreatment, have an increased risk for suicide attempts or contemplation? Will children’s suicidal behavior diminish when psychological maltreatment is reduced? Suicidal behavior...... as well as child abuse and neglect were analyzed on the basis of standardized questionnaires addressed to caseworkers assigned to these cases (N=1,055). Half of the children were exposed to abuse and neglect. More than one third of the children were exposed to psychological maltreatment. These children...... showed higher rates of suicidal tendencies, compared to those children who were not exposed to psychological maltreatment....

  3. Living Arrangements and Suicidal Ideation among the Korean Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Lee, Yun-Suk; Lee, Jinkook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines how living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for older adults in South Korea, which has the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, and a particularly high suicide rate for older persons. Methods Analyzing a sample of 5,795 women and 3,758 men aged 65 and older from a nationwide representative cross-sectional data set, we examined how many older adults think about suicide over a one-year period, why they think about suicide, and whether living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation. Results About one out of twelve respondents in our sample reported suicidal ideation. While women and men did not differ in the prevalence of suicidal ideation, women attributed their suicidal feelings to health problems, while men attributed theirs to economic difficulties. Logistic regression results indicated that living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for men but not women. Older men living with a spouse were less likely to have suicidal ideation than older men with other living arrangements (i.e., living alone, living with children without spouse, living with spouse and others). Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of living arrangements to older men’s suicidal ideation. We discuss gender differences in the implications of living arrangements to suicidal ideation within the context of Confucian culture. PMID:26317145

  4. A Factorial Representation of Suicidal Ideation among Academically Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Suicidal ideation assessment has been employed as an early screening method for identifying adolescents who are at risk for engaging in suicidal behaviors. While recent evidence has emerged that gifted adolescents do not have a higher rate of suicidal ideation, research on the psychological and personality characteristics of gifted youth have…

  5. Political Integration, War and Suicide. The Dutch Paradox?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, F.A. van; Ultee, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to Durkheim’s idea about suicide during wartime, the Netherlands had high suicide rates in 1940 and 1945. To explain these findings, we propose the social integration theory, according to which, people who expect to be excluded from society are more likely to commit suicide. We examine this

  6. Political Integration, War and Suicide : The Dutch Paradox?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubergen, Frank van; Ultee, Wout

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to Durkheim’s idea about suicide during wartime, the Netherlands had high suicide rates in 1940 and 1945. To explain these findings, we propose the social integration theory, according to which, people who expect to be excluded from society are more likely to commit suicide. We examine this

  7. Suicide and Self-Destruction among American Indian Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    Examines adolescent and young adult suicides, suicide attempts, and self-destructive behavior among the general population, American Indians, and Indians of New Mexico. Describes prevention and intervention efforts undertaken to lower suicide rates on one reservation. Contains 30 references. (SV)

  8. Gender and Suicide Risk: The Role of Wound Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Steven; Wasserman, Ira

    2009-01-01

    That males have higher suicide rates than females is one of the most empirically documented social facts in suicidology, but the reasons for this continue to be debated. For the present paper, we tested a neglected contributing factor to the gender suicide ratio: wound site or the area of the body that is wounded in firearm suicides. Males may…

  9. Identifying Outpatients with Entrenched Suicidal Ideation Following Hospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S.; Jobes, David A.; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Atkins, David C.; Janis, Karin; Chessen, Chloe E.; Landes, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify outpatients who experience entrenched suicidal ideation following inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. Our findings suggest that the use of a suicidal ambivalence index score was helpful at discriminating those who reported significantly greater ratings of suicidal ideation across a 1-year period of…

  10. A Test of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide in Primitive Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1992-01-01

    Classified primitive societies as high, moderate, or low on independent measures of social integration and social regulation to test Durkheim's theory of suicide. Estimated frequency of suicide did not differ between those societies predicted to have high, moderate, and low suicide rates. Durkheim's theory was not confirmed. (Author/NB)

  11. Suicide Prevention in Adults (Age 30-65).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Ronald W.

    1995-01-01

    Explores some of the possible distinctive traits of midlife suicides, which include: loss of spouse, years of heavy drinking, reaching the age of high depression risk, and occupational problems. Midlife suicides tend to be highest among white males, although female suicide rates peak in midlife. The paper concludes with a review of assessment and…

  12. Suicidal ideation and associated factors among school going ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... all the considered factors were significantly associated with suicide except close friends. Conclusion: The rate of suicidal ideation was high among adolescents in Swaziland and intervention considering violence, social support from friends and parents, and drug abuse should be designed to prevent suicidal thoughts.

  13. Recent declines in Australian male suicide are real, not artefactual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Martin, Graham

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the extent to which the recorded marked decline in young male suicide (20-34 years) in Australia since 1998 is attributable to misclassification of cause of death information. Secular trends in young male suicide rates were investigated for the period 1976-2005. Suicide rates in the period after the peak of the epidemic in this age group (1998) were re-calculated based on published estimates of under-enumeration of suicide data, and misclassification of likely suicide cases to other unintentional and undetermined external causes. Two misclassification scenarios were used to revise young male suicide rates from 1998: previously reported estimates of 9% under-enumeration due to misclassification of unintentional causes of death, and 17% under-enumeration due to misclassification of open cases in addition to unintentional causes of death. All-cause mortality was also examined. Recorded male suicide in the 20-34 year age group increased over the study period, peaking in 1998 at 39 per 100,000, before declining sharply in the period 1999-2005 by 44% to 22 per 100,000 in 2005. Following adjustment for misallocation under the first scenario, suicide rates declined 38% to 24 per 100,000, and under the second scenario declined 33% to 26 per 100,000. Revised suicide rates were not materially different from recorded suicide rates based on 95% confidence intervals over this period. All-cause mortality declined from 1999 due to reductions in suicide and other causes. The recent marked decline in young male suicide in Australia is real. The effects of misallocation of likely suicide cases to other causes did not substantially affect population trends in suicide rates in the period after 1998. There is still a need to account in detail for why young male suicide has declined so substantially during the period after 1998.

  14. Youth suicide in Victoria: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, J; Tiller, J W; Burrows, G D; Hallenstein, H

    1994-02-07

    To determine the trends in youth suicide in Victoria and Australia as a whole, and their relation to youth unemployment. We used Australian Bureau of Statistics data to analyse suicide trends between 1907 and 1990 in young people aged 15-24 years and made an in-depth study of youth suicides between 1980 and 1990, for which computerised data are available. There has been a steady increase in youth suicide both in Victoria and Australia as a whole since 1960 in males but not females. There were significant differences in age, sex and area of residence in both the rate and the method of suicide. The increase in youth suicide was not associated with the rise in unemployment. Male (not female) suicide rates were higher in non-metropolitan areas and areas of high youth unemployment. The reasons for the increase in youth suicide remain obscure. There is a need for a prospective in-depth study to determine factors in the aetiology of youth suicide, with particular reference to possible areas for prevention.

  15. Does cyberbullying impact youth suicidal behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Dimitrios

    2017-12-01

    Even though several youth fatal suicides have been linked with school victimization, there is lack of evidence on whether cyberbullying victimization causes students to adopt suicidal behaviors. To investigate this issue, I use exogenous state-year variation in cyberbullying laws and information on high school students from the Youth Risk Behavioral Survey within a bivariate probit framework, and complement these estimates with matching techniques. I find that cyberbullying has a strong impact on all suicidal behaviors: it increases suicidal thoughts by 14.5 percentage points and suicide attempts by 8.7 percentage points. Even if the focus is on statewide fatal suicide rates, cyberbullying still leads to significant increases in suicide mortality, with these effects being stronger for men than for women. Since cyberbullying laws have an effect on limiting cyberbullying, investing in cyberbullying-preventing strategies can improve individual health by decreasing suicide attempts, and increase the aggregate health stock by decreasing suicide rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Coming out to talk about suicide: gay men and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Sue; Warne, Tony

    2010-04-01

    International studies report increased rates of mental health problems and subsequent suicidality among homosexual populations. While international health-care policy is concerned with reducing suicide among young people, important research findings relating to gay people and suicidality remain unacknowledged in the Suicide Prevention Strategy for England. This qualitative study, utilizing single case studies, was used to gain an in-depth understanding of the life experiences contributing to the suicidality of four gay men. The methodology was psychoanalytically informed, using free association narrative interviewing. The initial data analysis involved interpretation of each of the case studies and a subsequent analysis exploring the shared experiences found in each of the individual narratives. Thematically, these are described as 'knowing and not knowing', 'the centrality of the father-son relationship', 'the loneliness of outsiderness', 'leading a double life', and 'crime and punishment'. The significance of the life experiences these themes illustrate reveal why some gay men might not only experience long-term mental health problems, but also engage in suicidality. Individually and collectively, the analyses provide important insights for mental health nurses becoming more attuned to provide sensitive mental health care to those who have a gay sexual orientation.

  17. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  18. Suicide and homicide among Hispanics in the southwest.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J C; Mercy, J A; Rosenberg, M L

    1986-01-01

    A study of suicide and homicide among Hispanics of Mexican origin (Mexican Americans) focused on five southwestern States--Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas--where more than 60 percent of all Hispanics in the United States reside. And 85 percent of them are Mexican Americans. Data were obtained on all suicides and homicides among Hispanics and Anglos (white non-Hispanics), using Anglos as a comparison group. Results for suicide showed the suicide rate for Hispanics (9.0 per...

  19. A systematic review of elderly suicide prevention programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapierre, Sylvie; Erlangsen, Annette; Waern, Margda

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area. AIMS: We carried out a systematic review to examine the results of interventions aimed at suicidal elderly persons and to identify successful strategies and areas ......, engage family and community gatekeepers, use telecommunications to reach vulnerable older adult, and evaluate the effects of means restriction and physicians education on elderly suicide....

  20. Increased Suicides in the United States Army: Improving the Effectiveness of the US Army’s Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    a major cause of suicide, as expressed by an individual who suffered from it to the extent that he made a compulsive decision that almost cost him...Has the US Army Suicide Prevention Program changed the rate (either increased or decreased) of suicide in terms of more “ buy in” from senior leadership

  1. Suicide in prisons: an international study of prevalence and contributory factors

    OpenAIRE

    Fazel, SB; Ramesh, T; Hawton, K

    2017-01-01

    Background Prison suicide rates, rate ratios, and associations with prison-related factors need clarification and updating. Methods We collected data on prison suicides in 24 high-income countries in Europe, Australasia and North America from their prison administrations for 2011-2014 to calculate suicide rates and rate ratios compared to the general population. We used meta-regression to test associations with general population suicide rates, incarceration rates, and prison-relate...

  2. Suicide after a stroke: a population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, T W; Engberg, A W

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To establish whether there are increased rates of suicide after a stroke and the degree to which any increase is related to gender, age at stroke, diagnosis, duration of hospitalisation, and time since stroke. DESIGN: Cross linkage of national registers for hospitalisations...... cases of suicide were identified. MAIN RESULTS: Annual incidence rates, both observed and expected, together with standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were computed based on annual population and suicide statistics, stratified by age and gender. The overall annual incidence rate of suicide in the cohort.......76) for patients under 50 years of age group and were least for patients 80 years or older (1.3; 0.95, 1.79). There was no clear relation to stroke diagnosis. Suicides were negatively related to duration of hospitalisation, being lowest for those hospitalised for more than three months (0.88; 0.65, 1...

  3. Adolescent Suicide Risk Today: A Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1998-01-01

    A review of international statistics indicates that youth suicide rates are not increasing in all nations. Furthermore, it is suggested that the quality of life in nations is improving and that this improvement itself may increase the risk of suicide, especially in youth with narcissistic personality traits and antisocial personality disorder…

  4. Suicide among American Indian Adolescents: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Irving N.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies common patterns in experience and behavior among American Indian adolescent suicides. Discusses factors characterizing tribes with high suicide rates, including failure to adhere to traditional ways and resulting chaotic family structure and adult alcoholism. Discusses roles of adoption of Indian children, boarding schools, and high…

  5. Suicide prevention for men - using the internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Madsen, Bente Hjorth

      In most countries men have a higher suicide rate than women. In Denmark suicide among men is almost three times as frequent as among women. For this reason we wanted to ask the following question: Is there any way to facilitate mens' access to help, when they are in a crisis? Could men be better...

  6. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Adapted for Suicidal Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathus, Jill H.; Miller, Alec L.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the preliminary study of a time-limited, out-patient treatment for suicidal adolescents designed to reduce suicidal behavior and psychiatric inpatient admissions along with drop-out rates. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for adolescents seems to be effective in keeping them out of hospital and in treatment. DBT appears to be a…

  7. Suicide and Murder-Suicide Involving Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedi, Christopher; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Watson, Dougal; Preitner, Claude

    2016-04-01

    This is a systematic review of suicide and homicide-suicide events involving aircraft. In aeromedical literature and in the media, these very different events are both described as pilot suicide, but in psychiatry they are considered separate events with distinct risk factors. Medical databases, internet search engines, and aviation safety databases were searched in a systematic way to obtain relevant cases. Relevant articles were searched for additional references. There were 65 cases of pilot suicide and 6 cases of passengers who jumped from aircraft found. There were also 18 cases of homicide-suicide found involving 732 deaths. Pilots perpetrated 13 homicide-suicide events. Compared to non-aviation samples, a large percentage of pilot suicides in this study were homicide-suicides (17%). Homicide-suicide events occur extremely rarely. However, their impact in terms of the proportion of deaths is significant when compared to deaths from accidents. There is evidence of clustering where pilot suicides occur after by media reports of suicide or homicide-suicide. Five of six homicide-suicide events by pilots of commercial airliners occurred after they were left alone in the cockpit. This, along with a sixth incident in which active intervention by a Japan Air crew saved 147 lives, suggests that having two flight members in the cockpit is potentially protective. No single factor was associated with the risk for suicide or homicide-suicide. Factors associated with both events included legal and financial crises, occupational conflict, mental illness, and relationship stressors. Drugs and/or alcohol played a role in almost half of suicides, but not in homicide-suicides.

  8. Suicidal behavior and assisted suicide in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Brian M

    2015-10-01

    Concerns about suicide risk in people with dementia have been increasing in recent years along with a discourse about rational suicide and assisted suicide. A systematic narrative literature review of suicidal behavior and assisted suicide in persons with dementia. Most studies that have examined the spectrum of suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and suicide in dementia have methodological limitations but the overall suicide risk does not appear to be increased. When suicidal behavior does occur, common themes include the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, mainly depression; occurrence early in the dementia course with preserved insight and capacity; and an increased risk in younger people. The emerging discourse on rational and assisted suicide has been spurred by early and pre-symptomatic diagnosis and poses a number of ethical challenges for clinicians including the role of proxy decision-makers. Although dementia might not confer a significant overall risk for suicidal behavior, clinicians still need to consider the potential for suicide in vulnerable individuals particularly early in the dementia course.

  9. The Unequal Burden of Suicide among Minnesotans: Three Strategies for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nate; Roesler, Jon; Heinen, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    Minnesota's suicide rate has been increasing for more than 10 years. This article describes the demographic groups at highest risk for suicide and suicide attempts in the state. It also highlights prevention strategies outlined in the Minnesota State Suicide Prevention Plan 2015-2020.

  10. Suicidal Behavior Among Inpatients with Schizophrenia and Mood Disorders in Chengdu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Mao-Sheng; Wu, Qiu-Hua; Conwell, Yeates; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the characteristics of suicidal behavior (suicide attempt or suicidal ideation) among 230 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia and mood disorders in a university hospital in China. The rate of lifetime suicidal behavior was found to be significantly higher in patients with mood disorders (62.4%) than in…

  11. Do newspaper reports of suicides comply with standard suicide reporting guidelines? A study from Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Prabha S; Doraiswamy, Padmavathy; Padmanabh, Anuroopa; Philip, Mariamma

    2014-11-01

    Several countries have prescribed standard guidelines for media professionals on suicide reporting. However, the implementation of these guidelines has been varied. Suicide rates in South Asia are one of the highest in the world, and it is known that media guidelines for suicide reporting are not followed adequately. However, there are no published reports available from this region. This study aimed at assessing newspaper reports of suicide for quality of reporting based on standard reporting guidelines and to study differences between English and vernacular (Kannada) newspapers in Bangalore, South India. A total of 341 newspaper reports of suicide from 550 newspapers (3 English and 3 Kannada) over 3 months were systematically assessed for compliance with reporting guidelines. Each report was evaluated on 2 domains and 36 parameters. Data were analyzed for frequency of inappropriate reporting and patterns compared between vernacular and English newspapers. In all, 87% of the reports were those of completed suicide. Non-compliant reporting - method of suicide was reported in 89% and 32% of reports were in prominent pages of the newspaper, 95% mentioned gender, 90% reported the name, 80% reported age and suicide location, 75% reported life events related to suicide, 70% reported occupation, 69% had headline explicity on suicide and 61% reported monocausality. Only 16% reported mental disorder related to suicide, and less than 3% included information on suicide prevention and helplines. Vernacular papers showed significantly better compliance in 16 of the 20 areas. However, protective characteristics were better reported in English newspapers. Majority of reports on suicides in newspapers from Bangalore did not comply with standard guidelines of reporting. There is a strong need to evolve local guidelines and mechanisms for ensuring responsible reporting which have important implications in prevention of suicide. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Is Case Management Effective for Long-Lasting Suicide Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Wu, Ya-Wen; Chen, Chih-Ken

    2015-01-01

    Case management services have been implemented in suicide prevention programs. To investigate whether case management is an effective strategy for reducing the risks of repeated suicide attempts and completed suicides in a city with high suicide rates in northern Taiwan. The Suicide Prevention Center of Keelung City (KSPC) was established in April 2005. Subjects included a consecutive sample of individuals (N = 2,496) registered in KSPC databases between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, with at least one episode of nonfatal self-harm. Subjects were tracked for the duration of the study. Of all the subjects, 1,013 (40.6%) received case management services; 416 (16.7%) had at least one other deliberate self-harm episode and 52 (2.1%) eventually died by suicide. No significant differences were found in the risks of repeated self-harm and completed suicides between suicide survivors who received case management and those who refused the services. However, a significant reduction in suicide rates was found after KSPC was established. Findings suggest that case management services might not reduce the risks of suicide repetition among suicide survivors during long-term follow-up. Future investigation is warranted to determine factors impacting the downward trend of suicide rates.

  13. Tweeting celebrity suicides: Users' reaction to prominent suicide deaths on Twitter and subsequent increases in actual suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Michiko; Mori, Kota; Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki

    2017-09-01

    A substantial amount of evidence indicates that news coverage of suicide deaths by celebrities is followed by an increase in suicide rates, suggesting a copycat behavior. However, the underlying process by which celebrity status and media coverage leads to increases in subsequent suicides is still unclear. This study collected over 1 million individual messages ("tweets") posted on Twitter that were related to 26 prominent figures in Japan who died by suicide between 2010 and 2014 and investigated whether media reports on suicide deaths that generated a greater level of reactions by the public are likely to be followed by a larger increase in actual suicides. We also compared the number of Twitter posts and the number of media reports in newspaper and on television to understand whether the number of messages on Twitter in response to the deaths corresponds to the amount of coverage in the traditional media. Using daily data from Japan's national death registry between 2010 and 2014, our analysis found an increase in actual suicides only when suicide deaths generated a large reaction from Twitter users. In contrast, no discernible increase in suicide counts was observed when the analysis included suicide deaths to which Twitter users did not show much interest, even when these deaths were covered considerably by the traditional media. This study also found suicides by relatively young entertainers generated a large number of posts on Twitter. This sharply contrasts with the relatively smaller volume of reaction to them generated by traditional forms of media, which focuses more on the deaths of non-entertainers. The results of this study strongly suggest that it is not sufficient to examine only traditional news media when investigating the impact of media reports on actual suicides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%).

  15. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".

  16. Risk of self-harm and nonfatal suicide attempts, and completed suicide in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Hansen, P. R.; Gislason, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease, and inflammation may affect suicidal behaviour. Current data on the incidence and risk of suicidal behaviour in patients with psoriasis are scarce. Objectives: We investigated the association between psoriasis and the risk of self......-harm and suicide attempts and suicides. Methods: All Danish patients aged ≥ 18 years with mild or severe psoriasis (cases) from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2011 were matched on age, sex and calendar time 1 : 5 with healthy controls. The outcome was a diagnosis of self-harm or a nonfatal suicide attempt......, or completed suicide. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. Results: The study cohort comprised 408 663 individuals, including 57 502 and 11 009 patients with mild and severe...

  17. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  18. [Internet Addiction, Suicidality and Non-Suicidal Self-Harming Behavior - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbüchel, Toni Andreas; Herpertz, Stephan; Külpmann, Ina; Kehyayan, Aram; Dieris-Hirche, Jan; Te Wildt, Bert Theodor

    2017-11-23

    Background Internet addiction (IA) is associated with a high rate of co-morbid mental disorders, especially depression, anxiety disorders, ADHD and personality disorders and a considerable level of psychological strain. In terms of risk assessment, the present work investigates the current research literature on suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI). Methods We performed a systematic literature search in 14 databases on title and abstract level for the most common keywords for IA, NSSI and suicidality. After deduction of multiple items, 2334 articles remained. They were filtered per inclusion and exclusion criteria. We identified studies that examined the relationship between IA, NSSI and suicidality, which were assessed by validated psychometric instruments. This allowed a total of 15 studies to be included. Results The relationship between IA and suicidality was examined in 10 studies, four studies examined the relationship of IA, suicidality, and NSSI, and one study exclusively focused on IA and NSSHB. All studies showed higher prevalence for NSSI and respectively suicidality of the subjects with an IA compared to subjects without IA, with point prevalence varying considerably between 1.6-18.7%. Discussion The results of the included publications suggest that Internet dependency is associated with an increased rate of non-suicidal self-harming behavior and increased suicidality, with suicidal ideation being more closely related to IA than suicidal actions. In order to develop a better understanding of causal relationships between IA, NSSI and suicidality, further longitudinal studies are required. Conclusion  Against the background of the presented studies NSSHB and suicidality need to be explicitly addressed within the assessment and treatment of IA patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Suicide Prevention: An Emerging Priority For Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael F; Grumet, Julie Goldstein

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is a significant public health problem. It is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, and the rate has risen in recent years. Many suicide deaths are among people recently seen or currently under care in clinical settings, but suicide prevention has not been a core priority in health care. In recent years, new treatment and management strategies have been developed, tested, and implemented in some organizations, but they are not yet widely used. This article examines the feasibility of improving suicide prevention in health care settings. In particular, we consider Zero Suicide, a model for better identification and treatment of patients at risk for suicide. The approach incorporates new tools for screening, treatment, and support; it has been deployed with promising results in behavioral health programs and primary care settings. Broader adoption of improved suicide prevention care may be an effective strategy for reducing deaths by suicide. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Removing bridge barriers stimulates suicides: an unfortunate natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beautrais, Annette L; Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Larkin, Gregory Luke

    2009-06-01

    Safety barriers to prevent suicide by jumping were removed from Grafton Bridge in Auckland, New Zealand, in 1996 after having been in place for 60 years. This study compared the number of suicides due to jumping from the bridge after the reinstallation of safety barriers in 2003. National mortality data for suicide deaths were compared for three time periods: 1991-1995 (old barrier in place); 1997-2002 (no barriers in place); 2003-2006 (after barriers were reinstated). Removal of barriers was followed by a fivefold increase in the number and rate of suicides from the bridge. These increases led to a decision to reinstall safety barriers. Since the reinstallation of barriers, of an improved design, in 2003, there have been no suicides from the bridge. This natural experiment, using a powerful a-b-a (reversal) design, shows that safety barriers are effective in preventing suicide: their removal increases suicides; their reinstatement prevents suicides.

  1. Prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz-Welke, Annette; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Konrad, Norbert; Welke, Justus

    2013-01-01

    In many countries, suicide is the most frequent cause of prison deaths; moreover, the respective national penal suicide rates are consistently several times higher than the suicide rates in the general population. To assess the situation in German prisons, an assessment of all suicides in German prisons by means of a survey was carried out for the time from 2000 to 2011. The mean rate per year of prison suicides in Germany from 2000 to 2011 was 105.8 per 100,000 male inmates and 54.7 per 100,000 female inmates. Male prisoner suicide rates significantly declined during the period under investigation; no significant trend was evident for female prisoners in pre-trial detention but a noteworthy increase was apparent in the suicide rate of female sentenced prisoners. A significant positive relationship can be demonstrated between occupation density and the suicide rate for both men and women. These results should be taken as a challenge for further research on the reasons for the unexpected increase of suicide rate in female sentenced prisoners and as well on the effect of population density on prison suicide rate. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Associations between family suicide and personal suicidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associations between family suicide and personal suicidal behaviour among youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Higher scores were reported on the scales assessing depression, perceived stress and feelings of hopelessness by those having had a family member commit suicide. There were low scores for having a ...

  3. [Religion and suicide - part 1: the attitudes of religions towards suicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompe, Thomas; Ritter, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    While suicide is known in all human societies, national suicide rates vary to a high degree. Different interacting social, economic and biological factors may explain a part of the variance. Religions are supposed to have a protective effect against suicidal behavior. It is still unexplained, whether or not this holds true for all religions and whether this has an effect on the national suicide rates. For this purpose it is necessary to illustrate the positions of the single religions towards suicide in the context of their idea of a human being as well as their concepts of death and afterworld. Our considerations are based upon a research on the religious- and culture-historical literature on this topic. None of the world religions argues for suicide, however, the degree of refusal is varying. Mosaic religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam), which are based on the idea of a human being as the image of God, have a more pronounced position against suicide than Eastern religions with a concept of transmigration and rebirth. Atheistic positions, which are not attached to transcendent norms, show a broad range of opinions from radical refusal to cautious approval. The positions of the different religions towards suicide are leading to assumptions of their effect on national suicide rates that have to be tested empirically.

  4. Detecting Changes in Suicide Content Manifested in Social Media Following Celebrity Suicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mrinal; Dredze, Mark; Coppersmith, Glen; De Choudhury, Munmun

    2015-01-01

    The Werther effect describes the increased rate of completed or attempted suicides following the depiction of an individual’s suicide in the media, typically a celebrity. We present findings on the prevalence of this effect in an online platform: r/SuicideWatch on Reddit. We examine both the posting activity and post content after the death of ten high-profile suicides. Posting activity increases following reports of celebrity suicides, and post content exhibits considerable changes that indicate increased suicidal ideation. Specifically, we observe that post-celebrity suicide content is more likely to be inward focused, manifest decreased social concerns, and laden with greater anxiety, anger, and negative emotion. Topic model analysis further reveals content in this period to switch to a more derogatory tone that bears evidence of self-harm and suicidal tendencies. We discuss the implications of our findings in enabling better community support to psychologically vulnerable populations, and the potential of building suicide prevention interventions following high-profile suicides. PMID:28713876

  5. Detecting Changes in Suicide Content Manifested in Social Media Following Celebrity Suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mrinal; Dredze, Mark; Coppersmith, Glen; De Choudhury, Munmun

    2015-09-01

    The Werther effect describes the increased rate of completed or attempted suicides following the depiction of an individual's suicide in the media, typically a celebrity. We present findings on the prevalence of this effect in an online platform: r/SuicideWatch on Reddit. We examine both the posting activity and post content after the death of ten high-profile suicides. Posting activity increases following reports of celebrity suicides, and post content exhibits considerable changes that indicate increased suicidal ideation. Specifically, we observe that post-celebrity suicide content is more likely to be inward focused, manifest decreased social concerns, and laden with greater anxiety, anger, and negative emotion. Topic model analysis further reveals content in this period to switch to a more derogatory tone that bears evidence of self-harm and suicidal tendencies. We discuss the implications of our findings in enabling better community support to psychologically vulnerable populations, and the potential of building suicide prevention interventions following high-profile suicides.

  6. [Suicide in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F; Kahn, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    On average, in one year in France, six in every thirty teenagers have suicidal thoughts and two attempt suicide. At this age, suicidal behaviour is structured around psychopathological, developmental and relational dimensions. Talking about suicide helps to avoid it but educating teenagers in mental health is the best way of preventing this definitive act. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: Part I of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo; Moreno, Doris H; Sinyor, Mark; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Turecki, Gustavo; Weizman, Abraham; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Ha, Kyooseob; Reis, Catherine; Cassidy, Frederick; Goldstein, Tina; Rihmer, Zoltán; Beautrais, Annette; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Diazgranados, Nancy; Levitt, Anthony J; Zarate, Carlos A; Yatham, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Bipolar disorder is associated with elevated risk of suicide attempts and deaths. Key aims of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide included examining the extant literature on epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacotherapy related to suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder. Methods Systematic review of studies from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 examining suicide attempts or deaths in bipolar disorder, with a specific focus on the incidence and characterization of suicide attempts and deaths, genetic and non-genetic biological studies and pharmacotherapy studies specific to bipolar disorder. We conducted pooled, weighted analyses of suicide rates. Results The pooled suicide rate in bipolar disorder is 164 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval = [5, 324]). Sex-specific data on suicide rates identified a 1.7:1 ratio in men compared to women. People with bipolar disorder account for 3.4–14% of all suicide deaths, with self-poisoning and hanging being the most common methods. Epidemiological studies report that 23–26% of people with bipolar disorder attempt suicide, with higher rates in clinical samples. There are numerous genetic associations with suicide attempts and deaths in bipolar disorder, but few replication studies. Data on treatment with lithium or anticonvulsants are strongly suggestive for prevention of suicide attempts and deaths, but additional data are required before relative anti-suicide effects can be confirmed. There were limited data on potential anti-suicide effects of treatment with antipsychotics or antidepressants. Conclusion This analysis identified a lower estimated suicide rate in bipolar disorder than what was previously published. Understanding the overall risk of suicide deaths and attempts, and the most common methods, are important building blocks to greater awareness and improved interventions for suicide prevention in bipolar disorder. Replication of genetic findings and

  8. Allergy: A Risk Factor for Suicide?

    OpenAIRE

    Postolache, Teodor T.; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.

    2008-01-01

    The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy.

  9. Coroners' records on suicide mortality in Montréal: limitations and implications in suicide prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, J; Guillou-Ouellette, C

    2014-02-01

    In Montréal, the characteristics of suicide cases may vary between different areas. The information collected by coroners during their investigations of suicides could be used to support local suicide-prevention planning actions. This study analyzes all coroners' records on suicide in Montréal from 2007 to 2009 to (1) determine the usefulness of the data available; (2) develop a profile of cases; (3) examine local differences by comparing two areas, one with the highest suicide rate and the other with the lowest. The data collected revealed the lack of a systematic, standardized procedure for recording information about deaths by suicide. The rates of missing data varied, but were very high for antecedents of suicide attempts and recent events that could have precipitated the suicide. We observed differences in the characteristics of suicide cases according to area of residence. By adopting a standardized procedure for collecting information on cases of suicide, coroners could provide local decision makers with a more accurate portrait of the people who die by suicide in their area. Local adjustments may improve suicide prevention strategies.

  10. Estimating the risk for suicide following the suicide deaths of 3 Asian entertainment celebrities: a meta-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, King-Wa; Yip, Paul S F

    2009-06-01

    Evidence suggests that there is an increase in the suicide rate following incidents of celebrity suicide in different countries, but there are no data on the overall suicide risk across countries. The duration of increased suicide rates is usually assumed to be on a monthly basis, but the weekly increase remains uncertain. This study aims at estimating the risk for suicide after the suicide deaths of entertainment celebrities in Asia during the first 4 weeks after the celebrity suicides and on a weekly basis. An ecological, retrospective time-series analysis and a meta-analysis of the suicide deaths in 3 Asian regions: Hong Kong (from 2001 to 2003), Taiwan, and South Korea (both from 2003 to 2005). The combined risks for suicide were found to be 1.43 (95% CI = 1.23 to 1.66), 1.29 (95% CI = 1.12 to 1.50), and 1.25 (95% CI = 1.08 to 1.45) in the first, second, and third week, respectively, after suicides of entertainment celebrities, while adjusting for secular trends, seasonality, economic situation, and temporal autocorrelation. The same-gender and same-method specific increases suggest that as people identify more with the celebrity, their risk for suicide rises. A medium-term rise in suicides up to 24 weeks after the incidents of celebrity suicide is also evident. This study is the first to estimate risk for suicides following celebrity suicides across 3 Asian regions. The results provide important information for public health policy makers in assessing the elevated risk associated with excessive media coverage of celebrity suicide and developing timely evidence-based interventions. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  11. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between Non-Suicidal Self-Injuries and Suicide Attempts in Chinese Adolescents and College Students: A Cross-Section Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhu, Huiping; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Zhuoya

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the association between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents and college students. Methods A total sample of 2013 Chinese students were randomly selected from five schools in Wuhan, China, including 1101 boys and 912 girls with the age ranging between 10 and 24 years. NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and depressive symptoms were measured by self-rated questionnaires. Self-reported suicide attempts were regressed on suicidal ideation and NSSI, controlling for participants' depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics. Results The self-reported prevalence rates of NSSI, suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were 15.5%, 8.8%, and 3.5%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses indicated that NSSI was significantly associated with self-reported suicide attempts. Analyses examining the conditional association of NSSI and suicidal ideation with self-reported suicide attempts revealed that NSSI was significantly associated with greater risk of suicide attempts in those not reporting suicidal ideation than those reporting suicidal ideation in the past year. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of NSSI as a potentially independent risk factor for suicide attempts among Chinese/Han adolescents and college students. PMID:21494656

  13. Southern Subculture, Personal Violence (Suicide and Homicide), and Firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Study of the continental United States showed that an index of "southernness" was associated with the homicide rate but not with the suicide rate. However, the rate of suicide by firearms and the rate of lethal accidents with firearms were both associated with this index of southernness. (Author/KS)

  14. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2016-02-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women's representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men.

  15. [Suicide in female and male physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagro-Janssen, A L M; Luijks, H D P

    2008-10-04

    To determine whether there are gender differences in the incidence of suicide in physicians, and whether there are differences in the methods used by male and female physicians to commit suicide. Systematic literature search. A literature search was performed in the electronic literature databases PubMed and PsycInfo. After exclusion based on title, abstract or missing data, 9 studies remained. All these studies met quality criteria that were set up in advance. The studies were assessed by 2 researchers. Suicide among male physicians occurred at the same or at a slightly lower rate, than in the general population. Even after correction for age, female physicians committed suicide more often. The gender difference in suicide in the general population, i.e. suicide attempts by men are more successful than those by women, was not found in physicians. Male and female physicians often used medication as their preferred method of suicide, and at twice the rate that people in the general population did. Female physicians are at higher risk of committing suicide than their male counterparts, although this situation is perhaps changing now that they are less of a minority. With respect to prevention, one might consider paying more attention to depression in physicians and those in training, and to constructing a more open professional culture in which mistakes are condemned less.

  16. TOWARD SUICIDE PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Venkoba A.

    1999-01-01

    Suicide is an important mode of death. There are many psychiatrically ill patients in therapy running different degree of suicide risk. The risk of death by suicide is with almost all psychiatric illnesses, but it is found more with depressive disease, schizophrenia and personality disorder. Many studies have reported higher incidences of suicide attempts and suicide among alcoholics, which is often precipitated by family crises. Drug problems, low threshold for tolerance of day to day frustr...

  17. Assisted and unassisted suicide in men and women: longitudinal study of the Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2016-05-01

    In Switzerland assisted suicide is legal if no self-interest is involved. To compare the strength and direction of associations with sociodemographic factors between assisted and unassisted suicides. We calculated rates and used Cox and logistic regression models in a longitudinal study of the Swiss population. Analyses were based on 5 004 403 people, 1301 assisted and 5708 unassisted suicides from 2003 to 2008. The rate of unassisted suicides was higher in men than in women, rates of assisted suicides were similar in men and women. Higher education was positively associated with assisted suicide, but negatively with unassisted. Living alone, having no children and no religious affiliation were associated with higher rates of both. Some situations that indicate greater vulnerability such as living alone were associated with both assisted and unassisted suicide. Among the terminally ill, women were more likely to choose assisted suicide, whereas men died more often by unassisted suicide. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  18. Suicide Attempts among the Elderly in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Guk-Hee; Gega, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Among the one million suicide deaths worldwide each year, as many as 60% occur in Asia. The World Health Organization (WHO) found higher suicide rates among the elderly in rapidly industrialized Asian countries such as China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia and Singapore, compared to the corresponding rates of recently industrializing Asian countries like Vietnam and Sri Lanka (WHO, 2014). As a case in point, suicide rates in South Korea have been the highest in the world since 2003 a...

  19. Moral Objections and Fear of Hell: An Important Barrier to Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Bart; Schaap, Hanneke; Braam, Arjan W

    2018-02-08

    This review explores the literature to test the hypothesis that 'moral objections to suicide (MOS), especially the conviction of going to hell after committing suicide, exert a restraining effect on suicide and suicidality.' Medline and PsycInfo were searched using all relevant search terms; all relevant articles were selected, rated and reviewed. Fifteen cross-sectional studies were available on this topic, and raise sufficient evidence to confirm a restraining effect of MOS, and sparse data on fear of hell. MOS seem to counteract especially the development of suicidal intent and attempts, and possibly the lethality of suicidal attempts. A differential pattern of influence of MOS on the suicidal continuum is suggested.

  20. [Suicide and suicide tendencies in adolescent detainees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, Daniel; Lempp, Thomas; Rauf, Amna; Bennefeld-Kersten, Katharina; Kettner, Mattias; Freitag, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    Following accidents, suicide is the second leading cause of death in adolescence. This stage of life has the most suicide attempts of all age groups. In addition to mentally ill juveniles, adolescent delinquents represent a high-risk group for suicidal behavior and completed suicide. In particular, the population of detainees, an extreme form of juvenile delinquency, have a 16- to 18-fold higher risk of suicidal behavior and suicide compared to the general population. Because the composition of juvenile detainees differs greatly from that of detained adults, age-specific scientific approaches and prevention programs are needed. This task cannot be addressed by juvenile detention staff alone, but rather demands close cooperation between adolescent psychiatrists, psychologists, prison medical staff, legal experts and prison officers to use the opportunity for suicide prevention in juvenile detention facilities.

  1. Time trends in coroners' use of different verdicts for possible suicides and their impact on officially reported incidence of suicide in England: 1990-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, D; Bennewith, O; Simkin, S; Cooper, J; Klineberg, E; Rodway, C; Sutton, L; Steeg, S; Wells, C; Hawton, K; Kapur, N

    2013-07-01

    Official suicide statistics for England are based on deaths given suicide verdicts and most cases given an open verdict following a coroner's inquest. Previous research indicates that some deaths given accidental verdicts are considered to be suicides by clinicians. Changes in coroners' use of different verdicts may bias suicide trend estimates. We investigated whether suicide trends may be over- or underestimated when they are based on deaths given suicide and open verdicts. Method Possible suicides assessed by 12 English coroners in 1990/91, 1998 and 2005 and assigned open, accident/misadventure or narrative verdicts were rated by three experienced suicide researchers according to the likelihood that they were suicides. Details of all suicide verdicts given by these coroners were also recorded. In 1990/91, 72.0% of researcher-defined suicides received a suicide verdict from the coroner, this decreased to 65.4% in 2005 (p trend suicide and open verdicts were 95.4% (1990/91) and 86.7% (2005). Researcher-defined suicides with a verdict of accident/misadventure doubled over that period, from 4.6% to 9.1% (p suicides that year). In 1998 and 2005, 50.0% of the medicine poisoning deaths given accidental/misadventure verdicts were rated as suicide by the researchers. Between 1990/91 and 2005, the proportion of researcher-defined suicides given a suicide verdict by coroners decreased, largely due to an increased use of accident/misadventure verdicts, particularly for deaths involving poisoning. Consideration should be given to the inclusion of 'accidental' deaths by poisoning with medicines in the statistics available for monitoring suicides rates.

  2. Reduction in young male suicide in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Cameron; Stockton, Diane; Henderson, Rob

    2008-02-29

    Rates of suicide and undetermined death increased rapidly in Scotland in the 1980's and 1990's. The largest increases were in men, with a marked increase in rates in younger age groups. This was associated with an increase in hanging as a method of suicide. National suicide prevention work has identified young men as a priority group. Routinely collected national information suggested a decrease in suicide rates in younger men at the beginning of the 21st century. This study tested whether this was a significant change in trend, and whether it was associated with any change in hanging rates in young men. Joinpoint regression was used to estimate annual percentage changes in age-specific rates of suicide and undetermined intent death, and to identify times when the trends changed significantly. Rates of deaths by method in 15 - 29 year old males and females were also examined to assess whether there had been any significant changes in method use in this age group. There was a 42% reduction in rates in 15 - 29 year old men, from 42.5/100,000 in 2000 to 24.5/100,000 in 2004. A joinpoint analysis confirmed that this was a significant change. There was also a significant change in trend in hanging in men in this age group, with a reduction in rates after 2000. No other male age group showed a significant change in trend over the period 1980 - 2004. There was a smaller reduction in suicide rates in women in the 15 - 29 year old age group, with a reduction in hanging from 2002. There has been a reduction in suicide rates in men aged 15 - 29 years, and this is associated with a significant reduction in deaths by hanging in this age group. It is not clear whether this is related to a change in method preference, or an overall reduction in suicidal behaviour, and review of self-harm data will be required to investigate this further.

  3. The Predictive Validity of the Beck Depression Inventory Suicide Item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kelly L; Brown, Gregory K; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Cha, Jason; Steer, Robert A; Beck, Aaron T

    2015-12-01

    The current study examines the predictive validity of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) suicide item for death by suicide and suicide attempts. The study included 2 samples: (1) 5,200 psychiatric outpatients who were evaluated between 1975 and 1995 and followed prospectively for up to 20 years (all psychiatric diagnoses based on DSM-III and DSM-III-R), and (2) 119 patients who, between 2000 and 2004, participated in a randomized controlled trial of outpatient Cognitive Therapy for Suicide Prevention after a suicide attempt and were followed for 18 months (all psychiatric diagnoses based on DSM-IV-TR). All patients completed structured diagnostic interviews, as well as the BDI and Scale for Suicide Ideation. Cox regression models demonstrated that the BDI suicide item significantly predicted both deaths by suicide (Wald χ(2)1 = 35.67; P < .001 [N = 5,200]) and repeat suicide attempts (Wald χ(2)1 = 8.82; P < .01 [N = 119]), with each successive rating on the item conferring greater risk. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, optimal cutoff scores of 1 and above for suicide and 2 and above for suicide attempts were identified as providing the best balance between sensitivity and specificity. The BDI suicide item is associated with both risk of repeat suicide attempts and death by suicide. The use of the item as a brief, efficient screen for suicide risk in routine clinical care is recommended. Clinicians would then conduct a comprehensive suicide risk assessment in response to a positive screen. Future research examining the item's performance in other at-risk groups (ie, older adults, adolescents, inpatients, etc) is encouraged. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  4. Bringing Anomie Back In: Exceptional Events and Excess Suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Anthony Hoffman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we show that imitation is not the mechanism behind the observed increase in suicides subsequent to highly publicized celebrity suicides. Instead, we show that most celebrity suicides are exceptional events and because of that have similar effects on the daily suicide rate as other exciting events. This finding suggests that Durkheim was right in rejecting the Tardean hypothesis that imitation is an operative mechanism and provides substantial support for the competing hypothesis that disruptive and/or exciting events (whether favorable or unfavorable induce anomie and with it suicide.

  5. Suicide in older adults: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conejero I

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ismael Conejero,1,2 Emilie Olié,1–3 Philippe Courtet,1–3 Raffaella Calati1–3 1Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM, University of Montpellier, Neuropsychiatry: Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Montpellier, France; 2Department of Emergency Psychiatry and Post-Acute Care, Lapeyronie Hospital, Center Hospitalier Universitairere (CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, France; 3FondaMental Foundation, Créteil, France Abstract: Suicidal behavior in older adults (65 years old and over is a major public health issue in many countries. Suicide rates increase during the life course and are as high as 48.7/100,000 among older white men in the USA. Specific health conditions and stress factors increase the complexity of the explanatory model for suicide in older adults. A PubMed literature search was performed to identify most recent and representative studies on suicide risk factors in older adults. The aim of our narrative review was to provide a critical evaluation of recent findings concerning specific risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among older people: psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, social exclusion, bereavement, cognitive impairment, decision making and cognitive inhibition, physical illnesses, and physical and psychological pain. We also aimed to approach the problem of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in older adults. Our main findings emphasize the need to integrate specific stress factors, such as feelings of social disconnectedness, neurocognitive impairment or decision making, as well as chronic physical illnesses and disability in suicide models and in suicide prevention programs in older adults. Furthermore, the chronic care model should be adapted for the treatment of older people with long-term conditions in order to improve the treatment of depressive disorders and the prevention of suicidal thoughts and acts. Keywords: suicide, attempted suicide, older adults, risk

  6. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and health determinants of suicidal behaviour in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Azahadi, Mohd; Phang, Siew Nooi; Abd Manaf, Noor Hazilah

    2018-03-01

    Suicide has become a serious matter in both developed and developing countries. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors affecting suicidal behaviour among adults in Malaysia. A nationally representative data which consists of 10,141 respondents is used for analysis. A trivariate probit model is utilised to identify the probability of having suicide ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt. Results of the regression analysis show that to ensure unbiased estimates, a trivariate probit model should be used instead of three separate probit models. The determining factors of suicidal behaviour are income, age, gender, ethnicity, education, marital status, self-rated health and being diagnosed with diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. The likelihood of adopting suicidal behaviour is lower among higher income earners and older individuals. Being male and married significantly reduce the propensity to engage in suicidal behaviour. Of all the ethnic groups, Indian/others displays the highest likelihood of adopting suicidal behaviour. There is a positive relationship between poor health condition and suicide. Policies targeted at individuals who are likely to adopt suicidal behaviour may be effective in lowering the prevalence of suicide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Suicide and suicide prevention for female and male physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfersdorf, M

    2007-06-28

    The medical profession represents one of the groups of people who are not reached by the present help system for suicidal behaviour. The suicide rate of male physicians is slightly higher than that of the general population, while that of their female colleagues is clearly higher. This tendency is most pronounced in female psychiatrists and anaesthetists. In addition to the usual preventive measures such as the treatment of depression and addiction, the necessity of a qualified, professional treatment especially for doctors must be recognized because there is often a penchant for ineffective self-treatment. The symptoms are played down and even in acute crisis situations the urgently needed help is not enlisted.

  8. Suicide in U.S. Workplaces, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesman, Hope M.; Konda, Srinivas; Hartley, Dan; Chaumont Menéndez, Cammie; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Suicide rates have risen considerably in recent years. National workplace suicide trends have not been well documented. The aim of this study is to describe suicides occurring in U.S. workplaces and compare them to suicides occurring outside of the workplace between 2003 and 2010. Methods Suicide data originated from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injury database and the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Suicide rates were calculated using denominators from the 2013 Current Population Survey and 2000 U.S. population census. Suicide rates were compared among demographic groups with rate ratios and 95% CIs. Suicide rates were calculated and compared among occupations. Linear regression, adjusting for serial correlation, was used to analyze temporal trends. Analyses were conducted in 2013–2014. Results Between 2003 and 2010, a total of 1,719 people died by suicide in the workplace. Workplace suicide rates generally decreased until 2007 and then sharply increased (p=0.035). This is in contrast with non-workplace suicides, which increased over the study period (p=0.025). Workplace suicide rates were highest for men (2.7 per 1,000,000); workers aged 65–74 years (2.4 per 1,000,000); those in protective service occupations (5.3 per 1,000,000); and those in farming, fishing, and forestry (5.1 per 1,000,000). Conclusions The upward trend of suicides in the workplace underscores the need for additional research to understand occupation-specific risk factors and develop evidence-based programs that can be implemented in the workplace. PMID:25794471

  9. Organisation of the disposal of radioactive sources from Scottish hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigall, R S; Martin, C J; Watson, I

    2004-01-01

    An amnesty for disposal of sealed radioactive sources from Scottish hospitals has been funded by the Scottish Executive to address problems arising from accumulation of sources. The contract was awarded to a company involved in radioactive source recycling. Coordination of uplifts from several hospitals allowed considerable financial savings to be made, so source amnesties could offer monetary advantages to Health and Education Departments elsewhere in the UK, as well as alleviating the problem from security and storage of sources that are no longer required. The sources originated in 14 hospitals, but were uplifted from five pick-up points. There were a total of 246 sources with 167 of these being caesium-137. The total activity was 16.2 TBq with one large 16.1 TBq blood irradiator source and the activities of all the other sources adding up to 167 GBq. This paper describes organisation of the collection. Options for achieving compliance with the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 are discussed, although in the event, special authorisations were obtained for each hospital. Arrangements for transport of the sources and source security were drawn up including emergency procedures for dealing with foreseeable incidents. The police provided secure overnight storage for the loaded truck and assistance in directing and monitoring progress of the load

  10. Income, Wealth and Health Inequalities - A Scottish Social Justice Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molony, Elspeth; Duncan, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers health inequalities through a social justice perspective. The authors draw on a variety of existing sources of evidence, including experiential, scientific and contextual knowledge. The authors work with NHS Health Scotland, a national Health Board working to reduce health inequalities and improve health. Working closely with the Scottish Government and with a variety of stakeholders across different sectors, NHS Health Scotland's vision for a fairer, healthier Scotland is founded on the principles of social justice. The paper takes social justice as the starting point and explores what it means for two interlinked paradigms of social injustice-health inequality and income inequality. Utilising the wealth of evidence synthesised by NHS Health Scotland as well as drawing on the writings and evidence of philosophers, epidemiologists, the Scottish Government and international bodies, the authors explore the links between income and wealth inequality, social justice, the right to health and health inequalities. The paper ends by considering the extent to which there is appetite for social change in Scotland by considering the attitudes of the people of Scotland and of Britain to poverty, inequality and welfare.

  11. Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2008-01-01

    Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

  12. Are elite cricketers more prone to suicide? A psychological autopsy study of Test cricketer suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajit; Sava-Shah, Shrenik; Wijeratne, Chanaka; Draper, Brian

    2016-06-01

    It has been hypothesised that the very nature of the game predisposes elite cricketers to higher rates of suicide. We aim to estimate the suicide rate of male Test cricketers and to determine the reasons for suicide. The suicide rate in male Test cricketers was determined. A psychological autopsy was conducted using published biographical data. Twenty suicides amongst 2794 male Test cricketers from 1877 to 2014 yielded a suicide rate of 715.4 per 100,000 for that period. Health, financial and relationship issues were prominent; depression and alcohol misuse were common. Most suicides in Test cricketers occurred post-retirement in mid to late life with similar correlates to those found in the general male population. The idiosyncrasies of cricket are unlikely to contribute to suicide; however, the post-retirement welfare of Test cricketers should remain a focus of concern and the greater supports available to contemporary Test cricketers needs to extend beyond retirement. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  13. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: Enhancing Mental Health Care for Suicidal Individuals and Other People in Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie L. H.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Lake, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Linking at-risk callers to ongoing mental health care is a key goal of crisis hotline interventions that has not often been addressed in evaluations of hotlines' effectiveness. We conducted telephone interviews with 376 suicidal and 278 nonsuicidal crisis callers to the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (Lifeline) to assess rates of mental…

  14. Suicide in elderly people: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2010-08-01

    A literature review was carried out focusing on the main factors associated with suicidal ideation, attempts and completed suicide in elders. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, SciELO and Biblioteca Virtual em Violência e Saúde da BIREME (BIREME's Violence and Health Virtual Library), referring to the period from 1980 to 2008. Fifty-two references were selected and analyzed. They showed a strong relationship among suicide ideation, attempt and completion in elderly individuals, which results from the interaction of complex physical, mental, neurobiological and social factors. Suicide associated with depression in the elderly can be prevented, provided the person is properly treated. In Brazil, it is necessary to invest in research, given the persistent increase in suicide rates among aged people, especially among males.

  15. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    ; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. On the universal prevention level, an overview of the literature is presented with focus...... on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate......Ways of conceptualizing suicide prevention are reviewed briefly, and the preventive model: Universal, Selected, and Indicated prevention (USI) is chosen as the structure for the literature review, and the discussion. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward entire population...

  16. Epidemic of charcoal burning suicide in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Eiji; Hanley, Sharon J B; Kawanishi, Yasuyuki; Saijo, Yasuaki

    2014-01-01

    The charcoal burning suicide epidemics in both Hong Kong and Taiwan have been well documented. However, little is known about the situation in Japan. To examine the impact of charcoal burning suicide on the overall and other method-specific suicide rates between 1998 and 2007 in Japan. Using data obtained from the Vital Statistics of Japan, negative binomial regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of the charcoal burning method. In males and females aged 15-24 and 25-44 years, the charcoal burning epidemic led to a substantial increase in overall suicides, without a decrease in other methods. In all other age groups, no such trend was observed. In young Japanese, the charcoal burning method may have appealed to individuals who might not have chosen other highly or relatively lethal methods, and consequently led to an increase in overall suicides.

  17. Depression and suicidal ideation in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabaugh, Amy; Bitran, Stella; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne J; Pedrelli, Paola; Shyu, Irene; Hollon, Steven D; Zisook, Sidney; Baer, Lee; Busse, Wilma; Petersen, Timothy J; Pender, Maribeth; Tucker, Dorothy D; Fava, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death in college students and is often associated with depression. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of suicidal ideation (SI) on college campuses and to identify its correlates. On-campus depression screening sessions were conducted at 3 universities (n = 898; 55% female; mean age 20.07 ± 1.85 years). Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; mean ± SD of total score = 6.27 ± 6.31) and other measures. Eighty-four students endorsed a '1' on the BDI suicidality item, suggesting thoughts of suicide. Results showed that students with greater depression severity, higher levels of hopelessness, and poorer quality of life were more likely to endorse SI. Factors associated with SI highlighted in this study may aid in the identification of college students at risk for suicide. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Parental Self-Efficacy to Support Teens During a Suicidal Crisis and Future Adolescent Emergency Department Visits and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; Yeguez, Carlos E; Ewell Foster, Cynthia J; King, Cheryl A

    2017-07-17

    This study of adolescents seeking emergency department (ED) services and their parents examined parents' self-efficacy beliefs to engage in suicide prevention activities, whether these beliefs varied based on teens' characteristics, and the extent to which they were associated with adolescents' suicide-related outcomes. Participants included 162 adolescents (57% female, 81.5% Caucasian), ages 13-17, and their parents. At index visit, parents rated their self-efficacy to engage in suicide prevention activities and their expectations regarding their teen's future suicide risk. Adolescents' ED visits for suicide-related concerns and suicide attempts were assessed 4 months later. Parents endorsed high self-efficacy to engage in most suicide prevention activities. At the same time, they endorsed considerable doubt in being able to keep their child safe if the teen has thoughts of suicide and in their child not attempting suicide in the future. Parents whose teens experienced follow-up suicide-related outcomes endorsed, at clinically meaningful effect sizes, lower self-efficacy for recognizing suicide warning signs, for obtaining the teen's commitment to refrain from suicide, and for encouraging their teen to cope, as well as lower confidence that their teen will not attempt suicide; self-efficacy to recognize warning signs was at trend level. Despite endorsing high self-efficacy for the majority of suicide prevention activities, parents of high-risk teens expressed less confidence in their capacity to influence their teen's suicidal behavior, which could undermine parents' effort to implement these strategies. The relationship between parental self-efficacy and youth suicide-related outcomes points to its potential value in guiding clinical decision making and interventions.

  19. Dynamic pattern of suicide in Australia, 1986–2005: a descriptive-analytic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Hu, Wenbiao; Page, Andrew; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores the spatiotemporal variations of suicide across Australia from 1986 to 2005, discusses the reasons for dynamic changes, and considers future suicide research and prevention strategies. Design Suicide (1986–2005) and population data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A series of analyses were conducted to examine the suicide pattern by sex, method and age group over time and geography. Results Differences in suicide rates across sex, age groups and suicide methods were found across geographical areas. Male suicides were mainly completed by hanging, firearms, gases and self-poisoning. Female suicides were primarily completed by hanging and self-poisoning. Suicide rates were higher in rural areas than in urban areas (capital cities and regional centres). Suicide rates by firearms were higher in rural areas than in urban areas, while the pattern for self-poisoning showed the reverse trend. Suicide rates had relatively stable trend for the total population and those aged between 15 and 54, while suicide decreased among 55 years and over during the study period. There was a decrease in suicides by firearms during the study period especially after 1996 when a new firearm control law was implemented, while suicide by hanging continued to increase. Areas with a high proportion of indigenous population (eg, northwest of Queensland and top north of the Northern Territory) had shown a substantial increase in suicide incidence after 1995. Conclusions Suicide rates varied over time and space and across sexes, age groups and suicide methods. This study provides detailed patterns of suicide to inform suicide control and prevention strategies for specific subgroups and areas of high and increased risk. PMID:25079935

  20. Occurrence of suicide and seasonal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retamal C. Pedro

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the estimated suicide rates for the Region Metropolitan, the main socio-political center in Chile, for the period 1979-1994, and to determine whether they follow a seasonal pattern. METHOD: Data available for the period 1979-94 at the Forensic Services in Chile was analyzed using ANOVA. RESULTS: It was register 5.386 suicides. While the "warm" months (October, November, December & January concentrated 39.0% of cases, the so called "cold" months reported 28,7%. This contrast is made even clearer by the month-to-month analysis, showing the highest suicide rate in December (10.9% against the lowest rate in June (7.0%. Further statistical analysis revealed these differences to be significant. CONCLUSION: The study shows that in Chile, representing as it does the Southern Hemisphere, the suicide rates tend to present a seasonal variation as has elsewhere been determined for in the North Hemisphere.