WorldWideScience

Sample records for scotia sea ecosystem

  1. Impacts of rising sea temperature on krill increase risks for predators in the Scotia Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Simeon L.; Hinke, Jefferson T.; Phillips, Tony; Watters, George M.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is a threat to marine ecosystems and the services they provide, and reducing fishing pressure is one option for mitigating the overall consequences for marine biota. We used a minimally realistic ecosystem model to examine how projected effects of ocean warming on the growth of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, might affect populations of krill and dependent predators (whales, penguins, seals, and fish) in the Scotia Sea. We also investigated the potential to mitigate depletion risk for predators by curtailing krill fishing at different points in the 21st century. The projected effects of ocean warming on krill biomass were strongest in the northern Scotia Sea, with a ≥40% decline in the mass of individual krill. Projections also suggest a 25% chance that krill biomass will fall below an established depletion threshold (75% of its unimpacted level), with consequent risks for some predator populations, especially penguins. Average penguin abundance declined by up to 30% of its unimpacted level, with up to a 50% chance of falling below the depletion threshold. Simulated krill fishing at currently permitted harvest rates further increased risks for depletion, and stopping fishing offset the increased risks associated with ocean warming in our model to some extent. These results varied by location and species group. Risk reductions at smaller spatial scales also differed from those at the regional level, which suggests that some predator populations may be more vulnerable than others to future changes in krill biomass. However, impacts on predators did not always map directly to those for krill. Our findings indicate the importance of identifying vulnerable marine populations and targeting protection measures at appropriate spatial scales, and the potential for spatially-structured management to avoid aggravating risks associated with rising ocean temperatures. This may help balance tradeoffs among marine ecosystem services in an uncertain future

  2. Structure of Subsurface Sediments in the Scan Basin (Scotia Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreider, Al. A.; Schreider, A. A.; Sazhneva, A. E.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Ruano, P.; Maldonado, A.; Martos-Martin, Y.; Lobo, F.

    2018-01-01

    The structure of sediments in the Scotia Sea is used as a basis for reconstructing the geological history of its bottom in the Late Quaternary. The Scan Basin is one of the main elements of the topography of the southern Scotia Sea. Its formation played a considerable role in the fragmentation of the continent, which included the Bruce and Discovery banks. The main parameters of the sediment layer in the Scan Basin have been reconstructed by the present time, but its top part has not been studied. In this work, we analyze the first data obtained on the R/V Gesperidas with the use of a TOPAS PS 18/40 high-resolution seismic profilograph in 2012. Three layers in the subsurface sediments on the bottom of the Scan Basin were specified for the first time. The mean periods of their deposition in the Late Quaternary were determined as 115000 years for the first, 76000 years for the second, and 59 000 years for the third layer from the surface of the bottom. The duration of the total accumulation period of the three layers is about 250000 years.

  3. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  4. A Hydrographic Survey of the Scotia Sea, 15 March 1999 to 22 April 1999 (NODC Accession 0000861)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and chemical data were collected using CTD and bottle casts in the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea from the JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 March 1999...

  5. Diatoms as an indicator of bottom surface sediment dynamics in the southern Scotia sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Сергеевич Огиенко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of diatoms from the sediments of the lower interval of column K97-18 in Scotia Sea it is revealed the combination of Late-Holocene and Miocene species in complexes, due to the abundance of inclusions of Middle Miocene diatoms in the rock. Age of re-deposition, transporters and ways of transportation are determined, and it is suggested possible localization of diatomite layers

  6. Temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected in the Scotia Sea from 04 August 1997 to 05 September 1997 (NODC Accession 0000753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using bottle and CTD casts in the Weddell and Scotia Sea from NATHANIEL B. PALMER. Data were collected from 04...

  7. Physical and chemical data collected using bottle casts from the GENERAL SAN MARTIN in the Scotia Sea and Weddell Sea from 14 December 1963 to 11 January 1964 (NODC Accession 0000791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in the Scotia Sea and Weddell Sea from the GENERAL SAN MARTIN. Data were collected from 14 December 1963...

  8. Shelf-sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J J

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the food chain dynamics of the Oregon, Alaskan, and New York shelves is made with respect to differences in physical forcing of these ecosystems. The world's shelves are 10% of the area of the ocean, yield 99% of the world's fish catch, and may be a major sink in the global CO/sub 2/ budget.

  9. Crustal structure beneath discovery bank in the South Scotia Sea from group velocity tomography and seismic reflection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuan, A.; Lodolo, E.; Panza, G.F.

    2003-09-01

    Bruce, Discovery, Herdman and Jane Banks, all located along the central-eastern part of the South Scotia Ridge (i.e., the Antarctica-Scotia plate boundary), represent isolated topographic reliefs surrounded by relatively young oceanic crust, whose petrological and structural nature is still the subject of speculations due to the lack of resolving data. In the Scotia Sea and surrounding regions negative anomalies of about 34% are reported in large-scale group velocity tomography maps. The spatial resolution (∼500 km) of these maps does not warrant any reliable interpretation of such anomalies. A recent surface wave tomography in the same area, performed using broad band seismic stations and 300 regional events, shows that in the period range from 15 s to 50 s the central-eastern part of the South Scotia Ridge is characterized by negative anomalies of the group velocities as large as 6. The resolution of our data set (∼300 km) makes it possible to distinguish an area (centered at 61 deg S and 36 deg W) with a crust thicker than 25 km, and a shear wave velocity vs. depth profile similar to that found beneath the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and southern South America. Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves are inverted in the period range from 15 s to 80 s to obtain shear wave velocity profiles that suggest a continental nature of Discovery Bank. The continental-type crust of this topographic relief is in agreement with the interpretation of a multi-channel seismic reflection profile acquired across this rise. Peculiar acoustic facies are observed in this profile and are interpreted as thinned and faulted continental plateau. The boundaries of the negative group velocity anomalies are marked by a high seismicity rate. Historical normal faulting earthquakes with magnitude around 7 are localised between the low velocity anomaly region in the eastern South Scotia Ridge and the high velocity anomaly region associated with the surrounding oceanic crust

  10. Thoughts on controls on evolution and dispersal of benthos in the Magellan-Scotia Sea region: a workshop proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R.A. Thomson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scotia Arc and the Scotia Sea comprise a geologically young feature of the Earth’s surface that evolved over the last 40 million years (Ma or so, between the southern tip of South America and the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. With the notable exception of the much younger South Sandwich Islands, the islands, banks and seamounts of the arc represent dispersed fragments of a previous continental link between southern South America (Magellan region and the Antarctic Peninsula. The benthic marine shelf faunas of the region are the focus of the IBMANT (Investigación Biolólogica Marina en Magallanes relacionada con la Antártida programme, and those of the surrounding oceanic deeps are the focus of ANDEEP (Antarctic Benthic Deep-Sea Biodiversity. Elucidating the potential relationships between the faunas of the region and the profound geographical, oceanographic and climatic changes undergone by the region in later Cenozoic time is hampered by significant unknowns in the geological history, the expense of further geoscientific exploration to fill these, and a general lack of communication between the biological and geological science communities. It is suggested that the time is opportune for a truly multidisciplinary workshop at which all the involved science communities have much to gain from the others.

  11. Early spawning of Antarctic krill in the Scotia Sea is fuelled by “superfluous” feeding on non-ice associated phytoplankton blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katrin; Atkinson, Angus; Venables, Hugh J.; Pond, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The spawning success of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) is generally assumed to depend on substantial winter sea ice extent, as ice biota can serve as a food source during winter/spring and the seasonal ice melt conditions the upper water column for extensive phytoplankton blooms. However, direct observations during spring are rare. Here we studied krill body condition and maturity stage in relation to feeding (i.e. stomach fullness, diet, absorption of individual fatty acids and defecation rate) across the Scotia Sea in November 2006. The phytoplankton concentrations were low at the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the southern Scotia Sea (Stn. 1, 2, and 3), high in open waters of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF) in the central Scotia Sea (Stn. 5), and moderate further north (Stn. 6 and 7). Krill had low lipid reserves (˜6.5% of dry mass, DM), low mass:length ratios (˜1.7 mg DM mm -1), and small digestive glands (˜7% of total DM) near the ice edge. The stomachs contained lithogenic particles, diatom debris, and bacterial fatty acids, but low proportions of diatom-indicating fatty acids, which suggest that these krill were feeding on detritus rather than on fresh ice algae. In the SACCF, krill had higher lipid reserves (˜10% of DM), high mass:length ratios (˜2.2 mg DM mm -1), and large digestive glands (˜16% of total DM). Stomach content and tissue composition indicate feeding on diatoms. In the north, moderate food concentrations co-occurred with low lipid reserves in krill, and moderate mass:length ratios and digestive gland sizes. Only in the phytoplankton bloom in the SACCF had the mating season already started and some females were about to spawn. Based on the way krill processed their food at the different stations, we indicate two mechanisms that can lead to fast regeneration of body reserves and oocyte maturation in E. superba. One is "superfluous" feeding at high food concentrations, which maximises the overall nutrient gain

  12. Bioproductivity in the Southern Ocean since the last Interglacial - new high-resolution biogenic opal flux records from the Scotia Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenk, D.; Weber, M. E.; Kuhn, G.; Rosén, P.; Röhling, H.-G.

    2012-04-01

    The Southern Ocean plays an important role in transferring CO2 via wind-induced upwelling from the deep sea to the atmosphere. It is therefore one of the key areas to study climate change. Bioproductivity in the Southern Ocean is mostly influenced by the extent of sea ice, upwelling of cold nutrient- and silica-rich water, and the availability of light. Biogenic opal (BSi) is a significant nutrient in the Southern Ocean, and according to recent investigations only marginally affected by preservation changes. It can therefore be used as bioproductivity proxy. Here we present several methods to determine BSi, discuss them and put the results into context with respect to regional bioproductivity changes in Southern Ocean during the last glacial cycle. We studied deep-sea sediment core sites MD07-3133 and MD07-3134 from the central Scotia Sea with extraordinary high sedimentation rates of up to 2.1 to 1.2 m/kyr, respectively covering the last 92.5 kyr. BSi leaching according to Müller & Schneider (1993) is very time-consuming and expensive, so we measured only 253 samples from large-amplitude variation core sections. In addition, we determined BSi using non-destructive measurements of sediment colour b*, wet-bulk density, and Ti/Si count ratios. Furthermore, we provide the first attempts to estimate BSi in marine sediment using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS), a cost-efficient method, which requires only 11 mg of sediment. All estimation methods capture the main BSi trends, however FTIRS seems to be the most promising one. In the central Scotia Sea, south of the modern Antarctic Polar Front, the BSi flux reflects a relatively complicated glacial-to-interglacial pattern with large-amplitude, millennial-scale fluctuations in bioproductivity. During Antarctic Isotopic Maxima, BSi fluxes were generally increased. Lowest bioproductivity occur at the Last Glacial Maximum, while upwelling of mid-depth water was reduced, atmospheric CO2 low, and sea-ice cover

  13. Salton Sea Ecosystem Monitoring Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Ricca, Mark A.; Meckstroth, Anne; Spring, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    The Salton Sea is critically important for wintering and breeding waterbirds, but faces an uncertain future due to water delivery reductions imposed by the Interstate and Federal Quantification Settlement Agreement of 2003. The current preferred alternative for wetland restoration at the Salton Sea is saline habitat impoundments created to mitigate the anticipated loss of wetland habitat. In 2006, a 50-hectare experimental complex that consisted of four inter-connected, shallow water saline habitat ponds (SHP) was constructed at the southeastern shoreline of the Salton Sea and flooded with blended waters from the Alamo River and Salton Sea. The present study evaluated ecological risks and benefits of the SHP concept prior to widespread restoration actions. This study was designed to evaluate (1) baseline chemical, nutrient, and contaminant measures from physical and biological constituents, (2) aquatic invertebrate community structure and colonization patterns, and (3) productivity of and contaminant risks to nesting waterbirds at the SHP. These factors were evaluated and compared with those of nearby waterbird habitat, that is, reference sites.

  14. New tentacled leech Ceratobdella quadricornuta n. g., n. sp. (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae) parasitic on the starry skate Raja georgiana Norman from the Scotia Sea, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utevsky, Andrei; Gordeev, Ilya

    2015-07-01

    A new fish leech Ceratobdella quadricornuta n. g., n. sp. (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae), a parasite of the Antarctic skate Raja georgiana Norman (Rajiformes: Rajidae) collected between the Falkland Islands and South Georgia Island in the Scotia Sea, is described and compared with related genera. Ceratobdella quadricornuta is characterised by an uncommon appearance of its anterior sucker bearing four well-developed tentacles and a unique combination of features of the reproductive and digestive systems: crop and intestine equally developed, posterior crop caeca separated; accessory glands, conductive tissue and external copulatory area lacking; common part of ejaculatory ducts (common atrium) voluminous and muscular, male copulatory bursa short, small ovisacs opening into female copulatory bursa (vagina).

  15. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  16. Salton Sea ecosystem monitoring and assessment plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case(compiler), H. L.; Boles, Jerry; Delgado, Arturo; Nguyen, Thang; Osugi, Doug; Barnum, Douglas A.; Decker, Drew; Steinberg, Steven; Steinberg, Sheila; Keene, Charles; White, Kristina; Lupo, Tom; Gen, Sheldon; Baerenklau, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    The Salton Sea, California’s largest lake, provides essential habitat for several fish and wildlife species and is an important cultural and recreational resource. It has no outlet, and dissolved salts contained in the inflows concentrate in the Salton Sea through evaporation. The salinity of the Salton Sea, which is currently nearly one and a half times the salinity of ocean water, has been increasing as a result of evaporative processes and low freshwater inputs. Further reductions in inflows from water conservation, recycling, and transfers will lower the level of the Salton Sea and accelerate the rate of salinity increases, reduce the suitability of fish and wildlife habitat, and affect air quality by exposing lakebed playa that could generate dust. Legislation enacted in 2003 to implement the Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) stated the Legislature’s intent for the State of California to undertake the restoration of the Salton Sea ecosystem. As required by the legislation, the California Resources Agency (now California Natural Resources Agency) produced the Salton Sea Ecosystem Restoration Study and final Programmatic Environmental Impact Report (PEIR; California Resources Agency, 2007) with the stated purpose to “develop a preferred alternative by exploring alternative ways to restore important ecological functions of the Salton Sea that have existed for about 100 years.” A decision regarding a preferred alternative currently resides with the California State Legislature (Legislature), which has yet to take action. As part of efforts to identify an ecosystem restoration program for the Salton Sea, and in anticipation of direction from the Legislature, the California Department of Water Resources (DWR), California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a team to develop a monitoring and assessment plan (MAP). This plan is the product of that effort. The

  17. Wind impact on the Black Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanichny, Sergey; Ratner, Yuriy; Shokurov, Mike; Stanychna, Rimma; Soloviev, Dmytro; Burdyugov, Vyacheslav

    2010-05-01

    Combination of the recent satellite and meteorological data for the regional investigation allowed to describe new features of the processes in marine ecosystem and detect some relations with wind variability for different time scales. Next topics are highlighted in presentation: 1. Inter-annual variability of the wind stress curl over the Black Sea. Shift in the atmospheric processes after 2003 year and related variations in chlorophyll concentration and intensity of the mesoscale currents. 2. Like-tropical cyclone in September 2005 and its impact o the Black Sea upper layer. 3. Strong storm November 11, 2007 and oil pollutions of the Kerch Strait. 4. Relation of the Danube waters transport with wind fields for summer 2007 and 2008. 5. "Valley" wind in the Eastern part of the Black Sea and its impact on the Rim current formation. 6. Low wind conditions and blue -green algae bloom. NCEP, SKIRON and MHI MM5 wind data together with AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS, ETM+, QuikSCAT, ASAR (ESA) satellite data were used for investigation. Work was done with support of the SESAME FP7, "Stable Ecosystem" and Operational Oceanography NASU projects.

  18. Call to protect deep-sea coral, sponge ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-03-01

    More than 1100 scientists are signatories to a 15 February consensus statement calling for the protection of deep sea coral and sponge ecosystems. The statement indicates that ``the greatest human threat'' to these ecosystems ``is commercial fishing, especially bottom trawling.''

  19. Biological dataset collected from bottle casts from the R/V LAURENCE M. GOULD and the R/V NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the Southern Drake Passage and Scotia Sea in support of National Science Foundation projects OPP 03-30443 and ANT 04-44134 from 15 February 2004 to 09 August 2006 (NODC Accession 0049902)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean biology data were collected in Southern Drake Passage and Scotia Sea during two research cruises supported by NSF awards. These two cruises, namely LMG0402 and...

  20. Rapid climate oscillations in the Scotia Sea and results of the calving history of Antarctica during the last 200 000 years; Kurzfristige Klimaschwankungen im Scotiameer und Ergebnisse zur Kalbungsgeschichte der Antarktis waehrend der letzten 200 000 Jahre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, A. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Sedimentological and physical properties of five sediment cores have been analysed in order to reconstruct sedimentary processes during the late Quaternary in the southern Scotia Sea. The sediment cores have been dated by comparing magnetic susceptibility data of sediment cores with high-resolution dust records from the GRIP and Vostok ice cores. The data strongly suggest the occurrence of rapid climate oscillations, the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles in the working area. Also, calving events of the Antarctic ice sheet similar to the Heinrich-events, known from the nothern hemisphere, could be detected in the sediment cores from the Scotia Sea. Under the assumption that magnetic susceptibility is a dust signal, two age models were established for each sediment core, one by correlation with the Vostok ice core, the other by correlation with the GRIP ice core. The prove rapid climate oscillations in the Scotia Sea magnetic susceptibility was measured in high resolution. The high resolution magnetic susceptibility of the sediment cores shows similar variations as the calcium signal of the GRIP ice core. (orig.)

  1. Climate change in Nova Scotia : a background paper to guide Nova Scotia's climate change action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    Climate change causes changes in the temperature of the earth, the level of the sea, and the frequency of extreme weather conditions. The province of Nova Scotia recently released an act related to environmental goals and sustainable prosperity. Addressing climate change is a key element in achieving Nova Scotia's sustainable prosperity goals outlined in the act. The Nova Scotia Department of Energy is working towards developing both policy and action, to help meet its target of a 10 per cent reduction in greenhouse gases from 1990 levels by the year 2020. Two major plans are underway, notably a climate change action plan and a renewed energy strategy. This report provided background information on Nova Scotia's climate change action plan. It discussed climate change issues affecting Nova Scotia, air pollutants, energy sources in Nova Scotia, energy consumers in the province, and Nova Scotia's approach to climate change. The report also discussed actions underway and funding sources. It was concluded that in order for the climate change action plan to be successful, Nova Scotians must use energy more efficiently; use renewable energy; use cleaner energy; and plan for change. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs., 4 appendices

  2. Erosional and depositional contourite features at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and southern South Atlantic Ocean: links with regional water-mass circulation since the Middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Esteban, Federico D.; Tassone, Alejandro; Piola, Alberto R.; Maldonado, Andrés; Preu, Benedict; Violante, Roberto A.; Lodolo, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise the morpho-sedimentary features and main stratigraphic stacking pattern off the Tierra del Fuego continental margin, the north-western sector of the Scotia Sea abyssal plain (Yaghan Basin) and the Malvinas/Falkland depression, based on single- and multi-channel seismic profiles. Distinct contourite features were identified within the sedimentary record from the Middle Miocene onwards. Each major drift developed in a water depth range coincident with a particular water mass, contourite terraces on top of some of these drifts being associated with interfaces between water masses. Two major palaeoceanographic changes were identified. One took place in the Middle Miocene with the onset of Antarctic Intermediate Water flow and the enhancement of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) flow, coevally with the onset of Weddell Sea Deep Water flow in the Scotia Sea. Another palaeoceanographic change occurred on the abyssal plain of the Yaghan Basin in the Late Miocene as a consequence of the onset of Southeast Pacific Deep Water flow and its complex interaction with the lower branch of the CDW. Interestingly, these two periods of change in bottom currents are coincident with regional tectonic episodes, as well as climate and Antarctic ice sheet oscillations. The results convincingly demonstrate that the identification of contourite features on the present-day seafloor and within the sedimentary record is the key for decoding the circulation of water masses in the past. Nevertheless, further detailed studies, especially the recovery of drill cores, are necessary to establish a more robust chronology of the evolutionary stages at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and the southern South Atlantic Ocean.

  3. North Sea ecosystem change from swimming crabs to seagulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, C; Beaugrand, G; Lindley, J A; Dewarumez, J-M; Dubois, P J; Kirby, R R

    2012-10-23

    A recent increase in sea temperature has established a new ecosystem dynamic regime in the North Sea. Climate-induced changes in decapods have played an important role. Here, we reveal a coincident increase in the abundance of swimming crabs and lesser black-backed gull colonies in the North Sea, both in time and in space. Swimming crabs are an important food source for lesser black-backed gulls during the breeding season. Inhabiting the land, but feeding mainly at sea, lesser black-backed gulls provide a link between marine and terrestrial ecosystems, since the bottom-up influence of allochthonous nutrient input from seabirds to coastal soils can structure the terrestrial food web. We, therefore, suggest that climate-driven changes in trophic interactions in the marine food web may also have ensuing ramifications for the coastal ecology of the North Sea.

  4. School Psychology in Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sara; McGonnell, Melissa; Noyes, Amira

    2016-01-01

    Registration as a psychologist in Nova Scotia can be at the master's or doctoral level; however, the Nova Scotia Board of Examiners in Psychology has announced a move to the doctoral degree as the entry-level to practice. Many school psychologists in Nova Scotia practice at the master's level; therefore, this change could affect school psychology…

  5. Methane Production by Seagrass Ecosystems in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Garcias Bonet, Neus

    2017-11-07

    Atmospheric methane (CH) is the second strongest greenhouse gas and it is emitted to the atmosphere naturally by different sources. It is crucial to define the dimension of these natural emissions in order to forecast changes in atmospheric CH mixing ratio in future scenarios. However, CH emissions by seagrass ecosystems in shallow marine coastal systems have been neglected although their global extension. Here we quantify the CH production rates of seagrass ecosystems in the Red Sea. We measured changes in CH concentration and its isotopic signature by cavity ring-down spectroscopy on chambers containing sediment and plants. We detected CH production in all the seagrass stations with an average rate of 85.09 ± 27.80 μmol CH m d. Our results show that there is no seasonal or daily pattern in the CH production rates by seagrass ecosystems in the Red Sea. Taking in account the range of global estimates for seagrass coverage and the average seagrass CH production, the global CH production and emission by seagrass ecosystems could range from 0.09 to 2.7 Tg yr. Because CH emission by seagrass ecosystems had not been included in previous global CH budgets, our estimate would increase the contribution of marine global emissions, hitherto estimated at 9.1 Tg yr, by about 30%. Thus, the potential contribution of seagrass ecosystems to marine CH emissions provides sufficient evidence of the relevance of these fluxes as to include seagrass ecosystems in future assessments of the global CH budgets.

  6. Methane Production by Seagrass Ecosystems in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Garcias Bonet, Neus; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH) is the second strongest greenhouse gas and it is emitted to the atmosphere naturally by different sources. It is crucial to define the dimension of these natural emissions in order to forecast changes in atmospheric CH mixing ratio in future scenarios. However, CH emissions by seagrass ecosystems in shallow marine coastal systems have been neglected although their global extension. Here we quantify the CH production rates of seagrass ecosystems in the Red Sea. We measured changes in CH concentration and its isotopic signature by cavity ring-down spectroscopy on chambers containing sediment and plants. We detected CH production in all the seagrass stations with an average rate of 85.09 ± 27.80 μmol CH m d. Our results show that there is no seasonal or daily pattern in the CH production rates by seagrass ecosystems in the Red Sea. Taking in account the range of global estimates for seagrass coverage and the average seagrass CH production, the global CH production and emission by seagrass ecosystems could range from 0.09 to 2.7 Tg yr. Because CH emission by seagrass ecosystems had not been included in previous global CH budgets, our estimate would increase the contribution of marine global emissions, hitherto estimated at 9.1 Tg yr, by about 30%. Thus, the potential contribution of seagrass ecosystems to marine CH emissions provides sufficient evidence of the relevance of these fluxes as to include seagrass ecosystems in future assessments of the global CH budgets.

  7. Ecosystem variability in the offshore northeastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Arny L.; Day, Robert H.; Gall, Adrian E.; Aerts, Lisanne A. M.; Delarue, Julien; Dobbins, Elizabeth L.; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Questel, Jennifer M.; Weingartner, Thomas J.; Wisdom, Sheyna S.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding influences of cumulative effects from multiple stressors in marine ecosystems requires an understanding of the sources for and scales of variability. A multidisciplinary ecosystem study in the offshore northeastern Chukchi Sea during 2008-2013 investigated the variability of the study area's two adjacent sub-ecosystems: a pelagic system influenced by interannual and/or seasonal temporal variation at large, oceanographic (regional) scales, and a benthic-associated system more influenced by small-scale spatial variations. Variability in zooplankton communities reflected interannual oceanographic differences in waters advected northward from the Bering Sea, whereas variation in benthic communities was associated with seafloor and bottom-water characteristics. Variations in the planktivorous seabird community were correlated with prey distributions, whereas interaction effects in ANOVA for walruses were related to declines of sea-ice. Long-term shifts in seabird distributions were also related to changes in sea-ice distributions that led to more open water. Although characteristics of the lower trophic-level animals within sub-ecosystems result from oceanographic variations and interactions with seafloor topography, distributions of apex predators were related to sea-ice as a feeding platform (walruses) or to its absence (i.e., open water) for feeding (seabirds). The stability of prey resources appears to be a key factor in mediating predator interactions with other ocean characteristics. Seabirds reliant on highly-variable zooplankton prey show long-term changes as open water increases, whereas walruses taking benthic prey in biomass hotspots respond to sea-ice changes in the short-term. A better understanding of how variability scales up from prey to predators and how prey resource stability (including how critical prey respond to environmental changes over space and time) might be altered by climate and anthropogenic stressors is essential to

  8. Baltic Sea Maritime Spatial Planning for Sustainable Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Schrøder, Anne Lise

    2017-01-01

    in the marine and maritime sectors with great potential for innovation and economic growth. Holistic spatial planning systems supporting sustainable development have proved themselves in terrestrial planning and are also needed at sea. Due to this reason, the BONUS BASMATI project is based on the ecosystem...... services approach to assist in assessing sustainable solutions corresponding to policy goals.......The current and potential use of the seas and oceans is often called the ‘Blue Economy’. Recently, the European Commission launched its Blue Growth Strategy on the opportunities for marine and maritime sustainable growth. The European Commission considers that Blue Growth is a long-term strategy...

  9. Radionuclides in the ecosystem of the southern Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Struminska, D.I.; Borylo, A.

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that 210 Po and plutonium are significantly more concentrated in the Baltic Sea ecosystem than uranium . Bioaccumulation coefficients in flora and fauna (BCFs) of 210 Po are of the 2·10 3 - 2·10 5 range and plutonium - of the 1·10 2 - 1·10 4 . 238 Pu/ 239-240 Pu isotopic ratio shows for the increasing content in the living organisms of plutonium coming from the Chernobyl NPP accident. Content of 55 Fe and 63 Ni in the Baltic ecosystem (sea water, Fucus Vesilculous) is inverse proportional to the distance from the contamination place (e.g. from the NPP). Against to 55 Fe - 63 Ni is accumulated in the fish skin and flakes through passive diffusion

  10. Metals, Metalloids and Radionuclides in the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szefer, P.

    2002-01-01

    The state of knowledge of the distribution, bioavailability, biomagnification, discrimination, fate and sources of chemical pollutants (metals, metalloids, radionuclides and nutrients) in all compartments (atmosphere, water, deposits, biota) of the Baltic environment is presented. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. Budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea in the past, present and future are presented. Estimates of health risks to man in respect to some toxic metals and radionuclides in fish and seafood are briefly discussed. The content of the book makes possible the identification of gaps in our environmental knowledge of the Baltic Sea, with certain sections establishing possible priorities, key areas or strategies for future research

  11. Ecosystem Services of Avicennia marina in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-01-01

    The Red Sea is an arid environment, without riverine inputs, oligotrophic waters and extreme temperature and salinity. Avicennia marina is the dominant vegetation in the shores of the Red Sea. However, little is known about their distribution, dynamics, and services. Therefore, the aim of this Ph.D. was to obtain the basic information needed to evaluate their role in the coastal ecosystems and quantify their services. With that objective we 1) estimated the past and present distribution of mangroves in the Red Sea, 2) investigated the growth, leave production and floration 3) examined the growth limiting factors 4) measured the nutrients and heavy metal dynamics in the leaves and 5) estimated carbon sequestration. We found an increase of about 12% in the last 41 years, which contrasts with global trends of decrease. The extreme conditions in the Red Sea contributed to limit their growth resulting in stunted trees. Hence, we surveyed Central Red Sea mangroves to estimate their node production with an average of 9.59 node y-1 then converted that number into time to have a plastochrone interval of 38 days. As mangroves are taller in the southern Red Sea where both temperature and nutrients are higher than the Central Red Sea, we assessed nutrient status Avicennia marina propagules and naturally growing leaves to find the leaves low in nutrient concentrations (N < 1.5 %, P < 0.09 %, Fe < 0.06) and that nutrients are reabsorbed before shedding the leaves (69%, 72% and 35% for N, P, and Fe respectively). As a result, we conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P, Fe and combinations) to find that iron additions alone led to significant growth responses. Moreover, we estimated their leaf production and used our previous estimates of both the total cover mangrove in the Red Sea along with plastochrone interval to assess their total nutrients flux per year to be 2414 t N, 139 t P and 98 t Fe. We found them to sequester 34 g m-2 y-1, which imply 4590 tons of carbon

  12. Ecosystem Services of Avicennia marina in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Almahasheer, Hanan

    2016-12-01

    The Red Sea is an arid environment, without riverine inputs, oligotrophic waters and extreme temperature and salinity. Avicennia marina is the dominant vegetation in the shores of the Red Sea. However, little is known about their distribution, dynamics, and services. Therefore, the aim of this Ph.D. was to obtain the basic information needed to evaluate their role in the coastal ecosystems and quantify their services. With that objective we 1) estimated the past and present distribution of mangroves in the Red Sea, 2) investigated the growth, leave production and floration 3) examined the growth limiting factors 4) measured the nutrients and heavy metal dynamics in the leaves and 5) estimated carbon sequestration. We found an increase of about 12% in the last 41 years, which contrasts with global trends of decrease. The extreme conditions in the Red Sea contributed to limit their growth resulting in stunted trees. Hence, we surveyed Central Red Sea mangroves to estimate their node production with an average of 9.59 node y-1 then converted that number into time to have a plastochrone interval of 38 days. As mangroves are taller in the southern Red Sea where both temperature and nutrients are higher than the Central Red Sea, we assessed nutrient status Avicennia marina propagules and naturally growing leaves to find the leaves low in nutrient concentrations (N < 1.5 %, P < 0.09 %, Fe < 0.06) and that nutrients are reabsorbed before shedding the leaves (69%, 72% and 35% for N, P, and Fe respectively). As a result, we conducted a fertilization experiment (N, P, Fe and combinations) to find that iron additions alone led to significant growth responses. Moreover, we estimated their leaf production and used our previous estimates of both the total cover mangrove in the Red Sea along with plastochrone interval to assess their total nutrients flux per year to be 2414 t N, 139 t P and 98 t Fe. We found them to sequester 34 g m-2 y-1, which imply 4590 tons of carbon

  13. Franchising in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G. [Nova Scotia Petroleum Directorate, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Opportunities for the local distribution of natural gas in Nova Scotia were reviewed, with special emphasis on franchising. Franchising in Nova Scotia began in 1980, made possible by the passage of the Gas Utilities Act and the Pipeline Act which promised western Canadian natural gas to eastern Canada. However, proposals for franchisees to distribute natural gas in the province were abandoned as the hope for natural gas transmission service to the province faded. The plummeting of world oil prices by the mid-1980s was also a contributory factor. Discovery and development of natural gas facilities around Sable Island led to the September 1997 proclamation of the Gas Distribution Act, which also led to the revival of interest in franchising. The Act provides for the competitive marketing of natural gas as a commodity and the regulation of the gas delivery system under a franchise agreement. Competitive applications are expected early in 1998, with awards of franchises in late 1998. Construction and gas delivery services should begin operations late in 1999.

  14. Franchising in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, G.

    1998-01-01

    Opportunities for the local distribution of natural gas in Nova Scotia were reviewed, with special emphasis on franchising. Franchising in Nova Scotia began in 1980, made possible by the passage of the Gas Utilities Act and the Pipeline Act which promised western Canadian natural gas to eastern Canada. However, proposals for franchisees to distribute natural gas in the province were abandoned as the hope for natural gas transmission service to the province faded. The plummeting of world oil prices by the mid-1980s was also a contributory factor. Discovery and development of natural gas facilities around Sable Island led to the September 1997 proclamation of the Gas Distribution Act, which also led to the revival of interest in franchising. The Act provides for the competitive marketing of natural gas as a commodity and the regulation of the gas delivery system under a franchise agreement. Competitive applications are expected early in 1998, with awards of franchises in late 1998. Construction and gas delivery services should begin operations late in 1999

  15. The changing Mediterranean Sea — a sensitive ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Carol M.

    1999-08-01

    seasonal climate and low land runoff contribute to the low productivity of the sea. Nutrients are a major controlling factor in oceanic productivity and often influence the type and succession of phytoplankton. Changes in river flow and agricultural practice can influence the concentration and ratio of different nutrients flowing into the sea. For example, changing agricultural practices have resulted in higher nitrogen and phosphorus flowing into the Adriatic and lagoons of the Nile which has lead to eutrophication. The predicted population increases, especially along the southern shores, seems likely to result in eutrophication and an increased risk of pollution in other areas unless well managed. A further warning tale from the Black Sea has recently come to light where damming of rivers has resulted in depletion of silica in the seawater. (Humborg, C., Ittekkot, V., Cociasu, A., & Bodungen, B. (1997). Effect of Danube River dam on Black Sea biogeochemistry and ecosystem structure. Nature, London, 386, 385-388.) This means that silica-requiring phytoplankton do not have their essential growth nutrient and may explain the unbalanced growth of other toxic forms which do not require silica. Similarly, the Aswan dam holds back massive amounts of silica carried by the Nile from entering the eastern Mediterranean. The future of the Mediterranean ecosystem does not look rosy. If we are to learn from scientific observations, such as those in the Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea and Adriatic, scientists, economists and policy makers, from the 18 countries bordering the Mediterranean, must interface to ensure an adequate and appropriate response.

  16. Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Agneta; Meier, H E Markus; Ripszam, Matyas; Rowe, Owen; Wikner, Johan; Haglund, Peter; Eilola, Kari; Legrand, Catherine; Figueroa, Daniela; Paczkowska, Joanna; Lindehoff, Elin; Tysklind, Mats; Elmgren, Ragnar

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 °C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase ~30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  17. Food web structure and vulnerability of a deep-sea ecosystem in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Tecchio, Samuele; Coll, Marta; Christensen, Villy; Company, Joan B.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Sarda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing fishing pressure on the continental margins of the oceans, and this raises concerns about the vulnerability of the ecosystems thriving there. The current knowledge of the biology of deep-water fish species identifies potential reduced resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. However, there are extreme difficulties in sampling the deep sea, resulting in poorly resolved and indirectly obtained food-web relationships. Here, we modelled the flows and biomasses of a Mediterrane...

  18. Ecological state of the Romanian Black Sea littoral lacustrine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, M.-T.

    2009-04-01

    The author uses the results of his own researches as well as data from specialty literature to assess the ecological state of some typical lacustrine ecosystems considered, about 50 years ago, of major importance by their functions, services and researches, for the human populations in the settlements nearby. Based on this assessment the author recommends a few criteria which can be taken into account when programs of integrated management of these coastal ecosystems are initiated. The paper focuses on the study cases regarding the following major ecosystems: 1. Razelm-Sinoie Lagoon Complex - tightly linked to the Danube River and Delta systems, 2. Taşaul Lake - interfered in the last two decades by a branch of the DanubeRiver - Black Sea Canal and 3. Techirghiol Lake - for a long time under the sea level, a hyperhaline lake with therapeutic, sapropelic mud, disturbed by huge quantities of freshwaters infiltrated from the irrigation system. At present, the state of the lacustrine ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea Coast can be characterized, mainly, by the following aspects: · Increase in the quantities of nutrients and chemical toxicants; · Rise in the level and frequency of eutrophication and pollution phenomena; · Drastic reduction of specific diversity; · Simplification of communities' structure - biocoenosis homogeneity; · Decrease in numerical abundance and biomass of benthic populations and consequently, low biofilter power by the decrease of the filter-feeder populations; · Worsening of the qualitative and the quantitative state of the biological benthic resources; · Thriving opportunistic forms (e.g. the worms causing sediment bioturbation); · Invasion by some exotic species, with harmful, unexpected consequences; · All populations undergo quantitative fluctuations; · Decrease in the fish population and in the use values of lacustrine assets, with strong impact on the welfare of the human society. Almost all pressure forms associated with the

  19. Ecosystem model of the entire Beaufort Sea marine ecosystem: a tool for assessing food-web structure and ecosystem changes from 1970 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprenand, P. M.; Hoover, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Beaufort Sea coastal-marine ecosystem is approximately a 476,000 km2 area in the Arctic Ocean, which extends from -112.5 to -158° longitude to 67.5 to 75° latitude. Within this Arctic Ocean area the United States (Alaskan) indigenous communities of Barrow, Kaktovik, and Nuiqsut, and the Canadian (Northwest Territories) indigenous communities of Aklavik, Inuvik, Tuktoyaktuk, Paulatuk, Ulukhaktok, and Sachs Harbour, subsist by harvesting marine mammals, fish, and invertebrates from the Beaufort Sea to provide the majority of their community foods annually. The ecosystem in which the indigenous communities harvest is considered a polar habitat that includes many specialized species, such as polar bears that rely on sea-ice for foraging activities and denning, or ice algae that are attached to the cryosphere. However, the polar habitat has been experiencing a diminishing sea-ice extent, age, and seasonal duration, with concomitant increases in sea surface temperatures (SSTs), since the 1970s. Changes in sea-ice and SST have consequences to the Beaufort Sea coastal-marine ecosystem, which includes animal habitat losses, alterations to trophodynamics, and impacts to subsistence community harvesting. The present study was aimed at capturing trophodynamic changes in the Beaufort Sea coastal-marine ecosystem from 1970 to 2014 using a fitted spatial-temporal model (Ecopath with Ecosim and Ecospace) that utilizes forcing and mediation functions to describe animal/trophodynamic relationships with sea-ice and sea surface temperature, as well as individual community harvesting efforts. Model outputs reveals similar trends in animals population changes (e.g., increasing bowhead whale stock), changes in apex predator diets (e.g., polar bears eating less ringed seal), and changes in animal distributions (e.g., polar bears remaining closer to land over time). The Beaufort Sea model is a dynamic tool for Arctic Ocean natural resource management in the years to come.

  20. Current status of the East Sea Ecosystem in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Chung IL; Kwak, Jung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The East/Japan Sea (hereafter the East Sea) is changing quickly. Warming and structural changes in the East Sea have been reported by CREAMS, an acronym of ″Circulation Research of the East Asian Marginal Seas″, which began in 1993 as an international research program to understand the water mass structure and circulation in the East Sea (Kim and Kim, 1996; Kim, 1997; Kim et al., 2001, 2002). A subsequent research program of the EAST-I, an acronym of ″the East Asian Seas Time-series″, was launched by PICES (North Pacific Marine Science Organization) and financially supported by the Korean government, allowing us to deepen our knowledge about rapidly changing processes in the East Sea (Chang et al., 2010). Although there has been considerable progress in developing a mechanistic understanding of the East Sea ecosystem responses to disturbances, more comprehensive studies are needed to address the impacts of the frequency and intensity of disturbances on marine ecosystems. The most important question of the research has been: how do environmental changes affect structural and functional biodiversity? Recently launched research on ″Long-term change of structure and function in marine ecosystems of Korea″, which has been supported by the Korean government since 2011, has given an unprecedented insight into the ecosystem dynamics in the East Sea. It therefore seems an appropriate time to devote a special issue to the topic of ″Current status of the East Sea ecosystem in a changing world″.

  1. Nova Scotia electricity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandlemire, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an update of electricity issues concerning Nova Scotia such as supply, capacity, emission commitments, as well as co-generation and the Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC). The goals of the strategy were reliability combined with competitive prices and greater environmental responsibility. The scope of these objectives included new capacity, transmission, renewables and co-generation. Other objectives included encouraging wholesale market competition; meeting reciprocity requirements; and a 50 MW renewable energy target. Recommendations of the EMGC included wholesale market competition; a broader market scope with a cost benefit analysis; Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT); a scheduling and information system; network integration and a point to point service; and a separation of transmission and generation business units. Other recommendations included an open competitive process for new generation; a consideration of emissions and overall efficiency; a Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) to start in 2006; the separation of RPS tags from electricity; and net metering of renewables. These recommendations were accepted in 2003, followed by the new Electricity Act in 2004, which made OATT mandatory, established RPS and opened to the wholesale market. Capacity at present was considered to be tight, with preparations for the new regulations under way. Reductions in air pollution were reported at 25 per cent, with renewable energy projects such as 2 windmills currently under way, as well as various other projects. Opportunities for provincial Atlantic cooperation were identified as being management of reserve requirements; trading of lowest cost electricity; new generation on a regional scale; stronger transmission ties; a system operator; a regional approach to RPS; regional management of air emissions; and regional opportunities for Carbon dioxide reductions. tabs., figs

  2. Gas distribution regulations (Nova Scotia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-03

    A consolidation of Nova Scotia`s gas distribution regulations made under subsection 42(1) of the Gas Distribution Act S.N.S. 1997, c4 - O.I.C. 1998-576 (November 10, 1998), N.S. Reg. 86/98 are presented. The consolidation is issued for reference purposes only, and while it has no official sanction, it is considered useful in providing an interpretation of the regulation, explaining franchise evaluation, the granting of franchises, and exemptions from application requirements. 1 tab.

  3. Exponential Decline of Deep-Sea Ecosystem Functioning Linked to Benthic Biodiversity Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Danovaro, Roberto; Gambi, Cristina; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Vanreusel, Ann; Vincx, Magda; Gooday, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundRecent investigations suggest that biodiversity loss might impair the functioning and sustainability of ecosystems. Although deep-sea ecosystems are the most extensive on Earth, represent the largest reservoir of biomass, and host a large proportion of undiscovered biodiversity, the data needed to evaluate the consequences of biodiversity loss on the ocean floor are completely lacking.ResultsHere, we present a global-scale study based on 116 deep-sea sites that relates benthic biodi...

  4. Exploring the Red Sea seasonal ecosystem functioning using a three-dimensional biophysical model

    KAUST Repository

    Triantafyllou, G.; Yao, F.; Petihakis, G.; Tsiaras, K. P.; Raitsos, D. E.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The Red Sea exhibits complex hydrodynamic and biogeochemical dynamics, which vary both in time and space. These dynamics have been explored through the development and application of a 3-D ecosystem model. The simulation system comprises two off-line coupled submodels: the MIT General Circulation Model (MITgcm) and the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM), both adapted for the Red Sea. The results from an annual simulation under climatological forcing are presented. Simulation results are in good agreement with satellite and in situ data illustrating the role of the physical processes in determining the evolution and variability of the Red Sea ecosystem. The model was able to reproduce the main features of the Red Sea ecosystem functioning, including the exchange with the Gulf of Aden, which is a major driving mechanism for the whole Red Sea ecosystem and the winter overturning taking place in the north. Some model limitations, mainly related to the dynamics of the extended reef system located in the southern part of the Red Sea, which is not currently represented in the model, still need to be addressed.

  5. Exploring the Red Sea seasonal ecosystem functioning using a three-dimensional biophysical model

    KAUST Repository

    Triantafyllou, G.

    2014-03-01

    The Red Sea exhibits complex hydrodynamic and biogeochemical dynamics, which vary both in time and space. These dynamics have been explored through the development and application of a 3-D ecosystem model. The simulation system comprises two off-line coupled submodels: the MIT General Circulation Model (MITgcm) and the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM), both adapted for the Red Sea. The results from an annual simulation under climatological forcing are presented. Simulation results are in good agreement with satellite and in situ data illustrating the role of the physical processes in determining the evolution and variability of the Red Sea ecosystem. The model was able to reproduce the main features of the Red Sea ecosystem functioning, including the exchange with the Gulf of Aden, which is a major driving mechanism for the whole Red Sea ecosystem and the winter overturning taking place in the north. Some model limitations, mainly related to the dynamics of the extended reef system located in the southern part of the Red Sea, which is not currently represented in the model, still need to be addressed.

  6. Fishing impact and environmental status in European seas: A diagnosis from stock assessments and ecosystem indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gascuel, Didier; Coll, Marta; Fox, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Stock-based and ecosystem-based indicators are used to provide a new diagnosis of the fishing impact and environmental status of European seas. In the seven European marine ecosystems covering the Baltic and the North-east Atlantic, (i) trends in landings since 1950 were examined; (ii) syntheses...

  7. Human transformations of the Wadden Sea ecosystem through time : a synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotze, H.K.; Reise, K; Worm, B.; van Beusekom, J.; Busch, M.; Ehlers, A.; Heinrich, D.; Hoffman, R.C.; Holm, P.; Jensen, C.; Knottnerus, O.S.; Langhanki, N.; Prummel, W.; Vollmer, M.; Wolff, W.J.

    Todays Wadden Sea is a heavily human-altered ecosystem. Shaped by natural forces since its origin 7,500 years ago, humans gradually gained dominance in influencing ecosystem structure and functioning. Here, we reconstruct the timeline of human impacts and the history of ecological changes in the

  8. Modelling of migration of radionuclides and trace elements between the components of the Black Sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    This report considers peculiarities of the mathematical description of radionuclides migration between water environment and biotic and abiotic components of the Black Sea ecosystems at different periods of averaging, from the time scale of metabolic processes, taking place in hydrobionts, to the large-scale description of radionuclides migration in the Black Sea

  9. Impacts of climate change and sea level rise to Danish near shore ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestergaard, P.

    2001-01-01

    Salt marshes and sand dunes are important types of coastal, terrestrial nature, which like other terrestrial ecosystems will be sensible to the future changes in climate, which have been predicted. Due to the processes acting in their morphogenesis and in the development and composition of their ecosystems, they will not least be influenced by sea level rise. Especially a strong impact of a sea level rise of about 50 cm (midrange of the projected global sea level rise) for the next century can be expected on Danish salt marshes, considering their limited vertical range (50-100 cm). (LN)

  10. Ecosystem Structure Changes in the Turkish Seas as a Response to Overfishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazihan Akoglu, Ayse; Salihoglu, Baris; Akoglu, Ekin; Kideys, Ahmet E.

    2013-04-01

    Human population in Turkey has grown more than five-fold since its establishment in 1923 and more than 73 million people are currently living in the country. Turkey is surrounded by partially connected seas (the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea) each of which has significantly different productivity levels and ecosystem characteristics. Increasing human population with its growing socio-economic needs has generated an intensive fishing pressure on the fish stocks in its exclusive economic zone. Fishing grounds in the surrounding seas were exploited with different fishing intensities depending upon their productivity level and catch rates. Hence, the responses of these different ecosystems to overfishing have been realized differently. In this study, changes of the ecosystem structures in the Turkish Seas were comparatively investigated by ecosystem indices such as Marine Trophic Index (MTI), Fishing in Balance (FiB) and Primary Production Required (PPR) to assess the degree of sustainability of the fish stocks for future generations.

  11. How can we identify and communicate the ecological value of deep-sea ecosystem services?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Jobstvogt

    Full Text Available Submarine canyons are considered biodiversity hotspots which have been identified for their important roles in connecting the deep sea with shallower waters. To date, a huge gap exists between the high importance that scientists associate with deep-sea ecosystem services and the communication of this knowledge to decision makers and to the wider public, who remain largely ignorant of the importance of these services. The connectivity and complexity of marine ecosystems makes knowledge transfer very challenging, and new communication tools are necessary to increase understanding of ecological values beyond the science community. We show how the Ecosystem Principles Approach, a method that explains the importance of ocean processes via easily understandable ecological principles, might overcome this challenge for deep-sea ecosystem services. Scientists were asked to help develop a list of clear and concise ecosystem principles for the functioning of submarine canyons through a Delphi process to facilitate future transfers of ecological knowledge. These ecosystem principles describe ecosystem processes, link such processes to ecosystem services, and provide spatial and temporal information on the connectivity between deep and shallow waters. They also elucidate unique characteristics of submarine canyons. Our Ecosystem Principles Approach was successful in integrating ecological information into the ecosystem services assessment process. It therefore has a high potential to be the next step towards a wider implementation of ecological values in marine planning. We believe that successful communication of ecological knowledge is the key to a wider public support for ocean conservation, and that this endeavour has to be driven by scientists in their own interest as major deep-sea stakeholders.

  12. How can we identify and communicate the ecological value of deep-sea ecosystem services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobstvogt, Niels; Townsend, Michael; Witte, Ursula; Hanley, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are considered biodiversity hotspots which have been identified for their important roles in connecting the deep sea with shallower waters. To date, a huge gap exists between the high importance that scientists associate with deep-sea ecosystem services and the communication of this knowledge to decision makers and to the wider public, who remain largely ignorant of the importance of these services. The connectivity and complexity of marine ecosystems makes knowledge transfer very challenging, and new communication tools are necessary to increase understanding of ecological values beyond the science community. We show how the Ecosystem Principles Approach, a method that explains the importance of ocean processes via easily understandable ecological principles, might overcome this challenge for deep-sea ecosystem services. Scientists were asked to help develop a list of clear and concise ecosystem principles for the functioning of submarine canyons through a Delphi process to facilitate future transfers of ecological knowledge. These ecosystem principles describe ecosystem processes, link such processes to ecosystem services, and provide spatial and temporal information on the connectivity between deep and shallow waters. They also elucidate unique characteristics of submarine canyons. Our Ecosystem Principles Approach was successful in integrating ecological information into the ecosystem services assessment process. It therefore has a high potential to be the next step towards a wider implementation of ecological values in marine planning. We believe that successful communication of ecological knowledge is the key to a wider public support for ocean conservation, and that this endeavour has to be driven by scientists in their own interest as major deep-sea stakeholders.

  13. Temporal development of coastal ecosystems in the Baltic Sea over the past two decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Jens; Tomczak, Maciej; Ojaveer, Henn

    2015-01-01

    Coastal areas are among the most biologically productive aquatic systems worldwide, but face strong and variable anthropogenic pressures. Few studies have, however, addressed the temporal development of coastal ecosystems in an integrated context. This study represents an assessment of the develo...... in the capacity of currently available monitoring data to support integrated assessments and the implementation of an integrated ecosystem-based approach to the management of the Baltic Sea coastal ecosystems......Coastal areas are among the most biologically productive aquatic systems worldwide, but face strong and variable anthropogenic pressures. Few studies have, however, addressed the temporal development of coastal ecosystems in an integrated context. This study represents an assessment...

  14. Ecosystem structure and resilience—A comparison between the Norwegian and the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaragina, Natalia A.; Dolgov, Andrey V.

    2009-10-01

    Abundance and biomass of the most important fish species inhabited the Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems have shown considerable fluctuations over the last decades. These fluctuations connected with fishing pressure resulted in the trophic structure alterations of the ecosystems. Resilience and other theoretical concepts (top-down, wasp-waste and bottom-up control, trophic cascades) were viewed to examine different response of the Norwegian and Barents Sea ecosystems on disturbing forces. Differences in the trophic structure and functioning of Barents and Norwegian Sea ecosystems as well as factors that might influence the resilience of the marine ecosystems, including climatic fluctuation, variations in prey and predator species abundance, alterations in their regular migrations, and fishing exploitation were also considered. The trophic chain lengths in the deep Norwegian Sea are shorter, and energy transfer occurs mainly through the pelagic fish/invertebrates communities. The shallow Barents Sea is characterized by longer trophic chains, providing more energy flow into their benthic assemblages. The trophic mechanisms observed in the Norwegian Sea food webs dominated by the top-down control, i.e. the past removal of Norwegian Spring spawning followed by zooplankton development and intrusion of blue whiting and mackerel into the area. The wasp-waist response is shown to be the most pronounced effect in the Barents Sea, related to the position of capelin in the ecosystem; large fluctuations in the capelin abundance have been strengthened by intensive fishery. Closer links between ecological and fisheries sciences are needed to elaborate and test various food webs and multispecies models available.

  15. Temporal Evolution of the Yellow Sea Ecosystem Services (1980–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixiang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystem services refer to benefits that people obtain from marine ecosystem. Understanding temporal evolution of these services is a fundamental challenge of natural resource management in marine ecosystems. Yellow Sea is one of the most intensely exploited shallow seas in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this study, we analyzed the value of the four classes services (provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and supporting services, including 14 individual services of the Yellow Sea on temporal scales. From 1980 to 2010, the total value of the four classes of services was between 297 and 2,232 billion RMB yuan. Only the proportion of cultural services as a percentage of the total value continued to increase for the entire period, from 0.9% in 1980 to 9.4% in 2010. Provisioning services reached their highest point at 18.4% in 2000, and then fell to 10.1% in 2010. Meanwhile, the percentage of regulating services and supporting services declined, falling from 14.4% and 79.4% in 1980 to 10.1% and 70.4% in 2010, respectively. This study represents the first attempt to analyze the temporal evolution of Yellow Sea ecosystem services. It will provide the theoretical basis for further study of the ecological mechanisms of marine ecosystem services.

  16. Activation of the marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS for the Baltic Sea in operational mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, Lidia; Jakacki, Jaromir; Janecki, Maciej; Nowicki, Artur

    2013-04-01

    The paper presents a new marine ecosystem model 3D CEMBS designed for the Baltic Sea. The ecosystem model is incorporated into the 3D POPCICE ocean-ice model. The Current Baltic Sea model is based on the Community Earth System Model (CESM from the National Center for Atmospheric Research) which was adapted for the Baltic Sea as a coupled sea-ice model. It consists of the Community Ice Code (CICE model, version 4.0) and the Parallel Ocean Program (version 2.1). The ecosystem model is a biological submodel of the 3D CEMBS. It consists of eleven mass conservation equations. There are eleven partial second-order differential equations of the diffusion type with the advective term for phytoplankton, zooplankton, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved and particulate organic matter. This model is an effective tool for solving the problem of ecosystem bioproductivity. The model is forced by 48-hour atmospheric forecasts provided by the UM model from the Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling of Warsaw University (ICM). The study was financially supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research (grants: No N N305 111636, N N306 353239). The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were carried out at the Academy Computer Centre in Gdańsk.

  17. Trophic interactions, ecosystem structure and function in the southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qun; Jin, Xianshi; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The southern Yellow Sea is an important fishing ground, providing abundant fishery resources. However, overfishing and climate change have caused a decline in the resource and damaged the ecosystem. We developed an ecosystem model to analyze the trophic interactions and ecosystem structure and function to guide sustainable development of the ecosystem. A trophic mass-balance model of the southern Yellow Sea during 2000-2001 was constructed using Ecopath with Ecosim software. We defined 22 important functional groups and studied their diet composition. The trophic levels of fish, shrimp, crabs, and cephalopods were between 2.78 and 4.39, and the mean trophic level of the fisheries was 3.24. The trophic flows within the food web occurred primarily in the lower trophic levels. The mean trophic transfer efficiency was 8.1%, of which 7.1% was from primary producers and 9.3% was from detritus within the ecosystem. The transfer efficiency between trophic levels II to III to IV to V to >V was 5.0%, 5.7%, 18.5%, and 19.7%-20.4%, respectively. Of the total flow, phytoplankton contributed 61% and detritus contributed 39%. Fishing is defined as a top predator within the ecosystem, and has a negative impact on most commercial species. Moreover, the ecosystem had a high gross efficiency of the fishery and a high value of primary production required to sustain the fishery. Together, our data suggest there is high fishing pressure in the southern Yellow Sea. Based on analysis of Odum's ecological parameters, this ecosystem was at an immature stage. Our results provide some insights into the structure and development of this ecosystem.

  18. Ecosystem function and services provided by the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, A. R.; Sweetman, A. K.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Jones, D. O. B.; Ingels, J.; Hansman, R. L.

    2014-07-01

    The deep sea is often viewed as a vast, dark, remote, and inhospitable environment, yet the deep ocean and seafloor are crucial to our lives through the services that they provide. Our understanding of how the deep sea functions remains limited, but when treated synoptically, a diversity of supporting, provisioning, regulating and cultural services becomes apparent. The biological pump transports carbon from the atmosphere into deep-ocean water masses that are separated over prolonged periods, reducing the impact of anthropogenic carbon release. Microbial oxidation of methane keeps another potent greenhouse gas out of the atmosphere while trapping carbon in authigenic carbonates. Nutrient regeneration by all faunal size classes provides the elements necessary for fueling surface productivity and fisheries, and microbial processes detoxify a diversity of compounds. Each of these processes occur on a very small scale, yet considering the vast area over which they occur they become important for the global functioning of the ocean. The deep sea also provides a wealth of resources, including fish stocks, enormous bioprospecting potential, and elements and energy reserves that are currently being extracted and will be increasingly important in the near future. Society benefits from the intrigue and mystery, the strange life forms, and the great unknown that has acted as a muse for inspiration and imagination since near the beginning of civilization. While many functions occur on the scale of microns to meters and timescales up to years, the derived services that result are only useful after centuries of integrated activity. This vast dark habitat, which covers the majority of the globe, harbors processes that directly impact humans in a variety of ways; however, the same traits that differentiate it from terrestrial or shallow marine systems also result in a greater need for integrated spatial and temporal understanding as it experiences increased use by society. In

  19. Outdoor model simulating a Baltic Sea littoral ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notini, M; Nagell, B; Hagstroem, A; Grahn, O

    1977-01-01

    Plastic pools (surface 6.6 m/sup 2/, volume 4.2 m/sup 3/) were equipped with a flow-through system providing 2.51 min/sup -1/. Except for fish predators the main components of the flora and fauna of the Baltic littoral zone were introduced into the pools to form a model of the ecosystem. During 8 weeks the macroscopic epifauna and infauna of the bladder wrack Fucus vesiculosus L. were found to be qualitatively and quantitatively fairly stable, and the number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria showed little variation. Oxygen concentration, temperature and pH were recorded and compared with values measured in the littoral zone. The results indicate good agreement between the characters of the model system and of the natural littoral ecosystem. This together with the observed stability and the possibilities for controlling and measuring the conditions in the system makes us believe that the model is a valuable tool for assessing toxic effects on the littoral ecosystem.

  20. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the White sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.; Shevchenko, V.; Bogunov, A.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations in the White Sea was presented. The study was conducted to determine natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon (HC) concentrations in order to aid in future zoning plans. Hydrocarbons were extracted from samples of aerosols, ice, water, particulate matter, phyto- and zooplankton, and bottom sediments. Results of the study suggested that HC concentrations in aerosols above the White Sea were lower than in marine aerosols above the southeastern Atlantic and lower than Alkane concentrations in aerosols in the Mediterranean Sea. A study of PAH behaviour in Northern Dvina estuaries showed that the submicron fractions contained light polyarenes. Particulate matter collected in sedimentation traps was enriched in phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Aliphatic HC enrichment was due to the presence of phytoplankton and other microorganisms. Between 54 per cent and 85 per cent of initial organic matter was consumed during diagenesis in the bottom sediments, indicating a high rate of HC transformation. It was suggested that the majority of oil HC transported with river water is precipitated. Fluoranthene was the dominant PAH in the study, and was assumed to be caused by natural transformation of PAH composition during distant atmospheric transport. Pyrogenic contamination of the bottom sediments was attributed to an aluminium plant. It was concluded that the detection of significant amounts of HC is not direct evidence of their anthropogenic origins. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  1. Editorial: Global in scope and regionally rich: an IndiSeas workshop helps shape the future of marine ecosystem indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, Y.J.; Bundy, A.; Piet, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the outcomes of an IndiSeas workshop aimed at using ecosystem indicators to evaluate the status of the world’s exploited marine ecosystems in support of an ecosystem approach to fisheries, and global policy drivers such as the 2020 targets of the Convention on Biological

  2. Trophic models: What do we learn about Celtic Sea and Bay of Biscay ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moullec, Fabien; Gascuel, Didier; Bentorcha, Karim; Guénette, Sylvie; Robert, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    Trophic models are key tools to go beyond the single-species approaches used in stock assessments to adopt a more holistic view and implement the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM). This study aims to: (i) analyse the trophic functioning of the Celtic Sea and the Bay of Biscay, (ii) investigate ecosystem changes over the 1980-2013 period and, (iii) explore the response to management measures at the food web scale. Ecopath models were built for each ecosystem for years 1980 and 2013, and Ecosim models were fitted to time series data of biomass and catches. EcoTroph diagnosis showed that in both ecosystems, fishing pressure focuses on high trophic levels (TLs) and, to a lesser extent, on intermediate TLs. However, the interplay between local environmental conditions, species composition and ecosystem functioning could explain the different responses to fisheries management observed between these two contiguous ecosystems. Indeed, over the study period, the ecosystem's exploitation status has improved in the Bay of Biscay but not in the Celtic Sea. This improvement does not seem to be sufficient to achieve the objectives of an EAFM, as high trophic levels were still overexploited in 2013 and simulations conducted with Ecosim in the Bay of Biscay indicate that at current fishing effort the biomass will not be rebuilt by 2030. The ecosystem's response to a reduction in fishing mortality depends on which trophic levels receive protection. Reducing fishing mortality on pelagic fish, instead of on demersal fish, appears more efficient at maximising catch and total biomass and at conserving both top-predator and intermediate TLs. Such advice-oriented trophic models should be used on a regular basis to monitor the health status of marine food webs and analyse the trade-offs between multiple objectives in an ecosystem-based fisheries management context.

  3. Black Sea ecosystem and the peaceful use of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, Alexandru S.; Patrascu, Vasile

    1999-01-01

    The Black Sea region is a space with an old historical tradition. Its unitary character was achieved by economical, cultural and technical-scientific relations. Common exploitation of its resources has sustained a flourishing civilization. Having an area of 423,000 km 2 , a maximum depth of 2,212 m and a volume of 570,000 km 3 , Black Sea connects Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Russia, Turkey and Ukraine. Its hydro-graphic basin reaches 2,200 million km 2 , an area inhabited by 160 million people. The North-Western sector occupies 63,800 km 2 , the water being under 200 m, is grouping 85% of the total sweet water input (Danube, Dniester, Dnieper). The most rich and dynamical marine life is developed here. The Romanian coast extends over 245 km and comprises 10 cities, 100 villages, in which 650,000 people live. The main ecological problems of the Black Sea are pollution, eutrophication, intrusion of foreign species, over-fishing as well as the reduction of the biodiversity and living resources. The causes for all these are the industrial and agricultural activities, the intensive marine and fluvial traffic, the demographical growth. The Danube River alone transports annually 34,000 t mineral N, 60,000 t total P, 6,000 t Zn, 1,000 t Cr, 280 t Cd, 60 t Hg and 50,000 t oil. The nuclear power development in Europe and worldwide led Romania to include radioactivity among the monitored environmental parameters. By this monitoring reference values have been established for all the marine components. The maximum concentrations of 90 Sr, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in edible resources (fish and molluscs) were found always under the limits imposed by FAO, while the internal and external irradiation level through marine resources did not exceed the national and international exposure limits. These data are necessary as reference standards for the nuclear activities in future

  4. Global change in marine ecosystems: implications for semi-enclosed Arabian seas

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-12-07

    Global Change has been defined as the impact of human activities on the key processes that determine the functioning of the Biosphere. Global Change is a major threat for marine ecosystems and includes climate change as well as other global impacts such as inputs of pollutants, overfishing and coastal sprawl. The Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas, including the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea, have supported human livelihoods in the Arabian Peninsula over centuries and continue to do so, but are also threatened by Global Change. These threats are particularly severe as Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas already present rather extreme conditions, in terms of temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration. The vulnerability of the unique marine ecosystems of the Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors is largely unknown, but predictions based on first principles suggest that they may be at or near the tipping point for many pressures, such as warming and hypoxia. There is an urgent need to implement international collaborative research programs to accelerate our understanding of the vulnerability of Semi-enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors in order to inform conservation and management plans to ensure these Seas continue to support the livelihoods and well-being of the Arab nations.

  5. Ecosystem-based management objectives for the North Sea: riding the forage fish rollercoaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickey-Collas, Mark; Engelhard, Georg H.; Rindorf, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The North Sea provides a useful model for considering forage fish (FF) within ecosystem-based management as it has a complex assemblage of FF species. This paper is designed to encourage further debate and dialogue between stakeholders about management objectives. Changing the management...... whether maintaining the reserves of prey biomass or a more integral approach of monitoring mortality rates across the trophic system is more robust under the ecosystem approach. In terms of trophic energy transfer, stability, and resilience of the ecosystem, FF should be considered as both a sized-based...... pool of biomass and as species components of the system by managers and modellers. Policy developers should not consider the knowledge base robust enough to embark on major projects of ecosystem engineering. Management plans appear able to maintain sustainable exploitation in the short term. Changes...

  6. Gulf of Mexico Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystem Studies, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Most people are familiar with tropical coral reefs, located in warm, well-illuminated, shallow waters. However, corals also exist hundreds and even thousands of meters below the ocean surface, where it is cold and completely dark. These deep-sea corals, also known as cold-water corals, have become a topic of interest due to conservation concerns over the impacts of trawling, exploration for oil and gas, and climate change. Although the existence of these corals has been known since the 1800s, our understanding of their distribution, ecology, and biology is limited due to the technical difficulties of conducting deep-sea research. DISCOVRE (DIversity, Systematics, and COnnectivity of Vulnerable Reef Ecosystems) is a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) program focused on deep-water coral ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico. This integrated, multidisciplinary, international effort investigates a variety of topics related to unique and fragile deep-sea coral ecosystems from the microscopic level to the ecosystem level, including components of microbiology, population genetics, paleoecology, food webs, taxonomy, community ecology, physical oceanography, and mapping.

  7. FAUNA OF COLEPTERA,TENEBRIORIDAE OF ARID COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE CASPIAN SEA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the given paper is to expose species structure and geographical distribution of Coleoptera, Tenebrioridae (C, T of coastal and island ecosystem of the Caspian Sea. The given report is compiled of the matcrials, collected in different periods by authors (1961-2013 in the Caucasian part of the Caspian Sea, in the south of the European part of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, islands (the Chechen island, the Nord island. The Tuleniyisland. The Kulaly island, collective materials (ZIN; RAS, museum of Zoology of MSU, Institute NAN of Azerbaijan, National museum of Georgia and materials published (Kryzhanovsky, 1965, Medvedev, 1987, 1990; Medvedev, Nepesova, 1990; Shuster, 1934; Kaluzhnaya, 1982; Arzanov and others, 2004, Egorov, 2006.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (hand picking, traps soil, soil traps light amplification light traps, processing and material definition. List of species composition discussed fauna composed by modern taxonomy using directories. Location. Coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian sea.Results. Species structure and data on general and regional distribution of C,T of coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian Sea is represented in the paper. Faund discussed is widely represented in the fauna of arid regions of land, especially in the fauna of subtropical deserts and semideserts.Main conclusions. Results of the study will be a step in the determination of age of the islands through the biological diversity and the consequent level regime of the Caspian Sea, as well as possible changes in the population structure of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on island ecosystems.

  8. Modelling Potential Consequences of Different Geo-Engineering Treatments for the Baltic Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrum, C.; Daewel, U.

    2017-12-01

    From 1950 onwards, the Baltic Sea ecosystem suffered increasingly from eutrophication. The most obvious reason for the eutrophication is the huge amount of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) reaching the Baltic Sea from human activities. However, although nutrient loads have been decreasing since 1980, the hypoxic areas have not decreased accordingly. Thus, geo-engineering projects were discussed and evaluated to artificially ventilate the Baltic Sea deep water and suppress nutrient release from the sediments. Here, we aim at understanding the consequences of proposed geo-engineering projects in the Baltic Sea using long-term scenario modelling. For that purpose, we utilize a 3d coupled ecosystem model ECOSMO E2E, a novel NPZD-Fish model approach that resolves hydrodynamics, biogeochemical cycling and lower and higher trophic level dynamics. We performed scenario modelling that consider proposed geo-engineering projects such as artificial ventilation of Baltic Sea deep waters and phosphorus binding in sediments with polyaluminium chlorides. The model indicates that deep-water ventilation indeed suppresses phosphorus release in the first 1-4 years of treatment. Thereafter macrobenthos repopulates the formerly anoxic bottom regions and nutrients are increasingly recycled in the food web. Consequently, overall system productivity and fish biomass increases and toxic algae blooms decrease. However, deep-water ventilation has no long-lasting effect on the ecosystem: soon after completion of the ventilation process, the system turns back into its original state. Artificial phosphorus binding in sediments in contrast decreases overall ecosystem productivity through permanent removal of phosphorus. As expected it decreases bacterial production and toxic algae blooms, but it also decreases fish production substantially. Contrastingly to deep water ventilation, artificial phosphorus binding show a long-lasting effect over decades after termination of the treatment.

  9. Structure, functioning, and cumulative stressors of Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecchio, Samuele; Coll, Marta; Sardà, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    Environmental stressors, such as climate fluctuations, and anthropogenic stressors, such as fishing, are of major concern for the management of deep-sea ecosystems. Deep-water habitats are limited by primary productivity and are mainly dependent on the vertical input of organic matter from the surface. Global change over the latest decades is imparting variations in primary productivity levels across oceans, and thus it has an impact on the amount of organic matter landing on the deep seafloor. In addition, anthropogenic impacts are now reaching the deep ocean. The Mediterranean Sea, the largest enclosed basin on the planet, is not an exception. However, ecosystem-level studies of response to varying food input and anthropogenic stressors on deep-sea ecosystems are still scant. We present here a comparative ecological network analysis of three food webs of the deep Mediterranean Sea, with contrasting trophic structure. After modelling the flows of these food webs with the Ecopath with Ecosim approach, we compared indicators of network structure and functioning. We then developed temporal dynamic simulations varying the organic matter input to evaluate its potential effect. Results show that, following the west-to-east gradient in the Mediterranean Sea of marine snow input, organic matter recycling increases, net production decreases to negative values and trophic organisation is overall reduced. The levels of food-web activity followed the gradient of organic matter availability at the seafloor, confirming that deep-water ecosystems directly depend on marine snow and are therefore influenced by variations of energy input, such as climate-driven changes. In addition, simulations of varying marine snow arrival at the seafloor, combined with the hypothesis of a possible fishery expansion on the lower continental slope in the western basin, evidence that the trawling fishery may pose an impact which could be an order of magnitude stronger than a climate

  10. Temporal development of coastal ecosystems in the Baltic Sea - an assessment of patterns and trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Jens; Bergström, Lena; Tomczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    in the north, covers between two to five trophic levels per area, and include time series dating back to the early 1990s. Using multivariate analyses, we assess the temporal development of species abundance or biomass at different trophic levels in relation to the development of variables related to local...... and regional climate, hydrology, nutrient loading and fishing pressure. Our results highlight the relative timing of change in ecosystem structure and the development of key biological elements across areas. Besides describing the temporal development of coastal ecosystems in the Baltic Sea during the past two...

  11. Advances in deep-sea biology: biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and conservation. An introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Marina R.; Hilário, Ana; Santos, Ricardo S.

    2017-03-01

    Once considered as monotonous and devoid of life, the deep sea was revealed during the last century as an environment with a plethora of life forms and extremely high species richness (Rex and Etter, 2010). Underwater vehicle developments allowed direct observations of the deep, disclosing unique habitats and diverse seascapes, and other technological advances enabled manipulative experimentation and unprecedented prospects to pursue novel research topics (Levin and Sibuet, 2012; Danovaro et al., 2014). Alongside, the growing human population greatly increased the pressure on deep-sea ecosystems and the services they provide (Ramirez-Llodra et al., 2011; Thurber et al., 2014; Levin et al., 2016). Societal changes further intensified worldwide competition for natural resources, extending the present footprint of impacts over most of the global ocean (Halpern et al., 2008). In this socio-economic context, and in tandem with cutting edge technological advances and an unclear legal framework to regulate access to natural resources (Boyes and Elliott, 2014), the deep sea has emerged as a new opportunity for industrial exploitation and novel economic activities. The expanding use of the deep sea prompted a rapid reply from deep-sea scientists that recommended "a move from a frontier mentality of exploitation and single-sector management to a precautionary system that balances use of living marine resources, energy, and minerals from the deep ocean with maintenance of a productive and healthy marine environment, while improving knowledge and collaboration" and proposed "three directions to advance deep-ocean stewardship: i) protection and mitigation, ii) research, and iii) collaborative governance" (Mengerink et al., 2014). The European Marine Board position paper 22 (Rogers et al., 2015) further examined the key societal and environmental drivers confronting the deep sea and the role of deep-sea research to deliver future knowledge needs for science and society; a clear

  12. Structure, functioning, and cumulative stressors of Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Tecchio, S.; Coll, Marta; Sarda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stressors, such as climate fluctuations, and anthropogenic stressors, such as fishing, are of major concern for the management of deep-sea ecosystems. Deep-water habitats are limited by primary productivity and are mainly dependent on the vertical input of organic matter from the surface. Global change over the latest decades is imparting variations in primary productivity levels across oceans, and thus it has an impact on the amount of organic matter landing on the deep seafloo...

  13. Ecosystem Services: a Framework for Environmental Management of the Deep Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, J. T.; Levin, L. A.; Carson, R. T.

    2016-02-01

    As demand for deep-sea resources rapidly expands in the food, energy, mineral, and pharmaceutical sectors, it has become increasingly clear that a regulatory structure for extracting these resources is not yet in place. There are jurisdictional gaps and a lack of regulatory consistency regarding what aspects of the deep sea need protection and what requirements might help guarantee that protection. Given the mining sector's intent to exploit seafloor massive sulphides, Mn nodules, cobalt crusts, and phosphorites in the coming years, there is an urgent need for deep-ocean environmental management. Here, we propose an ecosystem services-based framework to inform decisions and best practices regarding resource exploitation, and to guide baseline studies, preventative actions, monitoring, and remediation. With policy in early stages of development, an ecosystem services approach has the potential to serve as an overarching framework that takes protection of natural capital provided by the environment into account during the decision-making process. We show how an ecosystem services approach combined with economic tools, such as benefit transfer techniques, should help illuminate issues where there are direct conflicts among different industries, and between industry and conservation. We argue for baseline and monitoring measurements and metrics that inform about deep-sea ecosystem services that would be impaired by mining, and discuss ways to incorporate the value of those losses into decision making, mitigation measures, and ultimately product costs. This proposal is considered relative to current International Seabed Authority recommendations and contractor practices, and new actions are proposed. An ecosystem services-based understanding of how these systems work and their value to society can improve sustainability and stewardship of the deep ocean.

  14. What is going on up there? - The Chukchi Sea Ecosystem Mooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, C.; McCammon, M.; Danielson, S. L.; Winsor, P.; Hopcroft, R. R.; Lalande, C.; Stafford, K.; Hauri, C.; McDonnell, A. M. P.

    2016-02-01

    As Arctic regions are projected to strongly reflect the impacts of a changing climate, an effort is underway to make sustained, year-round measurements of concurrent physical and biogeochemical parameters in the Arctic. Deploying highly instrumented year-round moorings in the water is no simple feat, given harsh Arctic conditions that include the presence of sea ice and deep ice keels during much of the year. Enter the late-breaking ecosystem mooring located in the northeast Chukchi Sea. This mooring complements established biophysical moorings elsewhere in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas, including those maintained by NOAA-PMEL (M8), UW-APL (Bering Strait) and JAMSTEC moorings. (southern Chukchi and Barrow Canyon). The mooring described here is located on the southern flank of Hanna Shoal and provides a multi-disciplinary approach to year-round observations within a biological hotspot. The Chukchi Ecosystem Mooring is equipped with a sensor suite aimed to monitor and document the state of ocean acidification, nutrient and carbon cycles, particles, waves, currents and physical properties, and even passive and active acoustic monitoring for zooplankton, fish, and marine mammals. Having the simultaneous interdisciplinary measurements provides data valuable to an ecosystem-based approach to research and resource management. The fully outfitted observatory is providing an unprecedented view into the mechanistic workings of the Chukchi Shelf Ecosystem. The first mooring was deployed in September 2014 and recovered in August 2015. The August 2015 deployment consisted of three moorings, each with incremental sensor packages to complete the ecosystem sensor suite. The mooring construction and instrumentation are described in detail, including introduction to the advances in sensor technologies that enable such deployments. Year one data recovery summaries and plots are provided to demonstrate the capabilities.

  15. Filling regulatory gaps in high seas fisheries: discrete high seas fish stocks, deep-sea fisheries and vulnerable marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takei, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the legal regime of high seas fisheries with a view to identifying regulatory gaps. The main research questions are as follows: 1. What general principles are applicable to high seas fisheries?; 2. What implications do these general principles have for new challenges in

  16. Ecosystem-based management in the Wadden Sea: Principles for the governance of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Diana; van Buuren, Arwin; Edelenbos, Jurian

    2013-09-01

    The governance of the Wadden Sea has to contend with a complex interplay of social and ecological systems. Social systems tend to be characterized by pluralism of - often conflicting - norms and values, and ecological systems are characterized by high complexity and natural and human-induced variability, leading to unpredictable and nonlinear behavior. This highly volatile situation challenges traditional forms of management as well as traditional ways of organizing knowledge for decision-making processes. Ecosystem-based management approaches have been developed to find more effective, holistic, and evidence-based strategies to deal with the challenges of complex socio-ecological systems. They also require another way of dealing with (scientific) knowledge, the way it is produced and applied. In this paper, from the perspective of ecosystem-based management, we define the specific principles that apply to the way knowledge is mobilized and applied within decision-making processes. We illuminate these principles by examining three empirical cases of ecosystem-based management within, or related to, the Wadden Sea area. Finally, we reflect upon our findings and elaborate on the extent to which our theoretical framework is capable of describing and assessing the interaction between knowledge and decision making within ecosystem-based management approaches.

  17. Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Sweetman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea encompasses the largest ecosystems on Earth. Although poorly known, deep seafloor ecosystems provide services that are vitally important to the entire ocean and biosphere. Rising atmospheric greenhouse gases are bringing about significant changes in the environmental properties of the ocean realm in terms of water column oxygenation, temperature, pH and food supply, with concomitant impacts on deep-sea ecosystems. Projections suggest that abyssal (3000–6000 m ocean temperatures could increase by 1°C over the next 84 years, while abyssal seafloor habitats under areas of deep-water formation may experience reductions in water column oxygen concentrations by as much as 0.03 mL L–1 by 2100. Bathyal depths (200–3000 m worldwide will undergo the most significant reductions in pH in all oceans by the year 2100 (0.29 to 0.37 pH units. O2 concentrations will also decline in the bathyal NE Pacific and Southern Oceans, with losses up to 3.7% or more, especially at intermediate depths. Another important environmental parameter, the flux of particulate organic matter to the seafloor, is likely to decline significantly in most oceans, most notably in the abyssal and bathyal Indian Ocean where it is predicted to decrease by 40–55% by the end of the century. Unfortunately, how these major changes will affect deep-seafloor ecosystems is, in some cases, very poorly understood. In this paper, we provide a detailed overview of the impacts of these changing environmental parameters on deep-seafloor ecosystems that will most likely be seen by 2100 in continental margin, abyssal and polar settings. We also consider how these changes may combine with other anthropogenic stressors (e.g., fishing, mineral mining, oil and gas extraction to further impact deep-seafloor ecosystems and discuss the possible societal implications.

  18. CRITERIA OF THE ECOSYSTEM STABILITY IN THE NORTHERN REGION OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mitina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to determine the criteria of the marine shallow-water ecosystem stability using the Northern region of the Caspian Sea as a case study. For each 260 reference points, we received data on 76 parameters, including physical-geographical, hydrochemical, and hydrobiological characteristics that have been analyzed by the method of principle components. The analyzes of these data allowed us to reveal and evaluate principal geoecological factors that influence the distribution of Acipenseridae in the Caspian Sea as a top level of the ecosystem’s trophic chain. The main geoecological factors and the factor of anthropogenic load of the Caspian Sea ecosystems’ stability have been determined.

  19. Non-linear interactions determine the impact of sea-level rise on estuarine benthic biodiversity and ecosystem processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Tsuyuko; Raffaelli, David; White, Piran C L

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise induced by climate change may have significant impacts on the ecosystem functions and ecosystem services provided by intertidal sediment ecosystems. Accelerated sea-level rise is expected to lead to steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure, with consequent impacts on intertidal ecosystems. We examined the relationships between abundance, biomass, and community metabolism of benthic fauna with beach slope, particle size and exposure, using samples across a range of conditions from three different locations in the UK, to determine the significance of sediment particle size beach slope and wave exposure in affecting benthic fauna and ecosystem function in different ecological contexts. Our results show that abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption of intertidal macrofauna and meiofauna are affected significantly by interactions among sediment particle size, beach slope and wave exposure. For macrofauna on less sloping beaches, the effect of these physical constraints is mediated by the local context, although for meiofauna and for macrofauna on intermediate and steeper beaches, the effects of physical constraints dominate. Steeper beach slopes, coarser particle sizes and increased wave exposure generally result in decreases in abundance, biomass and oxygen consumption, but these relationships are complex and non-linear. Sea-level rise is likely to lead to changes in ecosystem structure with generally negative impacts on ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, the impacts of sea-level rise will also be affected by local ecological context, especially for less sloping beaches.

  20. Environmental Drivers of Benthic Flux Variation and Ecosystem Functioning in Salish Sea and Northeast Pacific Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rénald Belley

    Full Text Available The upwelling of deep waters from the oxygen minimum zone in the Northeast Pacific from the continental slope to the shelf and into the Salish Sea during spring and summer offers a unique opportunity to study ecosystem functioning in the form of benthic fluxes along natural gradients. Using the ROV ROPOS we collected sediment cores from 10 sites in May and July 2011, and September 2013 to perform shipboard incubations and flux measurements. Specifically, we measured benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients to evaluate potential environmental drivers of benthic flux variation and ecosystem functioning along natural gradients of temperature and bottom water dissolved oxygen concentrations. The range of temperature and dissolved oxygen encountered across our study sites allowed us to apply a suite of multivariate analyses rarely used in flux studies to identify bottom water temperature as the primary environmental driver of benthic flux variation and organic matter remineralization. Redundancy analysis revealed that bottom water characteristics (temperature and dissolved oxygen, quality of organic matter (chl a:phaeo and C:N ratios and sediment characteristics (mean grain size and porosity explained 51.5% of benthic flux variation. Multivariate analyses identified significant spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes, demonstrating key differences between the Northeast Pacific and Salish Sea. Moreover, Northeast Pacific slope fluxes were generally lower than shelf fluxes. Spatial and temporal variation in benthic fluxes in the Salish Sea were driven primarily by differences in temperature and quality of organic matter on the seafloor following phytoplankton blooms. These results demonstrate the utility of multivariate approaches in differentiating among potential drivers of seafloor ecosystem functioning, and indicate that current and future predictive models of organic matter remineralization and ecosystem functioning of soft-muddy shelf and

  1. Ecosystem changes in the Neva Estuary (Baltic Sea): natural dynamics or response to anthropogenic impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkov, Sergey; Alimov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The Neva Estuary situated in the eastern Gulf of Finland is one of the largest estuaries of the Baltic Sea with a large conurbation, St. Petersburg, situated on its coast. Eutrophication, alien species and large-scale digging and dumping of bottom sediment are the most prominent anthropogenic impacts on its ecosystem. However, many ecosystem responses, which are traditionally attribute to these impacts, are related to natural dynamics of the ecosystem. Fluctuations in discharge of the Neva River, intrusions of bottom hypoxic waters from the western part of the Gulf of Finland, higher summer temperatures and a shorter period of ice cover are climatic mediated factors inducing adverse changes in its ecosystem from the 1980s onwards. The main ecosystem responses to these factors are 2-3-fold increase of trophic status, deterioration of native zoobenthic communities and establishment of alien species, as well as the many fold decrease of fish catch and the population of ringed seal in the region. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Uranium in Nova Scotia: a background summary for the uranium inquiry, Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Since the mid 1970's Nova Scotia has experienced increased exploration for a number of commodities including uranium. The exploration activity for uranium has resulted in discovery of significant occurrences of the element. It became obvious to the Government of Nova Scotia that a segment of the population of the Province is concerned about the potential hazards associated with the exploration, mining and milling stages of the uranium industry. Public concern has resulted in the appointment of a Commissioner under the Public Inquiries Act of Nova Scotia to inquire and make recommendations to the Governor-in-Council on all aspects of exploration, development, mining, processing, storage, waste management and transportation of uranium in any form. The regulation of mineral exploration and mining activities is carried out by the Nova Scotia Department of Mines and Energy through the Mineral Resources Act of the Province of Nova Scotia. The regulation of the special radioactive aspects involved in the mining and processing of uranium ore is the responsibility of the federal Atomic Energy Control Board. The purposes of this report is to: outline the history of uranium exploration in Nova Scotia; summarize the results of geological surveys by provincial and federal government agencies, universities and exploration companies which document the natural levels of radioactivity in the Province; briefly outline the physical and chemical characteristics of uranium and thorium which make these elements unique and a potential environmental and health concern; outline chronologically the steps taken by the Nova Scotia Department of Mines and Energy to monitor and regulate uranium exploration activities; classify the types of uranium deposits known to occur in Nova Scotia and describe their main geological features; outline the role of the Nova Scotia Department of Mines and Energy in the regulation of mining activities in the Province. The report is written for the interested

  3. Denitrification in the Arabian Sea: A 3D ecosystem modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas R.; Ryabchenko, Vladimir A.; Fasham, Michael J. R.; Gorchakov, Victor A.

    2007-12-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecosystem model was used to examine the factors determining the spatio-temporal distribution of denitrification in the Arabian Sea. The ecosystem model includes carbon and nitrogen as currencies, cycling of organic matter via detritus and dissolved organic matter, and both remineralization and denitrification as sinks for material exported below the euphotic zone. Model results captured the marked seasonality in plankton dynamics of the region, with characteristic blooms of chlorophyll in the coastal upwelling regions and central Arabian Sea during the southwest monsoon, and also in the northern Arabian Sea during the northeast monsoon as the mixed layer shoals. Predicted denitrification was 26.2 Tg N yr -1,the greatest seasonal contribution being during the northeast monsoon when primary production is co-located with the zone of anoxia. Detritus was the primary organic substrate consumed in denitrification (97%), with a small (3%) contribution by dissolved organic matter. Denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone was predicted to be fuelled almost entirely by organic matter supplied by particles sinking vertically from the euphotic zone above (0.73 mmol N m -2 d -1) rather than from lateral transport of organic matter from elsewhere in the Arabian Sea (less than 0.01 mmol N m -2 d -1). Analysis of the carbon budget in the zone of denitrification (north of 10°N and east of 55°E) indicates that the modelled vertical export flux of detritus, which is similar in magnitude to estimates from field data based on the 234Th method, is sufficient to account for measured bacterial production below the euphotic zone in the Arabian Sea.

  4. The levels of radionuclides and heavy metals in Black Sea ecosystems (Bulgaria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.; Nonova, Tz.

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of geographically varying marine ecosystem properties on the uptake of radionuclides and toxic metals in marine environment, samples of sand, slime and silt sediments were taken during the period 1991-2004. Samples were collected from different zones along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast - from the north Romanian border (Durankulak) to the South Turkish border (Rezovo). Technogenic and natural radionuclides were measured by Low-level Gamma Spectroscopy using HPGe detector with 35 % counting efficiency and energy resolution 1.8 KeV (1332 KeV). Heavy metals (HM) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) - ETAAS (Perkin - Elmer Zeeman 3030 with graphite furnace) and flame AAS - Pye Unicam SP 1950. The measured radionuclides concentrations in Black Sea sediments were found to depend on sediment type - slime sediments accumulate technogenic ( 1 37Cs) and natural nuclides (U and Th series) to the highest extent. Considerably low levels of technogenic and natural radionuclides and a narrow concentration intervals were established for sand and silt sediment samples. The intercomparison of radionuclide and HM content in bottom sediments from one and the same sampling location gives information for mechanisms of radionuclide transfer and shows the trend of potential hazard of anthropogenic impact on marine ecosystems. The obtained data show that highest nuclide and heavy metal content in Black Sea sediments were determined in the northern part of the Black Sea coast. It can be attributed to the influence of the big rivers entering the northern part of the Black Sea - Danube, Dnyepr, Dnester. Data for radionuclides and heavy metals in sediments are in the limits of the cited in literature natural levels, showing no additional anthropogenic contamination

  5. Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

  6. Sea otters homogenize mussel beds and reduce habitat provisioning in a rocky intertidal ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald G Singh

    Full Text Available Sea otters (Enhydra lutris are keystone predators that consume a variety of benthic invertebrates, including the intertidal mussel, Mytilus californianus. By virtue of their competitive dominance, large size, and longevity, M. californianus are ecosystem engineers that form structurally complex beds that provide habitat for diverse invertebrate communities. We investigated whether otters affect mussel bed characteristics (i.e. mussel length distributions, mussel bed depth, and biomass and associated community structure (i.e. biomass, alpha and beta diversity by comparing four regions that varied in their histories of sea otter occupancy on the west coast of British Columbia and northern Washington. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent. We examined alternative explanations for differences in mussel bed community structure, including among-region variation in oceanographic conditions and abundance of the predatory sea star Pisaster ochraceus. We cannot discount multiple drivers shaping mussel beds, but our findings indicate the sea otters are an important one. We conclude that, similar to their effects on subtidal benthic invertebrates, sea otters reduce the size distributions of intertidal mussels and, thereby, habitat available to support associated communities. Our study indicates that by reducing populations of habitat-providing intertidal mussels, sea otters may have substantial indirect effects on associated communities.

  7. Marine renewable energy legislation for Nova Scotia : policy background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Marine renewable energy sources can provide Nova Scotia with a large supply of sustainable, non-carbon emitting electricity. One of the largest tidal ranges within the world is contained within the Bay of Fundy, which holds power potential in the form of wind, wave and tidal energy. A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) on the Bay of Fundy's potential marine renewable energy was published in 2008. An assessment of the social, economic, and environmental effects and factors linked with possible development of renewable energy sources in the Bay Fundy was published. Twenty-nine recommendations were offered, including the creation of marine renewable energy legislation incorporating sustainability principles. This discussion paper described the policy drivers and opportunities in Nova Scotia for marine renewable energy sources as well as the challenges and relevant subject areas that should be considered when creating marine renewable energy legislation and policy. Specific challenges that were discussed included a policy approach to development; multiple jurisdictions; Aboriginal issues; economic factors; environmental impacts; occupational and operation safety; allocation of rights; and regulatory issues. It was concluded that if the marine renewable energy resource was going to be created with the possibility of providing commercial electricity generation, a coordinated legislative framework should be established. refs., tabs.

  8. Cadmium, copper and iron in the Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea and Weddell/Scotia Confluence (Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolting, R.F.; Baar, H.J.W. de; Bennekom, A.J. van; Masson, A.

    1991-01-01

    Until recently, little was known about trace metals in the Southern Ocean. Vertical profiles and surface water sections along 49°W exhibit Cd concentrations of 0.2–0.8 nM, increasing with depth, as for phosphate. A linear relationship between Cd and phosphate exists as in other oceans; however, the

  9. Feeding strategies and resource partitioning among elasmobranchs and cephalopods in Mediterranean deep-sea ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Maria; Rueda, Lucía; Quetglas, Antoni

    2017-10-01

    Cephalopods and elasmobranchs are important components of marine ecosystems, whereby knowing the ecological role they play in the structure and dynamics of trophic networks is paramount. With this aim, stomach contents and stable isotopes of the most abundant elasmobranch and cephalopod species (5 and 18 species, respectively) inhabiting deep-sea ecosystems from the western Mediterranean were analyzed. The predators investigated encompassed different taxonomic groups, such as rays and sharks within elasmobranchs, and squids, octopuses and cuttlefishes within cephalopods. Specifically, we investigated ontogenetic shifts in diet, feeding strategies and prey consumption, trophic structure and potential dietary overlap between and within both taxonomical groups. Stable isotope analysis revealed ontogenetic shifts in diet in three elasmobranch (rays and sharks) and two cephalopod (octopuses and squids) species. Isotopic data showed a contrasting food source gradient (δ13C), from pelagic (squids and cuttlefishes) to benthic (octopuses and elasmobranchs). Stomach data highlighted a great variety of trophic guilds which could be further aggregated into three broad categories: benthic, benthopelagic and pelagic feeders. The combination of both stomach content and stable isotope analyses revealed a clear food partitioning among species. Mesopelagic prey were found to be an important food resource for deep-sea elasmobranchs and cephalopods, which could be related to the strong oligotrophic conditions in the area. The observed differences in feeding strategies within cephalopods and elasmobranchs should be taken into account when defining functional groups in trophodynamic models from the western Mediterranean. Our results also revealed that cephalopods play a key role for the benthopelagic coupling, whereas demersal elasmobranchs contribute primarily to a one-way flux accumulating energy resources into deep-sea ecosystems.

  10. Predicting drivers and distributions of deep-sea ecosystems: A cold-water coral case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohn, Christian; Rengstorf, Anna; Brown, Colin

    2015-01-01

    pertusa as a case study (Rengstorf et al., 2014). The study shows that predictive models incorporating hydrodynamic variables perform significantly better than models based on terrain parameters only. They are a potentially powerful tool to improve our understanding of deep-sea ecosystem functioning......, facilitating species distribution modelling with high spatial detail. In this study, we used high resolution data (250 m grid size) from a newly developed hydrodynamic model to explore linkages between key physical drivers and occurrences of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa in selected areas of the NE...... and to provide decision support for marine spatial planning and conservation in the deep sea. Mohn et al., 2014.Linking benthic hydrodynamics and cold water coral occurrences: A high-resolution model study at three cold-water coral provinces in the NE Atlantic. Progress in Oceanography 122, 92-104. Rengstorf et...

  11. The effect of radioactive waste storage in Andreev Bay on contamination of the Barents Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matishov, G. G.; Ilyin, G. V.; Usyagina, I. S.; Moiseev, D. V.; Dahle, Salve; Kasatkina, N. E.; Valuyskaya, D. A.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of temporary radioactive waste storage on the ecological status of the sea and biota in the littoral of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays and near the shore of Motovskii Gulf (including the mouth part of the Zapadnaya Litsa Bay) was analyzed. The littoral sediments contaminated by the 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, and 239,240Pu isotopes are located in the zones of constant groundwater discharge on the shores of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays. The littoral slopes and bottom depressions of the bays accumulate finely dispersed terrigenous material and 137Cs. The investigations have shown that the storage does not exert a significant adverse effect on the radioactive conditions and the status of the sea ecosystems beyond Andreev Bay.

  12. Introducing mixotrophy into a biogeochemical model describing an eutrophied coastal ecosystem: The Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyoot, Caroline; Lancelot, Christiane; Flynn, Kevin J.; Mitra, Aditee; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-09-01

    Most biogeochemical/ecological models divide planktonic protists between phototrophs (phytoplankton) and heterotrophs (zooplankton). However, a large number of planktonic protists are able to combine several mechanisms of carbon and nutrient acquisition. Not representing these multiple mechanisms in biogeochemical/ecological models describing eutrophied coastal ecosystems can potentially lead to different conclusions regarding ecosystem functioning, especially regarding the success of harmful algae, which are often reported as mixotrophic. This modelling study investigates the implications for trophic dynamics of including 3 contrasting forms of mixotrophy, namely osmotrophy (using alkaline phosphatase activity, APA), non-constitutive mixotrophy (acquired phototrophy by microzooplankton) and also constitutive mixotrophy. The application is in the Southern North Sea, an ecosystem that faced, between 1985 and 2005, a significant increase in the nutrient supply N:P ratio (from 31 to 81 mol N:P). The comparison with a traditional model shows that, when the winter N:P ratio in the Southern North Sea is above 22 molN molP-1 (as occurred from mid-1990s), APA allows a 3-32% increase of annual gross primary production (GPP). In result of the higher GPP, the annual sedimentation increases as well as the bacterial production. By contrast, APA does not affect the export of matter to higher trophic levels because the increased GPP is mainly due to Phaeocystis colonies, which are not grazed by copepods. Under high irradiance, non-constitutive mixotrophy appreciably increases annual GPP, transfer to higher trophic levels, sedimentation, and nutrient remineralisation. In this ecosystem, non-constitutive mixotrophy is also observed to have an indirect stimulating effect on diatoms. Constitutive mixotrophy in nanoflagellates appears to have little influence on this ecosystem functioning. An important conclusion from this work is that contrasting forms of mixotrophy have different

  13. Nova Scotia Power : in-stream tidal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Government of Nova Scotia, the Government of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia Power and others have funded a feasibility study of North American sites for commercial instream tidal power. In July 2007, Nova Scotia Power received partial funding for a demonstration project. This presentation provided information on a demonstration plant for tidal power run by Nova Scotia Power. It discussed the benefits of the Open Hydro technology for this plant. In this simple design, the generator is on the circumference of the turbine. The design does not involve any power transmission systems or any pitching of blades. In addition, the technology is environmentally sound as it is completely shrouded, has low rotational speed, and a large open centre allows fish to pass through, and it does not require lubricants. The last benefit that was presented was the scale up of 250 kW machine deployed in a European test facility. The presentation also discussed the advantages of developing tidal power at this time. It was concluded that tidal energy has significant potential. Although it is intermittent, it is predictable and bulk power system can be scheduled to accommodate it. figs

  14. Coalfields west half Cumberland County, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, M J

    1958-01-01

    A geologic survey of the coal fields of the western half of Cumberland County, Nova Scotia was performed including studies of the structural geology, stratigraphy, and paleontology of the area. One part of this survey included a spectrographic analysis of 55 coals for 23 elements. These analyses are presented in tabular form.

  15. Abundance of sea cucumbers on the ecosystem of seagrasses Inunggeh island, Tapanuli Tengah Regency North Sumatera Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisesa, M. M.; Bakti, D.; Fadhilah, A.

    2018-02-01

    Unggeh Island is one area that has the potential of Sea Cucumber in the North Sumatra. Sea cucumbers have an important role in ecosystem waters, namely as a deposit feeder. Sea cucumbers can live in shallow waters, such as seagrass ecosystems. The purpose of this study is to knowing the abundance of sea cucumbers in the seagrass ecosystems on the island of Unggeh and to knowing the type of Sea Cucumber. The method used is a transect quadrant method with a size of 5x5 meters, on a transect line with a length of 100 meters. Sampling was done at three points observations, station 1 was at coordinate point 01°34’26,88 "LU and 098°45’40,25" BT, station 2 was at coordinate point 01°34’32,71 "LU and 098°45’37, 58 "BT, station 3 is at the coordinate point 01°34’24,22" LU and 098°45’38,06 "BT. The type of sea cucumber found in the seagrass ecosystem on the Unggeh island Actinopyga ecinites, A. Miliaris, Holothuria scabra. The density at station 1 was 0.16 ind / m2, at station II a density was0.12 ind / m2, at station III a density was 0.08 ind / m2, and the total density at the research location was 0, 32 ind / m2.

  16. Natural occurring radionuclide 210Po in the components of the Black Sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazorenko, G. G.; Polikarpov, G. G.

    2006-01-01

    The interest to study of the behavior of naturally occurring radionuclide 2 10Po in marine ecosystem was caused by its main contribution to the doses of irradiation to hydrobionts. This work presents own data of 2 10Po concentrations determined in water, bottom sediments and hydrobionts of the Black Sea in 1998-2004. 2 10Po concentrations in water varied from 0.58 to 1.02 Bqxm - 3. Their range in bottom sediments from shelf zone and open part of the Black Sea was 11.5-496.5 Bqxkg - 1 dry weight with maximum in the North-West region. The range of 2 10Po concentrations in bottom sediments from the Eastern part of the Black Sea was 4.5-220 Bqxkg-1 dry weight. Concentration factors (CF) of 2 10Po in bottom sediments reached 10 4 -10 5 . 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea hydrobionts are reported and compared with published data in the same taxa. The range of 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea mesozooplankton was 1.7-3.5 Bqxkg - 1 wet weight. It was 1.9-2.9 Bqxkg - 1 wet weight in the representative species of macro plankton community, namely the ctenophore Beroe ovata. 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea fishes depend on their belonging to different ecological groups and decrease from pelagic species to demersal and bottom ones. 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea mollusks excluding small species Nana nerithea were on the highest levels determined in hydrobionts inhabiting in this region. Concentration factors of this radionuclide, estimated on a wet weight basis, reached values of 1.5x10 3 for macrophytes, 4x10 3 for total zooplankton, 10 3 -10 4 for the entire fishes, depending on their ecological groups affiliation and (3.0-6.7) x10 4 for mollusks. So, the ability of the Black Sea hydrobionts to accumulate natural radionuclide 2 10Po is comparable with that of similar species from others marine and oceanic areas

  17. Nova Scotia wind integration study : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    An independent study was commissioned by the Nova Scotia Department of Energy to identify and assess the impacts of integrating large scale wind power generation into Nova Scotia's electric power system. The purpose of the study was to help Nova Scotia's efforts towards building its renewable energy supply, in order to secure a local energy resource and to protect the environment. This report provided an overview of Nova Scotia's electric power sector, including organizations involved; existing generation system; existing transmission system; renewable energy standards; Nova Scotia Power integrated resource plan; and 2007 renewable energy request for proposals. The major assumptions for the study that were discussed included system parameters; system capacity reserve requirements; expansion plans to 2020; and allocation of new wind generation by zone. Wind resource data and system dispatch modeling were also presented and transmission system modeling was outlined. This included a discussion of steady state reliability requirements; inputs to the load flow model; load flow study and contingency analysis; intra-province transmission congestion; and potential impacts on system security. The report also presented an approach to impact analysis and mitigation such as the impact on greenhouse gas and other air emissions and the impact of wind energy prices on system costs. It was concluded that one of the most important factors in evaluation of the economic impact of wind power integration is the forecasted fuel prices for the thermal units. If the fuel prices had varied significantly from the forecasted values, the study economic impact results could have been quite different. 55 tabs., 64 figs., 1 appendix

  18. Fishing cod in the Baltic Sea - Gambling with the ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Sven; Nordlöf, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The population of cod in the Baltic sea has over the last decades decreased due to overfishing. To make the students aware of this problem and also to find a solution they are introduced to a game. The purpose of the game is to let the students know how to use renewable natural resources in these aspects; 1 Fishing cod without using it up 2 That solidarity is needed if you are sharing a resource 3 That cooperation is the key to keeping a natural resource healthy. The students are fishermen in group of four and are equipped with a boat. The playing board is a map over the Baltic sea. The rules of the game include the carrying capacity of the sea, how much fish one fishing boat is allowed to pick up, how much it costs to have a boat, and possibilities to buy a bigger boat. The game has two rounds: In round one the students in the group are competing against each other, they are not allowed to talk to each other and they are supposed to get as much fish as they can. As a consequence after round one the sea will become empty. In round two the groups compete with each other and they are coworking within the group. After this round the result is different from the first round. The catches are bigger than in round one and still there are cod left in the sea, which will generate a good fishing in the future.. The discussions after the game can be about why the two rounds ended so different, general discussion about "tragedy of the commons", sustainable use of ecosystem services and discussions about resources in common.

  19. Life on the margin: genetic isolation and diversity loss in a peripheral marine ecosystem, the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin; André, Carl

    2006-07-01

    Marginal populations are often isolated and under extreme selection pressures resulting in anomalous genetics. Consequently, ecosystems that are geographically and ecologically marginal might have a large share of genetically atypical populations, in need of particular concern in management of these ecosystems. To test this prediction, we analysed genetic data from 29 species inhabiting the low saline Baltic Sea, a geographically and ecologically marginal ecosystem. On average Baltic populations had lost genetic diversity compared to Atlantic populations: a pattern unrelated to dispersal capacity, generation time of species and taxonomic group of organism, but strongly related to type of genetic marker (mitochondrial DNA loci had lost c. 50% diversity, and nuclear loci 10%). Analyses of genetic isolation by geographic distance revealed clinal patterns of differentiation between Baltic and Atlantic regions. For a majority of species, clines were sigmoid with a sharp slope around the Baltic Sea entrance, indicating impeded gene flows between Baltic and Atlantic populations. Some species showed signs of allele frequencies being perturbed at the edge of their distribution inside the Baltic Sea. Despite the short geological history of the Baltic Sea (8000 years), populations inhabiting the Baltic have evolved substantially different from Atlantic populations, probably as a consequence of isolation and bottlenecks, as well as selection on adaptive traits. In addition, the Baltic Sea also acts a refuge for unique evolutionary lineages. This marginal ecosystem is thus vulnerable but also exceedingly valuable, housing unique genes, genotypes and populations that constitute an important genetic resource for management and conservation.

  20. Exploring the ecosystem engineering ability of Red Sea shallow benthic habitats using stocks and fluxes in carbon biogeochemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee

    2017-12-01

    The coastal ocean is a marginal region of the global ocean, but is home to metabolically intense ecosystems which increase the structural complexity of the benthos. These ecosystems have the ability to alter the carbon chemistry of surrounding waters through their metabolism, mainly through processes which directly release or consume carbon dioxide. In this way, coastal habitats can engineer their environment by acting as sources or sinks of carbon dioxide and altering their environmental chemistry from the regional norm. In most coastal water masses, it is difficult to resolve the ecosystem effect on coastal carbon biogeochemistry due to the mixing of multiple offshore end members, complex geography or the influence of variable freshwater inputs. The Red Sea provides a simple environment for the study of ecosystem processes at a coastal scale as it contains only one offshore end-member and negligible freshwater inputs due to the arid climate of adjacent land. This work explores the ability of three Red Sea benthic coastal habitats (coral reefs, seagrass meadows and mangrove forests) to create characteristic ecosystem end-members, which deviate from the biogeochemistry of offshore source waters. This is done by both calculating non-conservative deviations in carbonate stocks collected over each ecosystem, and by quantifying net carbonate fluxes (in seagrass meadows and mangrove forests only) using 24 hour incubations. Results illustrate that carbonate stocks over ecosystems conform to broad ecosystem trends, which are different to the offshore end-member, and are influenced by inherited properties from surrounding ecosystems. Carbonate fluxes also show ecosystem dependent trends and further illustrate the importance of sediment processes in influencing CaCO3 fluxes in blue carbon benthic habitats, which warrants further attention. These findings show the respective advantages of studying both carbonate stocks and fluxes of coastal benthic ecosystems in order to

  1. Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in long-term time series and palaeoecological records: deep sea as a test bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Doi, Hideyuki; Wei, Chih-Lin; Danovaro, Roberto; Myhre, Sarah E

    2016-05-19

    The link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) over long temporal scales is poorly understood. Here, we investigate biological monitoring and palaeoecological records on decadal, centennial and millennial time scales from a BEF framework by using deep sea, soft-sediment environments as a test bed. Results generally show positive BEF relationships, in agreement with BEF studies based on present-day spatial analyses and short-term manipulative experiments. However, the deep-sea BEF relationship is much noisier across longer time scales compared with modern observational studies. We also demonstrate with palaeoecological time-series data that a larger species pool does not enhance ecosystem stability through time, whereas higher abundance as an indicator of higher ecosystem functioning may enhance ecosystem stability. These results suggest that BEF relationships are potentially time scale-dependent. Environmental impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning may be much stronger than biodiversity impacts on ecosystem functioning at long, decadal-millennial, time scales. Longer time scale perspectives, including palaeoecological and ecosystem monitoring data, are critical for predicting future BEF relationships on a rapidly changing planet. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. [New settlers comb jellies Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz) and Beroe ovata Mayer 1912 and their influence on the pelagic ecosystem of the northeastern part of the Black Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiganova, T A; Musaeva, E I; Bulgakova, Iu V; Mirzoian, Z A; MartynIuk, M L

    2003-01-01

    We analyzed the condition of pelagic ecosystem of northeastern Black Sea influenced by expansion of a new settler Beroe ovata in 1999-2001. Expansion of B. ovata considerably decreased the population of another new settler Mnemiopsis leidyi that deformed the Black Sea ecosystem for over a decade. Reduction of M. leidyi population limited its influence on the ecosystem and, consequently, we observed reestablishment of the main components of the Black Sea pelagic ecosystem--zooplankton and fish, their spawn and larvae. The relationship between annual and seasonal variability of the population and biomass of the both new settlers M. leidyi and B. ovata are discussed.

  3. Reorganization of a large marine ecosystem due to atmospheric and anthropogenic pressure: a discontinuous regime shift in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moellmann, C; Diekmann, Rabea; Muller-Karulis, B

    2009-01-01

    the Baltic Sea, the largest brackish water body in the world ocean, and its ecosystems are strongly affected by atmospheric and anthropogenic drivers. Here, we present results of an analysis of the state and development of the Central Baltic Sea ecosystem integrating hydroclimatic, nutrient, phyto......Marine ecosystems such as the Baltic Sea are currently under strong atmospheric and anthropogenic pressure. Besides natural and human-induced changes in climate, major anthropogenic drivers such as overfishing and anthropogenic eutrophication are significantly affecting ecosystem structure...

  4. Migration of some metals in the ecosystem of the Caspian sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplygin, Wladimir A.; Tanasova, Anastasia S.; Ershova, Tatiana S.; Zaitsev, Vyacheslav F.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2017-04-01

    The content of heavy metals in aquatic organisms of the Caspian sea is connected with the increase of anthropogenic load on aqueous ecosystems, what leads to the disruption of the natural cycle of chemical elements. Heavy metals in small concentrations are included in an organism and are involved in various metabolic processes. One of the reasons for the high content of metals in the body of hydrobionts is the accumulation of the last in the food web and functional disturbance in all parts of the ecosystem. The aim of this work was to trace the migration of some metals in trophic chains in the ecosystem of the Caspian sea. The objects of the study were: various types of soils of the Caspian sea molluscs of the genus Didacna, fish - gobies ceneйcTвa Gobiidae and liver of Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, mammal - the liver of the Caspian seal Phoca caspica. The main burden of the accumulation of trace elements takes on the liver, which is a functional depot of many metals and is characterized by high metabolic activity in which there is a filtering and transformation of substances. The content of heavy metals in the objects of study were determined by atomic absorption method. The results are presented in mg/kg dry matter. The results showed that the level of accumulation of heavy metals in different types of soils of the Caspian sea was within the limits of environmental standards for bottom sediments taken in the Netherlands (2009) and heavy metal concentrations in silt and sand soil were below background values (according Verkhnevolzhskaya exploration of the enterprise and the Institute of water problems Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia). It should be noted that silty and sandy soils have a similar distribution pattern of heavy metals. A number of decrease the content of heavy metals in different soils of the Caspian sea were as follows: Silty and sandy soils: Zn>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd>Hg. The metals content in mollusks decreases in the series: Zn

  5. Nova Scotia Resources Limited annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Nova Scotia Resources was established in 1981 by the provincial government to invest in and manage Nova Scotia's participation in petroleum, energy, and mineral development. The company and its subsidiaries hold interests in oil and gas discovery areas and producing fields in the Nova Scotia offshore, and owns producing oil and gas interests in western Canada. In June 1992, oil production began from the Cohasset project, representing Canada's first commercial offshore oil production. Nearly 4 million bbl of crude will be sold in the first production season. Work is continuing on additional producing wells; the production life of the Cohasset project is currently estimated at 6 y. Offshore exploration activity is also continuing under four exploration licenses. For the 12 months ending March 31, 1992, net earnings from western oil and gas production were $369,000. Total gross revenues from oil and gas producing properties for the year were ca $4.8 million. Other 1992 activities include active exploration for salt and potash sites with potential for underground storage of natural gas. Financial statements are included. 14 figs., 2 tabs

  6. The Sea Around Us Project: documenting and communicating global fisheries impacts on marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    The Sea Around Us Project, initiated by the Pew Charitable Trusts in Philadelphia, PA, and located at the Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, started in mid 1999. Its goal was (and still is) to investigate the impact of fisheries on marine ecosystems and to propose policies to mitigate these impacts. Although conceived as a global activity, the project first emphasized the data-rich North Atlantic as a test bed for developing its approaches, which rely on mapping of catch data and indicators of ecosystem health derived from the analysis of long catch time series data. Initial achievements included mapping the decline, throughout the North Atlantic basin, of high-trophic level fishes from 1900 to the present and the presentation of compelling evidence of change in the functioning of the North Atlantic ecosystems, summarized in a 2003 book. The Central and South Atlantic were the next basins to be tackled, with emphasis on the distant-water fleet off West Africa, culminating in a major conference in Dakar, Senegal, in 2002. The project then emphasized the North Pacific, Antarctica, and marine mammals and the multiplicity of tropical Indo-Pacific fisheries before it turned completely global, with all our major analyses and reports (e.g., on the interactions between marine mammals and fisheries, on fuel consumption by fleets, on the catches of small-scale fisheries, on subsidies to fisheries) being based on global studies. Broadly, the work of the project is aimed at a reappraisal of fisheries, from the benign activity that many interested people still perceive them to be, to a realization that they have become the driver for massive loss of biodiversity in the ocean. Moreover, the emphasis on global estimates (rather than local estimates of dubious generality) has allowed the project to contribute to various global initiatives (e.g., developing the Marine Trophic Index for the Convention on Biological Diversity, quantifying marine

  7. Application of an Ensemble Kalman filter to a 1-D coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model of the Ligurian Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenartz, F.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Grégoire, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been applied to a 1-D complex ecosystem model coupled with a hydrodynamic model of the Ligurian Sea. In order to improve the performance of the EnKF, an ensemble subsampling strategy has been used to better represent the covariance matrices and a pre-analysis

  8. Exploring the ecosystem engineering ability of Red Sea shallow benthic habitats using stocks and fluxes in carbon biogeochemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Baldry, Kimberlee

    2017-01-01

    inputs. The Red Sea provides a simple environment for the study of ecosystem processes at a coastal scale as it contains only one offshore end-member and negligible freshwater inputs due to the arid climate of adjacent land. This work explores the ability

  9. Historical changes of the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem: modelling the role and impact of primary productivity and fisheries changes over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroddi, Chiara; Coll, Marta; Liquete, Camino; Macias, Diego; Greer, Krista; Buszowski, Joe; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Danovaro, Roberto; Christensen, Villy

    2017-03-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been defined “under siege” because of intense pressures from multiple human activities; yet there is still insufficient information on the cumulative impact of these stressors on the ecosystem and its resources. We evaluate how the historical (1950-2011) trends of various ecosystems groups/species have been impacted by changes in primary productivity (PP) combined with fishing pressure. We investigate the whole Mediterranean Sea using a food web modelling approach. Results indicate that both changes in PP and fishing pressure played an important role in driving species dynamics. Yet, PP was the strongest driver upon the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem. This highlights the importance of bottom-up processes in controlling the biological characteristics of the region. We observe a reduction in abundance of important fish species (~34%, including commercial and non-commercial) and top predators (~41%), and increases of the organisms at the bottom of the food web (~23%). Ecological indicators, such as community biomass, trophic levels, catch and diversity indicators, reflect such changes and show overall ecosystem degradation over time. Since climate change and fishing pressure are expected to intensify in the Mediterranean Sea, this study constitutes a baseline reference for stepping forward in assessing the future management of the basin.

  10. Comparative bacterial community analysis in relatively pristine and anthropogenically influenced mangrove ecosystems on the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Riaz; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Imran; Bibi, Fehmida; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Al-Ansari, Ahmed; Al-Abbasi, Fahad; Al-Sofyani, Abdulmohsin A; Daur, Ihsanullah; Lee, Seon-Woo; Azhar, Esam I

    2017-08-01

    Mangrove habitats are ecologically important ecosystems that are under severe pressure worldwide because of environmental changes and human activities. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon deep-sequencing was used to compare bacterial communities in Red Sea mangrove ecosystems at anthropogenically influenced coastal sites with those at a relatively pristine island site. In total, 32 phyla were identified from the mangrove rhizospheres, with Proteobacteria predominating at each of the studied sites; however, the relative abundance was significantly decreased at the coastal sites (Mastorah, MG-MS; Ar-Rayis, MG-AR) compared with the pristine island site near Dhahban (MG-DBI). The phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Spirochetes, and Planctomycetes were present at a relative abundance of >1% at the MG-MS and MG-AR sites, but their concentration was <1% at the MG-DBI site. A total of 1659 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified at the species level, and approximately 945 OTUs were shared across the different sampling sites. Multivariate principal coordinate data analysis separated the MG-DBI site from the MG-AR and MG-MS cluster. Specific bacterial taxa were enriched at each location, and in particular, the genera Pseudoalteromonas and Cobetia were predominantly identified in the MG-DBI site compared with the anthropogenically influenced coastal sites.

  11. Assessing a robust ensemble-based Kalman filter for efficient ecosystem data assimilation of the Cretan Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Triantafyllou, George N.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Luo, Xiaodong; Tsiaras, Kostas P.; Petihakis, George

    2013-01-01

    An application of an ensemble-based robust filter for data assimilation into an ecosystem model of the Cretan Sea is presented and discussed. The ecosystem model comprises two on-line coupled sub-models: the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The filtering scheme is based on the Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter which is implemented with a time-local H∞ filtering strategy to enhance robustness and performances during periods of strong ecosystem variability. Assimilation experiments in the Cretan Sea indicate that robustness can be achieved in the SEIK filter by introducing an adaptive inflation scheme of the modes of the filter error covariance matrix. Twin-experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of the assimilation system and to study the benefits of using robust filtering in an ensemble filtering framework. Pseudo-observations of surface chlorophyll, extracted from a model reference run, were assimilated every two days. Simulation results suggest that the adaptive inflation scheme significantly improves the behavior of the SEIK filter during periods of strong ecosystem variability. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Assessing a robust ensemble-based Kalman filter for efficient ecosystem data assimilation of the Cretan Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Triantafyllou, George N.

    2013-09-01

    An application of an ensemble-based robust filter for data assimilation into an ecosystem model of the Cretan Sea is presented and discussed. The ecosystem model comprises two on-line coupled sub-models: the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The filtering scheme is based on the Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter which is implemented with a time-local H∞ filtering strategy to enhance robustness and performances during periods of strong ecosystem variability. Assimilation experiments in the Cretan Sea indicate that robustness can be achieved in the SEIK filter by introducing an adaptive inflation scheme of the modes of the filter error covariance matrix. Twin-experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of the assimilation system and to study the benefits of using robust filtering in an ensemble filtering framework. Pseudo-observations of surface chlorophyll, extracted from a model reference run, were assimilated every two days. Simulation results suggest that the adaptive inflation scheme significantly improves the behavior of the SEIK filter during periods of strong ecosystem variability. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Archaea, Bacteria, and Sulfur-Cycling in a Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, J. P.; Huang, C.; Amann, R.; Bach, W.; Meyerdierks, A.; Price, R. E.; Schubotz, F.; Summons, R. E.; Wenzhoefer, F.

    2009-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal systems are windows to the marine subsurface biosphere. It often is overlooked, however, that their far more accessible shallow-sea counterparts can serve the same purpose. To characterize the extent, diversity, and activity of the subsurface microbial community in the shallow vent ecosystem near Panarea Island (Italy), sediment cores were analyzed with a broad array of analytical techniques. Vent fluid and sediment temperatures reached up to 135 °C, with pHs in porewaters generally measuring 5-6. Microsensor profiles marked a very sharp oxic-anoxic transition, and when coupled to pH and H2S profiles, pointed to aerobic sulfide oxidation. With increasing depth from the sediment-water interface, porewater analyses showed a decrease in sulfate levels from ~30 mM to thermophilic sulfate reducing and acidophilic sulfide oxidizing bacteria. Results from several sites also showed that with increasing depth and temperature, biomass abundance of archaea generally increased relative to that of bacteria. Lastly, DGGE fingerprinting and 16S rRNA clone libraries from several depths at Hot Lake revealed a moderate diversity of bacteria, dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria; this class is known to catalyze both sulfur reduction and oxidation reactions, and to mediate the formation of iron-sulfides, including framboidal pyrite. Archaeal sequences at Hot Lake are dominated by uncultured Thermoplasmatales, plus several sequences in the Korarchaeota.

  14. STUDY REGARDING TO AGGRESSIONS ON THE ECOSYSTEM DANUBE DELTA – BLACK SEA AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Gr. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Danube Delta has suffered damages of habitat and species loss caused by factors, including: construction of dams upstream have degraded obviously flooding regime; creation of agricultural and fishing enclosures which decreased the natural and original surfaces; extending artificial navigation channels that negatively affected the hydrological regime and water quality of lakes; increase of nutrients in the water, industrial pollution and accumulate effluents that led to the reduction of plant and bird species; attempt to exploit quartz sand, very pure and fine, the sea levees, although they were protected as nature reserves because of the specific morphology and sub-Mediterranean vegetation covering them; tourism and illegal fishing; mismanagement of resources of reed and fish. The fact is that there was a slight improvement for the marine ecosystem, reported since the early 90s. At present, the area of the Danube Delta - Black Sea is developing sustainable, in terms of medium and economic perspective. In my study I used comparative methods, investigations, direct observations, measurements, calculations and actual data, obtained from surveys and direct observations, from prestigious, specialized and authorized institutions.

  15. Reconstruction and prediction of radioactive contamination of the ecosystems of the Arctic Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the radionuclide content in components of the marine ecosystem was performed on the basis of observational data. The site-specific factors of radionuclide accumulation in marine biota and sediments were calculated for 90 Sr and 137 Cs. The following can be concluded from the comparison of site-specific accumulation factors with the world averaged data (IAEA Publication : 247): 1) 90 Sr concentration factors in algae and zooplankton in the Arctic Sea are roughly the same as world-averaged values. However, for fish they are much higher then average values and are mostly as high as the upper estimates of 90 Sr concentration factors presented in the IAEA Publication. 2) 137 Cs concentration factors in algae and zooplankton in the Arctic Sea are practically equal to the generalized world data. However, they are twice as high as world-averaged values for fish, but not going beyond the range of uncertainty for world-averaged data. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  16. 150 years of ecosystem evolution in the North Sea - from pristine conditions to acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pätsch, Johannes; Lorkowski, Ina; Kühn, Wilfried; Moll, Andreas; Serna, Alexandra

    2010-05-01

    The 3-d coupled physical-biogeochemical model ECOHAM was applied to the Northwest European Shelf (47° 41‘ - 63° 53' N, 15° 5' W - 13° 55' E) for the years 1860, 1960 and continuously for the time interval 1970 - 2006. From stable nitrogen isotope analysis in sediment cores of the German Bight in the southeastern part of the North Sea (inner shelf) we found the period before 1860 unaffected by anthropogenic river inputs of nitrogen. After this period the delta15N-ratios significantly increased from ~6 per mil to more than 8 per mil in recent sediments indicating eutrophication by anthropogenic nitrate mainly from intensive agriculture fertilization. We deduced from the successful simulation of delta15N patterns in recent sediments that during pristine conditions nitrogen loads of the main continental rivers were about 10% of the modern input while the deposition of inorganic atmospheric nitrogen was 28% of the recent atmospheric flux. The 1960-sediment exhibited similar delta15N-values as the recent sediment which allows the conclusion that eutrophication in the German Bight predates the 1960 period of rapidly increasing river loads. By comparing model results with observational data in the North Sea we analyzed the variability of simulated carbon fluxes (1970-2006) constituting the so called "shelf pump" which transports atmospheric CO2 via biological fixation, vertical export and advection into the adjacent North Atlantic. Even though the highly variable North Atlantic water-inflow which correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) supplied the northern North Sea with strongly varying nutrient inputs, the interannual variability of the strength of the shelf pump was mainly governed by the variability of the southern basin's biological productivity. The net ecosystem production (NEP) in the southern North Sea varies around zero inducing CO2 exchange with the atmosphere which is near equilibrium. In the northern North Sea the strong positive

  17. Climate change and control of the southeastern Bering Sea pelagic ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, George L., Jr.; Stabeno, Phyllis; Walters, Gary; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Brodeur, Richard D.; Napp, Jeffery M.; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2002-12-01

    We propose a new hypothesis, the Oscillating Control Hypothesis (OCH), which predicts that pelagic ecosystem function in the southeastern Bering Sea will alternate between primarily bottom-up control in cold regimes and primarily top-down control in warm regimes. The timing of spring primary production is determined predominately by the timing of ice retreat. Late ice retreat (late March or later) leads to an early, ice-associated bloom in cold water (e.g., 1995, 1997, 1999), whereas no ice, or early ice retreat before mid-March, leads to an open-water bloom in May or June in warm water (e.g., 1996, 1998, 2000). Zooplankton populations are not closely coupled to the spring bloom, but are sensitive to water temperature. In years when the spring bloom occurs in cold water, low temperatures limit the production of zooplankton, the survival of larval/juvenile fish, and their recruitment into the populations of species of large piscivorous fish, such as walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma), Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus) and arrowtooth flounder ( Atheresthes stomias). When continued over decadal scales, this will lead to bottom-up limitation and a decreased biomass of piscivorous fish. Alternatively, in periods when the bloom occurs in warm water, zooplankton populations should grow rapidly, providing plentiful prey for larval and juvenile fish. Abundant zooplankton will support strong recruitment of fish and will lead to abundant predatory fish that control forage fish, including, in the case of pollock, their own juveniles. Piscivorous marine birds and pinnipeds may achieve higher production of young and survival in cold regimes, when there is less competition from large piscivorous fish for cold-water forage fish such as capelin ( Mallotus villosus). Piscivorous seabirds and pinnipeds also may be expected to have high productivity in periods of transition from cold regimes to warm regimes, when young of large predatory species of fish are numerous enough to

  18. Temporal change in deep-sea benthic ecosystems: a review of the evidence from recent time-series studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, A G; Gooday, A J; Bailey, D M; Billett, D S M; Chevaldonné, P; Colaço, A; Copley, J; Cuvelier, D; Desbruyères, D; Kalogeropoulou, V; Klages, M; Lampadariou, N; Lejeusne, C; Mestre, N C; Paterson, G L J; Perez, T; Ruhl, H; Sarrazin, J; Soltwedel, T; Soto, E H; Thatje, S; Tselepides, A; Van Gaever, S; Vanreusel, A

    2010-01-01

    Societal concerns over the potential impacts of recent global change have prompted renewed interest in the long-term ecological monitoring of large ecosystems. The deep sea is the largest ecosystem on the planet, the least accessible, and perhaps the least understood. Nevertheless, deep-sea data collected over the last few decades are now being synthesised with a view to both measuring global change and predicting the future impacts of further rises in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. For many years, it was assumed by many that the deep sea is a stable habitat, buffered from short-term changes in the atmosphere or upper ocean. However, recent studies suggest that deep-seafloor ecosystems may respond relatively quickly to seasonal, inter-annual and decadal-scale shifts in upper-ocean variables. In this review, we assess the evidence for these long-term (i.e. inter-annual to decadal-scale) changes both in biologically driven, sedimented, deep-sea ecosystems (e.g. abyssal plains) and in chemosynthetic ecosystems that are partially geologically driven, such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. We have identified 11 deep-sea sedimented ecosystems for which published analyses of long-term biological data exist. At three of these, we have found evidence for a progressive trend that could be potentially linked to recent climate change, although the evidence is not conclusive. At the other sites, we have concluded that the changes were either not significant, or were stochastically variable without being clearly linked to climate change or climate variability indices. For chemosynthetic ecosystems, we have identified 14 sites for which there are some published long-term data. Data for temporal changes at chemosynthetic ecosystems are scarce, with few sites being subjected to repeated visits. However, the limited evidence from hydrothermal vents suggests that at fast-spreading centres such as the East Pacific Rise, vent communities are impacted on decadal scales

  19. Species distribution models of two critically endangered deep-sea octocorals reveal fishing impacts on vulnerable marine ecosystems in central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, V; Garofalo, G; Fiorentino, F; Massi, D; Milisenda, G; Piraino, S; Russo, T; Gristina, M

    2017-08-14

    Deep-sea coral assemblages are key components of marine ecosystems that generate habitats for fish and invertebrate communities and act as marine biodiversity hot spots. Because of their life history traits, deep-sea corals are highly vulnerable to human impacts such as fishing. They are an indicator of vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs), therefore their conservation is essential to preserve marine biodiversity. In the Mediterranean Sea deep-sea coral habitats are associated with commercially important crustaceans, consequently their abundance has dramatically declined due to the effects of trawling. Marine spatial planning is required to ensure that the conservation of these habitats is achieved. Species distribution models were used to investigate the distribution of two critically endangered octocorals (Funiculina quadrangularis and Isidella elongata) in the central Mediterranean as a function of environmental and fisheries variables. Results show that both species exhibit species-specific habitat preferences and spatial patterns in response to environmental variables, but the impact of trawling on their distribution differed. In particular F. quadrangularis can overlap with fishing activities, whereas I. elongata occurs exclusively where fishing is low or absent. This study represents the first attempt to identify key areas for the protection of soft and compact mud VMEs in the central Mediterranean Sea.

  20. On the Antarctic Slope Front and Current crossing of the South Scotia Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, A. H.; Palmer, M.; Gomis, D.; Flexas, M. M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Jordà, G.; Wiederwohl, C.; Álvarez, M.

    2012-04-01

    To unveil the contorted path followed by the Antarctic Slope Current connecting the Weddell and Scotia Seas, hydrographic stations with unprecedented spatial resolution were occupied on a series of sections across the slope and multiple channels in the double-pronged western portion of the South Scotia Ridge. Fieldwork consisted of two cruises from the ESASSI (January 2008) and ACROSS (February 2009) programs, the Spanish and USA/Argentina components of the International Polar Year core project SASSI (Synoptic Antarctic Shelf-Slope Interaction study). In this region the Antarctic Slope Current can be located by the pronounced in-shore deepening of isopycnals over the continental slope, rendering the strong subsurface temperature and salinity gradients characteristic of the Antarctic Slope Front. Before reaching the gaps in the southern Ridge near 51°W and 50°W, the ASC carries about 3 Sv of upper layer waters, but it splits into shallow and deep branches upon turning north through these two gaps. The shallower branch enters the Hesperides Trough at 51°W, then shows a tight cyclonic loop back to that longitude roughly following the slope's 700-m isobath, and turns again westward through a similar gap in the northern Ridge. In the Scotia Sea the westward-flowing Antarctic Slope Current is found as far west as the Elephant Island along slightly deeper levels of slope (1100 m) before it is blocked by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current south of the Shackleton Fracture Zone (56°W). The deeper branch of the ASC in the Powell Basin crosses the southern Ridge near 50°W and roughly follows the 1600-m isobath before entering the Scotia Sea through the Hesperides Gap farther to the east (49°W). Thereafter the deeper waters carried westward by this branch become undistinguishable from those circulating farther offshore. Repeat cross-slope sections at both southern and northern flanks of the South Scotia Ridge showed significant temporal variability in the characteristics

  1. Landowner behavior can determine the success of conservation strategies for ecosystem migration under sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher R; Dayer, Ashley A; Elphick, Chris S

    2017-08-22

    The human aspects of conservation are often overlooked but will be critical for identifying strategies for biological conservation in the face of climate change. We surveyed the behavioral intentions of coastal landowners with respect to various conservation strategies aimed at facilitating ecosystem migration for tidal marshes. We found that several popular strategies, including conservation easements and increasing awareness of ecosystem services, may not interest enough landowners to allow marsh migration at the spatial scales needed to mitigate losses from sea-level rise. We identified less common conservation strategies that have more support but that are unproven in practice and may be more expensive. Our results show that failure to incorporate human dimensions into ecosystem modeling and conservation planning could lead to the use of ineffective strategies and an overly optimistic view of the potential for ecosystem migration into human dominated areas.

  2. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    KAUST Repository

    Saderne, Vincent; Cusack, Michael; Almahasheer, Hanan; Serrano, Oscar; Masqué , Pere; Arias-Ortiz, Ariane; Krishnakumar, Periyadan Kadinjappalli; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Qurban, Mohammad Ali; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  3. Accumulation of Carbonates Contributes to Coastal Vegetated Ecosystems Keeping Pace With Sea Level Rise in an Arid Region (Arabian Peninsula)

    KAUST Repository

    Saderne, Vincent

    2018-04-12

    Anthropogenic sea level rise (SLR) presents one of the greatest risks to human lives and infrastructures. Coastal vegetated ecosystems, that is, tidal marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangrove forests, elevate the seabed through soil accretion, providing a natural coastline protection against SLR. The soil accretion of these ecosystems has never been assessed in hot desert climate regions, where water runoff is negligible. However, tropical marine ecosystems are areas of intense calcification that may constitute an important source of sediment supporting seabed elevation, compensating for the lack of terrestrial inputs. We estimated the long-term (C-centennial) and short-term (Pb-20th century) soil accretion rates (SARs) and inorganic carbon (C) burial in coastal vegetated ecosystems of the Saudi coasts of the central Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf. Short-term SARs (±SE) in mangroves of the Red Sea (0.27 ± 0.22 cm/year) were twofold the SLR for that region since 1925 (0.13 cm/year). In the Arabian Gulf, only mangrove forest SAR is equivalent to local SLR estimates for the period 1979-2007 (0.21 ± 0.09 compared to 0.22 ± 0.05 cm/year, respectively). Long-term SARs are comparable or higher than the global estimates of SLR for the late Holocene (0.01 cm/year). In all habitats of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf, SARs are supported by high carbonate accretion rates, comprising 40% to 60% of the soil volume. Further studies on the role of carbonates in coastal vegetated ecosystems are required to understand their role in adaptation to SLR.

  4. Advective pathways near the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula: Trends, variability and ecosystem implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Angelika H. H.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Heywood, Karen J.; Murphy, Eugene J.; Watkins, Jon L.; Meredith, Michael P.

    2012-05-01

    Pathways and rates of ocean flow near the Antarctic Peninsula are strongly affected by frontal features, forcings from the atmosphere and the cryosphere. In the surface mixed layer, the currents advect material from the northwestern Weddell Sea on the eastern side of the Peninsula around the tip of the Peninsula to its western side and into the Scotia Sea, connecting populations of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and supporting the ecosystem of the region. Modelling of subsurface drifters using a particle tracking algorithm forced by the velocity fields of a coupled sea ice-ocean model (ORCA025-LIM2) allows analysis of the seasonal and interannual variability of drifter pathways over 43 years. The results show robust and persistent connections from the Weddell Sea both to the west into the Bellingshausen Sea and across the Scotia Sea towards South Georgia, reproducing well the observations. The fate of the drifters is sensitive to their deployment location, in addition to other factors. From the shelf of the eastern Antarctic Peninsula, the majority enter the Bransfield Strait and subsequently the Bellingshausen Sea. When originating further offshore over the deeper Weddell Sea, drifters are more likely to cross the South Scotia Ridge and reach South Georgia. However, the wind field east and southeast of Elephant Island, close to the tip of the Peninsula, is crucial for the drifter trajectories and is highly influenced by the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Increased advection and short travel times to South Georgia, and reduced advection to the western Antarctic Peninsula can be linked to strong westerlies, a signature of the positive phase of the SAM. The converse is true for the negative phase. Strong westerlies and shifts of ocean fronts near the tip of the Peninsula that are potentially associated with both the SAM and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation restrict the connection from the Weddell Sea to the west, and drifters then predominantly follow the open

  5. Nova Scotia Energy Strategy : progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    Nova Scotia's energy strategy addresses all aspects of energy production and use, from offshore oil and gas to electricity and coal, to climate change and renewable resources. It also encompasses energy conservation and efficiency. This progress report highlights the efforts that the province has made to promote exploration, improve efficiency of regulations and approval processes and promote the oil and natural gas sector. Efforts have also been made to support local businesses, address climate change issues and protect the environment. The strategy demonstrates how new energy resources can be used to build a more prosperous and self-reliant province. The progress report focuses on the following 3 themes: powering the economy; improving the environment; and, securing Nova Scotia's future. The report emphasizes that the growing oil and gas industry brings many opportunities for new jobs and a stronger economy. In the next 12 to 18 months, about 8 to 10 offshore exploration wells will be drilled, which is more than in the last decade. Funding will be provided to extend pipeline systems beyond franchise areas approved by the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board. In May 2002, the Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee was formed to make recommendations on how competition can be introduced into the province's electricity market. The Department of Energy has been working to implement initiatives to increase the use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. In October 2002, new wind turbines began producing electricity in 3 communities on Cape Breton Island. A key priority is to respond to climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as emissions of mercury, sulphur, nitrogen, and ozone. The energy strategy also identifies the need to provide competitive taxation regimes.

  6. Hematology of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (2005-2007): Biomarker for an arctic ecosystem health sentinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Cassandra M.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Swor, Rhonda; Holcomb, Darce; O'Hara, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    Declines in sea-ice habitats have resulted in declining stature, productivity, and survival of polar bears in some regions. With continuing sea-ice declines, negative population effects are projected to expand throughout the polar bear's range. Precise causes of diminished polar bear life history performance are unknown, however, climate and sea-ice condition change are expected to adversely impact polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health and population dynamics. As apex predators in the Arctic, polar bears integrate the status of lower trophic levels and are therefore sentinels of ecosystem health. Arctic residents feed at the apex of the ecosystem, thus polar bears can serve as indicators of human health in the Arctic. Despite their value as indicators of ecosystem welfare, population-level health data for U.S. polar bears are lacking. We present hematological reference ranges for southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Hematological parameters in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears varied by age, geographic location, and reproductive status. Total leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and serum immunoglobulin G were significantly greater in males than females. These measures were greater in nonlactating females ages ???5, than lactating adult females ages ???5, suggesting that females encumbered by young may be less resilient to new immune system challenges that may accompany ongoing climate change. Hematological values established here provide a necessary baseline for anticipated changes in health as arctic temperatures warm and sea-ice declines accelerate. Data suggest that females with dependent young may be most vulnerable to these changes and should therefore be a targeted cohort for monitoring in this sentinel. ?? 2010 International Association for Ecology and Health.

  7. Hematology of southern Beaufort Sea polar bears (2005-2007): biomarker for an Arctic ecosystem health sentinel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Cassandra M; Amstrup, Steven; Swor, Rhonda; Holcomb, Darce; O'Hara, Todd M

    2010-09-01

    Declines in sea-ice habitats have resulted in declining stature, productivity, and survival of polar bears in some regions. With continuing sea-ice declines, negative population effects are projected to expand throughout the polar bear's range. Precise causes of diminished polar bear life history performance are unknown, however, climate and sea-ice condition change are expected to adversely impact polar bear (Ursus maritimus) health and population dynamics. As apex predators in the Arctic, polar bears integrate the status of lower trophic levels and are therefore sentinels of ecosystem health. Arctic residents feed at the apex of the ecosystem, thus polar bears can serve as indicators of human health in the Arctic. Despite their value as indicators of ecosystem welfare, population-level health data for U.S. polar bears are lacking. We present hematological reference ranges for southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Hematological parameters in southern Beaufort Sea polar bears varied by age, geographic location, and reproductive status. Total leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and serum immunoglobulin G were significantly greater in males than females. These measures were greater in nonlactating females ages ≥5, than lactating adult females ages ≥5, suggesting that females encumbered by young may be less resilient to new immune system challenges that may accompany ongoing climate change. Hematological values established here provide a necessary baseline for anticipated changes in health as arctic temperatures warm and sea-ice declines accelerate. Data suggest that females with dependent young may be most vulnerable to these changes and should therefore be a targeted cohort for monitoring in this sentinel.

  8. How will ocean acidification affect Baltic sea ecosystems? an assessment of plausible impacts on key functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenhand, Jonathan N

    2012-09-01

    Increasing partial pressure of atmospheric CO₂ is causing ocean pH to fall-a process known as 'ocean acidification'. Scenario modeling suggests that ocean acidification in the Baltic Sea may cause a ≤ 3 times increase in acidity (reduction of 0.2-0.4 pH units) by the year 2100. The responses of most Baltic Sea organisms to ocean acidification are poorly understood. Available data suggest that most species and ecologically important groups in the Baltic Sea food web (phytoplankton, zooplankton, macrozoobenthos, cod and sprat) will be robust to the expected changes in pH. These conclusions come from (mostly) single-species and single-factor studies. Determining the emergent effects of ocean acidification on the ecosystem from such studies is problematic, yet very few studies have used multiple stressors and/or multiple trophic levels. There is an urgent need for more data from Baltic Sea populations, particularly from environmentally diverse regions and from controlled mesocosm experiments. In the absence of such information it is difficult to envision the likely effects of future ocean acidification on Baltic Sea species and ecosystems.

  9. Assimilation of ocean colour to improve the simulation and understanding of the North West European shelf-sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavatta, Stefano; Brewin, Robert; Skakala, Jozef; Sursham, David; Ford, David

    2017-04-01

    Shelf-seas and coastal zones provide essential goods and services to humankind, such as fisheries, aquaculture, tourism and climate regulation. The understanding and management of these regions can be enhanced by merging ocean-colour observations and marine ecosystem simulations through data assimilation, which provides (sub)optimal estimates of key biogeochemical variables. Here we present a range of applications of ocean-colour data assimilation in the North West European shelf-sea. A reanalysis application illustrates that assimilation of error-characterized chlorophyll concentrations could provide a map of the shelf sea vulnerability to oxygen deficiency, as well as estimates of the shelf sea uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the last decade. The interannual variability of CO2 uptake and its uncertainty were related significantly to interannual fluctuations of the simulated primary production. However, the reanalysis also indicates that assimilation of total chlorophyll did not improve significantly the simulation of some other variables, e.g. nutrients. We show that the assimilation of alternative products derived from ocean colour (i.e. spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient and phytoplankton size classes) can overcome this limitation. In fact, these products can constrain a larger number of model variables, which define either the underwater light field or the structure of the lower trophic levels. Therefore, the assimilation of such ocean-colour products into marine ecosystem models is an advantageous novel approach to improve the understanding and simulation of shelf-sea environments.

  10. The drivers of sea lice management policies and how best to integrate them into a risk management strategy: An ecosystem approach to sea lice management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D; Moberg, O; Stenevik Djupevåg, E M; Kane, F; Hareide, H

    2018-06-01

    The control of sea lice infestations on cultivated Atlantic salmon is a major issue in many regions of the world. The numerous drivers which shape the priorities and objectives of the control strategies vary for different regions/jurisdictions. These range from the animal welfare and economic priorities of the producers, to the mitigation of any potential impacts on wild stocks. Veterinary ethics, environmental impacts of therapeutants, and impacts for organic certification of the produce are, amongst others, additional sets of factors which should be considered. Current best practice in both EU and international environmental law advocates a holistic ecosystem approach to assessment of impacts and risks. The issues of biosecurity and ethics, including the impacts on the stocks of species used as cleaner fish, are areas for inclusion in such a holistic ecosystem assessment. The Drivers, Pressures, State, Impacts, Responses (DPSIR) process is examined as a decision-making framework and potential applications to sea lice management are outlined. It is argued that this is required to underpin any integrated sea lice management (ISLM) strategy to balance pressures and outcomes and ensure a holistic approach to managing the issue of sea lice infestations on farmed stock on a medium to long-term basis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Delineation of marine ecosystem zones in the northern Arabian Sea during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shalin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variability of marine autotrophic abundance, expressed as chlorophyll concentration, is monitored from space and used to delineate the surface signature of marine ecosystem zones with distinct optical characteristics. An objective zoning method is presented and applied to satellite-derived Chlorophyll a (Chl a data from the northern Arabian Sea (50–75° E and 15–30° N during the winter months (November–March. Principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis (CA were used to statistically delineate the Chl a into zones with similar surface distribution patterns and temporal variability. The PCA identifies principal components of variability and the CA splits these into zones based on similar characteristics. Based on the temporal variability of the Chl a pattern within the study area, the statistical clustering revealed six distinct ecological zones. The obtained zones are related to the Longhurst provinces to evaluate how these compared to established ecological provinces. The Chl a variability within each zone was then compared with the variability of oceanic and atmospheric properties viz. mixed-layer depth (MLD, wind speed, sea-surface temperature (SST, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, nitrate and dust optical thickness (DOT as an indication of atmospheric input of iron to the ocean. The analysis showed that in all zones, peak values of Chl a coincided with low SST and deep MLD. The rate of decrease in SST and the deepening of MLD are observed to trigger the algae bloom events in the first four zones. Lagged cross-correlation analysis shows that peak Chl a follows peak MLD and SST minima. The MLD time lag is shorter than the SST lag by 8 days, indicating that the cool surface conditions might have enhanced mixing, leading to increased primary production in the study area. An analysis of monthly climatological nitrate values showed increased concentrations associated with the deepening

  12. Delineation of marine ecosystem zones in the northern Arabian Sea during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalin, Saleem; Samuelsen, Annette; Korosov, Anton; Menon, Nandini; Backeberg, Björn C.; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2018-03-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of marine autotrophic abundance, expressed as chlorophyll concentration, is monitored from space and used to delineate the surface signature of marine ecosystem zones with distinct optical characteristics. An objective zoning method is presented and applied to satellite-derived Chlorophyll a (Chl a) data from the northern Arabian Sea (50-75° E and 15-30° N) during the winter months (November-March). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to statistically delineate the Chl a into zones with similar surface distribution patterns and temporal variability. The PCA identifies principal components of variability and the CA splits these into zones based on similar characteristics. Based on the temporal variability of the Chl a pattern within the study area, the statistical clustering revealed six distinct ecological zones. The obtained zones are related to the Longhurst provinces to evaluate how these compared to established ecological provinces. The Chl a variability within each zone was then compared with the variability of oceanic and atmospheric properties viz. mixed-layer depth (MLD), wind speed, sea-surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), nitrate and dust optical thickness (DOT) as an indication of atmospheric input of iron to the ocean. The analysis showed that in all zones, peak values of Chl a coincided with low SST and deep MLD. The rate of decrease in SST and the deepening of MLD are observed to trigger the algae bloom events in the first four zones. Lagged cross-correlation analysis shows that peak Chl a follows peak MLD and SST minima. The MLD time lag is shorter than the SST lag by 8 days, indicating that the cool surface conditions might have enhanced mixing, leading to increased primary production in the study area. An analysis of monthly climatological nitrate values showed increased concentrations associated with the deepening of the mixed layer. The

  13. Recent changes in the marine ecosystems of the northern Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Michele; Djakovac, Tamara; Degobbis, Danilo; Cozzi, Stefano; Solidoro, Cosimo; Umani, Serena Fonda

    2012-12-01

    This review of studies on long term series on river discharges, oceanographic features, plankton, fish and benthic compartments, collected since the 1970s revealed significant changes of mechanisms and trophic structures in the northern Adriatic ecosystems. A gradual increase of eutrophication pressure occurred during the 1970s until the mid 1980s, followed by a reversal of the trend, particularly marked in the 2000s. This trend was ascribed to the combination of a reduction of the anthropogenic impact, mainly due to a substantial decrease of the phosphorus loads, and of climatic modifications, resulting in a decline of atmospheric precipitations and, consequently, of the runoff in the northern Adriatic Sea. Significant decreases of the phytoplankton abundances were observed after the mid 1980s, concurrently with changes in the species composition of the communities, with an evident shift toward smaller cells or organism sizes. Moreover, changes in the zooplankton community were also observed. A decrease of demersal fishes, top predators and small pelagic fishes was ascribed to both overfishing and a demise of eutrophication. Macrozoobenthic communities slowly recovered in the last two decades after the anoxia events of the 1970s and 1980s. An increasing number of non-autochthonous species has been recorded in the last decades moreover the increasing seawater temperature facilitated the spreading of thermophilic species.

  14. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  15. Long-term response in episodic acidification to declining SO42– deposition in two streams in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laudon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trends in anthropogenically driven episodic acidification associated with extended winter snow melt/rain episodes between 1983 and 1998 were investigated for two streams in Nova Scotia, Canada. The anthropogenic contribution to Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC was analysed using the Boreal Dilution Model (Bishop et al., 2000 modified by applying a sea-salt correction to all input hydrochemistry. The anthropogenic contribution to episodic ANC decline was statistically significant and strongly correlated with the decline in acid deposition, which decreased by approximately 50% during the period of record. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the BDM can be applied to surface waters with sea-salt contributions although the correction increases model uncertainty. Results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of reduced emissions in North America in the last decades in decreasing the severity of episodic acidification in the Atlantic region of Canada. Keywords: episodic acidification, acidification recovery, Nova Scotia, snowmelt, winter

  16. Migration of 90Sr in the cooling basin of the Ignalina atomic power plant and the Baltic sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dushauskiene-Duzh, R.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of a long-time radiation monitoring of the Ignalina APP and the Baltic sea ecosystems determined regularities of the 90 Sr distribution in the main components of the ecosystems (water, bottom sediments, biota). It was established that 90 Sr accumulation coefficient in the aquatic plants of the warmed up water zone of the Ignalina APP is 2.6 lower than that of the stable water suction zone. The accumulation of 90 Sr in molluscs is higher in the warmed up water zone than in the stable water zone. It was determined that the mean concentration of 90 Sr in surface water of near-shore areas of the Baltic sea are higher than that in the open Baltic. Concentration of the 90 Sr in the biota in the Baltic sea is about 300-500 times higher than in the water. The accumulation level of 90 Sr in zoobenthos varies in different species being in organs and tissues of fishes consuming actively calcium for building up their skeletons. 90 Sr levels in bottom sediments of bays are higher than those in sediments of the open sea. Accumulation of 90 Sr in muds is about 11 times higher than in sands. (author). 5 figs., 3 refs

  17. Evolution of power plant foundations in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.T.; Larade, M.; Myette, R.; MacIvor, T. [Nova Scotia Power Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many thermal steam plants in Nova Scotia, including the first 3 units Dartmouth's Tufts Cove Generating Station, were constructed on bedrock and near the sea for easy access to cooling water. Major equipment foundations such as turbine/condenser foundations, boiler feed pump foundations and fan foundations are concrete block foundations that are designed to withstand the heavy equipment and environmental loads imposed throughout the service-life of the plant. This paper discussed the rationale for choosing different types of foundations at the 5 power generating units at the Tufts Cove Generating Station. Due to the presence of boulders, pipe piles were installed in drilled holes in 1995 for the unit 2 precipitator foundation. In 2005, micro-piles were installed for unit 1 and 3 precipitators because they were relatively non-protrusive for the congested urban site that was full of buried structures and services. Similarly, for the unit 4 and 5 sound wall foundations, the high resistance capacities for both downward and uplift loads of the micro-piles embedded into the bedrock proved to be very valuable. These tall wall structures are subject to very high wind loads and were constructed at a geotechnically challenged site. Good geotechnical investigation and consultation was shown to be the basis for good design and construction of foundation works. It was concluded that the lessons learned at Tufts Cove can be applied to other similar foundation designs. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Nutrients, chlorophyll, fractional primary productivity in water column of the North Arabian Sea in support of the North Arabian Sea Environment and Ecosystem Research from 1992-1994 (NODC Accession 0000778)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Five cruises were carried out under the Pak-US cooperative project 'North Arabian Sea Environment and Ecosystem Research' (NASEER) from 1992-1994. The main objective...

  19. Phytoplankton phenology indices in coral reef ecosystems: Application to ocean-color observations in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Racault, Marie-Fanny

    2015-02-18

    Phytoplankton, at the base of the marine food web, represent a fundamental food source in coral reef ecosystems. The timing (phenology) and magnitude of the phytoplankton biomass are major determinants of trophic interactions. The Red Sea is one of the warmest and most saline basins in the world, characterized by an arid tropical climate regulated by the monsoon. These extreme conditions are particularly challenging for marine life. Phytoplankton phenological indices provide objective and quantitative metrics to characterize phytoplankton seasonality. The indices i.e. timings of initiation, peak, termination and duration are estimated here using 15 years (1997–2012) of remote sensing ocean-color data from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative project (OC-CCI) in the entire Red Sea basin. The OC-CCI product, comprising merged and bias-corrected observations from three independent ocean-color sensors (SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS), and processed using the POLYMER algorithm (MERIS period), shows a significant increase in chlorophyll data coverage, especially in the southern Red Sea during the months of summer NW monsoon. In open and reef-bound coastal waters, the performance of OC-CCI chlorophyll data is shown to be comparable with the performance of other standard chlorophyll products for the global oceans. These features have permitted us to investigate phytoplankton phenology in the entire Red Sea basin, and during both winter SE monsoon and summer NW monsoon periods. The phenological indices are estimated in the four open water provinces of the basin, and further examined at six coral reef complexes of particular socio-economic importance in the Red Sea, including Siyal Islands, Sharm El Sheikh, Al Wajh bank, Thuwal reefs, Al Lith reefs and Farasan Islands. Most of the open and deeper waters of the basin show an apparent higher chlorophyll concentration and longer duration of phytoplankton growth during the winter period (relative to the summer

  20. The ESASSI-08 cruise in the South Scotia Ridge region: Water masses, currents, and the ASF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, M.; Gomis, D.; Flexas, M. M.; Jordà, G.; Orsi, A. H.

    2009-04-01

    The ESASSI-08 oceanographic cruise carried out in January 2008 was the major milestone of ESASSI, the Spanish component of SASSI (a core project of the International Polar Year devoted to study the shelf-slope exchanges in different locations of Antarctica). The specific objectives of ESASSI, the sampling strategy and the overall distribution of the main variables across the 11 sections covered by the cruise are presented in a poster. Here we focus on three specific issues: i) the observation of strong tidal currents over some of the sampled slopes; ii) the path of the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) over the SSR; and iii) the outflow of dense, ventilated water from the Weddell Sea into the South Scotia Sea. The main results are: i) Strong tidal currents with a significant diurnal component were observed over the southern slope of the SSR. Three tidal models are compared with the observations and used to de-tide ADCP currents. ii) The signature of the ASF is clearly detected on the southern slopes of the SSR (on the Weddell Sea flank). Over the northern slopes (the Scotia Sea flank), however, only weak signatures of frontal structures are observed; an in-depth biochemical analysis will be required to link the structures observed over the two flanks of the SSR. What seems clear is that the ASF does not extend further than Elephant Island, since southwestward of that island the shelf and the slope are fully occupied by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. iii) The shallower component of Weddell Sea Deep Water (Upper WSDW) flows over the SSR and pours into the Scotia Sea except to the east of Elephant Island, where the channels are less than 1500 m deep. The densest component of WSDW (Lower WSDW) is observed at both flanks of the SSR, but again a more detailed analysis of biochemical data will be required to prove a direct flux of this water mass across the SSR. Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) is not observed in any of the sampled sections.

  1. Ocean and Coastal Acidification off New England and Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England coastal and adjacent Nova Scotia shelf waters have a reduced buffering capacity because of significant freshwater input, making the region’s waters potentially more vulnerable to coastal acidification. Nutrient loading and heavy precipitation events further acid...

  2. Methodological challenges in assessing the environmental status of a marine ecosystem: case study of the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henn Ojaveer

    Full Text Available Assessments of the environmental status of marine ecosystems are increasingly needed to inform management decisions and regulate human pressures to meet the objectives of environmental policies. This paper addresses some generic methodological challenges and related uncertainties involved in marine ecosystem assessment, using the central Baltic Sea as a case study. The objectives of good environmental status of the Baltic Sea are largely focusing on biodiversity, eutrophication and hazardous substances. In this paper, we conduct comparative evaluations of the status of these three segments, by applying different methodological approaches. Our analyses indicate that the assessment results are sensitive to a selection of indicators for ecological quality objectives that are affected by a broad spectrum of human activities and natural processes (biodiversity, less so for objectives that are influenced by a relatively narrow array of drivers (eutrophications, hazardous substances. The choice of indicator aggregation rule appeared to be of essential importance for assessment results for all three segments, whereas the hierarchical structure of indicators had only a minor influence. Trend-based assessment was shown to be a useful supplement to reference-based evaluation, being independent of the problems related to defining reference values and indicator aggregation methodologies. Results of this study will help in setting priorities for future efforts to improve environmental assessments in the Baltic Sea and elsewhere, and to ensure the transparency of the assessment procedure.

  3. Abundance and Distribution of Diagnostic Carbon Fixation Genes in a Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Gradient Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, H. N.; Kelley, D. S.; Girguis, P. R.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2010-12-01

    The walls of deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimneys sustain steep thermal and chemical gradients resulting from the mixing of hot (350°C+) hydrothermal fluids with cold, oxygenated seawater. The chemical disequilibrium generated from this process has the potential to drive numerous chemolithoautotrophic metabolisms, many of which have been demonstrated to be operative in microbial pure cultures. In addition to the well-known Calvin Cycle, at least five additional pathways have been discovered including the Reverse Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (rTCA), the Reductive Acetyl-CoA pathway, and the 3-hydroxyproprionate pathway. Most of the newly discovered pathways have been found in thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea, which are the well represented in microbial diversity studies of hydrothermal chimney walls. However, to date, little is known about the environmental controls that impact various carbon fixation pathways. The overlap of limited microbial diversity with distinct habitat conditions in hydrothermal chimney walls provides an ideal setting to explore these relationships. Hydrothermal chimney walls from multiple structures recovered from the Juan de Fuca Ridge in the northeastern Pacific were sub-sampled and analyzed using PCR-based assays. Earlier work showed elevated microbial abundances in the outer portions of mature chimney walls, with varying ratios of Archaea to Bacteria from the outer to inner portions of the chimneys. Common phylotypes identified in these regions included Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Desulfurococcales. Total genomic DNA was extracted from mineralogically distinct niches within these structures and queried for genes coding key regulatory enzymes for each of the well studied carbon fixation pathways. Preliminary results show the occurrence of genes representing rTCA cycle (aclB) and methyl coenzyme A reductase (mcrA) - a proxy for the Reductive Acetyl-CoA Pathway within interior portion of mature

  4. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  5. Development of a coupled physical-biological ecosystem model ECOSMO - Part I: Model description and validation for the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrum, Corinna; Alekseeva, I.; St. John, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A 3-D coupled biophysical model ECOSMO (ECOSystem MOdel) has been developed. The biological module of ECOSMO is based on lower trophic level interactions between two phyto- and two zooplankton components. The dynamics of the different phytoplankton components are governed by the availability...... of the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphate and silicate as well as light. Zooplankton production is simulated based on the consumption of the different phytoplankton groups and detritus. The biological module is coupled to a nonlinear 3-D baroclinic model. The physical and biological modules are driven by surface...... showed that the model, based on consideration of limiting processes, is able to reproduce the observed spatial and seasonal variability of the North Sea ecosystem e.g. the spring bloom, summer sub-surface production and the fall bloom. Distinct differences in regional characteristics of diatoms...

  6. Integrated ecosystem services assessment: Valuation of changes due to sea level rise in Galveston Bay, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoskowitz, David; Carollo, Cristina; Pollack, Jennifer Beseres; Santos, Carlota; Welder, Kathleen

    2017-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the potential changes in ecosystem service values provided by wetlands in Galveston Bay, Texas, USA, under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B max (0.69 m) sea level rise scenario. Built exclusively upon the output produced during the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model 6 (SLAMM 6) exercise for the Galveston Bay region, this study showed that fresh marsh and salt marsh present a steady decline from 2009 (initial condition) to 2100. Fresh marsh was projected to undergo the biggest changes, with the loss of approximately 21% of its extent between 2009 and 2100 under the A1B max scenario. The percentages of change for salt marsh were less prominent at approximately 12%. This trend was also shown in the values of selected ecosystem services (disturbance regulation, waste regulation, recreation, and aesthetics) provided by these habitats. An ordinary least squares regression was used to calculate the monetary value of the selected ecosystem services provided by salt marsh and fresh marsh in 2009, and in 2050 and 2100 under the A1B max scenario. The value of the selected services showed potential monetary losses in excess of US$40 million annually in 2100, compared to 2009 for fresh marsh and more than $11 million for salt marsh. The estimates provided here are only small portions of what can be lost due to the decrease in habitat extent, and they highlight the need for protecting not only built infrastructure but also natural resources from sea level rise. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:431-443. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Ecosystem structure and fishing impacts in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea using a food web model within a comparative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Xavier; Coll, Marta; Tecchio, Samuele; Bellido, José María; Fernández, Ángel Mario; Palomera, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    We developed an ecological model to characterize the structure and functioning of the marine continental shelf and slope area of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, from Toulon to Cape La Nao (NWM model), in the early 2000s. The model included previously modeled areas in the NW Mediterranean (the Gulf of Lions and the Southern Catalan Sea) and expanded their ranges, covering 45,547 km2, with depths from 0 to 1000 m. The study area was chosen to specifically account for the connectivity between the areas and shared fish stocks and fleets. Input data were based on local scientific surveys and fishing statistics, published data on stomach content analyses, and the application of empirical equations to estimate consumption and production rates. The model was composed of 54 functional groups, from primary producers to top predators, and Spanish and French fishing fleets were considered. Results were analyzed using ecological indicators and compared with outputs from ecosystem models developed in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Cadiz prior to this study. Results showed that the main trophic flows were associated with detritus, phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic invertebrates. Several high trophic level organisms (such as dolphins, benthopelagic cephalopods, large demersal fishes from the continental shelf, and other large pelagic fishes), and the herbivorous salema fish, were identified as keystone groups within the ecosystem. Results confirmed that fishing impact was high and widespread throughout the food web. The comparative approach highlighted that, despite productivity differences, the ecosystems shared common features in structure and functioning traits such as the important role of detritus, the dominance of the pelagic fraction in terms of flows and the importance of benthic-pelagic coupling.

  8. Habitat preferences among three top predators inhabiting a degraded ecosystem, the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Sánchez-Cabanes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether there is evidence of widespread niche partitioning based on environmental factors in the Black Sea and tested the hypothesis that physiographic factors may be employed as predictors. It addresses poorly researched areas with good habitat potential for the only three cetacean subspecies living in this area: the Black Sea short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis spp. ponticus, the Black Sea bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus spp. ponticus and the Black Sea harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena spp. relicta. Generalized additive models (GAMs were used to analyse data collected from multiple sources. In total, 745 sightings of the three species between 1998 and 2010 throughout the Black Sea were included. The analysis found depth and sea surface temperature to be the most important variables for separating the occurrence of the three species. Common dolphins occurred mainly in deep waters and in areas where the sea surface temperature was low, bottlenose dolphins were distributed primarily in shallower and warmer waters than common dolphins, and harbour porpoises were distributed in shallower waters with lower sea surface temperature than bottlenose dolphins. This study suggests strong niche segregation among the three cetacean species. The study is also the first contribution to the basic information of cetacean species distribution and habitat preferences in the Black Sea as a whole. Knowledge of the distribution of the three dolphin species in the study area is essential to establish conservation measures for these populations.

  9. Diving Behaviors and Habitat Use of Adult Female Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus), A Top Predator of the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, M. E.; Fadely, B.; Gelatt, T.; Sterling, J.; Johnson, D.; Haulena, M.; McDermott, S.

    2016-02-01

    Decreased natality resulting from nutritional stress is one hypothesized mechanism for declines of Steller sea lions (SSLs; Eumetopias jubatus) in western Alaska, but little is known of the winter foraging habitats or behavior of adult females. To address this critical data need, adult female Steller sea lions were chemically immobilized and tagged with Fastloc® GPS satellite transmitters during the fall at Southeast Alaska (SEAK) during 2010 (n=3), and the central and western Aleutian Islands (AI) from 2011-2014 (n=9). To identify habitat features of biological importance to these animals, location data were processed with a continuous-time correlated random walk model and kernel density estimates of predicted locations were used to compute individual-based utilization distributions. Kernel density estimates and diving behaviors (i.e. mean, maximum, and frequency of dive depths) were examined with respect to a series of static and dynamic environmental variables using linear mixed-effects models. Habitat use varied within and among individuals, but overall, all response variables were significantly related to a combination of the predictor variables season, distance to nearest SSL site, bathymetric slope, on/off shelf, sea surface temperature, sea surface height, proportion of daylight, and some interaction effects (P≤0.05). The habitat use of SSL from SEAK was consistent with previous reports and reflected the seasonal distribution of predictable forage fish, whereas SSL from the AI used a variety of marine ecosystems and habitat use was more variable, likely reflecting specific prey behaviors encountered in different areas. These results have improved our understanding of the habitat features necessary for the conservation of adult female SSL and have been useful for reviewing designated critical habitat for Steller sea lions throughout the U.S. range.

  10. Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for Nova Scotia, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in Nova Scotia. In contrast, a consumption-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production process for final goods and services that are consumed in Nova Scotia through household purchases, investment by firms and government spending. Trade flows refer to the movement of emissions that are produced in Nova Scotia but which support consumption in a different province, territory or country (and vice versa. For example, emissions at the Port of Halifax that are associated with goods that are subsequently exported to Ontario for sale are recorded as a trade flow from Nova Scotia to Ontario. Moving in the opposite direction, emissions associated with the production of motor gasoline in New Brunswick that is exported to Nova Scotia for sale are recorded as a trade flow from New Brunswick to Nova Scotia. For further details on these results in a national context, the methodology for generating them and their policy implications, please see the companion papers to this communiqué series: (1 Fellows and Dobson (2017; and (2 Dobson and Fellows (2017. Additionally, the consumption emissions and trade flow data for each of the provinces and territories are available at: http://www.policyschool.ca/embodied-emissions-inputs-outputs-datatables-2004-2011/.

  11. Regulating and Funding Midwifery in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Morrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Midwives have been working in Nova Scotia for many years, and midwifery became a government funded and regulated health profession in the province in 2009. Despite the will among many decision-makers in the province to regulate the profession since the mid 1980s, several elections and lack of a management model slowed the program’s development. Implicit goals of having midwifery services included improving the quality of maternal care and health outcomes, keeping up with other provinces, responding to public demand, and saving costs. Strong and persistent bureaucratic and public advocacy work, inter-party collaboration, and research demonstrating positive and safe maternal and newborn health outcomes under midwifery care all had a role in the decision-making process. The implementation responsibility was delegated to three health districts in the province, each being responsible for designing a program to integrate midwives into maternal health care teams. The program has thus far been evaluated in an ad hoc manner with external teams performing comprehensive assessments, though the need for a cost-benefit analysis as well as more systematic assessments has been identified. Though many opportunities exist with midwifery in the province, including a continued high demand for the service, and research demonstrating positive outcomes for mothers and babies, significant challenges and threats remain to be addressed to ensure long-term sustainability of the program.

  12. Land and Sea: Linking Ecosystem Services with Local Concerns in Guanica Bay Watershed, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Coral Reef Task Force—comprised of leaders from EPA and 11 other federal agencies along with select States, Territories, and Commonwealths—was established in 1998 to stem loses and preserve and protect coral reef ecosystems.

  13. Potential contribution of surface-dwelling Sargassum algae to deep-sea ecosystems in the southern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip; Minzlaff, Ulrike; Schoenle, Alexandra; Schwabe, Enrico; Hohlfeld, Manon; Jeuck, Alexandra; Brenke, Nils; Prausse, Dennis; Rothenbeck, Marcel; Brix, Saskia; Frutos, Inmaculada; Jörger, Katharina M.; Neusser, Timea P.; Koppelmann, Rolf; Devey, Colin; Brandt, Angelika; Arndt, Hartmut

    2018-02-01

    Deep-sea ecosystems, limited by their inability to use primary production as a source of carbon, rely on other sources to maintain life. Sedimentation of organic carbon into the deep sea has been previously studied, however, the high biomass of sedimented Sargassum algae discovered during the VEMA Transit expedition in 2014/2015 to the southern North Atlantic, and its potential as a regular carbon input, has been an underestimated phenomenon. To determine the potential for this carbon flux, a literature survey of previous studies that estimated the abundance of surface water Sargassum was conducted. We compared these estimates with quantitative analyses of sedimented Sargassum appearing on photos taken with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) directly above the abyssal sediment during the expedition. Organismal communities associated to Sargassum fluitans from surface waters were investigated and Sargassum samples collected from surface waters and the deep sea were biochemically analyzed (fatty acids, stable isotopes, C:N ratios) to determine degradation potential and the trophic significance within deep-sea communities. The estimated Sargassum biomass (fresh weight) in the deep sea (0.07-3.75 g/m2) was several times higher than that estimated from surface waters in the North Atlantic (0.024-0.84 g/m2). Biochemical analysis showed degradation of Sargassum occurring during sedimentation or in the deep sea, however, fatty acid and stable isotope analysis did not indicate direct trophic interactions between the algae and benthic organisms. Thus, it is assumed that components of the deep-sea microbial food web form an important link between the macroalgae and larger benthic organisms. Evaluation of the epifauna showed a diverse nano- micro-, meio, and macrofauna on surface Sargassum and maybe transported across the Atlantic, but we had no evidence for a vertical exchange of fauna components. The large-scale sedimentation of Sargassum forms an important trophic link

  14. Contrasting Patterns of Phytoplankton Assemblages in Two Coastal Ecosystems in Relation to Environmental Factors (Corsica, NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Garrido

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Corsica Island is a sub-basin of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, with hydrological features typical of both oligotrophic systems and eutrophic coastal zones. Phytoplankton assemblages in two coastal ecosystems of Corsica (the deep Bay of Calvi and the shallow littoral of Bastia show contrasting patterns over a one-year cycle. In order to determine what drives these variations, seasonal changes in littoral phytoplankton are considered together with environmental parameters. Our methodology combined a survey of the physico-chemical structure of the subsurface water with a characterization of the phytoplankton community structure. Sampling provided a detailed record of the seasonal changes and successions that occur in these two areas. Results showed that the two sampled stations presented different phytoplankton abundance and distribution patterns, notably during the winter–spring bloom period. Successions in pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton communities appeared mainly driven by differences in the ability to acquire nutrients, and in community-specific growth rates. Phytoplankton structure and dynamics are discussed in relation to available data on the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. These results confirm that integrated monitoring of coastal areas is a requisite for gaining a proper understanding of marine ecosystems.

  15. Ecosystem services sustainability in the Mediterranean Sea: assessment of status and trends using multiple modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquete, Camino; Piroddi, Chiara; Macías, Diego; Druon, Jean-Noël; Zulian, Grazia

    2016-09-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems support important processes and functions that bring direct benefits to human society. Yet, marine ecosystem services are usually overlooked due to the challenges in identifying and quantifying them. This paper proposes the application of several biophysical and ecosystem modelling approaches to assess spatially and temporally the sustainable use and supply of selected marine ecosystem services. Such services include food provision, water purification, coastal protection, lifecycle maintenance and recreation, focusing on the Mediterranean region. Overall, our study found a higher number of decreasing than increasing trends in the natural capacity of the ecosystems to provide marine and coastal services, while in contrast the opposite was observed to be true for the realised flow of services to humans. Such a study paves the way towards an effective support for Blue Growth and the European maritime policies, although little attention is paid to the quantification of marine ecosystem services in this context. We identify a key challenge of integrating biophysical and socio-economic models as a necessary step to further this research.

  16. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida's Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geselbracht, Laura L; Freeman, Kathleen; Birch, Anne P; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida's Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway.

  17. Modelling Pseudocalanus elongatus stage-structured population dynamics embedded in a water column ecosystem model for the northern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Andreas; Stegert, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines an approach to couple a structured zooplankton population model with state variables for eggs, nauplii, two copepodites stages and adults adapted to Pseudocalanus elongatus into the complex marine ecosystem model ECOHAM2 with 13 state variables resolving the carbon and nitrogen cycle. Different temperature and food scenarios derived from laboratory culture studies were examined to improve the process parameterisation for copepod stage dependent development processes. To study annual cycles under realistic weather and hydrographic conditions, the coupled ecosystem-zooplankton model is applied to a water column in the northern North Sea. The main ecosystem state variables were validated against observed monthly mean values. Then vertical profiles of selected state variables were compared to the physical forcing to study differences between zooplankton as one biomass state variable or partitioned into five population state variables. Simulated generation times are more affected by temperature than food conditions except during the spring phytoplankton bloom. Up to six generations within the annual cycle can be discerned in the simulation.

  18. Ichthyophonus irregularis sp. nov. from the yellowtail flounder Limanda ferruginea from the Nova Scotia shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, T G; White, K; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R; Murphy, C A; Ragan, M A

    2000-05-25

    A previously described unusual form of the protistan parasite Ichthyophonus, differing in morphological and developmental features from I. hoferi sensu Plehn & Mulsow, was recovered from yellowtail flounder Limanda ferruginea Storer from the Brown's Bank area of the Nova Scotia shelf. The nuclear gene encoding the rRNA of the small ribosomal subunit was amplified from this unusual form of Ichthyophonus using the polymerase chain reaction, sequenced and aligned with other eukaryote small subunit (ssu)-rDNAs. Inferred phylogenetic trees clearly show that its ssu-rDNA is distinct from those of 2 isolates of I. hoferi sensu Plehn & Mulsow from different hosts and geographical locations (herring in the North Sea, and yellowtail flounder from the Nova Scotia shelf). We consider the unusual form to be a separate species, I. irregularis. The occurrence of a second, distinct type of Ichthyophonus within a single host species raises the possibility that ichthyophoniasis could be produced by different (although related) pathogens, and in some cases, by concurrent infections of the two.

  19. The geographic accessibility of pharmacies in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael R; Heard, Deborah; Fisher, Judith; Douillard, Jay; Muzika, Greg; Sketris, Ingrid S

    2013-01-01

    Geographic proximity is an important component of access to primary care and the pharmaceutical services of community pharmacies. Variations in access to primary care have been found between rural and urban areas in Canadian and international jurisdictions. We studied access to community pharmacies in the province of Nova Scotia. We used information on the locations of 297 community pharmacies operating in Nova Scotia in June 2011. Population estimates at the census block level and network analysis were used to study the number of Nova Scotia residents living within 800 m (walking) and 2 km and 5 km (driving) distances of a pharmacy. We then simulated the impact of pharmacy closures on geographic access in urban and rural areas. We found that 40.3% of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking distance of a pharmacy; 62.6% and 78.8% lived within 2 km and 5 km, respectively. Differences between urban and rural areas were pronounced: 99.2% of urban residents lived within 5 km of a pharmacy compared with 53.3% of rural residents. Simulated pharmacy closures had a greater impact on geographic access to community pharmacies in rural areas than urban areas. The majority of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking or short driving distance of at least 1 community pharmacy. While overall geographic access appears to be lower than in the province of Ontario, the difference appears to be largely driven by the higher proportion of rural dwellers in Nova Scotia. Further studies should examine how geographic proximity to pharmacies influences patients' access to traditional and specialized pharmacy services, as well as health outcomes and adherence to therapy. Can Pharm J 2013;146:39-46.

  20. Major changes in the ecology of the Wadden Sea: human impacts, ecosystem engineering and sediment dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, B.K.; van der Heide, T.; Van de Koppel, J.; Piersma, T.; Van der Veer, H.W.; Olff, H.

    2010-01-01

    Shallow soft-sediment systems are mostly dominated by species that, by strongly affecting sediment dynamics, modify their local environment. Such ecosystem engineering species can have either sediment-stabilizing or sediment-destabilizing effects on tidal flats. They interplay with abiotic forcing

  1. Assessment of Marine Litter in the Barents Sea, a Part of the Joint Norwegian–Russian Ecosystem Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn E. Grøsvik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a large-scale monitoring of marine litter performed in the joint Norwegian–Russian ecosystem monitoring surveys in the period from 2010 to 2016 and contribute to documentation of the extent of marine litter in the Barents Sea. The distribution and abundance of marine litter were calculated by recordings of bycatch from the pelagic trawling in upper 60 m, from bottom trawling close to the sea floor, and floating marine debris at surface by visual observations. The study is comprehensive regarding coverage and number with registrations from 2,265 pelagic trawls and 1,860 bottom trawls, in addition to surface registration between the stations. Marine litter has been recorded from 301 pelagic and 624 of the bottom trawl catches. In total, 784 visual observations of floating marine debris were recorded during the period. Marine litter has been categorized according to volume or weight of the material types plastic, wood, metal, rubber, glass, paper, and textile. Marine litter is observed in the entire Barents Sea and distribution vary with material densities, ocean currents and depth. Plastic dominated number of observations with marine litter, as 72% of surface observations, 94% of pelagic trawls, and 86% of bottom trawls contained plastic. Observations of wood constituted 19% of surface observations, 1% of pelagic trawls, and 17% of bottom trawls with marine litter. Materials from other categories such as metal, rubber, paper, textile, and glass were observed sporadically. Recordings of wood dominated surface observations (61.9 ± 21.6% by volume and on seafloor (59.4 ± 35.0% by weight, while plastic dominated marine litter observations in upper 60 m depth (86.4 ± 16.5% by weight over these 7 years. Based on recordings and volume or area covered, mean levels of plastic in the upper 60 m of the Barents Sea were found to 0.011 mg m−3 (pelagic and 2.9 kg km−2 at sea floor over the study period. Average levels of marine

  2. Food-web and ecosystem structure of the open-ocean and deep-sea environments of the Azores, NE Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Morato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive intends to adopt ecosystem-based management for resources, biodiversity and habitats that puts emphasis on maintaining the health of the ecosystem alongside appropriate human use of the marine environment, for the benefit of current and future generations. Within the overall framework of ecosystem-based management, ecosystem models are tools to evaluate and gain insights in ecosystem properties. The low data availability and complexity of modelling deep-water ecosystems has limited the application of ecosystem models to few deep-water ecosystems. Here, we aim to develop an ecosystem model for the deep-sea and open ocean in the Azores exclusive economic zone with the overarching objective of characterising the food-web and ecosystem structure of the ecosystem. An ecosystem model with 45 functional groups, including a detritus group, two primary producer groups, eight invertebrate groups, 29 fish groups, three marine mammal groups, a turtle and a seabird group was built. Overall data quality measured by the pedigree index was estimated to be higher than the mean value of all published models. Therefore, the model was built with source data of an overall reasonable quality, especially considering the normally low data availability for deep-sea ecosystems. The total biomass (excluding detritus of the modelled ecosystem for the whole area was calculated as 24.7 t km-². The mean trophic level for the total marine catch of the Azores was estimated to be 3.95, similar to the trophic level of the bathypelagic and medium-size pelagic fish. Trophic levels for the different functional groups were estimated to be similar to those obtained with stable isotopes and stomach contents analyses, with some exceptions on both ends of the trophic spectra. Omnivory indices were in general low, indicating prey speciation for the majority of the groups. Cephalopods, pelagic sharks and toothed whales were identified as groups with

  3. Modeling food web interactions in benthic deep-sea ecosystems. A practical guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.E.R.; Van Oevelen, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Deep-sea benthic systems are notoriously difficult to sample. Even more than for other benthic systems, many flows among biological groups cannot be directly measured, and data sets remain incomplete and uncertain. In such cases, mathematical models are often used to quantify unmeasured biological

  4. Speciation and bioavailability of plutonium and americium in the Irish Sea and other marine ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives i Batlle, J.

    1993-12-01

    Since the late 1960s, the Irish Sea has become a repository for a variety of radio-elements originating mainly in discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels (BNF) plc. Sellafield reprocessing complex located on the Cumbrian coast. In particular, transuranium nuclides such as plutonium, americium and curium (the main constituents of the α-emitting discharges) have become incorporated into every marine compartment by a variety of mechanisms, many of which are not well understood. Although extensive studies have been carried out in the near-field (eastern Irish Sea, especially in the vicinity of the discharge point and collateral muddy sediments), comparatively little had been done to assess the long-term behaviour and bioavailability of plutonium and americium in the far-field, e.g., the western Irish Sea, prior to the present study. In this dissertation, the results of an extensive research programme, undertaken in order to improve and refine our understanding of the behaviour of plutonium and americium in the marine environment, are presented. Specifically, the thesis details the results of (and conclusions deduced from) a series of experiments in which the physical and chemical speciation, colloidal association, mobility and bioavailability of plutonium and americium were examined in diverse environments including the Irish Sea and the Mediterranean. (author)

  5. Global change in marine ecosystems: implications for semi-enclosed Arabian seas

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    -enclosed Arabian Seas to Global Change vectors is largely unknown, but predictions based on first principles suggest that they may be at or near the tipping point for many pressures, such as warming and hypoxia. There is an urgent need to implement international

  6. A comparison of the physics of the northern and southern shelves of the eastern Bering Sea and some implications for the ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Kachel, Nancy B.; Moore, Sue; Mordy, Calvin W.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Overland, James E.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Sigler, Michael F.

    2012-06-01

    Sufficient oceanographic measurements have been made in recent years to describe the latitudinal variation in the physics of the eastern Bering Sea shelf and the potential impact of climate change on the species assemblages in the two ecosystems (north and south). Many of the predicted ecosystem changes will result from alterations in the timing and extent of sea ice. It is predicted that the sea ice in the northern Bering Sea will be less common in May, but will continue to be extensive through April. In contrast, the southern shelf will have, on average, much less sea ice than currently observed, but with large interannual and multiyear variability until at least 2050. Thus, even under current climate warming scenarios, bottom temperatures on the northern shelf will remain cold. Based on biophysical measurements, the southern and northern ecosystems were divided by a North-South Transition at ˜60°N. The northern middle shelf was characterized by a freshwater lens at the surface, cold bottom temperatures, and a thicker pycnocline than found on the southern shelf. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms were common. In contrast, the southern shelf stratification was largely determined by temperature alone; the pycnocline was thin (oftenstomias, respectively) are unlikely to become common in the north. The projected warming of the southern shelf will limit the distribution of arctic species (e.g., snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio) to the northern shelf and will likely permit expansion of subarctic species into the southern Bering Sea. The distribution and abundance of baleen whales will respond to shifts in prey availability; for instance, if prey are advected northward from the southeastern Bering Sea, an extension of range and an increase in seasonally migratory baleen whale numbers is anticipated. Thus, alteration of this ecosystem in response to climate change is expected to result in something other than a simple northward shift in the distribution of all species.

  7. Modelling the effects of climate change, species interactions and fisheries - towards Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin

    aim of this thesis is to develop a decision-support tool fit for achieving EBFM in the Central Baltic Sea, an ecosystem heavily impacted by overfishing and climate change. To that end, a theoretical approach for modelling multispecies population dynamics was combined with advanced statistical methods...

  8. Modelling the effects of climate change, species interactions and fisheries – towards Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the Central Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin

    aim of this thesis is to develop a decision-support tool fit for achieving EBFM in the Central Baltic Sea, an ecosystem heavily impacted by overfishing and climate change. To that end, a theoretical approach for modelling multispecies population dynamics was combined with advanced statistical methods...

  9. Microbial production and consumption of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in a sea grass (Zostera noltii)-dominated marine intertidal sediment ecosystem (Bassin d'Arcachon, France)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, HM; van Bergeijk, SA; van Gemerden, H

    The relation between net dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production and changes in near surface (0-5 mm) oxygen concentrations in a sea grass (Zostera noltii Hornem)-covered intertidal sediment ecosystem was examined during a diel cycle. Sediment covered with Zostera was found to be more oxygenated than

  10. Multi-Annual Climate Predictions for Fisheries: An Assessment of Skill of Sea Surface Temperature Forecasts for Large Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Tommasi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decisions made by fishers and fisheries managers are informed by climate and fisheries observations that now often span more than 50 years. Multi-annual climate forecasts could further inform such decisions if they were skillful in predicting future conditions relative to the 50-year scope of past variability. We demonstrate that an existing multi-annual prediction system skillfully forecasts the probability of next year, the next 1–3 years, and the next 1–10 years being warmer or cooler than the 50-year average at the surface in coastal ecosystems. Probabilistic forecasts of upper and lower seas surface temperature (SST terciles over the next 3 or 10 years from the GFDL CM 2.1 10-member ensemble global prediction system showed significant improvements in skill over the use of a 50-year climatology for most Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs in the North Atlantic, the western Pacific, and Indian oceans. Through a comparison of the forecast skill of initialized and uninitialized hindcasts, we demonstrate that this skill is largely due to the predictable signature of radiative forcing changes over the 50-year timescale rather than prediction of evolving modes of climate variability. North Atlantic LMEs stood out as the only coastal regions where initialization significantly contributed to SST prediction skill at the 1 to 10 year scale.

  11. An evaluation of surface micro- and mesoplastic pollution in pelagic ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Florian; Saini, Camille; Potter, Gaël; Galgani, François; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Hagmann, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the distribution, abundance and characteristics of surface micro- and mesoplastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea. 41 samples were collected in 2011 (summer) and 2012 (summer). Results, firstly, revealed that micro- (micro- and mesoplastic concentrations was identified. Secondly, a classification based on the shape and appearance of microplastics indicated the predominant presence of fragments (73%) followed by thin films (14%). Thirdly, the average mass ratio of microplastic to dry organic matter has been measured at 0.5, revealing a significant presence of microplastics in comparison to plankton. Finally, a correction method was applied in order to correct wind mixing effect on microplastics' vertical distribution. This data allows for a comprehensive view, for the first time, of the spatial distribution and nature of plastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

  12. Influence of macroalgal diversity on accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, Alexander; Nonova, Tzvetana

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclides and heavy metals were studied in green, brown and red Black Sea macroalgae by low-level gamma spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast from 1996 to 2004. The levels have been depending on algae species, locations and year of sampling. The highest 137 Cs levels were found in red Ceramium rubrum species from all studied locations, while 226 Ra and 210 Pb were up to three orders of magnitude higher in Bryopsis plumosa. The data showed that the red algae species (Rhodophyta) accumulate more heavy metals than the other phyla (except for Fe whose values were higher in green algae). The data confirmed that algae are valuable indicators of the environmental contamination. The observed elevated levels were mainly due to Danube, Dnieper and Dnester inputs in the NW corner of the Black Sea

  13. Influence of macroalgal diversity on accumulation of radionuclides and heavy metals in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strezov, Alexander [Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Radiopharmacy, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Blvd. Tzarigradsko shosse 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: strezov@inrne.bas.bg; Nonova, Tzvetana [Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Radiopharmacy, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Blvd. Tzarigradsko shosse 72, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-02-15

    Radionuclides and heavy metals were studied in green, brown and red Black Sea macroalgae by low-level gamma spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast from 1996 to 2004. The levels have been depending on algae species, locations and year of sampling. The highest {sup 137}Cs levels were found in red Ceramium rubrum species from all studied locations, while {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb were up to three orders of magnitude higher in Bryopsis plumosa. The data showed that the red algae species (Rhodophyta) accumulate more heavy metals than the other phyla (except for Fe whose values were higher in green algae). The data confirmed that algae are valuable indicators of the environmental contamination. The observed elevated levels were mainly due to Danube, Dnieper and Dnester inputs in the NW corner of the Black Sea.

  14. Nova Scotia's new gas distribution regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIsaac, J.B. [Cox Hanson O' Reilly Matheson, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The most recent amendments to Nova Scotia's gas distribution regime were described in detail. The amended legislation includes: (1) elimination of mandatory service targets, (2) franchise terms of 25 years, (3) a 10 year prohibition on industrial by-pass, (4) gas sales licenses are now required to market gas in Nova Scotia, (5) distributors can offer bundled services, (6) the elimination of province wide uniform tolls for low volume customers, (7) public utilities are permitted to apply for a distribution franchise and to market natural gas, (8) ex-party filing of interim rates, (9) the Pipeline Act applies to the construction of gas distribution systems, (10) socio-economic studies are required for parties seeking a single-end user franchise outside a franchise area, and (11) regulations for underground gas storage have been removed from the legislation. It was noted that these significant changes to the statutory framework of Nova Scotia's delivery of natural gas are sending encouraging signals to parties considering investing in the distribution network in the province. It was also noted, that as in any industry, success of natural gas distribution in Nova Scotia will depend on economics and not on structural changes. 66 refs.

  15. Distribution and abundance of phytobenthic communities: Implications for connectivity and ecosystem functioning in a Black Sea Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berov, Dimitar; Todorova, Valentina; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Rinde, Eli; Karamfilov, Ventzislav

    2018-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of macroalgal communities in a Marine Protected Area (MPA) along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast were mapped and quantified, with particular focus on the previously unstudied P. crispa lower-infralittoral communities on Ostrea edulis biogenic reefs. Data from high resolution geophysical substrate mapping were combined with benthic community observations from georeferenced benthic photographic surveys and sampling. Multivariate analysis identified four distinct assemblages of lower-infralittoral macroalgal communities at depths between 10 and 17 m, dominated by Phyllophora crispa, Apoglossum ruscifoluim, Zanardinia typus and Gelidium spp. Maxent software analysis showed distinct preferences of the identified communities to areas with specific ranges of depth, inclination and curvature, with P. crispa more frequently occurring on vertical oyster biogenic reef structures. By combining production rates from literature, biomass measurements and the produced habitat maps, the highest proportion of primary production and DOC release was shown for the upper infralittoral Cystoseira barbata and Cystoseira bosphorica, followed by the production of the lower-infralittoral macroalgae. The observed distribution of P. crispa within the studied MPA was related to the network of Natura 2000 maritime MPAs along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast, which indicated that the connectivity of the populations of the species within the established network is insufficient within this cell of ecosystem functioning.

  16. The presence of the Indo-Pacific symbiont-bearing foraminifer Amphistegina lobifera in Greek coastal ecosystems (Aegean Sea, Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. TRIANTAPHYLLOU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, hundreds of species of Indo-Pacific origin from the Red Sea have traversed the Suez Canal and settled in the Eastern Mediterranean. Nowadays, Amphistegina lobifera Larsen, is known to be a successful immigrant that is widely distributed in the coastal ecosystems of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Amphistegina is the most common epiphytic, symbiont- bearing large foraminifer. In this study we provide additional data on the presence of this species in the coastal ecosystems of Aegean Sea, Greece. The high relative abundance of A. lobifera is the result of very successful adaptation of this species to local conditions and suggests that it has become a significant part of the epiphytic foraminiferal fauna.

  17. Are deep-sea ecosystems surrounding Madagascar threatened by land-use or climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanier, Christophe; Mamo, Briony; Toucanne, Samuel; Bayon, Germain; Schmidt, Sabine; Deflandre, Bruno; Dennielou, Bernard; Jouet, Gwenael; Garnier, Eline; Sakai, Saburo; Lamas, Ruth Martinez; Duros, Pauline; Toyofuku, Takashi; Salé, Aurélien; Belleney, Déborah; Bichon, Sabrina; Boissier, Audrey; Chéron, Sandrine; Pitel, Mathilde; Roubi, Angélique; Rovere, Mickaël; Grémare, Antoine; Dupré, Stéphanie; Jorry, Stéphan J.

    2018-01-01

    In this short communication, we present a multidisciplinary study of sedimentary records collected from a deep-sea interfluve proximal to the mouths of major northwestern Madagascan rivers. For the last 60 years, the seafloor has been repeatedly disturbed by the deposition of organic rich, tropical, terrestrial sediments causing marked reductions in benthic biodiversity. Increased soil erosion due to local land-use, deforestation and intensifying tropical cyclones are potential causes for this sedimentary budget and biodiversity shift. Our marine sedimentary records indicate that until now, these conditions have not occurred within the region for at least 20,000 years.

  18. Potential impact of predicted sea level rise on carbon sink function of mangrove ecosystems with special reference to Negombo estuary, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, K. A. R. S.; De Silva, K. H. W. L.; Amarasinghe, M. D.

    2018-02-01

    Unique location in the land-sea interface makes mangrove ecosystems most vulnerable to the impacts of predicted sea level rise due to increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Among others, carbon sink function of these tropical ecosystems that contribute to reduce rising atmospheric CO2 and temperature, could potentially be affected most. Present study was undertaken to explore the extent of impact of the predicted sea level rise for the region on total organic carbon (TOC) pools of the mangrove ecosystems in Negombo estuary located on the west coast of Sri Lanka. Extents of the coastal inundations under minimum (0.09 m) and maximum (0.88 m) sea level rise scenarios of IPCC for 2100 and an intermediate level of 0.48 m were determined with GIS tools. Estimated total capacity of organic carbon retention by these mangrove areas was 499.45 Mg C ha- 1 of which 84% (418.98 Mg C ha- 1) sequestered in the mangrove soil and 16% (80.56 Mg C ha- 1) in the vegetation. Total extent of land area potentially affected by inundation under lowest sea level rise scenario was 218.9 ha, while it was 476.2 ha under intermediate rise and 696.0 ha with the predicted maximum sea level rise. Estimated rate of loss of carbon sink function due to inundation by the sea level rise of 0.09 m is 6.30 Mg C ha- 1 y- 1 while the intermediate sea level rise indicated a loss of 9.92 Mg C ha- 1 y- 1 and under maximum sea level rise scenario, this loss further increases up to 11.32 Mg C ha- 1 y- 1. Adaptation of mangrove plants to withstand inundation and landward migration along with escalated photosynthetic rates, augmented by changing rainfall patterns and availability of nutrients may contribute to reduce the rate of loss of carbon sink function of these mangrove ecosystems. Predictions over change in carbon sequestration function of mangroves in Negombo estuary reveals that it is not only affected by oceanographic and hydrological alterations associated with sea level rise but also by anthropogenic

  19. Bioprospecting Red Sea Coastal Ecosystems for Culturable Microorganisms and Their Antimicrobial Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amoudi, Soha; Essack, Magbubah; Simões, Marta F; Bougouffa, Salim; Soloviev, Irina; Archer, John A C; Lafi, Feras F; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2016-09-10

    Microorganisms that inhabit unchartered unique soil such as in the highly saline and hot Red Sea lagoons on the Saudi Arabian coastline, represent untapped sources of potentially new bioactive compounds. In this study, a culture-dependent approach was applied to three types of sediments: mangrove mud (MN), microbial mat (MM), and barren soil (BS), collected from Rabigh harbor lagoon (RHL) and Al-Kharrar lagoon (AKL). The isolated bacteria were evaluated for their potential to produce bioactive compounds. The phylogenetic characterization of 251 bacterial isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, supported their assignment to five different phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. Fifteen putative novel species were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other strain sequences in the NCBI database, being ≤98%. We demonstrate that 49 of the 251 isolates exhibit the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds. Additionally, at least one type of biosynthetic gene sequence, responsible for the synthesis of secondary metabolites, was recovered from 25 of the 49 isolates. Moreover, 10 of the isolates had a growth inhibition effect towards Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas syringae. We report the previously unknown antimicrobial activity of B. borstelensis, P. dendritiformis and M. salipaludis against all three indicator pathogens. Our study demonstrates the evidence of diverse cultured microbes associated with the Red Sea harbor/lagoon environments and their potential to produce antimicrobial compounds.

  20. Bioprospecting Red Sea Coastal Ecosystems for Culturable Microorganisms and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    KAUST Repository

    Al Amoudi, Soha; Essack, Magbubah; Simoes, Marta; Bougouffa, Salim; Soloviev, Irina; Archer, John A.C.; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms that inhabit unchartered unique soil such as in the highly saline and hot Red Sea lagoons on the Saudi Arabian coastline, represent untapped sources of potentially new bioactive compounds. In this study, a culture-dependent approach was applied to three types of sediments: mangrove mud (MN), microbial mat (MM), and barren soil (BS), collected from Rabigh harbor lagoon (RHL) and Al-Kharrar lagoon (AKL). The isolated bacteria were evaluated for their potential to produce bioactive compounds. The phylogenetic characterization of 251 bacterial isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, supported their assignment to five different phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. Fifteen putative novel species were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other strain sequences in the NCBI database, being ≤98%. We demonstrate that 49 of the 251 isolates exhibit the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds. Additionally, at least one type of biosynthetic gene sequence, responsible for the synthesis of secondary metabolites, was recovered from 25 of the 49 isolates. Moreover, 10 of the isolates had a growth inhibition effect towards Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas syringae. We report the previously unknown antimicrobial activity of B. borstelensis, P. dendritiformis and M. salipaludis against all three indicator pathogens. Our study demonstrates the evidence of diverse cultured microbes associated with the Red Sea harbor/lagoon environments and their potential to produce antimicrobial compounds.

  1. Bioprospecting Red Sea Coastal Ecosystems for Culturable Microorganisms and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    KAUST Repository

    Al Amoudi, Soha

    2016-09-10

    Microorganisms that inhabit unchartered unique soil such as in the highly saline and hot Red Sea lagoons on the Saudi Arabian coastline, represent untapped sources of potentially new bioactive compounds. In this study, a culture-dependent approach was applied to three types of sediments: mangrove mud (MN), microbial mat (MM), and barren soil (BS), collected from Rabigh harbor lagoon (RHL) and Al-Kharrar lagoon (AKL). The isolated bacteria were evaluated for their potential to produce bioactive compounds. The phylogenetic characterization of 251 bacterial isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, supported their assignment to five different phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Planctomycetes. Fifteen putative novel species were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other strain sequences in the NCBI database, being ≤98%. We demonstrate that 49 of the 251 isolates exhibit the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds. Additionally, at least one type of biosynthetic gene sequence, responsible for the synthesis of secondary metabolites, was recovered from 25 of the 49 isolates. Moreover, 10 of the isolates had a growth inhibition effect towards Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas syringae. We report the previously unknown antimicrobial activity of B. borstelensis, P. dendritiformis and M. salipaludis against all three indicator pathogens. Our study demonstrates the evidence of diverse cultured microbes associated with the Red Sea harbor/lagoon environments and their potential to produce antimicrobial compounds.

  2. Influence of macroalgae diversity on radionuclide and heavy metal accumulation in Bulgarian Black Sea ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonova, Tz.; Strezov, A.; Ivanov, D.; Stankov, D.

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclides and toxic metals in Black Sea green, brown and red macroalgae were investigated using Low-level Gamma Spectroscopy and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry AAS (FAAS, ETAAS). All algae samples were collected along the whole Bulgarian coast during the period 1996 - 2004. The obtained data show that radionuclide and metal concentrations depend on the macrophytes type and are higher in red Ceramium species. Tendencies in the concentration pollutants variations during the studied period are examined and all data give information about different macrophytic species ability to accumulate certain elements from one and the same sampling location The possibilities to use Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta algae phylums as bioindicators in marine environment are investigated. All obtained results show that use of macroalgae reduces the need of complex studies on chemical speciation of aquatic contaminants and makes algae valuable indicators for the seawater quality assessment. Higher levels are obtained at the northern part of the Black Sea due to seawater current circulation, originating from Danube, Dnyeper and Dnester river outflow and also at the southern part of the coast. All data show that there is no serious contamination along the Bulgarian coast

  3. Lessons from Suiyo Seamount studies, for understanding extreme (ancient?) microbial ecosystems in the deep-sea hydrothermal fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, A.; Higashi, Y.; Sunamura, M.; Urabe, T.

    2004-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystems are driven with various geo-thermally modified, mainly reduced, compounds delivered from extremely hot subsurface environments. To date, several unique microbes including thermophilic archaeons have been isolated from/around vent chimneys. However, there is little information about microbes in over-vent and sub-vent fields. Here, we report several new findings on microbial diversity and ecology of the Suiyo Seamount that locates on the Izu-Bonin Arc in the northwest Pacific Ocean, as a result of the Japanese Archaean Park project, with special concern to the sub-vent biosphere. At first, we succeeded to reveal a very unique microbial ecosystem in hydrothermal plume reserved within the outer rim of the seamount crater, that is, it consisted of almost all metabolically active microbes belonged to only two Bacteria phylotypes, probably of sulfur oxidizers. In the center of the caldera seafloor (ca. 1,388-m deep) consisted mainly of whitish sands and pumices, we found many small chimneys (ca. 5-10 cm) and bivalve colonies distributed looking like gray to black patches. These geo/ecological features of the seafloor were supposed to be from a complex mixing of hydrothermal venting and strong water current near the seafloor. Through quantitative FISH analysis for various environmental samples, one of the two representative groups in the plume was assessed to be from some of the bivalve colonies. Using the Benthic Multi-coring System (BMS), total 10 points were drilled and 6 boreholes were maintained with stainless or titanium casing pipes. In the following submersible surveys, newly developed catheter- and column-type in situ growth chambers were deployed in and on the boreholes, respectively, for collecting indigenous sub-vent microbes. Finally, we succeeded to detect several new phylotypes of microbes in these chamber samples, e.g., within epsilon-Proteobacteria, a photosynthetic group of alpha-Proteobacteria, and hyperthermophile

  4. Fishing strategies and the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos D. Maravelias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of aquatic living resources is the cornerstone of the ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAF. Excess fishing effort leading to the degradation of fishery resources and significant economic waste is globally recognized by resource managers as a major problem for the implementation of the EAF and European’s Union Common Fisheries Policy (CFP. Knowledge of how fishers allocate their fishing effort in space and time is essential to understand how a fishery develops. Understanding fishing strategies is also vital for predicting how a fishery might respond to proposed management changes such as effort/area restrictions and introduction of a marine protected area, and for drawing up a management policy. Random utility models were used to examine the factors affecting fishers’ behaviour in the NE Mediterranean. The probability of selecting a specific fishing rectangle was estimated using monthly purse seine data. The predictive inputs concerned both subjective behavioural and objective seasonal and technical-economic characteristics. The present study provided direct evidence of the important role that the strategic decision-making behaviour of fishers could play in understanding the way the industry will respond to changes in resource availability, market conditions and management measures under the EAF principle.

  5. Multivariate benthic ecosystem functioning in the Arctic – benthic fluxes explained by environmental parameters in the southeastern Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Link

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on Arctic marine ecosystems and their biogeochemical cycles are difficult to predict given the complex physical, biological and chemical interactions among the ecosystem components. We studied benthic biogeochemical fluxes in the Arctic and the influence of short-term (seasonal to annual, long-term (annual to decadal and other environmental variability on their spatial distribution to provide a baseline for estimates of the impact of future changes. In summer 2009, we measured fluxes of dissolved oxygen, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, soluble reactive phosphate and silicic acid at the sediment–water interface at eight sites in the southeastern Beaufort Sea at water depths from 45 to 580 m. The spatial pattern of the measured benthic boundary fluxes was heterogeneous. Multivariate analysis of flux data showed that no single or reduced combination of fluxes could explain the majority of spatial variation, indicating that oxygen flux is not representative of other nutrient sink–source dynamics. We tested the influence of eight environmental parameters on single benthic fluxes. Short-term environmental parameters (sinking flux of particulate organic carbon above the bottom, sediment surface Chl a were most important for explaining oxygen, ammonium and nitrate fluxes. Long-term parameters (porosity, surface manganese and iron concentration, bottom water oxygen concentrations together with δ13Corg signature explained most of the spatial variation in phosphate, nitrate and nitrite fluxes. Variation in pigments at the sediment surface was most important to explain variation in fluxes of silicic acid. In a model including all fluxes synchronously, the overall spatial distribution could be best explained (57% by the combination of sediment Chl a, phaeopigments, δ13Corg, surficial manganese and bottom water oxygen concentration. We conclude that it is necessary to consider long-term environmental variability along with

  6. Proceedings of Nova Scotia's 2006 energy research and development forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Nova Scotia 2006 energy research and development forum provided a venue for experts from industry, research institutions and government to discuss how research and development will shape the future of energy in the province. The forum was divided into 3 sessions: (1) building knowledge about the marine environment, (2) building knowledge about geoscience, and (3) building knowledge about sustainable energy. A wide ranges of issues related to the Nova Scotia region included whale identification; fisheries mapping; the commercialization of hydrocarbon discoveries; carbon capture and storage and petroleum system analysis and prospect evaluation. Keynote addresses were presented on produced water in Norway; deepwater exploration in Morocco; renewable energy and Canada's role as an energy superpower. The conference featured more than 57 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Bioidentical hormone therapy: Nova Scotia pharmacists’ knowledge and beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Anne Marie; Thebeau, Jean-Pierre; Jurgens, Tannis M.; Hurst, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate Nova Scotia (NS) pharmacists´ knowledge and beliefs regarding the use of bioidentical hormones (BHs) for the management of menopause related symptoms. Methods: Using Dillman´s tailored design methodology, an invitation to complete the web-based questionnaire was emailed to pharmacists in NS as part of the Dalhousie College of Pharmacy Continuing Pharmacy Education Department´s (CPE) weekly email update. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of app...

  8. Microbial eukaryotic diversity and distribution in a river plume and cyclonic eddy-influenced ecosystem in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenxue; Wang, Lei; Liao, Yu; Huang, Bangqin

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate microbial eukaryotic diversity and distribution in mesoscale processes, we investigated 18S rDNA diversity in a river plume and cyclonic eddy-influenced ecosystem in the southwestern South China Sea (SCS). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was carried out using multiple primer sets. Relative to a wide range of previous similar studies, we observed a significantly higher proportion of sequences of pigmented taxa. Among the photosynthetic groups, Haptophyta accounted for 27.7% of the sequenced clones, which belonged primarily to Prymnesiophyceae. Unexpectedly, five operational taxonomic units of Cryptophyta were closely related to freshwater species. The Chlorophyta mostly fell within the Prasinophyceae, which was comprised of six clades, including Clade III, which is detected in the SCS for the first time in this study. Among the photosynthetic stramenopiles, Chrysophyceae was the most diverse taxon, which included seven clades. The majority of 18S rDNA sequences affiliated with the Dictyochophyceae, Eustigmatophyceae, and Pelagophyceae were closely related to those of pure cultures. The results of redundancy analysis and the permutation Mantel test based on unweighted UniFrac distances, conducted for spatial analyses of the Haptophyta subclades suggested that the Mekong River plume and cyclonic eddy play important roles in regulating microbial eukaryotic diversity and distribution in the southwestern SCS. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Policy statement on gas distribution in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-30

    This paper presented Nova Scotia's policy related to gas distribution. The government of Nova Scotia views natural gas as an economic enabler and is committed to ensuring that natural gas is available and accessible to Nova Scotians where it is economically feasible. Natural gas will give the province an efficient and clean burning energy supply that will make existing businesses more competitive. The province will support and facilitate the construction and operation of a gas distribution system by the private sector and will ensure that there is regulatory oversight by the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board to protect the public interest. The government will also develop a plan for early conversion of government buildings to natural gas. This paper described the province's policy on gas distribution in relation to: (1) a province-wide franchise, (2) a supplemental franchise, (3) cost of service/performance based rates, (4) postage stamp rates, (5) a Maritimes and Northeast lateral policy, (6) direct access/bypass, (7) existing direct access user, (8) bundling of gas sales and other products and services, (9) licensing of gas marketers, (10) benefits, (11), regulatory efficiency, (12) municipal taxes, and (13) municipal operating agreements.

  10. Nova Scotia offshore to Grand Banks connection : Mesozoic basins on a transform margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, L.E.; Martin, M.R.; Enachescu, M.E.; Atkinson, I.; Stead, J.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences and Pan-Atlantic Petroleum Systems Consortium

    2005-07-01

    The renewed interest in the southern Grand Banks has resulted in new active exploration licenses, seismic acquisition programs and planned drilling in the South Whale and Laurentian basins. The basins are located northeast of the Scotian margin, about 200 km south of the east coast of Newfoundland, in shallow to intermediate waters in an area free of icebergs. The Scotian and Newfoundland offshore areas are separated by the St. Lawrence Tertiary channel. A provincial boundary divides the jurisdiction over sea resources. The long political moratorium which had been imposed on the Laurentian Basin was resolved during the summer of 2003 with the establishment of the provincial boundary. Some regional geological maps of the East Coast Mesozoic sedimentary area indicate continuity between the Orpheus Graben and northern Scotian Shelf and Slope basins (Nova Scotia) and Laurentian and South Whale basins (Newfoundland). In contrast, other maps represents them as being separated by faults or ridges that affect the basin development and complicate the tectono-structural framework initiated in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic periods. Argo salt features found in seismic sections on both sides of the provincial boundary indicate that Atlantic Canada basins were interconnected during the marine phase of the Thethys rifting stage, most likely up to the time of Scotian Shelf break-up. During the Late Jurassic, marine, oil prone source rocks were deposited in the Grand Banks basins and terrestrial to marine, gas prone source rocks were deposited offshore Nova Scotia. Modern industry 2D data donated by GSI and WesternGeco were used to examine the structural and stratigraphic framework of the basins. Common geological and geomorphologic features were emphasized along with the disparity between the structural element, stratigraphy and quality of petroleum systems of the two basins.

  11. Industry and improvement: state and class formations in Nova Scotia`s coal-mining countryside, 1790-1864

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    The role of state and class formation in Nova Scotia before Confederation is discussed. The farming and coal mining districts of northern Nova Scotia are described as opposing segments that together were central to the development of liberal capitalist government forms in the province. A range of economic circumstances is considered: squatters, estates, mixed farming, coal mining, trading, quarrying, and fraternal societies. The role of enterprises such as the General Mining Association, a British venture, in colonization and in constraint of local initiative and accumulation is considered. Rural liberals created a positive place in self-government, while colonial liberals constructed a liberalism that was centred around the state and economic progress. The poor and those without property were allotted marginal public roles.

  12. Implementing ecosystem-based fisheries management: from single-species to integrated ecosystem assessment and advice for Baltic Sea fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllmann, Christian; Lindegren, Martin; Blenckner, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    -economic factors, in relation to specified management objectives. Here, we focus on implementing the IEA approach for Baltic Sea fish stocks. We combine both tactical and strategic management aspects into a single strategy that supports the present Baltic Sea fish stock advice, conducted by the International...... Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). We first review the state of the art in the development of IEA within the current management framework. We then outline and discuss an approach that integrates fish stock advice and IEAs for the Baltic Sea. We intentionally focus on the central Baltic Sea...... and its three major fish stocks cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus), but emphasize that our approach may be applied to other parts and stocks of the Baltic, as well as other ocean areas...

  13. Ocean acidification and warming in the Norwegian and Barents Seas: impacts on marine ecosystems and human uses

    OpenAIRE

    Koenigstein, Stefan; Gößling-Reisemann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This report synthesizes the results about the impacts of climate change and ocean acidification on marine ecosystems and ecosystem services in Norway, from interviews and a workshop with stakeholders in 2013.

  14. Remote assessment of instantaneous changes in water chemistry after liming in a Nova Scotia catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Christine

    2013-04-01

    located immediately above the limed area, and a treatment site 10 m below the limed area. We monitored pH, DO, water temperature, conductivity, stage height, air temperature, wind speed and direction as well as precipitation every 15 minutes since November 2011 with the data being accessed in real-time. The high frequency measurements were supplemented by a full chemical analysis of bi-weekly to monthly grab-samples at the site since December 2010. Pre-treatment stream chemistry and hydrology data at the control and treatment sites show identical patterns. pH values before treatment were as low as 4.9 and Ca2+ as low as 0.7 mg•L-1 demonstrating the need for the lime treatment. In this work, we show real-time outputs of pre- and post-treatment stream chemistry and present the short-term effects of liming on this uniquely acid sensitive ecosystem. Clair, T.A., Bobba, A.G., & Miller, K. 2001. Yearly changes in the seasonal frequency and duration of short-term acid pulses in Nova Scotia, Canada streams. Env. Geol. 40: 582-591. Clair, T.A., Dennis, I.F., Scruton, D.A., & Gilliss, M. 2007. Freshwater acidification research in Atlantic Canada: a review of results and predictions for the future. Env. Reviews 15: 153-167. Dennis, I.F. & Clair, T.A. (in press) The distribution of dissolved aluminum in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) rivers of Atlantic Canada and its potential effect on aquatic populations. Can. J.Fish Aquat. Sci.

  15. Modeling plankton ecosystem functioning and nitrogen fluxes in the oligotrophic waters of the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean: a focus on light-driven processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Le Fouest

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic Ocean (AO undergoes profound changes of its physical and biotic environments due to climate change. In some areas of the Beaufort Sea, the stronger haline stratification observed in summer alters the plankton ecosystem structure, functioning and productivity, promoting oligotrophy. A one-dimension (1-D physical–biological coupled model based on the large multiparametric database of the Malina project in the Beaufort Sea was used (i to infer the plankton ecosystem functioning and related nitrogen fluxes and (ii to assess the model sensitivity to key light-driven processes involved in nutrient recycling and phytoplankton growth. The coupled model suggested that ammonium photochemically produced from photosensitive dissolved organic nitrogen (i.e., photoammonification process was a necessary nitrogen source to achieve the observed levels of microbial biomass and production. Photoammonification directly and indirectly (by stimulating the microbial food web activity contributed to 70% and 18.5% of the 0–10 m and whole water column, respectively, simulated primary production (respectively 66% and 16% for the bacterial production. The model also suggested that variable carbon to chlorophyll ratios were required to simulate the observed herbivorous versus microbial food web competition and realistic nitrogen fluxes in the Beaufort Sea oligotrophic waters. In face of accelerating Arctic warming, more attention should be paid in the future to the mechanistic processes involved in food webs and functional group competition, nutrient recycling and primary production in poorly productive waters of the AO, as they are expected to expand rapidly.

  16. Reed beds may facilitate transfer of tributyltin from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems through insect vectors in the Archipelago Sea, SW Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Thomas M; Meierjohann, Axel; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Peltonen, Jani; Vesterinen, Eero; Kronberg, Leif; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2012-08-01

    Due to their adsorptive behavior, organotin compounds (OTCs), such as tributyltin (TBT), are accumulated in aquatic sediments. They resist biodegradation and, despite a ban in 2008, are a potential source for future exposure. Sediment OTCs have mostly been measured from sites of known high concentrations such as ports, shipping lanes, and marine dredging waste sites. The possible flow of OTCs from marine to terrestrial ecosystems, however, has not been studied. In the present study, the authors assessed whether sediments in common reed beds (Phragmites australis) accumulate TBT and whether chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae) communities developing in reed-bed sediments act as vectors in the transfer of TBT from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems in the Airisto channel, Archipelago Sea. The authors also investigated whether distance from the only known source and depth and TBT concentration of the adjacent shipping lane affect reed-bed concentrations. Thirty-six sites along the Airisto channel were sampled at 2-km intervals with triplicate samples from reed beds and the adjacent shipping lane for sediment and seven reed-bed sites for chironomids, and these were analyzed with an solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tamdem mass spectrometry method. The closer to the source the sample site was, the higher the measured TBT concentrations were; and the deeper the shipping lane, the lower the concentration of TBT in reed-bed sediments. The chironomid TBT concentrations correlated with reed-bed sediment TBT concentrations and showed evidence of accumulation. Therefore, TBT may be transferred, through the food web, from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems relatively close to a source through ecosystem boundaries, such as common reed beds, which are areas of high insect biomass production in the Archipelago Sea. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  17. Dispersion and toxicity of metals from abandoned gold mine tailings at Goldenville, Nova Scotia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.K.T.; Gauthier, A.; Nriagu, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    As its name indicates, Goldenville was a famous gold mining area in Nova Scotia where large quantities of mercury were used in the gold recovery process. It is estimated that the 3 million tons of tailings left from the mining activities which lasted from 1860 to 1945 contain 470 kg of Cd, 37-300 kg of Pb, 6800 kg of Hg, 20-700 kg of As and 2600 kg of Tl. Analysis of metal contents of stream water, stream and lake sediments, tailings, and vegetation show that the tailings have been distributed over time across the stream basin to form a tailing field of approximately 2 km 2 . There is a continuous release of As, Hg, Pb, Tl and other metals from the tailing field, resulting in contamination of ecosystems downstream including the Gagogan Harbor of the Atlantic Ocean. Stream water and sediments of Lake Gagogan located downstream from the mine were found toxic to the benthic community. A loss of fish habitat was observed. Although the mines were closed over 50 years ago, sedimentary records of metal loadings into Lake Gagogan show that the release of metals from the tailings has not slowed down. Analysis of metal tolerant species in the area suggests that horsetails (Equisetum rubiaceae and E. sylvaticum) can be used in phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and mercury. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. Dispersion and toxicity of metals from abandoned gold mine tailings at Goldenville, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.K.T. [National Water Research Institute, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington (Canada); Gauthier, A. [Environmental Protection Branch, Environment Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada); Nriagu, J.O. [Department of Environmental and Industrial Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1999-03-22

    As its name indicates, Goldenville was a famous gold mining area in Nova Scotia where large quantities of mercury were used in the gold recovery process. It is estimated that the 3 million tons of tailings left from the mining activities which lasted from 1860 to 1945 contain 470 kg of Cd, 37-300 kg of Pb, 6800 kg of Hg, 20-700 kg of As and 2600 kg of Tl. Analysis of metal contents of stream water, stream and lake sediments, tailings, and vegetation show that the tailings have been distributed over time across the stream basin to form a tailing field of approximately 2 km{sup 2}. There is a continuous release of As, Hg, Pb, Tl and other metals from the tailing field, resulting in contamination of ecosystems downstream including the Gagogan Harbor of the Atlantic Ocean. Stream water and sediments of Lake Gagogan located downstream from the mine were found toxic to the benthic community. A loss of fish habitat was observed. Although the mines were closed over 50 years ago, sedimentary records of metal loadings into Lake Gagogan show that the release of metals from the tailings has not slowed down. Analysis of metal tolerant species in the area suggests that horsetails (Equisetum rubiaceae and E. sylvaticum) can be used in phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and mercury. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Phytoplankton phenology indices in coral reef ecosystems: Application to ocean-color observations in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Racault, Marie-Fanny; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Berumen, Michael L.; Brewin, Robert J.W.; Platt, Trevor; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Initiative project (OC-CCI) in the entire Red Sea basin. The OC-CCI product, comprising merged and bias-corrected observations from three independent ocean-color sensors (SeaWiFS, MODIS and MERIS), and processed using the POLYMER algorithm (MERIS period

  20. Recovery following experimental harvesting of Laminaria longicruris and L. digitata in southwestern Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B D

    1985-01-01

    Laminaria population variables and understory community composition were monitored just prior to, and for two summers following, a September 1980 experimental total harvest of L. longicruris De la Pylaie and L. digitata (L.) Lamouroux within two plots in Lobster Bay, Nova Scotia. Both plots, distinguished mainly by depth, were characterized by high Laminaria standing crop and no recent history of extensive sea urchin grazing. Within the shallower plot (2-3 m below MSL), recovery could not be assessed thoroughly due to ice damage, but within the deeper plot (3-4 m below MSL), L. longicruris regrew cropped biomass and attained maximum observed abundance within one year. Both Laminaria species required two years to mature to pre-harvest population characteristics. Survivorship of 0-1 year old and mature populations of both species was generally low (0-67% per year); however, the higher maximum life expectancy of L. digitata (>4 years vs 2 years) can result in that species persisting to the disadvantage of L. longicruris. Analysis of understory community composition for both harvested plots and their adjacent controls weakly distinguished the harvested plots one summer after harvesting from all others. It is doubtful the distinction is attributable to harvesting and in neither site was there evidence of a critical change in the understory community. Management implications for the commercial harvest of the brown alga Laminaria are discussed.

  1. The ESASSI-08 cruise in the South Scotia Ridge region: An inverse model property-transport analysis over the Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Margarita; Gomis, Damià; Del Mar Flexas, Maria; Jordà, Gabriel; Naveira-Garabato, Alberto; Jullion, Loic; Tsubouchi, Takamasa

    2010-05-01

    The ESASSI-08 oceanographic cruise carried out in January 2008 was the most significant milestone of the ESASSI project. ESASSI is the Spanish component of the Synoptic Antarctic Shelf-Slope Interactions (SASSI) study, one of the core projects of the International Polar Year. Hydrographical and biochemical (oxygen, CFCs, nutrients, chlorophyll content, alkalinity, pH, DOC) data were obtained along 11 sections in the South Scotia Ridge (SSR) region, between Elephant and South Orkney Islands. One of the aims of the ESASSI project is to determine the northward outflow of cold and ventilated waters from the Weddell Sea into the Scotia Sea. For that purpose, the accurate estimation of mass, heat, salt, and oxygen transport over the Ridge is requested. An initial analysis of transports across the different sections was first obtained from CTD and ADCP data. The following step has been the application of an inverse method, in order to obtain a better estimation of the net flow for the different water masses present in the region. The set of property-conservation equations considered by the inverse model includes mass, heat and salinity fluxes. The "box" is delimited by the sections along the northern flank of the SSR, between Elephant Island and 50°W, the southern flank of the Ridge, between 51.5°W and 50°W, the 50°W meridian and a diagonal line between Elephant Island and 51.5°W, 61.75°S. Results show that the initial calculations of transports suffered of a significant volume imbalance, due to the inherent errors of ship-ADCP data, the complicated topography and the presence of strong tidal currents in some sections. We present the post-inversion property transports across the rim of the box (and their error bars) for the different water masses.

  2. Science to Support Management of Receiving Waters in an Event-Driven Ecosystem: From Land to River to Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Bunn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing receiving-water quality, ecosystem health and ecosystem service delivery is challenging in regions where extreme rainfall and runoff events occur episodically, confounding and often intensifying land-degradation impacts. We synthesize the approaches used in river, reservoir and coastal water management in the event-driven subtropics of Australia, and the scientific research underpinning them. Land-use change has placed the receiving waters of Moreton Bay, an internationally-significant coastal wetland, at risk of ecological degradation through increased nutrient and sediment loads. The event-driven climate exacerbates this issue, as the waterways and ultimately Moreton Bay receive large inputs of nutrients and sediment during events, well above those received throughout stable climatic periods. Research on the water quality and ecology of the region’s rivers and coastal waters has underpinned the development of a world-renowned monitoring program and, in combination with catchment-source tracing methods and modeling, has revealed the key mechanisms and management strategies by which receiving-water quality, ecosystem health and ecosystem services can be maintained and improved. These approaches provide a useful framework for management of water bodies in other regions driven by episodic events, or where novel stressors are involved (e.g., climate change, urbanization, to support sustained ecosystem service delivery and restoration of aquatic ecosystems.

  3. Air quality guidelines for arenas in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    A series of guidelines have been prepared to address the quality of air in skating arena facilities in Nova Scotia. They are limited to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions. Average nitrogen dioxide levels should not exceed 1 part per million (ppm). Average carbon monoxide levels should not exceed 25 ppm. These guidelines do not address other contaminants such as ammonia or chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The guidelines are considered to be the minimum standards required for safe arena operations. These standards can be met by reducing emissions of the ice resurfacer and edger which is one of the major sources of poor air quality in arenas. Other ways to meet the standards are to ensure proper equipment operation, ventilation and monitoring of indoor air quality levels. Symptoms of exposure and potential consequences were also described. It was noted that owners and operators may be found libel for injury if a proper environment is not maintained. 6 appendices.

  4. Gene Transcript Profiling in Sea Otters Post-Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: A Tool for Marine Ecosystem Health Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizabeth Bowen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a panel of genes stimulated by oil exposure in a laboratory study, we evaluated gene transcription in blood leukocytes sampled from sea otters captured from 2006–2012 in western Prince William Sound (WPWS, Alaska, 17–23 years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS. We compared WPWS sea otters to reference populations (not affected by the EVOS from the Alaska Peninsula (2009, Katmai National Park and Preserve (2009, Clam Lagoon at Adak Island (2012, Kodiak Island (2005 and captive sea otters in aquaria. Statistically, sea otter gene transcript profiles separated into three distinct clusters: Cluster 1, Kodiak and WPWS 2006–2008 (higher relative transcription; Cluster 2, Clam Lagoon and WPWS 2010–2012 (lower relative transcription; and Cluster 3, Alaska Peninsula, Katmai and captive sea otters (intermediate relative transcription. The lower transcription of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, an established biomarker for hydrocarbon exposure, in WPWS 2010–2012 compared to earlier samples from WPWS is consistent with declining hydrocarbon exposure, but the pattern of overall low levels of transcription seen in WPWS 2010–2012 could be related to other factors, such as food limitation, pathogens or injury, and may indicate an inability to mount effective responses to stressors. Decreased transcriptional response across the entire gene panel precludes the evaluation of whether or not individual sea otters show signs of exposure to lingering oil. However, related studies on sea otter demographics indicate that by 2012, the sea otter population in WPWS had recovered, which indicates diminishing oil exposure.

  5. Gene transcript profiling in sea otters post-Exxon Valdez oil spill: A tool for marine ecosystem health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Waters, Shannon C.; Bodkin, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a panel of genes stimulated by oil exposure in a laboratory study, we evaluated gene transcription in blood leukocytes sampled from sea otters captured from 2006–2012 in western Prince William Sound (WPWS), Alaska, 17–23 years after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). We compared WPWS sea otters to reference populations (not affected by the EVOS) from the Alaska Peninsula (2009), Katmai National Park and Preserve (2009), Clam Lagoon at Adak Island (2012), Kodiak Island (2005) and captive sea otters in aquaria. Statistically, sea otter gene transcript profiles separated into three distinct clusters: Cluster 1, Kodiak and WPWS 2006–2008 (higher relative transcription); Cluster 2, Clam Lagoon and WPWS 2010–2012 (lower relative transcription); and Cluster 3, Alaska Peninsula, Katmai and captive sea otters (intermediate relative transcription). The lower transcription of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), an established biomarker for hydrocarbon exposure, in WPWS 2010–2012 compared to earlier samples from WPWS is consistent with declining hydrocarbon exposure, but the pattern of overall low levels of transcription seen in WPWS 2010–2012 could be related to other factors, such as food limitation, pathogens or injury, and may indicate an inability to mount effective responses to stressors. Decreased transcriptional response across the entire gene panel precludes the evaluation of whether or not individual sea otters show signs of exposure to lingering oil. However, related studies on sea otter demographics indicate that by 2012, the sea otter population in WPWS had recovered, which indicates diminishing oil exposure.

  6. Modeled Sea Level Rise Impacts on Coastal Ecosystems at Six Major Estuaries on Florida’s Gulf Coast: Implications for Adaptation Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Anne P.; Brenner, Jorge; Gordon, Doria R.

    2015-01-01

    The Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) was applied at six major estuaries along Florida’s Gulf Coast (Pensacola Bay, St. Andrews/Choctawhatchee Bays, Apalachicola Bay, Southern Big Bend, Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor) to provide quantitative and spatial information on how coastal ecosystems may change with sea level rise (SLR) and to identify how this information can be used to inform adaption planning. High resolution LiDAR-derived elevation data was utilized under three SLR scenarios: 0.7 m, 1 m and 2 m through the year 2100 and uncertainty analyses were conducted on selected input parameters at three sites. Results indicate that the extent, spatial orientation and relative composition of coastal ecosystems at the study areas may substantially change with SLR. Under the 1 m SLR scenario, total predicted impacts for all study areas indicate that coastal forest (-69,308 ha; -18%), undeveloped dry land (-28,444 ha; -2%) and tidal flat (-25,556 ha; -47%) will likely face the greatest loss in cover by the year 2100. The largest potential gains in cover were predicted for saltmarsh (+32,922 ha; +88%), transitional saltmarsh (+23,645 ha; na) and mangrove forest (+12,583 ha; +40%). The Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay study areas were predicted to experience the greatest net loss in coastal wetlands The uncertainty analyses revealed low to moderate changes in results when some numerical SLAMM input parameters were varied highlighting the value of collecting long-term sedimentation, accretion and erosion data to improve SLAMM precision. The changes predicted by SLAMM will affect exposure of adjacent human communities to coastal hazards and ecosystem functions potentially resulting in impacts to property values, infrastructure investment and insurance rates. The results and process presented here can be used as a guide for communities vulnerable to SLR to identify and prioritize adaptation strategies that slow and/or accommodate the changes underway. PMID:26207914

  7. A complex-systems approach to predicting effects of sea level rise and nitrogen loading on nitrogen cycling in coastal wetland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Laurel G.; Moseman, Serena; Santoro, Alyson; Hopfensperger, Kristine; Burgin, Amy

    2010-01-01

    To effectively manage coastal ecosystems, we need an improvedunderstanding of how tidal marsh ecosystem services will respond to sea-level rise and increased nitrogen (N) loading to coastal areas. Here we review existing literature to better understand how these interacting perturbations s will likely impact N removal by tidal marshes. We propose that the keyy factors controlling long-term changes in N removal are plant-community changes, soil accretion rates, surface-subsurface flow paths, marsh geomorphology microbial communities, and substrates for microbial reactions. Feedbacks affecting relative elevations and sediment accretion ratess will serve as dominant controls on future N removal throughout the marsh. Given marsh persistence, we hypothesize that the processes dominating N removal will vary laterally across the marsh and longitudinallyalong the estuarine gradient. In salt marsh interiors, where nitrate reduction rates are often limited by delivery of nitrate to bacterial communities, reductions in groundwater discharge due to sea level rise may trigger a net reduction in N removal. In freshwater marshes, we expect a decreasee in N removal efficiency due to increased sulfide concentrations. Sulfide encroachment will increase the relative importance of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium and lead to greater bacterial nitrogen immobilization, ultimately resulting in an ecosystem that retains more N and is less effective at permanent N removal from the watershed. In contrast, we predict that sealevel–driven expansion of the tidal creek network and the degree of surface-subsurface exchange flux through tidal creek banks will result in greater N-removal efficiency from these locations.

  8. A new classification scheme of European cold-water coral habitats: Implications for ecosystem-based management of the deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J. S.; Guillaumont, B.; Tempera, F.; Vertino, A.; Beuck, L.; Ólafsdóttir, S. H.; Smith, C. J.; Fosså, J. H.; van den Beld, I. M. J.; Savini, A.; Rengstorf, A.; Bayle, C.; Bourillet, J.-F.; Arnaud-Haond, S.; Grehan, A.

    2017-11-01

    Cold-water corals (CWC) can form complex structures which provide refuge, nursery grounds and physical support for a diversity of other living organisms. However, irrespectively from such ecological significance, CWCs are still vulnerable to human pressures such as fishing, pollution, ocean acidification and global warming Providing coherent and representative conservation of vulnerable marine ecosystems including CWCs is one of the aims of the Marine Protected Areas networks being implemented across European seas and oceans under the EC Habitats Directive, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the OSPAR Convention. In order to adequately represent ecosystem diversity, these initiatives require a standardised habitat classification that organises the variety of biological assemblages and provides consistent and functional criteria to map them across European Seas. One such classification system, EUNIS, enables a broad level classification of the deep sea based on abiotic and geomorphological features. More detailed lower biotope-related levels are currently under-developed, particularly with regards to deep-water habitats (>200 m depth). This paper proposes a hierarchical CWC biotope classification scheme that could be incorporated by existing classification schemes such as EUNIS. The scheme was developed within the EU FP7 project CoralFISH to capture the variability of CWC habitats identified using a wealth of seafloor imagery datasets from across the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean. Depending on the resolution of the imagery being interpreted, this hierarchical scheme allows data to be recorded from broad CWC biotope categories down to detailed taxonomy-based levels, thereby providing a flexible yet valuable information level for management. The CWC biotope classification scheme identifies 81 biotopes and highlights the limitations of the classification framework and guidance provided by EUNIS, the EC Habitats Directive, OSPAR and FAO; which largely

  9. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D Rogers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp., stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae, bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more

  10. A study of the anthropic activities impact on the Black Sea eco-system (Romanian coast area) using nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofte, L.

    1997-01-01

    This research represents a first step in the direction of a real evaluation of the Black Sea - Romanian Coast pollution level. A continental closed sea, with a special chemism and a specific dynamic regime of its waters, the Black Sea is seriously affected by pollution today, its eco - systems suffering deep restructuring, many of these with an irreversible character and an alarming degradation of the marine life quality. Starting with 1996, a systematic sampling of the principal systemic parts of the Black Sea Eco - System (Romanian Coast Area) was initiated at NIPNE - HH Bucharest. The samples are prepared and analysed by high precision nuclear methods such as: neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and others. The results are presented as distribution maps and profiles of different elements (radioactive elements, heavy metals, trace elements etc.) in the investigated parts of the marine environment (water, sediments, vegetation and fauna). The research methodology and the obtained results offer a useful and efficient tool for the followup and permanent evaluation of the eco - system of the Black Sea. Monitoring this eco - system using a network and an efficient programme allows the storage of valuable data which are further used to make short - term and long - term prognosis referring to its evaluation. The results fit into the newest research programmes initiated by the international scientific community in the line of environment surveillance (The Programme of the International Board for Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean supported by the European Community and US). (author)

  11. Marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA): Quantifying processes in the sea at the spatio-temporal scales on which they occur

    KAUST Repository

    Godø l, Olav Rune; Handegard, Nils Olav; Browman, Howard I.; MacAulay, Gavin J.; Kaartvedt, Stein; Giske, Jarl; Ona, Egil; Huse, Geir; Johnsen, Espen

    2014-01-01

    information by taxon at the relevant scales. The gaps between single-species assessment and ecosystem-based management, as well as between fisheries oceanography and ecology, are thereby bridged. The MEA concept combines state-of-the-art acoustic technology

  12. Visual record of intertidal disturbance caused by drift ice in the spring on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3fb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Petzold

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the early spring of 2014, an unusually large amount of sea ice drifted from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where it had been produced, towards the open Atlantic Ocean through the Cabot Strait, between Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, Canada. In early April, significant amounts of drift ice reached the Atlantic coast of mainland Nova Scotia. The ice floes persisted in those coastal waters for up to 16 days, depending on the location. During that time, the ice fragments caused extensive physical disturbance in rocky intertidal communities, removing high quantities of seaweeds and invertebrates. For example, at a location where the ice stayed for 9 days, the loss of macroalgal and invertebrate biomass was almost total. At a location where the ice stayed for 4 days, losses were lower, albeit still high overall. Such a magnitude of disturbance is not common on this coast, as sea ice had not reached the surveyed locations in the previous 4–5 years. We suggest that the frequency of ice scour events may help to predict intertidal community structure. This notion could be tested through multiannual surveys of ice conditions and biological communities along the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia.

  13. An Emerging Wine Region in Nova Scotia, Canada: Terroir Trials and Tribulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, B. I.; Ketter, B. S.; Karakis, S.

    2012-12-01

    Nova Scotia, strategically located on Canada's east coast, is an emerging wine region, whose distinctive wines are garnering international acclaim. Nova Scotia has a long and rich tradition of growing grapes for wine dating back as far as 1611. Nova Scotia's mesoclimates, glacial soils, and proximity to the Atlantic Ocean form a complex alliance to create a unique and expressive terroir. Tidal Bay is a new appellation wine for Nova Scotia stylistically defined as a fresh, crisp and high-acid blend of white grapes. There are four main wine-growing regions in Nova Scotia, all influenced by the warming effects of the Bay of Fundy and Atlantic Ocean: Malagash Peninsula, Annapolis Valley, Bear River Valley and the South Shore. Nova Scotia currently has 14 producing wineries with many more in the development stage. Nova Scotia grape growers not only have had success developing mature and consistent hybrids, but in recent years several vinifera have flourished in this cool climate area. The white hybrids include L'Acadie Blanc, New York Muscat, Seyval Blanc, and Vidal Blanc. The white vinifera include chardonnay, riesling, pinot gris, and sauvignon blanc. Red hybrids are Baco Noir, Leon Millet, Lucie Kuhlmann, and Marechal Foch, whereas the only red vinifera is pinot noir. Nova Scotia has nearly perfect climatic conditions for making world class icewines and sparkling wines. A preliminary GIS analysis of climate, topographic, geology and soil data helps to define Nova Scotia's terroir. Annual precipiatation varies from 10 to 21.6 cm/year with a vast majority of the wineries located in regions with the lowest rainfall. Daily average temperature ranges from 5.5 to 7.5°C, degree growing days above 5°C from 1382 to 1991, and mean August temperature from 15.6 to 19.3 °C. Wineries cluster in the warmest regions based on these temperature measures to assist grape ripening. Soils in these diverse wine regions can range from silty, sandy and clay loams to more gravel-rich sandy

  14. Pharmacological Potential of Phylogenetically Diverse Actinobacteria Isolated from Deep-Sea Coral Ecosystems of the Submarine Avilés Canyon in the Cantabrian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Aida; González, Verónica; Braña, Alfredo F; Palacios, Juan J; Otero, Luis; Fernández, Jonathan; Molina, Axayacatl; Kulik, Andreas; Vázquez, Fernando; Acuña, José L; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    Marine Actinobacteria are emerging as an unexplored source for natural product discovery. Eighty-seven deep-sea coral reef invertebrates were collected during an oceanographic expedition at the submarine Avilés Canyon (Asturias, Spain) in a range of 1500 to 4700 m depth. From these, 18 cultivable bioactive Actinobacteria were isolated, mainly from corals, phylum Cnidaria, and some specimens of phyla Echinodermata, Porifera, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Sipuncula. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, all isolates belong to the phylum Actinobacteria, mainly to the Streptomyces genus and also to Micromonospora, Pseudonocardia and Myceligenerans. Production of bioactive compounds of pharmacological interest was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques and subsequent database comparison. Results reveal that deep-sea isolated Actinobacteria display a wide repertoire of secondary metabolite production with a high chemical diversity. Most identified products (both diffusible and volatiles) are known by their contrasted antibiotic or antitumor activities. Bioassays with ethyl acetate extracts from isolates displayed strong antibiotic activities against a panel of important resistant clinical pathogens, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungi, all of them isolated at two main hospitals (HUCA and Cabueñes) from the same geographical region. The identity of the active extracts components of these producing Actinobacteria is currently being investigated, given its potential for the discovery of pharmaceuticals and other products of biotechnological interest.

  15. Management strategies of marine food resources under multiple stressors with particular reference of the Yellow Sea large marine ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisheng TANG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study two main management strategies are discussed: one is to develop resource conservation-based capture fisheries, and the other is to develop environmentally friendly aquaculture. During the resource recovery period, the development of environmentally friendly aquaculture should be encouraged, especially in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, which is adaptive, efficient and sustainable. For future development and better understanding the ecosystem, it is necessary to further strengthen basic research.

  16. Analysis of the changes in forest ecosystem functions, structure and composition in the Black Sea region of Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sedat Kele(s); (I)dris Durusoy; Günay Çakir

    2017-01-01

    We used geographical information system to analyze changes in forest ecosystem functions, structure and composition in a typical department of forest man-agement area consisting of four forest management plan-ning units in Turkey. To assess these effects over a 25 year period we compiled data from three forest management plans that were made in 1986, 2001 and 2011. Temporal changes in forest ecosystem functions were estimated based on the three pillars of forest sustainability: eco-nomics, ecology and socio-culture. We assessed a few indicators such as land-use and forest cover, forest types, tree species, development stage, stand age classes, crown closure, growing stock and its increment, and timber bio-mass. The results of the case study suggested a shift in forest values away from economic values toward ecologi-cal and socio-cultural values over last two planning peri-ods. Forest ecosystem structure improved, due mainly to increasing forest area, decreasing non-forest areas (espe-cially in settlement and agricultural areas), forestation on forest openings, rehabilitation of degraded forests, con-version of even-aged forests to uneven-aged forests and conversion of coppice forests to high forests with greater growing stock increments. There were also favorable changes in forest management planning approaches.

  17. Marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA): Quantifying processes in the sea at the spatio-temporal scales on which they occur

    KAUST Repository

    Godøl, Olav Rune

    2014-07-22

    Sustainable management of fisheries resources requires quantitative knowledge and understanding of species distribution, abundance, and productivity-determining processes. Conventional sampling by physical capture is inconsistent with the spatial and temporal scales on which many of these processes occur. In contrast, acoustic observations can be obtained on spatial scales from centimetres to ocean basins, and temporal scales from seconds to seasons. The concept of marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA) is founded on the basic capability of acoustics to detect, classify, and quantify organisms and biological and physical heterogeneities in the water column. Acoustics observations integrate operational technologies, platforms, and models and can generate information by taxon at the relevant scales. The gaps between single-species assessment and ecosystem-based management, as well as between fisheries oceanography and ecology, are thereby bridged. The MEA concept combines state-of-the-art acoustic technology with advanced operational capabilities and tailored modelling integrated into a flexible tool for ecosystem research and monitoring. Case studies are presented to illustrate application of the MEA concept in quantification of biophysical coupling, patchiness of organisms, predator-prey interactions, and fish stock recruitment processes. Widespread implementation of MEA will have a large impact on marine monitoring and assessment practices and it is to be hoped that they also promote and facilitate interaction among disciplines within the marine sciences.

  18. Trophic structure in the Gulf of Lions marine ecosystem (north-western Mediterranean Sea) and fishing impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bănaru, D.; Mellon-Duval, C.; Roos, D.; Bigot, J.-L.; Souplet, A.; Jadaud, A.; Beaubrun, P.; Fromentin, J.-M.

    2013-02-01

    The Gulf of Lions ecosystem was described using the Ecopath mass-balance model to characterise its structure and functioning and to examine the effects of the multispecific fisheries operating in this area. The model is composed of 40 compartments, including 1 group of seabirds, 2 groups of cetaceans, 18 groups of fish, 12 groups of invertebrates, 5 groups of primary producers, detritus and discards. Input data were based on several recurrent scientific surveys, two alternative datasets for fishing data, stock assessment outputs, stomach content analyses and published information. Results showed that the functional groups were organised into five trophic levels with the highest one represented by dolphins, anglerfish, Atlantic bluefin tuna, European hake and European conger. European pilchard and European anchovy dominated in terms of fish biomass and catch. Other fish with high biomass such as Atlantic mackerel and blue whiting were highly important in the food web. Seabirds, dolphins and cuttlefish-squids represented keystone species. Important coupled pelagic-demersal-benthic interactions were described. The 7 different fisheries analysed were operating at mean trophic levels situated between 2.6 for small artisanal boats, and 4.1 for purse seines (> 24 m) targeting large pelagic fish, indicating an intensively exploited ecosystem. Large trawlers (24-40 m) had the highest impact on most of the groups considered; while purse seines (12-24 m) targeting small pelagic fish had the lowest impact. Preliminary results highlighted the importance of data sources for further ecosystem and fisheries analyses and management scenarios.

  19. Distribution and diversity of marine flora in coral reef ecosystems of Kadmat Island in Lakshadweep archipelago, Arabian Sea, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, V.V.; Komarpant, D.S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    importance in accumulating and binding the sediments and governing their movement. Lakshadweep islands are 1.5-2 m above sea level and mainly composed of sandstone and sand. Therefore, the natural sand-dune flora is of great importance to the island from... the point of shore stabilization. However, sand-dune habitats around the island have been largely reclaimed for agricultural and urbanization purposes. The entire tourist complex towards the south has been developed by reclaiming sand-dune areas. Species...

  20. Estimation of net ecosystem metabolism of seagrass meadows in the coastal waters of the East Sea and Black Sea using the noninvasive eddy covariance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Seong; Kang, Dong-Jin; Hineva, Elitsa; Slabakova, Violeta; Todorova, Valentina; Park, Jiyoung; Cho, Jin-Hyung

    2017-06-01

    We measured the community-scale metabolism of seagrass meadows in Bulgaria (Byala [BY]) and Korea (Hoopo Bay [HP]) to understand their ecosystem function in coastal waters. A noninvasive in situ eddy covariance technique was applied to estimate net O2 flux in the seagrass meadows. From the high-quality and high-resolution time series O2 data acquired over > 24 h, the O2 flux driven by turbulence was extracted at 15-min intervals. The spectrum analysis of vertical flow velocity and O2 concentration clearly showed well-developed turbulence characteristics in the inertial subrange region. The hourly averaged net O2 fluxes per day ranged from -474 to 326 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 (-19 ± 41 mmol O2 m-2 d-1) at BY and from -74 to 482 mmol O2 m-2 d-1 (31 ± 17 mmol O2 m-2 d-1) at HP. The net O2 production rapidly responded to photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and showed a good relationship between production and irradiance (P-I curve). The hysteresis pattern of P-I relationships during daytime also suggested increasing heterotrophic respiration in the afternoon. With the flow velocity between 3.30 and 6.70 cm s-1, the community metabolism during daytime and nighttime was significantly increased by 20 times and 5 times, respectively. The local hydrodynamic characteristics may be vital to determining the efficiency of community photosynthesis. The net ecosystem metabolism at BY was estimated to be -17 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, which was assessed as heterotrophy. However, that at HP was 36 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, which suggested an autotrophic state.

  1. Energy conservation on Nova Scotia farms: Baseline energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Gordon, R.; Burton, D.; Yiridoe, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Direct energy use is a small but essential component of the farm greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. Improvements in energy efficiency and renewable energy can help reduce farm operating costs, improve air quality and reduce GHG emission levels. Energy conservation is especially important in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, where fossil fuels, particularly coal, remain the primary source of electrical generation. Responses from mail surveys were used to establish baseline data on a cross-section of NS farms with respect to direct energy costs and usage to demonstrate differences in farm type and size. A 32% (N=224) response rate was achieved. Based on this survey, the average energy bill for a NS farm in 2004 was $11,228, with most (61.7%) of their energy cost attributable to the purchase of petroleum products. Almost all farmers (96.4%) indicated that their energy cost was a primary concern. Farmers identified the operation of vehicles and mobile equipment, as well as lighting and heating as having the greatest energy requirements in their operations. Energy usage varied with farm type and size. NS farms consumed 1.2 petajoules of energy equivalent to 127 kilotonnes of CO 2 with 52.7% of emissions from electricity use in 2004

  2. Water resource management : a strategy for Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theakston, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1995, the Nova Scotia Department of the Environment has been the lead agency responsible for water resource management in the province. The agency's mandate has been to establish a water resource management strategy and to report periodically to the people of the province on the state of the environment, including air, water and waste resource management. One of the Department's goals is to ensure that surface and groundwater resources are being adequately protected. This paper summarizes issues related to dams and how they will be addressed. The Department allocates water through approvals and regulates use and alteration of watercourses. The construction of a dam and water withdrawal for municipal, industrial, hydroelectric or other purposes requires an approval. The major concerns with these activities are flows to sustain downstream habitat, competing demand for water, public safety, and water quality impacts. The main water management actions established under the water strategy involve: (1) geo-referencing water resource use and allocation, (2) protecting water quality, (3) integrating management of natural resources, and (4) promoting partnership in stewardship

  3. Environmental assessment of exploration drilling off Nova Scotia: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The environmental assessment project of drilling offshore Nova Scotia covers year-around drilling conducted from jackup rigs, semi-submersible rigs, and drill ships that use the methods described in the project description on the Scotian Shelf, the Laurentian Channel and St, Pierre Bank. The assessment was sponsored by all the oil companies active in the area, namely Mobil Oil Canada, Shell Canada, Imperial Oil Resources, Gulf Canada Resources, Chevron Canada Resources, PanCanadian Petroleum, Murphy Oil Company and Norsk Hydro Canada Oil and Gas. This summary describes the impact assessment methodology used, provides a description of the project, reviews the cumulative impact, and the impacts of discrete activities such as noise and disturbances, operational discharges of oil, disruption of the benthos, garbage and waste disposal, and accidental oil spills, and outlines mitigation and monitoring activities to deal with the impacts. Mitigation measures encompass routine discharges, accidental oil spills, spill response, monitoring activities, contingency plans and an overall environmental protection plan. In addition to this generic assessment, the consultants recommend that individual exploration drilling programs that fall outside of the parameters outlined in the generic environmental assessment document, be required to undergo a program-specific assessment that focuses on those aspects of the proposed program that differ from the parameters prescribed in the present document. 9 refs

  4. Weather impacts on leisure activities in Halifax, Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Jamie E. L.; Millward, Hugh

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily leisure activity engagement, with a focus on physically active leisure. The methods capitalize on time diary data that were collected in Halifax, Nova Scotia to calculate objective measures of leisure activity engagement. Daily meteorological data from Environment Canada and daily sunrise and sunset times from the National Research Council of Canada are used to develop objective measures of the natural atmospheric environment. The time diary data were merged with the meteorological data in order to quantify the statistical association between daily weather conditions and the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement. The results indicate that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions, especially relating to thermal comfort and mechanical comfort, pose barriers to physically active leisure engagement, while promoting sedentary and home-based leisure activities. Overall, daily weather conditions exhibit modest, but significant, effects on leisure activity engagement; the strongest associations being for outdoor active sports and outdoor active leisure time budgets. In conclusion, weather conditions influence the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement, which is an important consideration for health-promotion programming.

  5. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in nine sub-systems of the Sylt-Rømø Bight ecosystem, German Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Dan; Asmus, Harald; Asmus, Ragnhild

    2011-01-01

    Flow networks of nine sub-systems consisting of 59 components each of the Sylt-Rømø Bight, German Wadden Sea, were constructed depicting the standing stocks and flows of material and energy within and between the sub-systems. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were used as currencies for each sub-system, thus resulting in 27 network models, which were analyzed by ecological network analytical protocols. Results show substantial variability in the dynamics of these elements within and between the nine sub-systems, which differ in habitat structure, species diversity and in the standing stocks of their constituent living and non-living components. The relationship between the biodiversity and selected information indices and ratios, derived from ecological network analysis, of individual sub-systems is variable and differ substantially between them. Ecosystem properties such as the structure and magnitude of the recycling of these elements, number of cycles, and total sub-system activity were calculated and discussed, highlighting the differences between and complexity of the flow of C, N and P in a coastal marine ecosystem. The average number of cycles increase from 179 for C, to 16,923 and 20,580 for N and P respectively, while the average amount of recycled material, as measured by the Finn Cycling Index (FCI), increase from 17% for C, to 52% for P and to 61% for N. The number of cycles and the FCI vary considerably between the sub-systems for the different elements. The largest number of cycles of all three elements was observed in the muddy sand flat sub-system, but the highest FCIs were computed for both C (32%) and N (85%) in the Arenicola Flats, and in sparse Zostera noltii sea grass beds for P (67%). Indices reflecting on the growth, organization and resilience of the sub-systems also showed considerable variability between and within the inter-tidal ecosystems in the Bight. Indices such as, for example, the relative ascendency ratios increase on average

  6. Patterns of deep-sea genetic connectivity in the New Zealand region: implications for management of benthic ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor K Bors

    Full Text Available Patterns of genetic connectivity are increasingly considered in the design of marine protected areas (MPAs in both shallow and deep water. In the New Zealand Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ, deep-sea communities at upper bathyal depths (<2000 m are vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbance from fishing and potential mining operations. Currently, patterns of genetic connectivity among deep-sea populations throughout New Zealand's EEZ are not well understood. Using the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S rRNA genes as genetic markers, this study aimed to elucidate patterns of genetic connectivity among populations of two common benthic invertebrates with contrasting life history strategies. Populations of the squat lobster Munida gracilis and the polychaete Hyalinoecia longibranchiata were sampled from continental slope, seamount, and offshore rise habitats on the Chatham Rise, Hikurangi Margin, and Challenger Plateau. For the polychaete, significant population structure was detected among distinct populations on the Chatham Rise, the Hikurangi Margin, and the Challenger Plateau. Significant genetic differences existed between slope and seamount populations on the Hikurangi Margin, as did evidence of population differentiation between the northeast and southwest parts of the Chatham Rise. In contrast, no significant population structure was detected across the study area for the squat lobster. Patterns of genetic connectivity in Hyalinoecia longibranchiata are likely influenced by a number of factors including current regimes that operate on varying spatial and temporal scales to produce potential barriers to dispersal. The striking difference in population structure between species can be attributed to differences in life history strategies. The results of this study are discussed in the context of existing conservation areas that are intended to manage anthropogenic threats to deep-sea benthic communities in the New Zealand region.

  7. The ESASSI-08 cruise in the South Scotia Ridge region: preliminary analysis of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis, D.; Flexas, M. M.; Palmer, M.; Jordà, G.; Orsi, A. H.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    The ESASSI-08 oceanographic cruise carried out in January 2008 was the major milestone of ESASSI, the Spanish component of SASSI (a core project of the International Polar Year devoted to study the shelf-slope exchanges in different locations of Antarctica). The sampling strategy of the cruise consisted of 11 full-depth CTD/ADCP sections across the northern and southern slope of the South Scotia Ridge (SSR), between Elephant and Orkney Islands. The sections extend from shelf waters to open sea and the profiles were gathered at an unprecedented spatial resolution over the slope (about 2 nm). Water samples for chemical and biological analysis were also collected at each station; the analyzed parameters include trace gases (CFCs), oxygen isotopes, carbon-related parameters, and nutrients. In this presentation we show the overall distribution of the main variables across the different sections. Namely, we present: a water mass analysis (in terms of potential temperature, salinity and neutral density), estimates of velocities and fluxes across different transects and distributions of biogeochemical parameters. The ultimate aims of the ESASSI project are: 1) to elucidate the fate of the ASF when it enters the SSR from the Weddell Sea; 2) to estimate the shelf-slope exchanges for different parameters; and 3) to quantify the importance of the ventilation associated with intermediate waters flowing over the SSR with respect to the ventilation associated with bottom waters that are blocked by the SSR and flow around the Orkney Plateau.

  8. The perils and promises of microbial abundance: novel natures and model ecosystems, from artisanal cheese to alien seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Heather; Helmreich, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Microbial life has been much in the news. From outbreaks of Escherichia coli to discussions of the benefits of raw and fermented foods to recent reports of life forms capable of living in extreme environments, the modest microbe has become a figure for thinking through the presents and possible futures of nature, writ large as well as small. Noting that dominant representations of microbial life have shifted from an idiom of peril to one of promise, we argue that microbes--especially when thriving as microbial communities--are being upheld as model ecosystems in a prescriptive sense, as tokens of how organisms and human ecological relations with them could, should, or might be. We do so in reference to two case studies: the regulatory politics of artisanal cheese and the speculative research of astrobiology. To think of and with microbial communities as model ecosystems offers a corrective to the scientific determinisms we detect in some recent calls to attend to the materiality of scientific objects.

  9. Expanding Pharmacists' Scope of Practice to Include Immunization in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth O'Reilly

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On 10 December 2010 An Act to Amend Chapter 36 of the Acts of 2001, the Pharmacy Act (Bill 7 received Royal Assent in Nova Scotia, including an amendment that enabled an expanded scope of pharmacy practice. Expanding pharmacists' scope of practice came about from recommendations by various federal and provincial government bodies as an attempt to improve accessibility to health care and decrease costs. In 2013, pharmacists in Nova Scotia began administering the influenza vaccine as part of the publicly funded program in attempts to improve vaccine coverage rates. Preliminary evaluation in Nova Scotia has shown an increase in influenza vaccination coverage. Although pharmacist administration of influenza vaccination may improve vaccination coverage and reduce demand on physician time, there may be tension created among the professions, which needs to be addressed and managed.

  10. Nitrous oxide emissions from forested and harvested ecosystems in northeastern Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanaugh, K.; Kellman, L.; Beltrami, H.

    2005-01-01

    Although studies have shown that deforestation alters the emissions of nitrous oxides (N 2 O) from forest soils in tropical environments, little is known about the northern temperate and boreal forests. This study monitored the N 2 O soil emissions from two 3 year old harvested and intact forest pairs of contrasting soil texture. The study was conducted through the late summer to early fall period in the Acadian forest of Atlantic Canada in order to quantify N 2 O emissions associated with each landuse type, and to determine the factors controlling these emissions. The suitability of a photoacoustic gas monitor (PGM) for in situ field measurements of this gas was also evaluated. Each site was equipped with 11 permanent collars for surface flux measurements designed to capture the microsite variability. Subsurface soil gas samplers were installed at depths of 0, 10, 20 and 35 cm below the organic-mineral soil interface. A nonsteady-state vented surface flux chamber coupled to the PGM was used to regularly measure the surface fluxes in order to quantify the soil-atmosphere N 2 O exchanges. The important zones of N 2 O production in the profile were identified by less frequent measurements of subsurface gas concentrations. Soil nitrogen, soil bulk density, and soil pH were measured at each site. Preliminary results reveal that spatial and temporal variability in surface emissions are very high and that there is a difference in the magnitude of fluxes between harvested and intact forest pairs

  11. Catch rates as indicators of ecosystem health and exploitation status in the shrimp fishery in the South China sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen; van Thi, Dang

    2008-01-01

    that might reflect seasonality in shrimp recruitment was found, making this resource potentially suitable for a fishery management system based on closed seasons. Further, the data indicate that the major part of the catches are comprised of low value species belonging to the genera Parapenaeopsis; whereas......Based on catch and effort data analyses covering the period 1996-2002, time series of catch rates in the trawl fisheries in the South China Sea along the coasts of Bac Lieu and Ca Mau in South East Vietnam were estimated. The indicators include catch rates for total shrimp catch, five major shrimp...... the most valuable species, i.e. the Penaeus and Metapenaeus catch groups have been significantly depleted during the period investigated. Based on the experiences from the present analysis, recommendations are presented with regard to adjustments of the enumerator data collection programme to fulfil...

  12. Zooplankton mortality in 3D ecosystem modelling considering variable spatial–temporal fish consumptions in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Rindorf, Anna; Møller, Eva Friis

    2014-01-01

    We tested the feasibility of imposing mesozooplankton mortality into a 3D model based on estimated consumption rates of the dominant planktivorous fish in the North Sea-Kattegat area. The spatial biomass distribution of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus....... The fish larvae grazing pressure was obtained from a spatial, size-based larval community model. In this model, larvae, herring and sandeel were the most important fish predators on mesozooplankton, but these groups had different spatial and temporal (seasonal) distributions. Fish larvae were particularly......, production and mortality. In the present study, the index was kept relatively simple and can be further developed with respect to the description of fish as well carnivorous zooplankton ingestion rates. The data input required to create the fish index is i) planktivorous fish stock biomasses and ii) relative...

  13. Concentration factors of radionuclides and trace metals in Mytilus galloprovincialis in an estuarine ecosystem - North Aegean Sea - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florou, H.; Catsiki, A.B.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Chaloulou, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bio-indicator organisms (Mussel watch program of CIESM) because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in terms of biological availability in the marine environment. In the present study, the levels of 137 Cs, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn were measured in Mytilus galloprovincialis caught from Thermaikos gulf in North Aegean Sea Greece. The samples were collected seasonally from two aqua-cultures during the period 2000 2003. Measured and published concentrations of the above elements in seawater were used for the evaluation of concentration factors by applying a linear and a non-linear regression analysis. The variation in between the two stations and the seasonal evolution of bioaccumulation of the examined elements was also investigated. Some data on the concentrations of the measured elements in sediments from the area considered were evaluated as for determining the pollution conditions of the organism habitat. (author)

  14. Community metabolism and air-sea CO[sub 2] fluxes in a coral reef ecosystem (Moorea, French Polynesia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gattuso, J P; Pichon, M; Delesalle, B; Frankignoulle, M [Observatory of European Oceanology (Monaco)

    1993-06-01

    Community metabolism (primary production, respiration and calcification) and air-sea CO[sub 2] fluxes of the 'Tiahura barrier reef' (Moorea, French Polynesia) were investigated in November and December 1991. Gross production and respiration were respectively 640.2 to 753 and 590.4 to 641.5 mmol (O[sub 2] or CO[sub 2]) m[sup 2] d[sup -1] (7.7 to 9.0 and 7.1 to 7.7 g C m)[sup 2] d[sup -1] and the reef displayed a slightly negative excess (net) production. The contribution of planktonic primary production to reef metabolism was negligible (0.15% of total gross production). Net calcification was positive both during the day and at night; its daily value was 243 mmol CaCO[sub 3] m[sup 2] d[sup -1] (24.3 g CaCO)[sub 3] m[sup -2] d[sup -1]. Reef metabolism decreased seawater total CO[sub 2] by 433.3 mmol m[sup 2] d[sup -1]. The air-sea CO[sub 2] fluxes were close to zero in the ocean but displayed a strong daily pattern at the reef front and the back reef. Fluxes were positive (CO[sub 2] evasion) at night, decreased as irradiance increased and were negative during the day (CO[sub 2] invasion). Integration of the fluxes measured during a 24 h experiment at the back reef showed that the reef was a source of CO[sub 2] to the atmosphere (1.5 mmol m[sup 2] d[sup -1]).

  15. Trophodynamics of the Hanna Shoal Ecosystem (Chukchi Sea, Alaska): Connecting multiple end-members to a rich food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTigue, N. D.; Dunton, K. H.

    2017-10-01

    Predicting how alterations in sea ice-mediated primary production will impact Arctic food webs remains a challenge in forecasting ecological responses to climate change. One top-down approach to this challenge is to elucidate trophic roles of consumers as either specialists (i.e., consumers of predominantly one food resource) or generalists (i.e., consumers of multiple food resources) to categorize the dependence of consumers on each primary producer. At Hanna Shoal in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska, we used stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data to quantify trophic redundancy with standard ellipse areas at both the species and trophic guild levels. We also investigated species-level trophic plasticity by analyzing the varying extents that three end-members were assimilated by the food web using the mixing model simmr (Stable Isotope Mixing Model in R). Our results showed that ice algae, a combined phytoplankton and sediment organic matter composite (PSOM), and a hypothesized microphytobenthos (MPB) component were incorporated by consumers in the benthic food web, but their importance varied by species. Some primary consumers relied heavily on PSOM (e.g, the amphipods Ampelisca sp. and Byblis sp.; the copepod Calanus sp.), while others exhibited generalist feeding and obtained nutrition from multiple sources (e.g., the holothuroidean Ocnus glacialis, the gastropod Tachyrhynchus sp., the sipunculid Golfingia margaritacea, and the bivalves Ennucula tenuis, Nuculana pernula, Macoma sp., and Yoldia hyperborea). Most higher trophic level benthic predators, including the gastropods Buccinum sp., Cryptonatica affinis, and Neptunea sp, the seastar Leptasterias groenlandica, and the amphipod Anonyx sp. also exhibited trophic plasticity by coupling energy pathways from multiple primary producers including PSOM, ice algae, and MPB. Our stable isotope data indicate that consumers in the Hanna Shoal food web exhibit considerable trophic redundancy, while few species were specialists

  16. Coupled Ecosystem/Supply Chain Modelling of Fish Products from Sea to Shelf: The Peruvian Anchoveta Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avadí, Angel; Fréon, Pierre; Tam, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption) supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension) of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional), and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish) and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1), increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2), and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3). It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities. PMID:25003196

  17. Coupled ecosystem/supply chain modelling of fish products from sea to shelf: the Peruvian anchoveta case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Avadí

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional, and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1, increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2, and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3. It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities.

  18. Coupled ecosystem/supply chain modelling of fish products from sea to shelf: the Peruvian anchoveta case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avadí, Angel; Fréon, Pierre; Tam, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption) supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension) of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional), and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish) and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1), increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2), and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3). It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities.

  19. The dynamics of nutrient enrichment and primary production related to the recent changes in the ecosystem of the Black Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A; Yayla, M; Salihoglu, I [Middle East Technical University, Institute of Marine Sciences, Erdemli-Icel (Turkey); Morkoc, E [Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council (TUBITAK), Marmara Research Center, Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey)

    1999-07-01

    During the spring period of 1998, light penetrated into the upper 25-35 m, with an attenuation coefficient varying between 0.1 and 0.5 m{sup -1}. The chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations for the euphotic zone ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Coherent sub-surface Chl-a maxima were formed near the base of the euphotic zone and a secondary one was located at very low level of light in the Rim Current region. Production rates varied between 450 and 690 mgC/m{sup 2}/d in this period. The chemocline boundaries and the distinct chemical features of the oxic/anoxic transition layer (the so-called suboxic zone) are all located at specific density surfaces; however, they exhibited remarkable spatial variations both in their position and in their magnitude. Bioassay experiments (using extra NO{sub 3}, NH{sub 4}, PO{sub 4} and Si) performed during Spring 1998 cruise showed that under optimum light conditions the phytoplankton population is nitrate limited in the open waters. Phosphate seems to control the growth in the Rim Current regions of the southern Black Sea. Si concentration also influenced the phytoplankton growth since the majority of the population was determined as diatom. (author) 30 refs, 5 figs

  20. The dynamics of nutrient enrichment and primary production related to the recent changes in the ecosystem of the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A.; Yayla, M.; Salihoglu, I.; Morkoc, E.

    1999-01-01

    During the spring period of 1998, light penetrated into the upper 25-35 m, with an attenuation coefficient varying between 0.1 and 0.5 m -1 . The chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations for the euphotic zone ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 μg l -1 . Coherent sub-surface Chl-a maxima were formed near the base of the euphotic zone and a secondary one was located at very low level of light in the Rim Current region. Production rates varied between 450 and 690 mgC/m 2 /d in this period. The chemocline boundaries and the distinct chemical features of the oxic/anoxic transition layer (the so-called suboxic zone) are all located at specific density surfaces; however, they exhibited remarkable spatial variations both in their position and in their magnitude. Bioassay experiments (using extra NO 3 , NH 4 , PO 4 and Si) performed during Spring 1998 cruise showed that under optimum light conditions the phytoplankton population is nitrate limited in the open waters. Phosphate seems to control the growth in the Rim Current regions of the southern Black Sea. Si concentration also influenced the phytoplankton growth since the majority of the population was determined as diatom. (author)

  1. Projections of change in key ecosystem indicators for planning and management of marine protected areas: An example study for European seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Susan; Butenschön, Momme

    2018-02-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely used as tools to maintain biodiversity, protect habitats and ensure that development is sustainable. If MPAs are to maintain their role into the future it is important for managers to understand how conditions at these sites may change as a result of climate change and other drivers, and this understanding needs to extend beyond temperature to a range of key ecosystem indicators. This case study demonstrates how spatially-aggregated model results for multiple variables can provide useful projections for MPA planners and managers. Conditions in European MPAs have been projected for the 2040s using unmitigated and globally managed scenarios of climate change and river management, and hence high and low emissions of greenhouse gases and riverborne nutrients. The results highlight the vulnerability of potential refuge sites in the north-west Mediterranean and the need for careful monitoring at MPAs to the north and west of the British Isles, which may be affected by changes in Atlantic circulation patterns. The projections also support the need for more MPAs in the eastern Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea, and can inform the selection of sites.

  2. Evaluation of petroleum products pricing regulation in Nova Scotia : a 2 year review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    Gasoline price regulation was introduced in Nova Scotia on July 1st, 2006. This report presented the findings and recommendations of a review of the first two years of the gasoline price regulation in Nova Scotia. The regulations had three main objectives. This review examined whether, and to what extent, they were achieved. The objectives were to stabilize price, maintain industry infrastructure, and minimize cost to consumers. The report described the rationale for the regulation, study objectives, and approach taken to gasoline regulation in Nova Scotia, including the objectives and technical aspects of how regulation works. The gasoline market in Nova Scotia was examined, including the market structure and competitive behaviour in an unregulated market. The report also provided some theoretical perspectives on how regulation was likely to affect industry structure and competitive behaviour. The extent to which the regulation was meeting its objectives was then assessed and perspectives on the regulation from consumers, retailers and wholesalers were offered. Last, the report provided a review of the findings in terms of the key elements of regulatory design and set out recommendations for improving the system. It was recommended that in order to improve certainty, particularly given the regulated price differences amongst grades, the regulations should be amended to include grade specifications referencing octane ratings. tabs., figs

  3. Regional Patterns of Ethnicity in Nova Scotia: A Geographical Study. Ethnic Heritage Series, Volume VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Hugh A.

    In this sixth volume of the Ethnic Heritage Series, the pattern of ethnicity in Nova Scotia (Canada) is examined by deriving indices of diversity for counties and larger towns. The historical development of ethnic patterns from 1767 to 1971 and recent changes in the ethnic pattern are discussed. Ethnic origin data is mapped for 1871 and 1971 and…

  4. Consultation paper : Nova Scotia's renewed energy strategy and climate change action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    The Nova Scotia Department of Energy is seeking to create a sustainable and prosperous Nova Scotia that is responsive to climate change. The purpose of this report was to inform public discussion around two upcoming documents, namely the renewed energy strategy focusing on broad energy policy and a climate change action plan for Nova Scotia to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discussed mitigation measures, as it is closely tied with energy use. The consultation process to inform the two documents was to include public forums and direct stakeholder consultation. The report discussed Nova Scotia's strategy for dealing with climate change and the world of energy. Recent changes in energy prices, exploration, awareness, and emerging but uncertain technologies were presented. Long term planning and a review of policy changes were also addressed. The report also presented options for a renewed energy strategy and discussed air quality; energy conservation and efficiency; electricity; natural gas; energy opportunities; government action; and government intervention. Submissions were also sought as input to the discussion paper. refs., tabs., figs., appendices

  5. Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board annual report, 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board was established as the agency responsible for the regulation of the hydrocarbon resources in the Nova Scotia offshore. The Board evaluates resource potential, administers petroleum exploration and production rights, approves offshore activities, and approves benefits and development plans. The main activities of the Board in 1992-1993 are summarized and financial statements are presented. Highlights include production of 572,300 m 3 of oil during the first production season of LASMO Nova Scotia Ltd.'s Cohasset development, the first commercial offshore oil production for Canada; four major resource evaluation projects in the Glenelg Field, the Laurentian sub-basin, the Fundy Rift Basin, and the Panuke Field; holding of discussions between Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Canada on the maritime boundary lines between respective offshore petroleum board jurisdictions, in the wake of a June 1992 determination of the disputed maritime boundary around St. Pierre et Miquelon; and amendments of certain safety-related legislation applicable to offshore operations. Employment benefits of the Cohasset project during 1992 totalled ca 470 Nova Scotians and 120 other Canadians. 3 tabs

  6. Herself: Elle-Meme. Report of the Nova Scotia Task Force on the Status of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova Scotia Task Force on the Status of Women, Halifax.

    This report to the Canadian Government from the Nova Scotia Women's Task Force examines the social issues and problems pertaining to the women's movement in that province. Discussions are provided on the situations and attitudes toward homemakers, working women, marriage, divorce, child care, education, health, and political participation.…

  7. Photophysiology and cellular composition of sea ice algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizotte, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The productivity of sea ice algae depends on their physiological capabilities and the environmental conditions within various microhabitats. Pack ice is the dominant form of sea ice, but the photosynthetic activity of associated algae has rarely been studied. Biomass and photosynthetic rates of ice algae of the Weddell-Scotia Sea were investigated during autumn and winter, the period when ice cover grows from its minimum to maximum. Biomass-specific photosynthetic rates typically ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 μg C · μg chl -1 · h -1 higher than land-fast ice algae but similar to Antarctic phytoplankton. Primary production in the pack ice during winter may be minor compared to annual phytoplankton production, but could represent a vital seasonal contribution to the Antarctic ecosystem. Nutrient supply may limit the productivity of ice algae. In McMurdo Sound, congelation ice algae appeared to be more nutrient deficient than underlying platelet ice algae based on: lower nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, and protein:carbohydrate; and 14 C-photosynthate distribution to proteins and phospholipids was lower, while distribution to polysaccharides and neutral lipids was higher. Depletion of nitrate led to decreased nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, protein:carbohydrate, and 14 C-photosynthate to proteins. Studied were conducted during the spring bloom; therefore, nutrient limitation may only apply to dense ice algal communities. Growth limiting conditions may be alleviated when algae are released into seawater during the seasonal recession of the ice cover. To continue growth, algae must adapt to the variable light field encountered in a mixed water column. Photoadaptation was studied in surface ice communities and in bottom ice communities

  8. Creating Cohesive Community Through Shared Reading: A Case Study of One Book Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Harder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One Book Nova Scotia is described on the program’s website as “a province-wide community reading event for adults.” Formally programmed events have included the book announcement and launch, a series of author readings, and book discussions, both face to face and through Twitter. This paper analyzes the success of the One Book Nova Scotia program in achieving its goals of developing a reading culture and community in the province of Nova Scotia based on the findings of a participant survey, distributed in both 2012 and 2013, and an analysis of the 2013 Twitter discussion. This analysis reveals that participants tended to be well-educated females, aged 50-59, and often employed in libraries, bookselling or publishing, or news media. The goal of developing or participating in a reading community was a compelling motivator for many respondents. Although many respondents indicated their desire to be part of a reading community, Twitter was not proven to be an effective forum for fostering conversation or debate related to One Book Nova Scotia. Building on the analysis, the paper concludes with some recommendations to improve the effectiveness of future programs. These recommendations include the selection of a book with strong regional connections, an expansion of publicity methods, an increase in lead time between the announcement of the book title and the start of programming, and a more strategic use of Twitter as a discussion forum. Although these recommendations arise from the specific analysis of the One Book Nova Scotia reading program, they are general enough to apply to other One Book, One Community programs.

  9. Shoreface translation and the Holocene stratigraphic record: Examples from Nova Scotia, the Mississippi Delta and eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Ron; Penland, S.

    1984-01-01

    Classic descriptive models of barrier sedimentation have been developed with data from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These models are dominated by low to moderate rates of relative sea level (RSL) rise and wave energy. Barriers respond by landward recycling of sediment through the mechanism of shoreface retreat. Sedimentation processes on the central coast of New South Wales (N.S.W.), Australia, consist of rapid RSL rise in early Holocene times followed by a stillstand since 6500 B.P. Wave energy is relatively high year-round and sand sources for barrier formation are only found on the inner shelf. Barrier sedimentation on the central coast of N.S.W. exhibits a thick, composite sequence composed of a basal marine transgressive sand overlain by regressive beach and dune facies. The Louisiana coast surrounding the Mississippi delta is underlain by compacting deltaic muds which generate very rapid rates of RSL rise. The Louisiana coast experiences low wave energy punctuated by high-energy tropical and extra-tropical storm events. Barrier sediments accumulate from the erosion of deltaic headlands and undergo a transformation from subaerial barrier island systems to subaqueous shoals located on the inner shelf. Drumlins experience coastal erosion on the Eastern Shore of Nova Scotia and provide a sediment source for compartmented estuary mouth barriers. An ongoing, moderate rise of RSL results from the passage of a glacial forebulge. Wave energy is intermediate between Louisiana and N.S.W. and displays a seasonal pattern dominated by frequent winter storms. Coastal barrier sedimentation is episodic, consisting of a period of beach ridge progradation followed by barrier destruction and re-establishment further landward. The three contrasting sedimentary sequences found in examples from Louisiana, N.S.W. and Nova Scotia indicate that presently available sedimentation models from locations such as the middle Atlantic or Texas coasts of the United States

  10. Bacterial-viral interactions in the sea surface microlayer of a black carbon-dominated tropical coastal ecosystem (Halong Bay, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Pradeep Ram

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing human activity has raised concerns about the impact of deposition of anthropogenic combustion aerosols (i.e., black carbon; BC on marine processes. The sea surface microlayer (SML is a key gate for the introduction of atmospheric BC into the ocean; however, relatively little is known of the effects of BC on bacteria-virus interactions, which can strongly influence microbially mediated processes. To study the impact of BC on bacteria-virus interactions, field investigations involving collection from the SML and underlying water were carried out in Halong Bay (Vietnam. Most inorganic nutrient concentrations, as well as dissolved organic carbon, were modestly but significantly higher ('p' = 0.02–0.05 in the SML than in underlying water. The concentrations of particulate organic carbon (though not chlorophyll 'a' and of total particulate carbon, which was composed largely of particulate BC (mean = 1.7 ± 6.4 mmol L–1, were highly enriched in the SML, and showed high variability among stations. On average, microbial abundances (both bacteria and viruses and bacterial production were 2- and 5fold higher, respectively, in the SML than in underlying water. Significantly lower bacterial production ('p' 3 μm compared to the bulk sample, but our data overall suggest that bacterial production in the SML was stimulated by particulate BC. Higher bacterial production in the SML than in underlying water supported high viral lytic infection rates (from 5.3 to 30.1% which predominated over percent lysogeny (from undetected to 1.4%. The sorption of dissolved organic carbon by black carbon, accompanied by the high lytic infection rate in the black carbon-enriched SML, may modify microbially mediated processes and shift the net ecosystem metabolism (ratio of production and respiration to net heterotrophy and CO2 production in this critical layer between ocean and atmosphere.

  11. Deep seismic studies of conjugate profiles from the Nova Scotia - Moroccan and the Liguro-Provencal margin pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Biari, Y.; Sahabi, M.; Aslanian, D.; Philippe, S.; Schnabel, M.; Moulin, M.; Louden, K. E.; Funck, T.; Reichert, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The structure of conjugate passive margins provides information about rifting styles, opening of an ocean and formation of it's associated sedimentary basins. In order to distinguish between tectonic inheritance and structures directly related to rifting of passive margins conjugate profiles have to be acquired on margins on diverse locations and different ages. In this study we use new and existing reflection and wide-angle seismic data from two margin pairs, the 200 Ma year old Nova-Scotia - Morocco margin pair and the only 20 Ma Gulf of Lions - Sardinia margin pair. On both margin pairs wide-angle seismic data combined with reflection seismic data were acquired on conjugate profiles on sea and extended on land. Forward modelling of the deep crustal structure along the four transects indicates that a high velocity zone (HVZ) (> 7.2 km/s) is present at the base of the lower crust on all four margins along the ocean-continental transition zone (OCT). This may represent either exhumed upper mantle material or injection of upper mantle material into proto-oceanic crust at the onset of sea-floor spreading. However the width of the HVZ might strongly differ between conjugates, which may be the result of tectonic inheritance, for example the presence of ancient subduction zones or orogens. Both margin pairs show a similar unthinned continental crustal thickness. Crustal thinning and upper-to-lower crustal thickness vary between margin pairs, but remain nearly symmetric on conjugate profiles and might therefore depend on the structure and mechanical properties of the original continental crust. For the Mediterranean margin pair, the oceanic crust is similar on both sides, with a thickness of only 4-5 km. For the Atlantic margin pair, oceanic crustal thickness is higher on the Moroccan Margin, a fact that can be explained by either asymmetric spreading or by the volcanic underplating, possibly originating from the Canary Hot Spot.

  12. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal,...

  13. More than wind: evaluating renewable energy opportunities for First Nations in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Diana [MREM Canada (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    The Nova Scotia and New Brunswick governments have committed to developing the renewable energy sector in the coming years. However, due to a lack of information, First Nations are not familiar with renewable energy technologies and their economic opportunities. The aim of this paper is to provide First Nations with information on the different renewable energies. It has been noticed that First Nations have not seized either the opportunities offered by the Nova Scotia feed-in tariff nor the New Brunswick community energy policy and an overview of these policies is provided. In addition, information on renewable energy technologies is presented along with potential opportunities specific to each First Nation in the 2 provinces. This paper provides First Nations with useful information on renewable energy and with recommendations for immediate and long term action; it is expected that this document will result in a greater involvement of First Nations in the renewable energy sector.

  14. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline following the grounding of the tanker `Arrow`. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  15. Proceedings of Nova Scotia's 2006 energy research and development forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Nova Scotia 2006 energy research and development forum provided a venue for experts from industry, research institutions and government to discuss how research and development will shape the future of energy in the province. The forum was divided into 3 sessions: (1) building knowledge about the marine environment, (2) building knowledge about geoscience, and (3) building knowledge about sustainable energy. A wide ranges of issues related to the Nova Scotia region included whale identification; fisheries mapping; the commercialization of hydrocarbon discoveries; carbon capture and storage and petroleum system analysis and prospect evaluation. Keynote addresses were presented on produced water in Norway; deepwater exploration in Morocco; renewable energy and Canada's role as an energy superpower. The conference featured more than 57 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Crude costs: a framework for a full-cost accounting analysis of oil and gas exploration off Cape Breton, Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landon, L.; Pannozzo, L.

    2001-12-01

    Defined as the total quantity of all goods and services produced and the total money earned and spent, the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure used to determine how well an economy is doing. For its part, the Genuine Progress Index (GPI) measures 26 variables and was first developed in 1995. In Nova Scotia, a set of 20 social, economic and environmental indicators are examined to obtain a better picture of the well-being of the region and determine if the development is sustainable over time. The authors explained their approach based on the use of GPI analysis to assist decision makers in identifying the real costs and benefits of different options applied to the oil and gas exploration situation off Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. The document is divided into five parts as follows: (1) Part 1: introduction, (2) Part 2: natural capital and the impacts of oil and gas development, (3) Part 3: social capital and the economic value of fishing and tourism, (4) Part 4: the real cost of oil and gas, and (5) Part 5: recommendations. Some of the recommendations call for the further study of cumulative and sub-lethal effects from petroleum development, the establishment of Marine Protected Areas preceded by a moratorium on oil and gas exploration in the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence and Sydney Bight areas until the establishment of the Areas is made, and that future environmental assessments concerning oil and gas development to address the impacts on species and ecosystems as a whole. 209 refs., 11 tabs., 4 figs

  17. Province of Nova Scotia Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee First Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes the group discussions of the Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee's (EMGC) over the past 6 months regarding the implementation of new rules for power competition in Nova Scotia's electricity market. Emphasis has been placed on external influences, defining the size and form of the short-term competitive portion of the Nova Scotia market, and a detailed consideration of the current transmission system and the changes needed to achieve a sustainable, world class energy sector that would enhance the quality of life for Nova Scotians. The report provides recommendations regarding how competition can be encouraged. The main drivers for electricity restructuring have been energy efficiency, risk-allocation, reliability, environmental impact, and consumer protection. The external influences on the Nova Scotia electricity market include: (1) economics of electricity restructuring, (2) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, (3) New Brunswick and electricity restructuring, and (4) Nova Scotia and the energy strategy. This report described the market scope and basic market model with reference to bilateral contract market, fully competitive wholesale pool market, and a single buyer market. The transmission issues discussed in this report included the importance of transmission, transmission tariff options, transmission services offered, design issues, and congestion management policies. The EMGC was directed to examine market design issues to accommodate an Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT). As such, this report identifies some transmission issues that must be resolved to implement tariffs, and conditions of access to the transmission system and its impact on open access market design. The final report is expected to be available in March 2003

  18. The ambient air quality accounts for the Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, A.; Colman, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index (GPI) is a measure of sustainable development which provides a complete and accurate picture of our well-being as a society. The GPI assigns explicit values to environmental quality, population health, livelihood security, equity, free time, and educational attainment. The Nova Scotia GPI includes 22 social, economic and environmental components, including ambient air quality. This report investigates Nova Scotia's ambient air concentrations and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The costs of damages caused by the these key air pollutants are also examined. Exposure to these pollutants results in negative impacts on human health, damage to materials, agricultural crops and changes in forest productivity. From 1979 to 1996, national ambient concentrations of each of these pollutants decreased significantly. However, the national average concentration of ground-level ozone increased by 34 per cent during the same time period. In Nova Scotia, concentrations of CO, PM and SO 2 have declined dramatically since 1979, but the trends for NO 2 and ground-level ozone do not show significant declines. On a per capita basis, SOx emissions from electric power generation in the province are more than 8 times the Canadian average. The province also had higher per capita emissions of CO, PM, SOx and VOCs than all reporting OECD countries. Electric power generation is the greatest source of fuel combustion emissions in the province, followed by industrial and transportation sources. This report also described some individual actions that can be taken to reduce air pollutant emissions. 174 refs., 37 tabs., 60 figs

  19. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of children with Lyme arthritis in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaude, Pier Diane; Huber, Adam M; Mailman, Timothy; Ramsey, Suzanne; Lang, Bianca; Stringer, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Lyme disease is an emerging problem in Nova Scotia. Lyme arthritis is a late manifestation of Lyme disease. To describe the demographic characteristics, referral patterns and clinical course of children diagnosed with Lyme arthritis in a tertiary care pediatric rheumatology clinic in Nova Scotia. In the present retrospective chart review, subjects diagnosed with Lyme arthritis between 2006 and 2013 were identified through the clinic database. Demographic variables, referral patterns, clinical presentation and information regarding treatment course and outcome were collected. Seventeen patients were identified; 76% presented in 2012 and 2013. In 37.5% of cases, the referring physician suspected Lyme disease. Most patients presented with one or more painful and/or swollen joints; 94% had knee involvement. Only three of 17 patients had a history of erythema migrans and four of 17 recalled a tick bite. Five patients had a history of neurological manifestations consistent with Lyme disease, although, none had a diagnosis made at the time. Arthritis usually resolved after treatment with standard antibiotics; however, at last follow-up, two patients had antibiotic refractory Lyme arthritis, with one having joint damage despite aggressive arthritis treatment. A significant increase in cases of Lyme arthritis has recently been recognized in a pediatric rheumatology clinic in Nova Scotia. A history of a tick bite or erythema migrans were not sensitive markers of Lyme arthritis, and this diagnosis was often not considered by the referring physician. Educational initiatives should be undertaken to increase local awareness of this treatable cause of arthritis in children.

  20. Petroleum products price regulation in Nov Scotia : a six-month review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Gasoline pricing regulation was introduced in July 2006 in order to achieve the following 3 main objectives: (1) stabilize prices by reducing the frequency of price changes and creating more uniform pricing across the province, (2) maintain industry infrastructure by slowing or halting the decline in the dealer network, particularly in rural areas, by improving viability through regulated margins, and (3) minimize the cost to consumers since higher prices are expected to result from the actions needed to maintain price stability and the higher margins needed to maintain industry infrastructure. This report examined the extent to which these objectives were achieved and contained the findings and recommendations of a review of the first six months of gasoline price regulation in Nova Scotia. The report discussed the rationale for regulation, study objectives, approach, and warning signs. It also discussed gasoline regulation in Nova Scotia including how regulation works and implementing regulation. The Nova Scotia gasoline market was presented with reference to industry structure; pre-regulation competition and pricing; and how regulation may affect structure and competition. Last, the report discussed whether regulation was meeting the objectives and perspectives on regulation. Several recommendations were presented, such as reducing the benchmark price adjustment period from two weeks to one week; removing the price cap on full-serve gasoline; adopting a fixed and transparent formula for forward averaging and applying it at each adjustment; and considering a framework for regulatory review. 12 refs., 15 figs

  1. Hydrothermal and Chemosynthetic Ecosystems in the Southern Ocean: Current Knowledge on their Biology Paper 217790

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, K.; Rogers, A. D.; Bohrmann, G.; Copley, J.; Tyler, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The existence of hydrothermal and other chemosynthetic ecosystems is not surprising in the Antarctic, with its active volcanoes, mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins, and abundance of marine mammals. In the last two decades a variety of active chemosynthetic ecosystems have been discovered in the Southern Ocean, including low- and high-temperature hydrothermal vents, methane seeps, and whalefalls. Here a summary of the data from the known chemosynthetic communites will be presented, comparing the faunas of vent sites in the Bransfield Strait with those of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) and the South Sandwich Arc, assessing the fauna at the South Georgia methane seep sites, and discussing the fauna on Antarctic whale falls. As the faunal assemblages of the ESR vents are the most studied in detail to date, this talk therefore focusses on the diversity and composition of the ESR macrofaunal assemblages, their foodweb structure and microdistributions in relation to fluid chemistry and microbiology, and their phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships. The Southern Ocean drives the global ocean conveyor belt, and is suggested to be the centre of origin for global deep-sea fauna, as well as a region of high deep-sea species diversity. In the context of chemosynthetic environments, it may provide a gateway connecting the global vent and seep systems. The mostly endemic species of Southern Ocean vent macrofauna show links to either one or more oceans (Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific), with some evidence for circum-Antarctic connection. The ESR species Gigantopelta chessoia, Kiwa tyleri and Vulcanolepas scotiaensis have their closest known relatives at the Longqi Vent Field on the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), and one species of polynoid polychaete is known from ESR and SWIR vents. Meanwhile, Lepetdrilus sp. and a vesiocomyid clam are linked with species in the Atlantic vent fields. The stichasterid Paulasterias tyleri, the polychaete Rarricirrus jennae and the anthozoan

  2. Towards an impact assessment of bauxite red mud waste on the knowledge of the structure and functions of bathyal ecosystems: The example of the Cassidaigne canyon (north-western Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Since 1967, the alumina plants in the Marseilles area (Barasse and Gardanne) have been discharging the mineral residue (i.e., red mud) resulting from the alkaline processing of bauxite into the submarine Cassidaigne canyon (north-western Mediterranean Sea) through pipes situated at 320-330 m in depth. The Barasse pipe stopped being used in 1988. From 1987 to 1996, many decrees and regulations were promulgated by the French State to rule the conditions under which the Gardanne alumina refinery was authorized to dispose of the bauxite residue in the sea. The refinery was required: (i) to study the hydrodynamic circulation in the Cassidaigne canyon to evaluate the potential dispersion and transport of fine elements discharged into the water mass and their impact on the pelagic ecosystem; (ii) to survey the marine environment every five years to control the expansion and thickness of the red mud deposit and compare the evolution of the benthic macrofauna at representative sampling sites in the environment affected by the red mud discharge with that of reference sites outside of the red mud plume; (iii) to study the effect of the discharge on fishing activities; and (iv) to investigate the toxicity of the red mud, particularly its persistence, accumulation, interaction and effect on the marine ecosystem, paying special attention to the bio-accumulation of chromium and vanadium. A Scientific Committee was created to insure an independent evaluation of the studies promised by the manufacturer in response to the State's regulations. Since the beginning of the 1960s, data have been accumulating on the structure and long-term functioning of the Cassidaigne bathyal ecosystem. This paper presents the collaborative efforts of the State-Manufacturer-Committee triplet and summarizes the main results obtained during the last period's sea campaigns (1991-2007). This paper also illustrates how national regulations concerning manufacturers, such as Gardanne alumina refinery, have

  3. Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.

  4. Ecosystem monitoring information collected in Hanna Shoal in the Chukchi Sea for the COMIDA CAB project from August 2012 to August 2013 (NODC Accession 0123220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains physical, chemical, and biological data collected during research cruises for the Hanna Shoal Ecosystem Study. The study occurred at 138...

  5. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K.; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2017-01-01

    We merge inclusive wealth theory with ecosystem-based management (EBM) to address two challenges in the science of sustainable management of ecosystems. First, we generalize natural capital theory to approximate realized shadow prices for multiple interacting natural capital stocks (species) making up an ecosystem. These prices enable ecosystem components to be better included in wealth-based sustainability measures. We show that ecosystems are best envisioned as portfolios of assets, where the portfolio’s performance depends on the performance of the underlying assets influenced by their interactions. Second, changes in ecosystem wealth provide an attractive headline index for EBM, regardless of whether ecosystem wealth is ultimately included in a broader wealth index. We apply our approach to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, focusing on the interacting community of three commercially important fish species: cod, herring, and sprat. Our results incorporate supporting services embodied in the shadow price of a species through its trophic interactions. Prey fish have greater shadow prices than expected based on market value, and predatory fish have lower shadow prices than expected based on market value. These results are because correctly measured shadow prices reflect interdependence and limits to substitution. We project that ecosystem wealth in the Baltic Sea fishery ecosystem generally increases conditional on the EBM-inspired multispecies maximum sustainable yield management beginning in 2017, whereas continuing the current single-species management generally results in declining wealth. PMID:28588145

  6. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K; Fenichel, Eli P

    2017-06-20

    We merge inclusive wealth theory with ecosystem-based management (EBM) to address two challenges in the science of sustainable management of ecosystems. First, we generalize natural capital theory to approximate realized shadow prices for multiple interacting natural capital stocks (species) making up an ecosystem. These prices enable ecosystem components to be better included in wealth-based sustainability measures. We show that ecosystems are best envisioned as portfolios of assets, where the portfolio's performance depends on the performance of the underlying assets influenced by their interactions. Second, changes in ecosystem wealth provide an attractive headline index for EBM, regardless of whether ecosystem wealth is ultimately included in a broader wealth index. We apply our approach to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, focusing on the interacting community of three commercially important fish species: cod, herring, and sprat. Our results incorporate supporting services embodied in the shadow price of a species through its trophic interactions. Prey fish have greater shadow prices than expected based on market value, and predatory fish have lower shadow prices than expected based on market value. These results are because correctly measured shadow prices reflect interdependence and limits to substitution. We project that ecosystem wealth in the Baltic Sea fishery ecosystem generally increases conditional on the EBM-inspired multispecies maximum sustainable yield management beginning in 2017, whereas continuing the current single-species management generally results in declining wealth.

  7. Modelling hydrological conditions in the maritime forest region of south-western Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Shelagh; Keys, Kevin; Meng, Fan-Rui; Yin, Xiwei; Clair, Tom; Arp, Paul A.

    2000-02-01

    Hydrological processes and conditions were quantified for the Mersey River Basin (two basins: one exiting below Mill Falls, and one exiting below George Lake), the Roger's Brook Basin, Moosepit Brook, and for other selected locations at and near Kejimkujik National Park in Nova Scotia, Canada, from 1967 to 1990. Addressed variables included precipitation (rain, snow, fog), air temperature, stream discharge, snowpack accumulations, throughfall, soil and subsoil moisture, soil temperature and soil frost, at a monthly resolution. It was found that monthly per hectare stream discharge was essentially independent of catchment area from interception and soil percolation.

  8. The electrification of Nova Scotia, 1884--1973: Technological modernization as a response to regional disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lionel Bradley

    This dissertation investigates local attempts to use technology as a force for regional rehabilitation in the economically-depressed Maritime region of Canada. At the time of Confederation in 1867, the Maritime province of Nova Scotia was prosperous, progressive, and cultured. By the end of the 1910s, the province had entered a long period of economic and social decline. Recent historiography has shown that, far from passively accepting their fate, Nova Scotians and other Maritimers, actively resisted marginalization with political, cultural, or social action. The thesis expands upon that literature by exploring technology-based strategies of provincial rehabilitation using Thomas P. Hughes's systems perspective and David E. Nye's semiotic approach. In doing so, it applies methods from the social constructivist school of the history of technology to the larger concerns of Maritime Canadian historiography. In large part, the North American culture of technology determined the ways in which Nova Scotians applied technological solutions to provincial concerns. Technology has long been central to the Western idea of progress. As the "high technology" of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, electricity reinforced that view: its ephemeral nature and silent efficiency led people to endow it with transformative, even mystical, powers. As a result, Nova Scotians, adopted a program of electrical modernization in the late 1910s as a remedy for regional disparity. The Nova Scotia government's first step was the creation of an Ontario-style hydroelectric commission designed to bring order to the province's fragmented and inefficient electrical network. Over the next few decades, the Nova Scotia Power Commission implemented rural electrification, home modernization, and regional system-building models that had already proven successful in Ontario and the United States. The system-building philosophies behind these programs were adapted to local conditions and

  9. Environmental and public interface for Point Aconi generating station, Point Aconi, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toner, T P

    1993-01-01

    Nova Scotia Power's most recent generating station is a 165 MW coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) unit located at Point Aconi on the northern tip of Boularderie Island. This paper discusses the environmental and public interfaces associated with this project, particularly on the unique items and issues requiring delicate and/or innovative approaches for their successful completion. Specific issues discussed include clarification of the process, the turnkey arrangement, the community liaison committee, freshwater supply, air emissions and dealings with commercial growers, dealings with lobster fishermen, dealings with Native peoples, and the transmission line.

  10. Internationally Educated Female Teachers who have Immigrated to Nova Scotia: A Research/Performance Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Walsh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research/performance text emerged from a study involving internationally educated female teachers who have immigrated to Atlantic Canada. The text features the words and artwork of the research participants as well as excerpts from newspapers, academic writing, and documents about immigration in Nova Scotia juxtaposed so as to foreground the complexity of the women's immigration and integration experiences. Introductory comments provide contextual information about the research project, the participants, and the evolution of, as well as rationale for, the text as performance piece.

  11. "I feel like I am surviving the health care system": understanding LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Emily; Gahagan, Jacqueline

    2016-09-22

    Currently, there is a dearth of baseline data on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) populations in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Historically, LGBTQ health research has tended to focus on individual-level health risks associated with poor health outcomes among these populations, which has served to obscure the ways in which they maintain their own health and wellness across the life course. As such, there is an urgent need to shift the focus of LGBTQ health research towards strengths-based perspectives that explore the complex and resilient ways in which LGBTQ populations promote their health. This paper discusses the findings of our recent scoping review as well as the qualitative data to emerge from community consultations aimed at developing strengths-based approaches to understanding and advancing LGBTQ pathways to health across Nova Scotia. Our scoping review findings demonstrated the lack of strengths-based research on LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia. Specifically, the studies examined in our scoping review identified a number of health-promoting factors and a wide variety of measurement tools, some of which may prove useful for future strengths-based health research with LGBTQ populations. In addition, our community consultations revealed that many participants had negative experiences with health care systems and services in Nova Scotia. However, participants also shared a number of factors that contribute to LGBTQ health and suggestions for how LGBTQ pathways to health in Nova Scotia can be improved. There is an urgent need to conduct research on the health needs, lived experiences, and outcomes of LGBTQ populations in Nova Scotia to address gaps in our knowledge of their unique health needs. In moving forward, it is important that future health research take an intersectional, strengths-based perspective in an effort to highlight the factors that promote LGBTQ health and wellness across the life course, while taking

  12. “I feel like I am surviving the health care system”: understanding LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Colpitts

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is a dearth of baseline data on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ populations in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Historically, LGBTQ health research has tended to focus on individual-level health risks associated with poor health outcomes among these populations, which has served to obscure the ways in which they maintain their own health and wellness across the life course. As such, there is an urgent need to shift the focus of LGBTQ health research towards strengths-based perspectives that explore the complex and resilient ways in which LGBTQ populations promote their health. Methods This paper discusses the findings of our recent scoping review as well as the qualitative data to emerge from community consultations aimed at developing strengths-based approaches to understanding and advancing LGBTQ pathways to health across Nova Scotia. Results Our scoping review findings demonstrated the lack of strengths-based research on LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia. Specifically, the studies examined in our scoping review identified a number of health-promoting factors and a wide variety of measurement tools, some of which may prove useful for future strengths-based health research with LGBTQ populations. In addition, our community consultations revealed that many participants had negative experiences with health care systems and services in Nova Scotia. However, participants also shared a number of factors that contribute to LGBTQ health and suggestions for how LGBTQ pathways to health in Nova Scotia can be improved. Conclusions There is an urgent need to conduct research on the health needs, lived experiences, and outcomes of LGBTQ populations in Nova Scotia to address gaps in our knowledge of their unique health needs. In moving forward, it is important that future health research take an intersectional, strengths-based perspective in an effort to highlight the factors that

  13. Biodiversity effects on ecosystem function due to land use: The case of buffel savannas in the Sky Islands Seas in the central region of Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Castellanos; H. Celaya; C. Hinojo; A. Ibarra; J. R. Romo

    2013-01-01

    Buffel savannas have been an important landscape on cattle grazing ranches in Sonora over the past 50 years or more. Changes in land use result in biodiversity changes that may produce ecosystem functional changes; however, these are less well documented. Although fire driven processes have been proposed for Buffel savannas, this is not generally the case, and other...

  14. Measuring energy conservation on Nova Scotia (NS) farms: A 2004 to 2011 comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Duinker, P.; Amyotte, P.; Adams, M.; Khan, F.

    2016-01-01

    Many jurisdictions, including Nova Scotia (NS), have implemented policies and programs around energy. The NS government has targeted energy efficiency and more renewable energy as two main policy areas. The NS Department of Agriculture has taken initiative to provide support to implement energy conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energy opportunities in recent years but have these programs and policies been effective? A baseline energy use survey was conducted in 2005 and responses from mail surveys in 2012 (n = 273, 11.4% response rate) were used to measure the change in NS farm energy use data reported for 2004 and 2011. There have been significant reductions in energy use on NS farms. On average, NS farmers spent $8790 on energy expenses in 2011 compared to $11,228 in 2004. Adjusting for inflation, this is a 32% decrease, despite energy commodity pricing increases beyond the inflation rate. This is likely due to a decrease in energy use and a shift from gasoline use to diesel use. By the end of 2012, 36.0% of NS farmers (more than 860) had received some level of support to evaluate their energy options. This includes 410 energy audits compared to only 36 by the end of 2005. - Highlights: • Nova Scotia farmers decreased their energy costs by 32% between 2004 and 2011. • Energy reductions were likely due to decreased energy use and a shift in fuel use. • An estimated 374 NS farms had an energy audit between 2005 and 2012.

  15. Examining a "Household" Model of Residential Long-term Care in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Keefe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, Nova Scotia began to implement its Continuing Care Strategy which was grounded in a vision of providing client-centered care for continuing care clients, including residents of nursing homes. Considerable evidence pointed to the benefits of the “household” model of care—which led the province to adopt the smaller self-contained household model as a requirement for owners/operators seeking to build government-funded new and replacement nursing homes. The specific goals of the reform (the adoption of the household model included increasing the proportion of single rooms, improving the home-likeness of the facility, and more generally, providing high-quality care services. The reform was influenced by recognition of the need for change, rapid population aging in the province, and strong political will at a time when fiscal resources were available. To achieve the reform, Nova Scotia Department of Health released two key documents (2007 to guide the design and operation of all new and replacement facilities procured using a request for proposal process: The Long Term Care Program Requirements and the Space and Design Requirements. Results from a research study examining resident quality of life suggest regardless of physical design or staffing approach high resident quality of life can be experienced, while at the same time recognizing that the facilities with “self-contained household” design and expanded care staff roles were uniquely supporting relationships and home-likeness and positively impacting resident quality of life.

  16. Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera of Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseley M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The cave-associated invertebrates of Nova Scotia constitute a fauna at a very early stage of post-glacial recolonization. TheColeoptera are characterized by low species diversity. A staphylinid Quedius spelaeus spelaeus, a predator, is the only regularlyencountered beetle. Ten other terrestrial species registered from cave environments in the province are collected infrequently. Theyinclude three other rove-beetles: Brathinus nitidus, Gennadota canadensis and Atheta annexa. The latter two together with Catopsgratiosus (Leiodidae constitute a small group of cave-associated beetles found in decompositional situations. Quedius s. spelaeusand a small suite of other guanophiles live in accumulations of porcupine dung: Agolinus leopardus (Scarabaeidae, Corticariaserrata (Latrididae, and Acrotrichis castanea (Ptilidae. Two adventive weevils Otiorhynchus ligneus and Barypeithes pellucidus(Curculionidae collected in shallow cave passages are seasonal transients; Dermestes lardarius (Dermestidae, recorded fromone cave, was probably an accidental (stray. Five of the terrestrial beetles are adventive Palaearctic species. Aquatic beetles arecollected infrequently. Four taxa have been recorded: Agabus larsoni (Dytiscidae may be habitual in regional caves; another Agabussp. (probably semivittatus, Dytiscus sp. (Dytiscidae, and Crenitis digesta (Hydrophilidae are accidentals. The distribution andecology of recorded species are discussed, and attention is drawn to the association of beetles found in a Nova Scotia “ice cave”.

  17. Nova Scotia electricity market : frameworks for renewable energy contracting and cogeneration contracting : discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The recent Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee of Nova Scotia report issued a number of recommendations regarding renewable and cogeneration sales to retail consumers, as well as recommendations for top-up, spill rates and back-up rates to complement the operation of independent generating facilities. This discussion paper examined issues which need to be addressed in order to implement the recommendations. The discussion paper also included recommendations relating to the purchase of cogeneration output by the Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) under long term power purchase agreements. The aim of the paper was to provide a basis for the further discussion of issues in preparation for the development of future rules and regulations. The first part of the document identified ways for buyers and sellers to arrange contracts, as well as issues that need to be addressed at the institutional level to enable arrangements. Options for financial contracts and physical contracts were reviewed.The second part of the document examined pricing issues in the context of both financial and physical contract arrangements. Resolutions for both sets of options were proposed. Energy pricing principles were reviewed, as well as various pricing options and issues related to the analysis of price requirements. It was concluded that in order to support the safe, reliable and economic supply of electricity, the design of the electricity market should enable maximum flexibility in contractual arrangements and facilitate competition in ways that do not harm other parties

  18. Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board Annual report 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board is responsible for ensuring safe working conditions for offshore petroleum activities, protecting the environment during offshore petroleum operations, and managing offshore petroleum resources. This annual report includes financial statements of the Board for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1999. The projects undertaken by the Board in 1998-1999 included a technical audit of the Sable Offshore Energy Project, a resource assessment of the area known as the 'Gully', and resolving a complication regarding publicly available resource data for calls for bids for NS98-1 and NS98-2. A list of exploration licences in place in the Nova Scotia Offshore area was presented. Their total work bid was just over $188 million. In 1998, the Board's exploration activity included the review and approval for nine seismic programs. The Board also continues to monitor the extended Cohasset Benefits Plan to cover the scope of PanCanadian's Exploratory Drilling Program. This report included statements of financial position, revenue and expenditure, changes in financial position, and notes to the financial statements including accounting policies, accounts receivable, deferred revenue and commitments. The report also admitted uncertainty due to the year 2000 issue. It stated that it is not possible to be certain that all aspects of the year 2000 issue affecting the Board will be fully resolved. tabs., figs

  19. Socio-economic factors and adolescent sexual activity and behaviour in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Donald B; Hughes, Jean; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Rigby, Janet A

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about associations of adolescents' socio-economic status (SES) and their sexual activity and risk behaviours. This study examined these associations in Nova Scotia adolescents aged 15-19. Students at four high schools in northern Nova Scotia completed surveys examining relationships of family SES factors and: 1) sexual activity (having had vaginal or anal intercourse, intercourse before age 15 (early intercourse)); and 2) risk behaviours (use of contraception/condoms, number of partners and unplanned intercourse after substance use). Of students present when the survey was administered, 2,135 (91%) responded. Almost half (49%) had had vaginal intercourse, and 7% anal intercourse. In univariate analysis for young women, non-intact family structure and lower parental education were associated with having vaginal, anal and early intercourse. Female risk behaviours showed no significant univariate associations with SES. Young men had univariate associations of family structure, lower maternal education and paternal unemployment with early intercourse, and lower paternal education with anal intercourse. Condom use was higher for young men with employed fathers; those living with both parents less often had >1 sexual partner. In multivariate analysis, most SES associations with females' sexual activities held, while most for males did not, and few associations of SES and risk behaviours were seen for females. Indicators of lower SES are associated with sexual activity in young women. Sexual risk behaviours are not often associated with SES in females, though they are more so in males. These findings have implications for sexual health promotion and health services.

  20. Metabarcoding-based fungal diversity on coarse and fine particulate organic matter in a first-order stream in Nova Scotia, Canada [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wurzbacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most streams receive substantial inputs of allochthonous organic material in the form of leaves and twigs (CPOM, coarse particulate organic matter. Mechanical and biological processing converts this into fine particulate organic matter (FPOM. Other sources of particles include flocculated dissolved matter and soil particles. Fungi are known to play a role in the CPOM conversion process, but the taxonomic affiliations of these fungi remain poorly studied. The present study seeks to shed light on the composition of fungal communities on FPOM and CPOM as assessed in a natural stream in Nova Scotia, Canada. Maple leaves were exposed in a stream for four weeks and their fungal community evaluated through pyrosequencing. Over the same period, four FPOM size fractions were collected by filtration and assessed. Particles had much lower ergosterol contents than leaves, suggesting major differences in the extent of fungal colonization. Pyrosequencing documented a total of 821 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTU, of which 726 were exclusive to particles and 47 to leaf samples. Most fungal phyla were represented, including yeast lineages (e.g., Taphrinaceae and Saccharomycotina, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Cryptomycota, but several classes of Pezizomycontina (Ascomycota dominated. Cluster dendrograms clearly separated fungal communities from leaves and from particles. Characterizing fungal communities may shed some light on the processing pathways of fine particles in streams and broadens our view of the phylogenetic composition of fungi in freshwater ecosystems.

  1. Remarks of Honorable Eleanor Norrie, Minister of the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources at the 1996 CORE conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrie, E.

    1996-10-01

    Speaking notes used by the Nova Scotia Minister of Natural Resources at the 1996 CORE Conference were provided. The presentation focused on the new Sable Offshore Energy Project, an important new offshore gas field being developed by Mobil Oil. The project represents a total investment of $3 billion, the biggest capital project ever undertaken in Nova Scotia, and is completely funded by the private sector. Nearly 4,000 jobs will be created during the offshore and onshore construction phase, as well as future tax revenues for the province, new business opportunities, infrastructure for future projects, and an estimated 11,000 `spin-off` jobs. To expedite the development process, the Government of Nova Scotia has recently established the Nova Scotia Offshore Energy Office to work exclusively on the Sable gas and pipeline project. Future plans include a gas processing plant for Guysborough County. The gas will be transported by pipeline across New Brunswick to the New England market. A proposal by Gaz Metropolitain is also expected which would have some of the gas transported to Quebec.

  2. Remarks of Honorable Eleanor Norrie, Minister of the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources at the 1996 CORE conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrie, E.

    1996-10-01

    Speaking notes used by the Nova Scotia Minister of Natural Resources at the 1996 CORE Conference were provided. The presentation focused on the new Sable Offshore Energy Project, an important new offshore gas field being developed by Mobil Oil. The project represents a total investment of $3 billion, the biggest capital project ever undertaken in Nova Scotia, and is completely funded by the private sector. Nearly 4,000 jobs will be created during the offshore and onshore construction phase, as well as future tax revenues for the province, new business opportunities, infrastructure for future projects, and an estimated 11,000 'spin-off' jobs. To expedite the development process, the Government of Nova Scotia has recently established the Nova Scotia Offshore Energy Office to work exclusively on the Sable gas and pipeline project. Future plans include a gas processing plant for Guysborough County. The gas will be transported by pipeline across New Brunswick to the New England market. A proposal by Gaz Metropolitain is also expected which would have some of the gas transported to Quebec

  3. Art Education, Romantic Idealism, and Work: Comparing Ruskin's Ideas to Those Found in Nineteenth Century Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgy, Patricia; Soucy, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between romantic idealism and vocational goals of art education in nineteenth-century Nova Scotia, Canada. Compares these ideas with those of John Ruskin concerning art and morality. Discusses the views of the Nova Scotian educators relative to issues of contemporary art education. (KO)

  4. Alpine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.W. Rundel; C.I. Millar

    2016-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are typically defined as those areas occurring above treeline, while recognizing that alpine ecosystems at a local scale may be found below this boundary for reasons including geology, geomorphology, and microclimate. The lower limit of the alpine ecosystems, the climatic treeline, varies with latitude across California, ranging from about 3500 m in...

  5. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  6. Distribution and migration of ⁹⁰Sr in components of the Dnieper River basin and the Black Sea ecosystems after the Chernobyl NPP accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G

    2013-11-01

    The change in (90)Sr concentrations in hydrobionts, water and bottom sediments of the Chernobyl NPP pond-cooler, the Kievskoe and Kakhovskoe reservoirs, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea after the Chernobyl NPP accident was studied. The environmental half-times for the decrease of (90)Sr concentrations were determined: in water - 4.1-24.3 years; algae and flowering water plants - 3.6-7.7 years, in molluscs - 2.4-6.7 years, and in fish - 7.8-12.9 years. The time for (90)Sr concentrations to decrease to pre-accident levels were estimated: in freshwater reservoirs and the northwest part of the Black Sea this was 32-44 years, and in freshwater hydrobionts this was 25-73 years. The contribution of dose from (90)Sr to the hydrobionts, sampled from the Kakhovskoe reservoir, the Northern-Crimean canal and the Black Sea, has not reached values which could impact them during the entire post-accident period. This complex of comparative studies was carried out for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interannual variability of Danube waters propagation in summer period of 1992-2015 and its influence on the Black Sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubryakov, A. A.; Stanichny, S. V.; Zatsepin, A. G.

    2018-03-01

    The propagation of the Danube River plume has strong interannual variability that impacts the local balance of nutrients and the thermohaline structure in the western Black Sea. In the present study, we use a particle-tracking model based on satellite altimetry measurements and wind reanalysis data, as well as satellite measurements (SeaWiFS, MODIS), to investigate the interannual variability in the Danube plume pathways during the summer from 1993 to 2015. The wind conditions largely define the variability in the Danube water propagation. Relatively low-frequency variability (on periods of a week to months) in the wind stress curl modulates the intensity of the geostrophic Rim Current and related mesoscale eddy dynamics. High-frequency offshore wind-drift currents transport the plume across isobaths and provide an important transport link between shelf and offshore circulation. Inherent plume dynamics play an additional role in the near-mouth transport of the plume and its connection with offshore circulation. During the years with prevailing northeast winds ( 30% of studied cases), which are usually accompanied by increased wind curl over the Black Sea and higher Danube discharge, an alongshore southward current at the NorthWestern Shelf (NWS) is formed near the western Black Sea coast. Advected southward, the Danube waters are entrained in the Rim Current jet, which transports them along the west coast of the basin. The strong Rim Current, fewer eddies and downwelling winds substantially decrease the cross-shelf exchange of nutrients. During the years with prevailing southeastern winds ( 40%), the Rim Current is less intense. Mesoscale eddies effectively trap the Danube waters, transporting them to the deep western part of the basin. The low- and high-frequency southeastern wind-drift currents contribute significantly to cross-isobath plume transport and its connection with offshore circulation. During several years ( 15%), the Danube waters moved eastward to

  8. Coordinated motility of cyanobacteria favor mat formation, photosynthesis and carbon burial in low-oxygen, high-sulfur shallow sinkholes of Lake Huron; whereas deep-water aphotic sinkholes are analogs of deep-sea seep and vent ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddanda, B. A.; McMillan, A. C.; Long, S. A.; Snider, M. J.; Weinke, A. D.; Dick, G.; Ruberg, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial life in submerged sinkhole ecosystems of the Laurentian Great Lakes is relatively understudied in comparison to seeps and vents of the deep-sea. We studied the filamentous benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron's submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes. Measured speed of individual filaments ranged from 50 µm minute-1 or 15 body lengths minute-1 to 215 µm minute-1 or 70 body lengths minute-1 - rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis towards pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield - suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon the mat in intact sediemnt cores were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3-4 diurnal cycles - likely facilitating the preservation of falling plankton debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats where life operates across sharp redox gradients. Analogous cyanobacterial motility in the shallow seas during Earth's early history, may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing photosynthesis while favoring carbon burial. We are now eagerly mapping and exploring life in deep-water aphotic sinkholes of

  9. Using mobile, internet connected deep sea crawlers for spatial and temporal analysis of cold seep ecosystems and the collection of real-time classroom data for extreme environment education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Autun; Kwasnitschka, Tom; Duda, Alexander; Schwendner, Jakob; Bamberg, Marlene; Sohl, Frank; Doya, Carol; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Best, Mairi; Llovet, Neus Campanya I.; Scherwath, Martin; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2015-04-01

    Cabled internet and power connectivity with the deep sea allow instruments to operate in the deep sea at higher temporal resolutions than was possible historically, with the reliance on battery life and data storage capacities. In addition to the increase in sensor temporal frequency, cabled infrastructures now allow remote access to and control of mobile platforms on the seafloor. Jacobs University Bremen, in combination with collaborators from the Robotic Exploration of Extreme Environments (ROBEX) project, CSIC Barcelona and Ocean Networks Canada have been operating tracked deep sea crawler vehicles at ~890 m depth at the dynamic Barkley Canyon methane seep site, Pacific Canada during the last ~4 years. The vehicle has been able to explore an area of ~50 m radius, allowing repeated visits to numerous microhabitats. Mounting a range of sensors, including temperature, pressure, conductivity, fluorescence, turbidity, flow and methane concentration sensors, as well as various camera systems a large dataset has been compiled. Several methane pockmarks are present in the survey area, and geological, biological and oceanographic changes have been monitored over a range of timescales. Several publications have been produced, and in this presentation we introduce further data currently under analysis. Cabled internet connectivity further allows mobile platforms to be used directly in education. As part of the ROBEX project, researchers and students from both terrestrial and planetary sciences are using the crawler in an ongoing study project. Students are introduced to statistical methods from both fields during the course and in later stages they can plan their own research using the in-situ crawler, and follow the progress of their investigations live, then analyse the collected data using the techniques introduced during the course. Cabled infrastructures offer a unique facility for spatial investigation of extreme ecosystems over time, and for the 'hands on

  10. Detecting overpressure using the Eaton and Equivalent Depth methods in Offshore Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernanda; Primasty, A. Q. T.; Akbar, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    Overpressure is an abnormal high subsurface pressure of any fluids which exceeds the hydrostatic pressure of column of water or formation brine. In Offshore Nova Scotia Canada, the values and depth of overpressure zone are determined using the eaton and equivalent depth method, based on well data and the normal compaction trend analysis. Since equivalent depth method is using effective vertical stress principle and Eaton method considers physical property ratio (velocity). In this research, pressure evaluation only applicable on Penobscot L-30 well. An abnormal pressure is detected at depth 11804 feet as possibly overpressure zone, based on pressure gradient curve and calculation between the Eaton method (7241.3 psi) and Equivalent Depth method (6619.4 psi). Shales within Abenaki formation especially Baccaro Member is estimated as possible overpressure zone due to hydrocarbon generation mechanism.

  11. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia's coastline following the grounding of the tanker 'Arrow'. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  12. Nova Scotia's solid waste-resource management strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Nova Scotia Dept. of the Environment, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The efforts that the province of Nova Scotia has made to establish a sustainable economy and environment were discussed. In 1989, the province of 930,000 people generated about 630,000 tonnes of municipal waste annually. At the time, there were no recycling or recovery facilities. The province's 1995 Solid Waste-Resource Management Strategy has changed this around with the following key measures: a commitment to 50 per cent diversion of solid waste by 2000, regionalisation to optimize costs, an expanded deposit-refund system for all beverage containers, increased disposal standards for landfilling/incineration, industry example for waste products, support for economic opportunities in resource recovery, and bans on the disposal of recyclable wastes. These measures have produced dramatic results in trying to balance resource supply with demand. The materials sectors which are examples of the strategy's success include fibre, used tires, plastics and composting.

  13. Plastic ingestion by fulmars and shearwaters at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Provencher, Jennifer F; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Lucas, Zoe N

    2014-10-15

    Plastic pollution is widespread in the marine environment, and plastic ingestion by seabirds is now widely reported for dozens of species. Beached Northern Fulmars, Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters and Cory's Shearwaters are found on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada regularly, and they can be used to assess plastic pollution. All species except Cory's Shearwaters contained plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts. Northern Fulmars, Sooty Shearwaters and Great Shearwaters all showed high prevalence of plastic ingestion (>72%), with Northern Fulmars having the highest number and mass of plastics among the species examined. There was no difference in plastic ingestion between sexes or age classes. In all species user plastics made up the majority of the pieces found, with industrial pellets representing only a small proportion in the samples. Sable Island could be an important monitoring site for plastic pollution in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Total mineral material, acidity, sulphur, and nitrogen in rain and snow at Kentville, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F A; Gorham, E

    1957-01-01

    Analyses of total ash, sulphur, ph, ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen have been made on 23 monthly precipitation samples and 17 individual snow samples collected between June 1952 and May 1954 at Kentville, Nova Scotia, in a predominantly agricultural area. Mean annual supply of total mineral ash was 95 kg/ha, of sulphur 9.1 hg/ha, of ammonia nitrogen 2.8 kg/ha, and of nitrate nitrogen 1.1 kg/ha. Average pH was 5.7, and rains more acid than this exhibited higher levels of both nitrate and sulphur, and a marked correlation between the latter and ammonia. Snow samples had much lower concentrations of ash, sulphur, and nitrogen than rain samples collected in the same months, which may perhaps indicate a lower efficiency of snow flakes in removing materials from the atmosphere.

  15. The Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale marine magnetic surveys in the Antarctic Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zanolla

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available About 40 000 km of marine magnetic and gradiometric data have been collected during eight geophysical surveys conducted since the Austral summer 1987/1988 in the circum-antarctic seas, by the research vessel OGS-Explora. For the most surveyed areas (Ross Sea, Southwestern Pacific Ocean, and Southern Scotia Sea, the analysis of the acquired data have contributed to clarify important aspects of their geological structure and tectonic evolution. The main scientific results, obtained combining other available geophysical data (multichannel seismic profiles and satellite-derived data, will be briefly illustrated.

  16. Do pelagic grazers benefit from sea ice? Insights from the Antarctic sea ice proxy IPSO25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katrin; Brown, Thomas A.; Belt, Simon T.; Ireland, Louise C.; Taylor, Kyle W. R.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Ward, Peter; Atkinson, Angus

    2018-04-01

    Sea ice affects primary production in polar regions in multiple ways. It can dampen water column productivity by reducing light or nutrient supply, provide a habitat for ice algae and condition the marginal ice zone (MIZ) for phytoplankton blooms on its seasonal retreat. The relative importance of three different carbon sources (sea ice derived, sea ice conditioned, non-sea-ice associated) for the polar food web is not well understood, partly due to the lack of methods that enable their unambiguous distinction. Here we analysed two highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) biomarkers to trace sea-ice-derived and sea-ice-conditioned carbon in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and relate their concentrations to the grazers' body reserves, growth and recruitment. During our sampling in January-February 2003, the proxy for sea ice diatoms (a di-unsaturated HBI termed IPSO25, δ13C = -12.5 ± 3.3 ‰) occurred in open waters of the western Scotia Sea, where seasonal ice retreat was slow. In suspended matter from surface waters, IPSO25 was present at a few stations close to the ice edge, but in krill the marker was widespread. Even at stations that had been ice-free for several weeks, IPSO25 was found in krill stomachs, suggesting that they gathered the ice-derived algae from below the upper mixed layer. Peak abundances of the proxy for MIZ diatoms (a tri-unsaturated HBI termed HBI III, δ13C = -42.2 ± 2.4 ‰) occurred in regions of fast sea ice retreat and persistent salinity-driven stratification in the eastern Scotia Sea. Krill sampled in the area defined by the ice edge bloom likewise contained high amounts of HBI III. As indicators for the grazer's performance we used the mass-length ratio, size of digestive gland and growth rate for krill, and recruitment for the biomass-dominant calanoid copepods Calanoides acutus and Calanus propinquus. These indices consistently point to blooms in the MIZ as an important feeding ground for pelagic grazers. Even though ice

  17. Broad band seismology in the Scotia region. The base Esperanza seismological observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russi, M.; Costa, G.; Febrer, J.

    1995-08-01

    The lithospheric study and the identification of relevant lateral heterogeneities in the Antarctic continent and borderlands, is essential to understand the geodynamic evolution both of the continental and oceanic bordering regions. The complexity of the geological evolution and the structural properties of the lithosphere in the Scotia area have been stressed by many authors. The present setting of the area is the result of the mutual interaction among the Antarctic, South American and several minor plants whose geodynamic history and actual boundaries are still partially unknown. The intense seismic activity that characterizes the region encourages the use of the seismological approach to investigate the lithospheric structure of the area. Since January 1992 a broad band three components station is operating at the Antarctic base Esperanza in the NE area of Antarctic Peninsula. The station has been installed with financial support of the Italian Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide (PNRA) by Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS) and Instituto Antartico Argentino (IAA). Russi et al. (1994) have analyzed selected recordings using the frequency-time analysis (FTAN) method obtaining some relevant information on the large scale structure of the lithosphere in the Scotia region even if data recorded by a single station were available. The extension of our analysis to further events and to horizontal component records is here presented. Within the framework of the international co-operation to the Antarctic Seismographic Network, the OGS and the IAA are upgrading the Esperanza station and installing an additional broad band station near the town of Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) with the financial support of PNRA. The inversion of the dispersion curves through the FTAN of the signals recorded by an increased number of stations and generated by events with source-station paths spanning the region will allow us to extract the elastic and anelastic

  18. Can households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia afford a nutritious diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia L; Johnson, Christine P; Kratzmann, Meredith L V; Johnson, C Shanthi Jacob; Anderson, Barbara J; Chenhall, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    To assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia. Food costing data were collected in 43 randomly selected grocery stores throughout NS in 2002 using the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB). To estimate the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage, average monthly costs for essential expenses were subtracted from overall income to see if enough money remained for the cost of the NNFB. This was calculated for three types of household: 1) two parents and two children; 2) lone parent and two children; and 3) single male. Calculations were also made for the proposed 2006 minimum wage increase with expenses adjusted using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The monthly cost of the NNFB priced in 2002 for the three types of household was 572.90 dollars, 351.68 dollars, and 198.73 dollars, respectively. Put into the context of basic living, these data showed that Nova Scotians relying on minimum wage could not afford to purchase a nutritious diet and meet their basic needs, placing their health at risk. These basic expenses do not include other routine costs, such as personal hygiene products, household and laundry cleaners, and prescriptions and costs associated with physical activity, education or savings for unexpected expenses. People working at minimum wage in Nova Scotia have not had adequate income to meet basic needs, including a nutritious diet. The 2006 increase in minimum wage to 7.15 dollars/hr is inadequate to ensure that Nova Scotians working at minimum wage are able to meet these basic needs. Wage increases and supplements, along with supports for expenses such as childcare and transportation, are indicated to address this public health problem.

  19. Current levels determination of 137 Cesium in sea water from Guayaquil to Greenwich Island and in some components of the aquatic ecosystems at Fort William cape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Piedad

    1998-01-01

    During VII ecuadorian expedition was carried out a study of the current activity of the 137 Cs in superficial water of sea. This project was made with the purpose of evaluating the impact of the radioactive atmospheric contamination on the masses of water of the Antarctic Continent , possibly originated in the processes of nuclear fission of the industry and also for the last nuclear explosions, effected of September of 1995 to January 1996 in the French Polynesia. The samples were taken between Guayaquil and Greenwich Island. They were analyzed using techniques of gamma spectroscopy, the results determined presence of 137 Cs with the concentration of within the permissible limits

  20. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  1. Assessment of Radiological and Chemical Pollutants and Their Effects on the Marine Ecosystems A long the Mediterranean Sea Coast Between Alexandria and Port Said City-Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Salama, M.H.; Monged, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program for the Egyptian coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea was established to initiate a monitoring data base system. This was done by applying quality control assessments to evaluate and protect the coastal zone, which ensure its sustainable use. An environmental risk assessment was performed, including a screening level ecological risk assessment (SLERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA). The aim of SLERA risk assessment was to determine which classes of chemical pollutants could possibly cause adverse ecological effects to benthic species and to determine whether hot spots exist or not. Investigation of the sediments revealed that the region which extends from the Alexandria harbor area to Port Said City is enriched with trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organo chlorine pesticides. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected but in lower concentrations compared to the other organic compounds. The spatial distribution of the different contaminants investigated here showed that the Nile Delta region is more influenced by waste water discharge than the rest of the Egyptian coastal regions. In addition to sediments, two mussel species (Mactra corallina and Tapes decussate) were successfully used as bio indicators of marine environmental quality. The concentrations of most pollutants investigated (except organo chlorine pesticides, and some trace metals) were higher in the tissues of the mussels, especially M. caerulein, than in sediments. The highest concentration of PAHs in sediments and mussels were observed in front of the Alexandria harbor and Nile Delta, they possibly affected by shipping activities. Natural radioactivity of surface sediments and sea water samples were measured along the coastal Mediterranean Sea between Alexandria and Port Said City. The main source of radiation along the area is the black sands, which is rich in radionuclides. The measured values of "2"3"8U and "2"3"2Th for

  2. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.; Spigel, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the emergent entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Entrepreneurial ecosystems are defined as a set of interdependent actors and factors coordinated in such a way that they enable productive entrepreneurship within a particular territory. The purpose of this paper is to

  3. Integrated Digital Technologies for the Architectural Rehabilitation & Conservation of Beinn Bhreagh Hall & Surrounding Site, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, K.; Ward, S.; Santana Quintero, M.; Morrison, T.

    2015-08-01

    This contribution summarizes the collaboration between Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) and Heritage Standing in the use of digital technologies to document the Beinn Bhreagh Hall historic site (house and immediate surroundings) in Baddeck, Nova Scotia for its rehabilitation and protection. The project objectives were to develop a prototype for research and training using 3D scanning, and Building Information Modelling (BIM), as well as other emerging surveying tools to understand the state of conservation of Historic Places in Canada, providing relevant and appropriate information for their rehabilitation and maintenance. The vehicle of this research was the documentation and modelling of this important landmark, the summer home of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell in Victoria County, Nova Scotia. This unique 19thC building, currently under review for designated as a national historic site.

  4. Restoration ecology: aiding and abetting secondary succession on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    P.J. Vander Kloet; T.S. Avery; S.P. Vander Kloet; G.R. Milton

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of using vegetative clumps derived from seeds with a variety of origins to establish nuclei for regeneration of bog vegetation on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (Canada) was tested using seeds within scats (excrement) and seeds from berries, various techniques for creating clumps, and different clump sizes. Direct placement of scat pieces on peat in the field did not produce successful colonisation. Vegetative clumps begun in a greenhouse, whether from seed...

  5. Effect of a long-term release of plutonium and americium into an estuarine-coastal sea ecosystem. 1. Development of an assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C N; Avogadro, A [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    1979-05-01

    A method is developed for the assessment of the distribution and the associated hazard due to a long-term release of long-lived alpha-emitting radionuclides into surface waters of a marine ecosystem. The methodology is designed to identify various environmental compartments and the processes occurring within them, which are of importance in affecting the behaviour and thus the distribution of actinide elements in such systems. The compartment model system (box model) chosen is applied to an imaginary coastal area. Various processes in the environmental compartments are considered separately and then assembled to show their combined interactions. Using the concept of critical nuclide-pathway-group analysis, an attempt has been made to define a number of the most important pathways by which actinides released into the aquatic environment could return to man, and especially those related to the exploitation of aquatic food resources. The concentration levels for the example considered produce rather low dose rates to man of less than 3% of the maximum permissible intake. The low dose levels strongly depend upon the concentration factors of the various biological species, as well as upon source-term activities. The concentration factors used for the biological transfer of actinides relate to the water activity only. In the case where highly radioactive sediments or sedimentary-associated material were closely involved in the uptake pathway, actinide transfer to man could become more relevant. This study shows that sedimentation and bottom sediment absorption represent the major reconcentration processes for actinides released into surface waters.

  6. The environmental and socio-economic impacts and benefits associated with developing a natural gas distribution system in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M.E.; Peacock, T. [Sempra Atlantic Gas Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The discovery of large natural gas reserves off the Scotian Shelf has resulted in the development and construction of offshore production platforms as well as underwater and onshore pipelines to transport natural gas to markets on the eastern seaboard. A billion-dollar expenditure is proposed to establish a local distribution company to construct and maintain approximately 8000 km of distribution and lateral pipelines in the province of Nova Scotia. The many aspects of the proposed program were described with particular focus on the regulatory hearings. The paper also discussed the different landscapes that will be crossed and the specialized construction techniques that will be used to meet environmental and economic challenges. The mechanisms in place to ensure maximum benefit for Nova Scotians were also discussed. The proposed project was also compared to other local megaprojects in the province such as the Sable Offshore Energy Project and the Interprovincial Pipeline through Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Some of the successful strategies for implementing benefits plans related to large energy projects were also described. Sempra has been awarded the franchise to distribute natural gas in Nova Scotia. The company has developed a benefits plan that offers significant local involvement in terms of labour and materials. 4 figs.

  7. “Not a Vacation, But a Hardening Process”: The Self-Empowerment Work of Therapeutic Craft in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Morton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will examine the development of a state-sponsored therapeutic craft regime in Nova Scotia in the early to mid-twentieth century. Built on the notion that postwar residents needed "work therapy - not a vacation, but a hardening process" (Black n.d. a: 3 - therapeutic craft emerged in Nova Scotia through a complex combination of the individualization of work habits, the desire to construct an antimodern regional identity around handwork, and the notion that both infirm patients and the province as a whole could be healed from economic stagnation through craft. Key to the success of Nova Scotia's therapeutic craft regime was occupational therapist Mary E. Black's career as director of the provincial government's Handicrafts and Home Industries Division from 1943 to 1955. Black's healthcare training led her to seek out therapeutic possibilities in everyday work activities, not to mention a therapeutic solution to what she called "the atti-tude of most Nova Scotians"[:] defeatism" (Black 1949: 46. Her ability to turn seemingly disparate things - such as Scandinavian design, the ordered work of occupational rehabilitation, and a phenomenological focus on what she called “in-dividualistic existence” (Black n.d. b: 2 - into a unified therapeutic solution demonstrates that the contemporary rise of therapeutic culture under the increased individualism of the neoliberal era has an established historical root in the postwar period that remains important to understand.

  8. Using a neural network approach and time series data from an international monitoring station in the Yellow Sea for modeling marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Juncheng; Vorontsov, A M; Hou, Guangli; Nikanorova, M N; Wang, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    The international marine ecological safety monitoring demonstration station in the Yellow Sea was developed as a collaborative project between China and Russia. It is a nonprofit technical workstation designed as a facility for marine scientific research for public welfare. By undertaking long-term monitoring of the marine environment and automatic data collection, this station will provide valuable information for marine ecological protection and disaster prevention and reduction. The results of some initial research by scientists at the research station into predictive modeling of marine ecological environments and early warning are described in this paper. Marine ecological processes are influenced by many factors including hydrological and meteorological conditions, biological factors, and human activities. Consequently, it is very difficult to incorporate all these influences and their interactions in a deterministic or analysis model. A prediction model integrating a time series prediction approach with neural network nonlinear modeling is proposed for marine ecological parameters. The model explores the natural fluctuations in marine ecological parameters by learning from the latest observed data automatically, and then predicting future values of the parameter. The model is updated in a "rolling" fashion with new observed data from the monitoring station. Prediction experiments results showed that the neural network prediction model based on time series data is effective for marine ecological prediction and can be used for the development of early warning systems.

  9. Ecosystem function and particle flux dynamics across the Mackenzie Shelf (Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean: an integrative analysis of spatial variability and biophysical forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Forest

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A better understanding of how environmental changes affect organic matter fluxes in Arctic marine ecosystems is sorely needed. Here we combine mooring times series, ship-based measurements and remote sensing to assess the variability and forcing factors of vertical fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC across the Mackenzie Shelf in 2009. We developed a geospatial model of these fluxes to proceed to an integrative analysis of their determinants in summer. Flux data were obtained with sediment traps moored around 125 m and via a regional empirical algorithm applied to particle size distributions (17 classes from 0.08–4.2 mm measured by an Underwater Vision Profiler 5. The low fractal dimension (i.e., porous, fluffy particles derived from the algorithm (1.26 ± 0.34 and the dominance (~ 77% of rapidly sinking small aggregates (p r2 cum. = 0.37. Bacteria were correlated with small aggregates, while northeasterly wind was associated with large size classes (> 1 mm ESD, but these two factors were weakly related with each other. Copepod biomass was overall negatively correlated (p < 0.05 with vertical POC fluxes, implying that metazoans acted as regulators of export fluxes, even if their role was minor given that our study spanned the onset of diapause. Our results demonstrate that on interior Arctic shelves where productivity is low in mid-summer, localized upwelling zones (nutrient enrichment may result in the formation of large filamentous phytoaggregates that are not substantially retained by copepod and bacterial communities.

  10. Aquatic ecosystem health and trophic status classification of the Bitter Lakes along the main connecting link between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Abdallah, Hala S; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Irshad, Rizwan; Al-Farraj, Saleh A; Almalki, Esam S

    2018-02-01

    The Bitter Lakes are the most significant water bodies of the Suez Canal, comprising 85% of the water volume, but spreading over only 24% of the length of the canal. The present study aims at investigation of the trophic status of the Bitter Lakes employing various trophic state indices, biotic and abiotic parameters, thus reporting the health of the Lake ecosystem according to the internationally accepted classification criteria's. The composition and abundance of phytoplankton with a dominance of diatoms and a decreased population density of 4315-7376 ind. l -1 reflect the oligotrophic nature of this water body. The intense growth of diatoms in the Bitter Lakes depends on silicate availability, in addition to nitrate and phosphate. If the trophic state index (TSI) is applied to the lakes under study it records that the Bitter Lakes have an index under 40. Moreover, in the total chlorophyll- a measurements of 0.35-0.96 µg l -1 there are more indicative of little algal biomass and lower biological productivity. At 0.76-2.3 µg l -1 , meanwhile, the low quantity of Phosphorus is a further measure of low biological productivity. In the Bitter Lakes, TN/TP ratios are high and recorded 147.4, and 184.7 for minimum and maximum ratios, respectively. These values indicate that in Bitter lakes, the limiting nutrient is phosphorus and confirm the oligotrophic status of the Bitter Lakes. The latter conclusion is supported by Secchi disc water clarity measurements, showing that light can penetrate, and thus algae can photosynthesize, as deep as >13 m. This study, therefore, showed that the Bitter Lakes of the Suez Canal exhibit oligotrophic conditions with clear water, low productivity and with no algal blooming.

  11. 85 million years of pelagic ecosystem evolution: Pacific Ocean deep-sea ichthyolith records reveal fish community dynamics and a long-term decline in sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibert, E. C.; Norris, R. D.; Cuevas, J. M.; Graves, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The structure and productivity of open ocean consumers has undergone major changes over the past 85 million years. Here, we present the first long-term detailed records of pelagic fish and sharks utilizing the record of ichthyoliths (teeth and dermal scales) from the deep Pacific Ocean. While the North and South Pacific Oceans show similar patterns throughout the 85 million year history, the North Pacific ichthyolith accumulation is significantly higher than the South Pacific, suggesting that the basin has been a more productive region for tens of millions of years. Fish and sharks were not abundant in the Pacific gyres until ~75 million years ago (Ma) suggesting that neither group was quantitatively important in oligotrophic pelagic food webs prior to the latest Cretaceous. Relative to ray-finned fish, sharks were common in the ancient ocean. Most ichthyolith assemblages have >50% shark dermal scales (denticles), but denticle abundance has been declining in both absolute and relative abundance since the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) mass extinction. The accumulation rate of ichthyoliths of both sharks and ray-finned fish was highest in the Early Eocene, during the peak of the Cenozoic 'greenhouse' climate where production of shark dermal denticles and fish teeth increased almost five times over Paleocene production rates. Ichthyolith fluxes fell with cooler climates in the later Eocene and Oligocene, but fish production is almost always higher than in the Cretaceous and Paleocene reflecting the expanded ecological roles and importance of pelagic fish in marine ecosystems. Shark denticle production fell to less than half that of the Cretaceous by 20 Ma when it dropped abruptly to near-zero levels. Currently denticles make up sharks appear to be falling as major pelagic consumers over the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic, and particularly over the past 20 Ma, perhaps reflecting demographic changes in shark and fish communities, or the rise of resource competition from

  12. Ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Palacio, German Rau

    1998-01-01

    Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems

  13. Biocomplexity in Mangrove Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, I. C.; Lovelock, C. E.; Berger, U.; McKee, K. L.; Joye, S. B.; Ball, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove ecosystems. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence ecosystem processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove ecosystems.

  14. Efficiency of fisheries is increasing at the ecosystem level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Burgess, Matthew G; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2017-01-01

    examine the efficiency of North Sea and Baltic Sea fisheries with respect to economic rent and ecosystem impact, finding both to be inefficient but steadily improving. Our results suggest the following: (i) a broad and encouraging trend towards ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries; (ii) that ecosystem......Managing fisheries presents trade-offs between objectives, for example yields, profits, minimizing ecosystem impact, that have to be weighed against one another. These trade-offs are compounded by interacting species and fisheries at the ecosystem level. Weighing objectives becomes increasingly...... regressing at least one other. We investigate the ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries in five large marine ecosystems (LMEs) with respect to yield and an aggregate measure of ecosystem impact using a novel calibration of size-based ecosystem models. We estimate that fishing patterns in three LMEs (North...

  15. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  16. Urban ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvigneaud, P

    1974-01-01

    The author considers the town as an ecosystem. He examines its various subdivisions (climate, soil, structure, human and non-human communities, etc.) for which he chooses examples with particular reference to the city of Brussels.

  17. Parasites of the flounder Platichthys flesus (L.) from the German Bight, North Sea, and their potential use in ecosystem monitoring. A. Infection characteristics of potential indicator species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, V.; Zander, S.; Körting, W.; Steinhagen, D.

    2003-10-01

    the infection parameters affected the spatial distribution of the copepod species Lepeophtheirus pectoralis and Lernaeocera branchialis. Annual variations are considered to occur in the range of natural variability, so no trend of increasing or decreasing infection levels of the parasites was found during the course of the study. This study underlined the idea that an analysis of fish-parasite fauna is very useful in ecosystem monitoring.

  18. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  19. Factors which influence Nova Scotia farmers in implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Gordon, R.; Burton, D.; Yiridoe, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency and renewable energy use can reduce farm operating costs and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Responses (n=224, representing a 32% response rate) from a mail survey were used to assess use and interest in energy efficient and renewable energy options on farms in Nova Scotia, Canada. Energy efficiency options used the most were behavior, insulation, and lighting. Few farms used renewable energy options. Approximately 78% of farmers indicated an interest in implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy options. Interest varied by farm type and size. Interest increased with farm size. The two main efficiency options of interest were lighting (60.8%) and insulation (43.7%), while wind power development (55.5%) and solar water heating (24.5%) were the main renewable options of interest. Farmers concerned about power and equipment reliability were less likely to be interested in implementing options. Farmers concerned about the environment were more likely to be interested in implementing options. Current use of certain energy efficiency technologies, such as efficient lighting, influenced implementation interest

  20. Arbitrating a fiction: Canadian federalism and the Nova Scotia/Newfoundland and Labrador boundary dispute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, G. [University of British Columbia, Dept. of Political Science, Vancouver, BC(Canada); Groarke, P.

    2003-09-30

    The dispute between the provinces of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador, regarding ownership of natural resources to be found in the offshore area lying between the two provinces is discussed. Constitutionally, ownership of offshore natural resources belongs to the federal government. In this instance, the intention was to share control over development and revenues with the provinces through joint management accords, however, a dispute over offshore boundary arose, which eventually resulted in an arbitration tribunal. This paper analyzes the terms of reference for the tribunal and its findings, and concludes that the tribunal process was flawed. The authors cast doubts on the appropriateness of the tribunal's role, the method by which it reached its decision, and the legality of its findings. They conclude that the tribunal merely cloaks a political decision in legal garb since there are no genuine boundaries between the provinces, and the tribunal process simply apportioned federal resources between two provinces. The authors ultimately conclude that by resorting to the tribunal process the federal minister of natural resources was able to avoid political responsibility for making an unpopular decision by relying on a pseudo-judicial body for technical recommendations, and in so doing undermined the legitimacy of the Canadian federal system by obscuring the already murky lines of accountability of the federal and provincial governments. 57 end notes.

  1. Shaded seafloor relief, backscatter strength, and surficial geology; German Bank, Scotian Shelf, offshore Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Valentine, Page C.

    2010-01-01

    This map is part of a three-map series of German Bank, located on the Scotian Shelf off southern Nova Scotia.  This map is the product of a number of surveys (1997-2003) that used a multibeam sonar system to map 5321 km2 of the seafloor.  Other surveys collected geological data for scientific interpretation.  This map sheet shows the seafloor topography of German Bank in shaded-relief view and seafloor depth (coded by colour) at a scale of 1:1000,000.  Topographic contours generated from the multibeam data are shown (in white) on the colour-coded multibeam topography at a depth interval of 20 m.  Bathymetic contours (in blue) outside the multibeam survey area, presented at a depth interval of 10 m, are from the Natural Resource Map series (Canadian Hydrographic Service, 1967, 1971a, 1971b, 1972). Sheet 2 shows coloured backscatter strength in shaded-relief view.  Sheet 3 shows seafloor topography in shaded-relief view with colour-coded surficial geological units.

  2. The energy accounts for the Nova Scotia genuine progress index : executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipp, J.; Cain, S.; Colman, R.; Parmenter, R.; Milne, K.; Mullaly, H.; Wysocki, A.

    2005-10-01

    GPI Atlantic has developed a Genuine Progress Index (GPI) involving a new measure of sustainability, wellbeing and quality of life in order to better evaluate energy supply and demand by accounting for all benefits and costs including natural capital, social capital, human capital, and conventional produced capital. The executive summary provides an energy overview and presents indicators of energy sustainability including socio-economic, health and environmental and institutional indicators. Socio-economic indicators are organized across the following 6 areas of concern: reliability, affordability, employment; energy efficiency, energy consumption; and energy production and supply. Health and environmental trends examined include carbon monoxide; nitrogen oxide; sulphur dioxide; mercury; total particulate matter; volatile organic compounds; and greenhouse gas emissions. Trends over time are assessed to determine if energy use is becoming more or less sustainable. Institutional indicators are grouped according to several areas of concern, such as leading by example; creating societal change; reporting; and evaluation. The full cost of energy was then discussed using the underlying physical indicators. It was concluded that Nova Scotia is not making sufficient progress towards sustainability in its energy system, and that the production and use of energy are the leading causes of a number of serious environmental problems. Several recommendations are made for government to lead on a number of initiatives. 4 tabs

  3. Moving Forward with School Nutrition Policies: A Case Study of Policy Adherence in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Shearer, Cindy L; Veugelers, Paul J; Kirk, Sara F L

    2015-12-01

    Many Canadian school jurisdictions have developed nutrition policies to promote health and improve the nutritional status of children, but research is needed to clarify adherence, guide practice-related decisions, and move policy action forward. The purpose of this research was to evaluate policy adherence with a review of online lunch menus of elementary schools in Nova Scotia (NS) while also providing transferable evidence for other jurisdictions. School menus in NS were scanned and a list of commonly offered items were categorized, according to minimum, moderate, or maximum nutrition categories in the NS policy. The results of the menu review showed variability in policy adherence that depended on food preparation practices by schools. Although further research is needed to clarify preparation practices, the previously reported challenges of healthy food preparations (e.g., cost, social norms) suggest that many schools in NS are likely not able to use these healthy preparations, signifying potential noncompliance to the policy. Leadership and partnerships are needed among researchers, policy makers, and nutrition practitioners to address the complexity of issues related to food marketing and social norms that influence school food environments to inspire a culture where healthy and nutritious food is available and accessible to children.

  4. Towards the implementation of an integrated ecosystem fleet-based management of European fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gascuel, D.; Merino, G.; Döring, R.D.; Druon, D.N.; Goti, L.; Guénette, S.; Macher, C.; Soma, K.; Travers-Trolet, M.; Mackinson, S.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Celtic Sea and the North Sea as case studies, the fleet-based approach is shown to be the pathway to implement an effective ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) in European seas. First, a diagnostic on the health of each ecosystem is proposed based on the reconstruction of

  5. Strategic ecosystems of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez Calle German

    2002-01-01

    The author relates the ecosystems in Colombia, he makes a relationship between ecosystems and population, utility of the ecosystems, transformation of the ecosystems and poverty and he shows a methodology of identification of strategic ecosystems

  6. Assessing spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton communities' composition in the Iroise Sea ecosystem (Brittany, France): A 3D modeling approach. Part 2: Linking summer mesoscale distribution of phenotypic diversity to hydrodynamism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadier, Mathilde; Sourisseau, Marc; Gorgues, Thomas; Edwards, Christopher A.; Memery, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    Tidal front ecosystems are especially dynamic environments usually characterized by high phytoplankton biomass and high primary production. However, the description of functional microbial diversity occurring in these regions remains only partially documented. In this article, we use a numerical model, simulating a large number of phytoplankton phenotypes to explore the three-dimensional spatial patterns of phytoplankton abundance and diversity in the Iroise Sea (western Brittany). Our results suggest that, in boreal summer, a seasonally marked tidal front shapes the phytoplankton species richness. A diversity maximum is found in the surface mixed layer located slightly west of the tidal front (i.e., not strictly co-localized with high biomass concentrations) which separates tidally mixed from stratified waters. Differences in phenotypic composition between sub-regions with distinct hydrodynamic regimes (defined by vertical mixing, nutrients gradients and light penetration) are discussed. Local growth and/or physical transport of phytoplankton phenotypes are shown to explain our simulated diversity distribution. We find that a large fraction (64%) of phenotypes present during the considered period of September are ubiquitous, found in the frontal area and on both sides of the front (i.e., over the full simulated domain). The frontal area does not exhibit significant differences between its community composition and that of either the well-mixed region or an offshore Deep Chlorophyll Maximum (DCM). Only three phenotypes (out of 77) specifically grow locally and are found at substantial concentration only in the surface diversity maximum. Thus, this diversity maximum is composed of a combination of ubiquitous phenotypes with specific picoplankton deriving from offshore, stratified waters (including specific phenotypes from both the surface and the DCM) and imported through physical transport, completed by a few local phenotypes. These results are discussed in light

  7. Environmental Impacts—Marine Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith; Ottersen, Geir; Bakker, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a review of what is known about the impacts of climate change on the biota (plankton, benthos, fish, seabirds and marine mammals) of the North Sea. Examples show how the changing North Sea environment is affecting biological processes and organisation at all scales, including...... the physiology, reproduction, growth, survival, behaviour and transport of individuals; the distribution, dynamics and evolution of populations; and the trophic structure and coupling of ecosystems. These complex responses can be detected because there are detailed long-term biological and environmental records...

  8. New Professionals on tap? The human resource challenges in developing a new generation of municipal and local government managers in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Molloy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Canadian governments are facing significant human resource management challenges due to pending retirements, projected labour market shortages and the workplace expectations of New Professionals. This paper explores human resource recruitment planning initiatives, which have been undertaken by Nova Scotia municipalities, in order to attract and retain a new generation of municipal government managers. We will argue, in line with a recent Association of Municipal Administrators (AMA of Nova Scotia municipal report that Nova Scotia municipalities must take intergenerational issues into account, for management succession planning to be successful. Our exploration of municipal succession planning will take place in the context of a larger study, which we have done on “New Professional” recruitment, retention and development initiatives in Canada

  9. SU-E-I-33: Establishment of CT Diagnostic Reference Levels in Province Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkopi, E; Abdolell, M; Duffy, S [Dalhousie University and Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate patient radiation dose from the most frequently performed CT examinations and to establish provincial diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as a tool for protocol optimization. Methods: The study investigated the following CT examinations: head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis (CAP). Dose data, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP), were collected from 15 CT scanners installed during 2004–2014 in 11 hospital sites of Nova Scotia. All scanners had dose modulation options and multislice capability (16–128 detector rows). The sample for each protocol included 15 average size patients (70±20 kg). Provincial DRLs were calculated as the 75th percentile of patient dose distributions. The differences in dose between hospitals were evaluated with a single factor ANOVA statistical test. Generalized linear modeling was used to determine the factors associated with higher radiation dose. A sample of 36 abdominal studies performed on three different scanners was blinded and randomized for an assessment by an experienced radiologist who graded the imaging quality of anatomic structures. Results: Data for 900 patients were collected. The DRLs were proposed using CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy*cm) values for CT head (67 and 1049, respectively), chest (12 and 393), abdomen/pelvis (16 and 717), and CAP (14 and 1034). These DRLs were lower than the published national data except for the head CTDIvol. The differences between the means of the dose distributions from each scanner were statistically significant (p<0.05) for all examinations. A very weak correlation was found between the dose and the scanner age or the number of slices with Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.011–0.315. The blinded analysis of image quality demonstrated no clinically significant difference except for the noise category. Conclusion: Provincial DRLs were established for typical CT examinations. The variations in dose between the hospitals

  10. Suicidal behaviours in adolescents in Nova Scotia, Canada: protective associations with measures of social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Donald B; Asbridge, Mark; Kisely, Steve; Rasic, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Few studies of adolescent suicidality have examined its associations with social capital. We explored associations of measures of individual level social capital with self-reported suicide ideation and suicide attempt in adolescents in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada, controlling for other factors known to be associated with adolescent suicidality. We surveyed 1,597 grade 10-12 students at three high schools in 2006 using self-completion questionnaires. Both sexes were combined for analysis. Outcome measures were suicidal ideation and attempt in the previous year. Measures of social capital included perceptions of trustworthiness and helpfulness of others at school, frequency of religious attendance and participation in extracurricular activities. Logistic regressions were carried out to determine associations of social capital with suicidality while controlling for other factors. Perceived trustworthiness and helpfulness were protective for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in the previous year. In adjusted analyses, there were interactions of gender and social capital-females reporting more social capital were more protected from suicide attempt relative to males with similar levels of social capital. This study provides initial evidence of protective associations of individual level social capital with adolescent suicidality. Our findings suggest that among adolescents low social capital as measured by perceptions of trust and helpfulness of others at school may be a warning sign for suicidality, particularly for females. It may be helpful to inquire of young people how they perceive the trustworthiness and helpfulness of their school environment as a measure of how supportive that environment might be to them when they are facing challenges to their mental health.

  11. U-Pb and Rb-Sr geochronology of the Wedgeport granitoid pluton, southwestern Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, R.F.; Keppie, J.D.; Odom, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Zircons from biotite monzogranite of the Wedgeport Pluton, intrusive into deformed metasediments of the Cambrian(?) Goldenville formation in the southwestern Meguma Terrane of Nova Scotia, yield concordant U-Pb ages of 316 ± 5 Ma. This is interpreted as the time of intrusion and crystallization. Within the error limits, the 323 ± 0.0056 Rb-Sr analyses of mineral separates of biotite, potassium feldspar, and quartz-plagioclase from several samples yield subparallel, internal isochrons with an average age of 257 ± 8 Ma. Initial ratios of the internal isochrons range from 0.716 to 0.759. A slow-cooling model for the latter data is discarded because the mineral data fall on straight lines. Instead, a reheating event related to plutonism ca 257 Ma ago, which was sufficient to cause local grain-to-grain migration and reequilibration of strontium and rubidium but not large-scale redistribution, is invoked. This reheating is also inferred to be responsible for the hydrothermal alteration and Sn-U mineralization concentrated along the northwestern margin of the pluton. A dextral northeast-southeast shear zone cutting the pluton is also inferred to be ca. 257 Ma old. It may be related to the last stages of westward abduction of the Meguma Terrane. These results provide a clear example of Permo-Carboniferous plutonism in the southwestern Meguma Terrane and suggest a similar interpretation may apply to other anomalously young ages recorded in this area. In light of these results, the Permo-Carboniferous age of the large East Kemptville tin deposit and its location in a dextral shear zone suggest that the association of younger plutonism and shear zones may be a significant factor for economic mineralization. (22 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.)

  12. Chemical characteristics of North American surface layer outflow: Insights from Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Dylan B.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Holzinger, Rupert; Williams, Brent J.; Allan, James D.; Jimenez, José L.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Roberts, James M.; White, Allen B.; Hudman, Rynda C.; Bertschi, Isaac T.; Stohl, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    We present a factor analysis-based method for differentiating air masses on the basis of source influence and apply the method to a broad suite of trace gas and aerosol measurements collected at Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia, during the summer of 2004 to characterize the chemical composition of atmospheric outflow from eastern North America. CO, ozone, and aerosol mass were elevated by 30%, 56%, and more than 300% at Chebogue Point during U.S. outflow periods. Organic aerosol mass was highest during U.S. pollution events, but made up the largest fraction (70%) of the total aerosol during periods of primary and especially secondary biogenic influence, indicating the importance of both anthropogenic and biogenic organic aerosol. Anthropogenic and oxygenated volatile organic compounds account for the bulk of the gas-phase organic carbon under most conditions; however, biogenic compounds are important in terms of chemical reactivity. Biogenic emissions thus have a significant impact on the chemistry of air masses downwind of the polluted northeastern United States. Using output from a global 3-D model of atmospheric composition (GEOS-Chem), we estimate that CO directly emitted from U.S. pollution sources makes up 28% of the total CO observed at Chebogue Point during U.S. outflow events and 19% at other times, although more work is needed to improve U.S. emission estimates for CO and other pollutants. We conclude that the effects of North American pollution on the chemistry of the western North Atlantic boundary layer are pervasive and not restricted to particular events.

  13. Circulation, retention, and mixing of waters within the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, Southern Ocean: The role of stratified Taylor columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Michael P.; Meijers, Andrew S.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Brown, Peter J.; Venables, Hugh J.; Abrahamsen, E. Povl; Jullion, Loïc.; Messias, Marie-José

    2015-01-01

    The waters of the Weddell-Scotia Confluence (WSC) lie above the rugged topography of the South Scotia Ridge in the Southern Ocean. Meridional exchanges across the WSC transfer water and tracers between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to the north and the subpolar Weddell Gyre to the south. Here, we examine the role of topographic interactions in mediating these exchanges, and in modifying the waters transferred. A case study is presented using data from a free-drifting, intermediate-depth float, which circulated anticyclonically over Discovery Bank on the South Scotia Ridge for close to 4 years. Dimensional analysis indicates that the local conditions are conducive to the formation of Taylor columns. Contemporaneous ship-derived transient tracer data enable estimation of the rate of isopycnal mixing associated with this column, with values of O(1000 m2/s) obtained. Although necessarily coarse, this is of the same order as the rate of isopycnal mixing induced by transient mesoscale eddies within the ACC. A picture emerges of the Taylor column acting as a slow, steady blender, retaining the waters in the vicinity of the WSC for lengthy periods during which they can be subject to significant modification. A full regional float data set, bathymetric data, and a Southern Ocean state estimate are used to identify other potential sites for Taylor column formation. We find that they are likely to be sufficiently widespread to exert a significant influence on water mass modification and meridional fluxes across the southern edge of the ACC in this sector of the Southern Ocean.

  14. Designer ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awasthi, Ashutosh; Singh, Kripal; O'Grady, Audrey; Courtney, Ronan; Kalra, Alok; Singh, Rana Pratap; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Steinberger, Yosef; Patra, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Increase in human population is accelerating the rate of land use change, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, triggering a serious threat to life supporting ecosystem services. Existing strategies for biological conservation remain insufficient to achieve a sustainable human-nature

  15. Mapping wetlands in Nova Scotia with multi-beam RADARSAT-2 Polarimetric SAR, optical satellite imagery, and Lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahncke, Raymond; Leblon, Brigitte; Bush, Peter; LaRocque, Armand

    2018-06-01

    Wetland maps currently in use by the Province of Nova Scotia, namely the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) wetland inventory map and the swamp wetland classes of the DNR forest map, need to be updated. In this study, wetlands were mapped in an area southwest of Halifax, Nova Scotia by classifying a combination of multi-date and multi-beam RADARSAT-2 C-band polarimetric SAR (polSAR) images with spring Lidar, and fall QuickBird optical data using the Random Forests (RF) classifier. The resulting map has five wetland classes (open-water/marsh complex, open bog, open fen, shrub/treed fen/bog, swamp), plus lakes and various upland classes. Its accuracy was assessed using data from 156 GPS wetland sites collected in 2012 and compared to the one obtained with the current wetland map of Nova Scotia. The best overall classification was obtained using a combination of Lidar, RADARSAT-2 HH, HV, VH, VV intensity with polarimetric variables, and QuickBird multispectral (89.2%). The classified image was compared to GPS validation sites to assess the mapping accuracy of the wetlands. It was first done considering a group consisting of all wetland classes including lakes. This showed that only 69.9% of the wetland sites were correctly identified when only the QuickBird classified image was used in the classification. With the addition of variables derived from lidar, the number of correctly identified wetlands increased to 88.5%. The accuracy remained the same with the addition of RADARSAT-2 (88.5%). When we tested the accuracy for identifying wetland classes (e.g. marsh complex vs. open bog) instead of grouped wetlands, the resulting wetland map performed best with either QuickBird and Lidar, or QuickBird, Lidar, and RADARSAT-2 (66%). The Province of Nova Scotia's current wetland inventory and its associated wetland classes (aerial-photo interpreted) were also assessed against the GPS wetland sites. This provincial inventory correctly identified 62.2% of the grouped wetlands

  16. Marine Ecosystem Restoration in Changing European Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen; Delaney, Alyne; Carballo Cárdenas, Eira

    2017-01-01

    and using different narratives of marine restoration, and being confronted with different forms of uncertainties. The paper’s overall contribution is the synthesis of these seemingly disparate components (narratives of restoration, uncertainty in decision making, and governance arrangements) to evaluate...... the impact of existing (maritime and environmental) policies, the governance setting, definitions of restoration and uncertainties on the effectiveness of marine restoration projects. Such a synthesis is a necessary move toward a systematic evaluation of ways to govern and formally institutionalize marine...

  17. An integrated approach to dam safety evaluation. A case study: Upper Lake Falls Dam, Nova Scotia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, P.M.; Rattue, D.A.; Brown, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Upper Lake Falls Dam is located in southwestern Nova Scotia. It is the uppermost hydroelectric development in a series of six developments on the Mersey River. The total capacity of the Mersey River system is 42 MW. The reservoir of Upper Lake Falls, Lake Rossignol, is the largest in Nova Scotia with a total area of 66 square miles and a gross storage of 800,000 acre-feet. An overview is presented of the hydrologic and hydraulic investigations carried out for the dam, which is classified as having high hazard potential because of permanent village and urban developments located downstream. The general methodology adopted in the study consisted of the following: gathering and verifying all meteorologic and hydrologic data; evaluating the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) assumed to occur over the basin, and of the antecedent conditions prior to the PMP; calibrating a watershed model on flood events generated by rainfall, and by a combination of snowmelt and rainfall, and verifying the model using additional hydrologic events; deriving the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) using the PMP results simulated on the calibrated watershed model; hydrodynamic routing of the flood hydrograph through all the developments; dambreak analysis, following sequential or independent failures; and flood inundation mapping. Details are given of safety analysis of the earthfill and concrete dam structures, reservoir management and cost-benefit analyses. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  18. Belowground dynamics in mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal communities are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services (fig. 1). Mangrove wetlands are important filters of materials moving between the land and sea, trapping sediment, nutrients, and pollutants in runoff from uplands and preventing their direct introduction into sensitive marine ecosystems such as seagrass beds and coral reefs. Mangroves serve as nursery grounds and refuge for a variety of organisms and are consequently vital to the biological productivity of coastal waters. Furthermore, because mangroves are highly resilient to disturbances such as hurricanes, they represent a self-sustaining, protective barrier for human populations living in the coastal zone. Mangrove ecosystems also contribute to shoreline stabilization through consolidation of unstable mineral sediments and peat formation. In order to help conserve mangrove ecoystems, scientists with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand the dynamics that impact these vital ecosystems.

  19. The economic impact of a partnership-measurement model of disease management: Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crémieux, Pierre-Yves; Fortin, Pierre; Meilleur, Marie-Claude; Montague, Terrence; Royer, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) was a five-year, community partnership-based disease-management project that sought, as a primary goal, to improve the care and outcomes of patients with heart disease in Nova Scotia. This program, based on a broad stakeholder partnership, provided repeated measurement and feedback on practices and outcomes as well as widespread communication and education among all partners. From a clinical viewpoint, ICONS was successful. For example, use of proven therapies for the target diseases improved and re-hospitalization rates decreased. Stakeholders also perceived a sense of satisfaction because of their involvement in the partnership. However, the universe of health stakeholders is large, and not many have had an experience similar to ICONS. These other health stakeholders, such as decision-makers concerned with the cost of care and determining the value for cost, might, nonetheless, benefit from knowledge of the ICONS concepts and results, particularly economic analyses, as they determine future health policy. Using budgetary data on actual dollars spent and a robust input-output methodology, we assessed the economic impact of ICONS, including trickle-down effects on the Canadian and Nova Scotian economies. The analysis revealed that the $6.22 million invested in Nova Scotia by the private sector donor generated an initial net increase in total Canadian wealth of $5.32 million and a global net increase in total Canadian wealth of $10.23 million, including $2.27 million returned to the different governments through direct and indirect taxes. Thus, the local, provincial and federal governments are important beneficiaries of health project investments such as ICONS. The various government levels benefit from the direct influx of private funds into the publicly funded healthcare sector, from direct and indirect tax revenues and from an increase in knowledge-related employment. This, of course, is in addition to the

  20. An indicator for ecosystem externalities in fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars; Andersen, Ken Haste; Vestergaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem externalities arise when one use of an ecosystem affects its other uses through the production functions of the ecosystem. We use simulations with a size-spectrum ecosystem model to investigate the ecosystem externality created by fishing of multiple species. The model is based upon...... general ecological principles and is calibrated to the North Sea. Two fleets are considered: a "forage fish" fleet targeting species that mature at small sizes and a "large fish" fleet targeting large piscivorous species. Based on the marginal analysis of the present value of the rent, we develop...... a benefit indicator that explicitly divides the consequences of fishing into internal and external benefits. This analysis demonstrates that the forage fish fleet has a notable economic impact on the large fish fleet, but the reverse is not true. The impact can be either negative or positive, which entails...

  1. Gelationous Organism (Macrozooplankton in the Black Sea and Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekiye BİRİNCİ ÖZDEMİR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important problem as ecological, invasion of the marine systems by the gelatinous organism that distributed natural balance. Black Sea ecosystem has been changed critical level by the some causes such as marine pollution, eutrophication, climate change, overfishing, invasive gelatinous organisms. Effect in the ecosystem of gelatinous organisms occurred especially with collapsed of Black Sea anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus stock and fishery production. In the study, gelatinous organism species, important for Black sea, and its effects in the Black sea ecosystem were presented.

  2. Restoration ecology: aiding and abetting secondary succession on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Vander Kloet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using vegetative clumps derived from seeds with a variety of origins to establish nuclei for regeneration of bog vegetation on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (Canada was tested using seeds within scats (excrement and seeds from berries, various techniques for creating clumps, and different clump sizes. Direct placement of scat pieces on peat in the field did not produce successful colonisation. Vegetative clumps begun in a greenhouse, whether from seeds extracted from scats or berries, were 60–100 % successful when transplanted into abandoned peat mines depending on the initial size of the transplant. Based on annual growth rate, Vaccinium oxycoccos has the greatest capacity to quickly colonise abandoned peat mines. Other promising taxa were Vaccinium vitis-ideae and the genus Empetrum.

  3. Deadly occupations: Assessing tuberculosis and accidental mortality among male workers in Sydney and Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, 1909–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ludlow

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines associations between occupation and cause of death among 802 working-age males (15 to 64 years of age who diedin two single-industry communities (Glace Bay and Sydney in Nova Scotia between 1909 and 1917. Employment in mining and steelmanufacturing is assessed for cause-specific mortality among men who died in Canada’s early industrial era, with a particular focus ondeaths due to tuberculosis (n=140, or 18% of deaths and accidents (n=225, or 28% of deaths. Factoring in the effects of occupation,age at death, birthplace, community, and marital status, logistic regression results indicate that, among the men who died, occupation is a significant predictor for accidental deaths (relative to all other causes of death but not for tuberculosis-related deaths. Interpretation of these results is grounded in a broader perspective on the nature of living and working conditions in these two single-industry communities.

  4. Do pelagic grazers benefit from sea ice? Insights from the Antarctic sea ice proxy IPSO25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schmidt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice affects primary production in polar regions in multiple ways. It can dampen water column productivity by reducing light or nutrient supply, provide a habitat for ice algae and condition the marginal ice zone (MIZ for phytoplankton blooms on its seasonal retreat. The relative importance of three different carbon sources (sea ice derived, sea ice conditioned, non-sea-ice associated for the polar food web is not well understood, partly due to the lack of methods that enable their unambiguous distinction. Here we analysed two highly branched isoprenoid (HBI biomarkers to trace sea-ice-derived and sea-ice-conditioned carbon in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba and relate their concentrations to the grazers' body reserves, growth and recruitment. During our sampling in January–February 2003, the proxy for sea ice diatoms (a di-unsaturated HBI termed IPSO25, δ13C  =  −12.5 ± 3.3 ‰ occurred in open waters of the western Scotia Sea, where seasonal ice retreat was slow. In suspended matter from surface waters, IPSO25 was present at a few stations close to the ice edge, but in krill the marker was widespread. Even at stations that had been ice-free for several weeks, IPSO25 was found in krill stomachs, suggesting that they gathered the ice-derived algae from below the upper mixed layer. Peak abundances of the proxy for MIZ diatoms (a tri-unsaturated HBI termed HBI III, δ13C  =  −42.2 ± 2.4 ‰ occurred in regions of fast sea ice retreat and persistent salinity-driven stratification in the eastern Scotia Sea. Krill sampled in the area defined by the ice edge bloom likewise contained high amounts of HBI III. As indicators for the grazer's performance we used the mass–length ratio, size of digestive gland and growth rate for krill, and recruitment for the biomass-dominant calanoid copepods Calanoides acutus and Calanus propinquus. These indices consistently point to blooms in the MIZ as an important feeding

  5. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle occupant safety in Nova Scotia--a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, Natalie L; Kirkland, Susan A; LeBlanc, John C; Langille, Donald B

    2012-03-01

    To determine discrepancies between knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle restraints (CMVRs) and vehicle seating position amongst parents within the province of Nova Scotia. Random telephone survey. The Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Four hundred and twenty-six households with at least one child under the age of 12 years, totaling 723 children. The proportion of parents whose children who should be in a specific stage of CMVR and sitting in the rear seat of the vehicle, and who demonstrate correct knowledge of that restraint system and seating position, yet do not use that restraint system/seating position for their child (demonstrate practice discrepant from their knowledge). Awareness of what restraint system to use is good (>80%). However, knowledge of when it is safe to graduate to the next stage is low (30-55%), most marked for when to use a seatbelt alone. Awareness of the importance of sitting in the rear seat of a vehicle was universal. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice were most marked with booster seats and rear-seating of older children. Factors influencing incorrect practice (prematurely graduated to a higher-level restraint system than what is appropriate for age and weight) included lower household income, caregiver education level, and knowledge of when to graduate from forward-facing car seats and booster seats. Incorrect practice was also more commonly observed amongst children of weight and/or age approaching (but not yet reaching) recommended graduation parameters of the appropriate CMVR. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice are evident through all stages of CMVRs, but most marked with booster seats. The roles of lower socioeconomic status and gaps in CMVR legislation, in influencing discrepant practice, must be acknowledged and suggest the need for targeted education concurrent with development of comprehensive all-stages CMVR policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: Environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy W. [Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Guyn, Lindsay [Department of Information and Evaluation Unit, Mental Health and Psychiatric Services, Calgary Health Region (Canada); Lane, Stephanie E.

    2006-09-15

    In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current

  7. Terrestrial liming to promote Atlantic Salmon recovery in Nova Scotia - approaches needed and knowledge gained after a trial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, S. M.; Angelidis, C.; Armstrong, M.; Biagi, K. M.; Clair, T. A.; Jackson, N.; Breen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Southwest Nova Scotia (SWNS) have plummeted since the 1980s. Acidification is considered a main threat to this population. The lakes and streams of SWNS were among the most heavily acidified in North America during the last century and calcium levels are predicted to continue to fall in coming decades. One of the most promising mitigation options to reduce the risk of extirpation of the SWNS Salmo salar is terrestrial liming; however, both the chemistry of SWNS rivers, and effective strategies for terrestrial liming in SWNS are poorly understood. Here we have launched the first terrestrial liming study in Nova Scotia, employing a test hydrologic source area liming strategy in a 5 ha experimental catchment in SWNS, Maria Brook; we apply an average local application rate of 13 t ha-1 to 10% of the 47 ha catchment. We employ high frequency stream monitoring to complement grab sampling to identify which constituents pose a threat to Salmo salar and to identify strategies for larger scale terrestrial liming that would fit the local conditions. Results indicate that the water chemistry conditions are currently at toxic levels for Salmo salar throughout the year, with levels of ionic aluminium exceeding toxic thresholds almost 100% of the time. The stream chemistry in Maria Brook is remarkably similar to pre-recovery conditions in other heavily acidified watersheds, such as Birkenes in Norway. Our results support the hypothesis that there has been no recovery from acidification in SWNS. Results from the first year of post-liming do not show an improvement in stream chemistry levels, and further lime application is needed to improve the water chemistry conditions to needed levels for the recovery of Salmo salar.

  8. Incidence and Carrier Frequency of CFTR Gene Mutations in Pregnancies With Echogenic Bowel in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle E; Allen, Victoria M; Brock, Jo-Ann K

    2018-03-01

    Fetal echogenic bowel (echogenic bowel) is associated with cystic fibrosis (CF), with a reported incidence ranging from 1% to 13%. Prenatal testing for CF in the setting of echogenic bowel can be done by screening parental or fetal samples for pathogenic CFTR variants. If only one pathogenic variant is identified, sequencing of the CFTR gene can be undertaken, to identify a second pathogenic variant not covered in the standard screening panel. Full gene sequencing, however, also introduces the potential to identify variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) that can create counselling challenges and cause parental anxiety. To provide accurate counselling for families in the study population, the incidence of CF associated with echogenic bowel and the carrier frequency of CFTR variants were investigated. All pregnancies for which CF testing was undertaken for the indication of echogenic bowel (from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island) were identified (January 2007-July 2017). The CFTR screening and sequencing results were reviewed, and fetal outcomes related to CF were assessed. A total of 463 pregnancies with echogenic bowel were tested. Four were confirmed to be affected with CF, giving an incidence of 0.9% in this cohort. The carrier frequency of CF among all parents in the cohort was 5.0% (1 in 20); however, when excluding parents of affected fetuses, the carrier frequency for the population was estimated at 4.1% (1 in 25). CFTR gene sequencing identified an additional VUS in two samples. The incidence of CF in pregnancies with echogenic bowel in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island is 0.9%, with an estimated population carrier frequency of 4.1%. These results provide the basis for improved counselling to assess the risk of CF in the pregnancy, after parental carrier screening, using Bayesian probability. Counselling regarding VUSs should be undertaken before gene sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by

  9. Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: Environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Timothy W.; Guyn, Lindsay; Lane, Stephanie E.

    2006-01-01

    In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current policy of including

  10. Linkage of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging to provincial administrative health care databases in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, A M; Kephart, G; Rockwood, K

    2001-01-01

    The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) was a cohort study that included 528 Nova Scotian community-dwelling participants. Linkage of CSHA and provincial Medical Services Insurance (MSI) data enabled examination of health care utilization in this subsample. This article discusses methodological and ethical issues of database linkage and explores variation in the use of health services by demographic variables and health status. Utilization over 24 months following baseline was extracted from MSI's physician claims, hospital discharge abstracts, and Pharmacare claims databases. Twenty-nine subjects refused consent for access to their MSI file; health card numbers for three others could not be retrieved. A significant difference in healthcare use by age and self-rated health was revealed. Linkage of population-based data with provincial administrative health care databases has the potential to guide health care planning and resource allocation. This process must include steps to ensure protection of confidentiality. Standard practices for linkage consent and routine follow-up should be adopted. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) began in 1991-92 to explore dementia, frailty, and adverse health outcomes (Canadian Study of Health and Aging Working Group, 1994). The original CSHA proposal included linkage to provincial administrative health care databases by the individual CSHA study centers to enhance information on health care utilization and outcomes of study participants. In Nova Scotia, the Medical Services Insurance (MSI) administration, which drew the sampling frame for the original CSHA, did not retain the list of corresponding health card numbers. Furthermore, consent for this access was not asked of participants at the time of the first interview. The objectives of this study reported here were to examine the feasibility and ethical considerations of linking data from the CSHA to MSI utilization data, and to explore variation in health

  11. Ecosystem engineering and biodiversity in coastal sediments: posing hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Olenin, S.; Reise, K.; Ysebaert, T.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal sediments in sheltered temperate locations are strongly modified by ecosystem engineering species such as marsh plants, seagrass, and algae as well as by epibenthic and endobenthic invertebrates. These ecosystem engineers are shaping the coastal sea and landscape, control particulate and

  12. Physical and biological data collected with CDT, fluorometer, and SeaSoar aboard the ship WECOMA as part of Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC) in the North Pacific Ocean from May 30 to June 16 2000 (NODC Accession 0000986)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and biological data collected with CDT, fluorometer, and SeaSoar aboard the ship WECOMA in the North Pacific Ocean from May 30 to June 16 2000. These data...

  13. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI - Fish diet analyses performed in support of FOCI assessment surveys and ecosystem observations in the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska. 1990's - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set focuses on the diets of young of the year Gadus chalcogrammus from the Eastern Gulf of Alaska and the South Eastern Bering Sea. Diet data is available...

  14. Astronomical Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

    2004-05-01

    Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

  15. Mangrove ecosystems under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennerjahn, T.C.; Gilman, E.; Krauss, Ken W.; Lacerda, L.D.; Nordhaus, I.; Wolanski, E.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter assesses the response of mangrove ecosystems to possible outcomes of climate change, with regard to the following categories: (i) distribution, diversity, and community composition, (ii) physiology of flora and fauna, (iii) water budget, (iv) productivity and remineralization, (v) carbon storage in biomass and sediments, and (vi) the filter function for elements beneficial or harmful to life. These categories are then used to identify the regions most vulnerable to climate change. The four most important factors determining the response of mangrove ecosystems to climate change are sea level rise, an increase in frequency and/or intensity of storms, increases in temperature, and aridity. While these changes may be beneficial for some mangrove forests at latitudinal distribution limits, they will threaten forest structure and functions and related ecosystem services in most cases. The interaction of climate change with human interventions is discussed, as well as the effects on ecosystem services including possible adaptation and management options. The chapter closes with an outlook on knowledge gaps and priority research needed to fill these gaps.

  16. Taking tea in the parlour: middle-class formation and gender construction in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1760-1850

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Ann Judith

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of tea etiquette was a significant marker of middle-class gentility and contributed to middle-class formation and gender construction in colonial Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Early middle-class settlers brought tea ware and employed the tea ritual to set standards of gentility that determined social inclusion or exclusion. Tea drinking shifted from a predominantly masculine activity in the late eighteenth century, as commercial and political men met in their parlours over tea, to ...

  17. "Everyone just keeps their eyes closed and their fingers crossed": sexual health communication among black parents and children in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Antoinette N; Gahagan, Jacqueline C; George, Clemon

    2013-07-22

    Black Canadian youth remain disproportionally affected by an array of social and health issues, including sexually transmitted infections. While research exists in support of the involvement of parents as a key means to prevent or modify harmful behaviours among youth, less is known about how parent-child communication can serve as a prevention intervention strategy within Black families in Canada. This study explores sexual health communication between Black parents and youth in Nova Scotia and identifies facilitators, obstacles and issues that families face in dialoguing about sexual health. Focus groups and in-depth interview sessions were held with a diverse sample of parents of Black youth, health and education professionals, and Black youth in Nova Scotia, as part of a larger study aimed at exploring parent-child communication on sexual health and HIV. The research team worked in partnership with and received feedback from key informants and a community advisory committee throughout the various stages of this study. All sessions were audio-taped with permission and thematic analysis was carried out on the verbatim transcripts. Six key themes emerged from the data analysis in relation to parent-child communication within Black families in Nova Scotia: 1. the gendered nature of [sexual] health communication; 2. fear and uncertainty as obstacles; 3. open and honest dialogue from an early age as a facilitator; 4. media as both a catalyst and a barrier; 5. peers as a catalyst; and 6. time constraints as an obstacle. The findings of this study reveal that parent-child communication regarding sexual health promotion within Black families in Nova Scotia remains varied and is heavily affected by a myriad of intersecting determinants of health faced by Black youth and their parents. Health promotion interventions aimed at fostering and supporting parent-child communication on sexual health must simultaneously target both parents and youth and further, such efforts must

  18. Spatial patterns of infauna, epifauna and demersal fish communities in the North Sea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiss, H.; Degraer, S.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Craeymeersch, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the structure and interrelationships of North Sea benthic invertebrate and fish communities and their underlying environmental drivers is an important prerequisite for conservation and spatial ecosystem management on scales relevant to ecological processes. Datasets of North Sea

  19. Expanding Free School-based Human Papilloma Virus (HPV Vaccination Programs to Include School-aged Males in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Krater-Melamed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bill 70 (HPV Vaccine Act was presented to the Nova Scotia House of Assembly with the aim of expanding the current Nova Scotia school-based HPV vaccination program to include males. In recent years, increased awareness of HPV and HPV-caused cancers has led to the implementation of school-based female HPV vaccination programs across Canada. Changing guidelines, based on recent evidence, suggest that males should also be included in these programs. Program expansion to include males aims to reduce the prevalence of HPV-causing cancers and their ensuing costs, to promote equal access to healthcare services, and to make Nova Scotia a leader in HPV prevention. Support from the Canadian public and high profile political actors along with pressure from other provinces and interest groups, including the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, influenced the passing of the HPV Vaccine Act. In order to implement this reform, the provincial financial commitment to the previous HPV program was expanded to cover the cost of male vaccination.

  20. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  1. Situation in the sea area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Situationen i havsomraadet mellan Nordsjoen och Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybern, B.I.; Soederstroem, J.; Thorell, L.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the special topographical and hydrological features the seas surrounding Sweden are very sensitive to both natural changes and changes caused by man. The sea area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea has come into focus during the last few decades due to problems with pollution and its impact on the ecosystems and to overfishing of some commer- cially important species. In order to elucidate the present situation from the Swedish viewpoint, the National Board of Fisheries, the National Environment Protection Board and the County Council of the County Goeteborg and Bohyslaen arranged a Symposium on the Situation in the Sea Area between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in Goeteborg, 14-16 March, 1983. This volume contains lectures given at that Symposium. In most cases there are English summaries and English translations of texts to figures and tables.

  2. Fishing for opinions: Stakeholder views on MSFD implementation in European Seas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, A.; Jouanneau, C.; Koss, R.; Raakjaer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Stakeholder participation is vital when introducing and implementing ecosystem-based management (EBM) at any scale. This paper presents the results of a survey covering four European Regional Seas (Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North-East Atlantic Ocean) aimed to collect stakeholders¿

  3. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial ecosystem elements and use these to compose an entrepreneurial ecosystem index. Next, we measure the output of entrepreneurial ecosystems with different indicators of high-growth firms. We use the 12 provi...

  4. Mapping Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev,Teodor; Burkhard,Benjamin; Maes,Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the contributions of ecosystem structure and function (in combination with other inputs) to human well-being. That means, humankind is strongly dependent on well-functioning ecosystems and natural capital that are the base for a constant flow of ecosystem services from nature to society. Therefore ecosystem services have the potential to become a major tool for policy and decision making on global, national, regional and local scales. Possible applications are manifold:...

  5. Development of a Medical Humanities Program at Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine, Nova Scotia, Canada, 1992-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jock

    2003-10-01

    The Medical Humanities Program at Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine in Nova Scotia, Canada, was initiated in 1992 to incorporate the medical humanities into the learning and experiences of medical students. The goal of the program was to gain acceptance as an integral part of the medical school. The program assumed a broad concept of the medical humanities that includes medical history, literature, music, art, multiculturalism, philosophy, epistemology, theology, anthropology, professionalism, history of alternative therapies, writing, storytelling, health law, international medicine, and ethics. Phase I of the program has provided the same elective and research opportunities in the medical humanities that are available to the students in clinical and basic sciences, and has encouraged and legitimized the involvement of the humanities in the life and learning of the medical student through a wide array of programs and activities. Phase II will focus on further incorporation of the humanities into the curriculum. Phase III will be the development of a graduate program in medical humanities to train more faculty who will incorporate the humanities into their teaching and into the development of education programs.

  6. Assessing the potential for isotopic partitioning of soil respiration at research sites in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risk, D.; Kellman, L.; Black, M. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada). Environmental Sciences Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    The stable isotope ratios of carbon and oxygen in different tree species were studied with respect to different tissues, at different points within the tree, through soil profiles and in carbon dioxide respired from laboratory incubations. Although isotopic methods of partitioning autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration have been used with some success, stable isotopic methods are complicated by the fact that carbon isotope fractionations are small in natural systems, and radiocarbon techniques are time and equipment intensive. Studies that use isotopic analysis opportunistically, such as in C3/C4 transitional systems, have proven to be the most successful. Previously unexploited opportunities have the potential to be used for stable isotope-based partitioning in natural systems if the autotrophic/heterotrophic process distribution in the profile is well understand and if there is good process resolution and concurrent analyses using physical partitioning methods such as trenches. This study explored the different paths of opportunity in terms of background isotopic characterization that is being carried out for an existing network of carbon flux research sites in eastern Nova Scotia and in western Newfoundland. The new continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) at the Environmental Earth Sciences Laboratory at St. Francis Xavier University was used for the isotopic analyses. The isotopic information will be evaluated for potential partitioning opportunities, considering the combination of approaches that will give the best chances of success. Isotopic partitioning trials will take place at suitable sites.

  7. Serum C-reactive protein concentrations in Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers with immune-mediated rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Hanna Dorotea; Hillström, Anna; Kånåhols, Malin; Hagman, Ragnvi; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene

    2017-04-17

    Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers (NSDTRs) are a dog breed often affected by immune-mediated rheumatic disease (IMRD), a disorder characterised by chronic stiffness and joint pain. Most, but not all, dogs with IMRD, have antinuclear antibodies (ANA), which are also commonly present in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The clinical and diagnostic findings of IMRD indicate that it is an SLE-related disorder. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase protein, is a quantitative marker of inflammation for many diseases and is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammation in both humans and dogs. However, in human SLE, CRP concentrations are often elevated but correlate poorly with disease activity; they can be low in individual patients with active disease. The aim of the study was to investigate CRP in a group of NSDTRs with the SLE-related disorder IMRD. The hypothesis was that CRP concentrations would be increased in dogs with IMRD compared to healthy dogs, but that the increase would be mild. Serum CRP concentrations were measured in 18 IMRD-affected NSDTRs and 19 healthy control NSDTRs using two different canine-specific CRP assays. Dogs with IMRD and ANA had higher CRP concentrations than the control dogs, but the concentrations were below the clinical decision limit for systemic inflammation for most of the IMRD dogs. These results indicate that CRP concentrations were increased in dogs with IMRD and ANA, but the increase was mild, similar to what has been observed in human SLE.

  8. Effects of workplace policy on continuing professional development: the case of occupational therapy in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth; Sheffield, Suzanne Le-May; Stadnyk, Robin; Beagan, Brenda

    2006-04-01

    Continuing professional development is essential for professionals to remain competent, and for effective recruitment and retention. This paper reports a qualitative study of the effects of workplace policy on continuing professional development on a small, dispersed profession in a resource-challenged province, using the case example of occupational therapy in Nova Scotia. The study used a multi-methods design, theoretically based on institutional ethnography. Methods were critical appraisal of the literature, interview and focus group data collection with 28 occupational therapists and 4 health services administrators, and a review of workplace policy. The study identified a policy wall. Notable policies were those which defined who is responsible for continuing professional development, and which limited employee benefits and work flexibility options for those with family duties. It appears that a female-dominated profession, such as occupational therapy, may also face gender-based challenges. Suggestions are offered for workplace policy makers, unions, provincial regulatory organizations, and health professionals. The findings are generally applicable to any small, dispersed health profession operating in resource-challenged conditions.

  9. Pilot study investigating ambient air toxics emissions near a Canadian kraft pulp and paper facility in Pictou County, Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Guernsey, Judith R; Walker, Tony R; Kim, Jong Sung; Sherren, Kate; Andreou, Pantelis

    2017-09-01

    Air toxics are airborne pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, including certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), prioritized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While several EPA-designated air toxics are monitored at a subset of Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) sites, Canada has no specific "air toxics" control priorities. Although pulp and paper (P&P) mills are major industrial emitters of air pollutants, few studies quantified the spectrum of air quality exposures. Moreover, most NAPS monitoring sites are in urban centers; in contrast, rural NAPS sites are sparse with few exposure risk records. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate prioritized air toxic ambient VOC concentrations using NAPS hourly emissions data from a rural Pictou, Nova Scotia Kraft P&P town to document concentration levels, and to determine whether these concentrations correlated with wind direction at the NAPS site (located southwest of the mill). Publicly accessible Environment and Climate Change Canada data (VOC concentrations [Granton NAPS ID: 31201] and local meteorological conditions [Caribou Point]) were examined using temporal (2006-2013) and spatial analytic methods. Results revealed several VOCs (1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride) routinely exceeded EPA air toxics-associated cancer risk thresholds. 1,3-Butadiene and tetrachloroethylene were significantly higher (p towns and contribute to poor health in nearby communities.

  10. Comparison of Bayesian and frequentist approaches in modelling risk of preterm birth near the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canty Angelo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compares the Bayesian and frequentist (non-Bayesian approaches in the modelling of the association between the risk of preterm birth and maternal proximity to hazardous waste and pollution from the Sydney Tar Pond site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods The data includes 1604 observed cases of preterm birth out of a total population of 17559 at risk of preterm birth from 144 enumeration districts in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Other covariates include the distance from the Tar Pond; the rate of unemployment to population; the proportion of persons who are separated, divorced or widowed; the proportion of persons who have no high school diploma; the proportion of persons living alone; the proportion of single parent families and average income. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression, quasi-likelihood Poisson regression and weighted linear regression models were fitted to the data. Results The results of the analyses were compared together with their limitations. Conclusion The results of the weighted linear regression and the quasi-likelihood Poisson regression agrees with the result from the Bayesian hierarchical modelling which incorporates the spatial effects.

  11. The influence of intrinsic and extrinsic job values on turnover intention among continuing care assistants in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Donna M; Keefe, Janice M; McGrath, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the influence that intrinsic and extrinsic job values have on the turnover intention of continuing care assistants (CCAs) who work either in home care or facility-based care in Nova Scotia (n = 188). Factor analysis of job values identified three latent job values structures: "compensation and commitment," "flexibility and opportunity," and "positive work relationships." Using binary logistic regression, we examined the predictive utility of these factors on two indices of turnover intention. Regression results indicate that, in general, job values constructs did not significantly predict turnover intention when controlling for demographics and job characteristics. However, a trend was found for the "positive work relationships" factor in predicting consideration of changing employers. In addition, CCAs who work in facility-based care were significantly more likely to have considered leaving their current employer. With projected increases in the demand for these workers in both home and continuing care, more attention is needed to identify and address factors to reduce turnover intention.

  12. Determining appropriate wind turbine setback distances: Perspectives from municipal planners in the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Ian; Betts, Stephen; Rapaport, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a series of interviews to investigate how municipal planners in three Canadian provinces (Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario) influence setbacks that regulate appropriate locations for wind turbines. Setbacks are provisions in local land use policies that dictate required separation distances between wind turbines and other land uses. Results of the study indicate that planners are not using a consistent method to ascertain appropriate distances and are often constrained by a lack of experience, resources, and expertise. These findings have important implications for wind energy regulation. Setbacks are intended to reasonably protect the public from the impacts of wind turbines, while allowing for some development. Municipalities in Canada may be best placed to consider local impacts of wind power, but the challenges identified raise concerns about potential arbitrariness. Setbacks that are unjustifiably high can unnecessarily close off territory and limit the ability to reach renewable energy targets. Taking regulatory power away from municipalities, as has happened in Ontario, can facilitate achievement of provincial targets, but may also increase opposition to projects at the local level. - Highlights: ► Inconsistent methods used for establishing wind turbine setbacks. ► Most common method used is a review of other setback by-laws. ► Barriers to implementation of setbacks include knowledge, resources, and consensus. ► Recommend documentation of planning process in setting setbacks.

  13. A documentation of structures in unconsolidated sediments along the north shore of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, T.R.

    1988-12-01

    During the summer of 1987 the north shore of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, was examined for evidence of structures in unconsolidated sediments. This shoreline exposes the eastern extension of the Cobequid-Chedabucto fault system which was active from the Devonian until at least the Permian, and possible into the Mesozoic. The primary aim of the study was to document, measure and record any structures in unconsolidated sediments. In all, thirty-four structure locations were found; of these, twenty-nine were in glacial outwash deltas, the results of the Late Wisconsinan ice retreat. The most important structures include: 1) conjugate normal faults in Advocate Harbour sands and muds at East Finney Brook; 2) associated faults and folds in the Advocate Harbour bottomset muds at Lower Five Islands; and 3) major convolutions in Advocate Harbour bottomset muds at Economy Point. The convolutions are the results of seismic shaking which either postdated delta formation or triggered synsedimentary slumping. The faults and folds at Lower Five Islands were formed by extension related to either delta slumping or possible bedrock movement. The conjugate fault set at East Finney Brook is the result of an extensional event probably caused by late NE-SW normal fault reactivation. It is unclear whether this reactivation is the result of glacial rebound or neotectonic movement

  14. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level......In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem...

  15. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  16. Implementing ecosystem-based marine management as a process of regionalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper; van Tatenhove, Jan

    2015-01-01

    and the Baltic Sea Fisheries Forum, both examples of regionalisation processes in order to implement ecosystem-based marine management. The Helsinki Commission Group for implementation of the ecosystem approach is a joint management body for the implementation of the Baltic Sea Action Plan and the European Union......This article deals with the implementation of ecosystem-based marine management in the Baltic Sea. It explores and documents in particular the preliminary lessons from environmental and fisheries management with reference to the Helsinki Commission Group for implementation of the ecosystem approach......'s Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The Baltic Sea Fisheries Forum is a new governing body to facilitate regional cooperation in fisheries management. The aim of the article is twofold: a) to describe and discuss two different pathways of regionalisation in the Baltic Sea and b) to explore how...

  17. Temperature, salinity, and other data from CTD casts in the Arabian Sea from the MANGEN and other platforms in support of the North Arabian Sea Environment and Ecosystem Research (NASEER) project from 10 January 1992 to 28 December 1994 (NODC Accession 0000512)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD data were collected in the Arabian Sea from the MANGEN and other platforms from 10 January 1992 to 28 December 1994. Data include profiles of temperature,...

  18. Modeling hurricane effects on mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    Mangrove ecosystems are at their most northern limit along the coastline of Florida and in isolated areas of the gulf coast in Louisiana and Texas. Mangroves are marine-based forests that have adapted to colonize and persist in salty intertidal waters. Three species of mangrove trees are common to the United States, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa), and red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle). Mangroves are highly productive ecosystems and provide valuable habitat for fisheries and shorebirds. They are susceptible to lightning and hurricane disturbance, both of which occur frequently in south Florida. Climate change studies predict that, while these storms may not become more frequent, they may become more intense with warming sea temperatures. Sea-level rise alone has the potential for increasing the severity of storm surge, particularly in areas where coastal habitats and barrier shorelines are rapidly deteriorating. Given this possibility, U.S. Geological Survey researchers modeled the impact of hurricanes on south Florida mangrove communities.

  19. Checking contamination of the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-07-01

    In July, 133 scientists from 15 countries attended an IAEA symposium on the Interaction of Radioactive Contaminants with the Constituents of the Marine Environment. It was held at the University of Washington, with the USAEC acting as host. Representatives from five international organisations, the CEC, OECD-NEA, WFUNA, WHO and the IAEA attended. The symposium was primarily aimed at elucidating the influence of radioactivity on the marine ecosystem and providing some background material for estimation of the capacity of the sea to accept radioactive waste without any significant harmful effects on man and the ecosystem. At the U. N. Conference on Human Environment held in Stockholm in June this year, a special concern was expressed regarding the international waters, such as the seas and oceans, and the need to conserve the resources of the sea. For the past 14 years the Agency has conducted an intensive programme on the discharge of radioactive waste into the sea, and the behaviour of radionuclides in the sea. (author)

  20. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial

  1. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  2. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  3. Sea Dragon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... In preparation for these changes, the Navy is exploring new command and control relationships, and the Marine Corps established Sea Dragon to experiment with emerging technologies, operational...

  4. Rapid changes in surface water carbonate chemistry during Antarctic sea ice melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth M.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Venables, Hugh J.; Whitehouse, Michael J.; Korb, Rebecca E.; Watson, Andrew J.

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT The effect of sea ice melt on the carbonate chemistry of surface waters in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, Southern Ocean, was investigated during January 2008. Contrasting concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA) and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) were observed in and around the receding sea ice edge. The precipitation of carbonate minerals such as ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) in sea ice brine has the net effect of decreasing DIC and TA and increasing the fCO2 in the brine. Deficits in DIC up to 12 +/- 3 μmol kg-1 in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) were consistent with the release of DIC-poor brines to surface waters during sea ice melt. Biological utilization of carbon was the dominant processes and accounted for 41 +/- 1 μmol kg-1 of the summer DIC deficit. The data suggest that the combined effects of biological carbon uptake and the precipitation of carbonates created substantial undersaturation in fCO2 of 95 μatm in the MIZ during summer sea ice melt. Further work is required to improve the understanding of ikaite chemistry in Antarctic sea ice and its importance for the sea ice carbon pump.

  5. Ecosystem-based management of coastal eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.

    This thesis focuses on Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM) of coastal eutrophication. Special attention is put on connections between science and decision-making in regard to development, implementation and revision of evidence-based nutrient management strategies. Two strategies are presented...... and analysed: the Danish Action Plans on the Aquatic Environment and the eutrophication segment of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. Similarities and differences are discussed and elements required for making nutrient management strategies successful are suggested. Key words: Eutrophication, marine, Danish...

  6. Global change impacts on mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal forests are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services. Major local threats to mangrove ecosystems worldwide include clearcutting and trimming of forests for urban, agricultural, or industrial expansion; hydrological alterations; toxic chemical spills; and eutrophication. In many countries with mangroves, much of the human population resides in the coastal zone, and their activities often negatively impact the integrity of mangrove forests. In addition, eutrophication, which is the process whereby nutrients build up to higher than normal levels in a natural system, is possibly one of the most serious threats to mangroves and associated ecosystems such as coral reefs. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand global impacts on these significant ecosystems.Changes in climate and other factors may also affect mangroves, but in complex ways. Global warming may promote expansion of mangrove forests to higher latitudes and accelerate sea-level rise through melting of polar ice or steric expansion of oceans. Changes in sea level would alter flooding patterns and the structure and areal extent of mangroves. Climate change may also alter rainfall patterns, which would in turn change local salinity regimes and competitive interactions of mangroves with other wetland species. Increases in frequency or intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes in combination with sea-level rise may alter erosion and sedimentation rates in mangrove forests. Another global change factor that may directly affect mangrove growth is increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), caused by burning of fossil fuels and other factors. Elevated CO2 concentration may increase mangrove growth by stimulating photosynthesis or improving water use

  7. Deep-sea impact experiments and their future requirements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    In recent years, several experiments to assess the potential impacts due to deep-sea mining in the Pacific as well as the Indian Oceans have indicated the immediate changes and restoration patterns of environmental conditions in the marine ecosystem...

  8. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  9. On Man and Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Harold

    1982-01-01

    Distinctions between natural ecosystems and human ecosystems are misleading. Natural and social sciences can be integrated through the concept of a "human-use ecosystem," in which social scientists analyze the community, household, and individual, and natural scientists analyze the land. Includes a case study of St. Kitts. (KC)

  10. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  11. Towards ecosystem accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, C.; Rathjens, H.; Zwart, S.J.; Hein, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. One of the specific features of ecosystem accounting is the distinction between the capacity and the flow of ecosystem services. Ecohydrological modelling to support

  12. Rights to ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Many of these services are provided outside the borders of the land where they are produced; this article investigates who is entitled to these non-excludable ecosystem services from two libertarian perspectives. Taking a

  13. Tipping elements in the Arctic marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Carlos M; Agustí, Susana; Wassmann, Paul; Arrieta, Jesús M; Alcaraz, Miquel; Coello, Alexandra; Marbà, Núria; Hendriks, Iris E; Holding, Johnna; García-Zarandona, Iñigo; Kritzberg, Emma; Vaqué, Dolors

    2012-02-01

    The Arctic marine ecosystem contains multiple elements that present alternative states. The most obvious of which is an Arctic Ocean largely covered by an ice sheet in summer versus one largely devoid of such cover. Ecosystems under pressure typically shift between such alternative states in an abrupt, rather than smooth manner, with the level of forcing required for shifting this status termed threshold or tipping point. Loss of Arctic ice due to anthropogenic climate change is accelerating, with the extent of Arctic sea ice displaying increased variance at present, a leading indicator of the proximity of a possible tipping point. Reduced ice extent is expected, in turn, to trigger a number of additional tipping elements, physical, chemical, and biological, in motion, with potentially large impacts on the Arctic marine ecosystem.

  14. Nutrient controls on biocomplexity of mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Mangrove forests are important coastal ecosystems that provide a variety of ecological and societal services. These intertidal, tree-dominated communities along tropical coastlines are often described as “simple systems,” compared to other tropical forests with larger numbers of plant species and multiple understory strata; however, mangrove ecosystems have complex trophic structures, and organisms exhibit unique physiological, morphological, and behavioral adaptations to environmental conditions characteristic of the land-sea interface. Biogeochemical functioning of mangrove forests is also controlled by interactions among the microbial, plant, and animal communities and feedback linkages mediated by hydrology and other forcing functions. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to understand more fully the impact of nutrient variability on these delicate and important ecosystems.

  15. Anthropogenic impacts on marine ecosystems in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Richard B; Thatje, Sven; McClintock, James B; Hughes, Kevin A

    2011-03-01

    Antarctica is the most isolated continent on Earth, but it has not escaped the negative impacts of human activity. The unique marine ecosystems of Antarctica and their endemic faunas are affected on local and regional scales by overharvesting, pollution, and the introduction of alien species. Global climate change is also having deleterious impacts: rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification already threaten benthic and pelagic food webs. The Antarctic Treaty System can address local- to regional-scale impacts, but it does not have purview over the global problems that impinge on Antarctica, such as emissions of greenhouse gases. Failure to address human impacts simultaneously at all scales will lead to the degradation of Antarctic marine ecosystems and the homogenization of their composition, structure, and processes with marine ecosystems elsewhere. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. A participatory approach to sustainable energy strategy development in a carbon-intensive jurisdiction: The case of Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Michelle; Wheeler, David; Woolston, Genna

    2011-01-01

    The need for governments to reduce the exposure of energy consumers to future increases in fossil fuel prices places urgent pressure on policy-makers to deliver fundamental transformations in energy strategies, particularly in jurisdictions with high dependency on fossil fuel sources (). This transformation is unlikely without a high level of stakeholder engagement in the policy development process. This paper describes two policy development processes recently undertaken in Nova Scotia in which the inclusion of stakeholder views was central to the approach. The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency involving the inception of an independent performance-based administrator. The second required the delivery of a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation in the Province. It involved recommendations for changes in institutional arrangements, financial incentives and technological options. This process was followed by new commitments to renewable energy developments, new infrastructure for the importation of hydro-electricity, and the announcement of FITs for ocean energy. In both cases, recommendations were made by an independent academic institution, and the Government responded directly to a majority of recommendations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and the implications for future energy policy making in carbon-intensive jurisdictions. - Research highlights: → Fundamental transformations in energy policy require stakeholder engagement to be successful. → We describe two policy development processes where stakeholder views were key considerations. → The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency. → The second delivered a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation. → In each case, the Government directly responded to the majority of recommendations.

  17. Identifying the sources driving observed PM2.5 temporal variability over Halifax, Nova Scotia, during BORTAS-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Gibson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The source attribution of observed variability of total PM2.5 concentrations over Halifax, Nova Scotia, was investigated between 11 July and 26 August 2011 using measurements of PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 chemical composition (black carbon, organic matter, anions, cations and 33 elements. This was part of the BORTAS-B (quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants using Aircraft and Satellites experiment, which investigated the atmospheric chemistry and transport of seasonal boreal wildfire emissions over eastern Canada in 2011. The US EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF receptor model was used to determine the average mass (percentage source contribution over the 45 days, which was estimated to be as follows: long-range transport (LRT pollution: 1.75 μg m−3 (47%; LRT pollution marine mixture: 1.0 μg m−3 (27.9%; vehicles: 0.49 μg m−3 (13.2%; fugitive dust: 0.23 μg m−3 (6.3%; ship emissions: 0.13 μg m−3 (3.4%; and refinery: 0.081 μg m−3 (2.2%. The PMF model describes 87% of the observed variability in total PM2.5 mass (bias = 0.17 and RSME = 1.5 μg m−3. The factor identifications are based on chemical markers, and they are supported by air mass back trajectory analysis and local wind direction. Biomass burning plumes, found by other surface and aircraft measurements, were not significant enough to be identified in this analysis. This paper presents the results of the PMF receptor modelling, providing valuable insight into the local and upwind sources impacting surface PM2.5 in Halifax and a vital comparative data set for the other collocated ground-based observations of atmospheric composition made during BORTAS-B.

  18. A participatory approach to sustainable energy strategy development in a carbon-intensive jurisdiction: The case of Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michelle, E-mail: adamsm@dal.c [School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, 6100 University Avenue, Suite 5010, Halifax, NS, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Wheeler, David [Plymouth Business School, University of Plymouth, Cookworthy Building, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Woolston, Genna [School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, 6100 University Avenue, Suite 5010, Halifax, NS, B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    The need for governments to reduce the exposure of energy consumers to future increases in fossil fuel prices places urgent pressure on policy-makers to deliver fundamental transformations in energy strategies, particularly in jurisdictions with high dependency on fossil fuel sources (). This transformation is unlikely without a high level of stakeholder engagement in the policy development process. This paper describes two policy development processes recently undertaken in Nova Scotia in which the inclusion of stakeholder views was central to the approach. The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency involving the inception of an independent performance-based administrator. The second required the delivery of a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation in the Province. It involved recommendations for changes in institutional arrangements, financial incentives and technological options. This process was followed by new commitments to renewable energy developments, new infrastructure for the importation of hydro-electricity, and the announcement of FITs for ocean energy. In both cases, recommendations were made by an independent academic institution, and the Government responded directly to a majority of recommendations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and the implications for future energy policy making in carbon-intensive jurisdictions. - Research highlights: {yields} Fundamental transformations in energy policy require stakeholder engagement to be successful. {yields} We describe two policy development processes where stakeholder views were key considerations. {yields} The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency. {yields} The second delivered a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation. {yields} In each case, the Government directly responded to the majority of recommendations.

  19. Is the minimum enough? Affordability of a nutritious diet for minimum wage earners in Nova Scotia (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Felicia D; Williams, Patricia L; Watt, Cynthia G

    2014-05-09

    This paper aims to assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia (NS) from 2002 to 2012 using an economic simulation that includes food costing and secondary data. The cost of the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB) was assessed with a stratified, random sample of grocery stores in NS during six time periods: 2002, 2004/2005, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2012. The NNFB's cost was factored into affordability scenarios for three different household types relying on minimum wage earnings: a household of four; a lone mother with three children; and a lone man. Essential monthly living expenses were deducted from monthly net incomes using methods that were standardized from 2002 to 2012 to determine whether adequate funds remained to purchase a basic nutritious diet across the six time periods. A 79% increase to the minimum wage in NS has resulted in a decrease in the potential deficit faced by each household scenario in the period examined. However, the household of four and the lone mother with three children would still face monthly deficits ($44.89 and $496.77, respectively, in 2012) if they were to purchase a nutritiously sufficient diet. As a social determinant of health, risk of food insecurity is a critical public health issue for low wage earners. While it is essential to increase the minimum wage in the short term, adequately addressing income adequacy in NS and elsewhere requires a shift in thinking from a focus on minimum wage towards more comprehensive policies ensuring an adequate livable income for everyone.

  20. Apparent survival of adult Leach's Storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa breeding on Bon Portage Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle T. Fife

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Leach's Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa; hereafter storm-petrel, one of the most widespread procellariiform seabirds in the world, appear to be declining in many parts of their breeding range. As part of a regional effort to assess status of storm-petrel colonies in eastern North America, we estimated apparent survival and recapture probabilities from 2009 to 2014 for adults on Bon Portage Island (43° 28' N, 65° 44' W, located off the southwestern coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. Mean annual survival estimated for this colony was low (0.78 ± 0.04 compared with other procellariiforms, e.g., > 0.90 for many albatrosses and petrels. Storm-petrels that were fitted with very high frequency (VHF radio tags had an average of 0.11 ± 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01 to 0.21 higher survival probabilities than those that were not, possibly because VHF tags were attached to known, established breeders. There was weak evidence that survival was reduced by an average of 0.07 ± 0.04 for storm-petrels in study plots that were occupied by Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus and their chicks; however, this result was not statistically significant (95% CI: -0.15 to 0.02. Low adult survival is an early indication that this important colony may be under stress. However, further work is needed to determine if the colony is indeed declining and, if so, to determine the cause(s of the decline so that they may be addressed.

  1. Protocol for determining primary healthcare practice characteristics, models of practice and patient accessibility using an exploratory census survey with linkage to administrative data in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Emily Gard; Gibson, Richard J; Lawson, Beverley; Burge, Frederick

    2017-03-16

    There is little evidence on how primary care providers (PCPs) model their practices in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, what services they offer or what accessibility is like for the average patient. This study will create a database of all family physicians and primary healthcare nurse practitioners in NS, including information about accessibility and the model of care in which they practice, and will link the survey data to administrative health databases. 3 census surveys of all family physicians, primary care nurse practitioners (ie, PCPs) and their practices in NS will be conducted. The first will be a telephone survey conducted during typical daytime business hours. At each practice, the person answering the telephone will be asked questions about the practice's accessibility and model of care. The second will be a telephone survey conducted after typical daytime business hours to determine what out-of-office services PCP practices offer their patients. The final will be a tailored fax survey that will collect information that could not be obtained in the first 2 surveys plus new information on scope of practice, practice model and willingness to participate in research. Survey data will be linked with billing data from administrative health databases. Multivariate regression analysis will be employed to assess whether access and availability outcome variables are associated with PCP and model of practice characteristics. Negative binomial regression analysis will be employed to assess the association between independent variables from the survey data and health system use outcomes from administrative data. This study has received ethical approval from the Nova Scotia Health Authority and the Health Data Nova Scotia Data Access Committee. Dissemination approached will include stakeholder engagement at local and national levels, conference presentations, peer-reviewed publications and a public website. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  2. Ecosystem services in ECOCLIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Boegh, Eva; Bendtsen, J

    that actions initiated to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions are sustainable and not destructive to existing ecosystem services. Therefore it is important to address i.e. land use change in relation to the regulating services of the ecosystems, such as carbon sequestration and climate regulation. At present...... a thorough understanding of the ecosystem processes controlling the uptake or emissions of GHG is fundamental. Here we present ECOCLIM in the context of ecosystem services and the experimental studies within ECOCLIM which will lead to an enhanced understanding of Danish ecosystems....

  3. AFSC/NMML with NPRB: Whale broad-scale distribution in southeastern Bering Sea, 2008 and 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As part of the Bering Sea Integrated Ecosystem Research Program (BSIERP) funded by the North Pacific Research Board (http://www.nprb.org/bering-sea-project),...

  4. Environmental influences on the at-sea behaviour of a major consumer, Mirounga leonina, in a rapidly changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor McIntyre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution and foraging ecology of major consumers within pelagic systems, specifically in relation to physical parameters, can be important for the management of bentho-pelagic systems undergoing rapid change associated with global climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing (i.e., the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Sea. We tracked 11 adult male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina, during their five-month post-moult foraging migrations from King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, northern Antarctic Peninsula, using tags capable of recording and transmitting behavioural data and in situ temperature and salinity data. Seals foraged mostly within the Weddell–Scotia Confluence, while a few foraged along the western Antarctic Peninsula shelf of the Bellingshausen Sea. Mixed model outputs suggest that the at-sea behaviour of seals was associated with a number of environmental parameters, especially seafloor depth, sea-ice concentrations and the temperature structure of the water column. Seals increased dive bottom times and travelled at slower speeds in shallower areas and areas with increased sea-ice concentrations. Changes in dive depth and durations, as well as relative amount of time spent during the bottom phases of dives, were observed in relation to differences in overall temperature gradient, likely as a response to vertical changes in prey distribution associated with temperature stratification in the water column. Our results illustrate the likely complex influences of bathymetry, hydrography and sea ice on the behaviour of male southern elephant seals in a changing environment and highlight the need for region-specific approaches to studying environmental influences on behaviour.

  5. Fishing for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L; Pegg, Mark A; Cole, Nicholas W; Siddons, Stephen F; Fedele, Alexis D; Harmon, Brian S; Ruskamp, Ryan L; Turner, Dylan R; Uerling, Caleb C

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems are commonly exploited and manipulated to maximize certain human benefits. Such changes can degrade systems, leading to cascading negative effects that may be initially undetected, yet ultimately result in a reduction, or complete loss, of certain valuable ecosystem services. Ecosystem-based management is intended to maintain ecosystem quality and minimize the risk of irreversible change to natural assemblages of species and to ecosystem processes while obtaining and maintaining long-term socioeconomic benefits. We discuss policy decisions in fishery management related to commonly manipulated environments with a focus on influences to ecosystem services. By focusing on broader scales, managing for ecosystem services, and taking a more proactive approach, we expect sustainable, quality fisheries that are resilient to future disturbances. To that end, we contend that: (1) management always involves tradeoffs; (2) explicit management of fisheries for ecosystem services could facilitate a transition from reactive to proactive management; and (3) adaptive co-management is a process that could enhance management for ecosystem services. We propose adaptive co-management with an ecosystem service framework where actions are implemented within ecosystem boundaries, rather than political boundaries, through strong interjurisdictional relationships. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Spilt milk: an inter-sectoral partnership that failed to advance milk security for low-income lone mothers in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Lynn; Glanville, N Theresa; Hilchie-Pye, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Canadian agricultural policy supports higher milk prices. Consequently, poor families lack sufficient funds to purchase adequate quantities of milk. Low-income lone mothers in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia suggested their preferred strategies for improved access to milk. We then built inter-sectoral support for a policy intervention to address their recommendations. Our research-to-action process led to a policy dialogue focusing on an electronic smart card that would permit the delivery of lower-priced milk to poor households. While all agreed that milk insecurity was an important issue, the project ultimately failed because of the entrenched positions of influential stakeholder groups.

  7. Assessing spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton communities' composition in the Iroise Sea ecosystem (Brittany, France): A 3D modeling approach. Part 1: Biophysical control over plankton functional types succession and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadier, Mathilde; Gorgues, Thomas; Sourisseau, Marc; Edwards, Christopher A.; Aumont, Olivier; Marié, Louis; Memery, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic interplay between physical, biogeochemical and biological processes represents a key challenge in oceanography, particularly in shelf seas where complex hydrodynamics are likely to drive nutrient distribution and niche partitioning of phytoplankton communities. The Iroise Sea includes a tidal front called the 'Ushant Front' that undergoes a pronounced seasonal cycle, with a marked signal during the summer. These characteristics as well as relatively good observational sampling make it a region of choice to study processes impacting phytoplankton dynamics. This innovative modeling study employs a phytoplankton-diversity model, coupled to a regional circulation model to explore mechanisms that alter biogeography of phytoplankton in this highly dynamic environment. Phytoplankton assemblages are mainly influenced by the depth of the mixed layer on a seasonal time scale. Indeed, solar incident irradiance is a limiting resource for phototrophic growth and small phytoplankton cells are advantaged over larger cells. This phenomenon is particularly relevant when vertical mixing is intense, such as during winter and early spring. Relaxation of wind-induced mixing in April causes an improvement of irradiance experienced by cells across the whole study area. This leads, in late spring, to a competitive advantage of larger functional groups such as diatoms as long as the nutrient supply is sufficient. This dominance of large, fast-growing autotrophic cells is also maintained during summer in the productive tidally-mixed shelf waters. In the oligotrophic surface layer of the western part of the Iroise Sea, small cells coexist in a greater proportion with large, nutrient limited cells. The productive Ushant tidal front's region (1800 mgC·m- 2·d- 1 between August and September) is also characterized by a high degree of coexistence between three functional groups (diatoms, micro/nano-flagellates and small eukaryotes/cyanobacteria). Consistent with

  8. Late mid-Holocene sea-level oscillation: A possible cause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. B.; Collins, E. S.

    Sea level oscillated between 5500 and 3500 years ago at Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, Chezzetcook and Baie Verte, Nova Scotia and Montmagny, Quebec. The oscillation is well constrained by foraminiferal marsh zonations in three locations and by diatoms in the fourth one. The implications are: (1) there was a eustatic sea-level oscillation of about 2-10 m in the late mid-Holocene on the southeast coast of North America (South Carolina to Quebec) that is not predicted by present geophysical models of relative sea-level change; (2) this oscillation coincides with oceanographic cooling on the east coast of Canada that we associate with melting ice; and (3) this sea- level oscillation/climatic event coincides exactly with the end of pyramid building in Egypt which is suggested to have resulted from a climate change (i.e. drought, cooling). This sea-level/climatic change is a prime example of feedback where climatic warming in the mid-Holocene promoted ice melt in the Arctic which subsequently caused climatic cooling by opening up Arctic channels releasing cold water into the Inner Labrador Current that continued to intensify until 4000 years ago. This sea-level event may also be the best way of measuring when the final ice melted since most estimates of the ages of the last melting are based on end moraine dates in the Arctic which may not coincide with when the last ice actually melted out, since there is no way of dating the final ice positions.

  9. How well do ecosystem indicators communicate the effects of anthropogenic eutrophication?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McQuatters-Gollop, A.; Gilbert, A.J.; Mee, L.; Vermaat, J.E.; Artioli, Y.; Humborg, C.; Wulff, F.

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic eutrophication affects the Mediterranean, Black, North and Baltic Seas to various extents. Responses to nutrient loading and methods of monitoring relevant indicators vary regionally, hindering interpretation of ecosystem state changes and preventing a straightforward pan-European

  10. Oil and the Caspian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Poure Daryaei, N.

    2000-01-01

    Caspian Sea is the biggest lake in the world. It is almost F-shape and located between five Countries of Iran, Turkmenistan, Russia, Azarbayjohn, Ghazaghestan. Un fortunately, in the different region of the sea there are highly contaminated oil, in addition with other source of pollutants such as: agricultural, industrial and domestic pollution, which causes to eliminate the natural habitats of aquatic life and thus, the Caspian sea with all of the valuable natural sources of foods and energy is close to be destroyed. This paper studies the pollution by oil industry which causes the elimination of aquatic life and natural ecosystem, as well as, necessary plan to over come the present situation

  11. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K.; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems store vast quantities of wealth, but difficulties measuring wealth held in ecosystems prevent its inclusion in accounting systems. Ecosystem-based management endeavors to manage ecosystems holistically. However, ecosystem-based management lacks headline indicators to evaluate performance. We unify the inclusive wealth and ecosystem-based management paradigms, allowing apples-to-apples comparisons between the wealth of the ecosystem and other forms of wealth, while providing a headl...

  12. Environmental studies for mining of deep-sea polymetallic nodules - Accomplishments and future plans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    on marine ecosystem, the project on ‘EIA studies for nodule mining in CIB’ was initiated in 1996, under the national programme on polymetallic nodules funded by the Dept. of Ocean Development. Mining of the deep-sea minerals [1] is expected to alter... for the future • Development of predictive ecosystem models • Creation of environmental database • Evaluating the biogeochemical coupling of biota with deep-sea ecosystem • Development of environment management plan for nodule mining References...

  13. Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Community-level ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program is developing tools and approaches to incorporate ecosystem goods and services concepts into community-level decision-making. The San Juan Community Study is one of a series of coordinated community studies, which also include Mobile Bay, AL, Great Lakes Areas of Concern, and the Pacific Northwest. Common elements across the community studies include a focus on watershed management and national estuary programs (National Estuary Program, National Estuarine Research Reserve System). San Juan, Puerto Rico, is unique from the other community studies in that it is located in a highly urbanized watershed integrated with a number of freshwater and coastal ecosystems. The San Juan Community Study will explore linkages between watershed management decisions (e.g., dredging canals, restoration of mangrove buffers, sewage discharge interventions, climate adaptive strategies) targeting priority stressors (e.g., nutrients, contaminants, and pathogens; aquatic debris; habitat loss; modified hydrology and water circulation; sea level rise; storm intensity and frequency) effecting the condition of ecosystems (e.g., estuarine habitats and fish, as well as the connected terrestrial and coastal ecosystems), associated ecosystem goods and services (e.g., tourism and recreation, fishing, nutrient & sediment retention, contaminant processing, carbon sequestration, flood protection),

  14. Earliest history of coal mining and grindstone quarrying at Joggins, Nova Scotia, and its implications for the meaning of the place name Joggins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon-Lang, H.J. [Bristol Univ., Bristol (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; London Univ., Egham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2009-07-01

    The Joggins Section is a carboniferous succession located on the southeastern shore of the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia. The explorer Charles Lyell wrote about the Section's coal-bearing strata and extraordinary fossil forests in 1843. This paper reviewed earlier studies and literature related to the region in order to discuss coal mining and grindstone quarrying in the region in the late 1600s. Mineral exploration of the region began soon after French settlers arrived in 1604, and the earliest record of coal-mining occurred in 1639. References to the Joggins Section occurred in the diary of Samuel Pepys. Detailed maps from 1686 depict coastal outcrop belts of coal-bearing strata. Other records describe illicit trade of coal between Joggins and New England. A travelogue in 1731 described the mines and their location. A state-sponsored British coal mine was proposed in 1730. However, the venture was abandoned after attacks by angry local residents. Later studies of the region described the coal as being of inferior quality. The General Mining Association of Britain became lessees of all the mines and minerals in the province of Nova Scotia in 1827. However, several bootleg operations continued to mine the coals. It was concluded that a thriving grindstone industry in the region filled gaps in the local economy caused by the periods of mine closures. 93 refs., 15 figs.

  15. Earliest history of coal mining and grindstone quarrying at Joggins, Nova Scotia, and its implications for the meaning of the place name Joggins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcon-Lang, H.J.; London Univ., Egham

    2009-01-01

    The Joggins Section is a carboniferous succession located on the southeastern shore of the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia. The explorer Charles Lyell wrote about the Section's coal-bearing strata and extraordinary fossil forests in 1843. This paper reviewed earlier studies and literature related to the region in order to discuss coal mining and grindstone quarrying in the region in the late 1600s. Mineral exploration of the region began soon after French settlers arrived in 1604, and the earliest record of coal-mining occurred in 1639. References to the Joggins Section occurred in the diary of Samuel Pepys. Detailed maps from 1686 depict coastal outcrop belts of coal-bearing strata. Other records describe illicit trade of coal between Joggins and New England. A travelogue in 1731 described the mines and their location. A state-sponsored British coal mine was proposed in 1730. However, the venture was abandoned after attacks by angry local residents. Later studies of the region described the coal as being of inferior quality. The General Mining Association of Britain became lessees of all the mines and minerals in the province of Nova Scotia in 1827. However, several bootleg operations continued to mine the coals. It was concluded that a thriving grindstone industry in the region filled gaps in the local economy caused by the periods of mine closures. 93 refs., 15 figs

  16. Report and recommendations to the Minister regarding the environmental assessment report for Polsky Energy Corporation's proposed undertaking Brooklyn Energy Centre, Queens County, Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beanlands, G.; Glover, D.; Beviss, H.

    1993-01-01

    A public consultation review was undertaken to assess the suitability and environmental compatibility of Polsky Energy Corporation's proposal for a wood-fired cogeneration plant in Brooklyn, Nova Scotia. The plant would supply 21.3 MW of power to the provincial utility and steam to a local paper company. Public hearings were held in January 1993 and presentations were received from the project proponent and various intervenors. The concerns identified in the hearing included adequacy of the supply of wood wastes and the percentage of supplementary fuels required; air emissions and water-related effluents; ash disposal; monitoring; noise and traffic; socioeconomic impacts; and decommissioning. The hearing panel, appointed by the Nova Scotia Environmental Control Council, considered all the information received and concluded that the proposed facility will not cause significant or unacceptable risks to the natural and social environments of the surrounding community. This is contingent upon effective monitoring, appropriate guidance by regulatory agencies, and opportunities for continued liaison with the community. Conditions recommended by the panel include no operation of the plant using less than 70% wood as the principal fuel supply; conducting of a fuel audit every two years; reduction of the safety risk associated with the projected increase in truck traffic; continuous monitoring of stack emissions; and a requirement for a decommissioning plan as part of the permitting process. 3 refs., 1 fig

  17. Incorporating ecosystem services into environmental management of deep-seabed mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Jennifer T.; Levin, Lisa A.; Carson, Richard T.

    2017-03-01

    Accelerated exploration of minerals in the deep sea over the past decade has raised the likelihood that commercial mining of the deep seabed will commence in the near future. Environmental concerns create a growing urgency for development of environmental regulations under commercial exploitation. Here, we consider an ecosystem services approach to the environmental policy and management of deep-sea mineral resources. Ecosystem services link the environment and human well-being, and can help improve sustainability and stewardship of the deep sea by providing a quantitative basis for decision-making. This paper briefly reviews ecosystem services provided by habitats targeted for deep-seabed mining (hydrothermal vents, seamounts, nodule provinces, and phosphate-rich margins), and presents practical steps to incorporate ecosystem services into deep-seabed mining regulation. The linkages and translation between ecosystem structure, ecological function (including supporting services), and ecosystem services are highlighted as generating human benefits. We consider criteria for identifying which ecosystem services are vulnerable to potential mining impacts, the role of ecological functions in providing ecosystem services, development of ecosystem service indicators, valuation of ecosystem services, and implementation of ecosystem services concepts. The first three steps put ecosystem services into a deep-seabed mining context; the last two steps help to incorporate ecosystem services into a management and decision-making framework. Phases of environmental planning discussed in the context of ecosystem services include conducting strategic environmental assessments, collecting baseline data, monitoring, establishing marine protected areas, assessing cumulative impacts, identifying thresholds and triggers, and creating an environmental damage compensation regime. We also identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in order to operationalize ecosystem services

  18. Sea Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  19. BUSINESS ECOSYSTEMS VS BUSINESS DIGITAL ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Lazarica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosystems. The digital business ecosystems are characterized by intelligent software components and services, knowledge transfer, interactive training frameworks and integration of business processes and e-government models.

  20. Seasonal cycle of circulation in the Antarctic Peninsula and the off-shelf transport of shelf waters into southern Drake Passage and Scotia Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingshun; Charette, Matthew A.; Measures, Christopher I.; Zhu, Yiwu; Zhou, Meng

    2013-06-01

    The seasonal cycle of circulation and transport in the Antarctic Peninsula shelf region is investigated using a high-resolution (˜2 km) regional model based on the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The model also includes a naturally occurring tracer with a strong source over the shelf (radium isotope 228Ra, t1/2=5.8 years) to investigate the sediment Fe input and its transport. The model is spun-up for three years using climatological boundary and surface forcing and then run for the 2004-2006 period using realistic forcing. Model results suggest a persistent and coherent circulation system throughout the year consisting of several major components that converge water masses from various sources toward Elephant Island. These currents are largely in geostrophic balance, driven by surface winds, topographic steering, and large-scale forcing. Strong off-shelf transport of the Fe-rich shelf waters takes place over the northeastern shelf/slope of Elephant Island, driven by a combination of topographic steering, extension of shelf currents, and strong horizontal mixing between the ACC and shelf waters. These results are generally consistent with recent and historical observational studies. Both the shelf circulation and off-shelf transport show a significant seasonality, mainly due to the seasonal changes of surface winds and large-scale circulation. Modeled and observed distributions of 228Ra suggest that a majority of Fe-rich upper layer waters exported off-shelf around Elephant Island are carried by the shelfbreak current and the Bransfield Strait Current from the shallow sills between Gerlache Strait and Livingston Island, and northern shelf of the South Shetland Islands, where strong winter mixing supplies much of the sediment derived nutrients (including Fe) input to the surface layer.

  1. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  2. Sea ice biogeochemistry: a guide for modellers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Tedesco

    Full Text Available Sea ice is a fundamental component of the climate system and plays a key role in polar trophic food webs. Nonetheless sea ice biogeochemical dynamics at large temporal and spatial scales are still rarely described. Numerical models may potentially contribute integrating among sparse observations, but available models of sea ice biogeochemistry are still scarce, whether their relevance for properly describing the current and future state of the polar oceans has been recently addressed. A general methodology to develop a sea ice biogeochemical model is presented, deriving it from an existing validated model application by extension of generic pelagic biogeochemistry model parameterizations. The described methodology is flexible and considers different levels of ecosystem complexity and vertical representation, while adopting a strategy of coupling that ensures mass conservation. We show how to apply this methodology step by step by building an intermediate complexity model from a published realistic application and applying it to analyze theoretically a typical season of first-year sea ice in the Arctic, the one currently needing the most urgent understanding. The aim is to (1 introduce sea ice biogeochemistry and address its relevance to ocean modelers of polar regions, supporting them in adding a new sea ice component to their modelling framework for a more adequate representation of the sea ice-covered ocean ecosystem as a whole, and (2 extend our knowledge on the relevant controlling factors of sea ice algal production, showing that beyond the light and nutrient availability, the duration of the sea ice season may play a key-role shaping the algal production during the on going and upcoming projected changes.

  3. Strategies of bioremediation of a contaminated coastal Ecosystem (Bolmon Lagoon, South-Easter Mediterranean Coast)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.; Pietri, L.; Anselmet, F.; Brun, L.; Roux, B.

    2009-01-01

    Bolmon ecosystem (Bouches du Rhone, South-easter France) is a coastal mediterranean lagoon. This ecosystem presents a great interest in terms of ecology, economy and cultural aspects. Bolmon is connected to the salty Berre pond, itself connected to Mediterranean sea, via tiny artificial channels and a main one (rove channel) that also bounds it to the South. (Author)

  4. Strategies of bioremediation of a contaminated coastal Ecosystem (Bolmon Lagoon, South-Easter Mediterranean Coast)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpy-Roubaud, C.; Fayolle, S.; Franquet, E.; Pietri, L.; Anselmet, F.; Brun, L.; Roux, B.

    2009-07-01

    Bolmon ecosystem (Bouches du Rhone, South-easter France) is a coastal mediterranean lagoon. This ecosystem presents a great interest in terms of ecology, economy and cultural aspects. Bomon is connected to the salty Berre pond, itself connected to Mediterranean sea, via tiny artificial channels and a main one (rove channel) that also bounds it to the South. (Author)

  5. Estimating mangrove in Florida: trials monitoring rare ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove species are keystone components in coastal ecosystems and are the interface between forest land and sea. Yet, estimates of their area have varied widely. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from ground-based sample plots provide one estimate of the resource. Initial FIA estimates of the mangrove resource in Florida varied dramatically from those compiled...

  6. Belowground ecosystems [chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carole Coe Klopatek

    1995-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service defined ecosystem management as "an ecological approach to achieve multiple-use management of national forests and grasslands by blending the needs of people and environmental values in such a way that national forests and grasslands represent diverse, healthy, productive, and sustainable ecosystems" (June 4, 1992, letter from Chief FS...

  7. Payments for Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kai M.A; Anderson, Emily K.; Chapman, Mollie

    2017-01-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs are one prominent strategy to address economic externalities of resource extraction and commodity production, improving both social and ecological outcomes. But do PES and related incentive programs achieve that lofty goal? Along with considerable en...... sustainable relationships with nature, conserving and restoring ecosystems and their benefits for people now and in the future....

  8. Ecosystem Management and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Peine; B.L. Jacobs; K.E. Franzreb; M.R. Stevens

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem management (EM) promotes an integrated approach to environmental issues; its central goal is the protection of entire ecosystems. By focusing on an interdisciplinary solution to environmental challenges, EM can help to synthesize societal, economic scientific, and governmental goals. Furthermore, as EM becomes part of the foundation of environmental...

  9. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  10. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Linking Marine Ecosystem Services to the North Sea’s Energy Fields in Transnational Marine Spatial Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Vogel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine spatial planning temporally and spatially allocates marine resources to different users. The ecosystem approach aims at optimising the social and economic benefits people derive from marine resources while preserving the ecosystem’s health. Marine ecosystem services are defined as the benefits people obtain from marine ecosystems. The aim of this study is to determine which interrelations between marine ecosystem services and the marine energy industry can be identified for use in transnational marine spatial planning exemplified in the North Sea region. As the North Sea is one of the busiest seas worldwide, the risk of impairing the ecosystems through anthropogenic pressures is high. Drawing on a literature-based review, 23 marine ecosystem services provided by the North Sea region were defined and linked to seven offshore energy fields comprising oil and natural gas, wind, tides and currents, waves, salinity gradients, algal biomass, and geothermal heat. The interactions were divided into four categories: dependence, impact, bidirectional, or no interaction. Oil and natural gas, as well as algae biomass, are the fields with the most relations with marine ecosystem services while waves and salinity gradients exhibit the least. Some marine ecosystem services (Conditions for Infrastructure, Regulation of Water Flows, and Cognitive Development are needed for all fields; Recreation and Tourism, Aesthetic and Cultural Perceptions and Traditions, Cognitive Development, and Sea Scape are impacted by all fields. The results of this research provide an improved basis for an ecosystem approach in transnational marine spatial planning.

  12. Mapping cultural ecosystem services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Zulian, Grazia; Kopperoinen, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity...... surveys are a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation...... in the conceptual framework for EU wide ecosystem assessments (Maes et al., 2013), which couples existing approaches for recreation management at country level with behavioural data derived from surveys, and population distribution data. The proposed framework is based on three components: the ecosystem function...

  13. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.

    2008-09-01

    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed 40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also

  14. Copper in the sediment and sea surface microlayer near a fallowed, open-net fish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, Clyde V; Fisher, E Brian

    2012-09-01

    Sediment and sea surface microlayer samples near an open-net salmon farm in Nova Scotia, were analysed for copper. Copper is a constituent of the feed and is an active ingredient of anti-foulants. The salmon farm was placed in fallow after 15 years of production. Sampling was pursued over 27 months. Elevated copper concentrations in the sediments indicated the farm site as a source. Bubble flotation due to gas-emitting sediments from eutrophication is a likely process for accumulating copper in the sea surface microlayer at enriched concentrations. Elevated and enriched concentrations in the sea surface microlayer over distance from the farm site led, as a result of wind-drift, to an enlarged farm footprint. The levels of copper in both sediments and sea surface microlayer exceeded guidelines for protection of marine life. Over the 27 months period, copper levels persisted in the sediments and decreased gradually in the sea surface microlayer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Marine ecosystem modeling beyond the box: using GIS to study carbon fluxes in a coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnbladh, Erik; Jönsson, Bror Fredrik; Kumblad, Linda

    2006-12-01

    Studies of carbon fluxes in marine ecosystems are often done by using box model approaches with basin size boxes, or highly resolved 3D models, and an emphasis on the pelagic component of the ecosystem. Those approaches work well in the ocean proper, but can give rise to considerable problems when applied to coastal systems, because of the scale of certain ecological niches and the fact that benthic organisms are the dominant functional group of the ecosystem. In addition, 3D models require an extensive modeling effort. In this project, an intermediate approach based on a high resolution (20x20 m) GIS data-grid has been developed for the coastal ecosystem in the Laxemar area (Baltic Sea, Sweden) based on a number of different site investigations. The model has been developed in the context of a safety assessment project for a proposed nuclear waste repository, in which the fate of hypothetically released radionuclides from the planned repository is estimated. The assessment project requires not only a good understanding of the ecosystem dynamics at the site, but also quantification of stocks and flows of matter in the system. The data-grid was then used to set up a carbon budget describing the spatial distribution of biomass, primary production, net ecosystem production and thus where carbon sinks and sources are located in the area. From these results, it was clear that there was a large variation in ecosystem characteristics within the basins and, on a larger scale, that the inner areas are net producing and the outer areas net respiring, even in shallow phytobenthic communities. Benthic processes had a similar or larger influence on carbon fluxes as advective processes in inner areas, whereas the opposite appears to be true in the outer basins. As many radionuclides are expected to follow the pathways of organic matter in the environment, these findings enhance our abilities to realistically describe and predict their fate in the ecosystem.

  16. Marine Ecosystem Modeling Beyond the Box: Using GIS to Study Carbon Fluxes in a Coastal Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijnbladh, Erik; Joensson, Bror Fredrik; Kumblad, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Studies of carbon fluxes in marine ecosystems are often done by using box model approaches with basin size boxes, or highly resolved 3D models, and an emphasis on the pelagic component of the ecosystem. Those approaches work well in the ocean proper, but can give rise to considerable problems when applied to coastal systems, because of the scale of certain ecological niches and the fact that benthic organisms are the dominant functional group of the ecosystem. In addition, 3D models require an extensive modeling effort. In this project, an intermediate approach based on a high resolution (20x20 m) GIS data-grid has been developed for the coastal ecosystem in the Laxemar area (Baltic Sea, Sweden) based on a number of different site investigations. The model has been developed in the context of a safety assessment project for a proposed nuclear waste repository, in which the fate of hypothetically released radionuclides from the planned repository is estimated. The assessment project requires not only a good understanding of the ecosystem dynamics at the site, but also quantification of stocks and flows of matter in the system. The data-grid was then used to set up a carbon budget describing the spatial distribution of biomass, primary production, net ecosystem production and thus where carbon sinks and sources are located in the area. From these results, it was clear that there was a large variation in ecosystem characteristics within the basins and, on a larger scale, that the inner areas are net producing and the outer areas net respiring, even in shallow phyto benthic communities. Benthic processes had a similar or larger influence on carbon fluxes as advective processes in inner areas, whereas the opposite appears to be true in the outer basins. As many radionuclides are expected to follow the pathways of organic matter in the environment, these findings enhance our abilities to realistically describe and predict their fate in the ecosystem

  17. Ecosystem approach in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiullin, Iskander

    2017-04-01

    Environmental education is a base for sustainable development. Therefore, in our school we pay great attention to environmental education. Environmental education in our school is based on ecosystem approach. What is an ecosystem approach? Ecosystem is a fundamental concept of ecology. Living organisms and their non-living environments interact with each other as a system, and the biosphere planet functions as a global ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary for children to understand relationships in ecosystems, and we have to develop systems thinking in our students. Ecosystem approach and systems thinking should help us to solve global environmental problems. How do we implement the ecosystem approach? Students must understand that our biosphere functions as a single ecosystem and even small changes can lead to environmental disasters. Even the disappearance of one plant or animal species can lead to irreversible consequences. So in the classroom we learn the importance of each living organism for the nature. We pay special attention to endangered species, which are listed in the Red Data List. Kids are doing projects about these organisms, make videos, print brochures and newspapers. Fieldwork also plays an important role for ecosystem approach. Every summer, we go out for expeditions to study species of plants and animals listed in the Red Data List of Tatarstan. In class, students often write essays on behalf of any endangered species of plants or animals, this also helps them to understand the importance of each living organism in nature. Each spring we organise a festival of environmental projects among students. Groups of 4-5 students work on a solution of environmental problems, such as water, air or soil pollution, waste recycling, the loss of biodiversity, etc. Participants shoot a clip about their project, print brochures. Furthermore, some of the students participate in national and international scientific Olympiads with their projects. In addition to

  18. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  19. Physicians’ attitudes towards office-based delivery of methadone maintenance therapy: results from a cross-sectional survey of Nova Scotia primary-care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dooley Jessica

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 90,000 Canadians use opioids each year, many of whom experience health and social problems that affect the individual user, families, communities and the health care system. For those who wish to reduce or stop their opioid use, methadone maintenance therapy (MMT is effective and supporting evidence is well-documented. However, access and availability to MMT is often inconsistent, with greater inequity outside of urban settings. Involving community based primary-care physicians in the delivery of MMT could serve to expand capacity and accessibility of MMT programs. Little is known, however, about the extent to which MMT, particularly office-based delivery, is acceptable to physicians. The aim of this study is to survey physicians about their attitudes towards MMT, particularly office-based delivery, and the perceived barriers and facilitators to MMT delivery. Methods In May 2008, facilitated by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Nova Scotia, a cross-sectional, e-mail survey of 950 primary-care physicians practicing in Nova Scotia, Canada was administered via the OPINIO on-line survey software, to assess the acceptability of office-based MMT. Logistic regressions, adjusted for physician sociodemographic characteristics, were used to examine the association between physicians’ willingness to participate in office-based MMT, and a series of measures capturing physician attitudes and knowledge about treatment approaches, opioid use, and methadone, as well as perceived barriers to MMT. Results Overall, 19.8% of primary-care physicians responded to the survey, with 56% who indicated that they would be willing to be involved in MMT under current or similar circumstances; however, willingness was associated with numerous attitudinal and systemic factors. The barriers to involvement in MMT that were frequently cited included a lack of training or experience in MMT, lack of support services, and potential

  20. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  1. Sea Reclamation Status of Countries around the South China Sea from 1975 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjue Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a way of turning sea into land for living space for humans, the actions of sea reclamation bring about significant benefits. Nevertheless, it is also an under-recognized threat to the environment and the marine ecosystem. Based on images in two periods, sea reclamation information of countries around the South China Sea was extracted from 1975 to 2010. The spatial state and driven forces of sea reclamation are then discussed. Results show that the overall strength of sea reclamation in the South China Sea was great. New reclaimed land added up to 3264 km2. Sea reclamation for fish farming was the main reclamation type and widely distributed in the whole area, especially on the coast from the Pearl River Delta to the Red River Delta, and the coast of Ca Mau Peninsula. Sea reclamation in China and Vietnam was rather significant, which occupies 80.6% of the total reclamation area. Singapore had the highest level of sea reclamation. New reclaimed land for fish farming holds a key role in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia, while new reclaimed land for construction and docks dominated in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. Areas and use-type compositions of new reclaimed land in countries varied greatly due to the differences of economic factors, policy inclination, and landscapes in the respective countries.

  2. Composition of hydrothermal fluids and mineralogy of associated chimney material on the East Scotia Ridge back-arc spreading centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rachael H.; Green, Darryl R. H.; Stock, Michael J.; Alker, Belinda J.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Cole, Catherine; German, Christopher R.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Powell, Alexandra M.; Connelly, Douglas P.

    2014-08-01

    The East Scotia Ridge is an active back-arc spreading centre located to the west of the South Sandwich island arc in the Southern Ocean. Initial exploration of the ridge by deep-tow surveys provided the first evidence for hydrothermal activity in a back-arc setting outside of the western Pacific, and we returned in 2010 with a remotely operated vehicle to precisely locate and sample hydrothermal sites along ridge segments E2 and E9. Here we report the chemical and isotopic composition of high- and low-temperature vent fluids, and the mineralogy of associated high-temperature chimney material, for two sites at E2 (Dog’s Head and Sepia), and four sites at E9 (Black & White, Ivory Tower, Pagoda and Launch Pad). The chemistry of the fluids is highly variable between the ridge segments. Fluid temperatures were ∼350 °C at all vent sites except Black & White, which was significantly hotter (383 °C). End-member chloride concentrations in E2 fluids (532-536 mM) were close to background seawater (540 mM), whereas Cl in E9 fluids was much lower (98-220 mM) indicating that these fluids are affected by phase separation. Concentrations of the alkali elements (Na, Li, K and Cs) and the alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr and Ba) co-vary with Cl, due to charge balance constraints. Similarly, concentrations of Mn and Zn are highest in the high Cl fluids but, by contrast, Fe/Cl ratios are higher in E9 fluids (3.8-8.1 × 10-3) than they are in E2 fluids (1.5-2.4 × 10-3) and fluids with lowest Cl have highest Cu. Although both ridge segments are magmatically inflated, there is no compelling evidence for input of magmatic gases to the vent fluids. Fluid δD values range from 0.2‰ to 1.5‰, pH values (3.02-3.42) are not especially low, and F concentrations (34.6-54.4 μM) are lower than bottom seawater (62.8 μM). The uppermost sections of conjugate chimney material from E2, and from Ivory Tower and Pagoda at E9, typically exhibit inner zones of massive chalcopyrite enclosed

  3. Climate, carbon cycling, and deep-ocean ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K L; Ruhl, H A; Bett, B J; Billett, D S M; Lampitt, R S; Kaufmann, R S

    2009-11-17

    Climate variation affects surface ocean processes and the production of organic carbon, which ultimately comprises the primary food supply to the deep-sea ecosystems that occupy approximately 60% of the Earth's surface. Warming trends in atmospheric and upper ocean temperatures, attributed to anthropogenic influence, have occurred over the past four decades. Changes in upper ocean temperature influence stratification and can affect the availability of nutrients for phytoplankton production. Global warming has been predicted to intensify stratification and reduce vertical mixing. Research also suggests that such reduced mixing will enhance variability in primary production and carbon export flux to the deep sea. The dependence of deep-sea communities on surface water production has raised important questions about how climate change will affect carbon cycling and deep-ocean ecosystem function. Recently, unprecedented time-series studies conducted over the past two decades in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic at >4,000-m depth have revealed unexpectedly large changes in deep-ocean ecosystems significantly correlated to climate-driven changes in the surface ocean that can impact the global carbon cycle. Climate-driven variation affects oceanic communities from surface waters to the much-overlooked deep sea and will have impacts on the global carbon cycle. Data from these two widely separated areas of the deep ocean provide compelling evidence that changes in climate can readily influence deep-sea processes. However, the limited geographic coverage of these existing time-series studies stresses the importance of developing a more global effort to monitor deep-sea ecosystems under modern conditions of rapidly changing climate.

  4. Arctic ecosystem responses to a warming climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.

    sheet, loss of multiannual sea-ice and significant advances in snowmelt days. The biotic components of the arctic ecosystem have also been affected by the rapid changes in climate, for instance resulting in the collapse of the collared lemming cycle, advances in spring flowering and changes in the intra...... biotic interactions. Hence, through the use of up-to-date multivariate statistical tools, this Ph.D. study has been concerned with analyzing how the observed rapid climate changes are affecting the arctic ecosystems. The primary tool has been the implementation of structural equation modeling (SEM) which....... Additionally, the study demonstrated that climate effects had distinct direct and indirect effects on different trophic levels, indicating cascading effects of climate through the trophic system. Results suggest that the Arctic is being significantly affected by the observed climate changes and depending...

  5. Temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  6. Making the ecosystem approach operational-Can regime shifts in ecological- and governance systems facilitate the transition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österblom, H.; Gårdmark, A.; Bergström, L.

    2010-01-01

    Effectively reducing cumulative impacts on marine ecosystems requires co-evolution between science, policy and practice. Here, long-term social–ecological changes in the Baltic Sea are described, illustrating how the process of making the ecosystem approach operational in a large marine ecosystem...... stimulating innovations and re-organizing governance structures at drainage basin level to the Baltic Sea catchment as a whole. Experimentation and innovation at local to the regional levels is critical for a transition to ecosystem-based management. Establishing science-based learning platforms at sub...

  7. Coastal wetlands: an integrated ecosystem approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, G. M. E.; Wolanski, E.; Cahoon, D.R.; Brinson, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are under a great deal of pressure from the dual forces of rising sea level and the intervention of human populations both along the estuary and in the river catchment. Direct impacts include the destruction or degradation of wetlands from land reclamation and infrastructures. Indirect impacts derive from the discharge of pollutants, changes in river flows and sediment supplies, land clearing, and dam operations. As sea level rises, coastal wetlands in most areas of the world migrate landward to occupy former uplands. The competition of these lands from human development is intensifying, making the landward migration impossible in many cases. This book provides an understanding of the functioning of coastal ecosystems and the ecological services that they provide, and suggestions for their management. In this book a CD is included containing color figures of wetlands and estuaries in different parts of the world.

  8. Chemotaxonomy for naturally macerated tree-fern cuticles (Medullosales and Marattiales), Carboniferous Sydney and Mabou Sub-Basins, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Naturally macerated cuticles (NMC) and one synangium, representing medullosalean and marattialean tree-fern species, from two Carboniferous coalfields in Nova Scotia, Canada, are investigated. The samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (py-Gc/Ms) techniques in search for chemical signatures that would help in developing a chemotaxonomic classification of Carboniferous fern species, assuming genetically dependent make-up of cuticles. FTIR-derived CH2/CH3 ratios, in conjunction with contributions from carboxyl groups, demonstrated a better potential for discriminating between medullosalean genera and species than molecular signatures obtained by py-Gc/Ms. However, the latter provided better data for differentiating medullosalean from marattialean tree ferns as a group. Changes in the chemical make-up of naturally macerated cuticles due to sample preparation are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Arts, Crafts, and Rural Rehabilitation: the Sisters of Charity, Halifax, and Vocational Education in Terence Bay, Nova Scotia, 1938-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha MULLALLY

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Responding to rural poverty associated with the declining fishery, the rise of industrial capitalism, and the impact of the Great Depression, the Sisters of Charity, Halifax, implemented a vocational training program in weaving and carpentry in the small community of Terence Bay, Nova Scotia in 1938. Senator William Dennis, a proponent of the New Democracy Movement, financed the program. Because the Sisters based their claims to success on observed behavioural changes among the residents of Terence Bay, the program can be seen as an example of liberal therapeutics in education, a model that placed emphasis on achieving social goals rather than transferring discrete skills and capacities to pupils. Focusing on the years 1938-43, this paper outlines the rehabilitation efforts at Terence Bay, describes the programs the Sisters implemented, and evaluates the definitions of success ascribed to their training school just a few years later.

  10. Chemotaxonomy for naturally macerated tree-fern cuticles (Medullosales and Marattiales), Carboniferous Sydney and Mabou Sub-Basins, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodrow, Erwin L. [Department of Earth Sciences, University College of Cape Breton, PO Box 5300, Nova Scotia, B1P 6L2 Sydney (Canada); Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, 611 North Walnut Grove, 47405-2208 Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Naturally macerated cuticles (NMC) and one synangium, representing medullosalean and marattialean tree-fern species, from two Carboniferous coalfields in Nova Scotia, Canada, are investigated. The samples were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by pyrolysis-gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (py-Gc/Ms) techniques in search for chemical signatures that would help in developing a chemotaxonomic classification of Carboniferous fern species, assuming genetically dependent make-up of cuticles. FTIR-derived CH{sub 2}/CH{sub 3} ratios, in conjunction with contributions from carboxyl groups, demonstrated a better potential for discriminating between medullosalean genera and species than molecular signatures obtained by py-Gc/Ms. However, the latter provided better data for differentiating medullosalean from marattialean tree ferns as a group. Changes in the chemical make-up of naturally macerated cuticles due to sample preparation are discussed.

  11. Outcomes of intraventricular hemorrhage and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in a population-based cohort of very preterm infants born to residents of Nova Scotia from 1993 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radic, Julia A E; Vincer, Michael; McNeely, P Daniel

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Intraventicular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication of preterm birth, and the prognosis of IVH is incompletely characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of IVH in a population-based cohort with minimal selection bias. METHODS All very preterm (≥ 30 completed weeks) patients born in the province of Nova Scotia were included in a comprehensive database. This database was screened for infants born to residents of Nova Scotia from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2010. Among very preterm infants successfully resuscitated at birth, the numbers of infants who died, were disabled, developed cerebral palsy, developed hydrocephalus, were blind, were deaf, or had cognitive/language scores assessed were analyzed by IVH grade. The relative risk of each outcome was calculated (relative to the risk for infants without IVH). RESULTS Grades 2, 3, and 4 IVH were significantly associated with an increased overall mortality, primarily in the neonatal period, and the risk increased with increasing grade of IVH. Grade 4 IVH was significantly associated with an increased risk of disability (RR 2.00, p < 0.001), and the disability appeared to be primarily due to cerebral palsy (RR 6.07, p < 0.001) and cognitive impairment (difference in mean MDI scores between Grade 4 IVH and no IVH: -19.7, p < 0.001). No infants with Grade 1 or 2 IVH developed hydrocephalus, and hydrocephalus and CSF shunting were not associated with poorer outcomes when controlling for IVH grade. CONCLUSIONS Grades 1 and 2 IVH have much better outcomes than Grades 3 or 4, including a 0% risk of hydrocephalus in the Grade 1 and 2 IVH cohort. Given the low risk of selection bias, the results of this study may be helpful in discussing prognosis with families of very preterm infants diagnosed with IVH.

  12. Geometry and structure of the pull-apart basins developed along the western South American-Scotia plate boundary (SW Atlantic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, F. D.; Tassone, A.; Isola, J. I.; Lodolo, E.; Menichetti, M.

    2018-04-01

    The South American-Scotia plate boundary is a left-lateral fault system which runs roughly E-W for more than 3000 km across the SW Atlantic Ocean and the Tierra del Fuego Island, reaching to the west the southern Chile Trench. Analyses of a large dataset of single- and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles acquired offshore has allowed to map the trace of the plate boundary from Tierra del Fuego to the Malvinas Trough, a tectonic depression located in the eastern part of the fault system, and to reconstruct the shape and geometry of the basins formed along the principal displacement zone of the fault system. Three main Neogene pull-apart basins that range from 70 to 100 km in length, and from 12 to 22 km in width, have been identified along this segment of the plate boundary. These basins have elongated shapes with their major axes parallel to the ENE-WSW direction of the fault zone. The sedimentary architecture and the infill geometry of the basins suggest that they represent mostly strike-slip dominated transtension basins which propagated from E to W. The basins imaged by seismic data show in some cases geometrical and structural features linked to the possible reactivation of previous wedge-top basins and inherited structures pertaining to the external front of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust compression belt, along which the South American-Scotia fault system has been superimposed. It is suggested that the sequence of the elongated basins occur symmetrically to a thorough going strike-slip fault, in a left-stepping geometrical arrangement, in a manner similar to those basins seen in other transcurrent environments.

  13. An economic evaluation of forest improvement opportunities and impacts from the emergence of a biomass fuel market in southwestern Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, A.L.; Savage, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991, Nova Scotia's public power utility initiated a process to purchase privately produced electrical power. A proposal was received to produce 20--25 megawatts from the burning of 350 to 400,000 tonnes annually of wood residue and forest biomass in a co-generation facility in southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada. This proposal has been proceeding and is nearing the construction phase. As a result of this potential market, there is an opportunity for increasing the scope and extent of forest improvement operations. Options for a closer integration of planning, harvesting, and silviculture activities will emerge. Optimum end use allocation could occur and enhance overall economic efficiency. The objective of this project is to assess the effect that this emerging market for forest biomass could have on forest management in the supply area. This project has two phases. Phase 1, presented here, develops the framework and methodology. Phase 2 will apply a linear programming-based analytical model for evaluation. Phase 1 accumulated the required data and information for both the current management and marketing situation and that including the emerging biomass market. Growth and yield of the natural stand types were calculated for a mixture of conventional roundwood products and chip equivalents. Management regimes, based on current forest type, site class, and appropriate silviculture treatments, were established. Expected multiproduct yields, by regime were estimated. Silviculture and harvest costs along with product revenues were used to calculate standing timber and soil expectation values. In Phase 2, a stand-based optimization model will be developed to explore and evaluate the long term opportunities and differences between the present and emerging management and market situations

  14. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  15. Late Neoproterozoic to Carboniferous genesis of A-type magmas in Avalonia of northern Nova Scotia: repeated partial melting of anhydrous lower crust in contrasting tectonic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. Brendan; Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Collins, William J.

    2018-03-01

    Avalonian rocks in northern mainland Nova Scotia are characterized by voluminous 640-600 Ma calc-alkalic to tholeiitic mafic to felsic magmas produced in a volcanic arc. However, after the cessation of arc activity, repeated episodes of felsic magmatism between ca. 580 Ma and 350 Ma are dominated by A-type geochemical characteristics. Sm-Nd isotopic data, combined with zircon saturation temperature estimates, indicate that these magmas were formed by high temperature (800-1050 °C) melting of the same anhydrous crustal source. Regional tectonic considerations indicate that A-type felsic magmatism was produced (1) at 580 Ma in a San Andreas-type strike slip setting, (2) at 495 Ma as Avalonia rifted off Gondwana, (3) at 465 and 455 in an ensialic island arc environment and (4) at 360-350 Ma during post-collisional, intra-continental strike-slip activity as Avalonia was translated dextrally along the Laurentian margin. These results attest to the importance of crustal source, rather than tectonic setting, in the generation of these A-type magmas and are an example of how additional insights are provided by comparing the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of igneous suites of different ages within the same terrane. They also suggest that the shallow crustal rocks in northern mainland Nova Scotia were not significantly detached from their lower crustal source between ca. 620 Ma and 350 Ma, a time interval that includes the separation of Avalonia from Gondwana, its drift and accretion to Laurentia as well as post-accretionary strike-slip displacement.

  16. Ecosystem quality in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, John S.; Damiani, Mattia; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) results are used to assess potential environmental impacts of different products and services. As part of the UNEP-SETAC life cycle initiative flagship project that aims to harmonize indicators of potential environmental impacts, we provide a consensus...... viewpoint and recommendations for future developments in LCIA related to the ecosystem quality area of protection (AoP). Through our recommendations, we aim to encourage LCIA developments that improve the usefulness and global acceptability of LCIA results. Methods: We analyze current ecosystem quality...... metrics and provide recommendations to the LCIA research community for achieving further developments towards comparable and more ecologically relevant metrics addressing ecosystem quality. Results and discussion: We recommend that LCIA development for ecosystem quality should tend towards species...

  17. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  18. Formation of Service Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Julia M.; Sörhammar, David; Satzger, Gerhard

    – i.e. the “birth phase” (Moore, 2009) of a service ecosystem. This paper, therefore, aims to explore how the somewhat “magic” processes of service ecosystem formation that are being taken for granted actually occur. Methodology/Approach: Building on a review of core elements in the definitions...... for Harvard students) or value proposition (share messages, photos, videos, etc. with friends). Processes of configuring actors, resources, and value propositions are influenced by the structural embeddedness of the service ecosystem (e.g., regional infrastructure, existing networks of actors, or resource...... availability) as well as guided by the actors’ own and shared institutions (e.g., rules, norms,and beliefs).We contextualize each starting point with illustrative cases and analyze the service ecosystem configuration process: “Axoon/Trumpf” (initiated by resources), “JOSEPHS – the service manufactory...

  19. Revisiting software ecosystems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    ‘Software ecosystems’ is argued to first appear as a concept more than 10 years ago and software ecosystem research started to take off in 2010. We conduct a systematic literature study, based on the most extensive literature review in the field up to date, with two primarily aims: (a) to provide...... an updated overview of the field and (b) to document evolution in the field. In total, we analyze 231 papers from 2007 until 2014 and provide an overview of the research in software ecosystems. Our analysis reveals a field that is rapidly growing both in volume and empirical focus while becoming more mature...... from evolving. We propose means for future research and the community to address them. Finally, our analysis shapes the view of the field having evolved outside the existing definitions of software ecosystems and thus propose the update of the definition of software ecosystems....

  20. Ecosystem Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research programs: analysis and modeling of ecosystems; EDFB/IBP data center; biome analysis studies; land/water interaction studies; and computer programs for development of models

  1. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  2. Complex trophic interactions in kelp forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J.A.; Danner, E.M.; Doak, D.F.; Konar, B.; Springer, A.M.; Steinberg, P.D.; Tinker, M. Tim; Williams, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    The distributions and abundances of species and populations change almost continuously. Understanding the processes responsible is perhaps ecology’s most fundamental challenge. Kelp-forest ecosystems in southwest Alaska have undergone several phase shifts between alga- and herbivore-dominated states in recent decades. Overhunting and recovery of sea otters caused the earlier shifts. Studies focusing on these changes demonstrate the importance of top-down forcing processes, a variety of indirect food-web interactions associated with the otter-urchin-kelp trophic cascade, and the role of food-chain length in the coevolution of defense and resistance in plants and their herbivores. This system unexpectedly shifted back to an herbivore-dominated state during the 1990s, because of a sea-otter population collapse that apparently was driven by increased predation by killer whales. Reasons for this change remain uncertain but seem to be linked to the whole-sale collapse of marine mammals in the North Pacific Ocean and southern Bering Sea. We hypothesize that killer whales sequentially "fished down" pinniped and sea-otter populations after their earlier prey, the great whales, were decimated by commercial whaling. The dynamics of kelp forests in southwest Alaska thus appears to have been influenced by an ecological chain reaction that encompassed numerous species and large scales of space and time.

  3. Stakeholder Values and Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Sveinsdottir, Thordis; Wessels, Bridgette; Smallwood, Rod; Linde, Peter; Kalla, Vasso; Tsoukala, Victoria; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable for Work Package 1 (WP1), Stakeholder Values and Ecosystems, of the EU FP7 funded project RECODE (Grant Agreement No: 321463), which focuses on developing Policy Recommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe. WP1 focuses on understanding stakeholder values and ecosystems in Open Access, dissemination and preservation in the area of scientific and scholarly data (thus not government data). The objectives of this WP are as follows: • Identify and map ...

  4. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  5. Privacy driven internet ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Tuan Anh; Gyarmati, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we propose an economic model of the privacy driven Internet ecosystem where privacy is handled as an asset that c...

  6. Ecosystem responses to recent oceanographic variability in high-latitude Northern Hemisphere ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueter, Franz J.; Broms, Cecilie; Drinkwater, Kenneth F.; Friedland, Kevin D.; Hare, Jonathan A.; Hunt, George L., Jr.; Melle, Webjørn; Taylor, Maureen

    2009-04-01

    As part of the international MENU collaboration, we compared and contrasted ecosystem responses to climate-forced oceanographic variability across several high latitude regions of the North Pacific (Eastern Bering Sea (EBS) and Gulf of Alaska (GOA)) and North Atlantic Oceans (Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank (GOM/GB) and the Norwegian/Barents Seas (NOR/BAR)). Differences in the nitrate content of deep source waters and incoming solar radiation largely explain differences in average primary productivity among these ecosystems. We compared trends in productivity and abundance at various trophic levels and their relationships with sea-surface temperature. Annual net primary production generally increases with annual mean sea-surface temperature between systems and within the EBS, BAR, and GOM/GB. Zooplankton biomass appears to be controlled by both top-down (predation by fish) and bottom-up forcing (advection, SST) in the BAR and NOR regions. In contrast, zooplankton in the GOM/GB region showed no evidence of top-down forcing but appeared to control production of major fish populations through bottom-up processes that are independent of temperature variability. Recruitment of several fish stocks is significantly and positively correlated with temperature in the EBS and BAR, but cod and pollock recruitment in the EBS has been negatively correlated with temperature since the 1977 shift to generally warmer conditions. In each of the ecosystems, fish species showed a general poleward movement in response to warming. In addition, the distribution of groundfish in the EBS has shown a more complex, non-linear response to warming resulting from internal community dynamics. Responses to recent warming differ across systems and appear to be more direct and more pronounced in the higher latitude systems where food webs and trophic interactions are simpler and where both zooplankton and fish species are often limited by cold temperatures.

  7. Monitoring the impact of simulated deep-sea mining in Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.; Nath, B.N.; Jaisankar, S.

    Monitoring the Impact of Simulated Deep-sea Mining in Central Indian Basin R. SHARMA, B. NAGENDER NATH, AND S. JAI SANKAR National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India Monitoring of deep-sea disturbances, natural or man-made, has gained... has shown a partial recovery of the benthic ecosystem, with indications of restoration and recolonization. Keywords deep-sea mining, environmental impact, Central Indian Basin Deep-sea mineral deposits such as the polymetallic nodules and crusts...

  8. DISCOVERY 2010: Spatial and temporal variability in a dynamic polar ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarling, G. A.; Ward, P.; Atkinson, A.; Collins, M. A.; Murphy, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Scotia Sea has been a focus of biological- and physical oceanographic study since the Discovery expeditions in the early 1900s. It is a physically energetic region with some of the highest levels of productivity in the Southern Ocean. It is also a region within which there have been greater than average levels of change in upper water column temperature. We describe the results of three cruises transecting the central Scotia Sea from south to north in consecutive years and covering spring, summer and autumn periods. We also report on some community level syntheses using both current-day and historical data from this region. A wide range of parameters were measured during the field campaigns, covering the physical oceanography of the region, air-sea CO 2 fluxes, macro- and micronutrient concentrations, the composition and biomass of the nano-, micro- and mesoplankton communities, and the distribution and biomass of Antarctic krill and mesopelagic fish. Process studies examined the effect of iron-stress on the physiology of primary producers, reproduction and egestion in Antarctic krill and the transfer of stable isotopes between trophic layers, from primary consumers up to birds and seals. Community level syntheses included an examination of the biomass-spectra, food-web modelling, spatial analysis of multiple trophic layers and historical species distributions. The spatial analyses in particular identified two distinct community types: a northern warmer water community and a southern cold community, their boundary being broadly consistent with the position of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF). Temperature and ice cover appeared to be the dominant, over-riding factors in driving this pattern. Extensive phytoplankton blooms were a major feature of the surveys, and were persistent in areas such as South Georgia. In situ and bioassay measurements emphasised the important role of iron inputs as facilitators of these blooms. Based on seasonal

  9. Sable Offshore Energy Inc.: Response to 'The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board Benefits Plan Decision Report' Condition No. 3: Employment and Training Plan; Condition No. 4: Research and Development Plan; Condition No. 6: Disadvantaged Individual or Groups; Condition No. 7: Technology Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Decisions of the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board, regarding the responses of Sable Offshore Energy Inc (SOEI) to conditions imposed by the Board in the Sable Offshore Energy Project Canada-Nova Scotia Benefit Plan Decision Report, have been announced. According to the press release (copy attached), the Board accepted the responses of SOEI regarding the establishment and staffing of an office in Nova Scotia for the implementation and project management and training of project personnel, the level of expenditures for research and development to be undertaken in Nova Scotia, proposed initiatives for employment and training opportunities for disadvantaged individuals and groups, and a technology transfer plan that will facilitate succession planning and create joint venturing opportunities for Nova Scotian and Canadian industry. tabs., figs

  10. Past and future changes in extreme sea levels and waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lawe, J.A.; Woodworth, P.L.; Knutson, T.; McDonald, R.E.; Mclnnes, K.L.; Woth, K.; Von Storch, H.; Wolf, J.; Swail, V.; Bernier, N.B.; Gulev, S.; Horsburgh, K.J.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Hunter, J.R.; Weisse, R.

    of Extreme Sea Level 11.3.1 An Introduction to Storms Both mid-latitude and tropical storms are associated with extremes of sea level. Storm surges are generated by low atmospheric pressure and intense winds over the ocean. The latter also cause high wave... timescales, extremes and mean-sea-level change are both major factors in determining coastal evolution including the development of coastal ecosystems. It will be seen below that, although it is difficult to determine how mean sea level has changed...

  11. Scaling the Baltic Sea environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    2008-01-01

    of this development, this article suggests that environmental politics critically depend on the delineation of relatively bounded spaces that identify and situate particular environmental concerns as spatial objects for politics. These spaces are not simply determined by ‘nature' or some environmental......The Baltic Sea environment has since the early 1970s passed through several phases of spatial objectification in which the ostensibly well-defined semi-enclosed sea has been framed and reframed as a geographical object for intergovernmental environmental politics. Based on a historical analysis......-scientific logic, but should rather be seen as temporal outcomes of scale framing processes, processes that are accentuated by contemporary conceptions of the environment (or nature) in terms of multi-scalar ecosystems. This has implications for how an environmental concern is perceived and politically addressed....

  12. Monetary accounting of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, R.P.; Edens, Bram; Schröter, Matthias; Hein, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting aims to provide a better understanding of ecosystem contributions to the economy in a spatially explicit way. Ecosystem accounting monitors ecosystem services and measures their monetary value using exchange values consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA). We

  13. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  14. Deposition of a saline giant in the Mississippian Windsor Group, Nova Scotia, and the nascent Late Paleozoic Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Laura A.; Pufahl, Peir K.; James, Noel P.

    2018-01-01

    Saline giants are vast marine evaporite deposits that currently have no modern analogues and remain one of the most enigmatic of chemical sedimentary rocks. The Mississippian Windsor Group (ca. 345 Ma), Maritimes Basin, Atlantic Canada is a saline giant that consists of two evaporite-rich sedimentary sequences that are subdivided into five subzones. Sequence 1 is composed almost entirely of thick halite belonging to Subzone A (Osagean). Sequence 2 is in unconformable contact and comprised of stacked carbonate-evaporite peritidal cycles of Subzones B through E (Meramecian). Subzone B, the focus of research herein, documents the transition from wholly evaporitic to open marine conditions and thus, preserves an exceptional window into the processes forming saline giants. Lithofacies stacking patterns in Subzone B reveal that higher-order fluctuations in relative sea level produced nine stacked parasequences interpreted to reflect high frequency glacioeustatic oscillations during the onset of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. Each parasequence reflects progradation of intertidal and sabkha sediments over subtidal carbonate and evaporite deposits. Dissimilarities in cycle composition between sub-basins imply the development of contrasting brine chemistries from differing recharge rates with the open ocean. What the Windsor Group shows is that evaporite type is ostensibly linked to the amplitude and frequency of sea level rise and fall during deposition. True saline giants, like the basinwide evaporites of Sequence 1, apparently require low amplitude, long frequency changes in sea level to promote the development of stable brine pools that are only periodically recharged with seawater. By contrast, the high amplitude, short frequency glacioeustatic variability in sea level that controlled the accumulation of peritidal evaporites in Subzone B produce smaller, subeconomic deposits with more complex facies relationships.

  15. Sea ice algal biomass and physiology in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Arrigo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sea ice covers approximately 5% of the ocean surface and is one of the most extensive ecosystems on the planet. The microbial communities that live in sea ice represent an important food source for numerous organisms at a time of year when phytoplankton in the water column are scarce. Here we describe the distributions and physiology of sea ice microalgae in the poorly studied Amundsen Sea sector of the Southern Ocean. Microalgal biomass was relatively high in sea ice in the Amundsen Sea, due primarily to well developed surface communities that would have been replenished with nutrients during seawater flooding of the surface as a result of heavy snow accumulation. Elevated biomass was also occasionally observed in slush, interior, and bottom ice microhabitats throughout the region. Sea ice microalgal photophysiology appeared to be controlled by the availability of both light and nutrients. Surface communities used an active xanthophyll cycle and effective pigment sunscreens to protect themselves from harmful ultraviolet and visible radiation. Acclimation to low light microhabitats in sea ice was facilitated by enhanced pigment content per cell, greater photosynthetic accessory pigments, and increased photosynthetic efficiency. Photoacclimation was especially effective in the bottom ice community, where ready access to nutrients would have allowed ice microalgae to synthesize a more efficient photosynthetic apparatus. Surprisingly, the pigment-detected prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis antarctica was an important component of surface communities (slush and surface ponds where its acclimation to high light may precondition it to seed phytoplankton blooms after the sea ice melts in spring.

  16. Tidal extension and sea-level rise: recommendations for a research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Noe, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Sea-level rise is pushing freshwater tides upstream into formerly non-tidal rivers. This tidal extension may increase the area of tidal freshwater ecosystems and offset loss of ecosystem functions due to salinization downstream. Without considering how gains in ecosystem functions could offset losses, landscape-scale assessments of ecosystem functions may be biased toward worst-case scenarios of loss. To stimulate research on this concept, we address three fundamental questions about tidal extension: Where will tidal extension be most evident, and can we measure it? What ecosystem functions are influenced by tidal extension, and how can we measure them? How do watershed processes, climate change, and tidal extension interact to affect ecosystem functions? Our preliminary answers lead to recommendations that will advance tidal extension research, enable better predictions of the impacts of sea-level rise, and help balance the landscape-scale benefits of ecosystem function with costs of response.

  17. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  18. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Latif, Hatem; Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Yao, Fengchao; Triantafyllou, George; Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Guo, Daquan; Johns, Burt

    2015-01-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  19. State of the Salton Sea—A science and monitoring meeting of scientists for the Salton Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, Douglas A.; Bradley, Timothy; Cohen, Michael; Wilcox, Bruce; Yanega, Gregor

    2017-01-19

    IntroductionThe Salton Sea (Sea) is an ecosystem facing large systemic changes in the near future. Managers and stakeholders are seeking solutions to the decline of the Sea and have turned to the scientific community for answers. In response, scientists gathered in Irvine, California, to review existing science and propose scientific studies and monitoring needs required for understanding how to retain the Sea as a functional ecosystem. This document summarizes the proceedings of this gathering of approximately 50 scientists at a September 8–10, 2014, workshop on the State of the Salton Sea.

  20. Dimensions of ecosystem theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.; Reichle, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Various dimensions of ecosystem structure and behavior that seem to develop from the ubiquitous phenomena of system growth and persistence were studied. While growth and persistence attributes of ecosystems may appear to be simplistic phenomena upon which to base a comprehensive ecosystem theory, these same attributes have been fundamental to the theoretical development of other biological disciplines. These attributes were explored at a hierarchical level in a self-organizing system, and adaptive system strategies that result were analyzed. Previously developed causative relations (Reichle et al., 1975c) were examined, their theoretical implications expounded upon, and the assumptions tested with data from a variety of forest types. The conclusions are not a theory in themselves, but a state of organization of concepts contributing towards a unifying theory, along the lines promulgated by Bray (1958). The inferences drawn rely heavily upon data from forested ecosystems of the world, and have yet to be validated against data from a much more diverse range of ecosystem types. Not all of the interpretations are logically tight - there is room for other explanations, which it is hoped will provide fruitful grounds for further speculation

  1. Biological effects of anthropogenic chemical stress: Tools for the assessment of ecosystem health (BEAST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Kari K.; Sundelin, Brita; Lang, Thomas

    : Tools for the Assessment of Ecosystem Health, 2009-2011), which is part of the Baltic Sea BONUS+ Programme funded jointly by national funding agencies and FP7 ERA-NET+ of the European Commission. The BEAST project consists of three workpackages (WP) with the following main tasks: WP1- Field studies...... and experiments in selected sub-regions of the Baltic Sea, WP2 - Application and validation of methods in monitoring and assessment in the Baltic Sea, and WP3 - Developing tools for ecosystem health assessment in the Baltic Sea. BEAST research activities are focused in the sub-regions of Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf...... of Finland, Gulf of Riga, Gulf of Gdansk and the Belt Sea, most of which are characterised by scarce data on biological effects of hazardous substances. The data acquired will be combined with previous data (e.g. national monitoring activities, case studies, EU BEEP project) to reach the goals of WP2 and WP3...

  2. Protection of High Seas biodivesity in the Antilles, West Africa and Antarctica: inventory of EBSAs and VMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, O.G.

    2012-01-01

    To protect deep-sea biodiversity, the United Nations have adopted a number of resolutions that should protect vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs), such as cold water corals and sponges, by the regulation of deep-sea fisheries on the high seas. In a parallel process, the Convention on Biological

  3. Ecosystem Vulnerability Review: Proposal of an Interdisciplinary Ecosystem Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißhuhn, Peter; Müller, Felix; Wiggering, Hubert

    2018-06-01

    To safeguard the sustainable use of ecosystems and their services, early detection of potentially damaging changes in functional capabilities is needed. To support a proper ecosystem management, the analysis of an ecosystem's vulnerability provide information on its weaknesses as well as on its capacity to recover after suffering an impact. However, the application of the vulnerability concept to ecosystems is still an emerging topic. After providing background on the vulnerability concept, we summarize existing ecosystem vulnerability research on the basis of a systematic literature review with a special focus on ecosystem type, disciplinary background, and more detailed definition of the ecosystem vulnerability components. Using the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection, we overviewed the literature from 1991 onwards but used the 5 years from 2011 to 2015 for an in-depth analysis, including 129 articles. We found that ecosystem vulnerability analysis has been applied most notably in conservation biology, climate change research, and ecological risk assessments, pinpointing a limited spreading across the environmental sciences. It occurred primarily within marine and freshwater ecosystems. To avoid confusion, we recommend using the unambiguous term ecosystem vulnerability rather than ecological, environmental, population, or community vulnerability. Further, common ground has been identified, on which to define the ecosystem vulnerability components exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. We propose a framework for ecosystem assessments that coherently connects the concepts of vulnerability, resilience, and adaptability as different ecosystem responses. A short outlook on the possible operationalization of the concept by ecosystem vulnerabilty indices, and a conclusion section complete the review.

  4. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in Mediterranean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.; Fukai, R.

    1982-01-01

    For the comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of transuranic elements in the marine environment, the knowledge on the distribution of these elements in various components of marine ecosystems is essential. Since the Mediterranean Sea is considered a sufficiently self-contained system, our approach for studying the processes controlling the transuranic cycling in the sea has been to follow, step by step, the redistribution of plutonium and americium in different components of the marine environment, taking Mediterranean ecosystems as examples. While the studies in the past years have supplied quantitative information on the inputs of plutonium and americium into the Mediterranean from atmospheric fallout and rivers as well as on their behaviour in the Mediterranean water column, only scattered data have been made available so far on the occurrence of the transuranic nuclides in the Mediterranean marine biota or sediments. In order to fill up this information gap, biological and sediment samples were collected from the northwestern Mediterranean region during 1975-1978 for the transuranic measurements. The results of these determinations are given in the present report

  5. Climate and fishing steer ecosystem regeneration to uncertain economic futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenckner, Thorsten; Llope, Marcos; Möllmann, Christian; Voss, Rudi; Quaas, Martin F.; Casini, Michele; Lindegren, Martin; Folke, Carl; Chr. Stenseth, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Overfishing of large predatory fish populations has resulted in lasting restructurings of entire marine food webs worldwide, with serious socio-economic consequences. Fortunately, some degraded ecosystems show signs of recovery. A key challenge for ecosystem management is to anticipate the degree to which recovery is possible. By applying a statistical food-web model, using the Baltic Sea as a case study, we show that under current temperature and salinity conditions, complete recovery of this heavily altered ecosystem will be impossible. Instead, the ecosystem regenerates towards a new ecological baseline. This new baseline is characterized by lower and more variable biomass of cod, the commercially most important fish stock in the Baltic Sea, even under very low exploitation pressure. Furthermore, a socio-economic assessment shows that this signal is amplified at the level of societal costs, owing to increased uncertainty in biomass and reduced consumer surplus. Specifically, the combined economic losses amount to approximately 120 million € per year, which equals half of today's maximum economic yield for the Baltic cod fishery. Our analyses suggest that shifts in ecological and economic baselines can lead to higher economic uncertainty and costs for exploited ecosystems, in particular, under climate change. PMID:25694626