Sample records for scotia duck tolling

  1. Genetic analysis of optic nerve head coloboma in the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever identifies discordance with the NHEJ1 intronic deletion (collie eye anomaly mutation). (United States)

    Brown, Emily A; Thomasy, Sara M; Murphy, Christopher J; Bannasch, Danika L


    Collie eye anomaly (CEA) encompasses a spectrum of different ophthalmic phenotypes from clinically inconsequential choroidal hypoplasia to blindness from coloboma of the optic nerve head (ONH). A previous study found a 7.8-kb deletion in intron 4 of the NHEJ1 gene to be associated with CEA. A genetic test based on this association is recommended for many breeds, including the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever (NSDTR). Collection of ONH coloboma-affected NSDTR showed lack of concordance of the NHEJ1 intronic deletion with ONH coloboma. Using genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping in 7 ONH coloboma-affected NSDTR cases and 47 unaffected NSDTR controls with no ophthalmic signs, one SNP, located on chromosome 7, demonstrated genomewide significance. However, high genomic inflation may have confounded the results. Therefore, the genomewide association study was repeated using EMMAX to control for population structure in the cohort of 7 cases and 47 controls. However, no regions of the genome were significantly associated with ONH coloboma. These results failed to document significant association with the CEA locus. Due to the complex genetic etiology of ONH coloboma, the NHEJ1 intronic deletion test results should be carefully considered when making breeding decisions. If the goal is to select for visually competent dogs, our data suggest that eye examinations of puppies would be more effective as a guide in selection of breeding pairs than relying solely on currently available genetic tests. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Ophthalmology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Survival of American Black Ducks radiomarked in Quebec, Nova Scotia and Vermont (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Clugston, D.A.; Bunck, C.M.; Giroux, J.-F.; Ouellet, C.; Parker, G.R.; Dupuis, P.; Stotts, D.B.; Goldsberry, J.R.


    We monitored survival of 397 radiomarked juvenile American black ducks (Anas rubripes) distributed among Les Escoumins (n = 75) and Kamouraska, Quebec (n = 84), Amherst Point, Nova Scotia (n = 89), and a site on the Vermont-Quebec border (n = 149) during autumn 1990 and 1991. Eighty-six percent (215 of 250) of all confirmed mortalities during the study was from hunting; 72% of marked ducks were shot and retrieved and 14% were shot and unretrieved. We tested for differences in survival in relation to sex, body mass, year (1990-91, 1991-92), and among the 4 locations for each of 2 monitoring periods (early, EMP; late, LMP). With data from the EMP for Vermont-Quebec in 1990 and 1991, Les Escoumins in 1990, and Amherst Point in 1991, survival of hatching-year (HY) males and females did not differ (P = 0.357). For sexes combined for the EMP, survival of ducks was greater in 1991 than 1990 (P = 0.086), and differed among locations (P = 0.013). Survival (years combined) was greater at Amherst Point than at Kamouraska (P = 0.003) and Vermont-Quebec (P = 0.002) during the EMP. The highest survival rate at Amherst Point (0.545 ? 0.056 [SE]) was associated with the latest date (8 Oct) of season opening; the lowest survival rate (0.395 ? 0.043) was at the Vermont-Quebec border, where hunter numbers and activity were greatest. For the LMP, no interaction between years and locations was detected (P = 0.942), and no differences in survival existed between years (P = 0.102) and among locations (P = 0.349). No association was detected between body mass at capture and survival of combined males and females during the EMP (P = 0.572) or during the LMP (P = 0.965). When we censored hunting losses for combined years for each period, EMP or LMP, all survival estimates exceeded 0.800 (0.809-0.965). These data emphasize need for an improved harvest strategy for American black ducks in North America to allow for increases in breeding populations to achieve population goals.

  3. School Psychology in Nova Scotia (United States)

    King, Sara; McGonnell, Melissa; Noyes, Amira


    Registration as a psychologist in Nova Scotia can be at the master's or doctoral level; however, the Nova Scotia Board of Examiners in Psychology has announced a move to the doctoral degree as the entry-level to practice. Many school psychologists in Nova Scotia practice at the master's level; therefore, this change could affect school psychology…

  4. Franchising in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, G.


    Opportunities for the local distribution of natural gas in Nova Scotia were reviewed, with special emphasis on franchising. Franchising in Nova Scotia began in 1980, made possible by the passage of the Gas Utilities Act and the Pipeline Act which promised western Canadian natural gas to eastern Canada. However, proposals for franchisees to distribute natural gas in the province were abandoned as the hope for natural gas transmission service to the province faded. The plummeting of world oil prices by the mid-1980s was also a contributory factor. Discovery and development of natural gas facilities around Sable Island led to the September 1997 proclamation of the Gas Distribution Act, which also led to the revival of interest in franchising. The Act provides for the competitive marketing of natural gas as a commodity and the regulation of the gas delivery system under a franchise agreement. Competitive applications are expected early in 1998, with awards of franchises in late 1998. Construction and gas delivery services should begin operations late in 1999

  5. Franchising in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G. [Nova Scotia Petroleum Directorate, Halifax, NS (Canada)


    Opportunities for the local distribution of natural gas in Nova Scotia were reviewed, with special emphasis on franchising. Franchising in Nova Scotia began in 1980, made possible by the passage of the Gas Utilities Act and the Pipeline Act which promised western Canadian natural gas to eastern Canada. However, proposals for franchisees to distribute natural gas in the province were abandoned as the hope for natural gas transmission service to the province faded. The plummeting of world oil prices by the mid-1980s was also a contributory factor. Discovery and development of natural gas facilities around Sable Island led to the September 1997 proclamation of the Gas Distribution Act, which also led to the revival of interest in franchising. The Act provides for the competitive marketing of natural gas as a commodity and the regulation of the gas delivery system under a franchise agreement. Competitive applications are expected early in 1998, with awards of franchises in late 1998. Construction and gas delivery services should begin operations late in 1999.

  6. Nova Scotia electricity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandlemire, A.L.


    This paper provides an update of electricity issues concerning Nova Scotia such as supply, capacity, emission commitments, as well as co-generation and the Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC). The goals of the strategy were reliability combined with competitive prices and greater environmental responsibility. The scope of these objectives included new capacity, transmission, renewables and co-generation. Other objectives included encouraging wholesale market competition; meeting reciprocity requirements; and a 50 MW renewable energy target. Recommendations of the EMGC included wholesale market competition; a broader market scope with a cost benefit analysis; Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT); a scheduling and information system; network integration and a point to point service; and a separation of transmission and generation business units. Other recommendations included an open competitive process for new generation; a consideration of emissions and overall efficiency; a Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) to start in 2006; the separation of RPS tags from electricity; and net metering of renewables. These recommendations were accepted in 2003, followed by the new Electricity Act in 2004, which made OATT mandatory, established RPS and opened to the wholesale market. Capacity at present was considered to be tight, with preparations for the new regulations under way. Reductions in air pollution were reported at 25 per cent, with renewable energy projects such as 2 windmills currently under way, as well as various other projects. Opportunities for provincial Atlantic cooperation were identified as being management of reserve requirements; trading of lowest cost electricity; new generation on a regional scale; stronger transmission ties; a system operator; a regional approach to RPS; regional management of air emissions; and regional opportunities for Carbon dioxide reductions. tabs., figs

  7. Climate change in Nova Scotia : a background paper to guide Nova Scotia's climate change action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Climate change causes changes in the temperature of the earth, the level of the sea, and the frequency of extreme weather conditions. The province of Nova Scotia recently released an act related to environmental goals and sustainable prosperity. Addressing climate change is a key element in achieving Nova Scotia's sustainable prosperity goals outlined in the act. The Nova Scotia Department of Energy is working towards developing both policy and action, to help meet its target of a 10 per cent reduction in greenhouse gases from 1990 levels by the year 2020. Two major plans are underway, notably a climate change action plan and a renewed energy strategy. This report provided background information on Nova Scotia's climate change action plan. It discussed climate change issues affecting Nova Scotia, air pollutants, energy sources in Nova Scotia, energy consumers in the province, and Nova Scotia's approach to climate change. The report also discussed actions underway and funding sources. It was concluded that in order for the climate change action plan to be successful, Nova Scotians must use energy more efficiently; use renewable energy; use cleaner energy; and plan for change. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs., 4 appendices

  8. Uranium in Nova Scotia: a background summary for the uranium inquiry, Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Since the mid 1970's Nova Scotia has experienced increased exploration for a number of commodities including uranium. The exploration activity for uranium has resulted in discovery of significant occurrences of the element. It became obvious to the Government of Nova Scotia that a segment of the population of the Province is concerned about the potential hazards associated with the exploration, mining and milling stages of the uranium industry. Public concern has resulted in the appointment of a Commissioner under the Public Inquiries Act of Nova Scotia to inquire and make recommendations to the Governor-in-Council on all aspects of exploration, development, mining, processing, storage, waste management and transportation of uranium in any form. The regulation of mineral exploration and mining activities is carried out by the Nova Scotia Department of Mines and Energy through the Mineral Resources Act of the Province of Nova Scotia. The regulation of the special radioactive aspects involved in the mining and processing of uranium ore is the responsibility of the federal Atomic Energy Control Board. The purposes of this report is to: outline the history of uranium exploration in Nova Scotia; summarize the results of geological surveys by provincial and federal government agencies, universities and exploration companies which document the natural levels of radioactivity in the Province; briefly outline the physical and chemical characteristics of uranium and thorium which make these elements unique and a potential environmental and health concern; outline chronologically the steps taken by the Nova Scotia Department of Mines and Energy to monitor and regulate uranium exploration activities; classify the types of uranium deposits known to occur in Nova Scotia and describe their main geological features; outline the role of the Nova Scotia Department of Mines and Energy in the regulation of mining activities in the Province. The report is written for the interested

  9. Nova Scotia Power : in-stream tidal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, K.


    The Government of Nova Scotia, the Government of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia Power and others have funded a feasibility study of North American sites for commercial instream tidal power. In July 2007, Nova Scotia Power received partial funding for a demonstration project. This presentation provided information on a demonstration plant for tidal power run by Nova Scotia Power. It discussed the benefits of the Open Hydro technology for this plant. In this simple design, the generator is on the circumference of the turbine. The design does not involve any power transmission systems or any pitching of blades. In addition, the technology is environmentally sound as it is completely shrouded, has low rotational speed, and a large open centre allows fish to pass through, and it does not require lubricants. The last benefit that was presented was the scale up of 250 kW machine deployed in a European test facility. The presentation also discussed the advantages of developing tidal power at this time. It was concluded that tidal energy has significant potential. Although it is intermittent, it is predictable and bulk power system can be scheduled to accommodate it. figs

  10. Nova Scotia. Reference Series No. 32. (United States)

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Nova Scotia and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss the geography and climate, history, economic development, fishing, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing, energy, education, arts and culture, and…

  11. Punnett and duck genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetics therefore appeared to afford an 'easy' so- lution that could be of much economic importance. Punnett was successful in his efforts by analysing reciprocal crosses between the Mallard and Indian Runner duck. Interestingly, he does not restrict his observations to the colour but also comments on the behaviour of the ...

  12. Executive report : toll roads, toll rates, and driver behavior. (United States)


    State and federal research has examined toll roads and attempted to identify methods to make toll roads a more attractive option for drivers. Researchers examined various views of toll road transactions and concluded: : Truckers and trucking comp...

  13. Welfare of ducks in European duck husbandry systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Berk, J.; Cooper, J.; Faure, J.M.; Guemene, D.; Harlander, A.; Jones, T.; Knierim, U.; Kuhnt, K.; Pingel, H.; Reiter, K.; Serviere, J.; Ruis, M.A.W.


    European duck meat production is based on the use of Pekin, Muscovy and Mule duck genotypes that vary in their behavioural and physiological characteristics. Furthermore, large differences exist in their housing and management conditions. The aim of this review is to discuss the welfare of these

  14. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey


    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  15. Biogeochemical prospecting for uranium in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, R.R.; Holzbecher, J.; Ryan, D.E.


    Ashed twigs of Picea rubens (red spruce) collected over an area of uranium mineralization in central Nova Scotia were analyzed for uranium in the course of biogeochemical prospecting for this element. Uranium levels in background samples were significantly lower than in those collected from areas with mineralization either at depth or on the surface. Scintillometric data were useful only to differentiate background and surface mineralization. Uranium levels in soils showed no correlation whatsoever with mineralization or with radiometry. There was a very high degree of correlation between the scintillometric data and uranium concentrations in ashed twigs and it is considered that twigs of Picea rubens might be successfully used for biogeochemical prospecting for uranium in this area. (Auth.)

  16. Ocean and Coastal Acidification off New England and Nova Scotia (United States)

    New England coastal and adjacent Nova Scotia shelf waters have a reduced buffering capacity because of significant freshwater input, making the region’s waters potentially more vulnerable to coastal acidification. Nutrient loading and heavy precipitation events further acid...

  17. Shadow Toll in Colombia


    González Ruiz, Juan David; Botero Botero, Sergio; Arboleda, Carlos Alejandro; Duque Grisales, Eduardo Alexander


    The growing development in infrastructure projects in Colombia has been linked to legal adjustments and capital markets. These two last factors have provided important elements for project developers to design funding strategies. Based on the shadow toll scheme, this paper proposes a new financing strategy for funding highway projects. This strategy may be implemented in Colombia. Finally, the paper proposes future research on shadow toll schemes as a financial mechanism.

  18. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania (United States)

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.


    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  19. Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson


    Full Text Available This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for Nova Scotia, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in Nova Scotia. In contrast, a consumption-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production process for final goods and services that are consumed in Nova Scotia through household purchases, investment by firms and government spending. Trade flows refer to the movement of emissions that are produced in Nova Scotia but which support consumption in a different province, territory or country (and vice versa. For example, emissions at the Port of Halifax that are associated with goods that are subsequently exported to Ontario for sale are recorded as a trade flow from Nova Scotia to Ontario. Moving in the opposite direction, emissions associated with the production of motor gasoline in New Brunswick that is exported to Nova Scotia for sale are recorded as a trade flow from New Brunswick to Nova Scotia. For further details on these results in a national context, the methodology for generating them and their policy implications, please see the companion papers to this communiqué series: (1 Fellows and Dobson (2017; and (2 Dobson and Fellows (2017. Additionally, the consumption emissions and trade flow data for each of the provinces and territories are available at:

  20. Regulating and Funding Midwifery in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Morrison


    Full Text Available Midwives have been working in Nova Scotia for many years, and midwifery became a government funded and regulated health profession in the province in 2009. Despite the will among many decision-makers in the province to regulate the profession since the mid 1980s, several elections and lack of a management model slowed the program’s development. Implicit goals of having midwifery services included improving the quality of maternal care and health outcomes, keeping up with other provinces, responding to public demand, and saving costs. Strong and persistent bureaucratic and public advocacy work, inter-party collaboration, and research demonstrating positive and safe maternal and newborn health outcomes under midwifery care all had a role in the decision-making process. The implementation responsibility was delegated to three health districts in the province, each being responsible for designing a program to integrate midwives into maternal health care teams. The program has thus far been evaluated in an ad hoc manner with external teams performing comprehensive assessments, though the need for a cost-benefit analysis as well as more systematic assessments has been identified. Though many opportunities exist with midwifery in the province, including a continued high demand for the service, and research demonstrating positive outcomes for mothers and babies, significant challenges and threats remain to be addressed to ensure long-term sustainability of the program.

  1. Investigate attractiveness of toll roads. (United States)


    HOT facilities are used as a solution for congestion mitigation instead of constructing or expanding the capacity of : existing roadways. Although toll roads modeling has been researched for a long time, High Occupancy Toll (HOT) : modeling is relati...

  2. Emotional Toll of Obesity (United States)

    ... 5yrs Grade School 5-12yrs. Teen 12-18yrs. Young Adult 18-21yrs. Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living ... Size Email Print Share The Emotional Toll of Obesity Page Content Article Body You’ve heard the ...

  3. Transcriptional analysis of the innate immune response of ducks to different species-of-origin low pathogenic H7 avian influenza viruses. (United States)

    Maughan, Michele N; Dougherty, Lorna S; Preskenis, Lauren A; Ladman, Brian S; Gelb, Jack; Spackman, Erica V; Keeler, Calvin L


    Wild waterfowl, including ducks, represent the classic reservoir for low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and play a major role in the worldwide dissemination of AIV. AIVs belonging to the hemagglutinin (H) 7 subtype are of epidemiological and economic importance due to their potential to mutate into a highly pathogenic form of the virus. Thus far, however, relatively little work has been conducted on elucidating the host-pathogen interactions of ducks and H7 LPAIVs. In the current study, three H7 LPAIVs isolated from either chicken, duck, or turkey avian species were evaluated for their comparative effect on the transcriptional innate immune response of ducks. Three H7 LPAIV isolates, chicken-origin (A/chicken/Maryland/MinhMa/2004), duck-origin (A/pintail/Minnesota/423/1999), and turkey-origin (A/turkey/Virginia/SEP-67/2002) were used to infect Pekin ducks. At 3 days post-infection, RNA from spleen tissue was used for transcriptional analysis using the Avian Innate Immune Microarray (AIIM) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Microarray analysis revealed that a core set of 61 genes was differentially regulated in response to all three LPAIVs. Furthermore, we observed 101, 135, and 628 differentially expressed genes unique to infection with the chicken-, duck-, or turkey-origin LPAIV isolates, respectively. qRT-PCR results revealed significant (porigin isolate. Several key innate immune pathways were activated in response to LPAIV infection including the toll-like receptor and RIG-I-like receptor pathways. Pekin ducks elicit a unique innate immune response to different species-of-origin H7 LPAIV isolates. However, twelve identifiable genes and their associated cell signaling pathways (RIG-I, NOD, TLR) are differentially expressed regardless of isolate origin. This core set of genes are critical to the duck immune response to AI. These data provide insight into the potential mechanisms employed by ducks to tolerate AI viral infection.

  4. Immune responses of ducks infected with duck Tembusu virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eLi


    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV can cause serious disease in ducks, characterized by reduced egg production. Although the virus has been isolated and detection methods developed, the host immune responses to DTMUV infection are unclear. Therefore, we systematically examined the expression of immune-related genes and the viral distribution in DTMUV-infected ducks, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results show that DTMUV replicates quickly in many tissues early in infection, with the highest viral titers in the spleen 1 day after infection. Rig-1, Mda5, and Tlr3 are involved in the host immune response to DTMUV, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, -2, -6, Cxcl8 and antiviral proteins (Mx, Oas, etc. are also upregulated early in infection. The expression of Il-6 increased most significantly in the tissues tested. The upregulation of Mhc-I was observed in the brain and spleen, but the expression of Mhc-II was upregulated in the brain and downregulated in the spleen. The expression of the interferons was also upregulated to different degrees in the spleen but that of the brain was various. Our study suggests that DTMUV replicates rapidly in various tissues and that the host immune responses are activated early in infection. However, the overexpression of cytokines may damage the host. These results extend our understanding of the immune responses of ducks to DTMUV infection, and provide insight into the pathogenesis of DTMUV attributable to host factors.

  5. Mortality from duck plague virus in immunosuppressed adult mallard ducks (United States)

    Goldberg, Diana R.; Yuill, Thomas M.; Burgess, E.C.


    Environmental contaminants contain chemicals that, if ingested, could affect the immunological status of wild birds, and in particular, their resistance to infectious disease. Immunosuppression caused by environmental contaminants, could have a major impact on waterfowl populations, resulting in increased susceptibility to contagious disease agents. Duck plague virus has caused repeated outbreaks in waterfowl resulting in mortality. In this study, several doses of cyclophosphamide (CY), a known immunosuppressant, were administered to adult mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to determine if a resultant decrease in resistance to a normally sub-lethal strain of duck plague virus would occur, and induce mortality in these birds. Death occurred in birds given CY only, and in birds given virus and CY, but not in those given virus only. There was significantly greater mortality and more rapid deaths in the duck plague virus-infected groups than in groups receiving only the immunosuppressant. A positively correlated dose-response effect was observed with CY mortalities, irrespective of virus exposure. A fuel oil and a crude oil, common environmental contaminants with immunosuppressive capabilities, were tested to determine if they could produce an effect similar to that of CY. Following 28 days of oral oil administration, the birds were challenged with a sub-lethal dose of duck plague virus. No alteration in resistance to the virus (as measured by mortality) was observed, except in the positive CY control group.

  6. Expression of Immune-Related Genes of Ducks Infected with Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLi


    Full Text Available Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC can cause severe disease in ducks, characterized by perihepatitis, pericarditis and airsacculitis. Although the studies of bacteria isolation and methods of detection have been reported, host immune responses to APEC infection remain unclear. In response, we systemically examined the expression of immune-related genes and bacteria distribution in APEC-infected ducks. Results demonstrated that APEC can quickly replicate in the liver, spleen and brain, with the highest bacteria content at 2 day post infection. The expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, avian β-defensins (AvBDs and major histocompatibility complex (MHC were tested in the liver, spleen and brain of infected ducks. TLR2, TLR4, TLR5 and TLR15 showed different expression patterns, which indicated that they all responded to APEC infection. The expression of AvBD2 was upregulated in all tested tissues during the 3 days of testing, whereas the expression of AvBD4, AvBD5, AvBD7 and AvBD9 were downregulated, and though MHC-I was upregulated on all test days, MHC-II was dramatically downregulated. Overall, our results suggest that APEC can replicate in various tissues in a short time, and the activation of host immune responses begins at onset of infection. These findings thus clarify duck immune responses to APEC infection and offer insights into its pathogenesis.

  7. Capturing American black ducks in tidal waters (United States)

    Harrison, M.K.; Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, Dennis G.; Stotts, D.B.


    We modified conventional, funnel-entrance dabbling duck bait traps to increase captures for banding of American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) in tidal saltmarsh habitats of Smith Island, Maryland, one of the few remaining strongholds for breeding Black Ducks in the Chesapeake Bay. Traps and trapping techniques were adapted to tidal creeks and refined to improve capture rate, reduce mortality, and minimize interference by gulls. Best results were achieved by synchronizing trapping with predawn, low-tide foraging patterns of Black Ducks. Trap entrances were critical to retaining ducks, and use of loafing platforms reduced overall mortality to 3% of captures per year. We captured 3071 Black Ducks during the 14-year period, 1984-199

  8. Blood parasites of wood ducks (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Knipling, G.D.


    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  9. Proceedings of Nova Scotia's 2006 energy research and development forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Nova Scotia 2006 energy research and development forum provided a venue for experts from industry, research institutions and government to discuss how research and development will shape the future of energy in the province. The forum was divided into 3 sessions: (1) building knowledge about the marine environment, (2) building knowledge about geoscience, and (3) building knowledge about sustainable energy. A wide ranges of issues related to the Nova Scotia region included whale identification; fisheries mapping; the commercialization of hydrocarbon discoveries; carbon capture and storage and petroleum system analysis and prospect evaluation. Keynote addresses were presented on produced water in Norway; deepwater exploration in Morocco; renewable energy and Canada's role as an energy superpower. The conference featured more than 57 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Industry and improvement: state and class formations in Nova Scotia`s coal-mining countryside, 1790-1864

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, D.J.


    The role of state and class formation in Nova Scotia before Confederation is discussed. The farming and coal mining districts of northern Nova Scotia are described as opposing segments that together were central to the development of liberal capitalist government forms in the province. A range of economic circumstances is considered: squatters, estates, mixed farming, coal mining, trading, quarrying, and fraternal societies. The role of enterprises such as the General Mining Association, a British venture, in colonization and in constraint of local initiative and accumulation is considered. Rural liberals created a positive place in self-government, while colonial liberals constructed a liberalism that was centred around the state and economic progress. The poor and those without property were allotted marginal public roles.

  11. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese (United States)

    Herman, C.M.


    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  12. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks (United States)

    Ossa, Jorge E.


    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  13. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks (United States)


    Background Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Results Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. Conclusions The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important

  14. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.


    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  15. Habitats of North American sea ducks. (United States)

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.


    Breeding, molting, fall and spring staging, and wintering habitats of the sea duck tribe Mergini are described based on geographic locations and distribution in North America, geomorphology, vegetation and soil types, and fresh water and marine characteristics. The dynamics of habitats are discussed in light of natural and anthropogenic events that shape areas important to sea ducks. Strategies for sea duck habitat management are outlined and recommendations for international collaboration to preserve key terrestrial and aquatic habitats are advanced. We follow the definition of habitat advanced by Odum (1971), which is the place or space where an organism lives. Weller (1999) emphasized that habitats for waterbirds required presence of sufficient resources (i.e., food, water, cover, space) for maintenance during a portion of their annual cycle. Habitats exploited by North American sea ducks are diverse, widespread across the continent and adjacent marine waters and until recently, most were only superficially known. A 15-year-long effort funded research on sea duck habitats through the Sea Duck Joint Venture and the Endangered or Threatened Species programs of the United States and Canada. Nevertheless, important gaps remain in our understanding of key elements required by some species during various life stages. Many significant habitats, especially staging and wintering sites, have been and continue to be destroyed or altered by anthropogenic activities. The goal of this chapter is to develop a comprehensive summary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats and their characteristics by considering sea duck species with similar needs as groups within the tribe Mergini. Additionally, we examine threats and changes to sea duck habitats from human-caused and natural events. Last, we evaluate conservation and management programs underway or available for maintenance and enhancement of habitats critical for sea ducks.

  16. Thallium contamination in wild ducks in Japan. (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Mori, Makoto; Akinaga, Mayumi; Yugami, Kyoko; Oya, Chika; Hondo, Ryo; Ueda, Fukiko


    Although thallium (Tl) is toxic to both humans and animals, there is little information on contamination in wildlife. In this study, Tl contents in wild ducks in Japan were determined. Contents of Tl in kidney and liver ranged from 0.42 to 119.61 and 0.10 to 33.94 microg/g dry weight, respectively. Significant correlations between Tl contents in kidney and liver were observed for all dabbling ducks except mallard (Anas platyrhynchos); similar correlations were not observed in diving ducks. Variation in Tl content was observed between sampling locations with the highest mean Tl content in the Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope) collected in Ibaraki Prefecture.

  17. Ascidians (Tunicata, Ascidiacea: species distribution along the Scotia Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tatiàn


    Full Text Available Ascidians are found in all the oceans. The Polar Front is considered a strong barrier, especially for benthic organisms, separating the Southern Ocean from other oceans. Its influence on ascidian species present at the boundary of the Magellan and Antarctic regions along the Scotia Arc and on the species composition at each station is inferred from the samples taken during the “LAMPOS” cruise. Ascidians were collected by Agassiz (AGT and bottom (GSN trawls at depths between 250 and 587 m on different types of substrate. Of 25 identified species/morphospecies one is new and eight were found in new localities, enlarging the known range of five of these species. Muddy bottoms were found to support higher species richness than hard bottoms, and the South Georgia Islands are found to be the northern limit for Antarctic species and the southern limit for Magellan ones. Affinity between the ascidian fauna of the Magellan region and the Antarctic is slightly stronger than was previously considered; there is also a species gradient along the Scotia Arc, which can be regarded as a bridge between the two regions.

  18. Seroprevalence of HIV infection in childbearing women in Nova Scotia. (United States)

    Johnston, B L; Haase, D A; Armson, B A; Lee, S H; Manley, K; Hazell, P


    To determine the prevalence of HIV-1 infection in childbearing women in Nova Scotia. An anonymous, unlinked seroprevalence study using "leftover" cord bloods. The study was done in 2 stages: I-Halifax Co. women delivering between February 1, 1992 and December 31, 1993; II-non-Halifax Co. women delivering between November 15, 1993 and December 15, 1994. Of 9,115 deliveries during stage I and 5,515 during stage II, specimens were tested from 8,864 (97.2%) and 5,219 (95%) respectively. Halifax Co. women were older, more often married and more often reported a STD than the non-Halifax Co. participants with 20% under age 20 reporting a history of STD. There was one EIA and WB positive result among Halifax Co. women (seroprevalence 1/10,000; 95% CI 0.03-6.29) and one EIA positive, WB indeterminant result among non-Halifax Co. women (seroprevalence 0/10,000; 95% CI 0-5.7). There is a low prevalence of HIV infection among Nova Scotia childbearing women. However, a substantial number, especially those < age 20, reported a history of STD.

  19. Seasonal survival of adult female mottled ducks (United States)

    Moon, Jena A.; Haukos, David A.; Conway, Warren C.


    The mottled duck (Anas fulgivula) is a non-migratory duck dependent on coastal habitats to meet all of its life cycle requirements in the Western Gulf Coast (WGC) of Texas and Louisiana, USA. This population of mottled ducks has experienced a moderate decline during the past 2 decades. Adult survival has been identified as an important factor influencing population demography. Previous work based on band-recovery data has provided only annual estimates of survival. We assessed seasonal patterns of female mottled duck survival from 2009 to 2012 using individuals marked with satellite platform transmitter terminals (PTTs). We used temperature and movement sensors within each PTT to indicate potential mortality events. We estimated cumulative weekly survival and ranked factors influential in patterns of mortality using known-fate modeling in Program MARK. Models included 4 predictors: week; hunting and non-hunting periods; biological periods defined as breeding, brooding, molt, and pairing; and mass at time of capture. Models containing hunt periods, during and outside the mottled duck season, comprised essentially 100% of model weights where both legal and illegal harvest had a negative influence on mottled duck survival. Survival rates were low during 2009–2011 (12–38% annual rate of survival), when compared with the long-term banding average of 53% annual survival. During 2011, survival of female mottled ducks was the lowest annual rate (12%) ever documented and coincided with extreme drought. Management actions maximizing the availability of wetlands and associated upland habitats during hunting seasons and drought conditions may increase adult female mottled duck survival.

  20. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration


    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P. M.


    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7???1??C). ...

  1. Technology scan for electronic toll collection. (United States)


    The purpose of this project was to identify and assess available technologies and methodologies for electronic toll collection (ETC) and to develop recommendations for the best way(s) to implement toll collection in the Louisville metropolitan area. ...

  2. Four new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of toll-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to reveal the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genotypes and allelic frequencies of each mutation site of TLR7 gene in Chinese native duck breeds, SNPs of duck TLR7 gene were detected by DNA sequencing. The genotypes of 465 native ducks from eight key protected duck breeds were determined by ...

  3. Yellow Ducks Overboard! A Lesson in Geography and World Citizenship (United States)

    Nagel, Paul; Beauboeuf, Donna


    This lesson was inspired by the book, "10 Little Rubber Ducks" by Eric Carle, which discusses ocean pollution. The book was inspired by an incident in 1992: A shipping container tumbled into the North Pacific Ocean, broke open, and 28,800 little rubber ducks (and other plastic bath toys) were lost at sea. The ducks were manufactured in China, and…

  4. Indigenous Ducks are Better Reservoirs of P. multocida than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were performed to study cross infections from chickens to ducks and vice versa. For each experiment the source birds (chickens or ducks) were infected with Pasteurella multocida strain 10322T. The infected birds were then mixed with sentinel indigenous ducks or chickens, respectively, six hours after ...

  5. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect (United States)

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam


    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  6. Mycoplasma infection of ducks and geese. (United States)

    Stipkovits, L; Szathmary, S


    Production of ducks and geese in certain parts of the world is very important. Mycoplasma diseases cause significant losses to the duck and goose industry. This review summarizes the epidemiological, clinical, and pathomorphological characteristics of mycoplasma diseases of ducks and geese and the involvement of the various mycoplasma species in their pathogenesis. The role of mycoplasma infections in the development of clinical signs, pathological lesions, and mortality of challenged birds is demonstrated in challenge experiments. Transmission of mycoplasma in the ovary and eggs resulting in the reduction of egg production and an increase of embryo mortality has been shown in challenge experiments as well as in field studies. The susceptibility of many mycoplasma isolates of the most important mycoplasma species of duck and goose origin were tested and showed relatively high average minimum inhibitory concentrations of lincomycin, tilosin, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and enrofloxacin but not for tiamulin. The successful treatment of mycoplasma infections with antibiotics in ducks and geese should be selected based on the minimum inhibitory concentration values against the mycoplasmas isolated from the flock.

  7. Ducks: the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 influenza. (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Ki; Negovetich, Nicholas J; Forrest, Heather L; Webster, Robert G


    Wild ducks are the main reservoir of influenza A viruses that can be transmitted to domestic poultry and mammals, including humans. Of the 16 hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of influenza A viruses, only the H5 and H7 subtypes cause highly pathogenic (HP) influenza in the natural hosts. Several duck species are naturally resistant to HP Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. These duck species can shed and spread virus from both the respiratory and intestinal tracts while showing few or no disease signs. While the HP Asian H5N1 viruses are 100% lethal for chickens and other gallinaceous poultry, the absence of disease signs in some duck species has led to the concept that ducks are the "Trojan horses" of H5N1 in their surreptitious spread of virus. An important unresolved issue is whether the HP H5N1 viruses are maintained in the wild duck population of the world. Here, we review the ecology and pathobiology of ducks infected with influenza A viruses and ducks' role in the maintenance and spread of HP H5N1 viruses. We also identify the key questions about the role of ducks that must be resolved in order to understand the emergence and control of pandemic influenza. It is generally accepted that wild duck species can spread HP H5N1 viruses, but there is insufficient evidence to show that ducks maintain these viruses and transfer them from one generation to the next.

  8. Benefits, costs, and determinants of dominance in American black ducks (United States)

    Hepp, G.R.


    Behavioural dominance was studied in captive American black ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-December 1984. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and groups of 10 ducks consisting of 5 adults (3 males and 2 females) and 5 juveniles (3 males and 2 females) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet, and ducks in the other 4 pens were given a restricted diet. Dominance structure within pens was linear. Adults were dominant to young, and body mass had no influence on dominance rank. The effect of sex on dominance rank was age-specific. Adult males were dominant to adult females and to young black ducks of both sexes; however, dominance rank of young males did not differ from adult or young females. Paired adults were dominant to unpaired adults and to young individuals that were either paired or unpaired. Paired young black ducks were similar in dominance rank to unpaired adults and unpaired young indicating that pairing did not make these individuals more dominant. Ducks on the restricted diet gained less body mass than ducks on the ad libitum diet, but dominant and subordinate black ducks within treatment groups experienced similar changes in body mass during the early winter. Dominant black ducks interacted more frequently and were more likely to form pair bonds than subordinates, thus higher energy costs of dominant individuals may explain the poor relationship between physical condition and dominance rank. There was a significant positive association between the dominance ranks of pair members.

  9. An Emerging Wine Region in Nova Scotia, Canada: Terroir Trials and Tribulations (United States)

    Cameron, B. I.; Ketter, B. S.; Karakis, S.


    Nova Scotia, strategically located on Canada's east coast, is an emerging wine region, whose distinctive wines are garnering international acclaim. Nova Scotia has a long and rich tradition of growing grapes for wine dating back as far as 1611. Nova Scotia's mesoclimates, glacial soils, and proximity to the Atlantic Ocean form a complex alliance to create a unique and expressive terroir. Tidal Bay is a new appellation wine for Nova Scotia stylistically defined as a fresh, crisp and high-acid blend of white grapes. There are four main wine-growing regions in Nova Scotia, all influenced by the warming effects of the Bay of Fundy and Atlantic Ocean: Malagash Peninsula, Annapolis Valley, Bear River Valley and the South Shore. Nova Scotia currently has 14 producing wineries with many more in the development stage. Nova Scotia grape growers not only have had success developing mature and consistent hybrids, but in recent years several vinifera have flourished in this cool climate area. The white hybrids include L'Acadie Blanc, New York Muscat, Seyval Blanc, and Vidal Blanc. The white vinifera include chardonnay, riesling, pinot gris, and sauvignon blanc. Red hybrids are Baco Noir, Leon Millet, Lucie Kuhlmann, and Marechal Foch, whereas the only red vinifera is pinot noir. Nova Scotia has nearly perfect climatic conditions for making world class icewines and sparkling wines. A preliminary GIS analysis of climate, topographic, geology and soil data helps to define Nova Scotia's terroir. Annual precipiatation varies from 10 to 21.6 cm/year with a vast majority of the wineries located in regions with the lowest rainfall. Daily average temperature ranges from 5.5 to 7.5°C, degree growing days above 5°C from 1382 to 1991, and mean August temperature from 15.6 to 19.3 °C. Wineries cluster in the warmest regions based on these temperature measures to assist grape ripening. Soils in these diverse wine regions can range from silty, sandy and clay loams to more gravel-rich sandy

  10. Measurement of Phenotype Characteristics of Sasak Ducks: Indian Runner Ducks of Lombok Island Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasil Tamzil


    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the phenotype characteristics of Sasak ducks in Lombok Island.  The study used 64 Sasak ducks at production stage which were kept intensively by small holder farmers. Observations on the characteristics of the feather color were carried out directly on each animal. The data observed were feather colors, beak color, and the color of the foot and shank, while the data on the size of the body that was observed were body weight, beak length, neck length, back length, breast circumference, back length, thigh length, shank length, and the distance between the two pubic bones. The data obtained were tabulated and analyzed descriptively. The study concluded that the characteristic of the color of feathers in Sasak ducks were dominated by Roman color (50.13%, followed by Tanak color (21.87%, Tongkak color (15.63%, Rombak color (6.25%, and Cemaning color (3.12%.  Sasak ducks with medium size were observed to have a relatively long beak, medium-long neck, short back, broad and deep chest, medium height, and the distance between the two pubic bones was quite wide. These characteristics indicate that Sasak ducks are the type of superior Indian Runner having better production ability compared to the other types of Indian Runner duck.

  11. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  12. Roadway Toll Areas for New York City [NYCBASEMAP.Billboard_Toll (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The "Billboard_Toll" dataset is a polygon representation of New York City's roadway Toll Areas, Signs Gantried, Large Billboards and Signs. The data is comprised of...

  13. Transport of retinol in the duck plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    in goat (Sreekrishna and Cama, 1979) and canine (Muto et al., 1973) sources and agree well with the values reported in chicken (Heller, 1976). An important observation in this study was that duck prealbumin did not exhibit microheterogeneity while that from other sources like chicken (Bhat et al., 1977) exhibited multiple ...

  14. MHC classⅠ gene in two duck lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian,. Shandong 271018, People's Repulic of China. Keywords: duck; MHC class Ⅰ; molecular characteristic; allelic group; amino acid variability. Introduction. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅰ molecules play a critical role in.

  15. The design of a toll plaza (United States)

    Dong, Haibin


    In this paper, a model is established to find the optimal shape, size and merging pattern of the toll plaza. The main work is how to take the aspects such as the accident prevention, throughput and cost into consideration to make the model of the toll plaza optimal. By analyzing the match of the number of tollbooths (B) and travel lanes (L) considering safety and cost, the optimal toll plaza model is established when the traffic flow is given.

  16. Environmental assessment of exploration drilling off Nova Scotia: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The environmental assessment project of drilling offshore Nova Scotia covers year-around drilling conducted from jackup rigs, semi-submersible rigs, and drill ships that use the methods described in the project description on the Scotian Shelf, the Laurentian Channel and St, Pierre Bank. The assessment was sponsored by all the oil companies active in the area, namely Mobil Oil Canada, Shell Canada, Imperial Oil Resources, Gulf Canada Resources, Chevron Canada Resources, PanCanadian Petroleum, Murphy Oil Company and Norsk Hydro Canada Oil and Gas. This summary describes the impact assessment methodology used, provides a description of the project, reviews the cumulative impact, and the impacts of discrete activities such as noise and disturbances, operational discharges of oil, disruption of the benthos, garbage and waste disposal, and accidental oil spills, and outlines mitigation and monitoring activities to deal with the impacts. Mitigation measures encompass routine discharges, accidental oil spills, spill response, monitoring activities, contingency plans and an overall environmental protection plan. In addition to this generic assessment, the consultants recommend that individual exploration drilling programs that fall outside of the parameters outlined in the generic environmental assessment document, be required to undergo a program-specific assessment that focuses on those aspects of the proposed program that differ from the parameters prescribed in the present document. 9 refs

  17. School Gardens: Cultivating Food Security in Nova Scotia Public Schools? (United States)

    Carlsson, Liesel; Williams, Patricia L; Hayes-Conroy, Jessica S; Lordly, Daphne; Callaghan, Edith


    A small but growing body of peer-reviewed research suggests that school gardens can play a role in building community food security (CFS); however, to date little research exploring the role of school gardens in supporting CFS is available. This paper begins to address this gap in the literature. A qualitative, exploratory, single-case study design was used. The focus of this case study was the school food garden at an elementary school in the River Valley, Nova Scotia, school community. Results provide useful information about potential CFS effects of school gardens in addition to the environmental effects on school gardens important to their effectiveness as CFS tools. Findings suggest children gained food-related knowledge, skills, and values that support long-term CFS. A local social and political landscape at the community, provincial, and school board level were key to strengthening this garden's contributions to CFS. We support Dietitians of Canada's nomination of school gardens as an indicator of CFS with theoretical and practical evidence, underscore the importance of a supportive environment, and need for further research in this area. Health professionals and community organizations provide critical support, helping to weave gardens into a greater movement towards building CFS.

  18. Water resource management : a strategy for Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theakston, J.


    Since 1995, the Nova Scotia Department of the Environment has been the lead agency responsible for water resource management in the province. The agency's mandate has been to establish a water resource management strategy and to report periodically to the people of the province on the state of the environment, including air, water and waste resource management. One of the Department's goals is to ensure that surface and groundwater resources are being adequately protected. This paper summarizes issues related to dams and how they will be addressed. The Department allocates water through approvals and regulates use and alteration of watercourses. The construction of a dam and water withdrawal for municipal, industrial, hydroelectric or other purposes requires an approval. The major concerns with these activities are flows to sustain downstream habitat, competing demand for water, public safety, and water quality impacts. The main water management actions established under the water strategy involve: (1) geo-referencing water resource use and allocation, (2) protecting water quality, (3) integrating management of natural resources, and (4) promoting partnership in stewardship

  19. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou


    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE. The envelope (E gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs. Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

  20. Expanding Pharmacists' Scope of Practice to Include Immunization in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth O'Reilly


    Full Text Available On 10 December 2010 An Act to Amend Chapter 36 of the Acts of 2001, the Pharmacy Act (Bill 7 received Royal Assent in Nova Scotia, including an amendment that enabled an expanded scope of pharmacy practice. Expanding pharmacists' scope of practice came about from recommendations by various federal and provincial government bodies as an attempt to improve accessibility to health care and decrease costs. In 2013, pharmacists in Nova Scotia began administering the influenza vaccine as part of the publicly funded program in attempts to improve vaccine coverage rates. Preliminary evaluation in Nova Scotia has shown an increase in influenza vaccination coverage. Although pharmacist administration of influenza vaccination may improve vaccination coverage and reduce demand on physician time, there may be tension created among the professions, which needs to be addressed and managed.

  1. The bivalves from the Scotia Arc islands: species richness and faunistic affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego G. Zelaya


    Full Text Available Species richness of the shallow-water bivalves from the Scotia Arc islands was studied on the basis of new collections and by reviewing extant information. Seventy-three species are recognised from the entire area. South Georgia, the South Orkney Islands and the South Shetland Islands were similar in species richness to the Antarctic Weddell sector. New records for 51 bivalve species are provided and the presence of 18 undescribed species is reported. The faunistic similarity of the islands of the Scotia Arc to the Magellan region and the Antarctic Weddell sector is re-examined. These islands show a high similarity to the Antarctic Weddell sector (49 to 85% and a low similarity to the Magellan region (12 to 32%. Evidence from bivalves clearly supports the placement of the Scotia Arc islands within the Antarctic region.

  2. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks. (United States)

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong


    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10 2 copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Egg Production Potentials of Muscovy Ducks ( Cairina moschata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ducks in intensive management systems came into lay significantly (P<0.05) earlier, (IO, 203 days and IW, 207 days) than ducks in semi-intensive management system (248 days). Eggs from ducks in IO and IW were significantly (P<0.05) heavier (76.35 and 76.27g, respectively) than eggs from those in SI. Clutch sizes were ...

  4. Bioidentical hormone therapy: Nova Scotia pharmacists’ knowledge and beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whelan AM


    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate Nova Scotia (NS pharmacists’ knowledge and beliefs regarding the use of bioidentical hormones (BHs for the management of menopause related symptoms. Methods: Using Dillman’s tailored design methodology, an invitation to complete the web-based questionnaire was emailed to pharmacists in NS as part of the Dalhousie College of Pharmacy Continuing Pharmacy Education Department’s (CPE weekly email update. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of approximately 1300 e-mails sent, 113 pharmacists completed the questionnaire (response rate 8.7%. The majority of respondents (94% knew that BHs were not free from adverse drug reactions. More than 50% were aware that conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate were not examples of BHs. For seven of eleven knowledge questions, 33-45% indicated that they did not know the answer. When asked about their beliefs regarding BHs, many believed that BHs were similar in efficacy (49% or more effective (21% than conventional hormone therapy (CHT for vasomotor symptoms. Most respondents also believed that both BHs and CHT had similar safety profiles. Additionally, responding pharmacists indicated that more education would be helpful, especially in the area of safety and efficacy of BHTs compared to CHT. Conclusion: NS pharmacists knew BHs were not free of adverse effects, however knowledge was lacking in other areas. This may reflect the level of coverage of this topic in pharmacy school curriculums and in the pharmacy literature. Results indicate a need for additional education of NS pharmacists with respect to BHs, which could be accomplished through modification of undergraduate pharmacy programs and supplementary CPE.

  5. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration. (United States)

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M


    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  6. Ecology and conservation of North American sea ducks (United States)

    Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Esler, Daniel N.; Eadie, John M.


    The past decade has seen a huge increase in the interest and attention directed toward sea ducks, the Mergini tribe. This has been inspired, in large part, by the conservation concerns associated with numerical declines in several sea duck species and populations, as well as a growing appreciation for their interesting ecological attributes. Reflecting the considerable research recently conducted on this tribe, Ecology and Conservation of North American Sea Ducks examines the 15 extant species of sea ducks from North America.

  7. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America (United States)

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.


    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P foxes than hens of late nesting species. Predation rate indices were expanded to estimate total numbers of ducks taken by fox families during the denning season. Estimated numbers of dabbling ducks taken annually by individual fox families in 2 physiographic regions comprising the intensive study area ranged from 16.1 to 65.9. Predation was highest during wet years and lowest during dry years and averaged lower, but was more variable, in the region where tillage was greatest and wetland water levels were least stable. Predation in the intensive study area averaged 2.97 adult dabbling ducks/ km2/year and represented an estimated average annual loss of 13.5% of hen and 4.5% of drake

  8. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China. (United States)

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing


    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Post-epizootic surveys of waterfowl for duck plague (duck virus enteritis) (United States)

    Brand, C.J.; Docherty, D.E.


    Surviving birds from nine duck plague outbreaks in urban and confined waterfowl were sampled for duck plague (DP) virus and DP antibody during 1979-86. Duck plague virus was found in combined oral and cloacal swabs of birds from three outbreaks, and DP-neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in some birds from all nine outbreaks. Greater prevalence of DP antibody and higher titers were found in survivors from confined populations than from free-flying urban populations. Free-flying waterfowl from within 52 km of four DP outbreak sites were also sampled; virus was not found in any birds, but DP antibody was found in urban waterfowl in the vicinity of an outbreak in Potterville, Michigan. No evidence of exposure to or shedding of DP virus in migratory waterfowl was found in two regions where DP appears enzootic in urban and confined waterfowl (Eastern Shore of Maryland and the vicinity of Sacramento, California).

  10. Harvest and dynamics of duck populations (United States)

    Sedinger, James S.; Herzog, Mark P.


    The role of harvest in the dynamics of waterfowl populations continues to be debated among scientists and managers. Our perception is that interested members of the public and some managers believe that harvest influences North American duck populations based on calls for more conservative harvest regulations. A recent review of harvest and population dynamics of North American mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) populations (Pöysä et al. 2004) reached similar conclusions. Because of the importance of this issue, we reviewed the evidence for an impact of harvest on duck populations. Our understanding of the effects of harvest is limited because harvest effects are typically confounded with those of population density; regulations are typically most liberal when populations are greatest. This problem also exists in the current Adaptive Harvest Management Program (Conn and Kendall 2004). Consequently, even where harvest appears additive to other mortality, this may be an artifact of ignoring effects of population density. Overall, we found no compelling evidence for strong additive effects of harvest on survival in duck populations that could not be explained by other factors.

  11. Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia (United States)

    Azmi, Sharifah Nadya Syed; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan; Saidin, Hamidi


    Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through questionnaire survey. These data were combined to estimate the work shift exposure level and health impacts to the toll tellers by using statistical analysis. Noise Dosimeter microphone was located at the hearing zone of the toll teller which working inside the toll booth and full-period measurements were collected for each work shift. The measurements were taken at 20 toll booths from 6.00 am to 2.00 pm for 5 days. 71 respondents participated in the survey to identify the symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and other health related problems among toll tellers. Results of this study indicated that occupational noise exposure among toll tellers for Mean Continuous Equivalent Level, Leq was 79.2±1.4 dB(A), Mean Maximum Level, Lmax was 107.8±3.6 dB(A) and Mean Peak Level, Lpeak was 136.6±9.9 dB. The Peak Level reported statistically significantly at 140 dB, the level of TLV recommended by ACGIH. The research findings indicated that the primary risk exposure to toll tellers comes from noise that emitted from heavy vehicles. Most of the toll tellers show symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and annoyed by the sources of noise at the toll plaza.

  12. 47 CFR 42.6 - Retention of telephone toll records. (United States)


    ... whether it is billing its own toll service customers for toll calls or billing customers for another... Section 42.6 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... telephone toll records. Each carrier that offers or bills toll telephone service shall retain for a period...

  13. Assessing genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of duck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the maternal genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Nigerian duck populations were assessed. A total of 591 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region of 87 indigenous ducks from two populations in Nigeria were analyzed. Seven haplotypes and 70 polymorphic sites were ...

  14. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class Igene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Jun 17, 2017 ... Abstract. To enrich gene polymorphism of DuMHC I and provide data for further studies on disease resistance, 14 DuMHC I genes from Weishan Ma duck and Cherry Valley duck were cloned, and their characterization were investigated. The overall conservation of the 14 alleles could be observed within ...

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17 (United States)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  16. Performance of Pekin ducks subjected to qualitative feed restriction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake was also reduced in proportion to the degree of lysine restriction and to age when first fed. Sexual maturity was delayed by lysine restriction but this did not cause an increase in average egg mass. The ducks on the low lysine diets laid fewer extra large and more smaller eggs than those ducks not restricted by ...

  17. Assessment of Hydroacoustic Propagation Using Autonomous Hydrophones in the Scotia Sea (United States)


    ASSESSMENT OF HYDROACOUSTIC PROPAGATION USING AUTONOMOUS HYDROPHONES IN THE SCOTIA SEA Haru Matsumoto1, Del R. Bohnenstiehl2, Robert P. Dziak1...Environmental Laboratory , National Oceanic Administration3, and Korea Polar Research Institute4 Sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration... hydroacoustic blind spot. To investigate the sound propagation and interferences affected by these landmasses in the vicinity of the Antarctic polar

  18. Evaluation of petroleum products pricing regulation in Nova Scotia : a 2 year review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Gasoline price regulation was introduced in Nova Scotia on July 1st, 2006. This report presented the findings and recommendations of a review of the first two years of the gasoline price regulation in Nova Scotia. The regulations had three main objectives. This review examined whether, and to what extent, they were achieved. The objectives were to stabilize price, maintain industry infrastructure, and minimize cost to consumers. The report described the rationale for the regulation, study objectives, and approach taken to gasoline regulation in Nova Scotia, including the objectives and technical aspects of how regulation works. The gasoline market in Nova Scotia was examined, including the market structure and competitive behaviour in an unregulated market. The report also provided some theoretical perspectives on how regulation was likely to affect industry structure and competitive behaviour. The extent to which the regulation was meeting its objectives was then assessed and perspectives on the regulation from consumers, retailers and wholesalers were offered. Last, the report provided a review of the findings in terms of the key elements of regulatory design and set out recommendations for improving the system. It was recommended that in order to improve certainty, particularly given the regulated price differences amongst grades, the regulations should be amended to include grade specifications referencing octane ratings. tabs., figs

  19. Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board annual report, 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board was established as the agency responsible for the regulation of the hydrocarbon resources in the Nova Scotia offshore. The Board evaluates resource potential, administers petroleum exploration and production rights, approves offshore activities, and approves benefits and development plans. The main activities of the Board in 1992-1993 are summarized and financial statements are presented. Highlights include production of 572,300 m 3 of oil during the first production season of LASMO Nova Scotia Ltd.'s Cohasset development, the first commercial offshore oil production for Canada; four major resource evaluation projects in the Glenelg Field, the Laurentian sub-basin, the Fundy Rift Basin, and the Panuke Field; holding of discussions between Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Canada on the maritime boundary lines between respective offshore petroleum board jurisdictions, in the wake of a June 1992 determination of the disputed maritime boundary around St. Pierre et Miquelon; and amendments of certain safety-related legislation applicable to offshore operations. Employment benefits of the Cohasset project during 1992 totalled ca 470 Nova Scotians and 120 other Canadians. 3 tabs

  20. Where We Work: Nova Scotia Child Care Centres As Workplaces (1990-1993). Executive Summaries. (United States)

    Ferguson, E. Elaine

    These four executive summaries report the results of an annual survey of child care centers conducted in Nova Scotia (Canada) from 1990 through 1993. Between 20 and 45 centers participated in the surveys. Centers were questioned about the following: (1) size and location; (2) for-profit or non-profit status; (3) teacher, teacher-directors, and…

  1. Epidemiology and molecular characterisation of duck hepatitis A virus from different duck breeds in Egypt. (United States)

    Erfan, Ahmed M; Selim, Abdullah A; Moursi, Mohamed K; Nasef, Soad A; Abdelwhab, E M


    Duck hepatitis virus (DHV) is an acute highly contagious disease of ducklings caused by three distinct serotypes of duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV), a member of the RNA family Picornaviridae, where serotype 1 is the most widespread serotype worldwide. To date, little if any is known about the prevalence and genetic characterisation of DHAV outside Asia. The current study describes surveillance on DHV in 46 commercial duck farms in Egypt with a history of high mortality in young ducklings from 3 to 15 day-old from 2012 to 2014. Clinical samples were examined by generic RT-PCR assays followed by partial sequence analysis of the 5'UTR, VP1 and 3D genes of the vaccine strain and 15 field viruses. The overall positive rate was 37% (n=17/46). All duck breeds (Pekin, Muscovy, Mallard and Green Winged) were susceptible to the disease with mortality ranged from 15% to 96.7%. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Egyptian strains cluster in the DHAV serotype 1 with Asian viruses and distinguishable from the vaccine strains. So far, this is the first report on the genetic characterisation of DHAV in Egypt. This study may be useful to better understand the epidemiology and evolution of DHAV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt


    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  3. The Reproduction Performance of Tegal Duck Based on Hematology Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismoyowati Ismoyowati


    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the physiological indicator of Tegal duck based on the hematological parameters and its relation to reproduction performances.  The research materials were 20 heads of male and 100 heads of female Tegal ducks. Parameters measured were erytrocyte, leucocyte, differential leucocyte, hemoglobin, hematocrit, protein total, albumin and globulin, and reproduction performances (semen volume and egg production.  Method of the research was experimental with Completely Randomized Design,  and data were analysed using analysis of variance and correlation.  The result of the experiment showed that hematological parameters of Tegal duck that had high production were high significantly (P<0,05 different than the others, except on albumin value.  It was concluded that reprodution performances of Tegal duck was highly affected by its hematologys status. (Animal Production 8(2: 88-93 (2006   Key Words: Reproduction performances, Tegal duck, hematology status

  4. The effects of harvest regulations on behaviors of duck hunters (United States)

    Haugen, Matthew T.; Powell, Larkin A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.; Pope, Kevin L.


    Uncertainty exists as to how duck harvest regulations influence waterfowl hunter behavior. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Parts Collection Survey to examine how harvest regulations affected behaviors of Central Flyway duck hunters. We stratified hunters into ranked groups based on seasonal harvest and identified three periods (1975–1984, 1988–1993, 2002–2011) that represented different harvest regulations (moderate, restrictive, and liberal, respectively; season length and daily bag limits smallest in restrictive seasons and largest in liberal seasons). We examined variability of seven measures of duck hunter behaviors across the periods: days harvesting ducks, daily harvest, hunter mobility, mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) selectivity, gender selectivity, daily female mallard harvest, and timing of harvest. Hunters reported harvesting ducks on more days, at a higher efficiency, and in slightly more counties during liberal seasons relative to restrictive and moderate seasons. We provide evidence to suggest that future regulation change will affect hunter behaviors.

  5. 50 CFR 21.54 - Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States. (United States)


    ..., transport, and dispose of muscovy ducks taken under this order. (b) Muscovy ducks in Hidalgo, Starr, and Zapata Counties in Texas. In these counties, take of muscovy ducks, their nests, and their eggs may be... muscovy ducks taken under this order to public museums or public institutions for scientific or...

  6. Simulation of investment returns of toll projects. (United States)


    This research develops a methodological framework to illustrate key stages in applying the simulation of investment returns of toll projects, acting as an example process of helping agencies conduct numerical risk analysis by taking certain uncertain...

  7. Toll-like receptors in neonatal sepsis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, Fiona M


    Toll-like receptors are vital transmembrane receptors that initiate the innate immune response to many micro-organisms. The discovery of these receptors has improved our understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and these receptors play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple neonatal conditions such as sepsis and brain injury. Toll-like receptors, especially TLRs 2 and 4, are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia and sepsis.

  8. DMPD: Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15031527 Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and virus... (.csml) Show Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. PubmedID 1503...1527 Title Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and virus

  9. Different Duck Species Infected Intramuscularly with Duck-Origin Genotype IX APMV-1 Show Discrepant Mortality and Indicate Another Fatal Genotype APMV-1 to Ducks. (United States)

    Fu, Guanghua; Cheng, Longfei; Fu, Qiuling; Qi, Baomin; Chen, Cuiteng; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Liu, Rongchang; Huang, Yu


    Isolations of genotype IX (gIX) avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) from various bird species have been more common recently, with isolates showing variable pathogenicity in different species of poultry. Here we sequenced the genome of a Muscovy duck origin gIX virus strain XBT14 and characterized the virulence and pathogenicity of this isolate in chickens and ducks. The genome sequence of strain XBT14 is 15,192 nt in length, containing multiple basic amino acids at the fusion protein cleavage site. The XBT14 strain shared 91.6%-91.9% nucleotide identities with early-genotype viruses (such as genotype III and IV) and shared 85.3%-85.9% nucleotide homologies with later genotype viruses (such as genotype VII). Pathogenicity tests showed that strain XBT14 could cause death in different duck breeds with a mortality rate of 44.4% in Muscovy duck, 25.9% in Sheldrake, and 11.1% in Cherry Valley duck, respectively. Similar mortality discrepancies were also observed in different ducks when infected with chicken-origin gIX virus strain F48E8. These results indicate that XBT14-like velogenic gIX APMV-1 (such as XBT14, F48E8, and GD09-2) could cause fatal infection in duck, and genotype IX is another genotype velogenic to duck as well as genotype VII. Accompanied by genetic differences in the vaccine strains or dominant strains prevailing in poultry, the virulent XBT14-like gIX viruses might become potentially endemic strains in poultry in the future.

  10. RAGE on the Toll Road? (United States)

    Lin, Li


    Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are cellular pattern-recognizing receptors (PRRs) that recognize the molecular patterns of pathogens. After engaging the pathogenic patterned ligands, the cytosolic portion of the TLRs in monocytes and macrophages, recruits adaptor proteins, via a receptor-driven signaling cascade, activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB, leading to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which trigger inflammation. Such rapid, innate cellular responses serve as the first line of host defense against infection by pathogens, and also stimulate the adaptive immune system to clear the invading microbes. Increasing evidence suggests that TLRs also recognize host-derived ligands, linking this group of PRRs to diseases that may not have an etiology that is associated directly with infections. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are nonenzymatically glycated or oxidated proteins, lipids and nucleic acids that are formed in the environment of oxidant stress and hyperglycemia. Binding of AGEs to their receptor RAGE initiates cellular signals that activate NF-kappaB, which results in transcription of proinflammatory factors. RAGE can also interact with other endogenous ligands generated by cell death and tissue injuries. RAGE has been implicated in chronic diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodisorders, cancers, as well as aging. This review discusses the possible role of RAGE as a PRR that may use signaling mechanisms parallel to TLRs', to solicit inflammatory reactions. Thus, in this scenario, RAGE may play a prominent role in the regulation of cellular homeostasis in the context of complex disease progression.

  11. Chedabucto Bay 1992 shoreline oil conditions survey: Long-term fate of Bunker C oil from the Arrow spill in Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.


    A field survey was conducted from June to September 1992 to locate and document any residual oil on the shores of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia. The grounding of the tanker Arrow in February 1970 released more than 11 x 10 6 liters of Bunker C fuel oil. The oil was stranded over an estimated 350 km of shoreline, but less than 50 km was treated during the cleanup effort. The systematic ground survey documented the presence of oil on 13.3 km of shoreline in Chedabucto Bay. Heavy oiling is restricted to 1.3 km, concentrated primarily in the Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage areas. Natural weathering accounts for the removal of the majority of the oil from Chedabucto Bay. Where oil remains, it occurs as a thin stain on bedrock or coarse sediments or as a resistant oil-sediment asphalt-like mixture. Areas in the low wave energy environment of Haddock Harbour and Inhabitants Bay that were heavily oiled in the spill and were not cleaned are now virtually free of oil. These areas have a plentiful supply of fine-grained suspended sediments that may have contributed to clay-oil flocculation weathering as described for Prince William Sound, Alaska. Oil remains on the shore when it is: outside the zone of physical wave action required to move sediments and/or abrade the oil; in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes; and when it is weathered on the surface, forming a crust that prevents biodegradation processes from being active. 45 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs

  12. A Hydrographic Survey of the Scotia Sea, 15 March 1999 to 22 April 1999 (NODC Accession 0000861) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and chemical data were collected using CTD and bottle casts in the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea from the JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 March 1999...

  13. Pella glooscapi, a new rove beetle, and new records of aleocharines from Nova Scotia, Canada (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Klimaszewski


    Full Text Available A new aleocharine rove beetle, Pella glooscapi Klimaszewski & Majka, sp. n., from Nova Scotia, Canada, is described and illustrated. Data on bionomics and distribution are provided. A short diagnosis, description, colour body image, and black and white genital images are also provided. It appears to be closely related to P. criddlei (Casey. Pella loricata (Casey, Zyras obliquus (Casey, and Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz are newly recorded from Nova Scotia, and for Atlantic Canada as a whole.



    BI, Jihong; YU, Xiang; WANG, Xiao; WEI, Chunyan; CUI, Yongzhu; LV, Lihua


    A novel composite with good sound absorption properties was prepared by discarded duck feathers and Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) non-woven fabrics by using lay-up and hot-pressing method. The effects of discarded duck feather concentration, composite density, composite thickness and air cavity depth on sound absorption performance were studied. When the composites with proportion (w/w) of the discarded duck feathers to EVA non-woven fabrics of 300/100, density of 1400g/m2, thickness...

  15. Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.


    Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (±137 000). The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

  16. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo, E-mail:; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang


    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  17. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang


    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  18. Effects of body weight and age on the time and pairing of American black ducks (United States)

    Hepp, G.R.


    I used captive young and adult American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) during October-February 1984-1985 to test whether body weight and age affected time of pair-bond formation. Eighty ducks were marked individually, and 10 ducks (6 males and 4 females, half of each age class) were assigned to each of 8 experimental pens. Ducks in 4 pens received an ad libitum diet of commercial duck food, and ducks in the other 4 pens received a restricted ration of the same food. During early winter ducks in both groups gained weight, but ducks on the restricted diet gained less than birds on the ad libitum diet; peak winter weight of ducks on the ad libitum diet averaged 22% greater than initial body weight compared with 6.5% for ducks on the restricted diet. In late winter ducks on the restricted diet lost 28.7% of peak winter weight, and ducks on the ad libitum diet lost 19.3%. Weight loss of ducks on the ad libitum diet began before weather conditions became severe and coincided with a reduction in food consumption. This result supports the idea that weight loss of waterfowl in late winter is controlled endogenously. Individuals on the ad libitum diet paired earlier than those on the restricted diet, and pair bonds were stronger. Adults of both sexes paired earlier than young ducks, but differences for females were not significant statistically. Age and energy constraints are factors that can affect intraspecific variation in pairing chronology.

  19. Province of Nova Scotia Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee First Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarizes the group discussions of the Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee's (EMGC) over the past 6 months regarding the implementation of new rules for power competition in Nova Scotia's electricity market. Emphasis has been placed on external influences, defining the size and form of the short-term competitive portion of the Nova Scotia market, and a detailed consideration of the current transmission system and the changes needed to achieve a sustainable, world class energy sector that would enhance the quality of life for Nova Scotians. The report provides recommendations regarding how competition can be encouraged. The main drivers for electricity restructuring have been energy efficiency, risk-allocation, reliability, environmental impact, and consumer protection. The external influences on the Nova Scotia electricity market include: (1) economics of electricity restructuring, (2) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, (3) New Brunswick and electricity restructuring, and (4) Nova Scotia and the energy strategy. This report described the market scope and basic market model with reference to bilateral contract market, fully competitive wholesale pool market, and a single buyer market. The transmission issues discussed in this report included the importance of transmission, transmission tariff options, transmission services offered, design issues, and congestion management policies. The EMGC was directed to examine market design issues to accommodate an Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT). As such, this report identifies some transmission issues that must be resolved to implement tariffs, and conditions of access to the transmission system and its impact on open access market design. The final report is expected to be available in March 2003

  20. Partial reconstruction and palaeoecology of Sphenophyllum costae (Middle Pennsylvanian, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashforth, Arden Roy; Zodrow, Erwin L


    Recovery of a large, articulate portion of Sphenophyllum costae Sterzel from lower Cantabrian strata of the Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada, demonstrates that it is the largest sphenophyll yet known to inhabit clastic substrates of Euramerica. The specimen shows four orders of branching, wi...... pteridosperms, and probably occupied well-drained (but moist) clastic habitats such as elevated channel margins or topographically raised hummocks on floodplains....

  1. The ambient air quality accounts for the Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, A.; Colman, R.


    The Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index (GPI) is a measure of sustainable development which provides a complete and accurate picture of our well-being as a society. The GPI assigns explicit values to environmental quality, population health, livelihood security, equity, free time, and educational attainment. The Nova Scotia GPI includes 22 social, economic and environmental components, including ambient air quality. This report investigates Nova Scotia's ambient air concentrations and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The costs of damages caused by the these key air pollutants are also examined. Exposure to these pollutants results in negative impacts on human health, damage to materials, agricultural crops and changes in forest productivity. From 1979 to 1996, national ambient concentrations of each of these pollutants decreased significantly. However, the national average concentration of ground-level ozone increased by 34 per cent during the same time period. In Nova Scotia, concentrations of CO, PM and SO 2 have declined dramatically since 1979, but the trends for NO 2 and ground-level ozone do not show significant declines. On a per capita basis, SOx emissions from electric power generation in the province are more than 8 times the Canadian average. The province also had higher per capita emissions of CO, PM, SOx and VOCs than all reporting OECD countries. Electric power generation is the greatest source of fuel combustion emissions in the province, followed by industrial and transportation sources. This report also described some individual actions that can be taken to reduce air pollutant emissions. 174 refs., 37 tabs., 60 figs

  2. Sex determination of duck embryos: observations on syrinx development (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian


    Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.

  3. Bottom's Semiology: The Duck-Rabbit and Magritte's Pipe. (United States)

    Berthoff, Ann E.


    Explores how a dyadic understanding of perception cancels the validity it might have as a model for the linguistic process. Discusses commonly misunderstood exhibits in the gallery of perception studies--the duck-rabbit and Magritte's pipe. (RS)

  4. Negative Regulation of Interferon-β Production by Alternative Splicing of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 3 in Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Wei


    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3, an intracellular signal transducer, is identified as an important component of Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors induced type I interferon (IFN signaling pathways. Previous studies have clarified TRAF3 function in mammals, but little is known about the role of TRAF3 in ducks. Here, we cloned and characterized the full-length duck TRAF3 (duTRAF3 gene and an alternatively spliced isoform of duTRAF3 (duTRAF3-S lacking the fragment encoding amino acids 217–319, from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs. We found that duTRAF3 and duTRAF3-S played different roles in regulating IFN-β production in DEFs. duTRAF3 through its TRAF domain interacted with duMAVS or duTRIF, leading to the production of IFN-β. However, duTRAF3-S, containing the TRAF domain, was unable to bind duMAVS or duTRIF due to the intramolecular binding between the N- and C-terminal of duTRAF3-S that blocked the function of its TRAF domain. Further analysis identified that duTRAF3-S competed with duTRAF3 itself for binding to duTRAF3, perturbing duTRAF3 self-association, which impaired the assembly of duTRAF3-duMAVS/duTRIF complex, ultimately resulted in a reduced production of IFN-β. These findings suggest that duTRAF3 is an important regulator of duck innate immune signaling and reveal a novel mechanism for the negative regulation of IFN-β production via changing the formation of the homo-oligomerization of wild molecules, implying a novel regulatory role of truncated proteins.

  5. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of children with Lyme arthritis in Nova Scotia. (United States)

    Glaude, Pier Diane; Huber, Adam M; Mailman, Timothy; Ramsey, Suzanne; Lang, Bianca; Stringer, Elizabeth


    Lyme disease is an emerging problem in Nova Scotia. Lyme arthritis is a late manifestation of Lyme disease. To describe the demographic characteristics, referral patterns and clinical course of children diagnosed with Lyme arthritis in a tertiary care pediatric rheumatology clinic in Nova Scotia. In the present retrospective chart review, subjects diagnosed with Lyme arthritis between 2006 and 2013 were identified through the clinic database. Demographic variables, referral patterns, clinical presentation and information regarding treatment course and outcome were collected. Seventeen patients were identified; 76% presented in 2012 and 2013. In 37.5% of cases, the referring physician suspected Lyme disease. Most patients presented with one or more painful and/or swollen joints; 94% had knee involvement. Only three of 17 patients had a history of erythema migrans and four of 17 recalled a tick bite. Five patients had a history of neurological manifestations consistent with Lyme disease, although, none had a diagnosis made at the time. Arthritis usually resolved after treatment with standard antibiotics; however, at last follow-up, two patients had antibiotic refractory Lyme arthritis, with one having joint damage despite aggressive arthritis treatment. A significant increase in cases of Lyme arthritis has recently been recognized in a pediatric rheumatology clinic in Nova Scotia. A history of a tick bite or erythema migrans were not sensitive markers of Lyme arthritis, and this diagnosis was often not considered by the referring physician. Educational initiatives should be undertaken to increase local awareness of this treatable cause of arthritis in children.

  6. Insights from the evaluation of a provincial healthy eating strategy in Nova Scotia, Canada. (United States)

    Sim, S Meaghan; Kirk, Sara F L


    Healthy Eating Nova Scotia represents the first provincial comprehensive healthy eating strategy in Canada and a strategy that is framed within a population-health model. Five years after strategy launch, our objective was to evaluate Healthy Eating Nova Scotia to determine perceptions of strategy implementation and strategy outputs. The focus of the current paper is on the findings of this evaluation. We conducted an evaluation of the strategy through three activities that included a document review, survey of key stakeholders and in-depth interviews with key strategy informants. The findings from each of the activities were integrated to determine what has worked well with strategy implementation, what could be improved and what outputs have resulted. The evaluation was conducted in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Participants for this evaluation included survey respondents (n 120) and key informants (n 16). A total of 156 documents were also reviewed. Significant investments have been made towards inter-sectoral partnerships and resourcing that has provided the necessary leadership and momentum for the strategy. Policy development has been leveraged through the strategy primarily in the health and education sectors and is perceived as a visible success. Clarity of human resource roles and funding within the context of a provincial strategy may be beneficial for continued strategy implementation, as is expansion of policy development. Known to be the first evaluation of its kind, these findings and related considerations will be of interest to policy makers developing and implementing similar strategies in their own jurisdictions.

  7. Petroleum products price regulation in Nov Scotia : a six-month review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Gasoline pricing regulation was introduced in July 2006 in order to achieve the following 3 main objectives: (1) stabilize prices by reducing the frequency of price changes and creating more uniform pricing across the province, (2) maintain industry infrastructure by slowing or halting the decline in the dealer network, particularly in rural areas, by improving viability through regulated margins, and (3) minimize the cost to consumers since higher prices are expected to result from the actions needed to maintain price stability and the higher margins needed to maintain industry infrastructure. This report examined the extent to which these objectives were achieved and contained the findings and recommendations of a review of the first six months of gasoline price regulation in Nova Scotia. The report discussed the rationale for regulation, study objectives, approach, and warning signs. It also discussed gasoline regulation in Nova Scotia including how regulation works and implementing regulation. The Nova Scotia gasoline market was presented with reference to industry structure; pre-regulation competition and pricing; and how regulation may affect structure and competition. Last, the report discussed whether regulation was meeting the objectives and perspectives on regulation. Several recommendations were presented, such as reducing the benchmark price adjustment period from two weeks to one week; removing the price cap on full-serve gasoline; adopting a fixed and transparent formula for forward averaging and applying it at each adjustment; and considering a framework for regulatory review. 12 refs., 15 figs

  8. Development of an early-stage toll revenue estimation model. (United States)


    With agencies and states increasingly considering tolls as a means to finance transportation infrastructure, : there is an increasing need to quickly assess the feasibility of potential tolling projects. In the early stages : of a project when an age...

  9. Private Toll Roads: Learning from the 19th Century


    Klein, Daniel B.; Fielding, Gordon J.


    California has authorized four toll roads to be constructed and operated by private groups, and it is considering more. Construction on a similar 14-mile project in Virginia will begin in 1992. Florida, Texas, and Colorado are considering proposals for private toll roads, and there is talk of a 500-mile private connection between Chicago and Kansas City. Outside the United States, private groups are operating toll roads in France and Italy. Indeed, the idea of private toll roads is making a c...

  10. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orin J. Robinson


    Full Text Available Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south. The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species.

  11. Linking Canadian Harvested Juvenile American Black Ducks to Their Natal Areas Using Stable Isotope (δD, δ13C, and δ15N Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ashley


    Full Text Available Understanding source-sink dynamics of game birds is essential to harvest and habitat management but acquiring this information is often logistically and financially challenging using traditional methods of population surveys and banding studies. This is especially true for species such as the American Black Duck (Anas rubripes, which have low breeding densities and extensive breeding ranges that necessitate extensive surveys and banding programs across eastern North America. Despite this effort, the contribution of birds fledged from various landscapes and habitat types within specific breeding ranges to regional harvest is largely unknown but remains an important consideration in adaptive harvest management and targeted habitat conservation strategies. We investigated if stable isotope (δD, δ13C, δ15N could augment our present understanding of connectivity between breeding and harvest areas and so provide information relevant to the two main management strategies for black ducks, harvest and habitat management. We obtained specimens from 200 hatch-year Black Duck wings submitted to the Canadian Wildlife Service Species Composition Survey. Samples were obtained from birds harvested in Western, Central, and Eastern breeding/harvest subregions to provide a sample representative of the range and harvest rate of birds harvested in Canada. We sampled only hatch-year birds to provide an unambiguous and direct link between production and harvest areas. Marine origins were assigned to 12%, 7%, and 5% of birds harvested in the Eastern, Central, and Western subregions, respectively. In contrast, 32%, 9%, and 5% of birds were assigned, respectively, to agricultural origins. All remaining birds were assigned to nonagricultural origins. We portrayed probability of origin using a combination of Bayesian statistical and GIS methods. Placement of most eastern birds was western Nova Scotia, eastern New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and southern

  12. Congestion Tolling for Mixed Urban Freight and Passenger Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chaoda


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the welfare effects of optimal tolling on urban traffic congestion, in a bottleneck model, with mixed freight and passenger users. The users’ marginal utility of time is considered to be varying with time. Under both no-toll equilibrium and socially optimal tolling, the users are found to sort their arrival time according to the increasing rates of marginal utility at the destination. The optimal toll that maximizes social welfare does not change each user's indirect utilit y relative to the no-toll equilibrium, but completely removes the queue, which also removes the barrier of freight carriers to accept congestion pricing by relating their marginal utilities directly to the toll. When the toll is equally rebated, the proposed social optimal tolling is a Pareto improvement relative to the no-toll equilibrium. Those more productive users also suffer more in both no-toll equilibrium and optimal tolling, which indicates that a differentiated redistribution of toll revenues could be an incentive to improve productivity.

  13. Selection for duration of fertility and mule duck white plumage colour in a synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)


    Liu, H. C.; Huang, J. F.; Lee, S. R.; Liu, H. L.; Hsieh, C. H.; Huang, C. W.; Huang, M. C.; Tai, C.; Poivey, Jean Paul; Rouvier, R.; Cheng, Y. S.


    A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the GO. Then G1 were i...

  14. The Characteristics of Meat Duck, Problems and Prevention of Off Flavor Due to Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procula R Matitaputty


    Full Text Available Source of poultry meat in Indonesia is currently dominated by chicken while local resources such as ducks have the potential to grow and be used as an alternative meat producer. Duck contribution towards the provision of a relatively small meat of 2.29%, compared with free-range chicken to reachs 20.33%. Sources of duck meat in Indonesia comes from local duck, and culled female ducks. Acceptance of most local duck meat is still relatively low, although in some areas local duck dishes are excellent. Meat ducks are generally less desirable, because taste and smell is different from chicken. Because consumers are not accustomed to the taste of typical meat, especially those that give the sensation of irregularities off meat – flavor or smell fishy/ rancid. Similarly, the color of duck meat is darker than that of chicken meat, high fat content of about 2.7 to 6.8%, which also influences consumer preferences. The high fat content, especially acid-unsaturated fatty acids in meat duck gives a tendency to produce off – flavors. Efforts to increase the consumption of duck meat should be based on the cause of the lack of acceptance by consumers. The smell of rancid meat duck is the most dominant cause of which is not liked by consumers. Efforts to reduce the off flavor of duck meat could be by adding antioxidant in feed stuffs.

  15. Fabrication of duck's feet collagen-silk hybrid biomaterial for tissue engineering. (United States)

    Kim, Soo Hyeon; Park, Hae Sang; Lee, Ok Joo; Chao, Janet Ren; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Jung Min; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Ye Ri; Song, Jeong Eun; Khang, Gilson; Park, Chan Hum


    Collagen constituting the extracellular matrix has been widely used as biocompatible material for human use. In this study, we have selected duck's feet for extracting collagen. A simple method not utilizing harsh chemical had been employed to extract collagen from duck's feet. We fabricated duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold for the purpose of modifying the degradation rate of duck's feet collagen. This study suggests that extracted collagen from duck's feet is biocompatible and resembles collagen extracted from porcine which is commercially used. Duck's feet collagen is also economically feasible and it could therefore be a good candidate as a tissue engineering material. Further, addition of silk to fabricate a duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could enhance the biostability of duck's feet collagen scaffold. Duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold increased the cell viability compared to silk alone. Animal studies also showed that duck's feet collagen/silk scaffold was more biocompatible than silk alone and more biostable than duck's feet or porcine collagen alone. Additionally, the results revealed that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold had high porosity, cell infiltration and proliferation. We suggest that duck's feet collagen/silk hybrid scaffold could be used as a dermal substitution for full thickness skin defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. CNN-applications in toll driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Brugge, MH; Nijhuis, JAG; Spaanenburg, L; Stevens, JH


    This paper describes a system for the automatic identification of vehicles by the contents of its license plate. The system has been developed over the last five years and is one of the four candidate systems for automatic toll collection in the Netherlands. Due to the extreme time and performance

  17. First visual record of rare purple-colored dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus) on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. (United States)

    Ehlers, Sonja M; Ellrich, Julius A


    The dogwhelk Nucella lapillus is a rocky intertidal gastropod of the North Atlantic coast. Individual shell color varies. Common colors range between white and brown, with darker dogwhelks being more affected by heat stress than lighter-colored conspecifics. Other reported shell colors are purple, black, mauve, pink, yellow, and orange from UK coasts, red and gray from the Bay of Fundy coast of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia (Canada), and purple, black, gray, yellow, and orange from the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts (USA), with purple being considered as a rare color. On the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, dogwhelks are active from April until November, but information on dogwhelk shell color is missing for this coast. On 16 June 2016, we found two purple-colored dogwhelks in the mid-to-high intertidal zone of a moderately wave-exposed rocky shore near Duncans Cove, on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia while collecting dogwhelks (n= 1000) during low tide for manipulative field experiments. All other dogwhelks collected on that day were of common white and brown colors. During earlier dogwhelk collections in Atlantic Nova Scotia (between 2011-2013) and field surveys in Duncans Cove (between 2014-2016), we did not find any purple-colored dogwhelks, indicating the rareness of this color in that region. Apparently, our observations provide the first visual record of rare purple-colored dogwhelks on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada.

  18. Quantifying changes and influences on mottled duck density in Texas (United States)

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick


    Understanding the relative influence of environmental and intrinsic effects on populations is important for managing and conserving harvested species, especially those species inhabiting changing environments. Additionally, climate change can increase the uncertainty associated with management of species in these changing environments, making understanding factors affecting their populations even more important. Coastal ecosystems are particularly threatened by climate change; the combined effects of increasing severe weather events, sea level rise, and drought will likely have non-linear effects on coastal marsh wildlife species and their associated habitats. A species of conservation concern that persists in these coastal areas is the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Mottled ducks in the western Gulf Coast are approximately 50% below target abundance numbers established by the Gulf Coast Joint Venture for Texas and Louisiana, USA. Although evidence for declines in mottled duck abundance is apparent, specific causes of the decrease remain unknown. Our goals were to determine where the largest declines in mottled duck population were occurring along the system of Texas Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuges and quantify the relative contribution of environmental and intrinsic effects on changes to relative population density. We modeled aerial survey data of mottled duck density along the Texas Gulf Coast from 1986–2015 to quantify effects of extreme weather events on an index to mottled duck density using the United States Climate Extremes Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index. Our results indicate that decreases in abundance are best described by an increase in days with extreme 1-day precipitation from June to November (hurricane season) and an increase in drought severity. Better understanding those portions of the life cycle affected by environmental conditions, and how to manage mottled duck habitat in conjunction with these events will likely be key to

  19. The biological control of Pomacea canaliculata population by rice-duck mutualism in paddy fields (United States)

    Kiang Liang; Jia-en Zhang; Li Fang; Benliang Zaho; Mingzhu Luo; Prem Parajuli; Ying Ouyang


    Duck has been used as a non-chemical control method against Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, but little is known about its principles that underlie the control of snail populations. An indoor experiment was initially used to observe the predation potential of ducks, followed by replicated field trials. In the indoor studies, ducks effectively preyed on...

  20. The Scotia Sea and the Drake Passage as an orographic barrier for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (United States)

    Tarakanov, R. Yu.


    It is shown on the basis of the data of the Russian Academy of Sciences expeditions in 2003-2010, the historical CTD database, the WOCE climatology, and the satellite altimetry that the area of the Scotia Sea and the Drake Passage is even a greater significant orographic barrier for the eastward Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) than was previously thought. It is the current concept that this barrier is the most important for the ACC; it consists of three obstacles: the Hero Ridge with the Phoenix Rift, the Shackleton Ridge, and the North Scotia Ridge with the relatively shallow eastern part of the Scotia Sea. Despite the fact that all three obstacles are permeable for the layer of the Circumpolar Bottom Water (CBW; 28.16 intensified ACC jets. Herewith, the upper CBW boundary is the lower limit of the circumpolar coverage of the ACC jets. This result is confirmed by the near zero estimate of the total CBW transport according to the three series of the LADCP measurements on the sections across the Drake Passage. It is shown that the transformation (cooling and freshening) of the CBW layer, which occurs owing to the flow of the ACC over the Shackleton Ridge, is associated with the shape and location of the ridge in the Drake Passage. The high southern part of this ridge is a partially permeable screen for the eastward CBW transport behind which the colder and fresher waters of the Weddell Sea and the Bransfield Strait of the same density range as the CBW penetrate into the ACC zone. The partial permeability of the Shackleton Ridge for the CBW layer leads to the salinization of this layer on the eastern side of the ridge and to the CBW's freshening on the western side of this ridge, which is observed across the entire Drake Passage.

  1. A community partnership to explore mental health services in First Nations communities in Nova Scotia. (United States)

    Vukic, Adele; Rudderham, Sharon; Misener, Ruth Martin


    This study aimed at identifying the gaps, barriers and successes/solutions associated with mental health services in Mi'kmaq communities in Nova Scotia. Community-based participatory research, which is consistent with Ownership, Control, Access and Possession principles of research with Aboriginal communities, was employed for this work. Health directors of the 13 Mi'kmaq communities in Nova Scotia were involved with the research question, design and write-up of the study. This qualitative descriptive study consisted of open-ended structured interviews with consumers, family members and health care providers. Systematic data collection and analysis of interviews present an understanding of issues of mental health services in the communities. The findings identified barriers and successes/solutions in mental health services in First Nations communities, where services and resources are different from those in more urban communities. Core programs, covering aspects of education, collaboration and culturally relevant community-based services, were identified as solutions to problems identified by participants. Service providers specified core funding for services as essential for continuity and sustainability. While efforts have been made in the past to address mental illness in Mi'kmaq communities, many of these efforts have been proposal driven or crisis oriented. The need for community-based, culturally appropriate, coordinated and sustainable services is evident on the basis of the study's findings. The final report has been disseminated to local community members, participants, Atlantic First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, the Provincial Department of Health and the Atlantic Policy Congress to provide evidence that can inform policy and practice related to mental health in Mi'kmaq communities in Nova Scotia.

  2. Late Holocene extinction of Finsch's duck (Chenonetta finschi), an endemic, possibly flightless, New Zealand duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.; Jones, M.D.; Beavan Athfield, N.R.


    Finsch's duck (Chenonetta finschi), an extinct, possibly flightless New Zealand endemic, was widely distributed and apparently abundant immediately before human settlement of New Zealand, but its bones have rarely been identified in archaeological sites. Its extinction has been variously attributed to habitat changes, predation by the introduced Pacific rat (Rattus exulans), and human predation. Discriminating between possible causes of its extinction hinges on determining the relative timing of phases of the extinction process and the arrival of rats and humans. Methodological problems of determining the time of extinction of fossil species are reviewed. Bayesian statistical analysis of a series of accelerator mass spectrometry 14 C ages on gelatin from Finsch's duck bones from non-cultural deposits suggests that the species began to decline before widespread Polynesian settlement and that it was much reduced in range and numbers by the time extensive human predation and habitat alteration began. Possible causes of its extinction after Polynesian settlement are discussed. (author). 90 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  3. The electrification of Nova Scotia, 1884--1973: Technological modernization as a response to regional disparity (United States)

    King, Lionel Bradley

    This dissertation investigates local attempts to use technology as a force for regional rehabilitation in the economically-depressed Maritime region of Canada. At the time of Confederation in 1867, the Maritime province of Nova Scotia was prosperous, progressive, and cultured. By the end of the 1910s, the province had entered a long period of economic and social decline. Recent historiography has shown that, far from passively accepting their fate, Nova Scotians and other Maritimers, actively resisted marginalization with political, cultural, or social action. The thesis expands upon that literature by exploring technology-based strategies of provincial rehabilitation using Thomas P. Hughes's systems perspective and David E. Nye's semiotic approach. In doing so, it applies methods from the social constructivist school of the history of technology to the larger concerns of Maritime Canadian historiography. In large part, the North American culture of technology determined the ways in which Nova Scotians applied technological solutions to provincial concerns. Technology has long been central to the Western idea of progress. As the "high technology" of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, electricity reinforced that view: its ephemeral nature and silent efficiency led people to endow it with transformative, even mystical, powers. As a result, Nova Scotians, adopted a program of electrical modernization in the late 1910s as a remedy for regional disparity. The Nova Scotia government's first step was the creation of an Ontario-style hydroelectric commission designed to bring order to the province's fragmented and inefficient electrical network. Over the next few decades, the Nova Scotia Power Commission implemented rural electrification, home modernization, and regional system-building models that had already proven successful in Ontario and the United States. The system-building philosophies behind these programs were adapted to local conditions and

  4. “I feel like I am surviving the health care system”: understanding LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Colpitts


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is a dearth of baseline data on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ populations in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Historically, LGBTQ health research has tended to focus on individual-level health risks associated with poor health outcomes among these populations, which has served to obscure the ways in which they maintain their own health and wellness across the life course. As such, there is an urgent need to shift the focus of LGBTQ health research towards strengths-based perspectives that explore the complex and resilient ways in which LGBTQ populations promote their health. Methods This paper discusses the findings of our recent scoping review as well as the qualitative data to emerge from community consultations aimed at developing strengths-based approaches to understanding and advancing LGBTQ pathways to health across Nova Scotia. Results Our scoping review findings demonstrated the lack of strengths-based research on LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia. Specifically, the studies examined in our scoping review identified a number of health-promoting factors and a wide variety of measurement tools, some of which may prove useful for future strengths-based health research with LGBTQ populations. In addition, our community consultations revealed that many participants had negative experiences with health care systems and services in Nova Scotia. However, participants also shared a number of factors that contribute to LGBTQ health and suggestions for how LGBTQ pathways to health in Nova Scotia can be improved. Conclusions There is an urgent need to conduct research on the health needs, lived experiences, and outcomes of LGBTQ populations in Nova Scotia to address gaps in our knowledge of their unique health needs. In moving forward, it is important that future health research take an intersectional, strengths-based perspective in an effort to highlight the factors that

  5. Live Attenuated Vaccine based on Duck Enteritis Virus against Duck Hepatitis A Virus Types 1 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou


    Full Text Available As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1 and type 3 (DHAV-3 causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated DEV recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1 containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1 and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3 between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis results demonstrated that both VP1 proteins were robustly expressed in rC-KCE-2VP1-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Ducks that received a single dose of rC-KCE-2VP1 showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses and were completely protected against challenges of both pathogenic DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains. The protection was rapid, achieved as early as three days after vaccination. Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as one week post-vaccination. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant rC-KCE-2VP1 is potential fast-acting vaccine against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3.

  6. Toll-like receptors in skin


    Miller, Lloyd S.


    The skin not only plays an important role as a physical barrier between the host and the environment, but also plays a key immunologic role in sensing and responding to invading pathogens from the environment. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are expressed by many different types of cells in human skin, have been found to be important pattern recognition receptors that are involved in recognizing components of microbial pathogens and initiating and instructing cutaneous immune responses. Thi...

  7. Toll-like receptor 4 in atherosclerosis


    Li, Hongli; Sun, Baogui


    Abstract Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is key regulators of both innate and adaptive immune responses. TLR4 recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activates the inflammatory cells. The function of TLR4 in atherosclerosis has been investigated in mouse knockout studies and epidemiological studies of human TLR4 polymorphisms. These studies have shown that TLR4 function affects the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. This article reviews the biological functions a...

  8. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.


    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  9. Modelling the distribution of domestic ducks in Monsoon Asia (United States)

    Van Bockel, Thomas P.; Prosser, Diann; Franceschini, Gianluca; Biradar, Chandra; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Gilbert, Marius


    Domestic ducks are considered to be an important reservoir of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), as shown by a number of geospatial studies in which they have been identified as a significant risk factor associated with disease presence. Despite their importance in HPAI epidemiology, their large-scale distribution in Monsoon Asia is poorly understood. In this study, we created a spatial database of domestic duck census data in Asia and used it to train statistical distribution models for domestic duck distributions at a spatial resolution of 1km. The method was based on a modelling framework used by the Food and Agriculture Organisation to produce the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, and relies on stratified regression models between domestic duck densities and a set of agro-ecological explanatory variables. We evaluated different ways of stratifying the analysis and of combining the prediction to optimize the goodness of fit of the predictions. We found that domestic duck density could be predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean RMSE and correlation coefficient between log-transformed observed and predicted densities being 0.58 and 0.80, respectively), using a stratification based on livestock production systems. We tested the use of artificially degraded data on duck distributions in Thailand and Vietnam as training data, and compared the modelled outputs with the original high-resolution data. This showed, for these two countries at least, that these approaches could be used to accurately disaggregate provincial level (administrative level 1) statistical data to provide high resolution model distributions.

  10. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo


    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  11. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on hepatic function in the duck (United States)

    Patton, J.F.; Dieter, M.P.


    1. The indocyanine green dye clearance test for hepatic function was determined in mallard ducks before and during the chronic ingestion (7 months) of representative paraffinic or aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons (PH).2. No mortality or visible symptoms of toxicity occured in any of the tests. Ingestion of 4000 ppm aromatic PH produced significant increases in liver (25%), plasma clearance of indocyanine green (33%) and hepatic blood flow (30%).3. Although the aromatics elicited a greater hepatic stress response than the paraffins, the ducks tolerated high concentrations of PH for extended periods.

  12. Transfection of embryonated Muscovy duck eggs with a recombinant plasmid is suitable for rescue of infectious Muscovy duck parvovirus. (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Huang, Yu; Ling, Jueyi; Wang, Zhixiang; Zhu, Guoqiang


    For members of the family Parvoviridae, rescue of infectious virus from recombinant plasmid is usually done in cultured cells. In this study, the whole genome of the pathogenic Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strain YY was cloned into the pBluescript II (SK) vector, generating recombinant plasmid pYY. With the aid of a transfection reagent, pYY plasmid was inoculated into 11-day-old embryonated Muscovy duck eggs via the chorioallantoic membrane route, resulting in the successful rescue of infectious virus and death of the embryos. The rescued virus exhibited pathogenicity in Muscovy ducklings similar to that of its parental strain, as evaluated based on the mortality rate. The results demonstrate that plasmid transfection in embryonated Muscovy duck eggs is a convenient and efficacious method for rescue of infectious MDPV in comparison to transfection of primary cells, which is somewhat time-consuming and laborious.

  13. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo


    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  14. Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera of Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseley M.


    Full Text Available The cave-associated invertebrates of Nova Scotia constitute a fauna at a very early stage of post-glacial recolonization. TheColeoptera are characterized by low species diversity. A staphylinid Quedius spelaeus spelaeus, a predator, is the only regularlyencountered beetle. Ten other terrestrial species registered from cave environments in the province are collected infrequently. Theyinclude three other rove-beetles: Brathinus nitidus, Gennadota canadensis and Atheta annexa. The latter two together with Catopsgratiosus (Leiodidae constitute a small group of cave-associated beetles found in decompositional situations. Quedius s. spelaeusand a small suite of other guanophiles live in accumulations of porcupine dung: Agolinus leopardus (Scarabaeidae, Corticariaserrata (Latrididae, and Acrotrichis castanea (Ptilidae. Two adventive weevils Otiorhynchus ligneus and Barypeithes pellucidus(Curculionidae collected in shallow cave passages are seasonal transients; Dermestes lardarius (Dermestidae, recorded fromone cave, was probably an accidental (stray. Five of the terrestrial beetles are adventive Palaearctic species. Aquatic beetles arecollected infrequently. Four taxa have been recorded: Agabus larsoni (Dytiscidae may be habitual in regional caves; another Agabussp. (probably semivittatus, Dytiscus sp. (Dytiscidae, and Crenitis digesta (Hydrophilidae are accidentals. The distribution andecology of recorded species are discussed, and attention is drawn to the association of beetles found in a Nova Scotia “ice cave”.

  15. Acadian biospeleology: composition and ecology of cave fauna of Nova Scotia and southern New Brunswick, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseley Max


    Full Text Available The vertebrate and invertebrate fauna, environment and habitats of caves and disused mines in Nova Scotia and southern NewBrunswick are provisionally catalogued and described, based on field collections made over many years. The area was glaciatedand the subterranean fauna consists of non-troglobites all of which have arrived and colonised the caves during or following finalrecession of the Pleistocene glaciers. The statistical composition of the fauna at the higher taxonomic level is similar to that inOntario, but is less species rich and there are some notable ecological and other differences. Porcupine dung accumulations are animportant habitat in the region, constituting a cold-temperate analogue of the diverse guano habitats of southern and tropical caves.Parietal assemblages are, as in other cold temperate regions, an important component of the invertebrate fauna but here includespecies derived directly from dung communities: another parallel with tropical guano caves. An unanticipated finding is the numberof non-indigenous species now utilising local caves. These appear to have colonised unfilled ecological niches, suggesting thatpost-glacial recolonisation of the subterranean habitat in Nova Scotia has been relatively delayed. Finally the general and regionalsignificance of the subterranean fauna is briefly discussed.

  16. Distribution, reproductive and energetic conditions of decapod crustaceans along the Scotia Arc (Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Lovrich


    Full Text Available Studies on decapod distribution patterns and reproductive and energetic conditions were carried out along the islands and shallows of the Scotia Arc (Southern Ocean during the RV “Polarstern” LAMPOS expedition (ANT XIX/5 between April and May 2002. A clear biogeographic zonation was found. The Subantarctic Magellan-South Atlantic decapod fauna consisting of both “natant” (caridean and “reptant” (astacidean, anomuran, and brachyuran decapods appeared along the northern branch of the Scotia Arc to South Georgia, where Subantarctic and Antarctic faunas were found overlapping. An impoverished caridean shrimp fauna was found along the islands of the southern branch, from the South Sandwich Islands to the Antarctic Peninsula. Differences in the reproductive traits of the two most abundant species were detected. The reproductive cycle of Notocrangon antarcticus at South Georgia was more advanced than that at the South Orkney Islands, probably due to temperature differences between the two locations. Although the oogenesis and the reproductive cycle of Munida subrugosa seem to be in phase at Burdwood Bank and in the Beagle Channel, the oocyte number is probably lower at the former location. A new index was used to measure the energy devoted to reproduction by relating the energy contents of the egg mass/ovary plus hepatopancreas and the energy content of the whole body. This index revealed that the energy investment in reproduction was (1 independent of the sampling location, (2 species-specific, and (3 larger in caridean shrimps than in galatheid crabs.

  17. Nova Scotia electricity market : frameworks for renewable energy contracting and cogeneration contracting : discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The recent Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee of Nova Scotia report issued a number of recommendations regarding renewable and cogeneration sales to retail consumers, as well as recommendations for top-up, spill rates and back-up rates to complement the operation of independent generating facilities. This discussion paper examined issues which need to be addressed in order to implement the recommendations. The discussion paper also included recommendations relating to the purchase of cogeneration output by the Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) under long term power purchase agreements. The aim of the paper was to provide a basis for the further discussion of issues in preparation for the development of future rules and regulations. The first part of the document identified ways for buyers and sellers to arrange contracts, as well as issues that need to be addressed at the institutional level to enable arrangements. Options for financial contracts and physical contracts were reviewed.The second part of the document examined pricing issues in the context of both financial and physical contract arrangements. Resolutions for both sets of options were proposed. Energy pricing principles were reviewed, as well as various pricing options and issues related to the analysis of price requirements. It was concluded that in order to support the safe, reliable and economic supply of electricity, the design of the electricity market should enable maximum flexibility in contractual arrangements and facilitate competition in ways that do not harm other parties

  18. Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board Annual report 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board is responsible for ensuring safe working conditions for offshore petroleum activities, protecting the environment during offshore petroleum operations, and managing offshore petroleum resources. This annual report includes financial statements of the Board for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1999. The projects undertaken by the Board in 1998-1999 included a technical audit of the Sable Offshore Energy Project, a resource assessment of the area known as the 'Gully', and resolving a complication regarding publicly available resource data for calls for bids for NS98-1 and NS98-2. A list of exploration licences in place in the Nova Scotia Offshore area was presented. Their total work bid was just over $188 million. In 1998, the Board's exploration activity included the review and approval for nine seismic programs. The Board also continues to monitor the extended Cohasset Benefits Plan to cover the scope of PanCanadian's Exploratory Drilling Program. This report included statements of financial position, revenue and expenditure, changes in financial position, and notes to the financial statements including accounting policies, accounts receivable, deferred revenue and commitments. The report also admitted uncertainty due to the year 2000 issue. It stated that it is not possible to be certain that all aspects of the year 2000 issue affecting the Board will be fully resolved. tabs., figs

  19. Measuring energy conservation on Nova Scotia (NS) farms: A 2004 to 2011 comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Duinker, P.; Amyotte, P.; Adams, M.; Khan, F.


    Many jurisdictions, including Nova Scotia (NS), have implemented policies and programs around energy. The NS government has targeted energy efficiency and more renewable energy as two main policy areas. The NS Department of Agriculture has taken initiative to provide support to implement energy conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energy opportunities in recent years but have these programs and policies been effective? A baseline energy use survey was conducted in 2005 and responses from mail surveys in 2012 (n = 273, 11.4% response rate) were used to measure the change in NS farm energy use data reported for 2004 and 2011. There have been significant reductions in energy use on NS farms. On average, NS farmers spent $8790 on energy expenses in 2011 compared to $11,228 in 2004. Adjusting for inflation, this is a 32% decrease, despite energy commodity pricing increases beyond the inflation rate. This is likely due to a decrease in energy use and a shift from gasoline use to diesel use. By the end of 2012, 36.0% of NS farmers (more than 860) had received some level of support to evaluate their energy options. This includes 410 energy audits compared to only 36 by the end of 2005. - Highlights: • Nova Scotia farmers decreased their energy costs by 32% between 2004 and 2011. • Energy reductions were likely due to decreased energy use and a shift in fuel use. • An estimated 374 NS farms had an energy audit between 2005 and 2012.

  20. A horseshoe crab receptor structurally related to Drosophila Toll. (United States)

    Inamori, K; Koori, K; Mishima, C; Muta, T; Kawabata, S


    Innate immunity against microbial pathogens relies on the pattern recognition of cell wall components on invading microbes. Recent evidence has shown that a mammalian Toll-like receptor (TLR) is activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The innate immunity in invertebrates is also triggered by LPS, as seen in the hemolymph coagulation in horseshoe crab. We report the cloning of a TLR from the Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus. A cDNA coding for Tachypleus Toll was isolated from a hemocyte cDNA library and the open reading frame codes for a proprotein including a signal sequence. Like Drosophila Toll, Tachypleus Toll is a type I transmembrane protein with an extracellular domain consisting of two leucine-rich repeats flanked by two cystein-rich clusters and a cytoplasmic domain exhibiting striking similarity with the cytoplasmic domain of interleukin-1 receptor. Tachypleus Toll is most similar to Drosophila Toll in the domain architecture and the overall length.

  1. Prototype of A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as vaccine on local duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani


    Full Text Available A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 virus subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as seed vaccine on local duck. AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine containing 256 HAU per dose was formulated using adjuvant ISA 71VG Montanide ™. Six groups of one day old local duck were used in this study. Three groups (10 ducks per group were vaccinated and 3 groups (9 duck per group were served control. Vaccination was conducted when the duck were three weeks old of age using single dose. Three weeks after vaccination when the duck were challenged either with HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2, or HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 virus at dose 106 EID50/ 0.1 ml by drops intranasaly. Result showed that vaccination produced 100% protection compared to unvaccinated ducks againt HPAI subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2, and 100% protection againt HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (A/ck/wj/Subang-29/2007 and A/ck/wj/Smi-Part/2006, while unvaccinated ducks showed virus shedding on day 3 post infection.

  2. A model of oceanic development by ridge jumping: Opening of the Scotia Sea (United States)

    Maldonado, Andrés; Bohoyo, Fernando; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Hernández-Molina, Fº. Javier; Lobo, Francisco J.; Lodolo, Emanuele; Martos, Yasmina M.; Pérez, Lara F.; Schreider, Anatoly A.; Somoza, Luis


    Ona Basin is a small intra-oceanic basin located in the southwestern corner of the Scotia Sea. This region is crucial for an understanding of the early phases of opening of Drake Passage, since it may contain the oldest oceanic crust of the entire western Scotia Sea, where conflicting age differences from Eocene to Oligocene have been proposed to date. The precise timing of the gateway opening between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, moreover, has significant paleoceanographic and global implications. Two sub-basins are identified in this region, the eastern and western Ona basins, separated by the submarine relief of the Ona High. A dense geophysical data set collected during the last two decades is analyzed here. The data include multichannel seismic reflection profiles, and magnetic and gravimetric data. The oceanic basement is highly deformed by normal, reverse and transcurrent faults, as well as affected by deep intrusions from the mantle. The initial extension and continental thinning, with subsequent oceanic spreading, were followed by compression and thrusting. Several elongated troughs, bounded by faults, depict a thick sequence of depositional units in the basin. Eight seismic units are identified in a deep trough of the eastern Ona Basin. The deposits reach a thickness of 5 km, a consistent value not previously reported from the Scotia Sea. A body of chaotic seismic facies is also observed above the thinned continental crust of the Ona High. Magnetic seafloor anomalies older than C10 (~ 28.5 Ma) may be present in the region. The anomalies could include up to chron C12r (~ 32 Ma), although their identification is difficult, since the amplitude is subdued and the original oceanic crust was highly deformed by later faulting and thrusting. The magnetic anomaly distribution is not congruent with seafloor spreading from a single ridge. The basin plain is tilted and subducted southwestward below the South Shetland Islands Block, particularly in the western part

  3. Modelling of traffic safety of traditional mainline toll plazas


    Abuzwidah Muamer; Abdel-Aty Mohamed


    Freeways and expressways are considered an important part of any successful transportation system. These facilities carry the majority of daily trips on the transportation network. Although expressways (Toll Roads) offer high level of service, and are considered the safest among other types of roads, traditional toll plazas may have both safety and operational challenges. The traditional toll facilities still experience many crashes, many of which are severe. Therefore, the main focus of this...

  4. Population ecology and harvest of the American black duck: a review (United States)

    Rusch, D.H.; Ankney, C.D.; Boyd, H.; Longcore, J.R.; Montalbano, F.; Ringelman, J.K.; Stotts, V.D.


    1. The purpose of our review was to examine available data on population trends and current status of black ducks and trends in natality and survival and to relate these, where possible, to changes in habitat, predation, disease, contaminants, harvest, and hybridization with mallards. 2. The number of black ducks tallied in the winter survey has declined steadily over the past 30 years at an average rate of about 3%/ year. Reliability and precision of the survey are uncertain; it may not provide an adequate index to the continental population of black ducks. Breeding surveys are incomplete and sporadic, but black ducks have decreased in Ontario and increased in the Maritime Provinces and Quebec. 3. Recent declines in numbers of black ducks tallied in the winter survey are not unusual in magnitude or much different from those that have occurred among several other species of waterfowl. 4. At present, black ducks are not especially scarce relative to numbers of several other ducks in eastern North America. 5. There is no solid evidence of major decreases in quality or quantity of breeding habitat for black ducks in recent years; in some areas, habitat has improved. 6. Natural mortality of black ducks has not been well studied, but does not seem unusually high compared to other dabbling ducks. 7. Harvest rates of black ducks are similar to those of sympatric mallards as determined by banding analyses. 8. There is no strong evidence for direct effects of contaminants on black ducks, but some indirect effects through invertebrate food resources have been detected. 9. Age ratios in black ducks show no trend in the past 18 years. 10. The quality and quantity of wintering habitat for black ducks have decreased substantially in some areas. 11. Disease and other natural mortality that affect black ducks do .not occur in unusually high frequency. 12. A decline in harvest of black ducks has occurred; most of the decline has been in the United States, especially since

  5. The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian influenza virus in post HPAI H5N1 outbreak area, Sunyani Municipality, Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Vitus Burimuah, W.K. Ampofo, B Awumbila, N Yebuah, B.O. Emikpe, W Tasiame, R.D. Folitse ...

  6. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class I gene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jun 17, 2017 ... The overallconservation of the 14 alleles could be observed within the sequences, and relative conservation were also displayed in the peptide-binding domain and CD8 interaction sites. Based on full-length amino acid homology, MHC class I fromdifferent duck lines could be divided into 13 gene groups ...

  7. Ducks as sentinels for avian influenza in wild birds. (United States)

    Globig, Anja; Baumer, Anette; Revilla-Fernández, Sandra; Beer, Martin; Wodak, Eveline; Fink, Maria; Greber, Norbert; Harder, Timm C; Wilking, Hendrik; Brunhart, Iris; Matthes, Doris; Kraatz, Ulf; Strunk, Peter; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Fereidouni, Sasan R; Staubach, Christoph; Conraths, Franz J; Griot, Chris; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Stärk, Katharina D C


    To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for AIV monitoring.

  8. Sublethal effects of chronic lead ingestion in mallard ducks (United States)

    Finley, M.T.; Dieter, M.P.; Locke, L.N.


    Mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos) fed 1, 5, or 25 ppm lead nitrate were bled and sacrificed at 3-wk intervals. No mortality occurred, and the pathologic lesions usually associated with lead poisoning were not found. Changes in hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration did not occur. After 3-wk ducks fed 25 ppm lead exhibited a 40% inhibition of blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity that persisted through 12 wk exposure. After 12 wk treatment similar enzyme inhibition was present in the ducks fed 5 ppm lead. At 3 wk there was a small accumulation of lead (less than 1 ppm) in the liver and kidneys of ducks fed 25ppm lead; no further increases occurred throughout the exposure. No significant accumulation of lead occurred the the tibiae or wing bones. Groups of ducks fed 5 and 25 ppm diets for 12 wk were placed on clean feed and examined through a 12 wk posttreatment period. After 3 wk on clean diet delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and lead concentrations in the blood had returned to pretreatment levels. Even though lead concentrations in the blood, soft organs and bone were low, a highly significant negative correlation between blood lead and blood enzyme activity was obtained. This enzyme bioassay should provide a sensitive and precise estimate for monitoring lead in the blood for waterflow.

  9. Redescription of the African duck leech Theromyzon cooperi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African duck leech Theromyzon cooperi, which is the only representative of the genus so far reported in Africa, is redescribed. Aspects of its internal morphology are described for the first time. The conspecificity of the two supposed species T. cooperi and T. lineatum is also indicated.

  10. Campylobacter jejuni in Duck Faeces around Drinking Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from 192 ducks feeding around 10 wells and 6 ponds in peri-urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2006 to March, 2007. The samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, followed by characterisation of positive samples. The overall ...

  11. mercury contamination in domestic ducks in geita, northwest tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Total mercury concentrations (THg) were determined in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhncha) tissues in Mgusu Village, Geita District NW Tanzania. Elevated mercury levels were found in all tissue samples and showed a trend of increasing mercury concentration with weight/age of the poultry. Highest total ...

  12. The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks. E.M. Smith, J Hattingh. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prange & Schmidt-Nielsen 1970). Bathing and preening activity presumably has an energy cost between that of resting and swimming and was arbitrarily given a value 2 x BMR. Similarly, there are no actual data on caloric cost of diving in ducks ...

  14. Duck Tembusu virus exhibits neurovirulence in BALB/c mice. (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Lijiao; Wang, Yongyue; Yu, Xiuling; Tian, Kegong; Su, Wenliang; Han, Bo; Su, Jingliang


    Duck Tembusu virus is a member of the Ntaya group in the genus Flavivirus. The virus has been responsible for severe duck egg-drop syndrome in China since 2010. Its emergence and rapid spread have caused great economic loss for the poultry industry. The epidemiology of the virus infection and the potential threat to public health is of great concern because of the infective and zoonotic nature of flaviviruses. In this study, the pathogenicity of duck Tembusu virus in BALB/c mice was investigated. Infected mice developed clinical signs, including loss of appetite, ruffled hair, weight loss, disorientation, blindness and paralysis of hind limbs from six days post- infection following intracerebral inoculation. Morbidity was 100%, with mortality ranging from 20 to 80% in three- to eight-week-old mice. High virus titers were recovered from the brain, and the virus was distributed in several organs. Histologically, there was widespread non-suppurative encephalitis in the brain. Lymphocyte depletion in the spleen was observed, along with fatty degeneration in the liver and kidney. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that duck Tembusu virus is highly neurovirulent in BALB/c mice. The mouse model used in this work was able to produce Tembusu virus infection and could be useful for elucidating some of the aspects of the pathophysiology of other flavivirus infections.

  15. Hatchability and fertility of indigenous chicken and duck eggs, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flocks under study are located in the suburbs of Nairobi province and Machakos district. They belonged to smallholder farmers. Twenty seven clutches of eggs given to indigenous chickens to seat on, and 10 clutches of eggs given to ducks to seat on were investigated for six months. The number of eggs in each clutch ...

  16. Genetic Divergence in Ducks for Economic Traits | Kalita | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D2 Statistics was used to identify the genetic divergence in 4 groups of duck, namely Khaki Campbell (KC), Desi (D), Khaki Campbell x Desi (KC x D) and Desi x Khaki Campbell (D x KC) reared under rural conditions at the Siphajar, Darrang District, Assam, India. The study showed that both Khaki Campbell and Desi or ...

  17. Propagation pattern of Machaerium Lunatum (Linn F) ducke in five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Propagation pattern of Machaerium Lunatum (Linn F) ducke in five different soil types. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... A study of the possibility of the propagation of this plant outside its natural aquatic environment, what part of the stem will grow and what soil type will be most suitable for it ...

  18. Karyotype analysis in Machaerium lunatum (Linn. f.) Ducke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 11, 2017 ... Ducke (syn. Drepanocarpus lunatus (Linn. f.) G.F.W. Mey) belongs to the family Fabaceae-Papilionaceae. (Hutchinson and Dalziel 1954). It has about 130 species distributed from Mexico to Argentina which are difficult to delimit taxonomically (Rudd 1987) and 150 species distributed from Mexico to South.

  19. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in duck faeces around drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faeces from one hundred and ninety-two ducks feeding around ten wells and six ponds in peri urban areas of Makurdi town, North-Central Nigeria were randomly sampled during the dry season period of October, 2004 to March, 2005. In total, one hundred and ninety-two samples were cultured for Campylobacter jejuni, ...

  20. Modelling the energy budget and prey choice of eider ducks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, A.G.; Ens, B.J.; Kats, R.K.H.


    We developed an energy and heat budget model for eider ducks. All relevant processes have been quantified. Food processing, diving costs, prey heating, the costs of crushing mussel shells, heat losses during diving as well as during resting, and heat production as a result of muscle activity are

  1. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC classⅠ gene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    server (calculating Wu-Kabat index, were used. The 3D structure of the ... during their evolution. Substitutions with high Wu-Kabat index in the two duck lines were also observed as ... This study was cosupported by the Shandong Academy of Agricultural Science Funds for Young. Scholar ...

  2. Characteristics of the auto users and non-users of central Texas toll roads. (United States)


    As toll road usage increases to finance new road infrastructure or add capacity to existing road infrastructure, the : question of who does and does not use toll roads becomes increasingly important to toll road developers, financiers, : Traffic and ...

  3. DMPD: Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17959357 Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. Papadimitraki Show Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. PubmedID 17959357 Title Toll like receptors and auto

  4. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Meat-type Ducks Raised under Same Feeding and Rearing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kwon


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45 and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45 were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (p<0.05. Carcass weight was not different between two genetically different ducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of commercial meat-type ducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (p<0.05 than the corresponding part from commercial meat-type ducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck.

  5. Wetland dynamics influence mid-continent duck recruitment (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Szymankski, Michael L.


    Recruitment is a key factor influencing duck population dynamics. Understanding what regulates recruitment of ducks is a prerequisite to informed habitat and harvest management. Quantity of May ponds (MP) has been linked to recruitment and population size (Kaminski and Gluesing 1987, Raveling and Heitmeyer 1989). However, wetland productivity (quality) is driven by inter-annual hydrological fluctuations. Periodic drying of wetlands due to wet-dry climate cycles releases nutrients and increases invertebrate populations when wet conditions return (Euliss et al. 1999). Wetlands may also become wet or dry within a breeding season. Accordingly, inter-annual and intra-seasonal hydrologic variation potentially influence duck recruitment. Here, we examined influences of wetland quantity, quality, and intra-seasonal dynamics on recruitment of ducks. We indexed duck recruitment by vulnerability-corrected age ratios (juveniles/adult females) for mid-continent Gadwall (Anas strepera). We chose Gadwall because the majority of the continental population breeds in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), where annual estimates of MP exist since 1974. We indexed wetland quality by calculating change in MP (?MP) over the past two years (?MP = 0.6[MPt – MPt-1] + 0.4[MPt – MPt-2]). We indexed intra-seasonal change in number of ponds by dividing the PPR mean standardized precipitation index for July by MP (hereafter summer index). MP and ?MP were positively correlated (r = 0.65); therefore, we calculated residual ?MP (?MPr) with a simple linear regression using MP, creating orthogonal variables. Finally, we conducted a multiple regression to examine how MP, ?MPr, and summer index explained variation in recruitment of Gadwall from 1976–2010. Our model explained 67% of the variation in mid-continent Gadwall recruitment and all three hydrologic indices were positively correlated with recruitment (Figure 1). Type II semi-partial R2 estimates indicated that MP accounted for 41%, ?MPr

  6. Indirect risk effects reduce feeding efficiency of ducks during spring. (United States)

    Behney, Adam C; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan; Eichholz, Michael W; Stafford, Joshua D


    Indirect risk effects of predators on prey behavior can have more of an impact on prey populations than direct consumptive effects. Predation risk can elicit more vigilance behavior in prey, reducing the amount of time available for other activities, such as foraging, which could potentially reduce foraging efficiency. Understanding the conditions associated with predation risk and the specific effects predation risk have on prey behavior is important because it has direct influences on the profitability of food items found under various conditions and states of the forager. The goals of this study were to assess how ducks perceived predation risk in various habitat types and how strongly perceived risk versus energetic demand affected foraging behavior. We manipulated food abundance in different wetland types in Illinois, USA to reduce confounding between food abundance and vegetation structure. We conducted focal-animal behavioral samples on five duck species in treatment and control plots and used generalized linear mixed-effects models to compare the effects of vegetation structure versus other factors on the intensity with which ducks fed and the duration of feeding stints. Mallards fed more intensively and, along with blue-winged teal, used longer feeding stints in open habitats, consistent with the hypothesis that limited visibility was perceived to have a greater predation risk than unlimited visibility. The species temporally nearest to nesting, wood ducks, were willing to take more risks for a greater food reward, consistent with an increase in a marginal value of energy as they approached nesting. Our results indicate that some duck species value energy differently based on the surrounding vegetation structure and density. Furthermore, increases in the marginal value of energy can be more influential than perceived risk in shaping foraging behavior patterns. Based on these findings, we conclude that the value of various food items is not solely

  7. Toll-like receptors in neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor


    with neurodegeneration. Accompanying roles for infection and inflammation, involvement in clinical neurodegenerative disorders, and heterogeneity of glial response are discussed. A "strength of signal" hypothesis is advanced in an attempt to reconcile evolutionarily selected and therefore likely beneficial effects......Innate pattern recognition receptors are implicated in first-line defense against pathogens but also participate in maintenance of tissue homeostasis and response to injury. This chapter reviews the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in neuronal and glial responses that are associated...

  8. Mesozooplankton community structure and variability in the Scotia Sea: A seasonal comparison (United States)

    Ward, Peter; Atkinson, Angus; Tarling, Geraint


    Mesozooplankton distribution and community structure was investigated during 3 cruises to the Scotia Sea in austral spring, summer and autumn. Three mesh sizes of Bongo nets were used during each cruise with a 53 μm mesh net yielding on average 1.76 times higher densities (median 923,000 ind. m -2, 0-400 m) than a 100 μm net and 7.42 times more than a 200 μm net across all cruises. Small copepods dominated numerically across all nets with Oithona spp., Oncaea spp., Ctenocalanus citer and Microcalanus pygmaeus being particularly abundant, with sample densities of up to 3.5×10 6 ind. m -2 recorded within the top 400 m. A more even distribution of biomass among net sizes was apparent, with median net ratios (1.15-1.25) smaller and more even than for abundance. To the south of the Scotia Sea plankton maxima occurred in autumn, consistent with a later spawning in many species, whereas further north, abundance in 53 and 100 μm nets varied little across seasons, although in the 200 μm net there was a clear summer maximum. Median biomass increased through summer and by autumn was twice than found during spring in all parts of the Scotia Sea. Cluster analysis indicated two main station groups in all 3 seasons. To the south of the Southern boundary of the ACC (SB-ACC), Group 1 contained stations, that lay within the seasonal sea-ice zone and where zooplankton abundance and biomass was persistently low. In contrast at Group 2 stations, north of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF) abundance and biomass was consistently higher. Differences between the two groups were largely apparent at the population rather than at the taxonomic level. LHPR hauls to 1000 m indicated that the large seasonal migrant copepods Calanoides acutus and Rhincalanus gigas were at a more advanced stage of development in the north in spring and summer where they were generally present in the upper water column. In autumn, at all stations, C. acutus was dominated by later stages

  9. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Henning

    Full Text Available Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised.

  10. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian


    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  11. Sexual dimorphism and identification of single nucleotide polymorphism of growth hormone gene in muscovy duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ismoyowati


    Full Text Available This research was aimed to investigate the different growth and to identify growth hormone gene polymorphism in Muscovy ducks. Two hundred Muscovy day-old ducks consisting of white-plumed male and female duck, black and white-plumed male and female ducks. Body weight was recorded weekly and the obtained data were subject to T test. Primer design used the Custal X Program based on a database from the GeneBank Cairina moschata GH gene, partial cds (AB158762. Primer base sequence of GH gene was forward/Sequence: 5’-CTGGGGTTGTTTAGCTTGGA-3’ and reverse/Sequence: 5’-TAAACCTTCCCTGGCACAAC-3’. The DNA sequences were aligned by using the BioEdit version 7.7 for identification of the single nucleotide polymorphism. The result showed that male Muscovy duck produced higher an average body weight gain and more relative growth than those of females. The highest body weight gain was at three weeks old, and then it started to decrease at four weeks old. The sequencing PCR product obtained nucleotide polymorphism. AA genotype was observed at 136 t of black female Muscovy duck, CC in black and white male Muscovy duck, and white female Muscovy duck. Conclusively, a body weight gain of 3-week-old male Muscovy ducks was higher than that of females and GH gene polymorphism was observed in Muscovy ducks.

  12. Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food: roast duck. (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Xie, Fan; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yuqiang; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying


    Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food whose flavor is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process and are a potential health risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of a Chinese traditional food: roast duck. Ducks with different roasting times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40 and 50 min roast ducks exhibited an acceptable degree of sensory attributes, but the 60 min roast duck showed the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed to increase with roasting, and the 60 min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenylpicryhydrazyl, 39.3 µmol Trolox g(-1) sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g(-1)) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.089 µg g(-1)) were detected in the 50 and 60 min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60 min roast ducks manifested a higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be advantageous for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial to health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: A disease connection (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H.


    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  14. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  15. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens


    lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  16. Toll-like receptors in brain development and homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter H; Holm, Thomas Hellesøe; Owens, Trevor


    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are best known as initiators of the innate immune response to pathogens. Recent reports now reveal intriguing roles for TLRs in the central nervous system (CNS). These include the regulation of neuroinflammation and of neurite outgrowth. The archetypal Toll protein in D...

  17. 47 CFR 51.209 - Toll dialing parity. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Toll dialing parity. 51.209 Section 51.209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION... customer to presubscribe, at a minimum, to one telecommunications carrier for all interLATA toll calls and...

  18. Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) perspective: Harlequin duck population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Progress, process, and constraints (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Holland-Bartels, Leslie E.


    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) populations during 1995-1998. We evaluated potential constraints to full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil, (2) food limitation, and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 years after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998, (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995-1998, (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995-1997, and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery also will be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to both initial

  19. Plastic ingestion by fulmars and shearwaters at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada. (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Provencher, Jennifer F; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Lucas, Zoe N


    Plastic pollution is widespread in the marine environment, and plastic ingestion by seabirds is now widely reported for dozens of species. Beached Northern Fulmars, Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters and Cory's Shearwaters are found on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada regularly, and they can be used to assess plastic pollution. All species except Cory's Shearwaters contained plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts. Northern Fulmars, Sooty Shearwaters and Great Shearwaters all showed high prevalence of plastic ingestion (>72%), with Northern Fulmars having the highest number and mass of plastics among the species examined. There was no difference in plastic ingestion between sexes or age classes. In all species user plastics made up the majority of the pieces found, with industrial pellets representing only a small proportion in the samples. Sable Island could be an important monitoring site for plastic pollution in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Remote assessment of instantaneous changes in water chemistry after liming in a Nova Scotia catchment (United States)

    Angelidis, Christine


    Remote assessment of instantaneous changes in water chemistry after liming in a Nova Scotia catchment ANGELIDIS, C.1, STERLING, S.1, BREEN, A.2, BIAGI, K.1., and CLAIR, T.A.1 1Dalhousie University,, 2Bluenose Coastal Action Foundation, Southwestern Nova Scotia has some of the most acidic freshwaters in North America due to its location downwind of the major emission sources in eastern Canada and the US and due to a resistant geology which offers little acid buffering capacity (Clair et al. 2007). Because of the poor buffering and regionally high runoff values, hydrological events such as snowmelt and rain storms are frequent and can cause sudden changes in water chemistry which can have devastating effects on freshwater biota due to increases in acidity and metals (Dennis and Clair in press). Clair et al. (2001) have estimated the potential frequency of acidic episodes in this region based on a number of hydrological factors, though the technology available at the time to monitor short-term changes was not dependable. Recent advances in equipment have made the assessment of the frequency and severity of acidic episodes easier and more accurate, allowing better interpretation and prediction of hydrogeochemical changes with variations in weather and deposition patterns. Here we take advantage of these recent advances to monitor water chemistry in an experimental catchment, and explore the response to catchment liming. Catchment liming is one way of mitigating the effects of acid deposition in sensitive areas. We limed a 50 ha catchment at a rate of 5 t/ha in the Gold River watershed of southwest Nova Scotia to examine the interactions between application of lime with the geological and climatological conditions of this region and acid episode frequency. In order to assess changes of episode frequency caused by liming, we established two mobile environmental monitoring platforms in the catchment: a control site

  1. Knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle restraint use in Nova Scotia: phase II. (United States)

    Yanchar, Natalie L; Young, Julian B; Langille, Donald B


    To examine changes to knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle restraint (CMVR) use in Nova Scotia after the implementation of stricter car seat and new booster seat (BS) legislation in 2007. A random telephone survey of households (at least one child 3.0-68) and 43(17-114), respectively). With regards to rear-facing car seats (RFCSs), new legislation and associated social marketing on graduating from a rear-facing car seat was not associated with increases in correct practice. Legislation, combined with social marketing at the time of introduction, is an effective means to educate parents on when to graduate from a FFCS and the importance of BSs while also influencing parents to use them, though not for RFCS graduation. The known protective effect of BSs dictates the need for all regions in Canada to adopt comprehensive BS legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Detecting overpressure using the Eaton and Equivalent Depth methods in Offshore Nova Scotia, Canada (United States)

    Ernanda; Primasty, A. Q. T.; Akbar, K. A.


    Overpressure is an abnormal high subsurface pressure of any fluids which exceeds the hydrostatic pressure of column of water or formation brine. In Offshore Nova Scotia Canada, the values and depth of overpressure zone are determined using the eaton and equivalent depth method, based on well data and the normal compaction trend analysis. Since equivalent depth method is using effective vertical stress principle and Eaton method considers physical property ratio (velocity). In this research, pressure evaluation only applicable on Penobscot L-30 well. An abnormal pressure is detected at depth 11804 feet as possibly overpressure zone, based on pressure gradient curve and calculation between the Eaton method (7241.3 psi) and Equivalent Depth method (6619.4 psi). Shales within Abenaki formation especially Baccaro Member is estimated as possible overpressure zone due to hydrocarbon generation mechanism.

  3. Physical Activity Perceptions and Influences among Older Adults in Rural Nova Scotia. (United States)

    Witcher, Chad S G; Holt, Nicholas L; Young, Wendy; Blanchard, Chris; Murnaghan, Donna; Spence, John C


    This study identified factors that influenced physical activity (PA) participation among older adults from rural settings in Nova Scotia Canada and explored how the rural context may influence PA participation and promotion. Data were collected via individual semistructured interviews with 20 older adults (Mage = 77.5 years) from rural areas of Cape Breton and subjected to thematic analysis procedures (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Four themes representing factors that influence the prioritization of PA were identified: (1) historical context of activity, work, and productivity; (2) already busy with day-to-day activities; (3) being/staying on the go; and (4) cautionary approach. These findings suggest that PA promotion should be contextually salient, and highlight the need for a shared understanding between rural older adults and PA promoters regarding what constitutes being "physically active". Effective promotion of PA among rural older adults may require a shift away from contemporary methods of PA promotion.

  4. Microplastic fibers in the intertidal ecosystem surrounding Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia. (United States)

    Mathalon, Alysse; Hill, Paul


    Humans continue to increase the use and disposal of plastics by producing over 240 million tonnes per year, polluting the oceans with persistent waste. The majority of plastic in the oceans are microplastics (microplastic fibers was quantified in sediments from the intertidal zones of one exposed beach and two protected beaches along Nova Scotia's Eastern Shore. From the two protected beaches, polychaete worm fecal casts and live blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were analyzed for microplastic content. Store-bought mussels from an aquaculture site were also analyzed. The average microplastic abundance observed from 10 g sediment subsamples was between 20 and 80 fibers, with higher concentrations at the high tide line from the exposed beach and at the low tide line from the protected beaches. Microplastic concentrations from polychaete fecal casts resembled concentrations quantified from low tide sediments. In two separate mussel analyses, significantly more microplastics were enumerated in farmed mussels compared to wild ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impacts of rising sea temperature on krill increase risks for predators in the Scotia Sea. (United States)

    Klein, Emily S; Hill, Simeon L; Hinke, Jefferson T; Phillips, Tony; Watters, George M


    Climate change is a threat to marine ecosystems and the services they provide, and reducing fishing pressure is one option for mitigating the overall consequences for marine biota. We used a minimally realistic ecosystem model to examine how projected effects of ocean warming on the growth of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, might affect populations of krill and dependent predators (whales, penguins, seals, and fish) in the Scotia Sea. We also investigated the potential to mitigate depletion risk for predators by curtailing krill fishing at different points in the 21st century. The projected effects of ocean warming on krill biomass were strongest in the northern Scotia Sea, with a ≥40% decline in the mass of individual krill. Projections also suggest a 25% chance that krill biomass will fall below an established depletion threshold (75% of its unimpacted level), with consequent risks for some predator populations, especially penguins. Average penguin abundance declined by up to 30% of its unimpacted level, with up to a 50% chance of falling below the depletion threshold. Simulated krill fishing at currently permitted harvest rates further increased risks for depletion, and stopping fishing offset the increased risks associated with ocean warming in our model to some extent. These results varied by location and species group. Risk reductions at smaller spatial scales also differed from those at the regional level, which suggests that some predator populations may be more vulnerable than others to future changes in krill biomass. However, impacts on predators did not always map directly to those for krill. Our findings indicate the importance of identifying vulnerable marine populations and targeting protection measures at appropriate spatial scales, and the potential for spatially-structured management to avoid aggravating risks associated with rising ocean temperatures. This may help balance tradeoffs among marine ecosystem services in an uncertain future.

  6. Impacts of rising sea temperature on krill increase risks for predators in the Scotia Sea (United States)

    Hill, Simeon L.; Hinke, Jefferson T.; Phillips, Tony; Watters, George M.


    Climate change is a threat to marine ecosystems and the services they provide, and reducing fishing pressure is one option for mitigating the overall consequences for marine biota. We used a minimally realistic ecosystem model to examine how projected effects of ocean warming on the growth of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, might affect populations of krill and dependent predators (whales, penguins, seals, and fish) in the Scotia Sea. We also investigated the potential to mitigate depletion risk for predators by curtailing krill fishing at different points in the 21st century. The projected effects of ocean warming on krill biomass were strongest in the northern Scotia Sea, with a ≥40% decline in the mass of individual krill. Projections also suggest a 25% chance that krill biomass will fall below an established depletion threshold (75% of its unimpacted level), with consequent risks for some predator populations, especially penguins. Average penguin abundance declined by up to 30% of its unimpacted level, with up to a 50% chance of falling below the depletion threshold. Simulated krill fishing at currently permitted harvest rates further increased risks for depletion, and stopping fishing offset the increased risks associated with ocean warming in our model to some extent. These results varied by location and species group. Risk reductions at smaller spatial scales also differed from those at the regional level, which suggests that some predator populations may be more vulnerable than others to future changes in krill biomass. However, impacts on predators did not always map directly to those for krill. Our findings indicate the importance of identifying vulnerable marine populations and targeting protection measures at appropriate spatial scales, and the potential for spatially-structured management to avoid aggravating risks associated with rising ocean temperatures. This may help balance tradeoffs among marine ecosystem services in an uncertain future

  7. Quick release stoplog design for the Nova Scotia Power Harmony Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, R. [Hatch Energy, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Snyder, G. [Hatch Energy, Fredericton, NB (Canada); McEwen, D. [Hatch Energy, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada); Locke, E. [Nova Scotia Power, Halifax, NS (Canada)


    In 2003 Nova Scotia Power conducted a dam safety evaluation for the Harmony Hydro System on the Medway River. Flood control at the main dam was performed using crest boards on the overflow section and stoplogs in the sluiceway bays. This process was time consuming, labour intensive and possibly dangerous. A flood analysis had demonstrated that the spillway could not handle the design flood with adequate freeboard, even assuming that all crest boards and stoplogs could be removed. The flood handling capacity of the dam was therefore redesigned, so that infrequent flood events could be passed without any user intervention and larger floods could be passed with the use of quick-release stoplogs. In 2006 and 2007, six bays of quick-release stoplogs, a sluice gate and upgraded overflow spillway were installed. The quick-release stoplogs featured a novel release mechanism consisting of a roller and lever arm, which significantly reduced the effort to release the stoplogs when compared with a typical pull-pin release mechanism. This paper described the novel quick-release mechanism that utilized a lever and roller instead of a pull-pin. The paper discussed the successful design, installation and testing of the quick-release mechanism at the main sluiceway on the Harmony Main Dam in Nova Scotia. The paper described the facility and discussed engineering work that was performed by Hatch Energy between 2003 and 2006. The disadvantages of quick-release stoplogs were also identified. Other topics that were discussed included fabrication and installation as well as commissioning and operation. It was concluded that quick-release stoplog spillways could be cost-effective and efficient elements for flood handling. A difficult design component of traditional quick-release designs has been the pull-pin which releases the central column. Under load conditions, the pull pin can jam and prevent release of the stoplogs. 9 figs.

  8. Nova Scotia offshore to Grand Banks connection : Mesozoic basins on a transform margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, L.E.; Martin, M.R.; Enachescu, M.E.; Atkinson, I.; Stead, J.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences and Pan-Atlantic Petroleum Systems Consortium


    The renewed interest in the southern Grand Banks has resulted in new active exploration licenses, seismic acquisition programs and planned drilling in the South Whale and Laurentian basins. The basins are located northeast of the Scotian margin, about 200 km south of the east coast of Newfoundland, in shallow to intermediate waters in an area free of icebergs. The Scotian and Newfoundland offshore areas are separated by the St. Lawrence Tertiary channel. A provincial boundary divides the jurisdiction over sea resources. The long political moratorium which had been imposed on the Laurentian Basin was resolved during the summer of 2003 with the establishment of the provincial boundary. Some regional geological maps of the East Coast Mesozoic sedimentary area indicate continuity between the Orpheus Graben and northern Scotian Shelf and Slope basins (Nova Scotia) and Laurentian and South Whale basins (Newfoundland). In contrast, other maps represents them as being separated by faults or ridges that affect the basin development and complicate the tectono-structural framework initiated in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic periods. Argo salt features found in seismic sections on both sides of the provincial boundary indicate that Atlantic Canada basins were interconnected during the marine phase of the Thethys rifting stage, most likely up to the time of Scotian Shelf break-up. During the Late Jurassic, marine, oil prone source rocks were deposited in the Grand Banks basins and terrestrial to marine, gas prone source rocks were deposited offshore Nova Scotia. Modern industry 2D data donated by GSI and WesternGeco were used to examine the structural and stratigraphic framework of the basins. Common geological and geomorphologic features were emphasized along with the disparity between the structural element, stratigraphy and quality of petroleum systems of the two basins.

  9. Impacts of rising sea temperature on krill increase risks for predators in the Scotia Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Klein

    Full Text Available Climate change is a threat to marine ecosystems and the services they provide, and reducing fishing pressure is one option for mitigating the overall consequences for marine biota. We used a minimally realistic ecosystem model to examine how projected effects of ocean warming on the growth of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, might affect populations of krill and dependent predators (whales, penguins, seals, and fish in the Scotia Sea. We also investigated the potential to mitigate depletion risk for predators by curtailing krill fishing at different points in the 21st century. The projected effects of ocean warming on krill biomass were strongest in the northern Scotia Sea, with a ≥40% decline in the mass of individual krill. Projections also suggest a 25% chance that krill biomass will fall below an established depletion threshold (75% of its unimpacted level, with consequent risks for some predator populations, especially penguins. Average penguin abundance declined by up to 30% of its unimpacted level, with up to a 50% chance of falling below the depletion threshold. Simulated krill fishing at currently permitted harvest rates further increased risks for depletion, and stopping fishing offset the increased risks associated with ocean warming in our model to some extent. These results varied by location and species group. Risk reductions at smaller spatial scales also differed from those at the regional level, which suggests that some predator populations may be more vulnerable than others to future changes in krill biomass. However, impacts on predators did not always map directly to those for krill. Our findings indicate the importance of identifying vulnerable marine populations and targeting protection measures at appropriate spatial scales, and the potential for spatially-structured management to avoid aggravating risks associated with rising ocean temperatures. This may help balance tradeoffs among marine ecosystem services in an

  10. The Life of the Space: Evidence from Nova Scotia Public Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine May


    Full Text Available Objectives – To describe aspects of the 21st century role of the public library as a physical space by observing the actual use of a selection of public libraries. This study seeks to reveal how patrons are using and experiencing these institutions as spaces and how patrons and staff characterize the role of public libraries in communities.Methods – A multiple case study design was used to examine three urban and three small town public libraries within Nova Scotia, Canada. A triangulated set of methods including patron interviews and questionnaires, staff interviews, and seating sweeps was used to develop answers to the research questions.Results – These public libraries are functioning as successful public places in that they are community spaces used in a multitude of ways and where patrons feel welcome. These libraries play important roles in the lives of respondents and, while respondents were willing to give critical feedback, they generally described the spaces positively. Patron use and experience of these library spaces can be broken into three themes that describe the roles of public libraries in communities. These include the role of provider of books and information, provider of access to technology and provider of a social space where members of the public are welcome.Conclusions – Patron experiences in Nova Scotia public libraries show that libraries are vibrant places that are highly valued by their communities. A number of common themes about the use and perception of these spaces emerged, yet when examined individually each library was also revealed to be a unique place, reflecting the particular qualities of the community and the physical space of the library building itself. It is clear that public libraries are complex institutions which play a variety of valuable roles in the community.

  11. Broad band seismology in the Scotia region. The base Esperanza seismological observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russi, M.; Costa, G.; Febrer, J.


    The lithospheric study and the identification of relevant lateral heterogeneities in the Antarctic continent and borderlands, is essential to understand the geodynamic evolution both of the continental and oceanic bordering regions. The complexity of the geological evolution and the structural properties of the lithosphere in the Scotia area have been stressed by many authors. The present setting of the area is the result of the mutual interaction among the Antarctic, South American and several minor plants whose geodynamic history and actual boundaries are still partially unknown. The intense seismic activity that characterizes the region encourages the use of the seismological approach to investigate the lithospheric structure of the area. Since January 1992 a broad band three components station is operating at the Antarctic base Esperanza in the NE area of Antarctic Peninsula. The station has been installed with financial support of the Italian Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide (PNRA) by Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS) and Instituto Antartico Argentino (IAA). Russi et al. (1994) have analyzed selected recordings using the frequency-time analysis (FTAN) method obtaining some relevant information on the large scale structure of the lithosphere in the Scotia region even if data recorded by a single station were available. The extension of our analysis to further events and to horizontal component records is here presented. Within the framework of the international co-operation to the Antarctic Seismographic Network, the OGS and the IAA are upgrading the Esperanza station and installing an additional broad band station near the town of Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) with the financial support of PNRA. The inversion of the dispersion curves through the FTAN of the signals recorded by an increased number of stations and generated by events with source-station paths spanning the region will allow us to extract the elastic and anelastic

  12. Can households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia afford a nutritious diet? (United States)

    Williams, Patricia L; Johnson, Christine P; Kratzmann, Meredith L V; Johnson, C Shanthi Jacob; Anderson, Barbara J; Chenhall, Cathy


    To assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia. Food costing data were collected in 43 randomly selected grocery stores throughout NS in 2002 using the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB). To estimate the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage, average monthly costs for essential expenses were subtracted from overall income to see if enough money remained for the cost of the NNFB. This was calculated for three types of household: 1) two parents and two children; 2) lone parent and two children; and 3) single male. Calculations were also made for the proposed 2006 minimum wage increase with expenses adjusted using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The monthly cost of the NNFB priced in 2002 for the three types of household was 572.90 dollars, 351.68 dollars, and 198.73 dollars, respectively. Put into the context of basic living, these data showed that Nova Scotians relying on minimum wage could not afford to purchase a nutritious diet and meet their basic needs, placing their health at risk. These basic expenses do not include other routine costs, such as personal hygiene products, household and laundry cleaners, and prescriptions and costs associated with physical activity, education or savings for unexpected expenses. People working at minimum wage in Nova Scotia have not had adequate income to meet basic needs, including a nutritious diet. The 2006 increase in minimum wage to 7.15 dollars/hr is inadequate to ensure that Nova Scotians working at minimum wage are able to meet these basic needs. Wage increases and supplements, along with supports for expenses such as childcare and transportation, are indicated to address this public health problem.

  13. miR-958 inhibits Toll signaling and Drosomycin expression via direct targeting of Toll and Dif in Drosophila melanogaster. (United States)

    Li, Shengjie; Li, Yao; Shen, Li; Jin, Ping; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei


    Drosophila melanogaster is widely used as a model system to study innate immunity and signaling pathways related to innate immunity, including the Toll signaling pathway. Although this pathway is well studied, the precise mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation of key components of the Toll signaling pathway by microRNAs (miRNAs) remain obscure. In this study, we used an in silico strategy in combination with the Gal80 ts -Gal4 driver system to identify microRNA-958 (miR-958) as a candidate Toll pathway regulating miRNA in Drosophila We report that overexpression of miR-958 significantly reduces the expression of Drosomycin, a key antimicrobial peptide involved in Toll signaling and the innate immune response. We further demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that miR-958 targets the Toll and Dif genes, key components of the Toll signaling pathway, to negatively regulate Drosomycin expression. In addition, a miR-958 sponge rescued the expression of Toll and Dif, resulting in increased expression of Drosomycin. These results, not only revealed a novel function and modulation pattern of miR-958, but also provided a new insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms of Toll signaling in regulation of innate immunity. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Toll-like receptor 2 or toll-like receptor 4 deficiency does not modify lupus in MRLlpr mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Freeley

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease with a high morbidity and nephritis is a common manifestation. Previous studies in murine lupus models have suggest a role for Toll-like receptor 2 and 4. We examined the role of these molecules in MRL lpr mice which is one of the most established and robust murine models. We compared disease parameters in Toll-like receptor 2 or Toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice with their littermate controls. We found no difference in the severity of glomerulonephritis as assessed by histology, serum creatinine and albuminuria when Toll-like receptor 2 or Toll-like receptor 4 deficient MRLlpr mice were compared with Toll-like receptor sufficient controls. We also found similar levels of anti-dsDNA and anti-ssDNA antibodies. These results show that Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 do not play a significant role in MRLlpr mice, and therefore they may not be important in human lupus.

  15. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.


    were mostly used in Netrokona but in Sundargonj, farmers mostly raise exotic ducks. The farmers of Sundargonj area increased the amount of feed with the increase of age of their ducks, but the farmers of Netrokona decreased the amount of feed. The mortality rate in Netrokona was 27.1% but in Sundargonj...... it was only 2.12%. The percentage of egg production in Sundargonj was 68.8 and in Netrokona 47.9. The differences in mortality and egg production between the two areas were significant. The total annual expenditure and annual income per duck/year were significantly higher in Sundargonj (Tk.221 and 393) than......The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...

  16. Desalted duck egg white peptides promote calcium uptake by counteracting the adverse effects of phytic acid. (United States)

    Hou, Tao; Liu, Weiwei; Shi, Wen; Ma, Zhili; He, Hui


    The structure of the desalted duck egg white peptides-calcium chelate was characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Characterization results showed structural folding and aggregation of amino acids or oligopeptides during the chelation process. Desalted duck egg white peptides enhanced the calcium uptake in the presence of oxalate, phosphate and zinc ions in Caco-2 monolayers. Animal model indicated that desalted duck egg white peptides effectively enhanced the mineral absorption and counteracted the deleterious effects of phytic acid. These findings suggested that desalted duck egg white peptides might promote calcium uptake in three pathways: 1) desalted duck egg white peptides bind with calcium to form soluble chelate and avoid precipitate; 2) the chelate is absorbed as small peptides by enterocyte; and 3) desalted duck egg white peptides regulate the proliferation and differentiation of enterocytes through the interaction with transient receptor potential vanilloid 6 calcium channel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected in the Scotia Sea from 04 August 1997 to 05 September 1997 (NODC Accession 0000753) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using bottle and CTD casts in the Weddell and Scotia Sea from NATHANIEL B. PALMER. Data were collected from 04...

  18. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes in ducks: a review. (United States)

    Adzitey, Frederick; Huda, Nurul; Ali, Gulam Rusul Rahmat


    Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes are important bacterial pathogens associated with gastroenteritis. The consumption of poultry meat and their products is considered as a major and leading source of human infection. While surveys of chicken meat and products, and its association with foodborne pathogens are widely available, such information on ducks is scarce. This survey examines the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes isolated from ducks. Data obtained from key surveys are summarized. The observed prevalence of these pathogens and their resistance to various antibiotics varies from one study to the other. The mean prevalence (and range means from individual surveys) are duck 53.0% (0.0-83.3%), duck meat and parts 31.6% (12.5-45.8%), and duck rearing and processing environment 94.4% (92.0-96.7%) for Campylobacter spp. For Salmonella spp., the mean prevalence data are duck 19.9% (3.3-56.9%), duck meat and parts 28.4% (4.4-75.6%), duck egg, shell, and content 17.5% (0-4.17%), and duck rearing and processing environment 32.5% (10.5-82.6%). Studies on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of L. monocytogenes in ducks are by far very rare compared to Campylobacter and Salmonella, although ducks have been noted to be a potential source for these foodborne pathogens. From our survey, ducks were more frequently contaminated with Campylobacter than Salmonella. Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. also exhibited varying resistance to multiple antibiotics.

  19. Effect of Desalination on Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Duck (Anas plotyrhyncus) Egg Whites


    Mhamadi Mmadi; Tidjani Amza; YuChuan Wang; Min Zhang


    Desalted Duck Egg Whites (DDEW) was prepared by electrodialysis desalination using Salted Duck Egg Whites (SDEW). DDEW and SDEW (used as control) were subjected to freeze drying process. Freeze Dried Desalted and Salted Duck Egg Whites (FDDEW and FSDEW, respectively) were assessed for functional properties (turbidity, foaming, emulsifying and gelation) and some physicochemical characteristics. Among the physicochemical parameters, the proximate composition, amino acid composition, pH, particl...

  20. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg. (United States)

    Ganesan, P; Kaewmanee, T; Benjakul, S; Baharin, B S


    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a range of 9.30-11.80% of protein, 11.40-13.52% of fat, 1.50-1.74% of sugar and 1.10-1.17% of ash. Proteins, lipids, and ash contents are found to be greatly enhanced during the pickling and salting process of pidan and salted duck eggs. However, the alkaline induced aggregation of pidan leads to degradation and subsequent generation of free peptides and amino acids. Very few amino acids are found to be lost during the pickling and storage. However, no such losses of amino acids are reported in salted duck eggs during the salting process of 14 d. Phospholipids and cholesterol contents are lower in pidan oil and salted duck egg yolk oil. Thus, the pidan and salted duck eggs are nutritionally rich alternatives of duck egg products which will benefit the human health during consumption.

  1. Influence of raised plastic floors compared with pine shaving litter on environment and Pekin duck condition. (United States)

    Karcher, D M; Makagon, M M; Fraley, G S; Fraley, S M; Lilburn, M S


    Commercial poultry production management practices have been under increased public scrutiny driven by concerns for food safety and animal welfare. Within the United States, wood shavings and raised plastic floors are common flooring systems used in duck production. It is intuitive that each flooring type would present different management challenges influencing physical characteristics of growing ducks. This study evaluated the relationship between flooring type and duck condition during the winter. Random samples of 20 ducks from 5 predetermined areas (n = 100) were examined in commercial duck houses (n = 9, litter; n = 11, raised plastic slats). Ducks were assessed at 7, 21, and 32 d of age for eye, nostril, and feather cleanliness, feather and foot pad quality, and gait. The data were analyzed to determine the proportion of ducks with a given score. In both housing types, the proportion of 0 scores for foot pad quality improved during the production cycle (P flooring, whereas ducks reared on slatted flooring had cleaner feathers at d 32 (P flooring pertained to feather quality with the proportion of ducks having a 0 or 1 score greater in litter flooring systems than slats (P flooring system, was considered to be good.

  2. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adzliana Sajahan


    Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  3. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction (United States)

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.


    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  4. Modelling of traffic safety of traditional mainline toll plazas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuzwidah Muamer


    Full Text Available Freeways and expressways are considered an important part of any successful transportation system. These facilities carry the majority of daily trips on the transportation network. Although expressways (Toll Roads offer high level of service, and are considered the safest among other types of roads, traditional toll plazas may have both safety and operational challenges. The traditional toll facilities still experience many crashes, many of which are severe. Therefore, the main focus of this paper is to evaluate the effect of tollbooths’ number and types (i.e. cashier lanes, coin lanes and Electronic Toll Collections (ETC lanes on safety performance at traditional toll plazas. The literature showed that about 30 to 40 percent of the total crashes on expressways occur at these facilities. An extensive data collection was conducted that included 42 traditional mainline toll plazas located on approximately 750 miles of expressways in Florida, and multiple analytical techniques were used. Based on the finding in this paper, choosing locations for the toll plazas that have safe distances from the interchanges, installing flashing lights at night time, and finding ways to improve signage and road marking are potential means of reducing lane changes before tollbooths. More research is needed and researchers may build on the results of this study.

  5. Toll-Like Receptors and Myocardial Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Feng


    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a member of the innate immune system. TLRs detect invading pathogens through the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs recognition and play an essential role in the host defense. TLRs can also sense a large number of endogenous molecules with the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs that are produced under various injurious conditions. Animal studies of the last decade have demonstrated that TLR signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of the critical cardiac conditions, where myocardial inflammation plays a prominent role, such as ischemic myocardial injury, myocarditis, and septic cardiomyopathy. This paper reviews the animal data on (1 TLRs, TLR ligands, and the signal transduction system and (2 the important role of TLR signaling in these critical cardiac conditions.

  6. Zoogeographical relationships of the littoral ascidiofauna at the Antarctic Peninsula, in the Scotia Arc and in the Magellan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso A. Ramos-Esplá


    Full Text Available Three Spanish Antarctic research cruises (Ant-8611, Bentart-94 and Bentart-95 were carried out in the South Shetland Archipelago (Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Arc (South Orkney, South Sandwich and South Georgia archipelagos on the continental shelf and upper slope (10-600 m depth. They have contributed to our knowledge about ascidian distribution and the zoogeographical relationships with the neighbouring areas and the other Subantarctic islands. The distribution of ascidian species suggests that the Scotia Arc is divided into two sectors, the South Orkney Archipelago, related to the Antarctic Province, and the South Georgia Archipelago (probably including the South Sandwich Archipelago, which is intermediate between the Antarctic Province and the Magellan region.

  7. Long-term response in episodic acidification to declining SO42– deposition in two streams in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laudon


    Full Text Available Trends in anthropogenically driven episodic acidification associated with extended winter snow melt/rain episodes between 1983 and 1998 were investigated for two streams in Nova Scotia, Canada. The anthropogenic contribution to Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC was analysed using the Boreal Dilution Model (Bishop et al., 2000 modified by applying a sea-salt correction to all input hydrochemistry. The anthropogenic contribution to episodic ANC decline was statistically significant and strongly correlated with the decline in acid deposition, which decreased by approximately 50% during the period of record. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the BDM can be applied to surface waters with sea-salt contributions although the correction increases model uncertainty. Results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of reduced emissions in North America in the last decades in decreasing the severity of episodic acidification in the Atlantic region of Canada. Keywords: episodic acidification, acidification recovery, Nova Scotia, snowmelt, winter

  8. Integrated Digital Technologies for the Architectural Rehabilitation & Conservation of Beinn Bhreagh Hall & Surrounding Site, Nova Scotia, Canada (United States)

    Percy, K.; Ward, S.; Santana Quintero, M.; Morrison, T.


    This contribution summarizes the collaboration between Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) and Heritage Standing in the use of digital technologies to document the Beinn Bhreagh Hall historic site (house and immediate surroundings) in Baddeck, Nova Scotia for its rehabilitation and protection. The project objectives were to develop a prototype for research and training using 3D scanning, and Building Information Modelling (BIM), as well as other emerging surveying tools to understand the state of conservation of Historic Places in Canada, providing relevant and appropriate information for their rehabilitation and maintenance. The vehicle of this research was the documentation and modelling of this important landmark, the summer home of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell in Victoria County, Nova Scotia. This unique 19thC building, currently under review for designated as a national historic site.

  9. A survey of breakfast-skipping and inadequate breakfast-eating among young schoolchildren in Nova Scotia. (United States)

    McIntyre, L


    The prevalence of breakfast-skipping and inadequate breakfast-eating among schoolchildren in Nova Scotia was determined by surveying 2,500 children in Grades 1 to 3 in 25 randomly selected schools. Breakfast-skipping was measured on two occasions using a validated survey instrument administered by videotaped child entertainers. 4.8% of children came to school without eating or drinking anything on the morning of testing. Breakfast omission was significantly related to grade with 6.1% of Grade 1 children skipping breakfast compared with 3.2% in Grade 3. Boys were significantly more likely to skip breakfast than girls but the absolute differences were small. 86% of children consumed a breakfast including two food groups; 56% three food groups. Adequacy of consumption was poorer in lower grades but did not vary by other sociodemographic variables. Breakfast omission in Nova Scotia children attending Grades 1, 2 or 3 does not warrant a provincial public health response.

  10. Effects of selenium on mallard duck reproduction and immune function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteley, P.L.; Yuill, T.M.; Fairbrother, A.


    Selenium from irrigation drain water and coal-fired power stations is a significant environmental contaminant in some regions of the USA. The objectives were to examine whether selenium-exposed waterfowl had altered immune function, disease resistance, or reproduction. Pairs of adult mallards were exposed for 95-99 days on streams with sodium selenite-treated water at 10 and 30 ppb, or on untreated streams. Selenium biomagnified through the food chain to the ducks. Disease resistance was decreased in ducklings hatched on the streams and challenged with duck hepatitis virus 1 (DHV1) when 15-days old. Liver selenium concentrations for these ducklings on the 10 and 30 ppb streams was 3.6 and 7.6 ppm dry weight, respectively. Mortality of ducklings purchased when 7-days old, exposed to selenium for 14 days, and challenged when 22-days old was not affected. However, their selenium exposure was lower (liver selenium 4.1 ppm dry weight for the 30 ppb stream). Five parameters of immune function were measured in adult ducks. Phagocytosis of killed Pasteurella multocida by blood heterophils and monocytes, and blood monocyte concentrations were higher in adult males following 84 days exposure to 30 ppb selenium. Their liver selenium concentrations were 11.1 ppm dry weight after 95-99 days exposure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti


    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  12. Chronic effects of fumonisin B1 on ducks. (United States)

    Tran, S T; Auvergne, A; Benard, G; Bailly, J D; Tardieu, D; Babilé, R; Guerre, P


    Partially purified fumonisin B1 (FB1) was orally administrated for 77 d to 5 groups of 8 mule ducks starting at 7 d of age; the concentrations corresponded to 5 diets containing 0, 2, 8, 32, and 128 mg of FB1/kg of feed. No mortality was observed, and no effects on feed consumption and body weight gain were observed at the end of the treatment period. But, surprisingly, FB1 ingested at 32 and 128 mg/kg led to decreased body weight from d 28 to 63 and from d 7 to 63, respectively. FB1 had no effect on the relative weight of heart and breast muscle, whereas a significant increases in the relative weights of gizzard, spleen, and liver were measured in ducks receiving 32 and 128 mg of FB1/kg of feed without evidence of detectable microscopic modification of these organs. FB1 had no significant effect of the serum aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase levels but increased serum total protein, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase levels when 128 mg of FB1/kg of feed was given. Serum, liver, and kidney sphinganine to sphingosine ratio was significantly increased in ducks fed 8 to 128 mg of FB1/kg of feed. The biggest increase was observed in kidneys, suggesting that this organ is the most sensitive to detect FB1-induced disruption of sphingolipid metabolism.

  13. Physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of preserved duck egg white. (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Tu, Yonggang; Xu, Mingsheng; Li, Jianke; Du, Huaying


    In this paper, the physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of preserved duck egg white were analyzed and compared with fresh egg and hard-cooked egg white (n = 3). The data obtained showed that the preserved egg white was rich in essential amino acids and minerals, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, K, and Na. After fresh duck eggs were processed into preserved eggs, contents of moisture, CP, amino acid, and water-soluble vitamin of egg white significantly decreased (P egg white significantly increased (P egg white had higher a* (redness/greenness) and b* values (yellowness/blueness; P egg white. The gel hardness of preserved egg white was approximately 50% of hard-cooked egg white; however, its springiness and cohesiveness were approximately 1.5 times of hard-cooked egg white. The results indicated that pickling with alkaline and other additives can significantly change physical properties and chemical composition of duck egg white, which make preserved egg white with characteristics of rich elements, brown color, and high springiness, but low vitamin. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Identification of double-yolked duck egg using computer vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available The double-yolked (DY egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s. Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification.

  15. Experimental susceptibility of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Porter, Robert E.; Franson, J. Christian


    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 104.54 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 102and 102.9 PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that ducks play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  16. Does overfeeding enhance genotype effects on liver ability for lipogenesis and lipid secretion in ducks? (United States)

    Chartrin, Pascal; Bernadet, Marie-Dominique; Guy, Gérard; Mourot, Jacques; Hocquette, Jean-François; Rideau, Nicole; Duclos, Michel Jacques; Baéza, Elisabeth


    We evaluated the effects of genotype (Muscovy, Pekin and their crossbreed hinny and mule ducks) and feeding levels (overfeeding between 12 and 14 weeks of age vs ad libitum feeding) on liver ability for lipogenesis and lipid secretion in ducks. Samples of liver and blood were collected at 14 weeks of age from 8 birds per group. Plasma levels of insulin was considerably increased in overfed ducks (1.9-fold), stimulating the hepatic activity of the main enzymes involved in lipogenesis from glucose (glucokinase, GK, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PDH, malic enzyme, ME, acetyl CoA carboxylase, ACX), while cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity, indicating overall oxidation ability of energy-yielding substrates, remained unchanged. Plasma levels of triglycerides, phospholipids and total cholesterol were therefore increased (1.9, 3.7, 1.6 and 1.6-fold, respectively). Glycaemia also significantly increased (+8%). Pekin ducks exhibited higher levels of GK and G6PDH activity in the liver than Muscovy ducks, suggesting a greater ability to use glucose consistent with their lower glycaemia. Muscovy ducks had greater ACX activity, suggesting greater ability to synthesise lipids. However, plasma lipid levels were much higher in Pekin ducks than in Muscovy ducks, suggesting a greater ability to export lipids from the liver. Values for the different criteria measured in this study were intermediate or similar in hinny and mule ducks to those of parental species. The high values for GK, G6PDH, ME and ACX activity in hybrid ducks enabled them to produce heavy fatty livers with the same chemical and lipid composition as Muscovy ducks and characterised by high amounts of triglycerides (around 96% of total lipids), and saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids.

  17. Flood Risk Mapping Using LiDAR for Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim L. Webster


    Full Text Available A significant portion of the Canadian Maritime coastline has been surveyed with airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR. The purpose of these surveys has been to map the risk of flooding from storm surges and projected long-term sea‑level rise from climate change and to include projects in all three Maritime Provinces: Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. LiDAR provides the required details in order to map the flood inundation from 1 to 2 m storm surge events, which cause coastal flooding in many locations in this region when they occur at high tide levels. The community of Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, adjacent to the Bay of Fundy, has been surveyed with LiDAR and a 1 m DEM (Digital Elevation Model was constructed for the flood inundation mapping. Validation of the LiDAR using survey grade GPS indicates a vertical accuracy better than 30 cm. A benchmark storm, known as the Groundhog Day storm (February 1–3, 1976, was used to assess the flood maps and to illustrate the effects of different sea-level rise projections based on climate change scenarios if it were to re-occur in 100 years time. Near shore bathymetry has been merged with the LiDAR and local wind observations used to model the impact of significant waves during this benchmark storm. Long-term (ca. greater than 30 years time series of water level observations from across the Bay of Fundy in Saint John, New Brunswick, have been used to estimate return periods of water levels under present and future sea-level rise conditions. Results indicate that under current sea-level rise conditions this storm has a 66 year return period. With a modest relative sea-level (RSL rise of 80 cm/century this decreases to 44 years and, with a possible upper limit rise of 220 cm/century, this decreases further to 22 years. Due to the uncertainty of climate change scenarios and sea-level rise, flood inundation maps have been constructed at 10 cm increments up to the 9 m contour

  18. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham


    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  19. Toll-like receptor 1 polymorphisms increase susceptibility to candidemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, T.S.; Johnson, M.D.; Scott, W.K.; Vosse, E. van de; Velez Edwards, D.R.; Smith, P.B.; Alexander, B.D.; Yang, J.C.; Kremer, D.; Laird, G.M.; Oosting, M.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Dissel, J.T. van; Walsh, T.J.; Perfect, J.R.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.


    BACKGROUND: Candidemia is a severe invasive fungal infection with high mortality. Recognition of Candida species is mediated through pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). This study assessed whether genetic variation in TLR signaling influences susceptibility to

  20. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : tolling test plan. (United States)


    This report presents the test plan for collecting and analyzing toll data for the Minnesota Urban Partnership : Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The : Minnesota UPA projects focus on reducin...

  1. TSCA Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Toll Manufacturing (United States)

    This fact sheet provides information on existing Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) regulations to persons who are involved in toll manufacturing of chemical substances which may be subject to the CDR rule.

  2. Crustal structure beneath discovery bank in the South Scotia Sea from group velocity tomography and seismic reflection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuan, A.; Lodolo, E.; Panza, G.F.


    Bruce, Discovery, Herdman and Jane Banks, all located along the central-eastern part of the South Scotia Ridge (i.e., the Antarctica-Scotia plate boundary), represent isolated topographic reliefs surrounded by relatively young oceanic crust, whose petrological and structural nature is still the subject of speculations due to the lack of resolving data. In the Scotia Sea and surrounding regions negative anomalies of about 34% are reported in large-scale group velocity tomography maps. The spatial resolution (∼500 km) of these maps does not warrant any reliable interpretation of such anomalies. A recent surface wave tomography in the same area, performed using broad band seismic stations and 300 regional events, shows that in the period range from 15 s to 50 s the central-eastern part of the South Scotia Ridge is characterized by negative anomalies of the group velocities as large as 6. The resolution of our data set (∼300 km) makes it possible to distinguish an area (centered at 61 deg S and 36 deg W) with a crust thicker than 25 km, and a shear wave velocity vs. depth profile similar to that found beneath the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and southern South America. Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves are inverted in the period range from 15 s to 80 s to obtain shear wave velocity profiles that suggest a continental nature of Discovery Bank. The continental-type crust of this topographic relief is in agreement with the interpretation of a multi-channel seismic reflection profile acquired across this rise. Peculiar acoustic facies are observed in this profile and are interpreted as thinned and faulted continental plateau. The boundaries of the negative group velocity anomalies are marked by a high seismicity rate. Historical normal faulting earthquakes with magnitude around 7 are localised between the low velocity anomaly region in the eastern South Scotia Ridge and the high velocity anomaly region associated with the surrounding oceanic crust

  3. Shifting death to their alternatives: the case of toll motorways


    Albalate del Sol, Daniel


    A renewed interest on the use of tolls for funding motorways and regulating their demands has been recovered in the last years. However, less attention has been put to the road safety effects derived from this policy. Although toll motorways show quality levels equal or above free motorways, charging users for the use of better infrastructure shifts some traffic to their low quality adjacent alternatives. In the present study we test whether charging for the use of the better road might negat...

  4. Identification and expression analysis of duck interleukin-17D in Riemeralla anatipestifer infection (United States)

    Interleukin (IL)-17D is a proinflammatory cytokine with limited information on its biological functions. Here we provide the description of the sequence, bioactivity, and mRNA expression profile of duck IL-17D homologue. A full-length duck IL-17D (duIL-17D) cDNA with a 624-bp coding region was ident...

  5. Nutritional requirements of meat-type and egg-type ducks: what do we know? (United States)

    Fouad, Ahmed Mohamed; Ruan, Dong; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Xia, Weiguang; Zheng, Chuntian


    The demand for duck meat, duck eggs, and associated products is increasing each year. Classic and modern selection programs have been applied to enhance the economic traits of ducks to satisfy the requirements of consumers and enhance the incomes of producers. The nutritional requirements of unselected ducks may not be adequate, however, to fulfill the potential productivity performance of modern birds, including both meat-type and egg-type ducks. In particular, an imbalanced diet is associated with low productive performance and signs of nutritional deficiency (if insufficient nutrients are supplied), as well as with high feed costs and manure problems that reflect flock health and welfare (if excessive nutrients are supplied). Thus, the main aim of this review is to summarize the results of previous studies that estimated the nutrient requirements of meat-type and egg-type ducks in order to evaluate current knowledge and to identify further issues that need to be addressed. In addition, the results obtained in previous studies are compared in order to understand how to lower commercial feed costs, fulfill the genetic potential of selected ducks, protect the environment from pollution, and satisfy the welfare and health needs of ducks.

  6. 75 FR 9316 - Migratory Bird Permits; Control of Muscovy Ducks, Revisions to the Waterfowl Permit Exceptions... (United States)


    ... of aquatic and terrestrial plants, including agricultural crops. They also eat small fishes, reptiles... damage and aggressiveness demonstrated by the ducks. The muscovy duck is an introduced species in many... time to time. These escaped animals could easily set up a population and be responsible for the spread...

  7. First report of Anatoecus dentatus in domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus, Linnaeus, 1978 from Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyathilakan N


    Full Text Available Parasitic infection is one of the prime causes for morbidity and mortality of ducks in India. Ducks have the habit of wading through the water resources especially paddy fields and feeding on snail which favours occurrence of various parasites. Among the parasites, lice infestation affects growth and productivity of ducks by way of irritation. Lice are well adapted as external parasites and usually are more a nuisance than a threat to their hosts. A nomadic farmer from Mannargudi area of Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu, India who had a flock of 1600 ducks reported continuous death of 700 ducks within a period of one month and brought a dead duck to Dept. of Veterinary Pathology for postmortem examination. Examination of entire body of duck prior to necropsy revealed the presence of live lice in the hairs around the junction of beak and head. About 7 lice specimens were collected and brought to Dept. of Veterinary Parasitology for identification. The lice specimens were processed and identified as Anatoecus dentatus based on the presence of ‘tin opener’ shaped effracter in the male genitalia. This is the first report of occurrence of these lice in ducks from Southern India.

  8. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina. (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marchese, Krysten; Romano, Marcelo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana I; Uhart, Marcela


    Numerous experiments under controlled conditions and extensive investigation of waterfowl die-offs have demonstrated that exposure to lead from spent gunshot is highly detrimental to the health of waterfowl. However, few studies have focused on examining the more subtle sub-lethal effects of lead toxicity on ducks in non-experimental settings. In our study, the health of ducks exposed to varying amounts of lead under natural conditions was assessed by correlating individual lead exposure with relevant indices of health. Based on hunter-killed wild ducks in Argentina, we measured spleen mass, body condition, examined bone marrow smears, and determined Ca and P in bone tissue. In free-ranging live-trapped ducks we determined basic hematology and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Using multivariate analyses, we found that, when controlling for the potential confounding effect of site type, year, duck species, body mass and age, lead levels in the liver were negatively associated with body condition and spleen mass. Spleen mass was also lower in ducks with higher lead levels in their bones. In live ducks, high blood lead levels were associated with low packed cell volume and red cell morphologic abnormalities. These findings suggest that, despite the lack of recorded lead-induced mortality in the region, lead exposure results in less conspicuous but still significant impacts on the health of ducks, which could have serious implications for their conservation. Moreover, this evidence further supports the need for urgently banning lead shot in the region.

  9. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season]. (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng


    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  10. Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Enteric Microflora of Wild Ducks. (United States)

    Mathys, Dimitria A; Mollenkopf, Dixie F; Nolting, Jacqueline; Bowman, Andrew S; Daniels, Joshua B; Wittum, Thomas E


    We tested 772 cloacal swabs from wild ducks to estimate the prevalence of enteric bacteria resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC). We found a low prevalence of the important ESC resistance genotypes, bla CMY (5.7%) and bla CTX-M (0.3%). This suggests a minor role for wild ducks in the movement of resistant bacteria in the environment.

  11. Epidemiologic Investigation of Riemerella anatipestifer in a Commercial Duck Company by Serotyping and DNA Fingerprinting (United States)

    A commercial duck company that raises approximately two million Pekin ducks per year experienced an outbreak of Riemerella anatipestifer(RA)on nine farms over a one year period. Due to concerns that the bacteria was being spread from farm to farm, an investigation using serotyping and DNA fingerprin...

  12. Evaluation of Integrated Farming of Rice and Duck on Rice Grain Yield in Gilan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mofidian


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate integrated farming of rice and duck on rice grain yield, an experiment was performed on Oryza sativa L. in Gilan, Iran in 2013. This experiment was performed based on factorial split and it was also according to plan of randomized complete block (RCB in three replications. In this experiment the main factor of duck was between two levels (by presence of duck and without presence of duck and the minor factor was the factorial combination of weeding levels (weeding on the releasing day of ducks and not weeding on the releasing day of ducks; and also the planting spaces were 20×20 cm, 25×25 cm, 30×30 cm.The results of the analysis of variance show that the presence of duck in a rice field causes increasing in plant height, the number of grains per panicle, the number of filled grains per panicle, weight of thousands grains, harvest index (HI and grain yield. In total, results and statistics show that using duck in rice fields causes increasing in grain yield and consequently it increases farmer’s income and also reduction of using agricultural pesticides and protecting the environment.

  13. Application of Faecalibacterium 16S rDNA genetic marker for accurate identification of duck faeces. (United States)

    Sun, Da; Duan, Chuanren; Shang, Yaning; Ma, Yunxia; Tan, Lili; Zhai, Jun; Gao, Xu; Guo, Jingsong; Wang, Guixue


    The aim of this study was to judge the legal duty of pollution liabilities by assessing a duck faeces-specific marker, which can exclude distractions of residual bacteria from earlier contamination accidents. With the gene sequencing technology and bioinformatics method, we completed the comparative analysis of Faecalibacterium sequences, which were associated with ducks and other animal species, and found the sequences unique to duck faeces. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and agarose gel electrophoresis techniques were used to verify the reliability of both human and duck faeces-specific primers. The duck faeces-specific primers generated an amplicon of 141 bp from 43.3 % of duck faecal samples, 0 % of control samples and 100 % of sewage wastewater samples that contained duck faeces. We present here the initial evidence of Faecalibacterium-based applicability as human faeces-specificity in China. Meanwhile, this study represents the initial report of a Faecalibacterium marker for duck faeces and suggests an independent or supplementary environmental biotechnology of microbial source tracking (MST).

  14. Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen K Vaidya

    Full Text Available Baiyangdian (BYD virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within 5 days of infection. Because of the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses, the characterization of BYD virus and its epidemiology are important public health concerns. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of this novel virus. We validate the model against BYD outbreak data collected from duck farms in Southeast China, as well as experimental data obtained from an animal facility. Based on our model, the basic reproductive number of BYD virus is high (R(0 = 21 indicating that this virus is highly transmissible, consistent with the dramatic epidemiology observed in BYDV-affected duck farms. Our results indicate that younger ducks are more vulnerable to BYD disease and that ducks infected with BYD virus reduce egg production (to about 33% on average for about 3 days post-infection; after 3 days infected ducks are no longer able to produce eggs. Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides.

  15. Factors which influence Nova Scotia farmers in implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Gordon, R.; Burton, D.; Yiridoe, E.K.


    Improvements in energy efficiency and renewable energy use can reduce farm operating costs and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Responses (n=224, representing a 32% response rate) from a mail survey were used to assess use and interest in energy efficient and renewable energy options on farms in Nova Scotia, Canada. Energy efficiency options used the most were behavior, insulation, and lighting. Few farms used renewable energy options. Approximately 78% of farmers indicated an interest in implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy options. Interest varied by farm type and size. Interest increased with farm size. The two main efficiency options of interest were lighting (60.8%) and insulation (43.7%), while wind power development (55.5%) and solar water heating (24.5%) were the main renewable options of interest. Farmers concerned about power and equipment reliability were less likely to be interested in implementing options. Farmers concerned about the environment were more likely to be interested in implementing options. Current use of certain energy efficiency technologies, such as efficient lighting, influenced implementation interest

  16. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Rock


    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  17. Changing chain: past, present and future of the Scotia Arc's and Antarctica's shallow benthic communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K.A. Barnes


    Full Text Available The Scotia Arc links Patagonia to the Antarctic Peninsula. This island chain has changed considerably since Antarctica’s geographic and thermal isolation from other land and water masses. Now its rates of air, land and fresh-water climate change are among the highest measured. This review examines work on the shallow water benthos of this region in the context of climate change. In summer, primary productivity is as intense as anywhere, whilst in winter the water reaches unprecedented clarity. Suspension feeders may eat for just a few months but others feed all year. Growth and reproduction are up to 50x slower than non-polar rates. Life here is in the slow lane. There is intense summer disturbance from ice-scour and wave action. This has erased shore zonation and created it below the surface. In contrast to summer disturbance, the winter is among the calmest and most thermally stable environments, when the area is overlain by fast ice. Whilst few animal phyla or species are represented on land, phyletic richness—and in some groups species richness—rivals that of tropical regions. Data showing clines in benthic richness at several taxonomic levels across the Patagonia-South Georgia-Signy Is.-Adelaide Is. chain and 50 years of ice-sheet retreat are presented.

  18. Hurry up and wait. The experiences of young women in rural Nova Scotia accessing specialized care. (United States)

    Harrold, Jessie; Jackson, Lois A


    This study explored experiences of waiting to access specialized health care among young women living in selected rural communities on the south shore of Nova Scotia. We asked women about the challenges they faced during wait times and how they perceived the impact of these experiences on their health. We conducted qualitative interviews with 10 women aged 21-37 years. We used thematic analysis to identify common experiences among participants. Some women expressed feelings of frustration about waiting, but others resigned themselves to the wait. Women reported challenges such as caregiving for ailing family members who waited for care. Some women took control of their situation by accessing private health care or what they called "the next best thing" (e.g., care from alternative health providers), although in some cases this was financially costly. A few women sought assistance through support networks. Many women reported that wait times affected their health. Our results support previous research indicating that young rural women's caregiving roles and support networks influence their experiences with wait times. Our research indicates that waiting to access specialized care can be financially costly for some women and may also affect their health.

  19. Injury severity in pediatric all-terrain vehicle-related trauma in Nova Scotia. (United States)

    Jessula, Samuel; Murphy, Nadia; Yanchar, Natalie L


    In 2004-2005, legislation restricting all-terrain vehicle (ATV) use by children and an extensive social marketing campaign intended to reduce pediatric ATV-related morbidity. The frequency, nature, and severity of pediatric ATV-associated trauma were compared before and after such interventions. A retrospective cohort study was performed for all pediatric ATV-related injuries that presented to the provincial level 1 pediatric trauma center from 1998 to 2014. National databases were queried for ATV-related injury hospitalizations (n=258), trauma center emergency department visits (n=342), and admissions (n=136) in Nova Scotia from 2002 to 2014. Admissions between 1998 and 2003 (n=68) and 2006-2014 (n=60) were compared using chi square analysis for age and gender distribution, length of stay, critical care admission, helmet use, mechanism, and severity of injury. Admissions, trauma center emergency room visits and admissions initially decreased following legislative and social marketing interventions and subsequently gradually increased. Interventions resulted in no significant difference in age or gender distribution, length of hospital stay, critical care admission, helmet use, and mechanism of injury. There was a significantly higher proportion of severe injuries post interventions. Legislation and social marketing interventions had a short-term decrease on the frequency of ATV-related injuries and no sustained effect on the frequency, nature, and severity of ATV-related injuries. Level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Shaded seafloor relief, backscatter strength, and surficial geology; German Bank, Scotian Shelf, offshore Nova Scotia (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Valentine, Page C.


    This map is part of a three-map series of German Bank, located on the Scotian Shelf off southern Nova Scotia.  This map is the product of a number of surveys (1997-2003) that used a multibeam sonar system to map 5321 km2 of the seafloor.  Other surveys collected geological data for scientific interpretation.  This map sheet shows the seafloor topography of German Bank in shaded-relief view and seafloor depth (coded by colour) at a scale of 1:1000,000.  Topographic contours generated from the multibeam data are shown (in white) on the colour-coded multibeam topography at a depth interval of 20 m.  Bathymetic contours (in blue) outside the multibeam survey area, presented at a depth interval of 10 m, are from the Natural Resource Map series (Canadian Hydrographic Service, 1967, 1971a, 1971b, 1972). Sheet 2 shows coloured backscatter strength in shaded-relief view.  Sheet 3 shows seafloor topography in shaded-relief view with colour-coded surficial geological units.

  1. The energy accounts for the Nova Scotia genuine progress index : executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipp, J.; Cain, S.; Colman, R.; Parmenter, R.; Milne, K.; Mullaly, H.; Wysocki, A.


    GPI Atlantic has developed a Genuine Progress Index (GPI) involving a new measure of sustainability, wellbeing and quality of life in order to better evaluate energy supply and demand by accounting for all benefits and costs including natural capital, social capital, human capital, and conventional produced capital. The executive summary provides an energy overview and presents indicators of energy sustainability including socio-economic, health and environmental and institutional indicators. Socio-economic indicators are organized across the following 6 areas of concern: reliability, affordability, employment; energy efficiency, energy consumption; and energy production and supply. Health and environmental trends examined include carbon monoxide; nitrogen oxide; sulphur dioxide; mercury; total particulate matter; volatile organic compounds; and greenhouse gas emissions. Trends over time are assessed to determine if energy use is becoming more or less sustainable. Institutional indicators are grouped according to several areas of concern, such as leading by example; creating societal change; reporting; and evaluation. The full cost of energy was then discussed using the underlying physical indicators. It was concluded that Nova Scotia is not making sufficient progress towards sustainability in its energy system, and that the production and use of energy are the leading causes of a number of serious environmental problems. Several recommendations are made for government to lead on a number of initiatives. 4 tabs

  2. Morbidity and mortality rates in a NOVA SCOTIA First Nations Community, 1996-1999. (United States)

    Webster, Duncan; Weerasinghe, Swarna; Stevens, Peter


    Despite an abundance of data and analysis of First Nations morbidity and mortality rates, accurate data have not been available to serve the First Nations community in Eastern Canada. Data for Eskasoni, the largest Mi'kmaq community, were obtained for 1996 through 1999 and Cape Breton and Nova Scotia were used as regional and provincial reference populations respectively. Age-adjusted relative risks (AARR) were calculated for overall mortality and disease-specific hospital admissions. Eskasoni's mortality AARR was greater than 1.0 in 3 of the 4 years studied, although the data may understate Eskasoni's mortality rates. Eskasoni's total admission AARRs were significantly greater than the two reference populations. Neoplasm admission rates were generally lower, while circulatory disease admission AARRs were significantly higher. A rise in diabetic admission rates was noted with the AARR reaching statistical significance in the final years of the study. Respiratory disease was the leading cause of hospitalization with significantly greater rates of admission than regional or provincial rates. Pneumonia and influenza accounted for more than one half of respiratory admissions. Infectious disease admissions were more prevalent in Eskasoni while rates of liver disease were generally low. Results suggest that members of the largest Mi'kmaq band are at greater risk for a number of disease categories and health promotion should be targeted toward respiratory ailments, circulatory disease and diabetic management. Further analysis, however, remains an important priority.

  3. Dispersion and toxicity of metals from abandoned gold mine tailings at Goldenville, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.K.T. [National Water Research Institute, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington (Canada); Gauthier, A. [Environmental Protection Branch, Environment Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada); Nriagu, J.O. [Department of Environmental and Industrial Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    As its name indicates, Goldenville was a famous gold mining area in Nova Scotia where large quantities of mercury were used in the gold recovery process. It is estimated that the 3 million tons of tailings left from the mining activities which lasted from 1860 to 1945 contain 470 kg of Cd, 37-300 kg of Pb, 6800 kg of Hg, 20-700 kg of As and 2600 kg of Tl. Analysis of metal contents of stream water, stream and lake sediments, tailings, and vegetation show that the tailings have been distributed over time across the stream basin to form a tailing field of approximately 2 km{sup 2}. There is a continuous release of As, Hg, Pb, Tl and other metals from the tailing field, resulting in contamination of ecosystems downstream including the Gagogan Harbor of the Atlantic Ocean. Stream water and sediments of Lake Gagogan located downstream from the mine were found toxic to the benthic community. A loss of fish habitat was observed. Although the mines were closed over 50 years ago, sedimentary records of metal loadings into Lake Gagogan show that the release of metals from the tailings has not slowed down. Analysis of metal tolerant species in the area suggests that horsetails (Equisetum rubiaceae and E. sylvaticum) can be used in phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and mercury. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Hydrophobic duck feathers and their simulation on textile substrates for water repellent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuyang; Chen Xianqiong; Xin, J H [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail:


    Inspired by the non-wetting phenomena of duck feathers, the water repellent property of duck feathers was studied at the nanoscale. The microstructures of the duck feather were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging method through a step-by-step magnifying procedure. The SEM results show that duck feathers have a multi-scale structure and that this multi-scale structure as well as the preening oil are responsible for their super hydrophobic behavior. The microstructures of the duck feather were simulated on textile substrates using the biopolymer chitosan as building blocks through a novel surface solution precipitation (SSP) method, and then the textile substrates were further modified with a silicone compound to achieve low surface energy. The resultant textiles exhibit super water repellent properties, thus providing a simple bionic way to create super hydrophobic surfaces on soft substrates using flexible material as building blocks.

  5. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric American black ducks and mallards (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Obrecht, H.H.; Hines, J.E.


    Banding and recovery data from American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos) banded in the same breeding or wintering areas over the same time periods were used to estimate annual survival and band recovery rates. Recovery rates, based on preseason bandings, were very similar for sympatric black ducks and mallards and exhibited similar patterns of year-to-year variation for the 2 species. Tests for differences between the species in annual survival rates yielded equivocal results. We tentatively conclude that annual survival rates of mallards generally were not higher than those of black ducks banded in the same areas. The apparent difference in population status between black ducks and eastern mallards does not seem to result from differences in mortality rate. Nevertheless, we should attempt to identify management practices that might increase survival probabilities of black ducks.

  6. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulated byToll-like receptors mediate innate and adaptive immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223959 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulate...ol. 2007 Feb;147(2):199-207. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: network... immunity. PubmedID 17223959 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulat

  7. Experimental susceptibility of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus. (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik; Porter, Robert E; Franson, J Christian


    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 10(4.54) plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 10(2) and 10(2.9) PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that they play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  8. Local Duck Fanning At Paddy Three Times Planting Areas ("IP Padi 300"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setioko A.R


    Full Text Available Most of duck husbandry in Indonesia is still run traditionally, herded in rice field or in the swampy area. This kind of husbandry seemed to be much preferred by farmers as they thought it was a simple and did not need high skill and high capital "IP padi 300" was a term of rice planting system tree times instead of twice in a year. This kind of changing might have significantly affected duck faming. The objective of the study was to observe the interactively effect of "IP padi 300" to duck husbandry at the same area. Two locations were choosen (Subang, West Jawa and Pemalang, Central Java with 5 farmers at each location to be involved in the study. As many as 1200 laying pullet ducks were distributed to 10 farmers at two locations. The farmers were suggested to raise laying ducks with their own systems (fully intensive, semi intensive and fully herded and were observed for 6 months. Biota was observed on both field and in the crop of the laying ducks. There was an interactive effect of "IP padi 300" and the duck farming on the same area. The availability of feed was increased on the "IP padi 300", which gave benefit to duck farming especially fue herded system, not to go far from owner's home base. Whilst the benefit to "IP padi 300" was assumed to the reduction of pest and desease, which was frequently attacked the rice field. The production of egg from herded duck was very fluctuative due to the movement and feed availability in the rice field. Field biota in Subang and Pemalang was very much the same in profile, although "golden snail" was only found in Subang. Ducks' crop content seemed to be very much similar with the profile of field biota, although rice grain was the most in the crop. Thus, it was found that field biota was not reduced by "IP padi 300", in fact it was rather increased.

  9. Toll-like Receptors and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu eZhao


    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men after lung cancer. Immune responses clearly play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and in the efficacy of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in prostate cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood. Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a well-known family of pattern recognition receptors that play a key role in host immune system. Recent studies demonstrate that there are links between TLRs and cancer; however, the function and biological importance of TLRs in prostate cancer seems complex. To elucidate the role of TLRs and innate immunity in prostate cancer might provide us with a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this disease. Moreover, utilizing the agonists or antagonists of TLRs might represent a promising new strategy against prostate cancer. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the studies of association between TLR signaling and prostate cancer, TLR polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk, and provide some insights about TLRs as potential targets for prostate cancer immunotherapy.

  10. Toll-like receptors of deuterostome invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo eSatake


    Full Text Available Defensive systems against pathogens are responsible not only for survival or lifetime of an individual but also for the evolution of a species. Innate immunity is expected to be more important for invertebrates than mammals, given that adaptive immunity has not been acquired in the former. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been shown to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity of mammals. Recent genome-wide analyses have suggested that TLR or their related genes are conserved in invertebrates. In particular, numerous TLR-related gene candidates were detected in deuterostome invertebrates including a sea urchin (222 TLR-related gene candidates and amphioxus (72 TLR-related gene candidates. Molecular phylogenetic analysis verified that most of sea urchin or amphioxus TLR candidates are paralogous, suggesting that these organisms expanded TLR-related genes in a species-specific manner. In contrast, another deuterostome invertebrate, an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, was found to possess only two TLR genes. Moreover, Ciona TLRs, Ci-TLR1 and -2, were shown to possess hybrid functionality of mammalian TLRs. Such functionality of Ci-TLRs could not be predicted by sequence comparison with vertebrate TLRs, indicating the confounding evolutionary lineages of deuterostome invertebrate TLRs or their candidates. In this review article, we present recent advances in studies of TLRs or their candidates of deuterostome invertebrates, and provide insight into an evolutionary process of TLRs.

  11. Development of an indirect ELISA with epitope on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus for differentiating between infected and vaccinated Muscovy ducks. (United States)

    Yan, B; Ma, J-Z; Yu, T-F; Shao, S-L; Li, M; Fan, X-D


    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). Sera (100) from negative and vaccinated Muscovy ducks were compared with infected sera (240) to establish the cut-off value of this i-ELISA. There was a significant difference between the positive and negative populations (P < 0·05). The adoption of this positive-negative threshold value for this i-ELISA assay resulted in specificity of 98·0%. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. In this study, we developed an i-ELISA based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of MDPV. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. First visual record of rare purple-colored dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja M. Ehlers


    Full Text Available The dogwhelk Nucella lapillus is a rocky intertidal gastropod of the North Atlantic coast. Individual shell color varies. Common colors range between white and brown, with darker dogwhelks being more affected by heat stress than lighter-colored conspecifics. Other reported shell colors are purple, black, mauve, pink, yellow, and orange from UK coasts, red and gray from the Bay of Fundy coast of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia (Canada, and purple, black, gray, yellow, and orange from the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts (USA, with purple being considered as a rare color. On the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, dogwhelks are active from April until November, but information on dogwhelk shell color is missing for this coast. On 16 June 2016, we found two purple-colored dogwhelks in the mid-to-high intertidal zone of a moderately wave-exposed rocky shore near Duncans Cove, on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia while collecting dogwhelks (n= 1000 during low tide for manipulative field experiments. All other dogwhelks collected on that day were of common white and brown colors. During earlier dogwhelk collections in Atlantic Nova Scotia (between 2011-2013 and field surveys in Duncans Cove (between 2014-2016, we did not find any purple-colored dogwhelks, indicating the rareness of this color in that region. Apparently, our observations provide the first visual record of rare purple-colored dogwhelks on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada.

  13. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis. (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M


    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  14. Temporal flexibility of reproduction in temperate-breeding dabbling ducks (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.


    I compared nesting intervals during three consecutive years in five species of temperate-nesting dabbling ducks (Mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], Northern Pintail [Anas acuta], Northern Shoveler [Anas clypeata], Blue-winged Teal [Anas discors], Gadwall [Anas strepera]) and assessed whether differences existed in timing of refractoriness. Most nesting by females of all five species ended by the summer solstice. Nesting ended earliest for Northern Shovelers and Northern Pintails and latest for Gadwalls. Some Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls continued to nest into mid- and late summer, whereas Northern Shovelers and Northern pintails did not. Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls accounted for 99% (81 of 82) of flightless broods resulting from nests initiated during mid- or late summer in North Dakota and 98% (58 of 59) of flightless juveniles shot on or after 1 October by a random sample of duck hunters from across the United States. Early cessation of breeding by Northern Shovelers may have evolved in response to the species' limited flexibility in diet. Photorefractory mechanisms that limit most breeding to spring presumably evolved in response to severe constraints on reproductive success when nesting continued through summer(e.g. mortality of late-hatched young and molting females due to low temperatures). Interspecific differences in photosensitivity may account for variation in timing of cessation of nesting in late spring, but controlled experiments are needed to assess the possible role of non-photic influences. My results suggest that the refractory mechanisms controlling length of the breeding in temperate-nesting dabbling ducks are more varied and complex than previously thought, with non-photic influences (e.g. water conditions, food availability, food quality) having a larger role than indicated by earlier research.

  15. The Growth of Protein Crystals Using McDUCK (United States)

    Ewing, Felicia; Wilson, Lori; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc


    Most of the current microgravity crystal growth hardware is optimized to produce crystals within the limited time available on orbit. This often results in the actual nucleation and growth process being rushed or the system not coming to equilibrium within the limited time available. Longer duration hardware exists, but one cannot readily pick out crystals grown early versus those which nucleated and grew more slowly. We have devised a long duration apparatus, the Multi-chamber Dialysis Unit for Crystallization Kinetics, or McDUCK. This apparatus-is a series of protein chambers, stacked upon a precipitant reservoir chamber. All chambers are separated by a dialysis membrane, which serves to pass small molecules while retaining the protein. The volume of the Precipitant chamber is equal to the sum of the volumes of the protein chamber. In operation, the appropriate chambers are filled with precipitant solution or protein solution, and the McDUCK is placed standing upright, with the precipitant chamber on the bottom. The precipitant diffuses upwards over time, with the time to reach equilibration a function of the diffusivity of the precipitant and the overall length of the diffusion pathway. Typical equilibration times are approximately 2-4 months, and one can readily separate rapid from slow nucleation and growth crystals. An advantage on Earth is that the vertical precipitant concentration gradient dominates that of the solute, thus dampening out solute density gradient driven convective flows. However, large Earth-grown crystals have so far tended to be more two dimensional. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of lysozyme crystals grown in McDUCK have indicated that the best, and largest, come from the middle chambers, suggesting that there is an optimal growth rate. Further, the improvements in diffraction resolution have been better signal to noise ratios in the low resolution data, not an increase in resolution overall. Due to the persistently large crystals

  16. Cloning and sequencing of Duck circovirus (DuCV). (United States)

    Hattermann, K; Schmitt, C; Soike, D; Mankertz, A


    The genome of Duck circovirus (DuCV) is circular and 1996 nts in size. Two major open reading frames were identified, encoding the replicase (V1) and the capsid protein (C1). A stem-loop structure comprising the nonamer 5'-TATTATTAC, conserved in all circo-, nano- and geminiviruses, was found. Unique to DuCV, the region between the 3'-ends of the rep and cap gene contains four repeats of a 44-bp sequence. Phylogenetic analysis shows close relation of DuCV with Goose circovirus and suggests classification of DuCV as a new member of the genus Circovirus of the virus family Circoviridae.

  17. Two-Dimensional Zymography of Proteases from Steatotic Duck Liver. (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Padrón, María Fernanda; Kurz, Liliana; Rémignon, Hervé


    Protease activity present in liver cells with steatosis can be electrophoretically characterized. Zymographic techniques allow semi-quantitative results, successfully detecting cathepsin and metalloprotease activity using polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with gelatin and quantified by densitometry. By using specific inhibitors, the identity of the proteases can be confirmed. 2D zymography allows the determination of both M r. and pI of the metalloprotease and cathepsin activity present in the homogenates. The analysis of liver proteases activities in force fed ducks may elucidate the mechanisms behind steatosis development.

  18. Age-class separation of blue-winged ducks (United States)

    Hohman, W.L.; Moore, J.L.; Twedt, D.J.; Mensik, John G.; Logerwell, E.


    Accurate determination of age is of fundamental importance to population and life history studies of waterfowl and their management. Therefore, we developed quantitative methods that separate adult and immature blue-winged teal (Anas discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) during spring and summer. To assess suitability of discriminant models using 9 remigial measurements, we compared model performance (% agreement between predicted age and age assigned to birds on the basis of definitive cloacal or rectral feather characteristics) in different flyways (Mississippi and Pacific) and between years (1990-91 and 1991-92). We also applied age-classification models to wings obtained from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service harvest surveys in the Mississippi and Central-Pacific flyways (wing-bees) for which age had been determined using qualitative characteristics (i.e., remigial markings, shape, or wear). Except for male northern shovelers, models correctly aged lt 90% (range 70-86%) of blue-winged ducks. Model performance varied among species and differed between sexes and years. Proportions of individuals that were correctly aged were greater for males (range 63-86%) than females (range 39-69%). Models for northern shovelers performed better in flyway comparisons within year (1991-92, La. model applied to Calif. birds, and Calif. model applied to La. birds: 90 and 94% for M, and 89 and 76% for F, respectively) than in annual comparisons within the Mississippi Flyway (1991-92 model applied to 1990-91 data: 79% for M, 50% for F). Exclusion of measurements that varied by flyway or year did not improve model performance. Quantitative methods appear to be of limited value for age separation of female blue-winged ducks. Close agreement between predicted age and age assigned to wings from the wing-bees suggests that qualitative and quantitative methods may be equally accurate for age separation of male blue-winged ducks. We interpret annual

  19. Autoinmunidad y receptores tipo Toll = Autoimmunity and toll-like receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossa Giraldo, Ana Claudia


    Full Text Available La respuesta inmune innata está conformada por un conjunto de mecanismos que permiten reconocer los componentes propios del organismo y diferenciarlos de los microorganismos invasores para generar una primera línea de defensa. Este reconocimiento está mediado por diferentes receptores presentes en la superficie y en el interior de células inmunes y no inmunes; entre ellos se encuentran los siguientes: receptores tipo Toll (RTT, receptores de lectinas tipo C, receptores tipo GIR (genes inducibles por ácido retinoico y receptores tipo Nod y NALP, que reconocen patrones moleculares asociados a microorganismos (PMAM. Gracias a esta capacidad de discriminación, adquirida evolutivamente por la inmunidad innata, se ha aceptado tradicionalmente que los procesos autoinmunes no están relacionados con esta sino con la inmunidad adquirida. Sin embargo, varios estudios han demostrado que esa teoría no es totalmente cierta y que algunos mecanismos efectores de la inmunidad innata participan en la generación de las enfermedades autoinmunes o en la potenciación de su fisiopatología. En esta revisión se estudia la contribución de la inmunidad innata a la autoinmunidad con énfasis en el papel de los receptores tipo Toll.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari


    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation of four blood protein loci and three egg white loci in three breeds of Indonesian local ducks (Magelang duck = MAD, Tegal duck = TED and Mojosari duck= MOD was investigated by using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The result showed that four blood protein loci (Pre-albumin, Albumin, Transferrin and Post-transferrin and three egg white loci (Ovalbumin, Ovoglobulin and Conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three breeds of local ducks. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein polyimorphism. The average value of heterozygosity on three breeds of local ducks had a genetic potential to determine the controlled mating system and selection to obtain pure line. The closest phylogenetic relationship among the three breeds of local ducks occurred between MAD and TED.

  1. Morphometric Traits of Muscovy Ducks from Two Agro Ecological Zones of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu, A.


    Full Text Available Morphological variation between Muscovy ducks from the guinea savannah and rainforest zones of Nigeria was examined using multivariate discriminant analysis. Data comprised eight morphometric traits measured in a total of 435 adult ducks randomly selected in the two agro-ecological zones. Common descriptive statistics showed that ducks from the rainforest zone had higher (P< 0.05 body weight, foot length and thigh circumference, while their guinea savannah counterparts were longer (P< 0.05 in the neck. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that foot length, neck length, thigh circumference and body length were more effective in discriminating between the duck populations. The low Mahalanobis distance of 3.39, as revealed by the canonical discriminant analysis, is an indication of high gene flow between ducks from the two agro-ecological zones. The cluster analysis also revealed the homogeneity of the genetic identity of the duck populations. The present information will be the basis for further characterization, conservation and sustainable genetic improvement strategies for indigenous ducks.

  2. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks (United States)

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.


    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  3. Death feigning by ducks in response to predation by red foxes (Vulpes fulva) (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Eberhardt, L.E.


    Predation by captive red foxes (Vulpes fulva) on approximately 50 ducks comprised of five species was observed in tests conducted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. Most ducks were attacked from a rear or lateral position and seized in the cervical or thoracic region. All birds became immobile (death-feigned) immediately when seized and with few exceptions remained motionless during prey-handling and for varying lengths of time thereafter. Initial death feints lasted from 20 sec to 14 min. Recovery was delayed by tactile, visual and, possibly, auditory cues from the foxes. Death-feigning birds appeared alert and often took advantage of escape opportunities. Twenty-nine birds survived initial capture and handling by the foxes. Naive foxes were wary of ducks during initial confrontations, but experienced foxes showed little hesitation in attacking them. After capture, most ducks were taken alive to lay-down sites where they were mouthed and often killed. Then the ducks were usually cached or taken to dens or pups. Several birds were cached alive. Red foxes appear to have adapted to the escape of death-feigning ducks by learning to kill some birds soon after capture and by the evolution of an appendage-severing behavior. Death feigning appears to be a highly developed antipredator behavior of ducks that facilitates the escape of some birds after capture by red foxes.

  4. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

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    Essam A. Mahmoud


    Full Text Available Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI. Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1 and the other fifteen (Group 2 were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1. The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1. Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis. Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations. Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1 became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs.

  5. Optimizing the Performance of Solo Duck Wave Energy Converter in Tide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Wu


    Full Text Available The high efficiency performance of the Edinburgh Duck wave energy converter (WEC in 2D regular wave tests makes it a promising wave energy conversion scheme. A solo Duck WEC will be able to apply the point absorber effect to further enhance its performance. Since released degree of freedom will decrease the efficiency, a Duck WEC with fixed pitching axis will be a better option. However, for fixed supported WECs, tide is a non-ignorable consideration. In this paper, a movable mass method is utilized in the whole tidal range to not only balance the Duck to appropriate beak angles, but also follow the variation of hydrodynamic coefficients to keep cancelling the reactance of the system impedance so that complex conjugate control can be realized to optimize the power capture performance of the Duck WEC in tide. Results show that the beak angle should be adjusted to as large a value as possible so that the response amplitude of the Duck at maximum relative capture width will be reasonable small, and the lowest weight of the movable mass is found when its designed position locates at the center of the Duck profile.

  6. Determination of Benzylpenicillin Potassium Residues in Duck Meat Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Au Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijie Peng


    Full Text Available A new method using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS with Au nanoparticles was established for the rapid detection of benzylpenicillin potassium (PG residues in duck meat. Au nanoparticles were used as SERS enhancement substrate, and the maximum absorption peak of Au nanoparticles using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer was 548 nm. In the research, the SERS spectra of PG solutions and PG duck meat extract as well as their vibrational assignment were analyzed. The effects of Au nanoparticles addition, sample addition, NaCl solution addition, and adsorption time on the SERS intensities of PG duck meat extract were discussed. It is revealed that a good linearity can be obtained between the SERS intensities at 993 cm−1 and the PG residues concentrations (0.5~15.0 mg·L−1 detected in duck meat extract. The linear equation was Y=831.68X+1997.1, and the determination coefficient was 0.9553. The determination coefficient of PG in duck meat extract between the actual values and the predictive values was 0.9757, and the root mean square error (RMSEP was 0.6496 mg/L. The recovery rate of PG in duck meat extract was 90~121%. The results showed that the method using SERS with Au nanoparticles could pave a new way for the rapid detection of PG residues in duck meat.

  7. Rapid Detection of Tetracycline Residues in Duck Meat Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhui Zhao


    Full Text Available A rapid detection method based on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS was proposed in this paper in order to realize the detection of tetracycline residues in duck meat. Firstly, surface enhanced Raman spectra characteristics of tetracycline aqueous solution, duck meat extract, and duck meat extract containing tetracycline were analyzed. Secondly, the effect of the addition amount of duck meat extract containing tetracycline on SERS intensity and the effect of the adsorption time on SERS intensity were discussed, respectively. Thirdly, SERS intensity ratio at 1272 and 1558 cm−1 (I1272/I1558 was used to establish the SERS calibration curve. A good linearity relationship between the tetracycline concentration in duck meat extract and I1272/I1558 was obtained, and the linear regression equation and the correlation coefficient (r were y=0.0177x+0.1213 and 0.950, respectively. The average recovery of tetracycline in duck meat extract was 101~108% with relative standard deviation (RSD of 2.4~4.6%. The experimental results showed that the method proposed in this paper was a good detection scheme for the rapid detection of tetracycline residues in duck meat.

  8. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  9. Effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on growth performance in Muscovy ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sheng-Qiu


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary Bacillus subtilis natto could affect growth performance of Muscovy ducks. A total of 120 hundred Muscovy ducks at the age of 1 day were randomly assigned to four groups (30 Muscovy ducks/group, and fed with diets supplemented with 0% (control group, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto, respectively during the 6-week feeding period. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Muscovy ducks were significantly improved by the dietary addition of Bacillus subtilis natto, and the results were more significant in 0.4% dietary Bacillus subtilis natto treatment group; Also, Bacillus subtilis natto reduced Escherichia coli and Salmonella colonies, and increased lactobacilli population in the ileum and the cecum. Biochemical parameters, including total protein, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase, AKP (alkaline phosphatase, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4 contents (pBacillus subtilis natto was added to the diets (p0.05. The results of the present study indicate that diets with 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto improved the growth performance of Muscovy ducks by increasing the absorption of protein, simulating hormone secretion, suppressing harmful microflora, and improving the duodenal structure and immune functions of Muscovy ducks. It is suggested that Bacillus subtilis natto is a potential candidate to be used use as a probiotic to improve the growth performance of Muscovy ducks.

  10. Evaluation of chlorpyrifos transferred from contaminated feed to duck commodities and dietary risks to Chinese consumers. (United States)

    Li, Rui; Ji, Xiaofeng; He, Liang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wei, Wei; Qiang, Mingrong; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Yuwei


    The present study describes chlorpyrifos residues in duck commodities through the duck food chain, transfer factors, and dietary risks to Chinese consumers. After duck feeding experiments with pellet feed that lasted for 42 days, chlorpyrifos residues found in all samples collected from the ducks on maximum estimated dose group (3.20 mg/kg level) were from commodities were from 0.0001 to 0.0049 among different contamination levels, which indicated that chlorpyrifos had a low persistency in duck meat and metabolism organs. The chronic exposure assessment revealed that only 0.034-0.150% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 0-0.01 mg/kg/bw/day) of chlorpyrifos was consumed via the duck commodities for different age and gender groups in China. The acute exposure assessments of different age and gender groups were only 0.019-0.082% of the acute reference dose (ARfD; 0-0.1 mg/kg/bw). The results show that the single dietary exposure risk of chlorpyrifos raised by the intake of duck commodities was quite low in China.

  11. New Professionals on tap? The human resource challenges in developing a new generation of municipal and local government managers in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Molloy


    Full Text Available Canadian governments are facing significant human resource management challenges due to pending retirements, projected labour market shortages and the workplace expectations of New Professionals. This paper explores human resource recruitment planning initiatives, which have been undertaken by Nova Scotia municipalities, in order to attract and retain a new generation of municipal government managers. We will argue, in line with a recent Association of Municipal Administrators (AMA of Nova Scotia municipal report that Nova Scotia municipalities must take intergenerational issues into account, for management succession planning to be successful. Our exploration of municipal succession planning will take place in the context of a larger study, which we have done on “New Professional” recruitment, retention and development initiatives in Canada

  12. Growth of the Antarctic octocoral Primnoella scotiae and predation by the anemone Dactylanthus antarcticus (United States)

    Peck, Lloyd S.; Brockington, Simon


    Growth rates in Antarctic marine ectotherms have been demonstrated to be slowed by two to five times compared to shallow-water temperate species, with no previous reports for octocorals. Here growth rates were estimated in the single axis, non-branching Antarctic octocoral Primnoella scotiae using repeated in situ length measures covering both summer and winter periods, for tagged colonies from three sites at Signy Island over a two year period. Mean rates of length increase at the different sites ranged from 0.96 mm yr-1 to 55.3 mm yr-1. The fastest individual colony growth rate at any site ranged from 2.55 mm yr-1 to 175.6 mm yr-1. The mean of the fastest growth rates across all sites was 33.0 mm yr-1±14.7 (s.e.). Growth was significantly different between sites, and also between seasons and years. The mean overall increase in diameter of the average sized colony in the study (222.5 mm in axis length) was 0.053 mm yr-1. This is the slowest reported growth rate of any octocoral to date, and is five times slower than growth in most cold water octocorals. During the study it was noted that colonies were being attacked and consumed by the anemone Dactylanthus antarcticus. At one of the sites studied, between 5% and 8% of colonies surveyed were attacked each month. Anemone dispersal was via whole body inflation and drifting to new prey colonies that were attached to using tentacle-like column protuberances.

  13. Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks. (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian


    The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Penggantian Sebagian Ransum Komersial dengan Polar dan Aditif Duck mix terhadap Komposisi Fisik Karkas Itik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti


    Full Text Available The substitution a part of commercial feed with pollard and duck mix additive on duck carcass physic composition ABSTRACT. The aim of this experiment was to study pollard optimum levels with additive complex mineral vitamin on the carcass physic composition Balinese male duck age 10 weeks, was carried out at Jl. Binginambe, Kediri village, Tabanan Regency. The design which used in this experiment a completely randomized design Those four treatments were ration contain 100% commercial feed (A; ration with 85% commercial feed + 15% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (B; ration with 70% commercial feed + 30% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (C; ration with 55% commercial feed + 45% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (D, respectively. The variables which measured were carcass weight, carcass percent, and carcass physic composition. The result of this experiment showed that the substitution commercial feed with pollard from 15-45% and duck mix were not significant (P >0.05 decrease carcass percent, carcass bone percent than treatment A. Meat percent on treatment B 1.81% non significant (P>0.05 increase than treatment A, but C and D treatments 2.63% and 4.87% significantly increase than treatment A. Subcutan fat on C and D treatments 6.72% and 6.67% significant lower (P <0.05 than treatment A, and D treatment 4.91% significant lower than treatment B. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that substitution pollard from 15%-45% with additive 0.3% duck mix were decrease carcass percent and bone carcass percent, but substitution pollard 30% and 45% can increase meat carcass percent and decrease fat Balinese male duck age 10 weeks.

  15. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand (United States)

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P


    Abstract A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST, and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. We applied molecular epidemiology and population genetics to obtain insights in to the population structure, host-species relationships, gene flow and

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Toll receptor gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii. (United States)

    Srisuk, Chutima; Longyant, Siwaporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin


    Toll receptors are cell surface molecules acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that have been implicated in the signaling pathway of innate immune responses. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a Toll receptor gene of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated MrToll, was successfully isolated using designed degenerate primers and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The MrToll gene sequence contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2799 nucleotides encoding a protein of 932 amino acid residues. The protein contained distinct structural motifs of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, including an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a transmembrane segment of 23 amino acids, and a cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin-1R (TIR) domain of 139 residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MrToll and Toll receptor of Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjToll) evolved closely. However, the MrToll ORF demonstrated only 48-49% identity with shrimp Toll1, suggesting that MrToll isolated from a palaemonid shrimp might belong to a novel class of Toll receptors in shrimp. The transcripts of the MrToll gene were constitutively expressed in various tissues, with high levels in hemocytes, the stomach and muscle. A reverse transcriptase PCR assay demonstrated that the expression patterns of MrToll were distinctly modulated after Aeromonas caviae stimulation, with significant enhancement at 3-12 h post-challenge and a decline to basal levels at 24 h post-challenge. In addition, when MrToll-silenced shrimp were challenged with A. caviae, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. These results suggest that MrToll might be involved in host innate defense, especially against the pathogen A. caviae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identifying opportunities to address the congestive heart failure burden: the Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) study. (United States)

    Howlett, Jonathan G; Johnstone, David E; Sketris, Ingrid; O'Reilly, Michael; Horne, Gabrielle S; Cox, Jafna L


    Medical, social and economic costs of congestive heart failure (CHF) continue to rise. There exists a 'care gap' between what the optimal care populations with CHF should receive and actually do receive. Central to the goal to develop effective strategies against the 'care gap' is accurate measurement of the CHF burden. Administrative data are limited in detail and accuracy and clinical databases suffer from limited size. Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) is a province-wide population-based disease management study with access to all patient health data including outcomes. Medical records of all patients admitted to any Nova Scotia health care institution with a cardiovascular disorder were prospectively examined by trained abstractors. Patients were followed up and health outcomes measured through assignment of unique identifier numbers and linkage with Vital Statistics Nova Scotia. This report summarizes baseline data for the population admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of CHF between October 15, 1997 and October 14, 1998. There were 2637 unique patients enrolled with 3547 hospitalizations. The median length of stay was eight days, with in-hospital mortality of 18.2%; 10.8% were discharged to long term care. The mortality rate was 38.7% at 12 months and the rehospitalization rate was 39.9%. Average age was 75 +/- 10 years (median 76) and 52% were female. There were 4.5 comorbidities per patient. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured in fewer than 40%; of these, fewer than 39% had a documented ejection fraction less than 40%. At discharge, 61.3% of survivors were prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, 6.0% angiotensin blockers, 42.1% beta-blockers, 75.6% diuretics, 26.1% calcium channel blockers and 19.3% warfarin. Females were older and had lower rate of LVEF testing and ACE and warfarin usage. The burden of disease for CHF in Nova Scotia is large and affects an elderly population with multiple

  18. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting-Wei, E-mail: [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jai-Wei, E-mail: [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hsueh-Yen, E-mail: [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsiao, E-mail: [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chun-Yen, E-mail: [Graduate Institute of Animal Vaccine Technology, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun, E-mail: [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo Ping, E-mail: [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Department of Cosmetics and Fashion styling, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chi, E-mail: [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China)


    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  19. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi


    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  20. Pipelines update : new tolls and new opportunities in gas gathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, E.


    An overview of the new TransCanada energy transmission system was given. TransCanada has ownership interests in seven other North American natural gas pipelines and the integration of former NOVA Gas Transmission, TransCanada Energy Transmission and ANG Pipeline organizations into a single organization is nearing completion. Integration efforts have been driven by TransCanada's commitment to provide customers with lower costs and improved service levels. The service enhancements will include one-stop shopping, customer advisory councils, harmonized design criteria, optimized operations/maintenance, and consistent billing processes. The new toll design which will replace the current postage-stamp pricing regime offered by NGTL was also reviewed, emphasizing key features such as pricing, term linked tolls, interruptible/short term tolls, renewal incentive, risk/reward collar, transition period and new services

  1. A dynamic feedback-control toll pricing methodology : a case study on Interstate 95 managed lanes. (United States)


    Recently, congestion pricing emerged as a cost-effective and efficient strategy to mitigate the congestion problem on freeways. This study develops a feedback-control based dynamic toll approach to formulate and solve for optimal tolls. The study com...

  2. Electronic Toll And Traffic Management Systems, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis (United States)



  3. Trade patterns facilitating highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dissemination in the free-grazing layer duck system in Vietnam. (United States)

    Meyer, A; Dinh, T X; Han, T A; Do, D V; Nhu, T V; Pham, L T; Nguyen, T T T; Newman, S; Häsler, B; Pfeiffer, D U; Vergne, T


    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam. In this study, we used a value chain approach to provide a complete picture of the actors involved in the production and marketing of free-grazing duck eggs and spent layer ducks, as well as to investigate the governance structure of this food system. Group interviews and key informant interviews were conducted in two provinces located in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) and the Red River Delta (RRD). The results presented here highlight similarities and differences in farming and trade practices between the two provinces. The trade of spent layer ducks involved large volumes of live ducks being sent to China and Cambodia for consumption, generating a substantial risk of transboundary spread of pathogens, including HPAI viruses. We describe the major role of "duck yards", which act as hubs in the northbound trade of spent layer ducks. These yards should be considered as essential links in the value chain of spent layer ducks when considering HPAI surveillance and control. The veterinary authorities are only marginally involved in the value chain activities, and their influence could be strengthened by increasing surveillance activities for instance in duck yards. Last, we discuss the dynamics of the duck value chain and further implications for future HPAI management policies. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Substantial-Motivational Mechanism for Substantiation of Tolling Operations in Conditions of the European Integration


    Melnyk Olga G; Kots Iryna I.


    The article is concerned with conceptualization of substance, distinguishing characteristics and motives of the implementation of tolling operations in conditions of the European integration. The study, based on the systematization and analysis of existing scientific approaches to definition of essence of tolling and tolling operations, has disclosed the dominating poli-positionality and ambiguity in this area. Economical autonomy of tolling operations has been determined, t...

  5. Thoughts on controls on evolution and dispersal of benthos in the Magellan-Scotia Sea region: a workshop proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R.A. Thomson


    Full Text Available The Scotia Arc and the Scotia Sea comprise a geologically young feature of the Earth’s surface that evolved over the last 40 million years (Ma or so, between the southern tip of South America and the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. With the notable exception of the much younger South Sandwich Islands, the islands, banks and seamounts of the arc represent dispersed fragments of a previous continental link between southern South America (Magellan region and the Antarctic Peninsula. The benthic marine shelf faunas of the region are the focus of the IBMANT (Investigación Biolólogica Marina en Magallanes relacionada con la Antártida programme, and those of the surrounding oceanic deeps are the focus of ANDEEP (Antarctic Benthic Deep-Sea Biodiversity. Elucidating the potential relationships between the faunas of the region and the profound geographical, oceanographic and climatic changes undergone by the region in later Cenozoic time is hampered by significant unknowns in the geological history, the expense of further geoscientific exploration to fill these, and a general lack of communication between the biological and geological science communities. It is suggested that the time is opportune for a truly multidisciplinary workshop at which all the involved science communities have much to gain from the others.

  6. Food security status among grade 5 students in Nova Scotia, Canada and its association with health outcomes. (United States)

    Kirk, Sara F L; Kuhle, Stefan; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Williams, Patty L; Rossiter, Melissa; Ohinmaa, Arto; Veugelers, Paul J


    Food security (FS) exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their needs. The present research sought to determine whether students from households experiencing moderate or severe food insecurity (FI) had poorer diet quality, higher body weights and poorer psychosocial outcomes than students from households classed as having high FS or marginal FI status. Population-based survey conducted in schools. Multiple regression analysis was used to explore associations between FS status (high FS; marginal, moderate, severe FI), dietary behaviours and intake, and health-related outcomes (body weight, quality of life, mood, peer relationships, externalizing problems). Nova Scotia, Canada. Grade 5 students (n 5853), aged 10-11 years, with complete information on FS status and student outcomes. In this sample, rates of household FS were 73·5% (high FS), 8·3% (marginal FI) 10·2% (moderate FI) and 7·1% (severe FI status). Students living in households experiencing moderate or severe FI had poorer diet quality, higher BMI and poorer psychosocial outcomes than students classed as having high FS or marginal FI. These findings provide important evidence for policy makers on the prevalence of FI among families in Nova Scotia with grade 5 children and its relationship with childhood nutrition, psychosocial and quality of life factors, and weight status.

  7. Characterization of the Nova Scotia Coastally-Trapped Current and Monitoring of the Associated Density Front Using Underwater Gliders (United States)

    Dever, M.; Hebert, D.; Greenan, B. J. W.; Sheng, J.


    Repeated glider transects across the Scotian Shelf, near Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, completed between 2011 and 2015 provide a dataset with high temporal and spatial resolutions. This new dataset is used to characterize the seasonal variability of the Nova Scotia Current (NSC): a southwestward, coastally-trapped, alongshore current flowing from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Maine. Alongshore currents are estimated by scaling the geostrophic flow, derived from the density field, with the drift experienced by the glider during each dives. The results are compared to concurrent ADCP observations to assess the reliability of the technique and then used to characterize the alongshore circulation across the Halifax Line. It demonstrates that most of the alongshore transport is associated with the density front separating the low-density NSC from denser shelf water. An automated algorithm is then developed to monitor the major characteristics of the density front (e.g. width, frontal depth, density gradient). We find that the persistent summer stratification explains the lag observed between the seasonal pulse of buoyant water coming for the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the fall and the maximum alongshore current in the winter. This reveals that the density gradient is not the only major parameter explaining the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the NSC: the geometry of the density front also plays an important role. This makes wind forcing a potential major driving mechanism of the NSC, as alongshore winds can significantly affect the geometry of the density front via Ekman transport.

  8. DMPD: The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic methods. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16001129 The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic methods. Beutler B. I...mmunogenetics. 2005 Jul;57(6):385-92. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forwar...d genetic methods. PubmedID 16001129 Title The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic meth

  9. DMPD: Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18280610 Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. Thompson Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. PubmedID 18280610 Title Toll-like regulation of viral infection and disease. Authors Thompson JM, Iwasaki A. Pub

  10. DMPD: Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15178705 Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. Tsan MF, Gao B. J Leukoc Biol. ...2004 Sep;76(3):514-9. Epub 2004 Jun 3. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Endogenous ligands of Toll-like re...ceptors. PubmedID 15178705 Title Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. Authors Tsan MF, Gao B. Publicat

  11. DMPD: Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15662540 Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. Li X, Qin J.... J Mol Med. 2005 Apr;83(4):258-66. Epub 2005 Jan 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Modulation of Toll-i...nterleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. PubmedID 15662540 Title Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor

  12. DMPD: Toll-like receptor signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17934330 Toll-like receptor signal transduction. Krishnan J, Selvarajoo K, Tsuchiya... M, Lee G, Choi S. Exp Mol Med. 2007 Aug 31;39(4):421-38. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptor transduction. PubmedID 17934330 Title Toll-like receptor signal transduction. Authors Krishnan J,

  13. DMPD: All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16446382 All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition. Wagner H, Bauer S. J Exp... Med. 2006 Feb 20;203(2):265-8. Epub 2006 Jan 30. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show All is not Toll: new pathways... in DNA recognition. PubmedID 16446382 Title All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition. Authors

  14. 77 FR 2610 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee (United States)


    ... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be held Tuesday, February 7, 2012... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee AGENCY...

  15. 77 FR 21156 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee (United States)


    ... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be held Tuesday, May 1, 2012, at 11 a.m. Eastern... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee AGENCY...

  16. 77 FR 30590 - Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee. (United States)


    ... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be held Tuesday, June 5, 2012, from 8:00 a.m.-4:30... Internal Revenue Service Open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee. AGENCY...

  17. 77 FR 55526 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee (United States)


    ... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be held Tuesday, October 2, 2012... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee AGENCY...

  18. 77 FR 40411 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee (United States)


    ... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be held Tuesday, August 7, 2012... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee AGENCY...

  19. 77 FR 61052 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee (United States)


    ... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be held Tuesday, November 6, 2012... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee AGENCY...

  20. 77 FR 47165 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee (United States)


    ... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be held Tuesday, September 4, 2012... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee AGENCY...

  1. 77 FR 8328 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee (United States)


    ... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be held Tuesday, March 06, 2012... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee AGENCY...

  2. 76 FR 77892 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee (United States)


    ... Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer Advocacy Panel is... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee will be held Tuesday, January 03, 2012... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Project Committee AGENCY...

  3. The Toll pathway is required in the epidermis for muscle development in the Drosophila embryo (United States)

    Halfon, M. S.; Keshishian, H.


    The Toll signaling pathway functions in several Drosophila processes, including dorsal-ventral pattern formation and the immune response. Here, we demonstrate that this pathway is required in the epidermis for proper muscle development. Previously, we showed that the zygotic Toll protein is necessary for normal muscle development; in the absence of zygotic Toll, close to 50% of hemisegments have muscle patterning defects consisting of missing, duplicated and misinserted muscle fibers (Halfon, M.S., Hashimoto, C., and Keshishian, H., Dev. Biol. 169, 151-167, 1995). We have now also analyzed the requirements for easter, spatzle, tube, and pelle, all of which function in the Toll-mediated dorsal-ventral patterning pathway. We find that spatzle, tube, and pelle, but not easter, are necessary for muscle development. Mutations in these genes give a phenotype identical to that seen in Toll mutants, suggesting that elements of the same pathway used for Toll signaling in dorsal-ventral development are used during muscle development. By expressing the Toll cDNA under the control of distinct Toll enhancer elements in Toll mutant flies, we have examined the spatial requirements for Toll expression during muscle development. Expression of Toll in a subset of epidermal cells that includes the epidermal muscle attachment cells, but not Toll expression in the musculature, is necessary for proper muscle development. Our results suggest that signals received by the epidermis early during muscle development are an important part of the muscle patterning process.

  4. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.


    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  5. Harlequin duck capture and EROD activity data from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2011, 2013, 2014 (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set includes capture information and ethoxyresorufin­O­deethylase (EROD) activity results for harlequin ducks sampled during March 2011, 2013, and 2014 in...

  6. Physicochemical properties of meat of ducks of mulberries in modern technologies of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Galin


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the chemical composition of mullards duck meat in comparison with the ducks of the Beijingg white breed and musk ducks. The chemical analysis results allow us to note the high moisture content for mullard duck meat. The low fat content for white and red mullard duck meat opens up wide opportunities for the development of an assortment of meat products with a functional orientation. The limited amino acids are determined. The total number of essential amino acids in the mullard duck meat is higher than in musk (by 1.02 g / 100 g protein and Beijingg (by 0.86 g / 100 g protein, which indicates a higher biological value. The limiting amino acid is methionine and cysteine. The article presents the results of the raw material aroma assessment using the "MAG 8" - "electronic nose" analyzer. The content of easily volatile compounds in the equilibrium gas phase for samples of muscle and fat tissue from ducks of different breeding was compared and evaluated. The most informative in the matrix are sensors with films of polydiethylene glycol succinate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol PEG-2000, 18-crown-6, trioctylphosphine oxidase, which show maximum sensitivity to polar and nitrogen-containing compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons. This is explained by the fact that the easily volatile fraction of both meat and fat of the samples under study is represented by a variety of organic compounds of different concentrations. Such a variety of substances can be perceived by tasters as "a noticeable smell, difficult". In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the aroma of muscle and fat tissue of mulard ducks is more intense, more saturated than the Beijingg duck. The obtained data on the chemical composition indicate possible dietary properties of meat of ducks of mullards. The rich, pronounced aroma of muscle and fatty tissue causes high organoleptic parameters of the finished product, which is

  7. The effects of different bill-trimming methods on the well-being of Pekin ducks. (United States)

    Gustafson, L A; Cheng, H-W; Garner, J P; Pajor, E A; Mench, J A


    Pekin ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism, but this practice has been criticized because of the resulting potential for acute and chronic pain. The goal of this experiment was to compare 2 different bill-trimming methods, hot blade trimming with cautery (TRIM) and cautery only (tip-searing; SEAR), on the behavior, bill morphology, and weight gain of Pekin ducks. Ducklings (n = 192, 96 per sex) were trimmed at the hatchery and assigned to 12 floor pens (3.66 x0.91 m) by treatment. Behavior was evaluated by scan sampling, and plumage condition was scored using a 0 to 3 scoring system. Thirty-six ducks were randomly euthanized at 3 and 6 wk of age, and their bills were collected for examination. Following fixation and decalcification, the bills were embedded in paraffin wax and sectioned longitudinally. Alternate sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome for the connective tissues, and with Bielschowsky's silver impregnation, Bodian's staining, and Holmes' staining for the nerve fibers. Trimmed ducks engaged in fewer bill-related behaviors and rested more than untrimmed ducks (NOTRIM) during the first 2 wk posttrim. Ducks in the SEAR and NOTRIM groups showed similar patterns of weight gain, but those in the TRIM group had a lower rate of gain than ducks in the SEAR group during the first week posttrim and had a lower rate of gain than those in the NOTRIM group for 2 wk posttrim. Feather scores of ducks in the NOTRIM group were significantly worse than those in the TRIM or SEAR group by 18 d, and scores continued to deteriorate at a greater rate than those of trimmed ducks throughout the study. Both trimming methods caused connective tissue proliferation in the bill stumps, but the TRIM method caused thicker scar tissue than the SEAR method. No neuromas were found with either trimming method, but there were more nerve fibers in bill stumps of the SEAR ducks than the TRIM ducks. These results suggest that

  8. Joint influence of meteorological events on light trapping of turnip moth (Scotia segetum Schiff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskas János


    Full Text Available The light-trap collecting results, showing its flight activity, of turnip moth (Scotia segetum S c h i f f was examined connected with meteorological events. These factors were instability line, the convergence zone, the cyclogenesis, the country-wide rain, the cold- and warm weather fronts, the maritime- and continental moderate, arctic and subtropical air masses used the data published in "Calendar of Weather Phenomena" between 1967 and 1990 by National Meteorological Service. There were 29832 moths caught during 3232 night by 64 light-trap stations in the examined period. During one night more light-traps operated, therefore 25.021 observing data were worked up. We mean that the observing data are the same as the catching data at one night, at one observing station. The data of meteorological events were collected into groups according to their occurrence on one day alone or together with other ones. They were collected into separated groups according to arriving after a day without any meteorological events or if there were any of them on the previous day. The values of relative catch (RC were calculated daily for each observing stations and generations used the catching data. There was made a comparison between the relative catch (RC values and the meteorological events belonging to the data and on previous and following days. Then the relative catch values were summarized and averaged daily. The differences of daily average values of significance levels were controlled with t-test in all the groups. More than 95% significance levels were found in 36 groups. The favourable and infavourable influences of each event are the strongest at that time, when have influence not only alone but also with other effects simultaneously or they follow one another in a short time. Our results prove clearly, it is not enough to examine exclusively the modifying influence of each meteorological event on light-trap collecting. The success of light trapping is

  9. A proposed origin for fossilized Pennsylvanian plant cuticles by pyrite oxidation (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada) (United States)

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria


    Fossilized cuticles, though rare in the roof rocks of coal seam in the younger part of the Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, represent nearly all of the major plant groups. Selected for investigation, by methods of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis, are fossilized cuticles (FCs) and cuticles extracted from compressions by Schulze's process (CCs) of Alethopteris ambigua. These investigations are supplemented by FTIR analysis of FCs and CCs of Cordaites principalis, and a cuticle-fossilized medullosalean(?) axis. The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to try to determine biochemical discriminators between FCs and CCs of the same species using semi-quantitative FTIR techniques; (2) to assess the effects chemical treatments have, particularly Schulze's process, on functional groups; and most importantly (3) to study the primary origin of FCs. Results are equivocal in respect to (1); (2) after Schulze's treatment aliphatic moieties tend to be reduced relative to oxygenated groups, and some aliphatic chains may be shortened; and (3) a primary chemical model is proposed. The model is based on a variety of geological observations, including stratal distribution, clay and pyrite mineralogies associated with FCs and compressions, and regional geological structure. The model presupposes compression-cuticle fossilization under anoxic conditions for late authigenic deposition of sub-micron-sized pyrite on the compressions. Rock joints subsequently provided conduits for oxygen-enriched ground-water circulation to initiate in situ pyritic oxidation that produced sulfuric acid for macerating compressions, with resultant loss of vitrinite, but with preservation of cuticles as FCs. The timing of the process remains undetermined, though it is assumed to be late to post-diagenetic. Although FCs represent a pathway of organic matter transformation (pomd) distinct from other plant-fossilization processes, global applicability of the

  10. Economics of duck marketing in Oyo State | Saka | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prices of drake (N557.30) were significantly higher than prices of duck (N424.90) across the locations and also ducks were sold at significantly higher prices during festival periods than non-festival periods (p<0.01). Marketing profit was 31.2% of the total marketing cost and 68.9% of the marketing margin, thus indicating that ...

  11. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks. (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi


    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa Qiong Xu

    Full Text Available The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated with ABCG2 (up-regulated and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  13. Effect of certain anesthetic agents on mallard ducks (United States)

    Cline, D.R.; Greenwood, R.J.


    Four anesthetic agents used in human or veterinary medicine and 3 experimental anesthetic preparations were evaluated for effectiveness in inducing narcosis when administered orally to game-farm mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).Tribromoethanol was the only compound to satisfy criteria of initial tests. Mean duration of the induction, immobilization, and recovery periods was 2.4 minutes, 8.7 minutes, and 1.3 hours, respectively, at the median effective dosage for immobilization (ED50; 100 mg./kg. of body weight). The median lethal dosage (LD50) was 400 mg./kg. of body weight.Tribromoethanol was also tested on mallards during the reproductive season. Effects on the hatchability of eggs or the survival of young were not detected.

  14. Methylmercury: Second generation reproductive and behavioral effects of mallard ducks (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.


    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) whose parents were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury (equal to about 0.1 ppm mercury in a natural diet) also were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury beginning at 9 days of age and continuing through their reproductive season. Mercury in the eggs of treated hens averaged 0.86 ppm. Hens fed 0.5 ppm mercury made less efficient use of feed and laid a greater percentage of eggs outside nestboxes compared with controls. Hens fed mercury also produced fewer 1-week-old ducklings than did controls. There were no significant differences between controls and ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury in approach responses to tape-recorded maternal calls, in avoidance of a frightening stimulus, or in open-field behavior. Ducklings from parents fed 0.5 pprn mercury did not grow as fast as did control ducklings.

  15. [Fungi microbiot of Melipona subnitida Ducke (Hymenoptera: Apidae)]. (United States)

    Ferraz, Richard E; Feijó, Francisco M C; Alves, Nilza D; Lima, Paulo M; Pereira, Daniel S; Freitas, Carlos C O


    This paper reports on the occurrence of filamentous fungi found on the surface of the bees body from the specie Melipona subnitida Ducke that inhabits rocky places on the semi-arid Northeastern Brazil. Bees with cause of natural death were collected of beehives belonging to the Centro de Multiplicação de Animais Silvestres of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido. We found the fungi: Aspergillus sp. 6 (37.5%); Aspergillus niger 2 (12.5%); Penicilium sp. 2 (12.5%); Aspergillus terreus 1 (6.3%); Curvularia sp. 1 (6.35%); Monilia sp. 1 (6.3%); Nigrospora sp. 1 (6.3%); Cladosporium sp. 1 (6.3%); Tricoderma sp. 1 (6.3%).

  16. Selenium and heavy metals in San Francisco Bay diving ducks (United States)

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Lowe, Roy W.; Kelly, P.R.; Harvey, T.E.


    We analyzed for selenium (Se) and heavy metals in greater scaups (Aythya marila) and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) collected from southern San Francisco Bay in March and April 1982. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between species for liver concentrations of silver (Ag), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb). Copper (Cu) (P 0.05) between the 2 species. The geometric mean cadmium (Cd) concentration in scoter kidneys (24.6 ppm, dry wt) was higher than in scaups (15.5 ppm) (0.1 > P > 0.05). Liver concentrations of Hg and Se were correlated (P < 0.01). The toxicological significance of some elements in these species is not known. However, Se levels in scoters (34.4 ppm, dry wt) were similar to those in livers of dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in the nearby San Joaquin Valley where reproduction was impaired severely.

  17. Book review: Ducks, geese, and swans of North America (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.


    As pointed out in the book’s introduction by Richard McCabe, very few books deserve being called a classic. First published in 1942, the various editions of Ducks, Geese, and Swans of North America—authored by Francis K. Kortright (1942), Frank C. Bellrose (1976, 1981), and this new edition by Guy Baldassarre (2014)—are deservedly placed in that category among the waterfowl literature. This book has been a valuable resource for the scientific community and waterfowl enthusiasts, and I was excited to learn that a new version has been published. As expected, this new edition did not disappoint and is a remarkable volume in terms of incorporating current research into each species account in a way that does not overwhelm either professional or amateur readers.

  18. Role of domestic ducks in the propagation and biological evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in Asia. (United States)

    Hulse-Post, D J; Sturm-Ramirez, K M; Humberd, J; Seiler, P; Govorkova, E A; Krauss, S; Scholtissek, C; Puthavathana, P; Buranathai, C; Nguyen, T D; Long, H T; Naipospos, T S P; Chen, H; Ellis, T M; Guan, Y; Peiris, J S M; Webster, R G


    Wild waterfowl, including ducks, are natural hosts of influenza A viruses. These viruses rarely caused disease in ducks until 2002, when some H5N1 strains became highly pathogenic. Here we show that these H5N1 viruses are reverting to nonpathogenicity in ducks. Ducks experimentally infected with viruses isolated between 2003 and 2004 shed virus for an extended time (up to 17 days), during which variant viruses with low pathogenicity were selected. These results suggest that the duck has become the "Trojan horse" of Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. The ducks that are unaffected by infection with these viruses continue to circulate these viruses, presenting a pandemic threat.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari


    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation of four blood protein loci and three egg white loci in three breeds ofIndonesian local ducks (Magelang duck = MAD, Tegal duck = TED and Mojosari duck= MOD wasinvestigated by using polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. The result showed that four bloodprotein loci (Pre-albumin, Albumin, Transferrin and Post-transferrin and three egg white loci(Ovalbumin, Ovoglobulin and Conalbumin were found to be polymorphic in three breeds of localducks. There was no difference on blood and egg white protein polyimorphism. The average value ofheterozygosity on three breeds of local ducks had a genetic potential to determine the controlled matingsystem and selection to obtain pure line. The closest phylogenetic relationship among the three breeds oflocal ducks occurred between MAD and TED.

  20. Modelling the distribution of chickens, ducks, and geese in China (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Wu, Junxi; Ellis, Erie C.; Gale, Fred; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius


    Global concerns over the emergence of zoonotic pandemics emphasize the need for high-resolution population distribution mapping and spatial modelling. Ongoing efforts to model disease risk in China have been hindered by a lack of available species level distribution maps for poultry. The goal of this study was to develop 1 km resolution population density models for China's chickens, ducks, and geese. We used an information theoretic approach to predict poultry densities based on statistical relationships between poultry census data and high-resolution agro-ecological predictor variables. Model predictions were validated by comparing goodness of fit measures (root mean square error and correlation coefficient) for observed and predicted values for 1/4 of the sample data which were not used for model training. Final output included mean and coefficient of variation maps for each species. We tested the quality of models produced using three predictor datasets and 4 regional stratification methods. For predictor variables, a combination of traditional predictors for livestock mapping and land use predictors produced the best goodness of fit scores. Comparison of regional stratifications indicated that for chickens and ducks, a stratification based on livestock production systems produced the best results; for geese, an agro-ecological stratification produced best results. However, for all species, each method of regional stratification produced significantly better goodness of fit scores than the global model. Here we provide descriptive methods, analytical comparisons, and model output for China's first high resolution, species level poultry distribution maps. Output will be made available to the scientific and public community for use in a wide range of applications from epidemiological studies to livestock policy and management initiatives.

  1. Pathogenicity of two Egyptian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in domestic ducks. (United States)

    Wasilenko, J L; Arafa, A M; Selim, A A; Hassan, M K; Aly, M M; Ali, A; Nassif, S; Elebiary, E; Balish, A; Klimov, A; Suarez, D L; Swayne, D E; Pantin-Jackwood, M J


    Domestic ducks have been implicated in the dissemination and evolution of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses. In this study, two H5N1 HPAI viruses belonging to clade 2.2.1 isolated in Egypt in 2007 and 2008 were analyzed for their pathogenicity in domestic Pekin ducks. Both viruses produced clinical signs and mortality, but the 2008 virus was more virulent, inducing early onset of neurological signs and killing all ducks with a mean death time (MDT) of 4.1 days. The 2007 virus killed 3/8 ducks with a MDT of 7 days. Full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to examine differences in the virus genes that might explain the differences observed in pathogenicity. The genomes differed in 49 amino acids, with most of the differences found in the hemagglutinin protein. This increase in pathogenicity in ducks observed with certain H5N1 HPAI viruses has implications for the control of the disease, since vaccinated ducks infected with highly virulent strains shed viruses for longer periods of time, perpetuating the virus in the environment and increasing the possibility of transmission to susceptible birds.

  2. Differential effects of coyotes and red foxes on duck nest success (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Sargeant, A.; Grier, J.W.


    Low recruitment rates prevail among ducks in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, primarily because of high nest depredation rates. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a major predator of duck eggs, but fox abundance is depressed by coyotes (Canis latrans). We tested the hypothesis that nest success of upland-nesting ducks is higher in areas with coyotes than in areas with red foxes. We conducted the study during 1990-92 in uplands of 36 areas managed for nesting ducks in North Dakota and South Dakota. Overall nest success averaged 32% (95% CI = 25-40) on 17 study areas where coyotes were the principal canid and 17% (CI = 11-25) on 13 study areas where red foxes were the principal canid (P = 0.01). Both canids were common on 6 other areas, where nest success averaged 25% (CI = 13-47). Habitat composition, predator communities with the exception of canids, and species composition of duck nests in coyote and red fox areas were similar overall. Upon examining only nests with greater than or equal to 6 eggs on the last visit prior to hatch or depredation, we determined nests with evidence characteristic of fox predation accounted for 4% of depredated nests in coyote areas and 27% in fox areas (P = 0.001). An expanding coyote population is contributing to higher overall nest success. Management of coyotes may be an effective method for increasing duck nest success.

  3. Ph, Ammonia Flux, and Total Nitrogen in Duck Litter with Chemical Blends - A Field Study

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    TH Chung

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chemical blend additives to duck litter on pH, ammonia (NH3 fluxes, total nitrogen (TN under a small pen trial. One hundred twenty 1-day-old duck (pekin were randomly assigned to 6 pens in a completely randomized design during 6 weeks. Control received no litter treatment whereas top-dressed treatment at rates of 50 g aluminum sulfate + 50 aluminum chloride/kg duck litter were mixed into the upper 1 cm of duck litter. Duck litter pH at 2 weeks through 5 weeks was significantly affected (p0.05 between treatments at 0 and 1 week. Reductions of NH3 fluxes at 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks were 31, 16, 29 and 24%, respectively. Chemical blend treatments as a function of time resulted in increase in TN contents compared with control. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in TN between treatments at 2 and 3 weeks, except for 4, 5 and 6 weeks. Chemical blend decreases NH3 fluxes and increases TN positively by reducing duck litter pH.

  4. Infectious diseases, parasites, and biological toxins in sea ducks: Chapter 4 (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J. Christian


    This chapter addresses disease agents in the broad sense, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and helminth parasites, and biological toxins. Some of these agents are known to cause mortality in sea ducks, some are thought to be incidental findings, and the significance of others is yet poorly understood. Although the focus of the chapter is on free-living sea ducks, the study of disease in this taxonomic group has been relatively limited and examples from captive sea ducks and other wild waterfowl are used to illustrate the pathogenicity of certain diseases. Much of the early work in sea ducks consisted of anecdotal and descriptive reports of parasites, but it was soon recognized that diseases such as avian cholera, renal coccidiosis, and intestinal infections with acanthocephalans were causes of mortality in wild populations. More recently, adenoviruses, reoviruses, and the newly emergent Wellfleet Bay virus, for example, also have been linked to die-offs of sea ducks. Declining populations of animals are particularly vulnerable to the threats posed by disease and it is important that we improve our understanding of the significance of disease in sea ducks. To conclude, we offer our recommendations for future directions in this field.

  5. Proteomic analysis of liver development of lean Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica). (United States)

    Zheng, Aijuan; Liu, Guohua; Zhang, Yunsheng; Hou, Shuisheng; Chang, Wenhuan; Zhang, Shu; Cai, Huiyi; Chen, Guilan


    The liver plays vital roles in digestion, metabolism and immune defense. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of nutrient metabolism and antioxidation of lean Pekin duck liver from hatching to slaughter, the proteome changes were investigated using 2-DE, MS, quantitative real-time PCR and bioinformatics. A total of 59 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Proteins involved in transportation were highly up-regulated in newborn ducks whereas 37 proteins associated with metabolism, defense and antioxidation were up-regulated in adult ducks. The over-expression of proteins at the last developmental stage presumably occurs to fulfill the needs of multiple functions of the liver. However, the over-expressed proteins related to transportation during the first developmental stage are involved in maintaining the high basal metabolism of newborn ducks. The functional enrichment analysis also confirmed these results. Furthermore, the protein interaction network predicted 28 proteins acting as key nodes for liver development. The validated expression between proteins and genes provides us target genes for future genetic analyses to improve the health and performance of these ducks. These significant advanced proteome data expand our knowledge on the physiology of the duck liver, thereby providing a potentially valuable foundation for molecular breeding to enhance feed efficiency and immunity and for optimizing the feeding strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimal Road Toll Design from the Perspective of Sustainable Development

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    Lin Cheng


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the optimal road toll design problem from the perspective of sustainable development at network-wide level. In this paper the sustainable development level of transportation system is quantitatively described with the total vehicular emission, total fuel consumption, and total travel time in the network. In order to simultaneously consider the impacts of all these three indicators on sustainability of transportation system, we integrate them into a sustainable development index (SD-index by a linear combination, and then we establish the corresponding bilevel optimization model. The upper level problem is the network toll design problem to maximize the SD-index from the viewpoint of traffic managers, and the lower level problem is to depict travelers’ route choice behavior under a certain road toll scheme. Finally, a combined genetic algorithm and gradient projection algorithm (GA-GP is used to solve the bilevel model, in which the GP algorithm solves the traffic assignment problem with road toll scheme in the lower level. In order to verify the proposed model and algorithm, we take the Nguyen-Dupuis network for the numerical example, and the computing results show that the model and algorithm are effective and efficient.

  7. Toll avastas lemmikloomapoest 700 kilo kaitsealuseid koralle / Triin Olvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olvet, Triin


    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 3. aug. lk. 2 Maksu- ja tolliameti töötajad avastasid Põhja-Tallinna lemmikloomapoest pea 300 ohustatud liikide hulka kuuluvat kivikoralli, mis olid toodud Indoneesiast. Vt. samas: Toll võtab ära nii kaaviari kui ka topised

  8. Molecular dissection of the chicken Toll-like receptor repertoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keestra, A.M.


    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are host immune sensors that continuously search for the presence of microbial pathogens. TLRs play a key role in the innate defense against pathogens and the development of adaptive immunity, and are important determinants of the susceptibility to infections. The

  9. The role of Toll-like receptors in skin diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bacharewicz


    Full Text Available The innate immune system has the ability to recognize pathogens through Toll-like receptors (TLRs, which are transmembrane glycoproteins on the cell surface. These receptors present on the surface of immunological cells – macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells and some populations of lymphocytes – play an important role in the defense against bacterial, viral and fungal infections. The connection of a Toll-like receptor with the microbial cell component known as pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP induces intracellular mechanisms leading to the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Depending on the kind of the recognized ligand, TLRs are classified into subfamilies. So far, 13 TLRs have been described in mice and 11 in humans. These receptors may be expressed extracellularly (TLRs 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11 or intracellularly, located in endosomes (TLRs 3, 7, 8, 9. Recent studies also indicate their role in the development of many dermatoses. Occurrence of these receptors has been found on the surface of epidermal and dermal cells: keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, fibroblasts, endo-thelial cells, melanocytes and adipocytes. This paper presents the structure and function of Toll-like receptors and their role in the pathogenesis of some infectious skin diseases, autoimmune and allergic dermatoses as well as skin neoplasms. The knowledge about the role of Toll-like receptors in the development of skin diseases creates the possibility to use them in treatment in the future.

  10. Functional consequences of toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda, B.; McCall, M.B.B.; Verheijen, K.; Kullberg, B.J.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Netea, M.G.


    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria, but also structures from fungal and mycobacterial pathogens, as well as endogenous ligands. Two nonsynonymous polymorphisms of TLR4, Asp299Gly and

  11. Toll-like receptor polymorphisms in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornblit, Brian; Enevold, Christian; Wang, Tao


    To assess the impact of the genetic variation in toll-like receptors (TLRs) on outcome after allogeneic myeloablative conditioning hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we investigated 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms across 10 TLRs in 816 patients and donors. Only donor genotype of TLR8 rs...

  12. Evidence for adaptation of porcine Toll-like receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darfour-Oduro, Kwame A.; Megens, Hendrik Jan; Roca, Alfred; Groenen, Martien A.M.; Schook, Lawrence B.


    Naturally endemic infectious diseases provide selective pressures for pig populations. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) represent the first line of immune defense against pathogens and are likely to play a crucial adaptive role for pig populations. This study was done to determine whether wild and

  13. Comparison of different ways of implementing congestion tolls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Ross

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficiency of different methods for improving the toll structure in a road network to achieve better socioeconomically results. By comparing a system using a marginal priced approach and a system using a metaheuristic approach it is investigated which...

  14. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) expression on polymorphonuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish a foundation for further researches on the improvement of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) functions in dairy cow during perinatal period, the counting of PMN, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) on PMN was studied during this critical period.

  15. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) expression on polymorphonuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reading 5

    To establish a foundation for further researches on the improvement of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) functions in dairy cow during perinatal period, the counting of PMN, as well as the. mRNA and protein expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) on PMN was studied during this critical period.

  16. Consumer Experiences Calling Toll-Free Corporate Hotlines. (United States)

    Martin, Charles L.; Smart, Denise T.


    Finds that dimensions that contribute to caller satisfaction (of toll-free corporate hotlines) included operator characteristics such as knowledge, courtesy, and interest; specific behaviors such as apologizing for a problem, thanking the consumer for calling, and encouraging them to call again; and reducing time placed on "hold." (SR)

  17. Present, Absent, or Tardy? A Study of the Barriers, Bridges, and Beliefs Concerning Environmental Education among a Cohort of Sixth Grade Teachers in Nova Scotia (United States)

    Spence, Elizabeth; Wright, Tarah; Castleden, Heather


    The increasing importance of formal environmental education underscores a teacher's role in the development of knowledge, attitudes, and actions toward nature. This qualitative study explores how a cohort of sixth grade teachers (18) in Nova Scotia conceptualize environmental education and perceive teaching challenges. Data were collected through…

  18. Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). (United States)

    Liu, H C; Huang, J F; Lee, S R; Liu, H L; Hsieh, C H; Huang, C W; Huang, M C; Tai, C; Poivey, J P; Rouvier, R; Cheng, Y S


    A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie), the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F), the total number of dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H); F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201) was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie (h (2) = 0.07±0.03) and M (h (2) = 0.07±0.01), moderately low for Dm (h (2) = 0.13±0.02), of medium values for H (h (2) = 0.20±0.03) and F (h (2) = 0.23±0.03). High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm (rg = 0.93), between F and H (rg = 0.97) and between Dm and H (rg = 0.90). The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201), with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201) and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality

  19. Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Liu


    Full Text Available A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie, the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F, the total number of dead embryos (M, the maximum duration of fertility (Dm and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H; F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201 was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie (h2 = 0.07±0.03 and M (h2 = 0.07±0.01, moderately low for Dm (h2 = 0.13±0.02, of medium values for H (h2 = 0.20±0.03 and F (h2 = 0.23±0.03. High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm (rg = 0.93, between F and H (rg = 0.97 and between Dm and H (rg = 0.90. The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201, with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201 and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality rate. The average

  20. Impact of curcumin supplementation in monochromatic light on lipid serum profile of sexually mature female Magelang ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kasiyati


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of curcumin supplementation inexpose monochromatic light on serum lipid concentrations of sexually mature female magelang duck. One hundred and ninety two female magelang ducks were assigned into a completely randomized design with a 4×4 factorial arrangement and each experimental unit was repeated 3 times, each with 4 female magelang ducks. The first factor was dose of curcumin supplementation consisted of 4 levels i.e., 0, 9, 18, and 36 mg/duck/day. The second factor was the color of monochromatic light consisted of 4 levels i.e., white, red, green, and blue colors. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The result showed that serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL were lower (P<0.05 while high density lipoprotein (HDL were higher (P<0.05 in experimental ducks supplemented with a curcumin dose of 36 mg/duck/day in variety of monochromatic light colors compared to control experimental ducks without curcumin supplementation. The curcumin doses of 18 or 36 mg/duck/day within red, green, or blue light had the potential to modulate lipid metabolism, as indicated by the increased serum concentration of HDL and the decreased serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, VLDL, and LDL of the experimental female magelang ducks.

  1. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming


    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  2. The estimation of genetic distance and discriminant variables on breed of duck (Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan by morphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Brahmantiyo


    Full Text Available A study on morphological body conformation of Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan ducks was carried out to determine the genetic distance and discriminant variables. This research was held in Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi, Bogor using 65 Alabio ducks, 40 Bali ducks, 36 Khaki Campbell ducks, 60 Mojosari ducks and 30 Pegagan ducks. Seven different body parts were measured, they were the length of femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus, the circumference of tarsometatarsus, the length of third digits, wing and maxilla. General Linear Models and simple discriminant analysis were used in this observation (SAS package program. Male and female Pegagan ducks had morphological size bigger than Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell and Mojosari ducks. Khaki Campbell ducks were mixed with Bali ducks (47.22% and Pegagan ducks from isolated location in South Sumatera were lightly mixed with Alabio and Bali. Mahalanobis genetic distance showed that Bali and Khaki Campbell ducks, also, Alabio and Mojosari ducks had similarity, with genetic distance of 1.420 and 1.548, respectively. Results from canonical analysis showed that the most discriminant variables were obtained from the length of femur, tibia and third digits.

  3. Targeting the Toll of Drug Abuse: The Translational Potential of Toll-Like Receptor 4. (United States)

    Bachtell, Ryan; Hutchinson, Mark R; Wang, Xiaohui; Rice, Kenner C; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R


    There is growing recognition that glial proinflammatory activation importantly contributes to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of a variety of drugs of abuse, including cocaine, methamphetamine, opioids, and alcohol. It has recently been proposed that glia are recognizing, and becoming activated by, such drugs as a CNS immunological response to these agents being xenobiotics; that is, substances foreign to the brain. Activation of glia, primarily microglia, by various drugs of abuse occurs via toll like receptor 4 (TLR4). The detection of such xenobiotics by TLR4 results in the release of glial neuroexcitatory and neurotoxic substances. These glial products of TLR4 activation enhance neuronal excitability within brain reward circuitry, thereby enhancing their rewarding and reinforcing effects. Indeed, selective pharmacological blockade of TLR4 activation, such as with the non-opioid TLR4 antagonist (+)-naltrexone, suppresses a number of indices of drug reward/reinforcement. These include: conditioned place preference, self-administration, drugprimed reinstatement, incubation of craving, and elevations of nucleus accumbens shell dopamine. Notably, TLR4 blockade fails to alter self-administration of food, indicative of a selective effect on drugs of abuse. Genetic disruption of TLR4 signaling recapitulates the effects of pharmacological TLR4 blockade, providing converging lines of evidence of a central importance of TLR4. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence converge to raise TLR4 as a promising therapeutic target for drug abuse.

  4. Expression of Toll-Like Receptors on Breast Tumors: Taking a Toll on Tumor Microenvironment

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    Debika Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major cause of death in women in the developed world. As Toll-like receptors (TLRs are widely expressed on tumor cells and play important roles in the initiation and progression of cancer, they may thus serve as important targets and have an effective perspective on breast cancer treatment. Expression of TLRs on breast cancer cells and mononuclear inflammatory cells can promote inflammation and cell survival in the tumor microenvironment. Inflammation and cancer are related. It is well known that persistent inflammatory conditions can induce cancer formation, due to production of cytokines and chemokines, which play a crucial role in promoting angiogenesis, metastasis, and subversion of adaptive immunity. TLR signaling in tumor cells can mediate tumor cell immune escape and tumor progression, and it is regarded as one of the mechanisms for chronic inflammation in tumorigenesis and progression. This paper delineates the expression of various TLRs in promotion of inflammation and development of mammary tumors. Understanding the mechanisms through which TLRs on breast cancer cells and inflammatory cells regulate growth, survival, and metastatic progression can make them potential targets for breast cancer therapy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Sychov


    Full Text Available The estimation of digestibility of nutrients in ducklings was performed by use of feed contained the lipids from different levels and sources. Experimental studies were conducted in terms of problem research laboratory of feed additives of National Agriculture University of Ukraine. The material for scientific experiments was the ducklings of cross STAR 53 H.Y. Experiment was carried out by group-analog method. We determined the optimal content of crude fat in fodder of young ducks at the first stage of experiment and the best source of lipids at second stage. We increased the crude fat in duckling feed by the introduction of sunflower oil at first stage. The amount of fat in the duck feed was 5% in control group and this were 3% and 7% in group II and III. The ducks from experimental groups received feed with sunflower oil at the second stage of experiment, the ducks of group II and III obtained feed from soya, rapeseed, and palm fat. Feeding the ducks was done per group twice per day – in morning and evening. It was registered that the feeding of 8-14 days ducks by food with crude fat of 7% plausible increased the digestibility of protein by 3.2%, of fat by 5.1%, and nitrogen-free extractives matters by 2.7%. At the same time the use of feed for 36-42 days ducks with crude fat of 7% allows to get the best results with the more higher level of protein and fat digestibility by 4.9% and 4.8% respectively. The use of feed with the addition of soybean oil for duck feeding have a positive effect towards increasing the level of digestibility of organic matter, protein, fat, and fiber in all the duck age groups. At the same time the use of feed containing palm oil reduces the digestibility of fat by 4,1-6,7%  compared to control group, that obtained feed with sunflower oil . We confirmed the prospect of further research in order to to establish the optimal ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of ducks and to determine their

  6. Cloning and expression profiling of the VLDLR gene associated with egg performance in duck (Anas platyrhynchos

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    Peng Xiu-li


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The very low density lipoprotein receptor gene (VLDLR, a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene family, plays a crucial role in the synthesis of yolk protein precursors in oviparous species. Differential splicing of this gene has been reported in human, rabbit and rat. In chicken, studies showed that the VLDLR protein on the oocyte surface mediates the uptake of yolk protein precursors into growing oocytes. However, information on the VLDLR gene in duck is still scarce. Methods Full-length duck VLDLR cDNA was obtained by comparative cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. Tissue expression patterns were analysed by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Association between the different genotypes and egg performance traits was investigated with the general linear model (GLM procedure of the SAS® software package. Results In duck, two VLDLR transcripts were identified, one transcript (variant-a containing an O-linked sugar domain and the other (variant-b not containing this sugar domain. These transcripts share ~70 to 90% identity with their counterparts in other species. A phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences showed that duck VLDLR proteins were closely related with those of chicken and zebra finch. The two duck VLDLR transcripts are differentially expressed i.e. VLDLR-a is mainly expressed in muscle tissue and VLDLR-b in reproductive organs. We have localized the duck VLDLR gene on chromosome Z. An association analysis using two completely linked SNP sites (T/C at position 2025 bp of the ORF and G/A in intron 13 and records from two generations demonstrated that the duck VLDLR gene was significantly associated with egg production (P Conclusions Duck and chicken VLDLR genes probably perform similar function in the development of growing oocytes and deposition of yolk lipoprotein. Therefore, VLDLR could be a candidate gene for duck egg performance

  7. The economic impact of a partnership-measurement model of disease management: Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS). (United States)

    Crémieux, Pierre-Yves; Fortin, Pierre; Meilleur, Marie-Claude; Montague, Terrence; Royer, Jimmy


    Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) was a five-year, community partnership-based disease-management project that sought, as a primary goal, to improve the care and outcomes of patients with heart disease in Nova Scotia. This program, based on a broad stakeholder partnership, provided repeated measurement and feedback on practices and outcomes as well as widespread communication and education among all partners. From a clinical viewpoint, ICONS was successful. For example, use of proven therapies for the target diseases improved and re-hospitalization rates decreased. Stakeholders also perceived a sense of satisfaction because of their involvement in the partnership. However, the universe of health stakeholders is large, and not many have had an experience similar to ICONS. These other health stakeholders, such as decision-makers concerned with the cost of care and determining the value for cost, might, nonetheless, benefit from knowledge of the ICONS concepts and results, particularly economic analyses, as they determine future health policy. Using budgetary data on actual dollars spent and a robust input-output methodology, we assessed the economic impact of ICONS, including trickle-down effects on the Canadian and Nova Scotian economies. The analysis revealed that the $6.22 million invested in Nova Scotia by the private sector donor generated an initial net increase in total Canadian wealth of $5.32 million and a global net increase in total Canadian wealth of $10.23 million, including $2.27 million returned to the different governments through direct and indirect taxes. Thus, the local, provincial and federal governments are important beneficiaries of health project investments such as ICONS. The various government levels benefit from the direct influx of private funds into the publicly funded healthcare sector, from direct and indirect tax revenues and from an increase in knowledge-related employment. This, of course, is in addition to the

  8. Toll receptor response to white spot syndrome virus challenge in giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). (United States)

    Feng, Jinling; Zhao, Lingling; Jin, Min; Li, Tingting; Wu, Lei; Chen, Yihong; Ren, Qian


    Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls. The transcripts of MrToll are mainly distributed in the heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. A low level of MrToll expression can be detected in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ. MrToll expression in gills was gradually upregulated to the highest level from 24 h to 48 h during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The expression levels of the crustin (Cru) genes Cru3 and Cru7 in gills were relatively lower than those of Cru2 and Cru4. The expression levels of Cru3 and Cru7 were inhibited after the RNA interference of MrToll in gills during the WSSV challenge. The anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) genes ALF2, ALF3, ALF4, and ALF5 were also regulated by MrToll in gills during the virus challenge. These findings suggest that MrToll may contribute to the innate immune defense of M. rosenbergii against WSSV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a subtype C avian metapneumovirus circulating in Muscovy ducks in China. (United States)

    Sun, Shikai; Chen, Feng; Cao, Sheng; Liu, Jiajia; Lei, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Song, Yongfeng; Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Chuang; Qin, Jianping; Li, Haiyan


    Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20-500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China.

  10. True metabolizable energy for wood ducks from acorns compared to other waterfowl foods (United States)

    Kaminski, R.M.; Davis, J.B.; Essig, H.W.; Gerard, P.D.; Reinecke, K.J.


    Acorns of bottomland red oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important food of North American wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Barras et al. (1996) demonstrated that female wood ducks selected willow oak ( Q. phetlos) acorns over other species. We measured true metabolizable energy (TME) derived by captive, wild-strain, adult female wood ducks from acorns of willow oak, water oak (Q. nigra), cherrybark oak (Q. pagoda), and pin oak (Q. patustris) to determine whether female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns was related to TME. Estimates of TME within acorn species were relatively precise, yet we did not detect variation in TME among acorn species (P= 0.31 ); hence, we estimated TME across species (2.76 + 0.033 [SE] kcal/g dry mass; n = 34). We concluded that TME apparently did not explain female wood ducks' preference for willow oak acorns and hypothesized that morphological characteristics of willow oak acorns may be proximate cues related to selection by wood ducks. We also summarized known TME estimates for acorns fed to wood ducks and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and natural and agricultural foods fed to mallards, northern pintails (A. acura), blue-winged teal (A. discors), and Canada geese (Branta canadensis). We found that acorns and moist-soil plant seeds and tubers provided, on average, about 76% of the TME in agricultural seeds. Thus, bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats have potential to provide significant amounts of dietary energy, as well as greater diversity of foods and nutrients than croplands. Researchers should continue to determine TME of common foods (plant and animal) of waterfowl, and use TME in estimating waterfowl habitat carrying capacity (e.g., Reinecke et al. 1989). Additionally, large-scale, reliable estimates of plant and animal food availability in bottomland-hardwood and moist-soil habitats are needed to evaluate carrying capacity of landscapes important to waterfowl, such as the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV).

  11. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park


    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  12. Flow cytometric DNA analysis of ducks accumulating 137Cs on a reactor reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, L.S.; Dallas, C.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Evans, D.L.


    The objective of this study was to detect red blood cell (rbc) DNA abnormalities in male, game-farm mallard ducks as they ranged freely and accumulated 137Cs (radiocesium) from an abandoned nuclear reactor cooling reservoir. Prior to release, the ducks were tamed to enable recapture at will. Flow cytometric measurements conducted at intervals during the first year of exposure yielded cell cycle percentages of DNA (G0/G1, S, G2 + M phases) of rbc, as well as coefficients of variation (CV) in the G0/G1 phase. DNA histograms of exposed ducks were compared with two sets of controls which were maintained 30 and 150 miles from the study site. 137Cs live wholebody burdens were also measured in these animals in a parallel kinetics study, and an approximate steady-state equilibrium was attained after about 8 months. DNA histograms from 2 of the 14 contaminated ducks revealed DNA aneuploid-like patterns after 9 months exposure. These two ducks were removed from the experiment at this time, and when sampled again 1 month later, one continued to exhibit DNA aneuploidy. None of the control DNA histograms demonstrated DNA aneuploid-like patterns. There were no significant differences in cell cycle percentages at any time point between control and exposed animals. A significant increase in CV was observed at 9 months exposure, but after removal of the two ducks with DNA aneuploidy, no significant difference was detected in the group monitored after 12 months exposure. An increased variation in the DNA and DNA aneuploidy could, therefore, be detected in duck rbc using flow cytometric analysis, with the onset of these effects being related to the attainment of maximal levels of 137Cs body burdens in the exposed animals

  13. Attenuation of particulate organic carbon flux in the Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean, is controlled by zooplankton fecal pellets (United States)

    Cavan, E. L.; Le Moigne, F. A. C.; Poulton, A. J.; Tarling, G. A.; Ward, P.; Daniels, C. J.; Fragoso, G. M.; Sanders, R. J.


    The Southern Ocean (SO) is an important CO2 reservoir, some of which enters via the production, sinking, and remineralization of organic matter. Recent work suggests that the fraction of production that sinks is inversely related to production in the SO, a suggestion that we confirm from 20 stations in the Scotia Sea. The efficiency with which exported material is transferred to depth (transfer efficiency) is believed to be low in high-latitude systems. However, our estimates of transfer efficiency are bimodal, with stations in the seasonal ice zone showing intense losses and others displaying increases in flux with depth. Zooplankton fecal pellets dominated the organic carbon flux and at stations with transfer efficiency >100% fecal pellets were brown, indicative of fresh phytodetritus. We suggest that active flux mediated by zooplankton vertical migration and the presence of sea ice regulates the transfer of organic carbon into the oceans interior in the Southern Ocean.

  14. Restoration ecology: aiding and abetting secondary succession on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Vander Kloet


    Full Text Available The efficacy of using vegetative clumps derived from seeds with a variety of origins to establish nuclei for regeneration of bog vegetation on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (Canada was tested using seeds within scats (excrement and seeds from berries, various techniques for creating clumps, and different clump sizes. Direct placement of scat pieces on peat in the field did not produce successful colonisation. Vegetative clumps begun in a greenhouse, whether from seeds extracted from scats or berries, were 60–100 % successful when transplanted into abandoned peat mines depending on the initial size of the transplant. Based on annual growth rate, Vaccinium oxycoccos has the greatest capacity to quickly colonise abandoned peat mines. Other promising taxa were Vaccinium vitis-ideae and the genus Empetrum.

  15. Contribution of aflatoxin B1 and hepatitis B virus infection in the induction of liver tumors in ducks. (United States)

    Cova, L; Wild, C P; Mehrotra, R; Turusov, V; Shirai, T; Lambert, V; Jacquet, C; Tomatis, L; Trépo, C; Montesano, R


    The study of two major risk factors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, namely persistent hepatitis virus infection and exposure to dietary aflatoxins, has been hampered by lack of an experimental system. To this end we have used a Pekin duck model to examine the effect of congenital duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure in the induction and development of liver cancer. AFB1 was administered to DHBV infected or noninfected ducks at two doses (0.08 and 0.02 mg/kg) by i.p. injection once a week from the third month posthatch until they were sacrificed (2.3 years later). Two control groups of ducks not treated with AFB1 (one of which was infected with DHBV) were observed for the same period. Each experimental group included 13-16 ducks. Higher mortality was observed in ducks infected with DHBV and treated with AFB1 compared to noninfected ducks treated with AFB1 and other control ducks. In the groups of noninfected ducks treated with high and low doses of AFB1, liver tumors developed in 3 of 10 and 2 of 10 ducks; in infected ducks treated with the high dose 3 of 6 liver tumors were observed and none in the low dose of AFB1. No liver tumors were observed in the two control groups. Ducks infected with DHBV and treated with AFB1 showed more pronounced periportal inflammatory changes, fibrosis, and focal necrosis compared to other groups. All DHBV carrier ducks showed persistent viremia throughout the observation period. An increase of viral DNA titers in livers and sera of AFB1 treated animals compared to infected controls was frequently observed. No DHBV DNA integration into the host genome was observed, although in one hepatocellular carcinoma from an AFB1 treated duck, an accumulation of viral multimer DNA forms was detected. The metabolism of AFB1 in infected and noninfected duck liver was also examined. The study on the role of DHBV infection and AFB1 in the etiopathogenesis of liver tumors may help to clarify some of

  16. Examination of Growth Hormone (GH) Gene Polymorphism and its Association with Body Weight and Selected Body Dimensions in Ducks. (United States)

    Mazurowski, Artur; Frieske, Anna; Kokoszynski, Dariusz; Mroczkowski, Sławomir; Bernacki, Zenon; Wilkanowska, Anna


    The main objective of the study was to assess the polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene and its association with some morphological traits (body weight--BW, length of trunk with neck--LTN, length of trunk--LT, chest girth--CG, length of breast bone--LBB, length of shank--LS). Polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene was evaluated for four duck populations (Pekin ducks AF51, Muscovy ducks from a CK and CRAMMLCFF mother and Mulard ducks). Genetic polymorphism was determined with the PCR-RFLP method using the BsmFI restriction enzyme. In the studied duck sample two alleles (GH(C) and GH(T)) and three genotypes (GH/TT, GH/CT, GH/CC) were found at locus GH/BsmFI. In both groups of Muscovies and in Mulards the dominant allele was GH(T). On the contrary in Pekin ducks AF51, the frequency of both alleles was found to be similar. The most frequent genotype in the examined ducks was GH/TT. In Pekin ducks AF51 three genotypes were observed, while in Mulard ducks and in male Muscovy ducks from a mother marked as CK, two genotypes (GH/TT and GH/CT) were identified. Muscovy duck females from a CK mother and all males and females of Muscovy duck from a CRAMMLCFF mother were monomorphic with only the GH/TTgenotype detected. The results showed that males of Pekin duck AF51 with the GH/TT genotype were characterized by higher (P GH/CC and GH/CTgenotype. In females of Pekin ducks AF51, this same trend was observed; individuals with GH/TT genotype were superior (P GH/TT genotype were distinguished by higher values of all evaluated traits compared to ducks with GH/CT and GH/CC genotypes, however most of the recorded differences were not significant. The only trait markedly impacted (P GH gene intron 2 was the LS value in males.

  17. To duck or not to duck: resistance advantages and disadvantages of the candy-cane stem phenotype in tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima. (United States)

    Wise, Michael J


    Solidago altissima populations consistently contain a minority of 'ducking', or 'candy-cane', stems. The goals of this study were to investigate whether these candy-cane stems may be an adaptation to resist herbivory, and to look for costs (namely, resistance tradeoffs or reduced reproduction) that might constrain the spread of the ducking trait. In this study, herbivory and seed set were recorded for 272 erect and 272 candy-cane stems in a field population of S. altissima. Candy-cane plants were twice as resistant as erect plants to two common apex-attacking gall midges, but were 26% more susceptible than erect plants to a more abundant apex-boring caterpillar. The two stem morphs were equally resistant to all other herbivores surveyed. Candy-cane plants were 11% less likely to experience apex damage and 3% more likely to set seed than erect-stemmed plants. Damaged candy-cane stems were 9% more likely to produce seeds than damaged erect stems. Although ducking is an effective means of resisting apex-galling herbivores, its spread may be constrained by susceptibility to an apex-boring caterpillar, which may enjoy enemy-reduced space on candy-cane stems. The evolution of ducking does not seem to be constrained by a reduced likelihood of sexual reproduction, or reduced tolerance of apex damage.

  18. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle occupant safety in Nova Scotia--a population-based study. (United States)

    Yanchar, Natalie L; Kirkland, Susan A; LeBlanc, John C; Langille, Donald B


    To determine discrepancies between knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle restraints (CMVRs) and vehicle seating position amongst parents within the province of Nova Scotia. Random telephone survey. The Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Four hundred and twenty-six households with at least one child under the age of 12 years, totaling 723 children. The proportion of parents whose children who should be in a specific stage of CMVR and sitting in the rear seat of the vehicle, and who demonstrate correct knowledge of that restraint system and seating position, yet do not use that restraint system/seating position for their child (demonstrate practice discrepant from their knowledge). Awareness of what restraint system to use is good (>80%). However, knowledge of when it is safe to graduate to the next stage is low (30-55%), most marked for when to use a seatbelt alone. Awareness of the importance of sitting in the rear seat of a vehicle was universal. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice were most marked with booster seats and rear-seating of older children. Factors influencing incorrect practice (prematurely graduated to a higher-level restraint system than what is appropriate for age and weight) included lower household income, caregiver education level, and knowledge of when to graduate from forward-facing car seats and booster seats. Incorrect practice was also more commonly observed amongst children of weight and/or age approaching (but not yet reaching) recommended graduation parameters of the appropriate CMVR. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice are evident through all stages of CMVRs, but most marked with booster seats. The roles of lower socioeconomic status and gaps in CMVR legislation, in influencing discrepant practice, must be acknowledged and suggest the need for targeted education concurrent with development of comprehensive all-stages CMVR policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: Environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Timothy W.; Guyn, Lindsay; Lane, Stephanie E.


    In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current policy of including

  20. The Scotia Sea krill fishery and its possible impacts on dependent predators: modeling localized depletion of prey. (United States)

    Plagányi, Eva E; Butterworth, Doug S


    The nature and impact of fishing on predators that share a fished resource is an important consideration in ecosystem-based fisheries management. Krill (Euphausia superba) is a keystone species in the Antarctic, serving as a fundamental forage source for predators and simultaneously being subject to fishing. We developed a spatial multispecies operating model (SMOM) of krill-predator fishery dynamics to help advise on allocation of the total krill catch among 15 small-scale management units (SSMUs) in the Scotia Sea, with a goal to reduce the potential impact of fishing on krill predators. The operating model describes the underlying population dynamics and is used in simulations to compare different management options for adjusting fishing activities (e.g., a different spatial distribution of catches). The numerous uncertainties regarding the choice of parameter values pose a major impediment to constructing reliable ecosystem models. The pragmatic solution proposed here involves the use of operating models that are composed of alternative combinations of parameters that essentially try to bound the uncertainty in, for example, the choice of survival rate estimates as well as the functional relationships between predators and prey. Despite the large uncertainties, it is possible to discriminate the ecosystem impacts of different spatial fishing allocations. The spatial structure of the model is fundamental to addressing concerns of localized depletion of prey in the vicinity of land-based predator breeding colonies. Results of the model have been considered in recent management deliberations for spatial allocations of krill catches in the Scotia Sea and their associated impacts on dependent predator species.

  1. The pathogenesis of clade H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) and Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) (United States)

    Spackman, Erica; Prosser, Diann J.; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J.; Berlin, Alicia; Stephens, Christopher B.


    Waterfowl are the natural hosts of avian influenza virus (AIV) and disseminate the virus worldwide through migration. Historically, surveillance and research efforts for AIV in waterfowl have focused on dabbling ducks. The role of diving ducks in AIV ecology has not been well characterized. In this study, we examined the relative susceptibility and pathogenicity of clade H5 highly pathogenic AIV (HPAIV) in two species of diving ducks. Juvenile and adult Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) and juvenile Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) were intranasally inoculated with A/Northern Pintail/WA/40964/2014 H5N2 HPAIV. Additional groups of juvenile Lesser Scaups were inoculated with A/Gyrfalcon/WA/41088/2014 H5N8 HPAIV. The approximate 50% bird infectious doses (BID50) of the H5N2 isolate for adult Ruddy Ducks was infectious doses (EID50) and for the juvenile Lesser Scaups it was Clinical disease was not observed in any group; however, mortality occurred in the juvenile Ruddy Ducks inoculated with the H5N2 virus (three of five ducks), and staining for AIV antigen was observed in numerous tissues from these ducks. One adult Ruddy Duck also died and although it was infected with AIV (the duck was positive for virus shedding and AIV antigen was detected in tissues), it was also infected with coccidiosis. The proportion of ducks shedding virus was related to the dose administered, but the titers were similar among dose groups. The group with the fewest ducks shedding virus was the adult Ruddy Ducks. There was a trend for the Lesser Scaups to shed higher titers of virus than the Ruddy Ducks. No virus shedding was detected after 7 d postinoculation in any group. Similar to dabbling ducks, Lesser Scaups and Ruddy Ducks are susceptible to infection with this H5 HPAIV lineage, although they excrete lower titers of virus.

  2. Comparison of Different Toll Policies in the Dynamic Second-best Optimal Toll Design Problem : Case study on a Three-link network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sta?ková, K.; Olsder, J.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.


    In this paper, the dynamic optimal toll design problem is considered as a one leader-many followers hierarchical non-cooperative game. On a given network the road authority as the leader tolls some links in order to reach its objective, while travelers as followers minimize their perceived travel

  3. Physical and chemical data collected using bottle casts from the GENERAL SAN MARTIN in the Scotia Sea and Weddell Sea from 14 December 1963 to 11 January 1964 (NODC Accession 0000791) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in the Scotia Sea and Weddell Sea from the GENERAL SAN MARTIN. Data were collected from 14 December 1963...

  4. Environmental lead exposure to toll booth workers in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, T.C.; Wong, L.T.L.; Lam, C.W.K. (Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin)


    A survey of workers in the Lion Rock Tunnel toll booths was conducted, as they were regarded as a high risk group in lead exposure due to high density of vehicular traffic. The exposure of the workers to lead was determined by continuous sapling of air around the breathing zone of workers inside the booths. Blood lead concentration of 50 workers showed a mean of 0.65 {mu}mol/L and the mean urine lead concentration was 0.14 {mu}mol/L. Other tests, such as urinary amino-levulinic acid (ALA), erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb), were also preformed. The blood lead concentrations and other biological parameters of the toll-booth workers were acceptable and may be attributed to the recent legislation to lower the lead content in petrol and to the good preventive measures taken by the management.

  5. Current Views of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yamamoto


    Full Text Available On microbial invasion, the host immediately evokes innate immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs play crucial roles in innate responses that lead not only to the clearance of pathogens but also to the efficient establishment of acquired immunity by directly detecting molecules from microbes. In terms of intracellular TLR-mediated signaling pathways, cytoplasmic adaptor molecules containing Toll/IL-1R (TIR domains play important roles in inflammatory immune responses through the production of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and type I interferon, and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. In this paper, we will describe our current understanding of the relationship between TLRs and their ligands derived from pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Moreover, we will review the historical and current literature to describe the mechanisms behind TLR-mediated activation of innate immune responses.

  6. Contrasting nest survival patterns for ducks and songbirds in northern mixed-grass prairie (United States)

    Grant, Todd; Shaffer, Terry L.; Madden, Elizabeth M.; Nenneman, Melvin P.


    Management actions intended to protect or improve habitat for ducks may benefit grassland-nesting passerines, but scant information is available to explore this assumption. During 1998–2003, we examined nest survival of ducks and songbirds to determine whether effects of prescribed fire and other habitat features (e.g., shrub cover and distance to habitat edges) were similar for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota. We used the logistic-exposure method to estimate survival of duck and songbird nests (n = 3,171). We used an information-theoretic approach to identify factors that most influenced nest survival. Patterns of nest survival were markedly different between taxonomic groups. For ducks, nest survival was greater during the first postfire nesting season (daily survival rate [DSR] = 0.957, 85% CI = 0.951–0.963), relative to later postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.946, 85% CI = 0.942–0.950). Furthermore duck nest survival and nest densities were inversely related. Duck nest survival also was greater as shrub cover decreased and as distance from cropland and wetland edges increased. Passerines had lower nest survival during the first postfire nesting season (DSR = 0.934, 85% CI = 0.924–0.944), when densities also were low compared to subsequent postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.947, 85% CI = 0.944–0.950). Parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) reduced passerine nest survival and this effect was more pronounced during the first postfire nesting season compared to subsequent nesting seasons. Passerine nest survival was greater as shrub cover decreased and perhaps for more concealed nests. Duck and songbird nest survival rates were not correlated during this study and for associated studies that examined additional variables using the same dataset, suggesting that different mechanisms influenced their survival. Based on our results, ducks should not be considered direct surrogates for passerines

  7. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast (United States)

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai


    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  8. Effects of aflatoxins on growth performance and skeletal muscle of Cherry Valley meat male ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhuan Chang


    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effects of aflatoxins on growth performance and skeletal muscle of Cherry Valley meat male ducks as they grow and develop. One-day-old healthy meat male ducks (n = 180 were randomly divided into 2 groups; there were 6 replicates in each group and 15 ducks in each replicate. The control group was fed a basic diet, and the experimental group was fed a mold-exposed cottonseed meal diet containing aflatoxins instead of normal cottonseed meal. The experimental period was 35 days, and divided into two stages of 1 to 14 days (early stage and 15 to 35 days (late stage. During the experimental period, live weight, breast muscle weight and thigh muscle weight of meat male ducks were measured weekly. Results showed as follows: 1 aflatoxins contained in the mold-exposed diet significantly reduced daily weight gain and feed intake, and increased feed-to-gain ratio of meat male ducks at different ages (P < 0.05; 2 the Gompertz equation (Wt = Wm exp {−exp [−B (t − t*]} could successfully fit the growth curve and growth and developmental patterns of skeletal muscles of Cherry Valley meat male ducks (R2 ≥ 0.97; 3 the relationship between chest muscle and live weight was the best described by a power regression and polynomial regression (R2 = 0.99; the relationship between live weight and thigh muscle weight was the best described by linear regression, polynomial regression, and power regression (R2 = 0.99; 4 aflatoxins in the mold-exposed diet significantly reduced live weight, breast muscle weight and thigh muscle weight of Cherry Valley meat male ducks at various ages; and 5 aflatoxins delayed the age at peak in growth of meat male ducks, and reduced weights at the peak for breast muscle, thigh muscle and whole body as well as the maximal daily weight gain. In summary, aflatoxins delayed growth of Cherry Valley meat male ducks and development of skeletal muscle.

  9. Substantiation of the road toll for heavy transport vehicles


    Burmaka, N.; Chernykh, A.


    The existing and possible additional sources of developing state and local road funds of Ukraine have been considered. The formula for calculating monthly road toll for heavy transport vehicles has been proposed. This formula includes the payment rate per every kilometer of distance, the vehicle capacity utilization factor and the run with the load. The payment rate per every kilometer of distance for transport vehicles depending on the allowed total weight has been substantiated. The given r...

  10. Comparative genomics in chicken and Pekin duck using FISH mapping and microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler Katie E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, we provided a comprehensive cytogenetic map for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo and the first analysis of copy number variants (CNVs in birds. Here, we extend this approach to the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos, an obvious target for comparative genomic studies due to its agricultural importance and resistance to avian flu. Results We provide a detailed molecular cytogenetic map of the duck genome through FISH assignment of 155 chicken clones. We identified one inter- and six intrachromosomal rearrangements between chicken and duck macrochromosomes and demonstrated conserved synteny among all microchromosomes analysed. Array comparative genomic hybridisation revealed 32 CNVs, of which 5 overlap previously designated "hotspot" regions between chicken and turkey. Conclusion Our results suggest extensive conservation of avian genomes across 90 million years of evolution in both macro- and microchromosomes. The data on CNVs between chicken and duck extends previous analyses in chicken and turkey and supports the hypotheses that avian genomes contain fewer CNVs than mammalian genomes and that genomes of evolutionarily distant species share regions of copy number variation ("CNV hotspots". Our results will expedite duck genomics, assist marker development and highlight areas of interest for future evolutionary and functional studies.

  11. DNA microarray global gene expression analysis of influenza virus-infected chicken and duck cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V. Kuchipudi


    Full Text Available The data described in this article pertain to the article by Kuchipudi et al. (2014 titled “Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens But Not Ducks Is Associated with Elevated Host Immune and Pro-inflammatory Responses” [1]. While infection of chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes often leads to 100% mortality within 1 to 2 days, infection of ducks in contrast causes mild or no clinical signs. The rapid onset of fatal disease in chickens, but with no evidence of severe clinical symptoms in ducks, suggests underlying differences in their innate immune mechanisms. We used Chicken Genechip microarrays (Affymetrix to analyse the gene expression profiles of primary chicken and duck lung cells infected with a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H2N3 virus and two HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes to understand the molecular basis of host susceptibility and resistance in chickens and ducks. Here, we described the experimental design, quality control and analysis that were performed on the data set. The data are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEOdatabase with accession number GSE33389, and the analysis and interpretation of these data are included in Kuchipudi et al. (2014 [1].

  12. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih


    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  13. Cherry Valley Ducks Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein-Mediated Signaling Pathway and Antiviral Activity Research. (United States)

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Wang, Yao; Guo, Mengjiao; Cao, Zongxi; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng


    Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly upregulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon (IFN)-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8) in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What is more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (DTMUV, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus) at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks.

  14. Population trends of North American sea ducks as revealed by the Christmas Bird Count (United States)

    Niven, D.K.; Sauer, J.R.; Butcher, G.S.


    Relative to other waterfowl, sea ducks are not well understood, yet evidence from a variety of analyses suggests that as many as 10 of the 15 species of North American sea ducks may be declining in population. However, because of the difficulty of conducting surveys of breeding populations and the lack of range-wide winter surveys, few data are available to assess the population trends of sea ducks with confidence. We analyze Audubon Christmas Bird Count data using hierarchical modeling methods that control for varying effort among circles and over time. These procedures allow us to assess early-winter relative density patterns among states and Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) while also assessing trends in these regions and across the species North American range. Over the interval 1966 - 2003, continent-wide declines were observed in 1 of 11 species (the White-winged Scoter; -3.7%/yr). We compare CBC results to estimates of population change derived from the midwinter waterfowl survey conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The CBC does not effectively sample offshore populations of sea ducks; however, the CBC data can be used to assist in development of species-specific surveys, and CBC data can be used in combination with additional offshore sampling programs to better sample sea duck species.

  15. The Aedes aegypti toll pathway controls dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Xi


    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference-based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway-associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway.

  16. The Birth of a research animal. Ibsen's The Wild Duck and the origin of a new animal science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.A.E.


    What role does the wild duck play in Ibsen's famous drama? I argue that, besides mirroring the fate of the human cast members, the duck is acting as animal subject in a quasi-experiment, conducted in a private setting. Analysed from this perspective, the play allows us to discern the epistemological

  17. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinheng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Zhang, Huanmin [USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Feng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Chen, Weiguo [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Xie, Qingmei, E-mail: [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China)


    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  18. A Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies to Improve the electrical System on the Duck Valley Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman Atkins, Shoshone-Paiute; Mark Hannifan, New West Technologies


    A range of sustainable energy options were assessed for feasibility in addressing chronic electric grid reliability problems at Duck Valley IR. Wind power and building energy efficiency were determined to have the most merit, with the Duck Valley Tribes now well positioned to pursue large scale wind power development for on- and off-reservation sales.

  19. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinheng; Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Chen, Weiguo; Xie, Qingmei


    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  20. Serological survey and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in domestic ducks and geese in Lower Saxony, Germany (United States)

    To obtain estimates for the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in ducks and geese in Germany, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were established based on affinity-purified T. gondii tachyzoite surface antigen 1 (TgSAG1) and used to examine duck and goose sera for T. gondii -specific ...

  1. Establishment of an H6N2 Influenza Virus Lineage in Domestic Ducks in Southern China ▿ † (United States)

    Huang, K.; Bahl, J.; Fan, X. H.; Vijaykrishna, D.; Cheung, C. L.; Webby, R. J.; Webster, R. G.; Chen, H.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Peiris, J. S. M.; Guan, Y.


    Multiple reassortment events between different subtypes of endemic avian influenza viruses have increased the genomic diversity of influenza viruses circulating in poultry in southern China. Gene exchange from the natural gene pool to poultry has contributed to this increase in genetic diversity. However, the role of domestic ducks as an interface between the natural gene pool and terrestrial poultry in the influenza virus ecosystem has not been fully characterized. Here we phylogenetically and antigenically analyzed 170 H6 viruses isolated from domestic ducks from 2000 to 2005 in southern China, which contains the largest population of domestic ducks in the world. Three distinct hemagglutinin lineages were identified. Group I contained the majority of isolates with a single internal gene complex and was endemic in domestic ducks in Guangdong from the late 1990s onward. Group II was derived from reassortment events in which the surface genes of group I viruses were replaced with novel H6 and N2 genes. Group III represented H6 viruses that undergo frequent reassortment with multiple virus subtypes from the natural gene pool. Surprisingly, H6 viruses endemic in domestic ducks and terrestrial poultry seldom reassort, but gene exchanges between viruses from domestic ducks and migratory ducks occurred throughout the surveillance period. These findings suggest that domestic ducks in southern China mediate the interaction of viruses between different gene pools and facilitate the generation of novel influenza virus variants circulating in poultry. PMID:20463062

  2. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014 (United States)

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The ...

  3. Red fox prey demands and implications to prairie duck production (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.


    Experiments were conducted during spring and summer with 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to determine prey demands, feeding characteristics, and growth rates using natural foods. Pups began eating prey the 4th week after birth. Then, prey consumption averaged 1.38 and 1.90 kg/pup/week for weeks 5-8 and 9-12 of the denning season respectively, and 2.54 kg/pup/week for the postdenning period. Feeding by adults averaged 2.25 kg/adult/week. Free water was not needed by either pups or adults. About 90 percent of the prey offered to pups on simulated natural diets was consumed, remains varied with prey availability and prey type. Prey biomass required by a typical fox family was estimated at 18.5 kg/km2 for the 12-week denning season and 2.4 kg/km2/week for the postdenning period. Because of the large prey demands, ducks could represent a small part of the foxes' diet and yet be of consequence to the productivity of particular species. An example is provided for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

  4. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent (Shoshone-Paiute Nation, Duck Valley Indian Reservation, Owyhee, NV)


    The Duck Valley Indian Reservations' Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect the critical riparian areas, natural springs, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project was begun in 1997 with the hiring of a fisheries biologist and the creation of a new department for the Tribes. The project's goals are to protect and enhance the springs, Owyhee River, its tributaries, and to develop a database that can be used by other fisheries professionals which includes information on water quality and fish composition, health, abundance, and genetic makeup. One habitat portion of the project is a focus on protection the numerous springs that provide clean, cool water to the Owyhee River. This will be accomplished through enclosure fences of the spring heads and water troughs to provide clean cool drinking water for wildlife and livestock. Another habitat portion of the project involves protecting headwater areas of streams with native fish populations. This is accomplished through enclosure fencing and riparian plantings on any eroded or degraded banks in the enclosure area. Finally, we monitor and evaluate the areas protected and enhanced. This is accomplished through biological sampling for temperature, Oxygen, sedimentation, and measurements of water depth, bank height and undercut, and width of stream. With the habitat and biological indices we will be able to evaluate how well protective measures are doing, and where to focus future efforts.

  5. Genetic characterization of a potentially novel goose parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in Fujian Province, China. (United States)

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Shi-Long; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Long


    We report a novel goose parvovirus (MDGPV/PT) isolated from an affected Muscovy duck in Fujian Province, China. In this study, the NS1 sequence analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between MDGPV/PT and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains, although MDGPV/DY, which was isolated from a Muscovy duck in 2006 in Sichuan Province, could be divided into GPV-related groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that except for differences in the NS1 gene, MDGPV strains PT and DY are closely related to a parvovirus that infects domestic waterfowls. This is the first demonstration of recombination between goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses in nature, and MDGPV/PT might have led to the generation of a novel waterfowl parvovirus strain circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.

  6. More than complementing Tolls: Complement–Toll-like receptor synergy and crosstalk in innate immunity and inflammation


    Hajishengallis, George; Lambris, John D.


    Complement and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in the host immune response and are swiftly activated by infection or other types of immunological stress. This review focuses on the capacity of complement and TLRs to engage in signaling crosstalk, ostensibly to coordinate immune and inflammatory responses through synergistic or antagonistic (regulatory) interactions. However, over-activation or dysregulation of either system may lead – often synergistically – to exaggerated inflammat...

  7. Effect of Gamma Radiation to the Content of Nutrition Duck Egg Environment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto; Yohannes Sardjono


    The effect of gamma radiation dose of 0.7 kGy to the content of nutrition duck egg environment sample of Turi area, Bantul Yogyakarta has been studied. This research is conducted to determine the effect of gamma radiation 0.7 kGy to the nutrition duck egg which stored during 21 days. The grouped of some fresh duck egg sample to become 2 group. First group with 0 kGy (non irradiation) and the second group with 0.7 kGy dose. The irradiation sample was conducted at Kartini reactor Beamport. After the desired dose reached, the duck egg was lifted. Both irradiated and non irradiated duck egg then stored during 21 days. The research design used is Complete Block Random Device (RABL) with pattern factorial and restating as block. First factor : Dose of Irradiation (D) : D 1 = 0 kGy (non irradiation) and D 2 = 0.7 kGy. Second factors : stored time (P) : P 1 = 0 and day of P 2 = 21 days. The analysis of water content, total protein, dissolve protein, ash and fat was carried out. The research result shows that the gamma irradiation have no significant effect to the water content, total protein, dissolve protein, ash and fat both in white and also duck egg yolk for day of 0 (P> 0.05). For storage during 21 days, gamma radiation have significant effect to the water content, total protein, dissolve protein both in white and also duck egg yolk (P 0.05), because the irradiation process do not influence the availability of mineral in egg yolk and also have no significant effect to fat content (P> 0.05), because at the protein have compound which able to kill bacterium, so-called with lysozyme, besides high protein alkalinity which do not advantage growth of bacterium, so that during storage do not happened protein lipolysis by enzyme of lipase yielded by microbe. The effect of gamma radiation to the duck egg which stored during 21 days shows that the water content at white duck egg rising to 1.02 % wb, the protein total decreasing to 0.99 % db, the dissolve protein decreasing to 0

  8. Mid-winter European dabbling duck distributions are not linked to species body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Delany, Simon; Fox, Anthony David

    are likely to play a major role in determining the wintering distribution of short- to medium-distance migratory bird species and its inter-annual variability. As avian thermoregulatory costs scale allometrically with body size, we predicted that the mean mid-winter temperature experienced by six species...... of dabbling ducks wintering in Western Europe would be negatively correlated with body mass. We found no evidence for such a relationship in a large-scale analysis testing for a link between temperature and dabbling duck distributions, suggesting that other factors such as those related to feeding ecology......In order to understand the current changes and to predict future changes in wintering dabbling duck (Anas sp.) distributions in response to climate change, it is important to understand how species distribute themselves on a continental scale in response to temperature. Thermoregulatory costs...

  9. Short beak and dwarfism syndrome of mule duck is caused by a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus. (United States)

    Palya, Vilmos; Zolnai, Anna; Benyeda, Zsófia; Kovács, Edit; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás


    From the early 1970s to the present, numerous cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. It was suggested that the syndrome was caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not so far been reproduced by experimental infection. The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus strains isolated from field cases of SBDS, and to reproduce the disease experimentally. Phylogenetic analysis proved that the parvovirus isolates obtained from SBDS of mule duck belonged to a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus-related group of waterfowl parvoviruses. The authors carried out experimental infections of 1-day-old, 2-week-old and 3-week-old mule ducks by the oral route with three different parvovirus strains: strain D17/99 of goose parvovirus from Derzsy's disease, strain FM of Muscovy duck parvovirus from the parvovirus disease of Muscovy ducks, and strain D176/02 isolated from SBDS of mule duck. The symptoms of SBDS of the mule duck could only be reproduced with the mule duck isolate (strain D176/02) following 1-day-old inoculation. Infection with a genetically different strain of goose parvovirus isolated from classical Derzsy's disease (D17/99) or with the Muscovy duck parvovirus strain (FM) did not cause any clinical symptoms or pathological lesions in mule ducks.

  10. The Toll-Dorsal Pathway Is Required for Resistance to Viral Oral Infection in Drosophila


    Ferreira, Álvaro Gil; Naylor, Huw; Esteves, Sara Santana; Pais, Inês Silva; Martins, Nelson Eduardo; Teixeira, Luis


    Pathogen entry route can have a strong impact on the result of microbial infections in different hosts, including insects. Drosophila melanogaster has been a successful model system to study the immune response to systemic viral infection. Here we investigate the role of the Toll pathway in resistance to oral viral infection in D. melanogaster. We show that several Toll pathway components, including Spätzle, Toll, Pelle and the NF-kB-like transcription factor Dorsal, are required to resist or...

  11. Trace metal concentrations in sediments and fish in the vicinity of ash lagoon discharges from coal-combustion plants in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. (United States)

    Lalonde, Benoit A; Ernst, William; Comeau, Fernand


    Metals that originate from coal-combustion residue (ash) deposited in water-filled lagoons are eventually released into the environment. This study measured metal concentrations in sediment and fish obtained in the vicinity of two coal-combustion ash-lagoon outfalls on the East River (Nova Scotia) and Grand Lake (New Brunswick), Canada. Of the 34 metals analysed, this study demonstrated that sediment in the immediate vicinity of the ash lagoon discharge in New Brunswick had statistically significant greater concentrations of thallium, arsenic, and antimony than did the sediment obtained from background areas. Tissue arsenic concentrations were increased in fish obtained near the lagoon discharge in New Brunswick but not statistically greater than that of fish obtained from background areas. Neither sediment nor fish obtained near the ash-lagoon discharge in Nova Scotia had significantly greater concentrations of any of the metals measured. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  12. Duck plague in free-flying waterfowl observed during the Lake Andes epizootic (United States)

    Proctor, S.J.; Pearson, G.L.; Leibovitz, Louis


    The first major epizootic of duck plague in free-flying waterfowl occurred at Lake Andes, South Dakota, in January and February, 1973. Duck plague was diagnosed in black ducks, mallards, pintail-mallard hybrids, redheads, common mergansers, common golden eyes, canvasbacks, American widgeon, wood ducks, and Canada geese, indicating the general susceptibility of ducks to duck plague. Clinical signs observed in mallards were droopiness, polydipsia, lethargy, reduced wariness, weakness, reluctance to fly, swimming in circles, bloody diarrhea, bloody fluid draining from the nares and bill, and terminal convulsions.Because the mallard was the most numerous and heavily infected species during the Lake Andes epizootic, gross and microscopic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, heart, lung, bone marrow, pancreas, and ovaries were described. Lesions of the esophagus and cloaca were in the stratified submucosal glands. In the small and large intestine, lesions were located in lymphocytic aggregates, lamina propria, and crypt epithelium. Hemorrhages and necrosis of hepatocytes and bile duct epithelium were noted in the liver. Diffuse necrosis of lymphocytic and reticuloendothelial tissue were evident in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. Hemorrhages in other tissues such as the lung and heart were often associated with lymphoid nodules, while those in organs such as the pancreas were associated with acinar necrosis. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus and cloaca, crypt epithelium of the intestine, hepatocytes, bile duct epithelium, cells of Hassel's corpuscles, splenic periarteriolar reticular cells, and epithelial cells in the bursa of Fabricius.

  13. Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.


    In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

  14. Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1829) (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae) in wild ducks in Western Pomerania, Poland. (United States)

    Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Kalisińska, Elzbieta; Nowak, Małgorzata R


    Cloacotaenia megalops (Nitzsch in Creplin, 1892) is a polyxenic and cosmopolitan tapeworm from the family Hymenolepididae. Its generic name derives from their typical location (cloaca), and the typical final hosts which are birds typically associated with water and marsh environments: Anseriformes, Galliformes and Gruiformes. In Poland, the presence of C. megalops has been observed so far in 16 species of ducks from the Baltic coast, the Mazurian Lake District, Wielkopolsko-Kujawska Lowland, Mazovian Lowland, and Podlasie Lowland. In Western Pomerania, quantitative structure analyses were only carried out on Anas platyrhynchos, and therefore the aim of this study was the detailed analysis of environmental populations of C. megalops in wild ducks. The examined tapeworms were isolated from the digestive tract of 1005 wild ducks representing 17 species belonging to three different eco-tribes: Anatini (n=225), Aythyini (n=413) and Mergini (n=367), from northwestern Poland. During the Study 187 C. megalops were found in 89 birds (8.8% of examined ducks) belonging to 7 species: Anas crecca (common teal), A. querquedula (garganey), A. platyrhynchos (mallard) (Anatini); Aythyaferina (pochard), A. fuligula (tufted duck), A. marila (greater scaup) (Aythyini) and Bucephala clangula (goldeneye) (Mergini). The results show the differences in the quantitative structure of C. megalops among the examined species of ducks. The highest prevalence was found in mallard (18.6%) and the lowest in greater scaup (3.2%). The highest mean intensity was observed in greater scaup (4.0), and the lowest in garganey and common teal (1.0). Relative density was at a similar level in the tested birds. Based on the ratio of dominance, it was found that C. megalops is a rare species in the cestodofauna in the examined birds.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of duck hepatitis a virus types 1 and 3 in China, 2010-2015. (United States)

    Wen, X; Zhu, D; Cheng, A; Wang, M; Chen, S; Jia, R; Liu, M; Sun, K; Zhao, X; Yang, Q; Wu, Y; Chen, X


    Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is the most common aetiologic agent of duck virus hepatitis (DVH), causing substantial economic losses in the duck industry worldwide. In China, officially approved DHAV-1 live-attenuated vaccines have been used widely to vaccinate breeder ducks since 2013. However, following the reports of DVH outbreaks, it has become necessary to assess the epidemiological situation of this virus in China. We conducted molecular epidemiological analyses of 32 DHAV field isolates while analysing the samples from ducks suspected of having hepatitis collected from commercial duck farms in China between May 2010 and December 2015. Considerable changes were observed in the epidemiology of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 in China over time. A higher number of DHAV-1 strains were isolated during 2010-2012, coinciding with the widespread use of officially approved DHAV-1 live vaccine strains beginning in 2013. In contrast, a higher rate of DHAV-3 causing DHAV infections was observed between 2013 and 2015. Phylogenetic analyses based on the full-length VP1 gene were performed on these field isolates and using reference strains available in GenBank. DHAV-1 field isolates were evaluated in two groups: one group closely related to prototype strains and circulating in China between 2010 and 2012 and another group exhibiting genetic and serological differences from prototype strains. All DHAV-3 strains isolated in this study were grouped as monophyletic, which has become the predominant viral type, particularly in Shandong and Sichuan provinces, since 2013. In conclusion, these data provide updated information on the genetic and serological diversity of DHAV-1 and DHAV-3, and our findings may serve as a foundation for the prevention of, and vaccine development for, DHAV in China. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Time-specific patterns of nest survival for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota (United States)

    Shaffer, Terry L.; Grant, Todd A.


    In many bird species, survival can vary with the age of the nest, with the date a nest was initiated, or among years within the same nesting area. A literature review showed that patterns of survival vary in relation to nest age and date and are often contradictory. Inconsistencies could be a result of temporal variation in the environment or life-history differences among species. We examined patterns of nest survival in relation to nest age, date, and year for several duck and passerine species nesting at a single location in North Dakota during 1998–2003. We predicted that if environment shaped nest survival patterns, then temporal patterns in survival might be similar among three species of upland nesting ducks, and also among three species of grassland passerines nesting at the same site. We expected that survival patterns would differ between ducks and passerines because of relatively disparate life histories and differences in predators that prey on their nests. Nest survival was rarely constant among years, seasonally, or with age of the nest for species that we studied. As predicted, the pattern of survival was similar among duck species, driven mainly by differences in nest survival associated with nest initiation date. The pattern of survival also was similar among passerine species, but nest survival was more influenced by nest age than by date. Our findings suggest that some but not all variation in temporal patterns of nest survival in grassland birds reported in the literature can be explained on the basis of temporal environmental variation. Because patterns of survival were dissimilar among ducks and passerines, it is likely that mechanisms such as predation or brood parasitism have variable influences on productivity of ducks and passerines nesting in the same area. Our results indicate that biologists and managers should not assume that temporal environmental variations, especially factors that affect nest survival, act similarly on all

  17. Host Differences Affecting Resistance and Susceptibility of the Second Generation of a Pekin Duck Flock to Duck Hepatitis A Virus Genotype 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang


    Full Text Available Earlier work suggested the possibility to anti duck hepatitis A virus genotype 3 (DHAV-3 using the resistance breeding strategy. Here, we report the creation of the second generations of a resistant Pekin duck flock (designated Z8R2 and a highly susceptible Pekin duck flock (designated Z8S2 and the investigation of their responses to DHAV-3. Experimental infection with DHAV-3 at 7 days of age resulted in a high mortality (66.3% in 11 susceptible Z8S2 families and an extremely low mortality rate (2.67% in 32 Z8R2 families, indicating that Z8R2 exhibits strong resistance to DHAV-3, while Z8S2 is highly susceptible to the virus. Detection of DHAV-3 in the liver between 1 and 60 hours post inoculation (hpi suggests that DHAV-3 can be replicated rapidly and efficiently in the liver of Z8S2, whereas the replication of the virus in the liver of Z8R2 is suppressed greatly. High levels of serum biochemical markers (e.g., ALT, AST, ALP and GGT were detected in Z8S2 at 24 hpi, which were significantly higher than those in Z8R2. Analysis of transcripts in the liver revealed that the expression levels of several pattern recognition receptors (PRRs (e.g., TLR4/7, RIG-1 and MDA5 and cytokines (e.g., IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-α, and IFN-γ in Z8S2 were significantly higher than those in Z8R2 at 12 and 24 hpi. Together these findings suggest that Z8R2 and Z8S2 Pekin ducks, which were derived from the same Z8 line, exhibit disparate pathogenic outcomes following DHAV-3 infection. Therefore, it is possible to select a Pekin duck flock resistant to DHAV-3 employing the strategy described here. It is likely that the high viral load and the strong inflammatory response correlate with the high susceptibility of Z8S2 Pekin ducks to DHAV-3.

  18. "Everyone just keeps their eyes closed and their fingers crossed": sexual health communication among black parents and children in Nova Scotia, Canada. (United States)

    Davis, Antoinette N; Gahagan, Jacqueline C; George, Clemon


    Black Canadian youth remain disproportionally affected by an array of social and health issues, including sexually transmitted infections. While research exists in support of the involvement of parents as a key means to prevent or modify harmful behaviours among youth, less is known about how parent-child communication can serve as a prevention intervention strategy within Black families in Canada. This study explores sexual health communication between Black parents and youth in Nova Scotia and identifies facilitators, obstacles and issues that families face in dialoguing about sexual health. Focus groups and in-depth interview sessions were held with a diverse sample of parents of Black youth, health and education professionals, and Black youth in Nova Scotia, as part of a larger study aimed at exploring parent-child communication on sexual health and HIV. The research team worked in partnership with and received feedback from key informants and a community advisory committee throughout the various stages of this study. All sessions were audio-taped with permission and thematic analysis was carried out on the verbatim transcripts. Six key themes emerged from the data analysis in relation to parent-child communication within Black families in Nova Scotia: 1. the gendered nature of [sexual] health communication; 2. fear and uncertainty as obstacles; 3. open and honest dialogue from an early age as a facilitator; 4. media as both a catalyst and a barrier; 5. peers as a catalyst; and 6. time constraints as an obstacle. The findings of this study reveal that parent-child communication regarding sexual health promotion within Black families in Nova Scotia remains varied and is heavily affected by a myriad of intersecting determinants of health faced by Black youth and their parents. Health promotion interventions aimed at fostering and supporting parent-child communication on sexual health must simultaneously target both parents and youth and further, such efforts must

  19. Evidence for protracted and lecithotrophic larval development in the yeti crab Kiwa tyleri from hydrothermal vents of the East Scotia Ridge, Southern Ocean


    Thatje, Sven; Smith, Kathryn E.; Marsh, Leigh; Tyler, Paul


    The deep-sea squat lobster Kiwa tyleri (also known as yeti crab) is the dominant macroinvertebrate inhabiting hydrothermal vents on the northern and southern segments of the East Scotia Ridge in the Southern Ocean. Here, we describe the first zoeal stage of the species—which is morphologically advanced—and provide evidence for its lecithotrophy in development. This morphologically advanced stage at hatching suggests that dispersal potential during early ontogeny may be limited. Adults of K. t...

  20. Substantial-Motivational Mechanism for Substantiation of Tolling Operations in Conditions of the European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Olga G


    Full Text Available The article is concerned with conceptualization of substance, distinguishing characteristics and motives of the implementation of tolling operations in conditions of the European integration. The study, based on the systematization and analysis of existing scientific approaches to definition of essence of tolling and tolling operations, has disclosed the dominating poli-positionality and ambiguity in this area. Economical autonomy of tolling operations has been determined, their difference from the operations with customerfurnished raw materials has been allocated, substance and characteristics of tolling operations has been conceptually grounded, motives of their implementation for both the customer and the provider has been systematized. It is proved that implementation of tolling operations will address the pivotal financial, production and staffing problems of domestic enterprises and ensure their progressive development in conditions of the European integration. Prospect of further research is developing a conceptual framework for management of tolling operations, which will provide targeted exposure of management system on the controlled system, which is directly involved in the implementation of tolling operations, with a view to enhancing the efficiency of tolling process

  1. The effects of hunting on survival rates of American black ducks (United States)

    Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Percival, H.F.


    Using data from 10 preseason and 10 winter major reference areas from 1950-83, the authors tested hypotheses regarding the effects of hunting on the survival and recovery rates of the American black duck (Anas rubripes ). Although estimates of the proportion of total annual mortality due to hunting are low (35% for ad and 45% for young) compared to Blandin's (1982) estimates, mean mortality and kill rates have increased since 1982. When hunting regulations were liberalized, recovery rates increased and survival rates decreased in males whereas only recovery rates increased in females. Changes in hunting regulations appeared to affect survival rates of adult males and young American black ducks.

  2. Effects of Dietary Methionine Levels on Choline Requirements of Starter White Pekin Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. G. Wen


    Full Text Available A 2×5 factorial experiment, using 2 dietary methionine levels (0.28% and 0.48% and 5 dietary choline levels (0, 394, 823, 1,239, and 1,743 mg/kg, was conducted to study the effects of dietary methionine status on choline requirements of starter white Pekin ducks from 7 to 28 days of age. Four hundred eighty 7-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to ten dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 28 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were measured and the legs of all ducks from each pen were examined for incidence of perosis. Perosis and growth depression were observed in choline-deficient ducks and supplementation of choline reduced perosis and significantly increased weight gain and feed intake regardless of dietary methionine levels (p<0.05. In addition, significant positive effects of dietary methionine supplementation on weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain were observed at any choline level (p<0.05. Supplementation of 1,743 mg/kg choline in diets alleviated the depression of weight gain and feed intake caused by methionine deficiency at 0.28% methionine level. The interaction between choline and methionine influenced weight gain and feed intake of ducks (p<0.05. At 0.28% methionine level, 1,743 mg/kg choline group caused 4.92% and 3.23% amount of improvement in weight gain and feed intake compared with 1,239 mg/kg choline group, respectively. According to the broken-line regression, the choline requirements of starter Pekin ducks for weight gain and feed intake were 1,472 and 1,424 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 946 and 907 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. It suggested the choline recommendations of starter Pekin ducks on a semi-purified diet were 1448 mg/kg at 0.28% methionine level and 927 mg/kg at 0.48% methionine level, respectively. Compared with the adequate methionine level, menthionine deficiency markedly increased the choline requirements of

  3. Feeding ecology of long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis wintering on the Nantucket Shoals (United States)

    White, Timothy P.; Veit, Richard R.; Perry, Matthew C.


    A substantial proportion, perhaps 30%, of the North American breeding population of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) winter in the vicinity of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. These birds spend the night on Nantucket Sound and commute during daylight hours to the Nantucket Shoals, which extend about 65 km offshore from the southeastern corner of Nantucket. Strip transects done from a single-engine plane in 1997 and 1998 indicated that Long-tailed Ducks foraged over the shallower (fish and marine mammals. Our findings emphasize the importance of conservation of the Nantucket Shoals and the prevention of oil spills or other potentially harmful accidents.

  4. Selection and Crossbreeding in Relation to Plumage Color Inheritance in Three Chinese Egg Type Duck Breeds (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Lin


    Full Text Available In China and South East Asia, the duck (common duck is important in egg production for human consumption. Plumage color is a breed characteristic and of economic importance, together with egg production. Our aim in this study was to investigate the inheritance of plumage color in three Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds, Shan Ma (S, Putian White (F and Putian black (P, and some of their crossbreds. These three breeds have different plumage color and are used in crossbreeding. The crossbred laying ducks F×(P×S and F×(S×P showed highly improved laying ability but heterogeneous plumage color. Genotypes at four relevant loci were investigated by studying down color and pattern in ducklings after crossbreeding. F1 ducklings from the matings F×S and S×F, P×S, and S×P were classified into four classes of plumage color (the Shan Ma plumage color, black, white, or multicolored over three generations. Parents were selected for the Shan Ma plumage color of their progeny. In the fourth generation, P male and P female ducks were selected according to the frequency of the desired class of plumage color (Shan Ma of their F1 progeny to obtain the so-called “Brown Putian Ma duck”. The Shan Ma duck genotype was identified as having the restricted mallard color pattern (MRMR, full expression of any of the patterns or colors (CC, no extended black (ee and no brown dilution D (D. The Putian White genotype was recessive white (cc, no extended black (ee and no brown dilution D (D. The Putian Black genotype exhibited full expression of extended black (E gene and no brown dilution (CCEE D [D]. It was shown that F×S and S×F tests should be implemented to eliminate the recessive white c allele in the S line and the dominant extended black E allele in the F line. It was also shown that the Brown Putian Ma obtained from Putian Black, with no extended black genotype (ee, could be used to get rid of the black plumage (E gene in the crossbred ducks. This

  5. Carbonate deposition on tail feathers of ruddy ducks using evaporation ponds (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.


    Substantial carbonate deposits were observed on rectrices of Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) collected during 1982-1984 on evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Carbonate deposits were composed of about 75% aragonite and 25% calcite, both polymorphous forms of CaCO3. Significantly more carbonate deposits were observed on Ruddy Ducks as length of exposure to agricultural drain water increased, during the 1983-1984 field season when salt concentrations in the ponds were higher, and in certain evaporation-pond systems.

  6. Widespread horizontal genomic exchange does not erode species barriers among sympatric ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus Robert HS


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of speciation and maintenance of species barriers is at the core of evolutionary biology. During speciation the genome of one population becomes separated from other populations of the same species, which may lead to genomic incompatibility with time. This separation is complete when no fertile offspring is produced from inter-population matings, which is the basis of the biological species concept. Birds, in particular ducks, are recognised as a challenging and illustrative group of higher vertebrates for speciation studies. There are many sympatric and ecologically similar duck species, among which fertile hybrids occur relatively frequently in nature, yet these species remain distinct. Results We show that the degree of shared single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs between five species of dabbling ducks (genus Anas is an order of magnitude higher than that previously reported between any pair of eukaryotic species with comparable evolutionary distances. We demonstrate that hybridisation has led to sustained exchange of genetic material between duck species on an evolutionary time scale without disintegrating species boundaries. Even though behavioural, genetic and ecological factors uphold species boundaries in ducks, we detect opposing forces allowing for viable interspecific hybrids, with long-term evolutionary implications. Based on the superspecies concept we here introduce the novel term "supra-population" to explain the persistence of SNPs identical by descent within the studied ducks despite their history as distinct species dating back millions of years. Conclusions By reviewing evidence from speciation theory, palaeogeography and palaeontology we propose a fundamentally new model of speciation to accommodate our genetic findings in dabbling ducks. This model, we argue, may also shed light on longstanding unresolved general speciation and hybridisation patterns in higher organisms, e.g. in other bird

  7. Metalliferous coals of the Westphalian A Joggins Formation, Cumberland basin, Nova Scotia, Canada: Petrology, geochemistry, and palynology (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Calder, J.H.; Eble, C.F.; Scott, A.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Blanchard, L.J.


    Five coals of Westphalian A (early Middle Pennsylvanian) age were sampled from the Joggins Formation section exposed along Chignecto Bay at Joggins, Nova Scotia. Coal beds along the bay were mined beginning in the early 17th century, yet there have been few detailed published investigation of the coal beds of this classic section. The lowermost coal, the Upper Coal 28 (Upper Fundy), is a high-vitrinite coal with a spore assemblage dominated by arboreous lycopsid spores with tree ferns subdominant. The upper portions of the coal bed have the highest ratio of well-preserved to poorly-preserved telinite of any of the coals investigated. Coal 19 ('clam coal') has 88% total vitrinite but, unlike the Fundy coal bed, the telinite has a poor preservation ratio and half the total vitrinite population comprises gelocollinite and vitrodetrinite. The latter coal bed is directly overlain by a basin-wide limestone bed. The Lower Kimberly coal shows good preservation of vitrinite with relatively abundant telinite among the total vitrinite. The Middle Kimberly coal, which underlies the tetrapod-bearing lycopsid trees found by Lyell and Dawson in 1852, exhibits an upward decrease in arboreous lycopod spores and an upward increase in the tree fern spore Punctatisporites minutus. Telinite preservation increases upwards in the Middle Kimberly but overall is well below the preservation ratio of the Upper Fundy coal bed. The coals all have high sulfur contents, yielding up to 13.7% total sulfur for the lower lithotype of the Upper Fundy coal bed. The Kimberly coals are not only high in total and pyritic sulfur, but also have high concentrations of chalcophile elements. Zinc, ranging up to 15,000 ppm (ash basis), is present as sphalerite in fusain lumens. Arsenic and lead each exceed 6000 ppm (ash basis) in separate lithotypes of the Kimberly coals. Together these data are consistent with elevated pH in planar mires. The source of the elemental enrichment in this presumed continental

  8. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system (United States)

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.


    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  9. Establishment of a rice-duck integrated farming system and its effects on soil fertility and rice disease control (United States)

    Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-Qing; Luo, Fan


    Rice-duck integrated farming is an ecological farming system newly established in some areas of southern China . It was reported that the ducks walking around the paddy fields is beneficial to control weed hazards and reduce rice pests and diseases. To study and evaluate the effects of the rice-duck integrated farming on soil fertility and rice disease control, a field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai in 2014. It includes a treatment of raising ducks in the fields and a control without ducks. The treatment was implemented by building a duck coop nearby the experimental fields and driving 15 ducks into a plot at daytime since the early stage of rice growth. Each plot is 667 m2 in area. The treatment and control were replicated for three times. No any herbicides, pesticides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the experiment to prevent any disturbance to duck growing and rice weed hazards and disease incidences from agrochemicals. The results are as follows: (1) The incidences of rice leaf rollers (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and stem borers treated with ducks, 0.45%and 1.18% on average, respectively, are lower than those of the control, 0.74% and 1.44% on average, respectively. At the late stage of rice growth, the incidence of rice sheath blight treated with ducks, 13.15% on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 16.9% on average; and the incidence of rice planthoppers treated with ducks, 11.3 per hill on average, is also significantly lower than that of the control, 47.4 per hill on average. (2) The number of weeds in the plots treated with ducks, 8.3 per m2 on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 87.5 m2 on average. (3) Raising ducks in the fields could also enhance soil enzyme activity and nutrient status. At the late stage of rice growth, the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in the soils treated with ducks are 1.39 times, 1.40 times, 1

  10. Isolation and Genomic Characterization of a Duck-Origin GPV-Related Parvovirus from Cherry Valley Ducklings in China. (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Dou, Yanguo; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Zhenjie; Zheng, Xiaoqiang; Niu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xianglong; Diao, Youxiang


    A newly emerged duck parvovirus, which causes beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS) in Cherry Valley ducks, has appeared in Northern China since March 2015. To explore the genetic diversity among waterfowl parvovirus isolates, the complete genome of an identified isolate designated SDLC01 was sequenced and analyzed in the present study. Genomic sequence analysis showed that SDLC01 shared 90.8%-94.6% of nucleotide identity with goose parvovirus (GPV) isolates and 78.6%-81.6% of nucleotide identity with classical Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of 443 nucleotides (nt) of the fragment A showed that SDLC01 was highly similar to a mule duck isolate (strain D146/02) and close to European GPV isolates but separate from Asian GPV isolates. Analysis of the left inverted terminal repeat regions revealed that SDLC01 had two major segments deleted between positions 160-176 and 306-322 nt compared with field GPV and MDPV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of Rep and VP1 encoded by two major open reading frames of parvoviruses revealed that SDLC01 was distinct from all GPV and MDPV isolates. The viral pathogenicity and genome characterization of SDLC01 suggest that the novel GPV (N-GPV) is the causative agent of BADS and belongs to a distinct GPV-related subgroup. Furthermore, N-GPV sequences were detected in diseased ducks by polymerase chain reaction and viral proliferation was demonstrated in duck embryos and duck embryo fibroblast cells.

  11. Early spawning of Antarctic krill in the Scotia Sea is fuelled by “superfluous” feeding on non-ice associated phytoplankton blooms (United States)

    Schmidt, Katrin; Atkinson, Angus; Venables, Hugh J.; Pond, David W.


    The spawning success of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) is generally assumed to depend on substantial winter sea ice extent, as ice biota can serve as a food source during winter/spring and the seasonal ice melt conditions the upper water column for extensive phytoplankton blooms. However, direct observations during spring are rare. Here we studied krill body condition and maturity stage in relation to feeding (i.e. stomach fullness, diet, absorption of individual fatty acids and defecation rate) across the Scotia Sea in November 2006. The phytoplankton concentrations were low at the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the southern Scotia Sea (Stn. 1, 2, and 3), high in open waters of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF) in the central Scotia Sea (Stn. 5), and moderate further north (Stn. 6 and 7). Krill had low lipid reserves (˜6.5% of dry mass, DM), low mass:length ratios (˜1.7 mg DM mm -1), and small digestive glands (˜7% of total DM) near the ice edge. The stomachs contained lithogenic particles, diatom debris, and bacterial fatty acids, but low proportions of diatom-indicating fatty acids, which suggest that these krill were feeding on detritus rather than on fresh ice algae. In the SACCF, krill had higher lipid reserves (˜10% of DM), high mass:length ratios (˜2.2 mg DM mm -1), and large digestive glands (˜16% of total DM). Stomach content and tissue composition indicate feeding on diatoms. In the north, moderate food concentrations co-occurred with low lipid reserves in krill, and moderate mass:length ratios and digestive gland sizes. Only in the phytoplankton bloom in the SACCF had the mating season already started and some females were about to spawn. Based on the way krill processed their food at the different stations, we indicate two mechanisms that can lead to fast regeneration of body reserves and oocyte maturation in E. superba. One is "superfluous" feeding at high food concentrations, which maximises the overall nutrient gain

  12. Ducks as a potential reservoir for Pasteurella multocida infection detected using a new rOmpH-based ELISA. (United States)

    Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Cuiteng; Cheng, Longfei; Lu, Ronghui; Fu, Guanghua; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Lin, Jiansheng; Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu


    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen of numerous domestic poultry and wild animals and is associated with a variety of diseases including fowl cholera. The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant outer-membrane protein H (rOmpH) for detection of anti-P. multocida antibodies in serum to determine their prevalence in Chinese ducks. The P. multocida ompH gene was cloned into pET32a, and rOmpH was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blotting revealed that purified rOmpH was recognized by duck antisera against P. multocida, and an indirect ELISA was established. During analysis of serum samples (n=115) from ducks, the rOmpH ELISA showed 95.0% specificity, 100% sensitivity and a 92.0% κ coefficient (95% confidence interval 0.844-0.997) as compared with a microtiter agglutination test. Among 165 randomly selected serum samples, which were collected in 2015 and originated from six duck farms across Fujian Province, China, anti-P. multocida antibodies were detected in 22.42% of apparently healthy ducks, including 25 of 90 sheldrakes (27.8%), eight of 50 Peking ducks (16.0%) and four of 25 Muscovy ducks (16%). Overall, the data suggest that rOmpH is a suitable candidate antigen for the development of an indirect ELISA for detection of P. multocida in ducks; moreover, our results showed that ducks could serve as a potential reservoir for P. multocida infection.

  13. Influence of plastic slatted floors compared with pine shaving litter on Pekin Duck condition during the summer months. (United States)

    Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S; Karcher, D M; Makagon, M M; Lilburn, M S


    The management and well-being of commercial Pekin ducks has been studied in the European Union where straw is the predominant litter source. In the United States, however, the most prevalent litter is wood shavings, with a recent trend toward using plastic slatted flooring. A previous study in the United States evaluated the relationship between flooring type (litter, slats) and duck condition during winter months and found very few differences between the 2 in terms of overall duck condition. The purpose of the current study was to reevaluate the 2 flooring systems during the summer months to determine if seasonal differences would interact with flooring type to have an impact on duck condition. Eighteen commercial barns that produce Pekin ducks for Maple Leaf Farms Inc. (Leesburg, IN), located in northern Indiana and southern Wisconsin (n = 9 litter; n = 9 raised slatted floor), were used for this study. Twenty ducks were randomly selected from 5 predetermined areas within each house (n = 100 total) and scored for eye condition, nostril and feather cleanliness, and feather and foot pad quality at 7, 21, and 32 d of age. Environmental data, including carbon monoxide, ammonia, RH, and temperature, were also obtained at each collection day. The only statistical differences in body condition occurred at 7 d; there were more ducks with clear eyes and eye rings on the litter flooring, whereas average nostril scores were better on the plastic slatted floors. Live weight, weight gain per day, flock mortality, and condemnations at the plant were collected, and the only statistical difference was a higher gain per day for ducks reared on slatted floors compared with litter (P flooring systems in the environmental parameters measured within the barns. In summary, there were very few differences between the litter and slatted flooring systems, indicating that there may not be clear advantages for one particular flooring system over the other from the point of view of duck

  14. Physico-chemical analysis of eggs of native fowl, duck and goose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of eggs such as moisture, crude protein, crude fat, total ash, carbohydrate, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorous and metabolized energy were also evaluated. The significant variability observed in most of egg quality traits indicated the scope for further genetic improvement. Keywords: Duck and ...

  15. Assessment of species and antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from mallard duck faeces. (United States)

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Krueger, Karolin; Roesler, Uwe; Weinreich, Joerg; Schierack, Peter


    Mallard ducks have demonstrated to be a likely reservoir for zoonotic E. coli strains; thus, it is possible that these ducks could also act as a reservoir for other Enterobacteriaceae members. The present study was initiated to evaluate the species distribution of Enterobacteriaceae other than E. coli in 175 fresh faecal samples collected from a population of mallard ducks. Sixty-four samples displayed detectable colonies of Enterobacteriaceae (excluding E. coli), which resulted in 75 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types. Seventy-five single representatives of each PFGE type were subjected to identification with API 32NE and MALDI TOF MS systems due to the practical difficulties in species differentiation of Enterobacteriaceae. Those isolated were found to be from nine genera: Buttiauxella (15 %), Citrobacter (5 %), Enterobacter (32 %), Hafnia (1 %), Leclercia (1 %), Pantoea (7 %), Raoultella (21 %), Rahnella (7 %) and Serratia (11 %). Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes using the disc method and detection of resistance genes using the microarray method revealed that these microbes possess resistance to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones, rifamycine, sulphonamides, streptogramins and diaminopyrimidines. In conclusion, mallard ducks harbour a variety of non-pathogenic and pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae species like Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter amnigenus in their intestine and could act as a reservoir of resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

  16. Avian botulism: a case study in translocated endangered Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) on Midway Atoll (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Klavitter, John L.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Blehert, David S.


    Laysan Ducks are endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago and are one of the world’s most endangered waterfowl. For 150 yr, Laysan Ducks were restricted to an estimated 4 km2 of land on Laysan Island in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In 2004 and 2005, 42 Laysan Ducks were translocated to Midway Atoll, and the population increased to approximately 200 by 2007. In August 2008, mortality due to botulism type C was identified, and 181 adult, fledgling, and duckling carcasses were collected from August to October. Diseased birds were found on two islands within Midway Atoll at multiple wetlands; however, one wetland contributed most carcasses. The epidemic was discovered approximately 14–21 days after the mortality started and lasted for 50 additional days. The details of this epidemic highlight the disease risk to birds restricted to small island populations and the challenges associated with managing newly translocated endangered species. Frequent population monitoring for early disease detection and comprehensive wetland monitoring and management will be needed to manage avian botulism in endangered Laysan Ducks. Vaccination may also be beneficial to reduce mortality in this small, geographically closed population.

  17. Weather-related indices of autumn–winter Dabbling Duck abundance in Middle North America (United States)

    Michael L. Schummer; Richard Kaminski; Andrew H. Raedeke; David A. Graber


    Research on effects of key weather stimuli influencing waterfowl migration during autumn and winter is limited. We investigated relationships between changes in relative abundances of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and other dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) and weather variables at midlatitude locations in North America. We used waterfowl survey data from Missouri Conservation...

  18. Sequence-specific inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robaczewska, Magdalena; Narayan, Ramamurthy; Seigneres, Beatrice


    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) appear as promising new antisense agents, that have not yet been examined as hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitors. Our aim was to study the ability of PNAs targeting the duck HBV (DHBV) encapsidation signal epsilon to inhibit reverse transcription (RT...

  19. Perception of poultry farmers on duck farming in Kwara State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the perception of poultry farmers on duck farming in Kwara state, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed in selecting 80 poultry farmers used in the study. Analytical tools used include frequency counts, charts, mean, percentage and Pearson Product moment correlation. Results showed ...

  20. The gastrointestinal helminth fauna of the eider duck (Somateria mollissima L.) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Okulewicz, A.; Zoun, P.E.F.; Okulewicz, J.


    The gastrointestinal helminth fauna of 25 eider ducks (Somateria mollissima L.) in the Netherlands has been described and number of worms counted or estimated. For the most common species maximum worm numbers are given. Five nematode species were found: Amidostomum acutum (max. intensity 1500).

  1. Science in the Making: Right Hand, Left Hand. II: The duck-rabbit figure. (United States)

    McManus, I C; Freegard, Matthew; Moore, James; Rawles, Richard


    The BBC television programme Right Hand, Left Hand, broadcast in August 1953, showed a version of the duck-rabbit figure and asked viewers to say what they could see in the “puzzle picture”. Nearly 4,000 viewers described the image, and the answers to those questions have recently been found and analysed. The programme probably used the same version of the figure as appeared in Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations, which had been published a month or two previously. Although Dr Jacob Bronowski, the presenter of the programme, had suspected that left- and right-handers might differ in their perception of the figure, since they might scan it from different sides, in fact there is no relationship in the data between six measures of lateralisation and a propensity for seeing a duck or a rabbit. However the large data set does show separate effects of both age and sex on viewing the figure, female and older viewers being more likely to report seeing a rabbit (although a clear majority of viewers reported seeing a duck). There was also a very significant tendency for female viewers to use more typical descriptions of the duck, whereas males used a wider variety of types.

  2. Temperature does not dictate the wintering distributions of European dabbling duck species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Fox, Anthony David; Petersen, Ib Krag


    To predict future changes in wintering dabbling duck (Anas sp.) distributions in response to climate change, it is necessary to understand their response to temperature at a continental scale. Food accessibility, competition and thermoregulatory costs are likely to play a major role in determining...

  3. Long-Term Changes in Beach Fauna at Duck, North Carolina. (United States)


    informative. & nerita taZpoida was in a group by itself and was the only species characteristic of the shallow nearshore sites. Edotea spp. was also in a...These three taxa were also dominant at Duck, accounting for 33 percent of all taxa and 71 percent -. of all occurrences (Table 10). _ nerita ta7poida was

  4. Functional characterization of duck LSm14A in IFN-β induction. (United States)

    Hua, Kexin; Li, Huilin; Chen, Huanchun; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Luo, Rui; Jin, Hui


    Human LSm14A is a key component of processing body (P-body) assembly that mediates interferon-β (IFN-β) production by sensing viral RNA or DNA. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report duck LSm14A (duLSm14A) cloning from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). Full-length duLSm14A encoded 461 amino acids and was highly homologous with chicken and swan goose sequences. More interestingly, the duLSm14A mRNA was extensively expressed in all the studied tissues. In DEFs, duLSm14A was localized in the cytoplasm as P-body-like dots. Expression of duLSm14A induced IFN-β through the activation of interferon regulatory factor-1 and nuclear factor-κB in DEFs. Furthermore, knockdown of duLSm14A by small interfering RNA notably decreased poly(I:C)- or duck reovirus-induced IFN-β production. The present study results indicate that the duLSm14A is an essential sensor that mediates duck innate immunity against viral infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  6. Wavelength of ocean waves and surf beat at duck from array measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Menon, H.B.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Jog, P.D.; Almeida, A.M.

    Wavelength of ocean waves and surf beat (infra gravity waves) has for the first time been computed as a function of frequency from different combinations of non-collinear 3-gauge arrays. Data at the 15-gauge polygonal array at 8 m depth at Duck...

  7. Ergot Alkaloids in Feed for Pekin Ducks: Toxic Effects, Metabolism and Carry Over into Edible Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dänicke


    Full Text Available Hardened sclerotia (ergots of Claviceps purpurea contaminate cereal grains and contain toxic ergot alkaloids (EA. Information on EA toxicity in ducks is scarce. Therefore, the aim of the growth experiment (Day 0–49, n = 54/group was to titrate the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL for total ergot alkaloids (TEA. A control diet was prepared without ergots, and the diets designated Ergot 1 to 4 contained 1, 10, 15 and 20 g ergot per kg diet, respectively, corresponding to TEA contents of 0.0, 0.6, 7.0, 11.4 and 16.4 mg/kg. Sensitivity of ducks to EA was most pronounced at the beginning of the experiment when feed intake decreased significantly by 9%, 28%, 41% and 47% in groups Ergot 1 to 4, respectively, compared to the control group. The experiment was terminated after two weeks for ducks exposed to Ergot 3 and 4 due to significant growth retardation. Ergot alkaloid residues in edible tissues were lower than 5 ng/g. Bile was tested positive for ergonovine (=ergometrine = ergobasine with a mean concentration of 40 ng/g. Overall, the LOAEL amounted to 0.6 mg TA/kg diet suggesting that ducks are not protected by current European Union legislation (1 g ergot/kg unground cereal grains.

  8. Chlorfenapyr and mallard ducks: overview, study design, macroscopic effects, and analytical chemistry (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Klein, P.N.; Green, D.E.; Melancon, M.J.; Bradley, B.P.; Noguchi, G.


    The first commercial pesticide derived from a class of compounds known as halogenated pyrroles was registered for use in the United States in 2001. Chlorfenapyr degrades slowly in soil, sediment, and water and is highly toxic to birds. Information on biochemical or histological endpoints in birds is lacking; therefore, a two-year study was conducted to provide information needed to develop diagnostic criteria for chlorfenapyr toxicosis. In the first year, male mallard ducks were fed concentrations of 0, 2, 5, or 10 ppm technical chlorfenapyr or 5 ppm of a formulated product in their diet during a 10-week chronic exposure study. Survival, body weight, feed consumption (removal), behavior, and molt progression were monitored. Feed and liver were analyzed for chlorfenapyr and two metabolites. Five of 10 ducks in the 10-ppm group died, and neurotoxic effects were observed in the 5- and 10-ppm groups. Feed removal increased for ducks receiving chlorfenapyr and body weights of 5- and 10-ppm ducks were reduced. Loss of body fat, muscle atrophy, and bile retention were suggestive of metabolic disruption or a decreased ability to digest and absorb nutrients. Liver and kidney weights and liver and kidney weight/body weight ratios exhibited a positive response to concentrations of chlorfenapyr in the diet. Emaciation and elevated organ weight/body weight ratios are candidates for a suite of indicators of chronic chlorfenapyr exposure. Liver is the preferred tissue for chemical confirmation of exposure.

  9. Quantitative feed restriction of Pekin breeder ducks from 3 weeks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0,01) lower in body mass than those restricted from 8 weeks of age. The aversion of mass loss during this period could have contributed to the improved performance recorded during the laying period. At 60 weeks of age, the ducks restricted in intake from. 3 weeks were still highly significantly (P ",;;0,01) lighter in body mass ...

  10. Dynamic Emission of CH4 from a Rice-Duck Farming Ecosystem (United States)

    Jia-En Zhang; Ying Ouyang; Zhao-Xiang Huang Huang; Guo-Ming Quan


    Global climatic change induced by emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities is an issue of increasing in-ternational environmental concerns, and agricultural practices and managements are the important contributors for such emissions. This study investigated dynamic emission of methane (CH4) from a paddy field in a rice-duck farming ecosystem. Three different...

  11. Inositol-P 6 induced structural changes in duck major haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reactivities of 5,5'-Dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoate) with the sulphydryl groups of major haemoglobin of duck (Anas platyrhinchos) have been carried out in the presence of inositol hexakisphosphate, inositol-P6. The time course of the reaction is biphasic. The addition of inositol-P6 changed the pH dependence profile of the ...

  12. Energy exchange between the jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and synoptic eddies in the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea (United States)

    Koshlyakov, Mikhail; Savchenko, Darya; Tarakanov, Roman


    Energy exchange between the jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and ocean synoptic eddies in the surface layer of the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea is studied on the base of the satellite altimeter data for the period from 1993 to 2014 with the assumption that every ACC jet is enclosed between some fixed isopleths of the ocean surface absolute dynamics topography (ADT). All the ACC jets are dynamically unstable what results in the jet meandering, formation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies inside the meanders, intensification of the eddies up to reaching their maximum energy, subsequent eddy attenuation and their reverse merging with the mother jets. Corresponding fluctuations of the kinetic energy of the ACC jets and the eddies, generated by different jets, in the surface ocean layer were computed and analysed for the above mentioned 22 years period. As a main result of the analysis, if was confirmed that the kinetic energy of the ACC jets depends strongly on the intensivity of jet meandering and processes of eddy formation and reverse eddy absorption by the jets. Mean and extreme energy parameters of the jets and eddies were also estimated. The northern and middle jets of the South Polar Current are in the lead with respect to the formation of the ocean synoptic eddies.

  13. Determining appropriate wind turbine setback distances: Perspectives from municipal planners in the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Ian; Betts, Stephen; Rapaport, Eric


    This paper uses a series of interviews to investigate how municipal planners in three Canadian provinces (Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario) influence setbacks that regulate appropriate locations for wind turbines. Setbacks are provisions in local land use policies that dictate required separation distances between wind turbines and other land uses. Results of the study indicate that planners are not using a consistent method to ascertain appropriate distances and are often constrained by a lack of experience, resources, and expertise. These findings have important implications for wind energy regulation. Setbacks are intended to reasonably protect the public from the impacts of wind turbines, while allowing for some development. Municipalities in Canada may be best placed to consider local impacts of wind power, but the challenges identified raise concerns about potential arbitrariness. Setbacks that are unjustifiably high can unnecessarily close off territory and limit the ability to reach renewable energy targets. Taking regulatory power away from municipalities, as has happened in Ontario, can facilitate achievement of provincial targets, but may also increase opposition to projects at the local level. - Highlights: ► Inconsistent methods used for establishing wind turbine setbacks. ► Most common method used is a review of other setback by-laws. ► Barriers to implementation of setbacks include knowledge, resources, and consensus. ► Recommend documentation of planning process in setting setbacks.

  14. A documentation of structures in unconsolidated sediments along the north shore of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, T.R.


    During the summer of 1987 the north shore of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, was examined for evidence of structures in unconsolidated sediments. This shoreline exposes the eastern extension of the Cobequid-Chedabucto fault system which was active from the Devonian until at least the Permian, and possible into the Mesozoic. The primary aim of the study was to document, measure and record any structures in unconsolidated sediments. In all, thirty-four structure locations were found; of these, twenty-nine were in glacial outwash deltas, the results of the Late Wisconsinan ice retreat. The most important structures include: 1) conjugate normal faults in Advocate Harbour sands and muds at East Finney Brook; 2) associated faults and folds in the Advocate Harbour bottomset muds at Lower Five Islands; and 3) major convolutions in Advocate Harbour bottomset muds at Economy Point. The convolutions are the results of seismic shaking which either postdated delta formation or triggered synsedimentary slumping. The faults and folds at Lower Five Islands were formed by extension related to either delta slumping or possible bedrock movement. The conjugate fault set at East Finney Brook is the result of an extensional event probably caused by late NE-SW normal fault reactivation. It is unclear whether this reactivation is the result of glacial rebound or neotectonic movement

  15. Pilot study investigating ambient air toxics emissions near a Canadian kraft pulp and paper facility in Pictou County, Nova Scotia. (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Guernsey, Judith R; Walker, Tony R; Kim, Jong Sung; Sherren, Kate; Andreou, Pantelis


    Air toxics are airborne pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, including certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), prioritized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While several EPA-designated air toxics are monitored at a subset of Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) sites, Canada has no specific "air toxics" control priorities. Although pulp and paper (P&P) mills are major industrial emitters of air pollutants, few studies quantified the spectrum of air quality exposures. Moreover, most NAPS monitoring sites are in urban centers; in contrast, rural NAPS sites are sparse with few exposure risk records. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate prioritized air toxic ambient VOC concentrations using NAPS hourly emissions data from a rural Pictou, Nova Scotia Kraft P&P town to document concentration levels, and to determine whether these concentrations correlated with wind direction at the NAPS site (located southwest of the mill). Publicly accessible Environment and Climate Change Canada data (VOC concentrations [Granton NAPS ID: 31201] and local meteorological conditions [Caribou Point]) were examined using temporal (2006-2013) and spatial analytic methods. Results revealed several VOCs (1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride) routinely exceeded EPA air toxics-associated cancer risk thresholds. 1,3-Butadiene and tetrachloroethylene were significantly higher (p towns and contribute to poor health in nearby communities.

  16. Assessing the potential for isotopic partitioning of soil respiration at research sites in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risk, D.; Kellman, L.; Black, M. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada). Environmental Sciences Research Centre


    The stable isotope ratios of carbon and oxygen in different tree species were studied with respect to different tissues, at different points within the tree, through soil profiles and in carbon dioxide respired from laboratory incubations. Although isotopic methods of partitioning autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration have been used with some success, stable isotopic methods are complicated by the fact that carbon isotope fractionations are small in natural systems, and radiocarbon techniques are time and equipment intensive. Studies that use isotopic analysis opportunistically, such as in C3/C4 transitional systems, have proven to be the most successful. Previously unexploited opportunities have the potential to be used for stable isotope-based partitioning in natural systems if the autotrophic/heterotrophic process distribution in the profile is well understand and if there is good process resolution and concurrent analyses using physical partitioning methods such as trenches. This study explored the different paths of opportunity in terms of background isotopic characterization that is being carried out for an existing network of carbon flux research sites in eastern Nova Scotia and in western Newfoundland. The new continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) at the Environmental Earth Sciences Laboratory at St. Francis Xavier University was used for the isotopic analyses. The isotopic information will be evaluated for potential partitioning opportunities, considering the combination of approaches that will give the best chances of success. Isotopic partitioning trials will take place at suitable sites.

  17. Comparison of Bayesian and frequentist approaches in modelling risk of preterm birth near the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canty Angelo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compares the Bayesian and frequentist (non-Bayesian approaches in the modelling of the association between the risk of preterm birth and maternal proximity to hazardous waste and pollution from the Sydney Tar Pond site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods The data includes 1604 observed cases of preterm birth out of a total population of 17559 at risk of preterm birth from 144 enumeration districts in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Other covariates include the distance from the Tar Pond; the rate of unemployment to population; the proportion of persons who are separated, divorced or widowed; the proportion of persons who have no high school diploma; the proportion of persons living alone; the proportion of single parent families and average income. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression, quasi-likelihood Poisson regression and weighted linear regression models were fitted to the data. Results The results of the analyses were compared together with their limitations. Conclusion The results of the weighted linear regression and the quasi-likelihood Poisson regression agrees with the result from the Bayesian hierarchical modelling which incorporates the spatial effects.

  18. Further contributions to the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick with an addition to the fauna of Nova Scotia, Canada. (United States)

    Webster, Reginald P; Webster, Vincent L; Alderson, Chantelle A; Hughes, Cory C; Sweeney, Jon D


    This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick.

  19. DMPD: Innate recognition of lipopolysaccharide by Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15051069 Innate recognition of lipopolysaccharide by Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2. Miyake K. Trends by Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2. Authors Miyake K. Publication Trends Microbiol.

  20. The sighting of Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata (Linnaeus (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae after a gap of 112 years in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Das


    Full Text Available A female Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata was sighted in Saatvoini Beel on February 10, 2014. The female of this species was characterized by grey head, with a white ring around the eye which continued as a streak behind it. In India Mandarin Duck is vagrant and there were very few reported records from India. In 1902, Baker reported six individuals Mandarin Duck on the Subansiri River, Assam. The present sighting of this species from Baksa district is the first reliable record of this species in Assam after a gap of 112 years. 

  1. Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs in the Embryonic Breast Muscle of Pekin Duck (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Xie, Ming; Sun, Shiduo; Hou, Shuisheng


    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by fully or partially binding to complementary sequences and play important roles in skeletal muscle development. However, the roles of miRNAs in embryonic breast muscle of duck are unclear. In this study, we analyzed the miRNAs profiling in embryonic breast muscle of Pekin duck at E13 (the 13th day of hatching), E19, and E27 by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 382 miRNAs including 359 preciously identified miRNAs 23 novel miRNA candidates were obtained. The nucleotide bias analysis of identified miRNAs showed that the miRNAs in Pekin duck was high conserved. The expression of identified miRNAs were significantly different between E13 and E19 as well as between E27 and E19. Fifteen identified miRNAs validated using stem-loop qRT-PCR can be divided into three groups: those with peak expression at E19, those with minimal expression at E19, and those with continuous increase from E11 to E27. Considering that E19 is the fastest growth stage of embryonic Pekin duck breast muscle, these three groups of miRNAs might be the potential promoters, the potential inhibitors, and the potential sustainer for breast muscle growth. Among the 23 novel miRNAs, novel-miRNA-8 and novel-miRNA-14 had maximal expression at some stages. The stem-loop qRT-PCR analysis of the two novel miRNAs and their two targets (MAP2K1 and PPARα) showed that the expression of novel-mir-8 and PPARα reached the lowest points at E19, while that of novel-mir-14 and MAP2K1 peaked at E19, suggesting novel-miRNA-8 and novel-miRNA-14 may be a potential inhibitor and a potential promoter for embryonic breast muscle development of duck. In summary, these results not only provided an overall insight into the miRNAs landscape in embryonic breast muscle of duck, but also a basis for the further investigation of the miRNAs roles in duck skeletal muscle development. PMID:24465928

  2. Factors affecting breeding dispersal of European ducks on Engure Marsh, Latvia (United States)

    Blums, P.; Nichols, J.D.; Lindberg, M.S.; Hines, J.E.; Mednis, A.


    1. We used up to 35 years of capture-recapture data from nearly 3300 individual female ducks nesting on Engure Marsh, Latvia, and multistate modelling to test predictions about the influence of environmental, habitat and management factors on breeding dispersal probability within the marsh. 2. Analyses based on observed dispersal distances of common pochards and tufted ducks provided no evidence that breeding success in year t influenced dispersal distance between t and t + 1. 3. Breeding dispersal distances (year t to t + 1) of pochards and tufted ducks were associated with a delay in relative nest initiation dates in year t + 1. The delay was greater for pochards (c. 4 days) than for tufted ducks (c. 2 days) when females dispersed > 0.8 km. 4. Northern shovelers and tufted ducks moved from a large island to small islands at low water levels and from small islands to the large island at high water levels before the construction of elevated small islands (1960-82). Following this habitat management (1983-94). breeding fidelity was extremely high and not influenced by water level in the marsh for either species. 5. Because pochard nesting habitats in black-headed gull colonies were saturated during the entire study period, nesting females moved into and out of colonies with similar probabilities. Local survival probabilities and incubation body masses were higher for both yearlings (SY) and adults (ASY) nesting within gull colonies, suggesting that these females were of better quality than females nesting outside of the colonies. 6. Tufted ducks showed higher probabilities of moving from islands to emergent marshes when water levels were higher both before and after habitat management. However, rates of movement for a given water level were higher during the period before management than after. 7. Both pochards and tufted ducks exhibited asymmetric movement with respect to proximity to water, with higher movement probabilities to near-water nesting locations than

  3. Ovarian transcriptomic analysis of Shan Ma ducks at peak and late stages of egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZhiMing Zhu


    Full Text Available Objective To assess the differences in ovarian transcriptomes in Shan Ma ducks between their peak and late stages of egg production, and to obtain new transcriptomic data of these egg-producing ducks. Methods The Illumina HiSeq 2000 system was used for high throughput sequencing of ovarian transcriptomes from Shan Ma ducks at their peak or late stages of egg production. Results Greater than 93% of the sequencing data had a base quality score (Q score that was not less than 20 (Q20. From ducks at their peak stage of egg production, 42,782,676 reads were obtained, with 4,307,499,083 bp sequenced. From ducks at their late stage of egg production, 45,316,166 reads were obtained, with 4,562,063,363 bp sequenced. A comparison of the two datasets identified 2,002 differentially expressed genes, with 790 upregulated and 1,212 downregulated. Further analysis showed that 1,645 of the 2,002 differentially expressed genes were annotated in the non-redundant (NR database, with 646 upregulated and 999 downregulated. Among the differentially expressed genes with annotations in the NR database, 696 genes were functionally annotated in the clusters of orthologous groups of proteins database, involving 25 functional categories. One thousand two hundred four of the differentially expressed genes with annotations in the NR database were functionally annotated in the gene ontology (GO database, and could be divided into three domains and 56 categories. The three domains were cellular component, molecular function, and biological process. Among the genes identified in the GO database, 451 are involved in development and reproduction. Analysis of the differentially expressed genes with annotations in the NR database against the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database revealed that 446 of the genes could be assigned to 175 metabolic pathways, of which the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway, fructose and

  4. Simulation-Based Testbed Development for Analyzing Toll Impacts on Freeway Travel (United States)


    Traffic congestion has been a world-wide problem in metropolitan areas all over the world. Toll-based traffic management is one of the most applicable solutions against freeway congestion. This research chooses two toll roads, the SR-167 HOT Lane and...

  5. Expressions of toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and relative cellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IFN-γ (IFN- gamma), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with tuberculosis (TB) infection. Methods: Two groups of ...

  6. The Toll-dorsal pathway is required for resistance to viral oral infection in Drosophila. (United States)

    Ferreira, Álvaro Gil; Naylor, Huw; Esteves, Sara Santana; Pais, Inês Silva; Martins, Nelson Eduardo; Teixeira, Luis


    Pathogen entry route can have a strong impact on the result of microbial infections in different hosts, including insects. Drosophila melanogaster has been a successful model system to study the immune response to systemic viral infection. Here we investigate the role of the Toll pathway in resistance to oral viral infection in D. melanogaster. We show that several Toll pathway components, including Spätzle, Toll, Pelle and the NF-kB-like transcription factor Dorsal, are required to resist oral infection with Drosophila C virus. Furthermore, in the fat body Dorsal is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and a Toll pathway target gene reporter is upregulated in response to Drosophila C Virus infection. This pathway also mediates resistance to several other RNA viruses (Cricket paralysis virus, Flock House virus, and Nora virus). Compared with control, viral titres are highly increased in Toll pathway mutants. The role of the Toll pathway in resistance to viruses in D. melanogaster is restricted to oral infection since we do not observe a phenotype associated with systemic infection. We also show that Wolbachia and other Drosophila-associated microbiota do not interact with the Toll pathway-mediated resistance to oral infection. We therefore identify the Toll pathway as a new general inducible pathway that mediates strong resistance to viruses with a route-specific role. These results contribute to a better understanding of viral oral infection resistance in insects, which is particularly relevant in the context of transmission of arboviruses by insect vectors.

  7. DMPD: Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to Tolls. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16095970 Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to Tolls. Jefferies CA, Fit...zgerald KA. Trends Mol Med. 2005 Sep;11(9):403-11. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead... to Tolls. PubmedID 16095970 Title Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to

  8. Stimulation of the innate immune system of carp: role of Toll-like receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietretti, D.


    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), named after the Toll gene identified in fruit flies, are a family of evolutionary conserved proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. TLRs are found inside or on the surface of immune cells of virtually all-living animals and recognize integral parts

  9. Toll-like receptor signaling and stages of addiction. (United States)

    Crews, Fulton T; Walter, T Jordan; Coleman, Leon G; Vetreno, Ryan P


    Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e.g., toll-like receptors [TLRs], high-mobility group box 1 [HMGB1]) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study reviews the relevant research regarding the relationship between the innate immune system and addiction. Emerging evidence indicates that TLRs in brain, particularly those on microglia, respond to endogenous innate immune agonists such as HMGB1 and microRNAs (miRNAs). Multiple TLRs, HMGB1, and miRNAs are induced in the brain by stress, alcohol, and other drugs of abuse and are increased in the postmortem human alcoholic brain. Enhanced TLR-innate immune signaling in brain leads to epigenetic modifications, alterations in synaptic plasticity, and loss of neuronal cell populations, which contribute to cognitive and emotive dysfunctions. Addiction involves progressive stages of drug binges and intoxication, withdrawal-negative affect, and ultimately compulsive drug use and abuse. Toll-like receptor signaling within cortical-limbic circuits is modified by alcohol and stress in a manner consistent with promoting progression through the stages of addiction.

  10. Infrared vision for the nondestructive inspection of the historic Dery Bridge toll panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Cloutier, I.; Gagne, S.; Maldague, X.


    The Dery Gorge holds one of the first toll bridges in Quebec that was in effect from the construction of the bridge in 1804 to be finally abolished in 1910. The toll pricing was indicated on a wooden panel, which was originally installed on the bridge's toll keeper's house, In its present condition this panel shows the toll rates in French and English corresponding to the last period during which the toll was in operation (c.1860-1870), Nevertheless, some indications of older inscriptions can also be partially seen. The main goal of this work was to improve the visibility of the hidden inscriptions by exploring two infrared vision techniques: infrared reflectography and infrared thermography. (author)

  11. Effect of restrictive harvest regulations on survival and recovery rates of American black ducks (United States)

    Francis, C.M.; Sauer, J.R.; Serie, J.R.


    Population management of waterfowl requires an understanding of the effects of changes in hunting regulations on harvest and survival rates. Mean survival and recovery rates of American black ducks (Anas rubripes) were estimated during 3 periods of increasingly restrictive harvest regulations: 1950-66, 1967-82, and 1983-93. From the first to the second period, direct recovery rates declined for at least 1 age class in 4 of 6 reference areas, with a mean decline of 14% for adult and 7% for immature black ducks. From the second to the third period, direct recovery rates declined in all areas, declines averaging 37% for adults and 27% for immatures. Estimated mean survival rates increased from the first to the second period, consistent with a model of additivity of hunting mortality. Limited evidence existed for increases in survival rates from the second to the third period for immature males. For adults, however, survival increased less between these periods than would be expected if hunting mortality were additive and changes in recovery rates were proportional to changes in hunting mortality. Changes in survival and recovery rates of black ducks banded postseason were similar to those of adults banded preseason. Comparisons among estimates by degree blocks of latitude and longitude indicate that, at least between 1967 and 1983, estimated survival rates of immature and adult black ducks were lower in areas with high direct recovery rates. Smaller samples of banded birds and changes in banding locations in recent years may be limiting ability to evaluate consequences of recent changes in harvest rates. These correlation-based studies are limited in their ability to explain causes of observed changes in survival rates, suggesting the need for alternative approaches such as adaptive harvest management to increase understanding of the effects of hunting on black duck populations.

  12. Drag-based 'hovering' in ducks: the hydrodynamics and energetic cost of bottom feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ribak

    Full Text Available Diving ducks use their webbed feet to provide the propulsive force that moves them underwater. To hold position near the bottom while feeding, ducks paddle constantly to resist the buoyant force of the body. Using video sequences from two orthogonal cameras we reconstructed the 3-dimensional motion of the feet through water and estimated the forces involved with a quasi-steady blade-element model. We found that during station holding, near the bottom, ducks use drag based propulsion with the webbed area of the foot moving perpendicular to the trajectory of the foot. The body was pitched at 76+/-3.47 degrees below the horizon and the propulsive force was directed 26+/-1.9 degrees ventral to the body so that 98% of the propulsive force in the sagittal plane of the duck worked to oppose buoyancy. The mechanical work done by moving both feet through a paddling cycle was 1.1+/-0.2 J which was equivalent to an energy expenditure of 3.7+/-0.5 W to hold position while feeding at 1.5 m depth. We conclude that in shallow water the high energetic cost of feeding in ducks is due to the need to paddle constantly against buoyancy even after reaching the bottom. The mechanical energy spent on holding position near the bottom, while feeding, is approximately 2 fold higher than previous estimates that were made for similar bottom depths but based on the presumed motion of the body instead of motion of the feet.

  13. Environmental variability and population dynamics: Do European and North American ducks play by the same rules? (United States)

    Pöysä, Hannu; Rintala, Jukka; Johnson, Douglas H.; Kauppinen, Jukka; Lammi, Esa; Nudds, Thomas D.; Väänänen, Veli-Matti


    Density dependence, population regulation, and variability in population size are fundamental population processes, the manifestation and interrelationships of which are affected by environmental variability. However, there are surprisingly few empirical studies that distinguish the effect of environmental variability from the effects of population processes. We took advantage of a unique system, in which populations of the same duck species or close ecological counterparts live in highly variable (north American prairies) and in stable (north European lakes) environments, to distinguish the relative contributions of environmental variability (measured as between-year fluctuations in wetland numbers) and intraspecific interactions (density dependence) in driving population dynamics. We tested whether populations living in stable environments (in northern Europe) were more strongly governed by density dependence than populations living in variable environments (in North America). We also addressed whether relative population dynamical responses to environmental variability versus density corresponded to differences in life history strategies between dabbling (relatively “fast species” and governed by environmental variability) and diving (relatively “slow species” and governed by density) ducks. As expected, the variance component of population fluctuations caused by changes in breeding environments was greater in North America than in Europe. Contrary to expectations, however, populations in more stable environments were not less variable nor clearly more strongly density dependent than populations in highly variable environments. Also, contrary to expectations, populations of diving ducks were neither more stable nor stronger density dependent than populations of dabbling ducks, and the effect of environmental variability on population dynamics was greater in diving than in dabbling ducks. In general, irrespective of continent and species life history

  14. Magnolol additive as a replacer of antibiotic enhances the growth performance of Linwu ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lin


    Full Text Available Magnolol rich in Magnolia officinalis is a bioactive polyphenolic compound. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of magnolol additive (MA on growth performance, expression levels of antioxidant-related genes, and intestinal mucosal morphology of Linwu ducks aged from 49 to 70 days, comparing with that of an antibiotic additive (colistin sulfate [CS]. A total of 275, 49-day-old ducks were assigned to 5 groups with 5 cages of 11 ducks each and fed diets supplemented with 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg of MA/kg and 300 mg of CS/kg for 3 weeks, respectively. The results showed that the average daily body weight gain (ADG was increased significantly in MA-fed groups (200 and 300 mg/kg, compared with the basal diet (BD group (P < 0.05. The mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1, manganese superoxide dismutase-2 (MnSOD2 and catalase (CAT were also increased significantly in MA groups (P < 0.05. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that Linwu ducks fed the diets with MA had more intact intestinal mucosa than those fed the BD and CS diets. In addition, ileal villus height, ileal villus height/crypt depth ratio (V/C and duodenal V/C were also improved significantly (P < 0.05. Taken together, these data demonstrated that MA is an effective feed additive to enhance the growth performance of the Linwu ducks by improving the antioxidant and intestinal mucosal status, suggesting that MA will be a potential additive to replace antibiotic (CS.

  15. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  16. Identification of polymorphisms in and genes and their associations with plumage colors in Asian duck breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasina Sultana


    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the melanogenesis associated transcription factor (MITF and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT genes on plumage coloration in Asian native duck breeds. MITF encodes a protein for microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, which regulates the development and function of melanocytes for pigmentation of skin, hair, and eyes. Among the tyrosinase-related family genes, DCT is a pigment cell-specific gene that plays important roles in the melanin synthesis pathway and the expression of skin, feather, and retina color. Methods Five Asian duck varieties (black Korean native, white Korean native, commercial Peking, Nageswari, and Bangladeshi Deshi white ducks were investigated to examine the polymorphisms associated with plumage colors. Among previously identified SNPs, three synonymous SNPs and one indel of MITF and nine SNPs in exon regions of DCT were genotyped. The allele frequencies for SNPs of the black and white plumage color populations were estimated and Fisher’s exact test was conducted to assess the association between the allele frequencies of these two populations. Results Two synonymous SNPs (c.114T>G and c.147T>C and a 14-bp indel (GCTGCAAAC AGATG in intron 7 of MITF were significantly associated with the black- and white-colored breeds (pG (p.His313Arg] in DCT, was highly significantly associated (pG was significantly associated (p<0.05 with black and white color plumage in the studied duck populations. Conclusion The results of this study provide a basis for further investigations of the associations between polymorphisms and plumage color phenotypes in Asian duck breeds.

  17. Does limited virucidal activity of biocides include duck hepatitis B virucidal action?

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    Sauerbrei Andreas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is agreement that the infectivity assay with the duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV is a suitable surrogate test to validate disinfectants for hepatitis B virucidal activity. However, since this test is not widely used, information is necessary whether disinfectants with limited virucidal activity also inactivate DHBV. In general, disinfectants with limited virucidal activity are used for skin and sensitive surfaces while agents with full activity are more aggressive. The present study compares the activity of five different biocides against DHBV and the classical test virus for limited virucidal activity, the vaccinia virus strain Lister Elstree (VACV or the modified vaccinia Ankara strain (MVA. Methods Virucidal assay was performed as suspension test according to the German DVV/RKI guideline. Duck hepatitis B virus obtained from congenitally infected Peking ducks was propagated in primary duck embryonic hepatocytes and was detected by indirect immunofluorescent antigen staining. Results The DHBV was inactivated by the use of 40% ethanol within 1-min and 30% isopropanol within 2-min exposure. In comparison, 40% ethanol within 2-min and 40% isopropanol within 1-min exposure were effective against VACV/MVA. These alcohols only have limited virucidal activity, while the following agents have full activity. 0.01% peracetic acid inactivated DHBV within 2 min and a concentration of 0.005% had virucidal efficacy against VACV/MVA within 1 min. After 2-min exposure, 0.05% glutardialdehyde showed a comparable activity against DHBV and VACV/MVA. This is also the case for 0.7% formaldehyde after a contact time of 30 min. Conclusions Duck hepatitis B virus is at least as sensitive to limited virucidal activity as VACV/MVA. Peracetic acid is less effective against DHBV, while the alcohols are less effective against VACV/MVA. It can be expected that in absence of more direct tests the results may be extrapolated to HBV.

  18. Identification and molecular characterization of a novel duck Tembusu virus isolate from Southwest China. (United States)

    Zhu, Kesen; Huang, Juan; Jia, Renyong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Mingshu; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Liu, Mafeng; Yin, Zhongqiong; Cheng, Anchun


    Tembusu virus (TMUV) has caused significant economic losses in the Chinese duck industry and may have been overlooked regarding its zoonotic transmission potential. A novel TMUV isolate (named CQW1) was separated from the liver tissue of a young duck in Southwest China. The CQW1 isolate proliferated in embryonated duck eggs and led to death within 3-4 days post-inoculation. Furthermore, CQW1 replicated in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells and caused a cytopathic effect (CPE). The disease emerged on a duck farm in Southwest China and was reproduced by animal experiment. We found that CQW1 was detectable by RT-PCR in brain and liver tissues of dead ducklings within 5 days after inoculation. Most importantly, concentrated nuclei, neuronophagia and microglial nodules were observed in the brain tissue of the inoculated ducklings, and additionally, the liver tissue was affected, mainly by disordered lobular architecture, degeneration, necrosis and regenerated hepatocytes. Analysis of the complete genome sequence showed that CQW1 was 10,992 nt in length with two nucleotide insertions and shared 96.8% to 99.1% and 98.4% to 99.6% identity at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively, with Chinese isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences demonstrated that the CQW1 isolate was closely related to other members of the genus Flavivirus and formed a new clade together with the GX2013H isolate. Also, the CQW1 isolate demonstrated the highest average pairwise distance value among the Chinese isolates. In the present study, we obtained evidence that TMUV is present in Southwest China. Extensive pathological and epidemiological studies are urgently needed.

  19. Detection of Egg Production of Tegal Duck by Blood Protein Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismoyowati Ismoyowati


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of transfferine, albumine, and haemoglobine loci to egg production characteristic of Tegal duck.  100 lying of Tegal ducks keeping by batteray-pen were used in this study.  Individual egg production was recorded until period of 120 days. Blood protein polymorphism analysed by electrophoresis method, and blood sample taken from each ducks.. Egg production and transfferine albumine, and haemoglobine phenotipe on electrophoresis gel were observed in this study.  Genotipe and gene frequencies and genetic variant were applied in data analysis. The result showed that (1 in the transferine locus were identified 3 aleles forming 4 genotipes (TfAA,TfAB, TfBB, and TfBC, (2 in albumine were identified 3 aleles forming 5 genotipes (AlbAA, AlbAB, AlbAC, AlbBB and AlbBC and (3 haemoglobine locus were identified 6 aleles forming 4 genotipes ((HbAA, HbAB, HbAC, HbBB, HbBC dan HbCC.  This study demostrated that B gene frequenci in transfferine, albumine and haemoglonine loci was highest than A and C gene frequency.  Tegal Duck with AA genotipe on all loci had higher egg production than BB and CC homozigote.  This research revealed that the most efective of selection method by haemoglobine protein polymorphism. (Animal Production 10(2: 122-128 (2008   Key Words: Tegal duck, egg production, selection, blood protein polymorphism

  20. DMPD: Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15379975 Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor... Signal transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. PubmedID 15379975 Title Signa...l transduction by the lipopolysaccharide receptor, Toll-like receptor-4. Authors

  1. DMPD: Nuclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17349209 Nuclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsign...clear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. PubmedID 17349209 Title N...uclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignalin

  2. DMPD: The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17621314 The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. Lan...) Show The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. PubmedID 17621314 Title The ne...gative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. Authors Lang T,

  3. DMPD: Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate immune responses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18064347 Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate immune responses. Aranc...Epub 2007 Nov 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate responses. PubmedID 18064347 Title Toll-like receptors are key participants in

  4. 78 FR 11277 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee (United States)


    ... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held Tuesday... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee...

  5. 78 FR 69939 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee (United States)


    ... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held... committee will be discussing Toll-free issues and public input is welcomed. Dated: November 14, 2013. Otis...

  6. 77 FR 74920 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee (United States)


    ... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer.... (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee...

  7. 78 FR 64063 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee (United States)


    ... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held... committee will be discussing Toll-free issues and public input is welcomed. Dated: October 21, 2013. Otis...

  8. 78 FR 22947 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee (United States)


    ... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held Tuesday... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee...

  9. 78 FR 36304 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee (United States)


    ... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held Tuesday... committee will be discussing Toll-free issues and public input is welcomed. Dated: June 11, 2013. Otis...

  10. 78 FR 29207 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee (United States)


    ... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held Tuesday... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee...

  11. 78 FR 78517 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee (United States)


    ... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held... committee will be discussing Toll-free issues and public input is welcomed. Dated: December 19, 2013. Linda...

  12. 78 FR 15126 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee (United States)


    ... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held Tuesday... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee...

  13. 78 FR 56269 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee (United States)


    ... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer...) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held... committee will be discussing Toll-free issues and public input is welcomed. Dated: September 6, 2013. Otis...

  14. 78 FR 3500 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee. (United States)


    ... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer.... (1988) that an open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee...

  15. 78 FR 41193 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee (United States)


    ... the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be conducted. The Taxpayer... open meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Toll-Free Phone Line Project Committee will be held Tuesday... committee will be discussing Toll-free issues and public input is welcomed. Dated: July 2, 2013. Otis...

  16. DMPD: Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17667936 Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins... (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. ...PubmedID 17667936 Title Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins

  17. DMPD: The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476921 The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. P...of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. PubmedID 15476921 Title The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod prote...ins in bacterial infection. Authors Philpott DJ, Girardi

  18. DMPD: Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic scienceresearch. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15069387 Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic science...te immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic scienceresearch. PubmedID 15069387 Title... Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic sciencer

  19. DMPD: Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17888644 Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? Marsla... Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? PubmedID 17888644 Title Toll-like recep...tors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? Authors Marsland BJ, Kopf M.

  20. Effects of Gaseous Ozone Exposure on Bacterial Counts and Oxidative Properties in Chicken and Duck Breast Meat. (United States)

    Muhlisin, Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki


    The effects of gaseous ozone exposure on the bacterial counts and oxidative properties were evaluated in duck and chicken breast fillets, which were stored under a continuous flux of gaseous ozone (10×10(-6) kg O3/m(3)/h) at 4±1℃ for 4 d. The ozone generator was set to on for 15 min and off for 105 min, and this cyclic timer was set during storage. Ozone effectively reduced the growth of coliform, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in both chicken and duck breast. However, lipid oxidation occurred faster in duck breast than chicken breast with higher degree of discoloration, TBARS value, and antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase and catalase) activity decline rates. It is concluded that ozone effectively controlled the growth of bacteria in both chicken and duck breast with less effects on oxidative deterioration in chicken breast.

  1. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bodkin, James L; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A


    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  2. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.


    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  3. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maijon Purba


    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  4. Impact of different monochromatic LED light colours and bird age on the behavioural output and fear response in ducks

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    Shabiha Sultana


    Full Text Available This study was performed to observe the effect of monochromatic light emitting diode (LED light colour and bird age on the behaviour and fear response of ducks. A total of 200 1-day-old ducklings were used in the experiment (two replications, 25 ducklings/pen, and lighting was set up as follows: white (W, control, 400-770 nm, yellow (Y, 600 nm, green (G, 520 nm and blue (B, 460 nm LED lights. Ducks were subjected to 23L: 1D h lighting with 0.1 Watt/m2 light intensity. Video was recorded twice per day (2 h in the morning and 2 h in the afternoon and observed five consecutive days per week. Duration of feeding, drinking, sitting, walking, standing, preening, wing flapping, wing stretching, tail wagging, head shaking, body shaking, ground pecking, peck object, and social interaction behaviour were recorded. At 3 and 6 weeks of age, 10 birds per treatment were subjected to the tonic immobility (TI test (three times/duck. Ducks reared in Y and W light were more active, as expressed by more walking, ground pecking, drinking and social interaction activities than those of ducks under the B light treatment (P<0.05. Ducks showed more time sitting, standing, and preening under B light (P<0.05. Feeding, sitting, standing and drinking behaviours increased, and walking and social interaction behaviours decreased with age of the ducks (P<0.05. Differences in behaviours among different light colours were observed. In addition, the TI test results indicated that B and G light reduced the fear response of the ducks.

  5. Stepwise colonization of the Andes by Ruddy Ducks and the evolution of novel β-globin variants


    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Cortázar-Chinarro, M.; Lozano-Jaramillo, M.; McCracken, K.G.


    Andean uplift played a key role in Neotropical bird diversification, yet past dispersal and genetic adaptation to high-altitude environments remain little understood. Here we use multilocus population genetics to study population history and historical demographic processes in the ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), a stiff-tailed diving duck comprising three subspecies distributed from Canada to Tierra del Fuego and inhabiting wetlands from sea level to 4500 m in the Andes. We sequenced the mit...

  6. Seroepidemiological Evidence for the Presence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Ducks, Chickens, and Pigs, Bali-Indonesia

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    Anak Agung Ayu Mirah Adi


    Full Text Available Background: The presence of various animals, such as: ducks, chickens and pigs in households increases the potential risks of zoonosis from animal to human. One of the diseases is Japanese encephalitis (JE.  The seroepidemiological studies on the presence JE among animals especially those raised in household is very important for emerging and reemerging disease control program. Ducks, chickens and pigs have long been considered as carrier and even the amplifier hosts of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV replication. The presence of the animal hosts and mosquitoes as vector could result in transmission of the JEV to humans. Methods: A seroepidemiological study of the presence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV was conducted by collecting sera and detecting the antibody against JEV in ducks, chickens and pigs in Bali. As pig is the amplifying animal of JEV, comparison JEV antibody between ducks reared in households with pig nearby and with no pig were also determined the presence of antibody against JEV was examined by using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.  The serum samples with over cut off value (COV of optical density were considered as those containing Ab against JEV. Results: Antibody against JEV was demonstrated in ducks (20.6%, chickens (36.7% and pigs (32.2% evaluated in this study. Moreover, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 in the prevalence of antibody against JEV in ducks kept closely with pigs compared to the antibody in the ducks reared without pigs around. Conclusion: This study convinced that antibody against JEV is found in ducks, chickens and pigs in Bali. Indicating that these animals was infected or previously infected by the virus.

  7. Building the foundation for international conservation planning for breeding ducks across the U.S. and Canadian border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E Doherty

    Full Text Available We used publically available data on duck breeding distribution and recently compiled geospatial data on upland habitat and environmental conditions to develop a spatially explicit model of breeding duck populations across the entire Prairie Pothole Region (PPR. Our spatial population models were able to identify key areas for duck conservation across the PPR and predict between 62.1-79.1% (68.4% avg. of the variation in duck counts by year from 2002-2010. The median difference in observed vs. predicted duck counts at a transect segment level was 4.6 ducks. Our models are the first seamless spatially explicit models of waterfowl abundance across the entire PPR and represent an initial step toward joint conservation planning between Prairie Pothole and Prairie Habitat Joint Ventures. Our work demonstrates that when spatial and temporal variation for highly mobile birds is incorporated into conservation planning it will likely increase the habitat area required to support defined population goals. A major goal of the current North American Waterfowl Management Plan and subsequent action plan is the linking of harvest and habitat management. We contend incorporation of spatial aspects will increase the likelihood of coherent joint harvest and habitat management decisions. Our results show at a minimum, it is possible to produce spatially explicit waterfowl abundance models that when summed across survey strata will produce similar strata level population estimates as the design-based Waterfowl Breeding Pair and Habitat Survey (r2 = 0.977. This is important because these design-based population estimates are currently used to set duck harvest regulations and to set duck population and habitat goals for the North American Waterfowl Management Plan. We hope this effort generates discussion on the important linkages between spatial and temporal variation in population size, and distribution relative to habitat quantity and quality when linking habitat

  8. Mortality in Laysan ducks (Anas laysanensis) by emaciation complicated by Echinuria uncinata on Laysan Island, Hawaii, 1993 (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Cole, Rebecca A.


    In November 1993, unusual mortality occurred among endangered Laysan ducks on Laysan Island, one of the remote refugia of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge (USA). Ten live ducks were emaciated, and blood samples documented anemia, heterophilia, and eosinophilia. Pathology in 13 duck carcasses revealed emaciation, marked thickening of the proventricular wall, abundant mucus, and nodules in the gastrointestinal tract. Histology revealed granulomata associated with nematodes in the proventriculus, small intestines, and body walls of nine of 10 ducks examined on histology. We suspect that low rainfall and low food abundance that year contributed to enhanced pathogenicity of parasite infection, either through increased exposure or decreased host resistance. Because the Laysan duck is found only on Laysan island and is critically endangered, translocation of this species to other islands is being considered. Given that we have not seen pathology associated with Echinuria spp. in native waterfowl on other Hawaiian Islands and given the parasite's potential to cause significant lesions in Laysan ducks, it will be important to prevent the translocation of Echinuria spp.

  9. Cadmium and lead in tissues of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) using the Illinois River (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levengood, J.M.


    Tissue lead and cadmium concentrations were examined in two common, widely distributed species of duck, utilizing a major river system. - Cadmium and lead concentrations were determined in the tissues of Mallards and Wood Ducks collected from two waterfowl management areas along the Illinois River, USA, during the autumn and late winter of 1997-1998. Lead concentrations in livers of Mallards were lower than previously reported, and, along with those in a small sample of Wood Duck livers, were within background levels (<2.0 μg/g wet weight). Mean concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Wood Ducks utilizing the Illinois River were four times greater than in after-hatch-year Mallards, and 14 times greater than in hatch-year Mallards. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidneys of Wood Ducks were comparable with those of specimens dosed with cadmium or inhabiting contaminated areas in previous studies. Wood Ducks utilizing wetlands associated with the Illinois River, and presumably other portions of the lower Great Lakes region, may be chronically exposed to cadmium

  10. Connectivity in the cold: the comparative population genetics of vent-endemic fauna in the Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean. (United States)

    Roterman, C N; Copley, J T; Linse, K T; Tyler, P A; Rogers, A D


    We report the first comparative population genetics study for vent fauna in the Southern Ocean using cytochrome C oxidase I and microsatellite markers. Three species are examined: the kiwaid squat lobster, Kiwa tyleri, the peltospirid gastropod, Gigantopelta chessoia, and a lepetodrilid limpet, Lepetodrilus sp., collected from vent fields 440 km apart on the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) and from the Kemp Caldera on the South Sandwich Island Arc, ~95 km eastwards. We report no differentiation for all species across the ESR, consistent with panmixia or recent range expansions. A lack of differentiation is notable for Kiwa tyleri, which exhibits extremely abbreviated lecithotrophic larval development, suggestive of a very limited dispersal range. Larval lifespans may, however, be extended by low temperature-induced metabolic rate reduction in the Southern Ocean, muting the impact of dispersal strategy on patterns of population structure. COI diversity patterns suggest all species experienced demographic bottlenecks or selective sweeps in the past million years and possibly at different times. ESR and Kemp limpets are divergent, although with evidence of very recent ESR-Kemp immigration. Their divergence, possibility indicative of incipient speciation, along with the absence of the other two species at Kemp, may be the consequence of differing dispersal capabilities across a ~1000 m depth range and/or different selective regimes between the two areas. Estimates of historic and recent limpet gene flow between the ESR and Kemp are consistent with predominantly easterly currents and potentially therefore, cross-axis currents on the ESR, with biogeographic implications for the region. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Spatial differences in East scotia ridge hydrothermal vent food webs: influences of chemistry, microbiology and predation on trophodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D K Reid

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal vents on the East Scotia Ridge are the first to be explored in the Antarctic and are dominated by large peltospiroid gastropods, stalked barnacles (Vulcanolepas sp. and anomuran crabs (Kiwa sp. but their food webs are unknown. Vent fluid and macroconsumer samples were collected at three vent sites (E2, E9N and E9S at distances of tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres apart with contrasting vent fluid chemistries to describe trophic interactions and identify potential carbon fixation pathways using stable isotopes. δ(13C of dissolved inorganic carbon from vent fluids ranged from -4.6‰ to 0.8‰ at E2 and from -4.4‰ to 1.5‰ at E9. The lowest macroconsumer δ(13C was observed in peltospiroid gastropods (-30.0‰ to -31.1‰ and indicated carbon fixation via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB cycle by endosymbiotic gamma-Proteobacteria. Highest δ(13C occurred in Kiwa sp. (-19.0‰ to -10.5‰, similar to that of the epibionts sampled from their ventral setae. Kiwa sp. δ(13C differed among sites, which were attributed to spatial differences in the epibiont community and the relative contribution of carbon fixed via the reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA and CBB cycles assimilated by Kiwa sp. Site differences in carbon fixation pathways were traced into higher trophic levels e.g. a stichasterid asteroid that predates on Kiwa sp. Sponges and anemones at the periphery of E2 assimilated a proportion of epipelagic photosynthetic primary production but this was not observed at E9N. Differences in the δ(13C and δ(34S values of vent macroconsumers between E2 and E9 sites suggest the relative contributions of photosynthetic and chemoautotrophic carbon fixation (rTCA v CBB entering the hydrothermal vent food webs vary between the sites.

  12. Is the minimum enough? Affordability of a nutritious diet for minimum wage earners in Nova Scotia (2002-2012). (United States)

    Newell, Felicia D; Williams, Patricia L; Watt, Cynthia G


    This paper aims to assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia (NS) from 2002 to 2012 using an economic simulation that includes food costing and secondary data. The cost of the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB) was assessed with a stratified, random sample of grocery stores in NS during six time periods: 2002, 2004/2005, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2012. The NNFB's cost was factored into affordability scenarios for three different household types relying on minimum wage earnings: a household of four; a lone mother with three children; and a lone man. Essential monthly living expenses were deducted from monthly net incomes using methods that were standardized from 2002 to 2012 to determine whether adequate funds remained to purchase a basic nutritious diet across the six time periods. A 79% increase to the minimum wage in NS has resulted in a decrease in the potential deficit faced by each household scenario in the period examined. However, the household of four and the lone mother with three children would still face monthly deficits ($44.89 and $496.77, respectively, in 2012) if they were to purchase a nutritiously sufficient diet. As a social determinant of health, risk of food insecurity is a critical public health issue for low wage earners. While it is essential to increase the minimum wage in the short term, adequately addressing income adequacy in NS and elsewhere requires a shift in thinking from a focus on minimum wage towards more comprehensive policies ensuring an adequate livable income for everyone.

  13. Deep seismic studies of conjugate profiles from the Nova Scotia - Moroccan and the Liguro-Provencal margin pairs (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Biari, Y.; Sahabi, M.; Aslanian, D.; Philippe, S.; Schnabel, M.; Moulin, M.; Louden, K. E.; Funck, T.; Reichert, C. J.


    The structure of conjugate passive margins provides information about rifting styles, opening of an ocean and formation of it's associated sedimentary basins. In order to distinguish between tectonic inheritance and structures directly related to rifting of passive margins conjugate profiles have to be acquired on margins on diverse locations and different ages. In this study we use new and existing reflection and wide-angle seismic data from two margin pairs, the 200 Ma year old Nova-Scotia - Morocco margin pair and the only 20 Ma Gulf of Lions - Sardinia margin pair. On both margin pairs wide-angle seismic data combined with reflection seismic data were acquired on conjugate profiles on sea and extended on land. Forward modelling of the deep crustal structure along the four transects indicates that a high velocity zone (HVZ) (> 7.2 km/s) is present at the base of the lower crust on all four margins along the ocean-continental transition zone (OCT). This may represent either exhumed upper mantle material or injection of upper mantle material into proto-oceanic crust at the onset of sea-floor spreading. However the width of the HVZ might strongly differ between conjugates, which may be the result of tectonic inheritance, for example the presence of ancient subduction zones or orogens. Both margin pairs show a similar unthinned continental crustal thickness. Crustal thinning and upper-to-lower crustal thickness vary between margin pairs, but remain nearly symmetric on conjugate profiles and might therefore depend on the structure and mechanical properties of the original continental crust. For the Mediterranean margin pair, the oceanic crust is similar on both sides, with a thickness of only 4-5 km. For the Atlantic margin pair, oceanic crustal thickness is higher on the Moroccan Margin, a fact that can be explained by either asymmetric spreading or by the volcanic underplating, possibly originating from the Canary Hot Spot.

  14. Identifying the sources driving observed PM2.5 temporal variability over Halifax, Nova Scotia, during BORTAS-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Gibson


    Full Text Available The source attribution of observed variability of total PM2.5 concentrations over Halifax, Nova Scotia, was investigated between 11 July and 26 August 2011 using measurements of PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 chemical composition (black carbon, organic matter, anions, cations and 33 elements. This was part of the BORTAS-B (quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants using Aircraft and Satellites experiment, which investigated the atmospheric chemistry and transport of seasonal boreal wildfire emissions over eastern Canada in 2011. The US EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF receptor model was used to determine the average mass (percentage source contribution over the 45 days, which was estimated to be as follows: long-range transport (LRT pollution: 1.75 μg m−3 (47%; LRT pollution marine mixture: 1.0 μg m−3 (27.9%; vehicles: 0.49 μg m−3 (13.2%; fugitive dust: 0.23 μg m−3 (6.3%; ship emissions: 0.13 μg m−3 (3.4%; and refinery: 0.081 μg m−3 (2.2%. The PMF model describes 87% of the observed variability in total PM2.5 mass (bias = 0.17 and RSME = 1.5 μg m−3. The factor identifications are based on chemical markers, and they are supported by air mass back trajectory analysis and local wind direction. Biomass burning plumes, found by other surface and aircraft measurements, were not significant enough to be identified in this analysis. This paper presents the results of the PMF receptor modelling, providing valuable insight into the local and upwind sources impacting surface PM2.5 in Halifax and a vital comparative data set for the other collocated ground-based observations of atmospheric composition made during BORTAS-B.

  15. A participatory approach to sustainable energy strategy development in a carbon-intensive jurisdiction: The case of Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Michelle; Wheeler, David; Woolston, Genna


    The need for governments to reduce the exposure of energy consumers to future increases in fossil fuel prices places urgent pressure on policy-makers to deliver fundamental transformations in energy strategies, particularly in jurisdictions with high dependency on fossil fuel sources (). This transformation is unlikely without a high level of stakeholder engagement in the policy development process. This paper describes two policy development processes recently undertaken in Nova Scotia in which the inclusion of stakeholder views was central to the approach. The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency involving the inception of an independent performance-based administrator. The second required the delivery of a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation in the Province. It involved recommendations for changes in institutional arrangements, financial incentives and technological options. This process was followed by new commitments to renewable energy developments, new infrastructure for the importation of hydro-electricity, and the announcement of FITs for ocean energy. In both cases, recommendations were made by an independent academic institution, and the Government responded directly to a majority of recommendations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and the implications for future energy policy making in carbon-intensive jurisdictions. - Research highlights: → Fundamental transformations in energy policy require stakeholder engagement to be successful. → We describe two policy development processes where stakeholder views were key considerations. → The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency. → The second delivered a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation. → In each case, the Government directly responded to the majority of recommendations.

  16. Apparent survival of adult Leach's Storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa breeding on Bon Portage Island, Nova Scotia

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    Danielle T. Fife


    Full Text Available Populations of Leach's Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa; hereafter storm-petrel, one of the most widespread procellariiform seabirds in the world, appear to be declining in many parts of their breeding range. As part of a regional effort to assess status of storm-petrel colonies in eastern North America, we estimated apparent survival and recapture probabilities from 2009 to 2014 for adults on Bon Portage Island (43° 28' N, 65° 44' W, located off the southwestern coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. Mean annual survival estimated for this colony was low (0.78 ± 0.04 compared with other procellariiforms, e.g., > 0.90 for many albatrosses and petrels. Storm-petrels that were fitted with very high frequency (VHF radio tags had an average of 0.11 ± 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01 to 0.21 higher survival probabilities than those that were not, possibly because VHF tags were attached to known, established breeders. There was weak evidence that survival was reduced by an average of 0.07 ± 0.04 for storm-petrels in study plots that were occupied by Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus and their chicks; however, this result was not statistically significant (95% CI: -0.15 to 0.02. Low adult survival is an early indication that this important colony may be under stress. However, further work is needed to determine if the colony is indeed declining and, if so, to determine the cause(s of the decline so that they may be addressed.

  17. Organochlorines in free-range hen and duck eggs from Shanghai: occurrence and risk assessment. (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Qiu, Yanling; Bignert, Anders; Zhou, Yihui; Zhu, Zhiliang; Zhao, Jianfu


    As an important part of the residents' diet in China, the consumption of hen and duck eggs has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Being rich in protein and lipid, eggs may be one of the main exposure routes for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to human beings. In this study, four kinds of free-range hen and duck eggs were collected from two traditional egg-producing areas in Shanghai, namely Dianshan Lake Area and Jinshan Industry Zone. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, 18 compounds) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, 14 compounds) were analyzed with 41 egg samples. Among all OCPs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the dominant contaminant, with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 730 ng/g, lw. Unlike the 4,4'-DDE as the predominant DDTs congener in other three kinds of eggs, the duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone had an abnormally high concentration of 2,4'-DDD, which may be related to ducks' feedings in the water. The levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and pentachloroanisole (PCA) in eggs from different places were similar to each other, while hexchlorobenzene (HCB) for hen eggs from Dianshan Lake was much higher than other eggs. According to the results, the DDTs residues detected in this study were mainly due to the historical usage, whereas the high ratio of γ-HCH/α-HCH suggested that there might be some recent input of lindane in these two areas. For PCBs, the congener profiles varied among species. Low molecular PCBs (Tri-PCBs and Tetra-PCBs) were main congeners for duck eggs from Dianshan Lake and all hen eggs, while high molecular PCBs accounted for more than 50 % for duck eggs from Jinshan Industrial Zone, which was consistent with the water analysis results of the synchronous study from our group. This study suggests that Dianshan Lake Area may not be a good reference area for POPs monitoring in Shanghai. The estimated daily intakes of DDTs, HCHs, HCBs, and PCBs were far below the reference limits, showing no

  18. Novel drugs targeting Toll-like receptors for antiviral therapy. (United States)

    Patel, Mira C; Shirey, Kari Ann; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Boukhvalova, Marina S; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo; Vogel, Stefanie N; Blanco, Jorge Cg


    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are sentinel receptors of the host innate immune system that recognize conserved 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' of invading microbes, including viruses. The activation of TLRs establishes antiviral innate immune responses and coordinates the development of long-lasting adaptive immunity in order to control viral pathogenesis. However, microbe-induced damage to host tissues may release 'danger-associated molecular patterns' that also activate TLRs, leading to an overexuberant inflammatory response and, ultimately, to tissue damage. Thus, TLRs have proven to be promising targets as therapeutics for the treatment of viral infections that result in inflammatory damage or as adjuvants in order to enhance the efficacy of vaccines. Here, we explore recent advances in TLR biology with a focus on novel drugs that target TLRs (agonists and antagonists) for antiviral therapy.

  19. Cannabinoids and Innate Immunity: Taking a Toll on Neuroinflammation

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    Eric J. Downer


    Full Text Available The biologically active components of cannabis have therapeutic potential in neuroinflammatory disorders due to their anti-inflammatory propensity. Cannabinoids influence immune function in both the peripheral and the central nervous system (CNS, and the components of the cannabinoid system, the cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids, have been detected on immune cells as well as in brain glia. Neuroinflammation is the complex innate immune response of neural tissue to control infection and eliminate pathogens, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs, a major family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that mediate innate immunity, have emerged as players in the neuroinflammatory processes underpinning various CNS diseases. This review will highlight evidence that cannabinoids interact with the immune system by impacting TLR-mediated signaling events, which may provide cues for devising novel therapeutic approaches for cannabinoid ligands.

  20. Toll-like Receptors and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    Yue Lu


    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is one relapsing and lifelong disease that affects millions of patients worldwide. Increasing evidence has recently highlighted immune-system dysfunction, especially toll-like receptors (TLRs-mediated innate immune dysfunction, as central players in the pathogenesis of IBD. TLRs and TLR-activated signaling pathways are involved not only in the pathogenesis but also in the efficacy of treatment of IBD. By understanding these molecular mechanisms, we might develop a strategy for relieving the experience of long-lasting suffering of those patients and improving their quality of life. The purpose of this review article is to summarize the potential mechanisms of TLR signaling pathways in IBD and the novel potential therapeutic strategies against IBD.