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Sample records for scotia duck tolling

  1. Serum C-reactive protein concentrations in Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers with immune-mediated rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Hanna Dorotea; Hillström, Anna; Kånåhols, Malin; Hagman, Ragnvi; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene

    2017-04-17

    Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers (NSDTRs) are a dog breed often affected by immune-mediated rheumatic disease (IMRD), a disorder characterised by chronic stiffness and joint pain. Most, but not all, dogs with IMRD, have antinuclear antibodies (ANA), which are also commonly present in the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The clinical and diagnostic findings of IMRD indicate that it is an SLE-related disorder. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase protein, is a quantitative marker of inflammation for many diseases and is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammation in both humans and dogs. However, in human SLE, CRP concentrations are often elevated but correlate poorly with disease activity; they can be low in individual patients with active disease. The aim of the study was to investigate CRP in a group of NSDTRs with the SLE-related disorder IMRD. The hypothesis was that CRP concentrations would be increased in dogs with IMRD compared to healthy dogs, but that the increase would be mild. Serum CRP concentrations were measured in 18 IMRD-affected NSDTRs and 19 healthy control NSDTRs using two different canine-specific CRP assays. Dogs with IMRD and ANA had higher CRP concentrations than the control dogs, but the concentrations were below the clinical decision limit for systemic inflammation for most of the IMRD dogs. These results indicate that CRP concentrations were increased in dogs with IMRD and ANA, but the increase was mild, similar to what has been observed in human SLE.

  2. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline following the grounding of the tanker `Arrow`. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  3. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia's coastline following the grounding of the tanker 'Arrow'. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  4. School Psychology in Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sara; McGonnell, Melissa; Noyes, Amira

    2016-01-01

    Registration as a psychologist in Nova Scotia can be at the master's or doctoral level; however, the Nova Scotia Board of Examiners in Psychology has announced a move to the doctoral degree as the entry-level to practice. Many school psychologists in Nova Scotia practice at the master's level; therefore, this change could affect school psychology…

  5. Nova Scotia's new gas distribution regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIsaac, J.B. [Cox Hanson O' Reilly Matheson, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The most recent amendments to Nova Scotia's gas distribution regime were described in detail. The amended legislation includes: (1) elimination of mandatory service targets, (2) franchise terms of 25 years, (3) a 10 year prohibition on industrial by-pass, (4) gas sales licenses are now required to market gas in Nova Scotia, (5) distributors can offer bundled services, (6) the elimination of province wide uniform tolls for low volume customers, (7) public utilities are permitted to apply for a distribution franchise and to market natural gas, (8) ex-party filing of interim rates, (9) the Pipeline Act applies to the construction of gas distribution systems, (10) socio-economic studies are required for parties seeking a single-end user franchise outside a franchise area, and (11) regulations for underground gas storage have been removed from the legislation. It was noted that these significant changes to the statutory framework of Nova Scotia's delivery of natural gas are sending encouraging signals to parties considering investing in the distribution network in the province. It was also noted, that as in any industry, success of natural gas distribution in Nova Scotia will depend on economics and not on structural changes. 66 refs.

  6. Franchising in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, G. [Nova Scotia Petroleum Directorate, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    Opportunities for the local distribution of natural gas in Nova Scotia were reviewed, with special emphasis on franchising. Franchising in Nova Scotia began in 1980, made possible by the passage of the Gas Utilities Act and the Pipeline Act which promised western Canadian natural gas to eastern Canada. However, proposals for franchisees to distribute natural gas in the province were abandoned as the hope for natural gas transmission service to the province faded. The plummeting of world oil prices by the mid-1980s was also a contributory factor. Discovery and development of natural gas facilities around Sable Island led to the September 1997 proclamation of the Gas Distribution Act, which also led to the revival of interest in franchising. The Act provides for the competitive marketing of natural gas as a commodity and the regulation of the gas delivery system under a franchise agreement. Competitive applications are expected early in 1998, with awards of franchises in late 1998. Construction and gas delivery services should begin operations late in 1999.

  7. Franchising in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, G.

    1998-01-01

    Opportunities for the local distribution of natural gas in Nova Scotia were reviewed, with special emphasis on franchising. Franchising in Nova Scotia began in 1980, made possible by the passage of the Gas Utilities Act and the Pipeline Act which promised western Canadian natural gas to eastern Canada. However, proposals for franchisees to distribute natural gas in the province were abandoned as the hope for natural gas transmission service to the province faded. The plummeting of world oil prices by the mid-1980s was also a contributory factor. Discovery and development of natural gas facilities around Sable Island led to the September 1997 proclamation of the Gas Distribution Act, which also led to the revival of interest in franchising. The Act provides for the competitive marketing of natural gas as a commodity and the regulation of the gas delivery system under a franchise agreement. Competitive applications are expected early in 1998, with awards of franchises in late 1998. Construction and gas delivery services should begin operations late in 1999

  8. Nova Scotia electricity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandlemire, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an update of electricity issues concerning Nova Scotia such as supply, capacity, emission commitments, as well as co-generation and the Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC). The goals of the strategy were reliability combined with competitive prices and greater environmental responsibility. The scope of these objectives included new capacity, transmission, renewables and co-generation. Other objectives included encouraging wholesale market competition; meeting reciprocity requirements; and a 50 MW renewable energy target. Recommendations of the EMGC included wholesale market competition; a broader market scope with a cost benefit analysis; Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT); a scheduling and information system; network integration and a point to point service; and a separation of transmission and generation business units. Other recommendations included an open competitive process for new generation; a consideration of emissions and overall efficiency; a Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) to start in 2006; the separation of RPS tags from electricity; and net metering of renewables. These recommendations were accepted in 2003, followed by the new Electricity Act in 2004, which made OATT mandatory, established RPS and opened to the wholesale market. Capacity at present was considered to be tight, with preparations for the new regulations under way. Reductions in air pollution were reported at 25 per cent, with renewable energy projects such as 2 windmills currently under way, as well as various other projects. Opportunities for provincial Atlantic cooperation were identified as being management of reserve requirements; trading of lowest cost electricity; new generation on a regional scale; stronger transmission ties; a system operator; a regional approach to RPS; regional management of air emissions; and regional opportunities for Carbon dioxide reductions. tabs., figs

  9. Gas distribution regulations (Nova Scotia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-03

    A consolidation of Nova Scotia`s gas distribution regulations made under subsection 42(1) of the Gas Distribution Act S.N.S. 1997, c4 - O.I.C. 1998-576 (November 10, 1998), N.S. Reg. 86/98 are presented. The consolidation is issued for reference purposes only, and while it has no official sanction, it is considered useful in providing an interpretation of the regulation, explaining franchise evaluation, the granting of franchises, and exemptions from application requirements. 1 tab.

  10. Duck plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    1999-01-01

    Duck plague is caused by a herpesvirus. Infection often results in an acute, contagious, and fatal disease. As with many other herpesviruses, duck plague virus can establish inapparent infections in birds that survive exposure to it, a state referred to as latency. During latency, the virus cannot be detected by standard methods for virus isolation. Studies of domestic species of waterfowl have detected multiple strains of the virus that vary in their ability to cause disease and death. Little is known about the response of wild waterfowl to strain differences.Duck plague outbreaks are thought to be caused when birds that carry the virus shed it through fecal or oral discharge, thus releasing the virus into food and water with which susceptible birds may have contact. Experimental studies have demonstrated spontaneous virus shedding by duck plague carriers during spring. Changes in the duration of daylight and onset of breeding are thought to be physiological stresses that stimulate virus shedding at this time of year. The carriers are immune to the disease, but the virus shed by them causes infection and disease among susceptible waterfowl. Bird-to-bird contact and contact with virus that has contaminated the environment perpetuate an outbreak. Scavenging and decomposition of carcasses of infected birds also contaminate the environment by releasing viruses from tissues and body fluids. Virus transmission through the egg has been reported, but the role of the egg in the disease cycle remains to be resolved.

  11. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS OF FEMALE DUCK, MUSCOVY-DUCK AND MULE-DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of morphometrical measurements inthe female waterfowls. The animals used in this research were 90 ducks , 90 muscovy-ducks and 90mule-ducks in Bulukumba district of Brebes regency, Central Java, Indonesia. Parameters measuredwere maxilla length, neck length, body length, chest circumstance, wing length, chest length, femurlength and tibia length. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Analysis System ver. 9.1. Muscovyduckgenerally had the largest of size, followed by mule-duck and then duck. The most discriminantvariables were showed by chest length and chest circumstance. Muscovy-duck and mule-duck hadclosest genetic distance (3.974870 than both of the distance between duck and mule duck (14.10, andmuscovy-duck and duck (24.73. The smallest errorness level in grouping was showed in duck 1%followed by 2% in mule-duck and 3% in muscovy-duck.

  12. Climate change in Nova Scotia : a background paper to guide Nova Scotia's climate change action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    Climate change causes changes in the temperature of the earth, the level of the sea, and the frequency of extreme weather conditions. The province of Nova Scotia recently released an act related to environmental goals and sustainable prosperity. Addressing climate change is a key element in achieving Nova Scotia's sustainable prosperity goals outlined in the act. The Nova Scotia Department of Energy is working towards developing both policy and action, to help meet its target of a 10 per cent reduction in greenhouse gases from 1990 levels by the year 2020. Two major plans are underway, notably a climate change action plan and a renewed energy strategy. This report provided background information on Nova Scotia's climate change action plan. It discussed climate change issues affecting Nova Scotia, air pollutants, energy sources in Nova Scotia, energy consumers in the province, and Nova Scotia's approach to climate change. The report also discussed actions underway and funding sources. It was concluded that in order for the climate change action plan to be successful, Nova Scotians must use energy more efficiently; use renewable energy; use cleaner energy; and plan for change. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs., 4 appendices

  13. Uranium in Nova Scotia: a background summary for the uranium inquiry, Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Since the mid 1970's Nova Scotia has experienced increased exploration for a number of commodities including uranium. The exploration activity for uranium has resulted in discovery of significant occurrences of the element. It became obvious to the Government of Nova Scotia that a segment of the population of the Province is concerned about the potential hazards associated with the exploration, mining and milling stages of the uranium industry. Public concern has resulted in the appointment of a Commissioner under the Public Inquiries Act of Nova Scotia to inquire and make recommendations to the Governor-in-Council on all aspects of exploration, development, mining, processing, storage, waste management and transportation of uranium in any form. The regulation of mineral exploration and mining activities is carried out by the Nova Scotia Department of Mines and Energy through the Mineral Resources Act of the Province of Nova Scotia. The regulation of the special radioactive aspects involved in the mining and processing of uranium ore is the responsibility of the federal Atomic Energy Control Board. The purposes of this report is to: outline the history of uranium exploration in Nova Scotia; summarize the results of geological surveys by provincial and federal government agencies, universities and exploration companies which document the natural levels of radioactivity in the Province; briefly outline the physical and chemical characteristics of uranium and thorium which make these elements unique and a potential environmental and health concern; outline chronologically the steps taken by the Nova Scotia Department of Mines and Energy to monitor and regulate uranium exploration activities; classify the types of uranium deposits known to occur in Nova Scotia and describe their main geological features; outline the role of the Nova Scotia Department of Mines and Energy in the regulation of mining activities in the Province. The report is written for the interested

  14. Mystika Eckharta Tolle

    OpenAIRE

    Všetečka, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This work brings the mysticism of Eckhart Tolle, spiritual teacher who combines his teaching various spiritual movements and religions. Tolle 's non-denominational teachings addressed to anyone looking for a way to break free from the drawbacks that entails today's way of life . Includes biography Eckhart Tolle . There are Tolle explains the main concepts of mind as mind , consciousness , being, ego , emotional body ( pain ), presence , silence, space , acceptance , surrender, awakening and l...

  15. Nova Scotia Power : in-stream tidal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, K.

    2007-01-01

    The Government of Nova Scotia, the Government of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia Power and others have funded a feasibility study of North American sites for commercial instream tidal power. In July 2007, Nova Scotia Power received partial funding for a demonstration project. This presentation provided information on a demonstration plant for tidal power run by Nova Scotia Power. It discussed the benefits of the Open Hydro technology for this plant. In this simple design, the generator is on the circumference of the turbine. The design does not involve any power transmission systems or any pitching of blades. In addition, the technology is environmentally sound as it is completely shrouded, has low rotational speed, and a large open centre allows fish to pass through, and it does not require lubricants. The last benefit that was presented was the scale up of 250 kW machine deployed in a European test facility. The presentation also discussed the advantages of developing tidal power at this time. It was concluded that tidal energy has significant potential. Although it is intermittent, it is predictable and bulk power system can be scheduled to accommodate it. figs

  16. Coalfields west half Cumberland County, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, M J

    1958-01-01

    A geologic survey of the coal fields of the western half of Cumberland County, Nova Scotia was performed including studies of the structural geology, stratigraphy, and paleontology of the area. One part of this survey included a spectrographic analysis of 55 coals for 23 elements. These analyses are presented in tabular form.

  17. Nova Scotia wind integration study : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    An independent study was commissioned by the Nova Scotia Department of Energy to identify and assess the impacts of integrating large scale wind power generation into Nova Scotia's electric power system. The purpose of the study was to help Nova Scotia's efforts towards building its renewable energy supply, in order to secure a local energy resource and to protect the environment. This report provided an overview of Nova Scotia's electric power sector, including organizations involved; existing generation system; existing transmission system; renewable energy standards; Nova Scotia Power integrated resource plan; and 2007 renewable energy request for proposals. The major assumptions for the study that were discussed included system parameters; system capacity reserve requirements; expansion plans to 2020; and allocation of new wind generation by zone. Wind resource data and system dispatch modeling were also presented and transmission system modeling was outlined. This included a discussion of steady state reliability requirements; inputs to the load flow model; load flow study and contingency analysis; intra-province transmission congestion; and potential impacts on system security. The report also presented an approach to impact analysis and mitigation such as the impact on greenhouse gas and other air emissions and the impact of wind energy prices on system costs. It was concluded that one of the most important factors in evaluation of the economic impact of wind power integration is the forecasted fuel prices for the thermal units. If the fuel prices had varied significantly from the forecasted values, the study economic impact results could have been quite different. 55 tabs., 64 figs., 1 appendix

  18. Band reporting probablilities of mallards, American black ducks, and wood ducks in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrettson, Pamela R.; Raftovich, Robert V.; Hines, James; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of band reporting probabilities are used for managing North American waterfowl to convert band recovery probabilities into harvest probabilities, which are used to set harvest regulations. Band reporting probability is the probability that someone who has shot and retrieved a banded bird will report the band. This probability can vary relative to a number of factors, particularly the inscription on the band and the ease with which it can be reported. Other factors, such as geographic reporting region, and species and sex of the bird may also play a role. We tested whether reporting probabilities of wood ducks (Aix sponsa) and American black ducks (black ducks; Anas rubripes) differed from those of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and whether band reporting varied geographically or by the sex of the banded bird. In the analysis of spatially comparable wood duck and mallard data, a band reporting probability of 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67–0.78) was appropriate for use across species, sex, and reporting region within the United States. In the black duck–mallard comparison, the band reporting probability of black ducks in Eastern Canada (0.50, 95% CI = 0.44–0.57) was lower than in the Eastern United States (0.73, 95% CI = 0.62–0.83). These estimates reflected an increase in overall band reporting probability following the addition of a toll-free telephone number to band inscriptions. Lower reporting in Eastern Canada may be because of cultural, linguistic, or logistical barriers.

  19. Executive report : toll roads, toll rates, and driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    State and federal research has examined toll roads and attempted to identify methods to make toll roads a more attractive option for drivers. Researchers examined various views of toll road transactions and concluded: : Truckers and trucking comp...

  20. Nova Scotia Resources Limited annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Nova Scotia Resources was established in 1981 by the provincial government to invest in and manage Nova Scotia's participation in petroleum, energy, and mineral development. The company and its subsidiaries hold interests in oil and gas discovery areas and producing fields in the Nova Scotia offshore, and owns producing oil and gas interests in western Canada. In June 1992, oil production began from the Cohasset project, representing Canada's first commercial offshore oil production. Nearly 4 million bbl of crude will be sold in the first production season. Work is continuing on additional producing wells; the production life of the Cohasset project is currently estimated at 6 y. Offshore exploration activity is also continuing under four exploration licenses. For the 12 months ending March 31, 1992, net earnings from western oil and gas production were $369,000. Total gross revenues from oil and gas producing properties for the year were ca $4.8 million. Other 1992 activities include active exploration for salt and potash sites with potential for underground storage of natural gas. Financial statements are included. 14 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2017-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle.

  2. Wave energy absorption by ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurniawan, Adi

    2018-01-01

    We study the absorption of wave energy by a single and multiple cam-shaped bodies referred to as ducks. Numerical models are developed under the assumptions of linear theory. We consider wave absorption by a single duck as well as by two lines of ducks meeting at an angle....

  3. Nova Scotia Energy Strategy : progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    Nova Scotia's energy strategy addresses all aspects of energy production and use, from offshore oil and gas to electricity and coal, to climate change and renewable resources. It also encompasses energy conservation and efficiency. This progress report highlights the efforts that the province has made to promote exploration, improve efficiency of regulations and approval processes and promote the oil and natural gas sector. Efforts have also been made to support local businesses, address climate change issues and protect the environment. The strategy demonstrates how new energy resources can be used to build a more prosperous and self-reliant province. The progress report focuses on the following 3 themes: powering the economy; improving the environment; and, securing Nova Scotia's future. The report emphasizes that the growing oil and gas industry brings many opportunities for new jobs and a stronger economy. In the next 12 to 18 months, about 8 to 10 offshore exploration wells will be drilled, which is more than in the last decade. Funding will be provided to extend pipeline systems beyond franchise areas approved by the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board. In May 2002, the Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee was formed to make recommendations on how competition can be introduced into the province's electricity market. The Department of Energy has been working to implement initiatives to increase the use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. In October 2002, new wind turbines began producing electricity in 3 communities on Cape Breton Island. A key priority is to respond to climate change and reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as emissions of mercury, sulphur, nitrogen, and ozone. The energy strategy also identifies the need to provide competitive taxation regimes.

  4. Punnett and duck genetics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    25, 191–194; reprinted in this issue as a J. Genet. classic, pages 3–7) ... 1932, starts with Punnett explaining that he started his work on ducks as he was asked ... text of Punnett's later comments on genes and human mental disease. Punnett's ...

  5. Shadow Toll in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    González Ruiz, Juan David; Botero Botero, Sergio; Arboleda, Carlos Alejandro; Duque Grisales, Eduardo Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The growing development in infrastructure projects in Colombia has been linked to legal adjustments and capital markets. These two last factors have provided important elements for project developers to design funding strategies. Based on the shadow toll scheme, this paper proposes a new financing strategy for funding highway projects. This strategy may be implemented in Colombia. Finally, the paper proposes future research on shadow toll schemes as a financial mechanism.

  6. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  7. Ocean and Coastal Acidification off New England and Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    New England coastal and adjacent Nova Scotia shelf waters have a reduced buffering capacity because of significant freshwater input, making the region’s waters potentially more vulnerable to coastal acidification. Nutrient loading and heavy precipitation events further acid...

  8. Lead poisoning in domestic ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rac, R; Crisp, C S

    1954-05-01

    The death of wild ducks, due to the ingestion of lead shop, occurs frequently and is well documented. This paper discusses the death of domestic ducks due to the ingestion of lead. It describes the symptoms, and pathology of the lead poisoning of a clutch of 11 ducklings which were being raised on a farm in Australia. 3 references, 1 table.

  9. MHC classⅠ gene in two duck lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    Weishan Ma duck (WS) is the eugenic endemic breed, one of the four famous ducks in China, as well Cherry Valley duck (CV) is the largest number of breeding variety. WS is egg strain and CV is meat type. The two duck lines mainly support the. Chinese waterfowl industry. In this study, MHC class Ⅰ genes of WS and CV ...

  10. Big and Little Feet Provincial Profiles: Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dobson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This communiqué provides a summary of the production- and consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions accounts for Nova Scotia, as well as their associated trade flows. It is part of a series of communiqués profiling the Canadian provinces and territories.1 In simplest terms, a production-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions produced in Nova Scotia. In contrast, a consumption-based emissions account measures the quantity of greenhouse gas emissions generated during the production process for final goods and services that are consumed in Nova Scotia through household purchases, investment by firms and government spending. Trade flows refer to the movement of emissions that are produced in Nova Scotia but which support consumption in a different province, territory or country (and vice versa. For example, emissions at the Port of Halifax that are associated with goods that are subsequently exported to Ontario for sale are recorded as a trade flow from Nova Scotia to Ontario. Moving in the opposite direction, emissions associated with the production of motor gasoline in New Brunswick that is exported to Nova Scotia for sale are recorded as a trade flow from New Brunswick to Nova Scotia. For further details on these results in a national context, the methodology for generating them and their policy implications, please see the companion papers to this communiqué series: (1 Fellows and Dobson (2017; and (2 Dobson and Fellows (2017. Additionally, the consumption emissions and trade flow data for each of the provinces and territories are available at: http://www.policyschool.ca/embodied-emissions-inputs-outputs-datatables-2004-2011/.

  11. Regulating and Funding Midwifery in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Morrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Midwives have been working in Nova Scotia for many years, and midwifery became a government funded and regulated health profession in the province in 2009. Despite the will among many decision-makers in the province to regulate the profession since the mid 1980s, several elections and lack of a management model slowed the program’s development. Implicit goals of having midwifery services included improving the quality of maternal care and health outcomes, keeping up with other provinces, responding to public demand, and saving costs. Strong and persistent bureaucratic and public advocacy work, inter-party collaboration, and research demonstrating positive and safe maternal and newborn health outcomes under midwifery care all had a role in the decision-making process. The implementation responsibility was delegated to three health districts in the province, each being responsible for designing a program to integrate midwives into maternal health care teams. The program has thus far been evaluated in an ad hoc manner with external teams performing comprehensive assessments, though the need for a cost-benefit analysis as well as more systematic assessments has been identified. Though many opportunities exist with midwifery in the province, including a continued high demand for the service, and research demonstrating positive outcomes for mothers and babies, significant challenges and threats remain to be addressed to ensure long-term sustainability of the program.

  12. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  13. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  14. The geographic accessibility of pharmacies in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael R; Heard, Deborah; Fisher, Judith; Douillard, Jay; Muzika, Greg; Sketris, Ingrid S

    2013-01-01

    Geographic proximity is an important component of access to primary care and the pharmaceutical services of community pharmacies. Variations in access to primary care have been found between rural and urban areas in Canadian and international jurisdictions. We studied access to community pharmacies in the province of Nova Scotia. We used information on the locations of 297 community pharmacies operating in Nova Scotia in June 2011. Population estimates at the census block level and network analysis were used to study the number of Nova Scotia residents living within 800 m (walking) and 2 km and 5 km (driving) distances of a pharmacy. We then simulated the impact of pharmacy closures on geographic access in urban and rural areas. We found that 40.3% of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking distance of a pharmacy; 62.6% and 78.8% lived within 2 km and 5 km, respectively. Differences between urban and rural areas were pronounced: 99.2% of urban residents lived within 5 km of a pharmacy compared with 53.3% of rural residents. Simulated pharmacy closures had a greater impact on geographic access to community pharmacies in rural areas than urban areas. The majority of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking or short driving distance of at least 1 community pharmacy. While overall geographic access appears to be lower than in the province of Ontario, the difference appears to be largely driven by the higher proportion of rural dwellers in Nova Scotia. Further studies should examine how geographic proximity to pharmacies influences patients' access to traditional and specialized pharmacy services, as well as health outcomes and adherence to therapy. Can Pharm J 2013;146:39-46.

  15. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5–7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-weeks-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One-week-old ducks showed endocardial hemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver, and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three-weeks-old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-weeks-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-weeks-old ducks at 3–5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P ducks were similar from 9 to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks. PMID:26106382

  16. Analysis of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid residues in raw ducks and cooked ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongzhi; Zhang, Suzhen; Geng, Zhiming; Wang, Daoying; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Muhan; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Rosin was once widely used for removal of duck feathers in China and is still being used secretly in some poultry processing enterprises. Abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) are the major compounds of rosin. In the present study, 90 duck samples were collected for investigation of AA and DHAA residues. Abietic acid and DHAA were simultaneously detected in 13 out 40 raw ducks, 8 out of 26 water-boiled salted ducks, and 7 out of 24 roasted ducks, respectively. In positive samples, averages of AA were significantly higher than those of DHAA in positive samples of the 3 types of ducks (P ducks were significantly higher than those in positive roasted ducks (P ducks were defeathered by means of rosin-containing defeathering agent, and cooking processes could reduce the AA and DHAA residues to some extent, but could not eliminate them completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Immune responses of ducks infected with duck Tembusu virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eLi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV can cause serious disease in ducks, characterized by reduced egg production. Although the virus has been isolated and detection methods developed, the host immune responses to DTMUV infection are unclear. Therefore, we systematically examined the expression of immune-related genes and the viral distribution in DTMUV-infected ducks, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results show that DTMUV replicates quickly in many tissues early in infection, with the highest viral titers in the spleen 1 day after infection. Rig-1, Mda5, and Tlr3 are involved in the host immune response to DTMUV, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Il-1β, -2, -6, Cxcl8 and antiviral proteins (Mx, Oas, etc. are also upregulated early in infection. The expression of Il-6 increased most significantly in the tissues tested. The upregulation of Mhc-I was observed in the brain and spleen, but the expression of Mhc-II was upregulated in the brain and downregulated in the spleen. The expression of the interferons was also upregulated to different degrees in the spleen but that of the brain was various. Our study suggests that DTMUV replicates rapidly in various tissues and that the host immune responses are activated early in infection. However, the overexpression of cytokines may damage the host. These results extend our understanding of the immune responses of ducks to DTMUV infection, and provide insight into the pathogenesis of DTMUV attributable to host factors.

  18. Proceedings of Nova Scotia's 2006 energy research and development forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Nova Scotia 2006 energy research and development forum provided a venue for experts from industry, research institutions and government to discuss how research and development will shape the future of energy in the province. The forum was divided into 3 sessions: (1) building knowledge about the marine environment, (2) building knowledge about geoscience, and (3) building knowledge about sustainable energy. A wide ranges of issues related to the Nova Scotia region included whale identification; fisheries mapping; the commercialization of hydrocarbon discoveries; carbon capture and storage and petroleum system analysis and prospect evaluation. Keynote addresses were presented on produced water in Norway; deepwater exploration in Morocco; renewable energy and Canada's role as an energy superpower. The conference featured more than 57 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Bioidentical hormone therapy: Nova Scotia pharmacists’ knowledge and beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Anne Marie; Thebeau, Jean-Pierre; Jurgens, Tannis M.; Hurst, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate Nova Scotia (NS) pharmacists´ knowledge and beliefs regarding the use of bioidentical hormones (BHs) for the management of menopause related symptoms. Methods: Using Dillman´s tailored design methodology, an invitation to complete the web-based questionnaire was emailed to pharmacists in NS as part of the Dalhousie College of Pharmacy Continuing Pharmacy Education Department´s (CPE) weekly email update. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of app...

  20. Policy statement on gas distribution in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-30

    This paper presented Nova Scotia's policy related to gas distribution. The government of Nova Scotia views natural gas as an economic enabler and is committed to ensuring that natural gas is available and accessible to Nova Scotians where it is economically feasible. Natural gas will give the province an efficient and clean burning energy supply that will make existing businesses more competitive. The province will support and facilitate the construction and operation of a gas distribution system by the private sector and will ensure that there is regulatory oversight by the Nova Scotia Utility and Review Board to protect the public interest. The government will also develop a plan for early conversion of government buildings to natural gas. This paper described the province's policy on gas distribution in relation to: (1) a province-wide franchise, (2) a supplemental franchise, (3) cost of service/performance based rates, (4) postage stamp rates, (5) a Maritimes and Northeast lateral policy, (6) direct access/bypass, (7) existing direct access user, (8) bundling of gas sales and other products and services, (9) licensing of gas marketers, (10) benefits, (11), regulatory efficiency, (12) municipal taxes, and (13) municipal operating agreements.

  1. Industry and improvement: state and class formations in Nova Scotia`s coal-mining countryside, 1790-1864

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    The role of state and class formation in Nova Scotia before Confederation is discussed. The farming and coal mining districts of northern Nova Scotia are described as opposing segments that together were central to the development of liberal capitalist government forms in the province. A range of economic circumstances is considered: squatters, estates, mixed farming, coal mining, trading, quarrying, and fraternal societies. The role of enterprises such as the General Mining Association, a British venture, in colonization and in constraint of local initiative and accumulation is considered. Rural liberals created a positive place in self-government, while colonial liberals constructed a liberalism that was centred around the state and economic progress. The poor and those without property were allotted marginal public roles.

  2. Blood parasites of wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Knisley, J.O.; Knipling, G.D.

    1971-01-01

    Examination of blood films from wood ducks (Aix sponsa) from several northeastern states revealed Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium and a typanosome. Haemoproteus occurred in all areas sampled and birds of the year from Massachusetts demonstrated the highest incidence during the last 2 weeks in August. Leucocytozoon was most prevalent in more northern areas. P. circumflexum and a trypanosome are reported for the first time from this host.

  3. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of Duck Tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Ning eLi; Chuanwei eLv; Ruichao eYue; Ying eShi; Sidang eLiu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3 and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 day post infection (dpi) and some died at 5 –7 dpi. Three week old ducks showed...

  4. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of duck tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning; Lv, Chuanwei; Yue, Ruichao; Shi, Ying; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie; Liu, Sidang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of host age on the outcome of duck tembusu virus (DTMUV) infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads, and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 days post infection (dpi) and some died at 5–7 dpi. Three weeks-old ducks sho...

  5. Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  6. Technology scan for electronic toll collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify and assess available technologies and methodologies for electronic toll collection (ETC) and to develop recommendations for the best way(s) to implement toll collection in the Louisville metropolitan area. ...

  7. Effect of age on the pathogenesis of Duck Tembusu virus in Cherry Valley ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of host age on the outcome of Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV infection was studied in ducks. Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 1, 3 and 7 weeks of age were intramuscularly infected with DTMUV to systematically observe the clinical symptoms, pathological changes, tissue viral loads and immune responses. Severe clinical symptoms and neurological dysfunction were observed in 1-week-old ducks as early as 2 day post infection (dpi and some died at 5 –7 dpi. Three week old ducks showed similar but milder symptoms and no deaths. However, 7-week-old ducks showed only transient loss of appetite. Gross lesions gradually reduced in severity as ducks matured. One week old ducks showed endocardial haemorrhage, splenomegaly, swelling in the lymph follicles of the ileum, liver and kidney swelling with degeneration, and meningeal hyperemia. Three week old ducks showed only mild pathological lesions. No visible lesions were observed in 7-week-old ducks. However, pathological histology analysis demonstrated all infected ducks displayed viral encephalitis. DTMUV could be detected in the brains of 1-week-old ducks as early as 1 dpi and virus titers of most organs in 1-week-old ducks were significantly higher than that of 3- and 7-week-old ducks at 3 –5 dpi. The patterns of IFN-γ, IL-2, and serum neutralizing antibodies were similar, and there were significant difference between the youngest ducks and the older ducks at early infection stage (P<0.05. More important is that although the antibody titers of all infected ducks were similar from 9 dpi to 17 dpi, reduced clearance of virus was observed in the youngest groups comparing with the other two groups, indicating that immune system maturity was more important than the presence of neutralizing antibody. In summary, this study demonstrates that viral pathogenesis is strongest in 1-week-old ducks and the age-related immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DTMUV in ducks.

  8. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  9. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  10. Structure of Subsurface Sediments in the Scan Basin (Scotia Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreider, Al. A.; Schreider, A. A.; Sazhneva, A. E.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; Ruano, P.; Maldonado, A.; Martos-Martin, Y.; Lobo, F.

    2018-01-01

    The structure of sediments in the Scotia Sea is used as a basis for reconstructing the geological history of its bottom in the Late Quaternary. The Scan Basin is one of the main elements of the topography of the southern Scotia Sea. Its formation played a considerable role in the fragmentation of the continent, which included the Bruce and Discovery banks. The main parameters of the sediment layer in the Scan Basin have been reconstructed by the present time, but its top part has not been studied. In this work, we analyze the first data obtained on the R/V Gesperidas with the use of a TOPAS PS 18/40 high-resolution seismic profilograph in 2012. Three layers in the subsurface sediments on the bottom of the Scan Basin were specified for the first time. The mean periods of their deposition in the Late Quaternary were determined as 115000 years for the first, 76000 years for the second, and 59 000 years for the third layer from the surface of the bottom. The duration of the total accumulation period of the three layers is about 250000 years.

  11. Marine renewable energy legislation for Nova Scotia : policy background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    Marine renewable energy sources can provide Nova Scotia with a large supply of sustainable, non-carbon emitting electricity. One of the largest tidal ranges within the world is contained within the Bay of Fundy, which holds power potential in the form of wind, wave and tidal energy. A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) on the Bay of Fundy's potential marine renewable energy was published in 2008. An assessment of the social, economic, and environmental effects and factors linked with possible development of renewable energy sources in the Bay Fundy was published. Twenty-nine recommendations were offered, including the creation of marine renewable energy legislation incorporating sustainability principles. This discussion paper described the policy drivers and opportunities in Nova Scotia for marine renewable energy sources as well as the challenges and relevant subject areas that should be considered when creating marine renewable energy legislation and policy. Specific challenges that were discussed included a policy approach to development; multiple jurisdictions; Aboriginal issues; economic factors; environmental impacts; occupational and operation safety; allocation of rights; and regulatory issues. It was concluded that if the marine renewable energy resource was going to be created with the possibility of providing commercial electricity generation, a coordinated legislative framework should be established. refs., tabs.

  12. Four new single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of toll-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to reveal the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), genotypes and allelic frequencies of each mutation site of TLR7 gene in Chinese native duck breeds, SNPs of duck TLR7 gene were detected by DNA sequencing. The genotypes of 465 native ducks from eight key protected duck breeds were determined by ...

  13. Experimental infection of duck origin virulent Newcastle disease virus strain in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yabin; Cheng, Xu; Liu, Mei; Shen, Xinyue; Li, Jianmei; Yu, Shengqing; Zou, Jianmin; Ding, Chan

    2014-07-17

    Newcastle disease (ND) caused by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an acute, highly contagious and fatal viral disease affecting most species of birds. Ducks are generally considered to be natural reservoirs or carriers of NDV while being resistant to NDV strains, even those most virulent for chickens; however, natural ND cases in ducks have been gradually increasing in recent years. In the present study, ducks of different breeds and ages were experimentally infected with duck origin virulent NDV strain duck/Jiangsu/JSD0812/2008 (JSD0812) by various routes to investigate the pathogenicity of NDV in ducks. Six breeds (mallard, Gaoyou, Shaoxing, Jinding, Shanma, and Pekin ducks) were infected intramuscularly (IM) with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50. Susceptibility to NDV infection among breeds varied, per morbidity and mortality. Mallard ducks were the most susceptible, and Pekin ducks the most resistant. Fifteen-, 30-, 45-, 60-, and 110-day-old Gaoyou ducks were infected with JSD0812 strain at the dose of 5 × 108 ELD50 either IM or intranasally (IN) and intraocularly (IO), and their disease development, viral shedding, and virus tissue distribution were determined. The susceptibility of ducks to NDV infection decreased with age. Most deaths occurred in 15- and 30-day-old ducklings infected IM. Ducks infected IN and IO sometimes exhibited clinical signs, but seldom died. Clinical signs were primarily neurologic. Infected ducks could excrete infectious virus from the pharynx and/or cloaca for a short period, which varied with bird age or inoculation route; the longest period was about 7 days. The rate of virus isolation in tissues from infected ducks was generally low, even in those from dead birds, and it appeared to be unrelated to bird age and infection route. The results confirmed that some of the naturally occurring NDV virulent strains can cause the disease in ducks, and that ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of ND. The

  14. Avian Influenza Ecology in North Atlantic Sea Ducks: Not All Ducks Are Created Equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Eínar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jane; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology. PMID:26677841

  15. Avian influenza ecology in North Atlantic sea ducks: Not all ducks are created equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Soos, Catherine; Dusek, Robert J.; Allen, R. Bradford; Nashold, Sean W.; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Jónsson, Jón Einar; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Harms, Naomi Jnae; Brown, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Wild waterfowl are primary reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIV). However the role of sea ducks in the ecology of avian influenza, and how that role differs from freshwater ducks, has not been examined. We obtained and analyzed sera from North Atlantic sea ducks and determined the seroprevalence in those populations. We also tested swab samples from North Atlantic sea ducks for the presence of AIV. We found relatively high serological prevalence (61%) in these sea duck populations but low virus prevalence (0.3%). Using these data we estimated that an antibody half-life of 141 weeks (3.2 years) would be required to attain these prevalences. These findings are much different than what is known in freshwater waterfowl and have implications for surveillance efforts, AIV in marine environments, and the roles of sea ducks and other long-lived waterfowl in avian influenza ecology.

  16. Air quality guidelines for arenas in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    A series of guidelines have been prepared to address the quality of air in skating arena facilities in Nova Scotia. They are limited to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions. Average nitrogen dioxide levels should not exceed 1 part per million (ppm). Average carbon monoxide levels should not exceed 25 ppm. These guidelines do not address other contaminants such as ammonia or chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The guidelines are considered to be the minimum standards required for safe arena operations. These standards can be met by reducing emissions of the ice resurfacer and edger which is one of the major sources of poor air quality in arenas. Other ways to meet the standards are to ensure proper equipment operation, ventilation and monitoring of indoor air quality levels. Symptoms of exposure and potential consequences were also described. It was noted that owners and operators may be found libel for injury if a proper environment is not maintained. 6 appendices.

  17. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  18. Optimization Technique in Scheduling Duck Tours

    OpenAIRE

    Norhazwani M. Y.; Khoo; C. F.; Hasrul Nisham R.

    2011-01-01

    Tourism industries are rapidly increased for the last few years especially in Malaysia. In order to attract more tourists, Malaysian Governance encourages any effort to increase Malaysian tourism industry. One of the efforts in attracting more tourists in Malacca, Malaysia is a duck tour. Duck tour is an amphibious sightseeing tour that works in two types of engines, hence, it required a huge cost to operate and maintain the vehicle. To other country, it is not so new but...

  19. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7???1??C). ...

  20. Characterization of duck (Anas platyrhynchos) MHC class Igene in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LIN ZHANG

    2017-06-17

    Jun 17, 2017 ... from Weishan Ma duck and Cherry Valley duck were cloned, and their characterization were investigated. The overall ... Then the first-strand cDNAs were syn- thesized ... opment, Tokyo, Japan) and DNAMAN demo software.

  1. An Emerging Wine Region in Nova Scotia, Canada: Terroir Trials and Tribulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, B. I.; Ketter, B. S.; Karakis, S.

    2012-12-01

    Nova Scotia, strategically located on Canada's east coast, is an emerging wine region, whose distinctive wines are garnering international acclaim. Nova Scotia has a long and rich tradition of growing grapes for wine dating back as far as 1611. Nova Scotia's mesoclimates, glacial soils, and proximity to the Atlantic Ocean form a complex alliance to create a unique and expressive terroir. Tidal Bay is a new appellation wine for Nova Scotia stylistically defined as a fresh, crisp and high-acid blend of white grapes. There are four main wine-growing regions in Nova Scotia, all influenced by the warming effects of the Bay of Fundy and Atlantic Ocean: Malagash Peninsula, Annapolis Valley, Bear River Valley and the South Shore. Nova Scotia currently has 14 producing wineries with many more in the development stage. Nova Scotia grape growers not only have had success developing mature and consistent hybrids, but in recent years several vinifera have flourished in this cool climate area. The white hybrids include L'Acadie Blanc, New York Muscat, Seyval Blanc, and Vidal Blanc. The white vinifera include chardonnay, riesling, pinot gris, and sauvignon blanc. Red hybrids are Baco Noir, Leon Millet, Lucie Kuhlmann, and Marechal Foch, whereas the only red vinifera is pinot noir. Nova Scotia has nearly perfect climatic conditions for making world class icewines and sparkling wines. A preliminary GIS analysis of climate, topographic, geology and soil data helps to define Nova Scotia's terroir. Annual precipiatation varies from 10 to 21.6 cm/year with a vast majority of the wineries located in regions with the lowest rainfall. Daily average temperature ranges from 5.5 to 7.5°C, degree growing days above 5°C from 1382 to 1991, and mean August temperature from 15.6 to 19.3 °C. Wineries cluster in the warmest regions based on these temperature measures to assist grape ripening. Soils in these diverse wine regions can range from silty, sandy and clay loams to more gravel-rich sandy

  2. Yellow Ducks Overboard! A Lesson in Geography and World Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Paul; Beauboeuf, Donna

    2012-01-01

    This lesson was inspired by the book, "10 Little Rubber Ducks" by Eric Carle, which discusses ocean pollution. The book was inspired by an incident in 1992: A shipping container tumbled into the North Pacific Ocean, broke open, and 28,800 little rubber ducks (and other plastic bath toys) were lost at sea. The ducks were manufactured in China, and…

  3. Quantitative feed restriction of Pekin breeder ducks during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hatchability of incubated duck eggs owing to restricted feed intake. ... Egg numbers, infertile eggs, fertile eggs, dead embryos, and duck- lings hatched were recorded for each of the 12 pens. At the same time as the six male and 24 female ducks were ..... treatment but thereafter there was a drop, even lower than the.

  4. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  5. Evolution of power plant foundations in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.T.; Larade, M.; Myette, R.; MacIvor, T. [Nova Scotia Power Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many thermal steam plants in Nova Scotia, including the first 3 units Dartmouth's Tufts Cove Generating Station, were constructed on bedrock and near the sea for easy access to cooling water. Major equipment foundations such as turbine/condenser foundations, boiler feed pump foundations and fan foundations are concrete block foundations that are designed to withstand the heavy equipment and environmental loads imposed throughout the service-life of the plant. This paper discussed the rationale for choosing different types of foundations at the 5 power generating units at the Tufts Cove Generating Station. Due to the presence of boulders, pipe piles were installed in drilled holes in 1995 for the unit 2 precipitator foundation. In 2005, micro-piles were installed for unit 1 and 3 precipitators because they were relatively non-protrusive for the congested urban site that was full of buried structures and services. Similarly, for the unit 4 and 5 sound wall foundations, the high resistance capacities for both downward and uplift loads of the micro-piles embedded into the bedrock proved to be very valuable. These tall wall structures are subject to very high wind loads and were constructed at a geotechnically challenged site. Good geotechnical investigation and consultation was shown to be the basis for good design and construction of foundation works. It was concluded that the lessons learned at Tufts Cove can be applied to other similar foundation designs. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Energy conservation on Nova Scotia farms: Baseline energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Gordon, R.; Burton, D.; Yiridoe, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Direct energy use is a small but essential component of the farm greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. Improvements in energy efficiency and renewable energy can help reduce farm operating costs, improve air quality and reduce GHG emission levels. Energy conservation is especially important in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, where fossil fuels, particularly coal, remain the primary source of electrical generation. Responses from mail surveys were used to establish baseline data on a cross-section of NS farms with respect to direct energy costs and usage to demonstrate differences in farm type and size. A 32% (N=224) response rate was achieved. Based on this survey, the average energy bill for a NS farm in 2004 was $11,228, with most (61.7%) of their energy cost attributable to the purchase of petroleum products. Almost all farmers (96.4%) indicated that their energy cost was a primary concern. Farmers identified the operation of vehicles and mobile equipment, as well as lighting and heating as having the greatest energy requirements in their operations. Energy usage varied with farm type and size. NS farms consumed 1.2 petajoules of energy equivalent to 127 kilotonnes of CO 2 with 52.7% of emissions from electricity use in 2004

  7. Water resource management : a strategy for Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theakston, J.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1995, the Nova Scotia Department of the Environment has been the lead agency responsible for water resource management in the province. The agency's mandate has been to establish a water resource management strategy and to report periodically to the people of the province on the state of the environment, including air, water and waste resource management. One of the Department's goals is to ensure that surface and groundwater resources are being adequately protected. This paper summarizes issues related to dams and how they will be addressed. The Department allocates water through approvals and regulates use and alteration of watercourses. The construction of a dam and water withdrawal for municipal, industrial, hydroelectric or other purposes requires an approval. The major concerns with these activities are flows to sustain downstream habitat, competing demand for water, public safety, and water quality impacts. The main water management actions established under the water strategy involve: (1) geo-referencing water resource use and allocation, (2) protecting water quality, (3) integrating management of natural resources, and (4) promoting partnership in stewardship

  8. Environmental assessment of exploration drilling off Nova Scotia: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The environmental assessment project of drilling offshore Nova Scotia covers year-around drilling conducted from jackup rigs, semi-submersible rigs, and drill ships that use the methods described in the project description on the Scotian Shelf, the Laurentian Channel and St, Pierre Bank. The assessment was sponsored by all the oil companies active in the area, namely Mobil Oil Canada, Shell Canada, Imperial Oil Resources, Gulf Canada Resources, Chevron Canada Resources, PanCanadian Petroleum, Murphy Oil Company and Norsk Hydro Canada Oil and Gas. This summary describes the impact assessment methodology used, provides a description of the project, reviews the cumulative impact, and the impacts of discrete activities such as noise and disturbances, operational discharges of oil, disruption of the benthos, garbage and waste disposal, and accidental oil spills, and outlines mitigation and monitoring activities to deal with the impacts. Mitigation measures encompass routine discharges, accidental oil spills, spill response, monitoring activities, contingency plans and an overall environmental protection plan. In addition to this generic assessment, the consultants recommend that individual exploration drilling programs that fall outside of the parameters outlined in the generic environmental assessment document, be required to undergo a program-specific assessment that focuses on those aspects of the proposed program that differ from the parameters prescribed in the present document. 9 refs

  9. Weather impacts on leisure activities in Halifax, Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Jamie E. L.; Millward, Hugh

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily leisure activity engagement, with a focus on physically active leisure. The methods capitalize on time diary data that were collected in Halifax, Nova Scotia to calculate objective measures of leisure activity engagement. Daily meteorological data from Environment Canada and daily sunrise and sunset times from the National Research Council of Canada are used to develop objective measures of the natural atmospheric environment. The time diary data were merged with the meteorological data in order to quantify the statistical association between daily weather conditions and the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement. The results indicate that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions, especially relating to thermal comfort and mechanical comfort, pose barriers to physically active leisure engagement, while promoting sedentary and home-based leisure activities. Overall, daily weather conditions exhibit modest, but significant, effects on leisure activity engagement; the strongest associations being for outdoor active sports and outdoor active leisure time budgets. In conclusion, weather conditions influence the type, participation rate, frequency, and duration of leisure activity engagement, which is an important consideration for health-promotion programming.

  10. Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Sharifah Nadya Syed; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan; Saidin, Hamidi

    2010-10-01

    Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through questionnaire survey. These data were combined to estimate the work shift exposure level and health impacts to the toll tellers by using statistical analysis. Noise Dosimeter microphone was located at the hearing zone of the toll teller which working inside the toll booth and full-period measurements were collected for each work shift. The measurements were taken at 20 toll booths from 6.00 am to 2.00 pm for 5 days. 71 respondents participated in the survey to identify the symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and other health related problems among toll tellers. Results of this study indicated that occupational noise exposure among toll tellers for Mean Continuous Equivalent Level, Leq was 79.2±1.4 dB(A), Mean Maximum Level, Lmax was 107.8±3.6 dB(A) and Mean Peak Level, Lpeak was 136.6±9.9 dB. The Peak Level reported statistically significantly at 140 dB, the level of TLV recommended by ACGIH. The research findings indicated that the primary risk exposure to toll tellers comes from noise that emitted from heavy vehicles. Most of the toll tellers show symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and annoyed by the sources of noise at the toll plaza.

  11. Seroprevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 subtype clade 2.3.2 on ducks and muscouvy ducks in small holders farm

    OpenAIRE

    Eny Martindah; Risa Indriani; S Wahyuwardani

    2015-01-01

    Seroprevalence studies of HPAI H5 subtype in ducks and muscouvy duck in smallholders farm was carried out in Serang and Tangerang District, Banten Province. The study comprised a serological survey to define the distribution and prevalence of HPAI H5 subtype infection on ducks and muscouvy ducks as well as attempted isolation of the virus from these species. Unit of sample in each stage was randomly choosen by multy stage random sample. Blood samples were taken from ducks and muscouvy ducks t...

  12. 47 CFR 42.6 - Retention of telephone toll records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... whether it is billing its own toll service customers for toll calls or billing customers for another... Section 42.6 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... telephone toll records. Each carrier that offers or bills toll telephone service shall retain for a period...

  13. Measurement of Phenotype Characteristics of Sasak Ducks: Indian Runner Ducks of Lombok Island Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hasil Tamzil; Budi Indarsih

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the phenotype characteristics of Sasak ducks in Lombok Island. The study used 64 Sasak ducks at production stage which were kept intensively by small holder farmers. Observations on the characteristics of the feather color were carried out directly on each animal. The data observed were feather colors, beak color, and the color of the foot and shank, while the data on the size of the body that was observed were body weight, beak length, neck length, back ...

  14. Expanding Pharmacists' Scope of Practice to Include Immunization in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth O'Reilly

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available On 10 December 2010 An Act to Amend Chapter 36 of the Acts of 2001, the Pharmacy Act (Bill 7 received Royal Assent in Nova Scotia, including an amendment that enabled an expanded scope of pharmacy practice. Expanding pharmacists' scope of practice came about from recommendations by various federal and provincial government bodies as an attempt to improve accessibility to health care and decrease costs. In 2013, pharmacists in Nova Scotia began administering the influenza vaccine as part of the publicly funded program in attempts to improve vaccine coverage rates. Preliminary evaluation in Nova Scotia has shown an increase in influenza vaccination coverage. Although pharmacist administration of influenza vaccination may improve vaccination coverage and reduce demand on physician time, there may be tension created among the professions, which needs to be addressed and managed.

  15. Simulation of investment returns of toll projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This research develops a methodological framework to illustrate key stages in applying the simulation of investment returns of toll projects, acting as an example process of helping agencies conduct numerical risk analysis by taking certain uncertain...

  16. Toll-like receptors in neonatal sepsis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, Fiona M

    2013-06-01

    Toll-like receptors are vital transmembrane receptors that initiate the innate immune response to many micro-organisms. The discovery of these receptors has improved our understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and these receptors play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple neonatal conditions such as sepsis and brain injury. Toll-like receptors, especially TLRs 2 and 4, are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia and sepsis.

  17. DMPD: Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15031527 Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and virus... (.csml) Show Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and viruses. PubmedID 1503...1527 Title Toll-like receptor 3: a link between toll-like receptor, interferon and virus

  18. The response of ducks to V4 Newcastle disease virus and its transmission to contact ducks and domestic chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Bouzari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of Muscovy ducks with V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was undertaken to determine the response of the ducks to the virus and the possibility of virus transmission to ducks and chickens in village like conditions. Twelve ducks were randomly and equally divided into three groups of control, inoculated and in-contact. Additionally, the chickens were placed into two groups of four animals each, namely in-contact and control. The inoculated and in-contact ducks and in-contact chickens were kept together. The eye drop route was used for inoculation and hemagglutination inhibition (HI antibodies were measured for assessment of antibody response and cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were used for detection of the virus. The primary antibody response of inoculated ducks was very high and rapid (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 5.75 ± 0.50. The in-contact ducks showed antibody response with the same pattern but lower titers than the inoculated ducks (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 3.25 ± 1.70. The in-contact chickens showed a slight increase of HI antibody (geometric mean titers [Log base 2] of up to 2.25 ± 1.25 while the control chickens did not show any increase. The antibody response indicated the transmission of the virus to contact ducks and chickens. A single isolation of virus confirmed the ability of ducks to excrete the virus. It was concluded that the V4 strain of Newcastle disease virus was highly antigenic for ducks, and ducks can transmit it to other ducks and also in-contact chickens.

  19. Efficient Strategy to Generate a Vectored Duck Enteritis Virus Delivering Envelope of Duck Tembusu Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV is a recently emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has resulted in a huge economic loss in the duck industry. However, no vaccine is currently available to control this pathogen. Consequently, a practical strategy to construct a vaccine against this pathogen should be determined. In this study, duck enteritis virus (DEV was examined as a candidate vaccine vector to deliver the envelope (E of DTMUV. A modified mini-F vector was inserted into the SORF3 and US2 gene junctions of the attenuated DEV vaccine strain C-KCE genome to generate an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC of C-KCE (vBAC-C-KCE. The envelope (E gene of DTMUV was inserted into the C-KCE genome through the mating-assisted genetically integrated cloning (MAGIC strategy, resulting in the recombinant vector, pBAC-C-KCE-E. A bivalent vaccine C-KCE-E was generated by eliminating the BAC backbone. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis results indicated that the E proteins were vigorously expressed in C-KCE-E-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs. Duck experiments demonstrated that the insertion of the E gene did not alter the protective efficacy of C-KCE. Moreover, C-KCE-E-immunized ducks induced neutralization antibodies against DTMUV. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant C-KCE-E can serve as a potential bivalent vaccine against DEV and DTMUV.

  20. A multiplex PCR for detection of six viruses in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjuan; Zhu, Shanyuan; Hong, Weiming; Wang, Anping; Zuo, Weiyong

    2017-10-01

    In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system. Specificity and sensitivity assays were also developed. The multiplex PCR was used to detect duck embryos infected with mixed viruses and those with clinically suspected diseases to verify the feasibility of the multiplex PCR. Results show that the primers can specifically amplify target fragments, without any cross-amplification with other viruses. The multiplex PCR system can amplify six DNA fragments from the pooled viral genomes and specifically detect nucleic acids of the six duck susceptible viruses when the template amount is 10 2 copies/μl. In addition, the system can be used to detect viral nucleic acids in duck embryos infected with the six common viruses. The detection results for clinical samples are consistent with those detected by single PCR. Therefore, the established multiplex PCR method can perform specific, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of six duck-infecting viruses and can be applied to clinical identification and diagnosis of viral infection in ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Irradiation preservation study on Beijing roast duck by low dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiguo, Wang; Yongbao, Gu; Fengmei, Li [Beijing Normal Univ., BJ (China). Inst. of Low Energy Nuclear Physics; and others

    1989-02-01

    The irradiation technique combined with freezing has been used to control the microorganism in Beijing Roast Duck. Cobal-60 was chosen as {gamma}-ray source. The absorbed dose was 2 kGy on an average. After irrdiation, the microbe counts have reached the tolerable. Compared with untreated ducks, the irradiated ones showed no remarkable change in nutrition, chemistry, vitamin etc. It has been proved through test that the irradiated frozen Beijing Roast Duck is wholesome.

  2. Irradiation preservation study on Beijing roast duck by low dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weiguo; Gu Yongbao; Li Fengmei

    1989-01-01

    The irradiation technique combined with freezing has been used to control the microorganism in Beijing Roast Duck. Cobal-60 was chosen as γ-ray source. The absorbed dose was 2 kGy on an average. After irrdiation, the microbe counts have reached the tolerable. Compared with untreated ducks, the irradiated ones showed no remarkable change in nutrition, chemistry, vitamin etc. It has been proved through test that the irradiated frozen Beijing Roast Duck is wholesome

  3. Egg Production Potentials of Muscovy Ducks ( Cairina moschata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ducks in intensive management systems came into lay significantly (P<0.05) earlier, (IO, 203 days and IW, 207 days) than ducks in semi-intensive management system (248 days). Eggs from ducks in IO and IW were significantly (P<0.05) heavier (76.35 and 76.27g, respectively) than eggs from those in SI. Clutch sizes were ...

  4. Evaluation of petroleum products pricing regulation in Nova Scotia : a 2 year review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    Gasoline price regulation was introduced in Nova Scotia on July 1st, 2006. This report presented the findings and recommendations of a review of the first two years of the gasoline price regulation in Nova Scotia. The regulations had three main objectives. This review examined whether, and to what extent, they were achieved. The objectives were to stabilize price, maintain industry infrastructure, and minimize cost to consumers. The report described the rationale for the regulation, study objectives, and approach taken to gasoline regulation in Nova Scotia, including the objectives and technical aspects of how regulation works. The gasoline market in Nova Scotia was examined, including the market structure and competitive behaviour in an unregulated market. The report also provided some theoretical perspectives on how regulation was likely to affect industry structure and competitive behaviour. The extent to which the regulation was meeting its objectives was then assessed and perspectives on the regulation from consumers, retailers and wholesalers were offered. Last, the report provided a review of the findings in terms of the key elements of regulatory design and set out recommendations for improving the system. It was recommended that in order to improve certainty, particularly given the regulated price differences amongst grades, the regulations should be amended to include grade specifications referencing octane ratings. tabs., figs

  5. Regional Patterns of Ethnicity in Nova Scotia: A Geographical Study. Ethnic Heritage Series, Volume VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Hugh A.

    In this sixth volume of the Ethnic Heritage Series, the pattern of ethnicity in Nova Scotia (Canada) is examined by deriving indices of diversity for counties and larger towns. The historical development of ethnic patterns from 1767 to 1971 and recent changes in the ethnic pattern are discussed. Ethnic origin data is mapped for 1871 and 1971 and…

  6. Consultation paper : Nova Scotia's renewed energy strategy and climate change action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    The Nova Scotia Department of Energy is seeking to create a sustainable and prosperous Nova Scotia that is responsive to climate change. The purpose of this report was to inform public discussion around two upcoming documents, namely the renewed energy strategy focusing on broad energy policy and a climate change action plan for Nova Scotia to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discussed mitigation measures, as it is closely tied with energy use. The consultation process to inform the two documents was to include public forums and direct stakeholder consultation. The report discussed Nova Scotia's strategy for dealing with climate change and the world of energy. Recent changes in energy prices, exploration, awareness, and emerging but uncertain technologies were presented. Long term planning and a review of policy changes were also addressed. The report also presented options for a renewed energy strategy and discussed air quality; energy conservation and efficiency; electricity; natural gas; energy opportunities; government action; and government intervention. Submissions were also sought as input to the discussion paper. refs., tabs., figs., appendices

  7. Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board annual report, 1992-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board was established as the agency responsible for the regulation of the hydrocarbon resources in the Nova Scotia offshore. The Board evaluates resource potential, administers petroleum exploration and production rights, approves offshore activities, and approves benefits and development plans. The main activities of the Board in 1992-1993 are summarized and financial statements are presented. Highlights include production of 572,300 m 3 of oil during the first production season of LASMO Nova Scotia Ltd.'s Cohasset development, the first commercial offshore oil production for Canada; four major resource evaluation projects in the Glenelg Field, the Laurentian sub-basin, the Fundy Rift Basin, and the Panuke Field; holding of discussions between Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Canada on the maritime boundary lines between respective offshore petroleum board jurisdictions, in the wake of a June 1992 determination of the disputed maritime boundary around St. Pierre et Miquelon; and amendments of certain safety-related legislation applicable to offshore operations. Employment benefits of the Cohasset project during 1992 totalled ca 470 Nova Scotians and 120 other Canadians. 3 tabs

  8. Herself: Elle-Meme. Report of the Nova Scotia Task Force on the Status of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nova Scotia Task Force on the Status of Women, Halifax.

    This report to the Canadian Government from the Nova Scotia Women's Task Force examines the social issues and problems pertaining to the women's movement in that province. Discussions are provided on the situations and attitudes toward homemakers, working women, marriage, divorce, child care, education, health, and political participation.…

  9. Duck "beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome" disease complex: Interplay of novel goose parvovirus-related virus and duck circovirus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Li, J; Zhang, R; Chen, J; Wang, W; Lan, J; Xie, Z; Jiang, S

    2018-04-01

    As a newly emerged infectious disease, duck "beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS)" disease has caused huge economic losses to waterfowl industry in China since 2015. Novel goose parvovirus-related virus (NGPV) is believed the main pathogen of BADS disease; however, BADS is rarely reproduced by infecting ducks with NGPV alone. As avian circovirus infection causes clinical symptoms similar to BADS, duck circovirus (DuCV) is suspected the minor pathogen of BADS disease. In this study, an investigation was carried out to determine the coinfection of NGPV and DuCV in duck embryos and in ducks with BADS disease. According to our study, the coinfection of emerging NGPV and DuCV was prevalent in East China (Shandong, Jiangsu and Anhui province) and could be vertical transmitted, indicating their cooperative roles in duck BADS disease. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. A comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Y.H.; Ogata, Kenji; Sugimura, Makoto

    1979-01-01

    Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R. (author)

  11. Comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Y H; Ogata, K; Sugimura, M [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1979-05-01

    Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R.

  12. Ecology and conservation of North American sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Esler, Daniel N.; Eadie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a huge increase in the interest and attention directed toward sea ducks, the Mergini tribe. This has been inspired, in large part, by the conservation concerns associated with numerical declines in several sea duck species and populations, as well as a growing appreciation for their interesting ecological attributes. Reflecting the considerable research recently conducted on this tribe, Ecology and Conservation of North American Sea Ducks examines the 15 extant species of sea ducks from North America.

  13. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  14. Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.

    2013-05-01

    Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (±137 000). The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

  15. Red fox predation on breeding ducks in midcontinent North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Alan B.; Allen, Stephen H.; Eberhardt, Robert T.

    1984-01-01

    Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) predation on nesting ducks was assessed by examining 1,857 adult duck remains found at 1,432 fox rearing dens from 1968 to 1973. Dabbling ducks were much more vulnerable to foxes than diving ducks. Dabbling ducks (1,798) found at dens consisted of 27% blue-winged teals (Anas discors), 23% mallards (A. platyrhynchos), 20% northern pintails (A. acuta), 9% northern shovelers (Spatula clypeata), 8% gadwalls (A. strepera), 3% green-winged teals (A. crecca), 2% American wigeons (A. americana), and 10% unidentified. Relative abundance of individual species and nesting chronology were the most important factors affecting composition of ducks taken by foxes. Seventy-six percent of 1,376 adult dabbling ducks and 40% of 30 adult diving ducks for which sex was determined were hens. In western North Dakota and western South Dakota, 65% of mallard and northern pintail remains found at dens were hens compared with 76% in eastern North Dakota and eastern South Dakota (P fox predation rates on ducks. Predation rate indices ranged from 0.01 duck/den in Iowa to 1.80 ducks/den in eastern North Dakota. Average annual predation rate indices for dabbling ducks in a 3-county intensive study area in eastern North Dakota were closely correlated with May pond numbers (r = 0.874, P foxes than hens of late nesting species. Predation rate indices were expanded to estimate total numbers of ducks taken by fox families during the denning season. Estimated numbers of dabbling ducks taken annually by individual fox families in 2 physiographic regions comprising the intensive study area ranged from 16.1 to 65.9. Predation was highest during wet years and lowest during dry years and averaged lower, but was more variable, in the region where tillage was greatest and wetland water levels were least stable. Predation in the intensive study area averaged 2.97 adult dabbling ducks/ km2/year and represented an estimated average annual loss of 13.5% of hen and 4.5% of drake

  16. Creating Cohesive Community Through Shared Reading: A Case Study of One Book Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Harder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One Book Nova Scotia is described on the program’s website as “a province-wide community reading event for adults.” Formally programmed events have included the book announcement and launch, a series of author readings, and book discussions, both face to face and through Twitter. This paper analyzes the success of the One Book Nova Scotia program in achieving its goals of developing a reading culture and community in the province of Nova Scotia based on the findings of a participant survey, distributed in both 2012 and 2013, and an analysis of the 2013 Twitter discussion. This analysis reveals that participants tended to be well-educated females, aged 50-59, and often employed in libraries, bookselling or publishing, or news media. The goal of developing or participating in a reading community was a compelling motivator for many respondents. Although many respondents indicated their desire to be part of a reading community, Twitter was not proven to be an effective forum for fostering conversation or debate related to One Book Nova Scotia. Building on the analysis, the paper concludes with some recommendations to improve the effectiveness of future programs. These recommendations include the selection of a book with strong regional connections, an expansion of publicity methods, an increase in lead time between the announcement of the book title and the start of programming, and a more strategic use of Twitter as a discussion forum. Although these recommendations arise from the specific analysis of the One Book Nova Scotia reading program, they are general enough to apply to other One Book, One Community programs.

  17. OPEC ducks quota issue amid glut worries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries has ducked the question of reestablishing quotas despite the looming prospect of a second quarter oil price slide. OPEC ministers meeting in Vienna late last month approved continuing free-for-all production in the first quarter and ordered the ministerial monitoring committee to tackle the question of second quarter production levels when it meets in Geneva Feb. 12. Oil markets responded to the lack of action by dropping futures prices

  18. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Carcass yields of two different strains of ducks raised in different altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillak, St. Y. F. G.; Mulyantini, N. G. A.; Sipahelut, G. M.; Lole, U. R.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if there is a difference in performance and carcass yield between ducks of two different strains raised in different altitude. Ducks different strains (Muscovy vs Pekin ducks) and they raised either in high or low altitude (high altitude which was between 500 and 1000m vs low altitude which was below 500m). All ducks were given one of two different diet s and provided water ad libitum. The diets were: 1) commercial diet, and 2) local diet. There were three replicate per treatment and there were 5 ducks per replication. Ducks from each strain were standardized to a similar weight. The results show that Pekin ducks carcass performance was significantly better than Muscovy ducks. Ducks given diet 2 had significantly (Pabdominal fat percentage in Pekin ducks is significantly (Pabdominal fat percentage in Muscovy ducks.

  20. Congestion Tolling for Mixed Urban Freight and Passenger Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chaoda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the welfare effects of optimal tolling on urban traffic congestion, in a bottleneck model, with mixed freight and passenger users. The users’ marginal utility of time is considered to be varying with time. Under both no-toll equilibrium and socially optimal tolling, the users are found to sort their arrival time according to the increasing rates of marginal utility at the destination. The optimal toll that maximizes social welfare does not change each user's indirect utilit y relative to the no-toll equilibrium, but completely removes the queue, which also removes the barrier of freight carriers to accept congestion pricing by relating their marginal utilities directly to the toll. When the toll is equally rebated, the proposed social optimal tolling is a Pareto improvement relative to the no-toll equilibrium. Those more productive users also suffer more in both no-toll equilibrium and optimal tolling, which indicates that a differentiated redistribution of toll revenues could be an incentive to improve productivity.

  1. A Hydrographic Survey of the Scotia Sea, 15 March 1999 to 22 April 1999 (NODC Accession 0000861)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD and chemical data were collected using CTD and bottle casts in the Drake Passage and Scotia Sea from the JAMES CLARK ROSS. Data were collected from 15 March 1999...

  2. Susceptibility of Duck and Turkey to servere hypercapnic hypoxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Stegeman, J.A.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Large groups of poultry, including ducks and turkeys, are killed for disease control purposes with CO2. In this study, we examined the physiological reaction of White Pekin ducks and turkeys to increasing CO2 concentrations. Additionally, we examined the suitability of killing both species with

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of duck interleukin-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) belonging to the Th17 family is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells. A 1034-bp cDNA encoding duck IL-17 (duIL-17) was cloned from ConA-activated splenic lymphocytes of ducks. The encoded protein, predicted to consisted of 169 amino acids, displayed a molec...

  4. Pig-duck-fish-azolla integration in La Union, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Gavina, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Three studies on pig-duck-fish-azolla integration were conducted simultaneously in La Union, Philippines. Growth performance of pigs and ducks as affected by different levels of azolla meal in their feed, and that of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under varying stocking rates are presented and discussed.

  5. Assessing genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of duck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the maternal genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of Nigerian duck populations were assessed. A total of 591 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region of 87 indigenous ducks from two populations in Nigeria were analyzed. Seven haplotypes and 70 polymorphic sites were ...

  6. Interactions between nesting pileated woodpeckers and wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Clifford E. Shackelford; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    2001-01-01

    We observed interactions between a nesting pair of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) and what appeared to be four pairs of wood ducks (Aix sponsa). Wood ducks regularly approached and attempted to enter an active pileated woodpecker nest cavity that contained three fully feathered young pileated woodpeckers. The male...

  7. A self-adaptive toll rate algorithm for high occupancy toll (HOT) lane operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Dramatically increasing travel demands and insufficient traffic facility supplies have resulted in severe : traffic congestion. High Occupancy Toll (HOT) lane operations have been proposed as one of the most : applicable and cost-effective countermea...

  8. Risk neutral second best toll pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    We propose a risk-neutral second best toll pricing scheme to account for the possible no uniqueness : of user equilibrium solutions. The scheme is designed to optimize for the expected objective value : as the UE solution varies within the solution s...

  9. Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H7N1) Transmission Between Wild Ducks and Domestic Ducks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, O. R.; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Handberg, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virological investigation in a mixed flock of ducks and geese following detection of avian influenza virus antibodies in domestic geese. Low pathogenic H7N1 was found in both domestic and wild birds, indicating that transmission of virus was likely to have taken place...

  10. Arginine affects appetite via nitric oxide in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Hou, S S; Huang, W; Xu, T S; Rong, G H; Xie, M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the mechanism by which arginine regulates feed intake in Pekin ducks. In experiment 1, one hundred forty-four 1-d-old male Pekin ducks were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens of 8 birds per pen. Birds in each group were fed a corn-corn gluten meal diet containing 0.65, 0.95, and 1.45% arginine. Ducks fed the diet containing 0.65% arginine had lower feed intake and plasma nitric oxide level (P ducks were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments. After 2 h fasting, birds in the 2 groups were intraperitoneally administrated saline and l-NG-nitro-arginine methyl ester HCl (L-NAME) for 3 d, respectively. Feed intake (P study implied that arginine modifies feeding behavior possibly through controlling endogenous synthesis of nitric oxide in Pekin ducks. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. The Ratios of Pre-emulsified Duck Skin for Optimized Processing of Restructured Ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Yun; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Ahn, Kwang-Il; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of duck ham formulated with duck skin through the pre-emulsification process. The experiments to investigate the quality characteristics of duck ham were carried out to measure proximate composition, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics. Duck ham was prepared with various ratios of duck skin in pre-emulsion as follows: Control (duct skin 30%), T1 (duck skin 20% + pre-emulsified duck skin 10%), T2 (duck skin 15% + pre-emulsified duck skin 15%), T3 (duck skin 10% + pre-emulsified duck skin 20%), and T4 (pre-emulsified duck skin 30%). As the ratio of duck skin to pre-emulsified skin changed, the quality of duck ham in terms of moisture content, fat content, cooking loss, emulsion stability, lightness, textural analysis, apparent viscosity, and overall acceptability changed. The moisture content of T2 was the highest ( p ham and 1:1 ratio of duck skin and pre-emulsified skin was the proper ratio to improve the quality characteristics of duck ham.

  12. More than wind: evaluating renewable energy opportunities for First Nations in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Diana [MREM Canada (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    The Nova Scotia and New Brunswick governments have committed to developing the renewable energy sector in the coming years. However, due to a lack of information, First Nations are not familiar with renewable energy technologies and their economic opportunities. The aim of this paper is to provide First Nations with information on the different renewable energies. It has been noticed that First Nations have not seized either the opportunities offered by the Nova Scotia feed-in tariff nor the New Brunswick community energy policy and an overview of these policies is provided. In addition, information on renewable energy technologies is presented along with potential opportunities specific to each First Nation in the 2 provinces. This paper provides First Nations with useful information on renewable energy and with recommendations for immediate and long term action; it is expected that this document will result in a greater involvement of First Nations in the renewable energy sector.

  13. Proceedings of Nova Scotia's 2006 energy research and development forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Nova Scotia 2006 energy research and development forum provided a venue for experts from industry, research institutions and government to discuss how research and development will shape the future of energy in the province. The forum was divided into 3 sessions: (1) building knowledge about the marine environment, (2) building knowledge about geoscience, and (3) building knowledge about sustainable energy. A wide ranges of issues related to the Nova Scotia region included whale identification; fisheries mapping; the commercialization of hydrocarbon discoveries; carbon capture and storage and petroleum system analysis and prospect evaluation. Keynote addresses were presented on produced water in Norway; deepwater exploration in Morocco; renewable energy and Canada's role as an energy superpower. The conference featured more than 57 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Determinants of breeding distributions of ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.; Grier, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The settling of breeding habitat by migratory waterfowl is a topic of both theoretical and practical interest. We use the results of surveys conducted annually during 1955-81 in major breeding areas to examine the factors that affect the distributions of 10 common North American duck species. Three patterns of settling are described: homing, opportunistic, and flexible. Homing is generally more pronounced among species that use more stable (more predictable) wetlands, such as the redhead (Aythya americana), canvasback (A. valisineria), lesser scaup (A. affinis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (Anas strepera), and northern shoveler (Anas clypeata). Opportunistic settling is more prevalent among species that use less stable (less predictable) wetlands, such as northern pintail (Anas acuta) and blue-winged teal (Anas discors). Flexible settling is exhibited to various degrees by most species.The 10 species are shown to fall along a natural ordination reflecting different life history characteristics. Average values of indices of r- and K-selection indicated that pintail, mallard, blue-winged teal, and shoveler have the most features associated with unstable or unpredictable environments. Gadwall, American wigeon (Anas americana), and green-winged teal (Anas crecca) were intermediate, and attributes of the diving ducks were associated with the use of stable or predictable environments.Some species--notably mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, redhead, and canvasback--tend to fill available breeding habitat first in the central portions of their range, and secondly in peripheral areas. Other species--American wigeon, green-winged teal, northern shoveler, northern pintail, and lesser scaup--fill their habitat in the order it is encountered during spring migration.Age and sex classes within species vary in their settling pattern. Some of this variation can be predicted from the mating systems of ducks in which breeding females, especially successful ones, have a

  15. Effects of dietary vanadium in mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Dieter, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    Adult mallard ducks fed 0, 1, 10, or 100 ppm vanadyl sulfate in the diet were sacrificed after 12 wk on treatment; tissues were analyzed for vanadium. No birds died during the study and body weights did not change. Vanadium accumulated to higher concentrations in the bone and liver than in other tissues. Concentrations in bones of hens were five times those in bones of drakes, suggesting an interaction between vanadium and calcium mobilization in laying hens. Vanadium concentrations in most tissues were significantly correlated and increased with treatment level. Lipid metabolism was altered in laying hens fed 100 ppm vanadium. Very little vanadium accumulated in the eggs of laying hens.

  16. Province of Nova Scotia Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee First Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This report summarizes the group discussions of the Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee's (EMGC) over the past 6 months regarding the implementation of new rules for power competition in Nova Scotia's electricity market. Emphasis has been placed on external influences, defining the size and form of the short-term competitive portion of the Nova Scotia market, and a detailed consideration of the current transmission system and the changes needed to achieve a sustainable, world class energy sector that would enhance the quality of life for Nova Scotians. The report provides recommendations regarding how competition can be encouraged. The main drivers for electricity restructuring have been energy efficiency, risk-allocation, reliability, environmental impact, and consumer protection. The external influences on the Nova Scotia electricity market include: (1) economics of electricity restructuring, (2) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, (3) New Brunswick and electricity restructuring, and (4) Nova Scotia and the energy strategy. This report described the market scope and basic market model with reference to bilateral contract market, fully competitive wholesale pool market, and a single buyer market. The transmission issues discussed in this report included the importance of transmission, transmission tariff options, transmission services offered, design issues, and congestion management policies. The EMGC was directed to examine market design issues to accommodate an Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT). As such, this report identifies some transmission issues that must be resolved to implement tariffs, and conditions of access to the transmission system and its impact on open access market design. The final report is expected to be available in March 2003

  17. Diatoms as an indicator of bottom surface sediment dynamics in the southern Scotia sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Сергеевич Огиенко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of diatoms from the sediments of the lower interval of column K97-18 in Scotia Sea it is revealed the combination of Late-Holocene and Miocene species in complexes, due to the abundance of inclusions of Middle Miocene diatoms in the rock. Age of re-deposition, transporters and ways of transportation are determined, and it is suggested possible localization of diatomite layers

  18. The ambient air quality accounts for the Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monette, A.; Colman, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Nova Scotia Genuine Progress Index (GPI) is a measure of sustainable development which provides a complete and accurate picture of our well-being as a society. The GPI assigns explicit values to environmental quality, population health, livelihood security, equity, free time, and educational attainment. The Nova Scotia GPI includes 22 social, economic and environmental components, including ambient air quality. This report investigates Nova Scotia's ambient air concentrations and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), total particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The costs of damages caused by the these key air pollutants are also examined. Exposure to these pollutants results in negative impacts on human health, damage to materials, agricultural crops and changes in forest productivity. From 1979 to 1996, national ambient concentrations of each of these pollutants decreased significantly. However, the national average concentration of ground-level ozone increased by 34 per cent during the same time period. In Nova Scotia, concentrations of CO, PM and SO 2 have declined dramatically since 1979, but the trends for NO 2 and ground-level ozone do not show significant declines. On a per capita basis, SOx emissions from electric power generation in the province are more than 8 times the Canadian average. The province also had higher per capita emissions of CO, PM, SOx and VOCs than all reporting OECD countries. Electric power generation is the greatest source of fuel combustion emissions in the province, followed by industrial and transportation sources. This report also described some individual actions that can be taken to reduce air pollutant emissions. 174 refs., 37 tabs., 60 figs

  19. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of children with Lyme arthritis in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaude, Pier Diane; Huber, Adam M; Mailman, Timothy; Ramsey, Suzanne; Lang, Bianca; Stringer, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Lyme disease is an emerging problem in Nova Scotia. Lyme arthritis is a late manifestation of Lyme disease. To describe the demographic characteristics, referral patterns and clinical course of children diagnosed with Lyme arthritis in a tertiary care pediatric rheumatology clinic in Nova Scotia. In the present retrospective chart review, subjects diagnosed with Lyme arthritis between 2006 and 2013 were identified through the clinic database. Demographic variables, referral patterns, clinical presentation and information regarding treatment course and outcome were collected. Seventeen patients were identified; 76% presented in 2012 and 2013. In 37.5% of cases, the referring physician suspected Lyme disease. Most patients presented with one or more painful and/or swollen joints; 94% had knee involvement. Only three of 17 patients had a history of erythema migrans and four of 17 recalled a tick bite. Five patients had a history of neurological manifestations consistent with Lyme disease, although, none had a diagnosis made at the time. Arthritis usually resolved after treatment with standard antibiotics; however, at last follow-up, two patients had antibiotic refractory Lyme arthritis, with one having joint damage despite aggressive arthritis treatment. A significant increase in cases of Lyme arthritis has recently been recognized in a pediatric rheumatology clinic in Nova Scotia. A history of a tick bite or erythema migrans were not sensitive markers of Lyme arthritis, and this diagnosis was often not considered by the referring physician. Educational initiatives should be undertaken to increase local awareness of this treatable cause of arthritis in children.

  20. Petroleum products price regulation in Nov Scotia : a six-month review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    Gasoline pricing regulation was introduced in July 2006 in order to achieve the following 3 main objectives: (1) stabilize prices by reducing the frequency of price changes and creating more uniform pricing across the province, (2) maintain industry infrastructure by slowing or halting the decline in the dealer network, particularly in rural areas, by improving viability through regulated margins, and (3) minimize the cost to consumers since higher prices are expected to result from the actions needed to maintain price stability and the higher margins needed to maintain industry infrastructure. This report examined the extent to which these objectives were achieved and contained the findings and recommendations of a review of the first six months of gasoline price regulation in Nova Scotia. The report discussed the rationale for regulation, study objectives, approach, and warning signs. It also discussed gasoline regulation in Nova Scotia including how regulation works and implementing regulation. The Nova Scotia gasoline market was presented with reference to industry structure; pre-regulation competition and pricing; and how regulation may affect structure and competition. Last, the report discussed whether regulation was meeting the objectives and perspectives on regulation. Several recommendations were presented, such as reducing the benchmark price adjustment period from two weeks to one week; removing the price cap on full-serve gasoline; adopting a fixed and transparent formula for forward averaging and applying it at each adjustment; and considering a framework for regulatory review. 12 refs., 15 figs

  1. Multiple losses of flight and recent speciation in steamer ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Tara L.; Letts, Brandon; Shapiro, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Steamer ducks (Tachyeres) comprise four species, three of which are flightless. The flightless species are believed to have diverged from a flying common ancestor during the Late Pleistocene; however, their taxonomy remains contentious. Of particular interest is the previously unstudied population of flying steamer ducks in the Falkland Islands. We present the first genetic data from this insular population, and illustrate that the flying and flightless steamer ducks on the Falkland Islands are genetically indistinguishable, in contrast to their traditional classification as separate species. The three species that reside in continental South America form a genetically distinct lineage from the Falkland Island ducks. The Falkland steamer ducks diverged from their continental relatives 2.2–0.6 million years ago, coincident with a probable land bridge connecting the Falkland Islands to the mainland. The three continental species share a common ancestor approximately 15 000 years ago, possibly owing to isolation during a recent glacial advance. The continental steamer duck species are not reciprocally monophyletic, but show some amount of genetic differentiation between them. Each lineage of Tachyeres represents a different stage between flight and flightlessness. Their phylogenetic relationships suggest multiple losses of flight and/or long-term persistence of mixed-flight capability. As such, steamer ducks may provide a model system to study the evolution of flightlessness. PMID:22319122

  2. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  3. Molting characteristics of crossbreds between Alabio and Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanti T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molting is a problem for duck farmers, during which the ducks stop laying eggs. Molting characteristics may be altered through crossing between non-molting to molting ducks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate molting characteristics of the crossing between Alabio and Pekin ducks. The materials used were 90 female AP (Alabio males x Pekin females and 90 female PA (Pekin males x Alabio females, 25 female Alabio and 25 female Pekin ducks. The ducks were housed in individual cages at the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi Bogor. Variables measured were the length of molting and egg production in 30 weeks, data were analyzed using ANOVA and followed by the estimation of the value of heterosis. Result showed that the molting of Pekin ducks was 71.31±9.36 days, it was longer than Alabio, AP or PA ducks, which were respectively 42.44±8.59, 43.63±4.88 and 49.35±4.85 days (P<0.01. Egg production of Pekin duck (56.41±4.59 was significantly lower (P<0.01 than that of Alabio, AP or PA, which were 72.48±3.24, 83.75±1.39 and 76.12±1.68 respectively. The heterosis of molting period of AP was higher than that of PA (-23.29 vs -13.23%. The heterosis of egg production of AP was higher than PA (29.96 vs 18.12%. It is concluded that the AP crossbred could be utilized as the initial population to produce a superior line characterized by high egg production and controllable molting.

  4. On the Antarctic Slope Front and Current crossing of the South Scotia Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, A. H.; Palmer, M.; Gomis, D.; Flexas, M. M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Jordà, G.; Wiederwohl, C.; Álvarez, M.

    2012-04-01

    To unveil the contorted path followed by the Antarctic Slope Current connecting the Weddell and Scotia Seas, hydrographic stations with unprecedented spatial resolution were occupied on a series of sections across the slope and multiple channels in the double-pronged western portion of the South Scotia Ridge. Fieldwork consisted of two cruises from the ESASSI (January 2008) and ACROSS (February 2009) programs, the Spanish and USA/Argentina components of the International Polar Year core project SASSI (Synoptic Antarctic Shelf-Slope Interaction study). In this region the Antarctic Slope Current can be located by the pronounced in-shore deepening of isopycnals over the continental slope, rendering the strong subsurface temperature and salinity gradients characteristic of the Antarctic Slope Front. Before reaching the gaps in the southern Ridge near 51°W and 50°W, the ASC carries about 3 Sv of upper layer waters, but it splits into shallow and deep branches upon turning north through these two gaps. The shallower branch enters the Hesperides Trough at 51°W, then shows a tight cyclonic loop back to that longitude roughly following the slope's 700-m isobath, and turns again westward through a similar gap in the northern Ridge. In the Scotia Sea the westward-flowing Antarctic Slope Current is found as far west as the Elephant Island along slightly deeper levels of slope (1100 m) before it is blocked by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current south of the Shackleton Fracture Zone (56°W). The deeper branch of the ASC in the Powell Basin crosses the southern Ridge near 50°W and roughly follows the 1600-m isobath before entering the Scotia Sea through the Hesperides Gap farther to the east (49°W). Thereafter the deeper waters carried westward by this branch become undistinguishable from those circulating farther offshore. Repeat cross-slope sections at both southern and northern flanks of the South Scotia Ridge showed significant temporal variability in the characteristics

  5. Negative Regulation of Interferon-β Production by Alternative Splicing of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 3 in Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Wei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3, an intracellular signal transducer, is identified as an important component of Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors induced type I interferon (IFN signaling pathways. Previous studies have clarified TRAF3 function in mammals, but little is known about the role of TRAF3 in ducks. Here, we cloned and characterized the full-length duck TRAF3 (duTRAF3 gene and an alternatively spliced isoform of duTRAF3 (duTRAF3-S lacking the fragment encoding amino acids 217–319, from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs. We found that duTRAF3 and duTRAF3-S played different roles in regulating IFN-β production in DEFs. duTRAF3 through its TRAF domain interacted with duMAVS or duTRIF, leading to the production of IFN-β. However, duTRAF3-S, containing the TRAF domain, was unable to bind duMAVS or duTRIF due to the intramolecular binding between the N- and C-terminal of duTRAF3-S that blocked the function of its TRAF domain. Further analysis identified that duTRAF3-S competed with duTRAF3 itself for binding to duTRAF3, perturbing duTRAF3 self-association, which impaired the assembly of duTRAF3-duMAVS/duTRIF complex, ultimately resulted in a reduced production of IFN-β. These findings suggest that duTRAF3 is an important regulator of duck innate immune signaling and reveal a novel mechanism for the negative regulation of IFN-β production via changing the formation of the homo-oligomerization of wild molecules, implying a novel regulatory role of truncated proteins.

  6. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-01-01

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  7. Replication cycle of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 in duck embryonic hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fangke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Ming, Ke; Liu, Jiaguo, E-mail: liujiaguo@njau.edu.cn; Xiong, Wen; Song, Meiyun; Du, Hongxu; Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Shuaibin; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang

    2016-04-15

    Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is an important agent of duck viral hepatitis. Until recently, the replication cycle of DHAV-1 is still unknown. Here duck embryonic hepatocytes infected with DHAV-1 were collected at different time points, and dynamic changes of the relative DHAV-1 gene expression during replication were detected by real-time PCR. And the morphology of hepatocytes infected with DHAV was evaluated by electron microscope. The result suggested that the adsorption of DHAV-1 saturated at 90 min post-infection, and the virus particles with size of about 50 nm including more than 20 nm of vacuum drying gold were observed on the infected cells surface. What's more, the replication lasted around 13 h after the early protein synthesis for about 5 h, and the release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h. The replication cycle will enrich the data for DVH control and provide the foundation for future studies. - Highlights: • This is the first description of the replication cycle of DHAV-1. • Firstly find that DHAV-1 adsorption saturated at 90 min post-infection. • The replication lasted around 13 h after early protein synthesis for about 5 h. • The release of DHAV-1 was in steady state after 32 h.

  8. 23 CFR 950.5 - Requirement to use electronic toll collection technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall use an electronic toll collection system as the method for collecting tolls from vehicle operators... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirement to use electronic toll collection technology... TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION § 950.5 Requirement to use electronic toll collection...

  9. Sex determination of duck embryos: observations on syrinx development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2013-01-01

    Ducks exhibit sexual dimorphism in vocal anatomy. Asymmetrical ossification of the syrinx (bulla syringealis) is discernable at about 10 days of age in male Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) embryos, but information is lacking on the early development of the bulla in wild ducks. To evaluate the reliability of this characteristic for sexing developing embryos, we examined the syrinx of dead embryos and compared results with molecular sexing techniques in high arctic nesting Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima). Embryos 8 days or older were accurately (100%) sexed based on the presence/absence of a bulla, 2 days earlier than Pekin duck. The use of the tracheal bulla can be a valuable technique when sex identification of embryos or young ducklings is required.

  10. Linking Canadian Harvested Juvenile American Black Ducks to Their Natal Areas Using Stable Isotope (δD, δ13C, and δ15N Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ashley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding source-sink dynamics of game birds is essential to harvest and habitat management but acquiring this information is often logistically and financially challenging using traditional methods of population surveys and banding studies. This is especially true for species such as the American Black Duck (Anas rubripes, which have low breeding densities and extensive breeding ranges that necessitate extensive surveys and banding programs across eastern North America. Despite this effort, the contribution of birds fledged from various landscapes and habitat types within specific breeding ranges to regional harvest is largely unknown but remains an important consideration in adaptive harvest management and targeted habitat conservation strategies. We investigated if stable isotope (δD, δ13C, δ15N could augment our present understanding of connectivity between breeding and harvest areas and so provide information relevant to the two main management strategies for black ducks, harvest and habitat management. We obtained specimens from 200 hatch-year Black Duck wings submitted to the Canadian Wildlife Service Species Composition Survey. Samples were obtained from birds harvested in Western, Central, and Eastern breeding/harvest subregions to provide a sample representative of the range and harvest rate of birds harvested in Canada. We sampled only hatch-year birds to provide an unambiguous and direct link between production and harvest areas. Marine origins were assigned to 12%, 7%, and 5% of birds harvested in the Eastern, Central, and Western subregions, respectively. In contrast, 32%, 9%, and 5% of birds were assigned, respectively, to agricultural origins. All remaining birds were assigned to nonagricultural origins. We portrayed probability of origin using a combination of Bayesian statistical and GIS methods. Placement of most eastern birds was western Nova Scotia, eastern New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and southern

  11. The Theoretical and Applied Fundamentals of Management of Tolling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Olha H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with identification of the unified essence of tolling operations in the scientific terminological apparatus; substantiation of conceptual bases of balanced management of tolling operations; characterization of the current status and tendencies of development of tolling operations at domestic enterprises; allocation and analyzing of factors of influence on tolling operations, and also economic assessment of tolling operations of the processing enterprise. The concept of balanced management of tolling operations has been substantiated, on parity basis considering interests of the customer and executor of processing works. The most essential internal and external factors of influence on tolling operations have been identified and their influence has been interpreted by means of the developed correlation-regression dependencies. The complex model of economic diagnostics of tolling operations of processing enterprise has been improved, allowing to assess efficiency of their implementation both operatively and fundamentally. Prospect for further research is development of an instrumentarium of motivation of participants of tolling operations in order to increase motivation of employees to the efficient implementation of these operations.

  12. Lead shot pellets dispersed by hunters: ingested by ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danell, K [Univ. of Umea, Sweden; Andersson, A; Marcstrom, V

    1977-01-01

    Many of the lead pellets shot by waterfowl hunters over shores and waters fall on the feeding grounds of ducks and geese. These pellets, picked up and ingested by the birds, can remain in the gizzard where they are eroded by mechanical and chemical action. In some cases the bird absorbs enough lead to cause lead poisoning. This report describes the incidence of ingested lead shot pellets found in 928 ducks collected in Sweden during hunting season. Pellets were found in both dabbling and diving ducks and were present in birds from six of the eight localities sampled. Usually one or two pellets were found but some ducks contained up to 62 pellets. As the incidence of ingested pellets in the present study is approximately the same as that found in North America, where the annual duck loss due to lead poisoning is estimated to be 2 to 3 percent of the population, it may be assumed that lead poisoning is a mortality factor for Swedish ducks also.

  13. Updating movement estimates for American black ducks (Anas rubripes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orin J. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding migratory connectivity for species of concern is of great importance if we are to implement management aimed at conserving them. New methods are improving our understanding of migration; however, banding (ringing data is by far the most widely available and accessible movement data for researchers. Here, we use band recovery data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes from 1951–2011 and analyze their movement among seven management regions using a hierarchical Bayesian framework. We showed that black ducks generally exhibit flyway fidelity, and that many black ducks, regardless of breeding region, stopover or overwinter on the Atlantic coast of the United States. We also show that a non-trivial portion of the continental black duck population either does not move at all or moves to the north during the fall migration (they typically move to the south. The results of this analysis will be used in a projection modeling context to evaluate how habitat or harvest management actions in one region would propagate throughout the continental population of black ducks. This analysis may provide a guide for future research and help inform management efforts for black ducks as well as other migratory species.

  14. Duck enteritis virus glycoprotein D and B DNA vaccines induce immune responses and immunoprotection in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Cao, Yongsheng; Cui, Lihong; Ma, Bo; Mu, Xiaoyu; Li, Yanwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Li, Dan; Wei, Wei; Gao, Mingchun; Wang, Junwei

    2014-01-01

    DNA vaccine is a promising strategy for protection against virus infection. However, little is known on the efficacy of vaccination with two plasmids for expressing the glycoprotein D (gD) and glycoprotein B (gB) of duck enteritis virus (DEV) in inducing immune response and immunoprotection against virulent virus infection in Pekin ducks. In this study, two eukaryotic expressing plasmids of pcDNA3.1-gB and pcDNA3.1-gD were constructed. Following transfection, the gB and gD expressions in DF1 cells were detected. Groups of ducks were vaccinated with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, and boosted with the same vaccine on day 14 post primary vaccination. We found that intramuscular vaccinations with pcDNA3.1-gB and/or pcDNA3.1-gD, but not control plasmid, stimulated a high frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in Pekin ducks, particularly with both plasmids. Similarly, vaccination with these plasmids, particularly with both plasmids, promoted higher levels of neutralization antibodies against DEV in Pekin ducks. More importantly, vaccination with both plasmids significantly reduced the virulent DEV-induced mortality in Pekin ducks. Our data indicated that vaccination with plasmids for expressing both gB and gD induced potent cellular and humoral immunity against DEV in Pekin ducks. Therefore, this vaccination strategy may be used for the prevention of DEV infection in Pekin ducks.

  15. MORPHOLOGY AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA D-LOOP REGION USING PCR-RFLP ANALYSIS IN MAGELANG DUCK AND OTHER NATIVE DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Purwantini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the different of plumage colors on morphological diversityof Magelang duck and genetic diversity using PCR-RFLP mtDNA D-loop region analysis of Magelangduck and four others native duck population (Tegal, Mojosari, Bali and Alabio duck in Indonesia. Bloodsample was taken from 50 Magelang ducks and 20 of each native ducks. Morphological characteristicsof body measurement, production ability and egg quality of Magelang duck were analyzed usingCompletely Randomized Design with 11 plumage colors as treatments. PCR technique was administeredto amplify fragments in mtDNA D-loop region and PCR products were digested with endonucleaserestriction enzyme AluI and HaeIII. The result showed that morphology diversity of Magelang duck wasstatistically affected by different plumage colors. PCR-RFLP analysis using AluI and HaeIII restrictionenzyme resulted in six combinations of restriction fragment pattern shown in six haplotypes (A, B, C, D,E and F. Haplotype difference showed genetic diversity in the population of Magelang duck and theother native ducks. In conclusion, the different plumage colors affected morphology diversity ofMagelang duck. Genetic diversity of Indonesian native duck population could be identified by usingPCR-RFLP analysis on mtDNA D-loop region.

  16. Cross-sectional serosurvey of avian influenza antibodies presence in domestic ducks of Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, S; Lupiani, B; Budke, C M; Manandhar, S; Ivanek, R

    2014-09-01

    Kathmandu, Nepal has been classified as a high-risk area for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) by the Nepali Government. While ducks have an important role in the transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV), including HPAI, seroprevalence of antibodies to AIV in domestic ducks of Kathmandu has never been assessed. The objectives of this study were (i) to estimate the prevalence of seroconversion to AIV in domestic ducks in major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu and (ii) to assess the effect of age, sex, presence of swine and the number of ducks on the farm on the carriage of antibodies to AIV in these ducks. From April through July of 2011, a cross-sectional study was conducted and a total of 310 ducks in the major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu were sampled. The estimated prevalence of AIV antibodies was 27.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 24.6-29.5]. Of 62 enrolled farms, 42% had at least one seropositive duck. Half of the enrolled farms also kept pigs of which 52% had at least one seropositive duck. Bivariate analysis indicated association between ducks' seroconversion to AIV and their age, sex and farm size. However, the final multivariable model, after controlling for clustering of ducks within farms, identified age as the only significant risk factor. Based on this model, ducks older than 1 year of age were more likely to be seropositive compared to ducks ducks in the major duck-raising areas of Kathmandu and identify a high-risk group that can be targeted in surveillance activities. Future studies should be conducted to differentiate the subtypes of AIV present among domestic ducks in Kathmandu, with particular interest in the presence of HPAI viruses. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Modelling hydrological conditions in the maritime forest region of south-western Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Shelagh; Keys, Kevin; Meng, Fan-Rui; Yin, Xiwei; Clair, Tom; Arp, Paul A.

    2000-02-01

    Hydrological processes and conditions were quantified for the Mersey River Basin (two basins: one exiting below Mill Falls, and one exiting below George Lake), the Roger's Brook Basin, Moosepit Brook, and for other selected locations at and near Kejimkujik National Park in Nova Scotia, Canada, from 1967 to 1990. Addressed variables included precipitation (rain, snow, fog), air temperature, stream discharge, snowpack accumulations, throughfall, soil and subsoil moisture, soil temperature and soil frost, at a monthly resolution. It was found that monthly per hectare stream discharge was essentially independent of catchment area from interception and soil percolation.

  18. The electrification of Nova Scotia, 1884--1973: Technological modernization as a response to regional disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lionel Bradley

    This dissertation investigates local attempts to use technology as a force for regional rehabilitation in the economically-depressed Maritime region of Canada. At the time of Confederation in 1867, the Maritime province of Nova Scotia was prosperous, progressive, and cultured. By the end of the 1910s, the province had entered a long period of economic and social decline. Recent historiography has shown that, far from passively accepting their fate, Nova Scotians and other Maritimers, actively resisted marginalization with political, cultural, or social action. The thesis expands upon that literature by exploring technology-based strategies of provincial rehabilitation using Thomas P. Hughes's systems perspective and David E. Nye's semiotic approach. In doing so, it applies methods from the social constructivist school of the history of technology to the larger concerns of Maritime Canadian historiography. In large part, the North American culture of technology determined the ways in which Nova Scotians applied technological solutions to provincial concerns. Technology has long been central to the Western idea of progress. As the "high technology" of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, electricity reinforced that view: its ephemeral nature and silent efficiency led people to endow it with transformative, even mystical, powers. As a result, Nova Scotians, adopted a program of electrical modernization in the late 1910s as a remedy for regional disparity. The Nova Scotia government's first step was the creation of an Ontario-style hydroelectric commission designed to bring order to the province's fragmented and inefficient electrical network. Over the next few decades, the Nova Scotia Power Commission implemented rural electrification, home modernization, and regional system-building models that had already proven successful in Ontario and the United States. The system-building philosophies behind these programs were adapted to local conditions and

  19. Environmental and public interface for Point Aconi generating station, Point Aconi, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toner, T P

    1993-01-01

    Nova Scotia Power's most recent generating station is a 165 MW coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) unit located at Point Aconi on the northern tip of Boularderie Island. This paper discusses the environmental and public interfaces associated with this project, particularly on the unique items and issues requiring delicate and/or innovative approaches for their successful completion. Specific issues discussed include clarification of the process, the turnkey arrangement, the community liaison committee, freshwater supply, air emissions and dealings with commercial growers, dealings with lobster fishermen, dealings with Native peoples, and the transmission line.

  20. Internationally Educated Female Teachers who have Immigrated to Nova Scotia: A Research/Performance Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Walsh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research/performance text emerged from a study involving internationally educated female teachers who have immigrated to Atlantic Canada. The text features the words and artwork of the research participants as well as excerpts from newspapers, academic writing, and documents about immigration in Nova Scotia juxtaposed so as to foreground the complexity of the women's immigration and integration experiences. Introductory comments provide contextual information about the research project, the participants, and the evolution of, as well as rationale for, the text as performance piece.

  1. The Characteristics of Meat Duck, Problems and Prevention of Off Flavor Due to Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procula R Matitaputty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Source of poultry meat in Indonesia is currently dominated by chicken while local resources such as ducks have the potential to grow and be used as an alternative meat producer. Duck contribution towards the provision of a relatively small meat of 2.29%, compared with free-range chicken to reachs 20.33%. Sources of duck meat in Indonesia comes from local duck, and culled female ducks. Acceptance of most local duck meat is still relatively low, although in some areas local duck dishes are excellent. Meat ducks are generally less desirable, because taste and smell is different from chicken. Because consumers are not accustomed to the taste of typical meat, especially those that give the sensation of irregularities off meat – flavor or smell fishy/ rancid. Similarly, the color of duck meat is darker than that of chicken meat, high fat content of about 2.7 to 6.8%, which also influences consumer preferences. The high fat content, especially acid-unsaturated fatty acids in meat duck gives a tendency to produce off – flavors. Efforts to increase the consumption of duck meat should be based on the cause of the lack of acceptance by consumers. The smell of rancid meat duck is the most dominant cause of which is not liked by consumers. Efforts to reduce the off flavor of duck meat could be by adding antioxidant in feed stuffs.

  2. "I feel like I am surviving the health care system": understanding LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Emily; Gahagan, Jacqueline

    2016-09-22

    Currently, there is a dearth of baseline data on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) populations in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Historically, LGBTQ health research has tended to focus on individual-level health risks associated with poor health outcomes among these populations, which has served to obscure the ways in which they maintain their own health and wellness across the life course. As such, there is an urgent need to shift the focus of LGBTQ health research towards strengths-based perspectives that explore the complex and resilient ways in which LGBTQ populations promote their health. This paper discusses the findings of our recent scoping review as well as the qualitative data to emerge from community consultations aimed at developing strengths-based approaches to understanding and advancing LGBTQ pathways to health across Nova Scotia. Our scoping review findings demonstrated the lack of strengths-based research on LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia. Specifically, the studies examined in our scoping review identified a number of health-promoting factors and a wide variety of measurement tools, some of which may prove useful for future strengths-based health research with LGBTQ populations. In addition, our community consultations revealed that many participants had negative experiences with health care systems and services in Nova Scotia. However, participants also shared a number of factors that contribute to LGBTQ health and suggestions for how LGBTQ pathways to health in Nova Scotia can be improved. There is an urgent need to conduct research on the health needs, lived experiences, and outcomes of LGBTQ populations in Nova Scotia to address gaps in our knowledge of their unique health needs. In moving forward, it is important that future health research take an intersectional, strengths-based perspective in an effort to highlight the factors that promote LGBTQ health and wellness across the life course, while taking

  3. “I feel like I am surviving the health care system”: understanding LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Colpitts

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is a dearth of baseline data on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ populations in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Historically, LGBTQ health research has tended to focus on individual-level health risks associated with poor health outcomes among these populations, which has served to obscure the ways in which they maintain their own health and wellness across the life course. As such, there is an urgent need to shift the focus of LGBTQ health research towards strengths-based perspectives that explore the complex and resilient ways in which LGBTQ populations promote their health. Methods This paper discusses the findings of our recent scoping review as well as the qualitative data to emerge from community consultations aimed at developing strengths-based approaches to understanding and advancing LGBTQ pathways to health across Nova Scotia. Results Our scoping review findings demonstrated the lack of strengths-based research on LGBTQ health in Nova Scotia. Specifically, the studies examined in our scoping review identified a number of health-promoting factors and a wide variety of measurement tools, some of which may prove useful for future strengths-based health research with LGBTQ populations. In addition, our community consultations revealed that many participants had negative experiences with health care systems and services in Nova Scotia. However, participants also shared a number of factors that contribute to LGBTQ health and suggestions for how LGBTQ pathways to health in Nova Scotia can be improved. Conclusions There is an urgent need to conduct research on the health needs, lived experiences, and outcomes of LGBTQ populations in Nova Scotia to address gaps in our knowledge of their unique health needs. In moving forward, it is important that future health research take an intersectional, strengths-based perspective in an effort to highlight the factors that

  4. Treatment of duck house wastewater by a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor system for sustainable duck production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Huang, Jeng-Fang; Wang, Yi-Lei; Hong, Yu-Ya

    2018-06-15

    The objective of this study is trying to solve water pollution problems related to duck house wastewater by developing a novel duck house wastewater treatment technology. A pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system using different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for treating duck house wastewater was developed and applied in this study. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 98.4, 98.4, 87.8, and 72.5% for the different HRTs of 5, 3, 1, and 0.5 d, respectively. In addition, removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 99.6, 99.3, 90.4, and 58.0%, respectively. The pilot-scale SBR system was effective and deemed capable to be applied to treat duck house wastewater. It is feasible to apply an automatic SBR system on site based on the previous case study of the farm-scale automatic SBR systems for piggery wastewater treatment.

  5. Characteristics of the auto users and non-users of central Texas toll roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    As toll road usage increases to finance new road infrastructure or add capacity to existing road infrastructure, the : question of who does and does not use toll roads becomes increasingly important to toll road developers, financiers, : Traffic and ...

  6. DMPD: Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17959357 Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. Papadimitraki ...ml) Show Toll like receptors and autoimmunity: a critical appraisal. PubmedID 17959357 Title Toll like receptors and auto

  7. Toll-like receptorer, nye behandlingsstrategier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Vinter Bødker; Østergaard, Lars; Mogensen, Trine

    2007-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a group of recently discovered receptors which are essential molecular structures in the activation of immunity. The discovery of TLRs has provided a substantial increase in the knowledge of immunologic aspects of disease pathology and is presently giving rise...... to new treatment strategies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on TLRs functioning in infections, their possible roles in inflammatory bowl disease and the pivotal role for TLRs in endotoxic shock, an area which is currently subject to development of a new farmakon. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jun-4...

  8. Nonbreeding duck use at Central Flyway National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kent; Davis, Craig A.; Harris, Grant; Haukos, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the U.S. portion of the Central Flyway, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages waterfowl on numerous individual units (i.e., Refuges) within the National Wildlife Refuge System. Presently, the extent of waterfowl use that Refuges receive and the contribution of Refuges to waterfowl populations (i.e., the proportion of the Central Flyway population registered at each Refuge) remain unassessed. Such an evaluation would help determine to what extent Refuges support waterfowl relative to stated targets, aid in identifying species requiring management attention, inform management targets, and improve fiscal efficiencies. Using historic monitoring data (1954–2008), we performed this assessment for 23 Refuges in Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska during migration and wintering months (October–March). We examined six dabbling ducks and two diving ducks, plus all dabbling ducks and all diving ducks across two periods (long-term [all data] and short-term [last 10 October–March periods]). Individual Refuge use was represented by the sum of monthly duck count averages for October–March. We used two indices of Refuge contribution: peak contribution and January contribution. Peak contribution was the highest monthly count average for each October–March period divided by the indexed population total for the Central Flyway in the corresponding year; January contribution used the January count average divided by the corresponding population index. Generally, Refuges in Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico recorded most use and contribution for mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Refuges along the Texas Gulf Coast recorded most use and contribution for other dabbling ducks, with Laguna Atascosa and Aransas (including Matagorda Island) recording most use for diving ducks. The long-term total January contribution of the assessed Refuges to ducks wintering in the Central Flyway was greatest for green-winged teal Anas creccawith 35%; 12–15% for American

  9. Cloning, characterization and expression of Peking duck fatty acid synthase during adipocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ding

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We have successfully cloned and characterized Peking duck FAS. FAS was induced during adipocyte differentiation and by oleic acid treatment. These findings suggest that Peking duck FAS plays a similar role to mammalian FAS during adipocyte differentiation.

  10. Study on rural duck production systems in selected areas of Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanum, J.; Chwalibog, André; Huque, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate scavenging duck production systems in two regions (Netrokona Sadar Upazila and Sundargonj Upazila) of Bangladesh. Feeding systems and availability of feed for raising ducks, production performance of scaavenging ducks and profitability of raising...... ducks were evaluated. Information was collected from the farmers through a questionnaire. All the farmers of Sundargonj Upazila used mixed feed compund, but in Netrokona only 14% of farmers fed mixed feed to their ducks. The rest was either paddy or wheat alone or a mixture of both. Deshi (local) ducks...... were mostly used in Netrokona but in Sundargonj, farmers mostly raise exotic ducks. The farmers of Sundargonj area increased the amount of feed with the increase of age of their ducks, but the farmers of Netrokona decreased the amount of feed. The mortality rate in Netrokona was 27.1% but in Sundargonj...

  11. Economics of duck marketing in Oyo State | Saka | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of duck marketing in Oyo State. ... The marketing survey involved 50 duck traders selected from Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso. Majority (72%) of the marketers procured ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  12. Experimental reproduction of an Enterococcus cecorum infection in Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Arne; Metzner, Martin; Köhler-Repp, Dagmar; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2013-12-01

    Enterococcus cecorum (EC) was thus far only known as a pathogen for broilers and broiler breeders. Recently there was evidence of EC field outbreaks in Pekin duck flocks in Germany. In this study we experimentally reproduced an EC infection in Pekin ducks. At 12 days post hatch, groups of Pekin ducks were infected orally, via the thoracic air sac or intravenously with 1.5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of EC per bird or via the air sac with 8.5 × 10(5) or 8.5 × 10(7) CFU per bird. Ducks of the intravenously infected group showed 100% mortality after 2 days post infection. The air sac inoculated high-dose group exhibited a mortality rate of 67%. Birds that were infected with 8.5 × 10(5) and 8.5 × 10(7) CFU showed 6.7% mortality after 7 days post infection. Dead birds displayed pneumonia, airsacculitis, pericarditis and splenitis and EC was re-isolated from these organs. Surviving birds of all groups apart from the orally infected ducks demonstrated clinical signs such as huddling, reduced mobility and diarrhoea. Furthermore, they showed gross pathological lesions including airsacculitis and splenitis and lower bodyweights than the control group at necropsy on days 7, 14 and 21 post infection. The present study clearly confirms that EC is pathogenic for Pekin ducks after experimental infection via the intravenous route or the respiratory tract. EC therefore has to be considered as an emerging avian pathogen not only in broilers but also in Pekin ducks.

  13. Quantifying changes and influences on mottled duck density in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Beth; Haukos, David A.; Walther, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the relative influence of environmental and intrinsic effects on populations is important for managing and conserving harvested species, especially those species inhabiting changing environments. Additionally, climate change can increase the uncertainty associated with management of species in these changing environments, making understanding factors affecting their populations even more important. Coastal ecosystems are particularly threatened by climate change; the combined effects of increasing severe weather events, sea level rise, and drought will likely have non-linear effects on coastal marsh wildlife species and their associated habitats. A species of conservation concern that persists in these coastal areas is the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula). Mottled ducks in the western Gulf Coast are approximately 50% below target abundance numbers established by the Gulf Coast Joint Venture for Texas and Louisiana, USA. Although evidence for declines in mottled duck abundance is apparent, specific causes of the decrease remain unknown. Our goals were to determine where the largest declines in mottled duck population were occurring along the system of Texas Gulf Coast National Wildlife Refuges and quantify the relative contribution of environmental and intrinsic effects on changes to relative population density. We modeled aerial survey data of mottled duck density along the Texas Gulf Coast from 1986–2015 to quantify effects of extreme weather events on an index to mottled duck density using the United States Climate Extremes Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index. Our results indicate that decreases in abundance are best described by an increase in days with extreme 1-day precipitation from June to November (hurricane season) and an increase in drought severity. Better understanding those portions of the life cycle affected by environmental conditions, and how to manage mottled duck habitat in conjunction with these events will likely be key to

  14. Differential gene expression analysis of in vitro duck hepatitis B virus infected primary duck hepatocyte cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issac Aneesh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human hepatitis B virus (HBV, a member of the hepadna viridae, causes acute or chronic hepatitis B, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV infection, a dependable and reproducible model for hepadna viral studies, does not result in HCC unlike chronic HBV infection. Information on differential gene expression in DHBV infection might help to compare corresponding changes during HBV infection, and to delineate the reasons for this difference. Findings A subtractive hybridization cDNA library screening of in vitro DHBV infected, cultured primary duck hepatocytes (PDH identified cDNAs of 42 up-regulated and 36 down-regulated genes coding for proteins associated with signal transduction, cellular respiration, transcription, translation, ubiquitin/proteasome pathway, apoptosis, and membrane and cytoskeletal organization. Those coding for both novel as well as previously reported proteins in HBV/DHBV infection were present in the library. An inverse modulation of the cDNAs of ten proteins, reported to play role in human HCC, such as that of Y-box binding protein1, Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 1B, ribosomal protein L35a, Ferritin, α-enolase, Acid α-glucosidase and Caspase 3, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD, Filamin and Pyruvate dehydrogenase, was also observed in this in vitro study. Conclusions The present study identified cDNAs of a number of genes that are differentially modulated in in vitro DHBV infection of primary duck hepatocytes. Further correlation of this differential gene expression in in vivo infection models would be valuable to understand the little known aspects of the hepadnavirus biology.

  15. Epitope Identification and Application for Diagnosis of Duck Tembusu Virus Infections in Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxi Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to 221LD/NLPW225 and 87YAEYI91 by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas 221LD/NLPW225 was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV, dengue virus (DENV, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.

  16. Mincle suppresses Toll-like receptor 4 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Stephanie H; Mahmood, Syed Kashif; Vahle, Anne-Kristin; Ochi, Atsuo; Batel, Jennifer; Deutsch, Michael; Barilla, Rocky; Seifert, Lena; Pachter, H Leon; Daley, Donnele; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Hundeyin, Mautin; Mani, Vishnu R; Miller, George

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of Toll-like receptor responses is critical for limiting tissue injury and autoimmunity in both sepsis and sterile inflammation. We found that Mincle, a C-type lectin receptor, regulates proinflammatory Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Specifically, Mincle ligation diminishes Toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammation, whereas Mincle deletion or knockdown results in marked hyperresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide in vitro, as well as overwhelming lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation in vivo. Mechanistically, Mincle deletion does not up-regulate Toll-like receptor 4 expression or reduce interleukin 10 production after Toll-like receptor 4 ligation; however, Mincle deletion decreases production of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent inhibitory intermediate suppressor of cytokine signaling 1, A20, and ABIN3 and increases expression of the Toll-like receptor 4 coreceptor CD14. Blockade of CD14 mitigates the increased sensitivity of Mincle(-/-) leukocytes to Toll-like receptor 4 ligation. Collectively, we describe a major role for Mincle in suppressing Toll-like receptor 4 responses and implicate its importance in nonmycobacterial models of inflammation. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  17. Toll-like receptors in brain development and homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter H; Holm, Thomas Hellesøe; Owens, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are best known as initiators of the innate immune response to pathogens. Recent reports now reveal intriguing roles for TLRs in the central nervous system (CNS). These include the regulation of neuroinflammation and of neurite outgrowth. The archetypal Toll protein in D...

  18. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Juni Sumarmono; Samsu Wasito

    2010-01-01

    Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thor...

  19. Measuring energy conservation on Nova Scotia (NS) farms: A 2004 to 2011 comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Duinker, P.; Amyotte, P.; Adams, M.; Khan, F.

    2016-01-01

    Many jurisdictions, including Nova Scotia (NS), have implemented policies and programs around energy. The NS government has targeted energy efficiency and more renewable energy as two main policy areas. The NS Department of Agriculture has taken initiative to provide support to implement energy conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energy opportunities in recent years but have these programs and policies been effective? A baseline energy use survey was conducted in 2005 and responses from mail surveys in 2012 (n = 273, 11.4% response rate) were used to measure the change in NS farm energy use data reported for 2004 and 2011. There have been significant reductions in energy use on NS farms. On average, NS farmers spent $8790 on energy expenses in 2011 compared to $11,228 in 2004. Adjusting for inflation, this is a 32% decrease, despite energy commodity pricing increases beyond the inflation rate. This is likely due to a decrease in energy use and a shift from gasoline use to diesel use. By the end of 2012, 36.0% of NS farmers (more than 860) had received some level of support to evaluate their energy options. This includes 410 energy audits compared to only 36 by the end of 2005. - Highlights: • Nova Scotia farmers decreased their energy costs by 32% between 2004 and 2011. • Energy reductions were likely due to decreased energy use and a shift in fuel use. • An estimated 374 NS farms had an energy audit between 2005 and 2012.

  20. Examining a "Household" Model of Residential Long-term Care in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Keefe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, Nova Scotia began to implement its Continuing Care Strategy which was grounded in a vision of providing client-centered care for continuing care clients, including residents of nursing homes. Considerable evidence pointed to the benefits of the “household” model of care—which led the province to adopt the smaller self-contained household model as a requirement for owners/operators seeking to build government-funded new and replacement nursing homes. The specific goals of the reform (the adoption of the household model included increasing the proportion of single rooms, improving the home-likeness of the facility, and more generally, providing high-quality care services. The reform was influenced by recognition of the need for change, rapid population aging in the province, and strong political will at a time when fiscal resources were available. To achieve the reform, Nova Scotia Department of Health released two key documents (2007 to guide the design and operation of all new and replacement facilities procured using a request for proposal process: The Long Term Care Program Requirements and the Space and Design Requirements. Results from a research study examining resident quality of life suggest regardless of physical design or staffing approach high resident quality of life can be experienced, while at the same time recognizing that the facilities with “self-contained household” design and expanded care staff roles were uniquely supporting relationships and home-likeness and positively impacting resident quality of life.

  1. Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera of Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseley M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The cave-associated invertebrates of Nova Scotia constitute a fauna at a very early stage of post-glacial recolonization. TheColeoptera are characterized by low species diversity. A staphylinid Quedius spelaeus spelaeus, a predator, is the only regularlyencountered beetle. Ten other terrestrial species registered from cave environments in the province are collected infrequently. Theyinclude three other rove-beetles: Brathinus nitidus, Gennadota canadensis and Atheta annexa. The latter two together with Catopsgratiosus (Leiodidae constitute a small group of cave-associated beetles found in decompositional situations. Quedius s. spelaeusand a small suite of other guanophiles live in accumulations of porcupine dung: Agolinus leopardus (Scarabaeidae, Corticariaserrata (Latrididae, and Acrotrichis castanea (Ptilidae. Two adventive weevils Otiorhynchus ligneus and Barypeithes pellucidus(Curculionidae collected in shallow cave passages are seasonal transients; Dermestes lardarius (Dermestidae, recorded fromone cave, was probably an accidental (stray. Five of the terrestrial beetles are adventive Palaearctic species. Aquatic beetles arecollected infrequently. Four taxa have been recorded: Agabus larsoni (Dytiscidae may be habitual in regional caves; another Agabussp. (probably semivittatus, Dytiscus sp. (Dytiscidae, and Crenitis digesta (Hydrophilidae are accidentals. The distribution andecology of recorded species are discussed, and attention is drawn to the association of beetles found in a Nova Scotia “ice cave”.

  2. Nova Scotia electricity market : frameworks for renewable energy contracting and cogeneration contracting : discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The recent Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee of Nova Scotia report issued a number of recommendations regarding renewable and cogeneration sales to retail consumers, as well as recommendations for top-up, spill rates and back-up rates to complement the operation of independent generating facilities. This discussion paper examined issues which need to be addressed in order to implement the recommendations. The discussion paper also included recommendations relating to the purchase of cogeneration output by the Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) under long term power purchase agreements. The aim of the paper was to provide a basis for the further discussion of issues in preparation for the development of future rules and regulations. The first part of the document identified ways for buyers and sellers to arrange contracts, as well as issues that need to be addressed at the institutional level to enable arrangements. Options for financial contracts and physical contracts were reviewed.The second part of the document examined pricing issues in the context of both financial and physical contract arrangements. Resolutions for both sets of options were proposed. Energy pricing principles were reviewed, as well as various pricing options and issues related to the analysis of price requirements. It was concluded that in order to support the safe, reliable and economic supply of electricity, the design of the electricity market should enable maximum flexibility in contractual arrangements and facilitate competition in ways that do not harm other parties

  3. Ichthyophonus irregularis sp. nov. from the yellowtail flounder Limanda ferruginea from the Nova Scotia shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, T G; White, K; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R; Murphy, C A; Ragan, M A

    2000-05-25

    A previously described unusual form of the protistan parasite Ichthyophonus, differing in morphological and developmental features from I. hoferi sensu Plehn & Mulsow, was recovered from yellowtail flounder Limanda ferruginea Storer from the Brown's Bank area of the Nova Scotia shelf. The nuclear gene encoding the rRNA of the small ribosomal subunit was amplified from this unusual form of Ichthyophonus using the polymerase chain reaction, sequenced and aligned with other eukaryote small subunit (ssu)-rDNAs. Inferred phylogenetic trees clearly show that its ssu-rDNA is distinct from those of 2 isolates of I. hoferi sensu Plehn & Mulsow from different hosts and geographical locations (herring in the North Sea, and yellowtail flounder from the Nova Scotia shelf). We consider the unusual form to be a separate species, I. irregularis. The occurrence of a second, distinct type of Ichthyophonus within a single host species raises the possibility that ichthyophoniasis could be produced by different (although related) pathogens, and in some cases, by concurrent infections of the two.

  4. Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board Annual report 1998-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Board is responsible for ensuring safe working conditions for offshore petroleum activities, protecting the environment during offshore petroleum operations, and managing offshore petroleum resources. This annual report includes financial statements of the Board for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1999. The projects undertaken by the Board in 1998-1999 included a technical audit of the Sable Offshore Energy Project, a resource assessment of the area known as the 'Gully', and resolving a complication regarding publicly available resource data for calls for bids for NS98-1 and NS98-2. A list of exploration licences in place in the Nova Scotia Offshore area was presented. Their total work bid was just over $188 million. In 1998, the Board's exploration activity included the review and approval for nine seismic programs. The Board also continues to monitor the extended Cohasset Benefits Plan to cover the scope of PanCanadian's Exploratory Drilling Program. This report included statements of financial position, revenue and expenditure, changes in financial position, and notes to the financial statements including accounting policies, accounts receivable, deferred revenue and commitments. The report also admitted uncertainty due to the year 2000 issue. It stated that it is not possible to be certain that all aspects of the year 2000 issue affecting the Board will be fully resolved. tabs., figs

  5. Socio-economic factors and adolescent sexual activity and behaviour in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Donald B; Hughes, Jean; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Rigby, Janet A

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about associations of adolescents' socio-economic status (SES) and their sexual activity and risk behaviours. This study examined these associations in Nova Scotia adolescents aged 15-19. Students at four high schools in northern Nova Scotia completed surveys examining relationships of family SES factors and: 1) sexual activity (having had vaginal or anal intercourse, intercourse before age 15 (early intercourse)); and 2) risk behaviours (use of contraception/condoms, number of partners and unplanned intercourse after substance use). Of students present when the survey was administered, 2,135 (91%) responded. Almost half (49%) had had vaginal intercourse, and 7% anal intercourse. In univariate analysis for young women, non-intact family structure and lower parental education were associated with having vaginal, anal and early intercourse. Female risk behaviours showed no significant univariate associations with SES. Young men had univariate associations of family structure, lower maternal education and paternal unemployment with early intercourse, and lower paternal education with anal intercourse. Condom use was higher for young men with employed fathers; those living with both parents less often had >1 sexual partner. In multivariate analysis, most SES associations with females' sexual activities held, while most for males did not, and few associations of SES and risk behaviours were seen for females. Indicators of lower SES are associated with sexual activity in young women. Sexual risk behaviours are not often associated with SES in females, though they are more so in males. These findings have implications for sexual health promotion and health services.

  6. Toll-like receptor 2 or toll-like receptor 4 deficiency does not modify lupus in MRLlpr mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Freeley

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease with a high morbidity and nephritis is a common manifestation. Previous studies in murine lupus models have suggest a role for Toll-like receptor 2 and 4. We examined the role of these molecules in MRL lpr mice which is one of the most established and robust murine models. We compared disease parameters in Toll-like receptor 2 or Toll-like receptor 4 deficient mice with their littermate controls. We found no difference in the severity of glomerulonephritis as assessed by histology, serum creatinine and albuminuria when Toll-like receptor 2 or Toll-like receptor 4 deficient MRLlpr mice were compared with Toll-like receptor sufficient controls. We also found similar levels of anti-dsDNA and anti-ssDNA antibodies. These results show that Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 do not play a significant role in MRLlpr mice, and therefore they may not be important in human lupus.

  7. miR-958 inhibits Toll signaling and Drosomycin expression via direct targeting of Toll and Dif in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengjie; Li, Yao; Shen, Li; Jin, Ping; Chen, Liming; Ma, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is widely used as a model system to study innate immunity and signaling pathways related to innate immunity, including the Toll signaling pathway. Although this pathway is well studied, the precise mechanisms of posttranscriptional regulation of key components of the Toll signaling pathway by microRNAs (miRNAs) remain obscure. In this study, we used an in silico strategy in combination with the Gal80 ts -Gal4 driver system to identify microRNA-958 (miR-958) as a candidate Toll pathway regulating miRNA in Drosophila We report that overexpression of miR-958 significantly reduces the expression of Drosomycin, a key antimicrobial peptide involved in Toll signaling and the innate immune response. We further demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that miR-958 targets the Toll and Dif genes, key components of the Toll signaling pathway, to negatively regulate Drosomycin expression. In addition, a miR-958 sponge rescued the expression of Toll and Dif, resulting in increased expression of Drosomycin. These results, not only revealed a novel function and modulation pattern of miR-958, but also provided a new insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms of Toll signaling in regulation of innate immunity. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Hydropericardium Hepatitis Syndrome Emerged in Cherry Valley Ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Dou, Y; Zheng, X; Tang, Y; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Wang, Z; Diao, Y

    2017-08-01

    Since June 2015, a highly pathogenic disease occurred in duck flocks in China, causing pericardial effusion, enlarged discoloured liver, renal enlargement and haemorrhagic lung with a mortality ranging from 5% to 20%. Previous study confirmed that Fowl adenovirus group C (FAdV-C) and some field FAdVs isolates had been identified as causative agents of hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) in chickens and geese world widely. In this study, we firstly report the isolation of FAdV-C from ducks with HHS. The two isolates, designated as SDSX and SDJX, were separated from liver samples using 9-day-old SPF chicken embryos and could cause severe cytopathic effects in duck and chicken embryonic kidney cells. The entire ORF sequences of hexon gene of the two isolates were amplified, sequenced and analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis of loop 1 sequences of hexon gene of FAdVs revealed that the two isolates were closely related to FAdV-C isolates, which could cause HHS in chickens. Experimental infection indicated that the isolate was high pathogenicity to 20-day-old ducks. Our study shows that the recently emerged HHS in ducks was caused by FAdV-C and may possess a potential risk to other poultry flocks. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Ultrasonic Technique for Predicting Grittiness of Salted Duck Egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erawan, S.; Budiastra, I. W.; Subrata, I. D. M.

    2018-05-01

    Grittiness of egg yolk is a major factor in consumer acceptance of salted duck egg product. Commonly, the grittiness level is determined by the destructive method. Salted egg industries need a grading system that can judge the grittiness accurately and nondestructively. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for determining grittiness of salted duck eggs nondestructively based on ultrasonic method. This study used 100 samples of salted duck eggs with 7,10,14 and 21 days of salting age. Velocity and attenuation were measured by an ultrasonic system at frequency 50 kHz, followed by physicochemical properties measurement (hardness of egg yolks and salt content), and organoleptic test. Ultrasonic wave velocity in salted duck eggs ranged from 620.6 m/s to 1334.6 m/s, while the coefficient of attenuation value ranged from – 0.76 dB/m to -0.51 dB/m. Yolk hardness was 2.68 N at 7 days to 5.54 N at 21 days of salting age. Salt content was 1.81 % at 7 days to 5.71 % at 21 days of salting age. Highest scores of organoleptic tests on salted duck eggs were 4.23 and 4.18 for 10 and 14 days of salting age, respectively. Discriminant function using ultrasonic velocity variables in minor and major diameter could predict grittiness with 95 % accuracy.

  10. Late Holocene extinction of Finsch's duck (Chenonetta finschi), an endemic, possibly flightless, New Zealand duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holdaway, R.N.; Jones, M.D.; Beavan Athfield, N.R.

    2002-01-01

    Finsch's duck (Chenonetta finschi), an extinct, possibly flightless New Zealand endemic, was widely distributed and apparently abundant immediately before human settlement of New Zealand, but its bones have rarely been identified in archaeological sites. Its extinction has been variously attributed to habitat changes, predation by the introduced Pacific rat (Rattus exulans), and human predation. Discriminating between possible causes of its extinction hinges on determining the relative timing of phases of the extinction process and the arrival of rats and humans. Methodological problems of determining the time of extinction of fossil species are reviewed. Bayesian statistical analysis of a series of accelerator mass spectrometry 14 C ages on gelatin from Finsch's duck bones from non-cultural deposits suggests that the species began to decline before widespread Polynesian settlement and that it was much reduced in range and numbers by the time extensive human predation and habitat alteration began. Possible causes of its extinction after Polynesian settlement are discussed. (author). 90 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Cloning and Analysis of Gene Expression of Two Toll Receptors in Freshwater Pearl Mussel Hyriopsis cumingii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Toll receptors are involved in innate immunity of invertebrates. In this study, we identify and characterize two Toll genes (named HcToll4 and HcToll5 from triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii. HcToll4 has complete cDNA sequence of 3,162 bp and encodes a protein of 909 amino acids. HcToll5 cDNA is 4,501 bp in length and encodes a protein of 924 amino acids. Both deduced HcToll4 and HcToll5 protein contain signal peptide, extracellular leucine rich repeats (LRRs, and intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 (IL-1 receptor domains. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that HcToll4 and HcToll5 were largely distributed in the hepatopancreas and could be detected in the gills and mantle. HcToll4 and HcToll5 expression could respond to Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, White spot syndrome virus (WSSV or Poly I:C challenge. RNA interference by siRNA results showed that HcToll4 and HcToll5 were involved in the regulation of theromacin (HcThe and whey acidic protein (HcWAP expression. Based on these results, HcToll4 and HcToll5 might play pivotal function in H. cumingii innate immune response.

  12. Remarks of Honorable Eleanor Norrie, Minister of the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources at the 1996 CORE conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrie, E.

    1996-10-01

    Speaking notes used by the Nova Scotia Minister of Natural Resources at the 1996 CORE Conference were provided. The presentation focused on the new Sable Offshore Energy Project, an important new offshore gas field being developed by Mobil Oil. The project represents a total investment of $3 billion, the biggest capital project ever undertaken in Nova Scotia, and is completely funded by the private sector. Nearly 4,000 jobs will be created during the offshore and onshore construction phase, as well as future tax revenues for the province, new business opportunities, infrastructure for future projects, and an estimated 11,000 `spin-off` jobs. To expedite the development process, the Government of Nova Scotia has recently established the Nova Scotia Offshore Energy Office to work exclusively on the Sable gas and pipeline project. Future plans include a gas processing plant for Guysborough County. The gas will be transported by pipeline across New Brunswick to the New England market. A proposal by Gaz Metropolitain is also expected which would have some of the gas transported to Quebec.

  13. Remarks of Honorable Eleanor Norrie, Minister of the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources at the 1996 CORE conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norrie, E.

    1996-10-01

    Speaking notes used by the Nova Scotia Minister of Natural Resources at the 1996 CORE Conference were provided. The presentation focused on the new Sable Offshore Energy Project, an important new offshore gas field being developed by Mobil Oil. The project represents a total investment of $3 billion, the biggest capital project ever undertaken in Nova Scotia, and is completely funded by the private sector. Nearly 4,000 jobs will be created during the offshore and onshore construction phase, as well as future tax revenues for the province, new business opportunities, infrastructure for future projects, and an estimated 11,000 'spin-off' jobs. To expedite the development process, the Government of Nova Scotia has recently established the Nova Scotia Offshore Energy Office to work exclusively on the Sable gas and pipeline project. Future plans include a gas processing plant for Guysborough County. The gas will be transported by pipeline across New Brunswick to the New England market. A proposal by Gaz Metropolitain is also expected which would have some of the gas transported to Quebec

  14. Art Education, Romantic Idealism, and Work: Comparing Ruskin's Ideas to Those Found in Nineteenth Century Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgy, Patricia; Soucy, Donald

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between romantic idealism and vocational goals of art education in nineteenth-century Nova Scotia, Canada. Compares these ideas with those of John Ruskin concerning art and morality. Discusses the views of the Nova Scotian educators relative to issues of contemporary art education. (KO)

  15. Live Attenuated Vaccine based on Duck Enteritis Virus against Duck Hepatitis A Virus Types 1 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1 and type 3 (DHAV-3 causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. However, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. Here, we generated DEV recombinants (rC-KCE-2VP1 containing both VP1 from DHAV-1 (VP1/DHAV-1 and VP1 from DHAV-3 (VP1/DHAV-3 between UL27 and UL26. A self-cleaving 2A-element of FMDV was inserted between the two different types of VP1, allowing production of both proteins from a single open reading frame. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis results demonstrated that both VP1 proteins were robustly expressed in rC-KCE-2VP1-infected chicken embryo fibroblasts. Ducks that received a single dose of rC-KCE-2VP1 showed potent humoral and cellular immune responses and were completely protected against challenges of both pathogenic DHAV-1 and DHAV-3 strains. The protection was rapid, achieved as early as three days after vaccination. Moreover, viral replication was fully blocked in vaccinated ducks as early as one week post-vaccination. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that recombinant rC-KCE-2VP1 is potential fast-acting vaccine against DHAV-1 and DHAV-3.

  16. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zongju; Chen Zongdao; Xu Denyi

    1992-01-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R f =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck

  17. The preliminary study on peculiar flavor from irradiated dried duck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongju, Li; Zongdao, Chen; Denyi, Xu [Southwest Agricultural Univ., Chongqing, SC (China)

    1992-11-01

    Peculiar flavor may be induced from irradiative preservation of meat with higher dose. The study on the irradiation of dried duck indicated that peculiar flavor is produced by a threshold of 1.5 kGy and intensifies with the increase of dose. The flavor primarily comes from muscle of dried duck especially from its water soluble protein. With the increase of dose, volatile carbonyl compounds, amines and sulfur compounds increased significantly. Paper chromatography analysis shows that two new volatile carbonyl compounds (R[sub f] =0.23 and 0.28) and a new volatile amine-propamine are induced by irradiation. This compounds may be the source of peculiar flavor in irradiated dried duck.

  18. Toll-Like Receptors and Myocardial Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Feng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a member of the innate immune system. TLRs detect invading pathogens through the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs recognition and play an essential role in the host defense. TLRs can also sense a large number of endogenous molecules with the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs that are produced under various injurious conditions. Animal studies of the last decade have demonstrated that TLR signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of the critical cardiac conditions, where myocardial inflammation plays a prominent role, such as ischemic myocardial injury, myocarditis, and septic cardiomyopathy. This paper reviews the animal data on (1 TLRs, TLR ligands, and the signal transduction system and (2 the important role of TLR signaling in these critical cardiac conditions.

  19. Development of an indirect ELISA with epitope on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus for differentiating between infected and vaccinated Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B; Ma, J-Z; Yu, T-F; Shao, S-L; Li, M; Fan, X-D

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA) based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV). Sera (100) from negative and vaccinated Muscovy ducks were compared with infected sera (240) to establish the cut-off value of this i-ELISA. There was a significant difference between the positive and negative populations (P ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. In this study, we developed an i-ELISA based on epitope AA503-509 (RANEPKE), which is on nonstructural protein of MDPV. This i-ELISA could be used as a diagnostic tool for differentiating infected Muscovy ducks from Muscovy ducks vaccinated with inactivated virus. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Modelling the distribution of domestic ducks in Monsoon Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockel, Thomas P.; Prosser, Diann; Franceschini, Gianluca; Biradar, Chandra; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Domestic ducks are considered to be an important reservoir of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), as shown by a number of geospatial studies in which they have been identified as a significant risk factor associated with disease presence. Despite their importance in HPAI epidemiology, their large-scale distribution in Monsoon Asia is poorly understood. In this study, we created a spatial database of domestic duck census data in Asia and used it to train statistical distribution models for domestic duck distributions at a spatial resolution of 1km. The method was based on a modelling framework used by the Food and Agriculture Organisation to produce the Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW) database, and relies on stratified regression models between domestic duck densities and a set of agro-ecological explanatory variables. We evaluated different ways of stratifying the analysis and of combining the prediction to optimize the goodness of fit of the predictions. We found that domestic duck density could be predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean RMSE and correlation coefficient between log-transformed observed and predicted densities being 0.58 and 0.80, respectively), using a stratification based on livestock production systems. We tested the use of artificially degraded data on duck distributions in Thailand and Vietnam as training data, and compared the modelled outputs with the original high-resolution data. This showed, for these two countries at least, that these approaches could be used to accurately disaggregate provincial level (administrative level 1) statistical data to provide high resolution model distributions.

  1. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  2. Reciprocal crosses between Alabio and Mojosari ducks : early egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H Prasetyo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available alternative to increasing productivity and production efficiency. Crossbreeding has been used widely for increasing productivity, and in this experiment Alabio and Mojosari ducks were crossed reciprocally in order to evaluate their egg production and egg quality, when compared to their parental breeds. Four genotypes AA, AM, MA and MM were compared and each consisted of 50 layer ducks. Each animal was kept in individual cage, and individual egg production and egg quality were recorded. They were given layer feed containing 20% crude protein and 3000 kcal/kg metabolisable energy. Results showed that the crossbred ducks (AM and MA laid eggs earlier than their parental breeds (AA and MM, and MA laid earlier than AM. The weight of first eggs of the crossbreeds did not differ significantly, AM was the same as MM and MA the same as AA. For the body weight at first lay, MA and AM weighed in between their parental breeds, AA was the heaviest and then followed by MA, AM and MM. For the 3-month egg production, MA ducks laid significantly more egg than the other 3 genotypes, and this is related to the age of first lay being the earliest. In terms of egg quality such as egg weight, yolk color, weight and thickness of shell, weight of the white and HU value, the crossbred ducks showed quality in between AA and MM. The AM ducks tended to be closer to MM and MA closer to AA, and this shows a strong influence of maternal effects. The average level of heterosis for weight of first egg is 2.41% and for 3-month egg production is 2.1%, but for MA cross the heterosis level is 11.69% for egg production. The overall results showed that crossbreeds between Alabio and Mojosari have the potential in improving production traits in the effort to increase productivity and production efficiency.

  3. The ESASSI-08 cruise in the South Scotia Ridge region: Water masses, currents, and the ASF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, M.; Gomis, D.; Flexas, M. M.; Jordà, G.; Orsi, A. H.

    2009-04-01

    The ESASSI-08 oceanographic cruise carried out in January 2008 was the major milestone of ESASSI, the Spanish component of SASSI (a core project of the International Polar Year devoted to study the shelf-slope exchanges in different locations of Antarctica). The specific objectives of ESASSI, the sampling strategy and the overall distribution of the main variables across the 11 sections covered by the cruise are presented in a poster. Here we focus on three specific issues: i) the observation of strong tidal currents over some of the sampled slopes; ii) the path of the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) over the SSR; and iii) the outflow of dense, ventilated water from the Weddell Sea into the South Scotia Sea. The main results are: i) Strong tidal currents with a significant diurnal component were observed over the southern slope of the SSR. Three tidal models are compared with the observations and used to de-tide ADCP currents. ii) The signature of the ASF is clearly detected on the southern slopes of the SSR (on the Weddell Sea flank). Over the northern slopes (the Scotia Sea flank), however, only weak signatures of frontal structures are observed; an in-depth biochemical analysis will be required to link the structures observed over the two flanks of the SSR. What seems clear is that the ASF does not extend further than Elephant Island, since southwestward of that island the shelf and the slope are fully occupied by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. iii) The shallower component of Weddell Sea Deep Water (Upper WSDW) flows over the SSR and pours into the Scotia Sea except to the east of Elephant Island, where the channels are less than 1500 m deep. The densest component of WSDW (Lower WSDW) is observed at both flanks of the SSR, but again a more detailed analysis of biochemical data will be required to prove a direct flux of this water mass across the SSR. Weddell Sea Bottom Water (WSBW) is not observed in any of the sampled sections.

  4. Transfection of embryonated Muscovy duck eggs with a recombinant plasmid is suitable for rescue of infectious Muscovy duck parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianye; Huang, Yu; Ling, Jueyi; Wang, Zhixiang; Zhu, Guoqiang

    2017-12-01

    For members of the family Parvoviridae, rescue of infectious virus from recombinant plasmid is usually done in cultured cells. In this study, the whole genome of the pathogenic Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strain YY was cloned into the pBluescript II (SK) vector, generating recombinant plasmid pYY. With the aid of a transfection reagent, pYY plasmid was inoculated into 11-day-old embryonated Muscovy duck eggs via the chorioallantoic membrane route, resulting in the successful rescue of infectious virus and death of the embryos. The rescued virus exhibited pathogenicity in Muscovy ducklings similar to that of its parental strain, as evaluated based on the mortality rate. The results demonstrate that plasmid transfection in embryonated Muscovy duck eggs is a convenient and efficacious method for rescue of infectious MDPV in comparison to transfection of primary cells, which is somewhat time-consuming and laborious.

  5. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  6. Prototype of A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as vaccine on local duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A/Duck/Sukoharjo/Bbvw-1428-9/2012 virus subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2 as seed vaccine on local duck. AI H5N1 clade 2.3.2 vaccine containing 256 HAU per dose was formulated using adjuvant ISA 71VG Montanide ™. Six groups of one day old local duck were used in this study. Three groups (10 ducks per group were vaccinated and 3 groups (9 duck per group were served control. Vaccination was conducted when the duck were three weeks old of age using single dose. Three weeks after vaccination when the duck were challenged either with HPAI H5N1 clade 2.3.2, or HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 virus at dose 106 EID50/ 0.1 ml by drops intranasaly. Result showed that vaccination produced 100% protection compared to unvaccinated ducks againt HPAI subtipe H5N1 clade 2.3.2, and 100% protection againt HPAI H5N1 clade 2.1.3 (A/ck/wj/Subang-29/2007 and A/ck/wj/Smi-Part/2006, while unvaccinated ducks showed virus shedding on day 3 post infection.

  7. RNA-seq comparative analysis of Peking ducks spleen gene expression 24 h post-infected with duck plague virulent or attenuated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Sun, Kunfeng; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Liu, Mafeng; Zhao, XinXin; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2017-09-13

    Duck plague virus (DPV), a member of alphaherpesvirus sub-family, can cause significant economic losses on duck farms in China. DPV Chinese virulent strain (CHv) is highly pathogenic and could induce massive ducks death. Attenuated DPV vaccines (CHa) have been put into service against duck plague with billions of doses in China each year. Researches on DPV have been development for many years, however, a comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of CHv strain and protection of CHa strain to ducks is still blank. In present study, we performed RNA-seq technology to analyze transcriptome profiling of duck spleens for the first time to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the infection of CHv and CHa at 24 h. Comparison of gene expression with mock ducks revealed 748 DEGs and 484 DEGs after CHv and CHa infection, respectively. Gene pathway analysis of DEGs highlighted valuable biological processes involved in host immune response, cell apoptosis and viral invasion. Genes expressed in those pathways were different in CHv infected duck spleens and CHa vaccinated duck spleens. The results may provide valuable information for us to explore the reasons of pathogenicity caused by CHv strain and protection activated by CHa strain.

  8. Detecting overpressure using the Eaton and Equivalent Depth methods in Offshore Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernanda; Primasty, A. Q. T.; Akbar, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    Overpressure is an abnormal high subsurface pressure of any fluids which exceeds the hydrostatic pressure of column of water or formation brine. In Offshore Nova Scotia Canada, the values and depth of overpressure zone are determined using the eaton and equivalent depth method, based on well data and the normal compaction trend analysis. Since equivalent depth method is using effective vertical stress principle and Eaton method considers physical property ratio (velocity). In this research, pressure evaluation only applicable on Penobscot L-30 well. An abnormal pressure is detected at depth 11804 feet as possibly overpressure zone, based on pressure gradient curve and calculation between the Eaton method (7241.3 psi) and Equivalent Depth method (6619.4 psi). Shales within Abenaki formation especially Baccaro Member is estimated as possible overpressure zone due to hydrocarbon generation mechanism.

  9. Remote assessment of instantaneous changes in water chemistry after liming in a Nova Scotia catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Remote assessment of instantaneous changes in water chemistry after liming in a Nova Scotia catchment ANGELIDIS, C.1, STERLING, S.1, BREEN, A.2, BIAGI, K.1., and CLAIR, T.A.1 1Dalhousie University, christine.angelidis@dal.ca, 2Bluenose Coastal Action Foundation, andrew@coastalaction.org Southwestern Nova Scotia has some of the most acidic freshwaters in North America due to its location downwind of the major emission sources in eastern Canada and the US and due to a resistant geology which offers little acid buffering capacity (Clair et al. 2007). Because of the poor buffering and regionally high runoff values, hydrological events such as snowmelt and rain storms are frequent and can cause sudden changes in water chemistry which can have devastating effects on freshwater biota due to increases in acidity and metals (Dennis and Clair in press). Clair et al. (2001) have estimated the potential frequency of acidic episodes in this region based on a number of hydrological factors, though the technology available at the time to monitor short-term changes was not dependable. Recent advances in equipment have made the assessment of the frequency and severity of acidic episodes easier and more accurate, allowing better interpretation and prediction of hydrogeochemical changes with variations in weather and deposition patterns. Here we take advantage of these recent advances to monitor water chemistry in an experimental catchment, and explore the response to catchment liming. Catchment liming is one way of mitigating the effects of acid deposition in sensitive areas. We limed a 50 ha catchment at a rate of 5 t/ha in the Gold River watershed of southwest Nova Scotia to examine the interactions between application of lime with the geological and climatological conditions of this region and acid episode frequency. In order to assess changes of episode frequency caused by liming, we established two mobile environmental monitoring platforms in the catchment: a control site

  10. Nova Scotia's solid waste-resource management strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, B. [Nova Scotia Dept. of the Environment, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The efforts that the province of Nova Scotia has made to establish a sustainable economy and environment were discussed. In 1989, the province of 930,000 people generated about 630,000 tonnes of municipal waste annually. At the time, there were no recycling or recovery facilities. The province's 1995 Solid Waste-Resource Management Strategy has changed this around with the following key measures: a commitment to 50 per cent diversion of solid waste by 2000, regionalisation to optimize costs, an expanded deposit-refund system for all beverage containers, increased disposal standards for landfilling/incineration, industry example for waste products, support for economic opportunities in resource recovery, and bans on the disposal of recyclable wastes. These measures have produced dramatic results in trying to balance resource supply with demand. The materials sectors which are examples of the strategy's success include fibre, used tires, plastics and composting.

  11. Plastic ingestion by fulmars and shearwaters at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alexander L; Provencher, Jennifer F; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Lucas, Zoe N

    2014-10-15

    Plastic pollution is widespread in the marine environment, and plastic ingestion by seabirds is now widely reported for dozens of species. Beached Northern Fulmars, Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters and Cory's Shearwaters are found on Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada regularly, and they can be used to assess plastic pollution. All species except Cory's Shearwaters contained plastic debris in their gastrointestinal tracts. Northern Fulmars, Sooty Shearwaters and Great Shearwaters all showed high prevalence of plastic ingestion (>72%), with Northern Fulmars having the highest number and mass of plastics among the species examined. There was no difference in plastic ingestion between sexes or age classes. In all species user plastics made up the majority of the pieces found, with industrial pellets representing only a small proportion in the samples. Sable Island could be an important monitoring site for plastic pollution in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Total mineral material, acidity, sulphur, and nitrogen in rain and snow at Kentville, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F A; Gorham, E

    1957-01-01

    Analyses of total ash, sulphur, ph, ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen have been made on 23 monthly precipitation samples and 17 individual snow samples collected between June 1952 and May 1954 at Kentville, Nova Scotia, in a predominantly agricultural area. Mean annual supply of total mineral ash was 95 kg/ha, of sulphur 9.1 hg/ha, of ammonia nitrogen 2.8 kg/ha, and of nitrate nitrogen 1.1 kg/ha. Average pH was 5.7, and rains more acid than this exhibited higher levels of both nitrate and sulphur, and a marked correlation between the latter and ammonia. Snow samples had much lower concentrations of ash, sulphur, and nitrogen than rain samples collected in the same months, which may perhaps indicate a lower efficiency of snow flakes in removing materials from the atmosphere.

  13. Determining the Toll and Capacity of a Highway to Be Constructed in Parallel with Subway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xiang Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of toll and capacity choice of a new highway with a bottleneck added onto an existing transit network under four ownership/tolling regimes: public fine toll, public flat toll, private fine toll, and private flat toll. Whenever fine toll and flat toll are imposed, in a competitive highway/transit network with constant returns to scale in road construction, an optimally designed and priced privately owned highway would produce positive net benefit justly equal to the total markup with respect to all autocommuters, whereas an optimally designed and priced publicly owned highway would lead to a deficit; that is, the toll revenues are insufficient to cover its all costs. The economic conditions to invest a new road are investigated under different ownership/tolling regimes.

  14. Broad band seismology in the Scotia region. The base Esperanza seismological observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russi, M.; Costa, G.; Febrer, J.

    1995-08-01

    The lithospheric study and the identification of relevant lateral heterogeneities in the Antarctic continent and borderlands, is essential to understand the geodynamic evolution both of the continental and oceanic bordering regions. The complexity of the geological evolution and the structural properties of the lithosphere in the Scotia area have been stressed by many authors. The present setting of the area is the result of the mutual interaction among the Antarctic, South American and several minor plants whose geodynamic history and actual boundaries are still partially unknown. The intense seismic activity that characterizes the region encourages the use of the seismological approach to investigate the lithospheric structure of the area. Since January 1992 a broad band three components station is operating at the Antarctic base Esperanza in the NE area of Antarctic Peninsula. The station has been installed with financial support of the Italian Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide (PNRA) by Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS) and Instituto Antartico Argentino (IAA). Russi et al. (1994) have analyzed selected recordings using the frequency-time analysis (FTAN) method obtaining some relevant information on the large scale structure of the lithosphere in the Scotia region even if data recorded by a single station were available. The extension of our analysis to further events and to horizontal component records is here presented. Within the framework of the international co-operation to the Antarctic Seismographic Network, the OGS and the IAA are upgrading the Esperanza station and installing an additional broad band station near the town of Ushuaia (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) with the financial support of PNRA. The inversion of the dispersion curves through the FTAN of the signals recorded by an increased number of stations and generated by events with source-station paths spanning the region will allow us to extract the elastic and anelastic

  15. Impacts of rising sea temperature on krill increase risks for predators in the Scotia Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Simeon L.; Hinke, Jefferson T.; Phillips, Tony; Watters, George M.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is a threat to marine ecosystems and the services they provide, and reducing fishing pressure is one option for mitigating the overall consequences for marine biota. We used a minimally realistic ecosystem model to examine how projected effects of ocean warming on the growth of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, might affect populations of krill and dependent predators (whales, penguins, seals, and fish) in the Scotia Sea. We also investigated the potential to mitigate depletion risk for predators by curtailing krill fishing at different points in the 21st century. The projected effects of ocean warming on krill biomass were strongest in the northern Scotia Sea, with a ≥40% decline in the mass of individual krill. Projections also suggest a 25% chance that krill biomass will fall below an established depletion threshold (75% of its unimpacted level), with consequent risks for some predator populations, especially penguins. Average penguin abundance declined by up to 30% of its unimpacted level, with up to a 50% chance of falling below the depletion threshold. Simulated krill fishing at currently permitted harvest rates further increased risks for depletion, and stopping fishing offset the increased risks associated with ocean warming in our model to some extent. These results varied by location and species group. Risk reductions at smaller spatial scales also differed from those at the regional level, which suggests that some predator populations may be more vulnerable than others to future changes in krill biomass. However, impacts on predators did not always map directly to those for krill. Our findings indicate the importance of identifying vulnerable marine populations and targeting protection measures at appropriate spatial scales, and the potential for spatially-structured management to avoid aggravating risks associated with rising ocean temperatures. This may help balance tradeoffs among marine ecosystem services in an uncertain future

  16. Nova Scotia offshore to Grand Banks connection : Mesozoic basins on a transform margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, L.E.; Martin, M.R.; Enachescu, M.E.; Atkinson, I.; Stead, J.E. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences and Pan-Atlantic Petroleum Systems Consortium

    2005-07-01

    The renewed interest in the southern Grand Banks has resulted in new active exploration licenses, seismic acquisition programs and planned drilling in the South Whale and Laurentian basins. The basins are located northeast of the Scotian margin, about 200 km south of the east coast of Newfoundland, in shallow to intermediate waters in an area free of icebergs. The Scotian and Newfoundland offshore areas are separated by the St. Lawrence Tertiary channel. A provincial boundary divides the jurisdiction over sea resources. The long political moratorium which had been imposed on the Laurentian Basin was resolved during the summer of 2003 with the establishment of the provincial boundary. Some regional geological maps of the East Coast Mesozoic sedimentary area indicate continuity between the Orpheus Graben and northern Scotian Shelf and Slope basins (Nova Scotia) and Laurentian and South Whale basins (Newfoundland). In contrast, other maps represents them as being separated by faults or ridges that affect the basin development and complicate the tectono-structural framework initiated in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic periods. Argo salt features found in seismic sections on both sides of the provincial boundary indicate that Atlantic Canada basins were interconnected during the marine phase of the Thethys rifting stage, most likely up to the time of Scotian Shelf break-up. During the Late Jurassic, marine, oil prone source rocks were deposited in the Grand Banks basins and terrestrial to marine, gas prone source rocks were deposited offshore Nova Scotia. Modern industry 2D data donated by GSI and WesternGeco were used to examine the structural and stratigraphic framework of the basins. Common geological and geomorphologic features were emphasized along with the disparity between the structural element, stratigraphy and quality of petroleum systems of the two basins.

  17. Can households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia afford a nutritious diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia L; Johnson, Christine P; Kratzmann, Meredith L V; Johnson, C Shanthi Jacob; Anderson, Barbara J; Chenhall, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    To assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia. Food costing data were collected in 43 randomly selected grocery stores throughout NS in 2002 using the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB). To estimate the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage, average monthly costs for essential expenses were subtracted from overall income to see if enough money remained for the cost of the NNFB. This was calculated for three types of household: 1) two parents and two children; 2) lone parent and two children; and 3) single male. Calculations were also made for the proposed 2006 minimum wage increase with expenses adjusted using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The monthly cost of the NNFB priced in 2002 for the three types of household was 572.90 dollars, 351.68 dollars, and 198.73 dollars, respectively. Put into the context of basic living, these data showed that Nova Scotians relying on minimum wage could not afford to purchase a nutritious diet and meet their basic needs, placing their health at risk. These basic expenses do not include other routine costs, such as personal hygiene products, household and laundry cleaners, and prescriptions and costs associated with physical activity, education or savings for unexpected expenses. People working at minimum wage in Nova Scotia have not had adequate income to meet basic needs, including a nutritious diet. The 2006 increase in minimum wage to 7.15 dollars/hr is inadequate to ensure that Nova Scotians working at minimum wage are able to meet these basic needs. Wage increases and supplements, along with supports for expenses such as childcare and transportation, are indicated to address this public health problem.

  18. Minnesota urban partnership agreement national evaluation : tolling test plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-17

    This report presents the test plan for collecting and analyzing toll data for the Minnesota Urban Partnership : Agreement (UPA) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) UPA Program. The : Minnesota UPA projects focus on reducin...

  19. Temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurements collected in the Scotia Sea from 04 August 1997 to 05 September 1997 (NODC Accession 0000753)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and other data were collected using bottle and CTD casts in the Weddell and Scotia Sea from NATHANIEL B. PALMER. Data were collected from 04...

  20. The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liability of some haematological parameters in chickens and ducks. E.M. Smith, J Hattingh. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  1. Fish and harlequin ducks compete on breeding streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeBourdais, S.V.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Esler, D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated interactions among harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus ( L., 1758)), fish, and their shared aquatic insect prey. We measured flow variability, benthic aquatic prey abundance, fish presence, and breeding density of harlequins on eight rivers in the Southern Coast Mountain Range

  2. 78 FR 10201 - Proposed Information Collection; Electronic Duck Stamp Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ..., Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: We (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) will ask the... refuges where admission is charged. Duck Stamps and products that bear stamp images are also popular... fee the State will charge for issuance of an electronic stamp. Description of the process the State...

  3. Estimation of L-threonine requirements for Longyan laying ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fouad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective A study was conducted to test six threonine (Thr levels (0.39%, 0.44%, 0.49%, 0.54%, 0.59%, and 0.64% to estimate the optimal dietary Thr requirements for Longyan laying ducks from 17 to 45 wk of age. Methods Nine hundred Longyan ducks aged 17 wk were assigned randomly to the six dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised six replicate pens with 25 ducks per pen. Results Increasing the Thr level enhanced egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR (linearly or quadratically; p<0.05. The Haugh unit score, yolk color, albumen height, and the weight, percentage, thickness, and breaking strength of the eggshell did not response to increases in the Thr levels, but the albumen weight and its proportion increased significantly (p<0.05, whereas the yolk weight and its proportion decreased significantly as the Thr levels increased. Conclusion According to a regression model, the optimal Thr requirement for egg production, egg mass, and FCR in Longyan ducks is 0.57%, while 0.58% is the optimal level for egg weight from 17 to 45 wk of age.

  4. Karyotype analysis in Machaerium lunatum (Linn. f.) Ducke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2017-12-11

    Dec 11, 2017 ... Ducke (syn. Drepanocarpus lunatus (Linn. f.) G.F.W. Mey) belongs to the family Fabaceae-Papilionaceae. (Hutchinson and Dalziel 1954). It has about 130 species distributed from Mexico to Argentina which are difficult to delimit taxonomically (Rudd 1987) and 150 species distributed from Mexico to South.

  5. Genetic Divergence in Ducks for Economic Traits | Kalita | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D2 Statistics was used to identify the genetic divergence in 4 groups of duck, namely Khaki Campbell (KC), Desi (D), Khaki Campbell x Desi (KC x D) and Desi x Khaki Campbell (D x KC) reared under rural conditions at the Siphajar, Darrang District, Assam, India. The study showed that both Khaki Campbell and Desi or ...

  6. The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of domestic ducks as potential reservoir of avian influenza virus in post HPAI H5N1 outbreak area, Sunyani Municipality, Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Vitus Burimuah, W.K. Ampofo, B Awumbila, N Yebuah, B.O. Emikpe, W Tasiame, R.D. Folitse ...

  7. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Meat-type Ducks Raised under Same Feeding and Rearing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and physico-chemical meat quality in two different genotype ducks raised under identical feeding and rearing conditions. A total of ninety 1-d-old Korean native ducks (KND, n = 45 and commercial meat-type ducks (Grimaud, n = 45 were fed same experimental diets during 56 d and 42 d, respectively to obtain similar slaughter weights. The experimental diet for starter period contained 20% crude protein (CP and 2,900 kcal nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn/kg of diet and that for grower period contained 17% CP and 3,050 TMEn/kg of diet. Average daily gain and feed efficiency of KND were inferior to those of commercial meat-type ducks (p<0.05. Carcass weight was not different between two genetically different ducks, but carcass yield of KND was significantly higher (p<0.05 than that of commercial meat-type ducks. There were no significant differences in cooking loss and pH of breast meat between two genetically different ducks, but water holding capacity of KND was significantly higher than that of commercial meat-type ducks. The linoleic acid and total polyunsaturated fatty acid of breast meat from KND were significantly higher (p<0.05 than the corresponding part from commercial meat-type ducks. Significant differences were detected in water holding capacity and the content of linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid, which were significantly higher in KND, whereas growth performance tended to be superior in commercial ducks. At the market weight, the meat from KND was judged to have better qualities with regard to higher water holding capacity and greater content of polyunsaturated fatty acid compare with meat from commercial meat-type duck.

  8. Evaluation of duck efficiency as a biocontrol agent on weed density and diversity in rice-duck farming (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of ducks number on weeds diversity and density in paddy fields, an experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resource University during growing season of 2011-2012. Experiment was arranged in split plot based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Main factors were duck number at three levels (consisting of control, 400 and 800 ducks.ha-1 and sub plots were three contrast cultivars (including Tarom as a traditional, and Shirodi and Ghaem as improved cultivars. Results of ANOVA showed highly significant differences between ducks, cultivars and ducks × cultivar interaction in terms of weeds density including nutsedge (Cyperus spp. L., common Water-plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica L., barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L., duckweed (Lemna minor L., azolla (Azolla pinata R.Br. and paddy yield. Accordingly, the lowest weed density and diversity were recorded at 800 and 400 ducks.ha-1, respectively. Among rice cultivars Tarom and Ghaem had the minimum and the maximum weeds density and diversity. The highest nutsedge density (67 plant.m-2 was related to Ghaem cultivar in control (without duck plots as much as 97% higher than 800 ducks.ha-1. Maximum paddy yield was observed in 800 ducks.ha-1 in Shirodi (5.3 t.ha-1, Ghaem (4.3 t.ha-1 and Tarom (3.6 t.ha-1 as much as 23, 7 and 20% higher than those cultivars in 400 ducks.ha-1, respectively. Finally, in the current research conditions using 800 ducks.ha-1and Tarom cultivar resulted the best performance because of the lowest weed diversity and density as compared to other treatments.

  9. Wetland dynamics influence mid-continent duck recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Pearse, Aaron T.; Szymankski, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment is a key factor influencing duck population dynamics. Understanding what regulates recruitment of ducks is a prerequisite to informed habitat and harvest management. Quantity of May ponds (MP) has been linked to recruitment and population size (Kaminski and Gluesing 1987, Raveling and Heitmeyer 1989). However, wetland productivity (quality) is driven by inter-annual hydrological fluctuations. Periodic drying of wetlands due to wet-dry climate cycles releases nutrients and increases invertebrate populations when wet conditions return (Euliss et al. 1999). Wetlands may also become wet or dry within a breeding season. Accordingly, inter-annual and intra-seasonal hydrologic variation potentially influence duck recruitment. Here, we examined influences of wetland quantity, quality, and intra-seasonal dynamics on recruitment of ducks. We indexed duck recruitment by vulnerability-corrected age ratios (juveniles/adult females) for mid-continent Gadwall (Anas strepera). We chose Gadwall because the majority of the continental population breeds in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), where annual estimates of MP exist since 1974. We indexed wetland quality by calculating change in MP (?MP) over the past two years (?MP = 0.6[MPt – MPt-1] + 0.4[MPt – MPt-2]). We indexed intra-seasonal change in number of ponds by dividing the PPR mean standardized precipitation index for July by MP (hereafter summer index). MP and ?MP were positively correlated (r = 0.65); therefore, we calculated residual ?MP (?MPr) with a simple linear regression using MP, creating orthogonal variables. Finally, we conducted a multiple regression to examine how MP, ?MPr, and summer index explained variation in recruitment of Gadwall from 1976–2010. Our model explained 67% of the variation in mid-continent Gadwall recruitment and all three hydrologic indices were positively correlated with recruitment (Figure 1). Type II semi-partial R2 estimates indicated that MP accounted for 41%, ?MPr

  10. Indirect risk effects reduce feeding efficiency of ducks during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, Adam C; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan; Eichholz, Michael W; Stafford, Joshua D

    2018-01-01

    Indirect risk effects of predators on prey behavior can have more of an impact on prey populations than direct consumptive effects. Predation risk can elicit more vigilance behavior in prey, reducing the amount of time available for other activities, such as foraging, which could potentially reduce foraging efficiency. Understanding the conditions associated with predation risk and the specific effects predation risk have on prey behavior is important because it has direct influences on the profitability of food items found under various conditions and states of the forager. The goals of this study were to assess how ducks perceived predation risk in various habitat types and how strongly perceived risk versus energetic demand affected foraging behavior. We manipulated food abundance in different wetland types in Illinois, USA to reduce confounding between food abundance and vegetation structure. We conducted focal-animal behavioral samples on five duck species in treatment and control plots and used generalized linear mixed-effects models to compare the effects of vegetation structure versus other factors on the intensity with which ducks fed and the duration of feeding stints. Mallards fed more intensively and, along with blue-winged teal, used longer feeding stints in open habitats, consistent with the hypothesis that limited visibility was perceived to have a greater predation risk than unlimited visibility. The species temporally nearest to nesting, wood ducks, were willing to take more risks for a greater food reward, consistent with an increase in a marginal value of energy as they approached nesting. Our results indicate that some duck species value energy differently based on the surrounding vegetation structure and density. Furthermore, increases in the marginal value of energy can be more influential than perceived risk in shaping foraging behavior patterns. Based on these findings, we conclude that the value of various food items is not solely

  11. Toll-like receptors of deuterostome invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoo eSatake

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Defensive systems against pathogens are responsible not only for survival or lifetime of an individual but also for the evolution of a species. Innate immunity is expected to be more important for invertebrates than mammals, given that adaptive immunity has not been acquired in the former. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been shown to play a crucial role in host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity of mammals. Recent genome-wide analyses have suggested that TLR or their related genes are conserved in invertebrates. In particular, numerous TLR-related gene candidates were detected in deuterostome invertebrates including a sea urchin (222 TLR-related gene candidates and amphioxus (72 TLR-related gene candidates. Molecular phylogenetic analysis verified that most of sea urchin or amphioxus TLR candidates are paralogous, suggesting that these organisms expanded TLR-related genes in a species-specific manner. In contrast, another deuterostome invertebrate, an ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, was found to possess only two TLR genes. Moreover, Ciona TLRs, Ci-TLR1 and -2, were shown to possess hybrid functionality of mammalian TLRs. Such functionality of Ci-TLRs could not be predicted by sequence comparison with vertebrate TLRs, indicating the confounding evolutionary lineages of deuterostome invertebrate TLRs or their candidates. In this review article, we present recent advances in studies of TLRs or their candidates of deuterostome invertebrates, and provide insight into an evolutionary process of TLRs.

  12. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: a disease connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J; Palm, Eric C; Takekawa, John Y; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  13. Movement analysis of free-grazing domestic ducks in Poyang Lake, China: A disease connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Palm, Eric C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Zhao, Delong; Xiao, Xiangming; Li, Peng; Liu, Ying; Newman, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests domestic poultry are important contributors to the emergence and transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza throughout Asia. In Poyang Lake, China, domestic duck production cycles are synchronized with arrival and departure of thousands of migratory wild birds in the area. During these periods, high densities of juvenile domestic ducks are in close proximity to migratory wild ducks, increasing the potential for the virus to be transmitted and subsequently disseminated via migration. In this paper, we use GPS dataloggers and dynamic Brownian bridge models to describe movements and habitat use of free-grazing domestic ducks in the Poyang Lake basin and identify specific areas that may have the highest risk of H5N1 transmission between domestic and wild birds. Specifically, we determine relative use by free-grazing domestic ducks of natural wetlands, which are the most heavily used areas by migratory wild ducks, and of rice paddies, which provide habitat for resident wild ducks and lower densities of migratory wild ducks. To our knowledge, this is the first movement study on domestic ducks, and our data show potential for free-grazing domestic ducks from farms located near natural wetlands to come in contact with wild waterfowl, thereby increasing the risk for disease transmission. This study provides an example of the importance of movement ecology studies in understanding dynamics such as disease transmission on a complicated landscape.

  14. Live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Önk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems. One hundred and twenty native ducks (60 males, 60 females were used in the study. The ducks were raised in deep litter floor and cage systems. Live weight and body values were measured every two weeks, until they were 56 days old. Three-parameter logistic regression and Gompertz model were used to determine growth model of male and female ducks. Interactions of time-raising system and time-sex were statistically significant in terms of live weight. At the end of eight weeks, live weights of ducks raised in deep litter floor were higher than ducks raised in cage system. In addition, live weights of male ducks were higher than female ducks. Consequently, deep litter floor is more appropriate for live weight in native ducks. Accuracy rate of Three-parameter Logistic and Gompertz models for estimation of growth in ducks was between 0.91-0.95 and similar results were obtained from both models. The Gompertz model is appropriate for the data structure of this study because it contains fewer iterations than the Three-Parameter Logistic model.

  15. Who Is Spreading Avian Influenza in the Moving Duck Flock Farming Network of Indonesia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Henning

    Full Text Available Duck populations are considered to be a reservoir of Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI virus H5N1 in some agricultural production systems, as they are able to shed the virus for several days without clinical signs. Countries endemically affected with HPAI in Asia are characterised by production systems where ducks are fed on post-harvest spilled rice. During this scavenging process it is common for ducks to come into contact with other duck flocks or wild birds, thereby providing opportunities for virus spread. Effective risk management for HPAI has been significantly compromised by a limited understanding of management of moving duck flocks in these countries, despite of a small number of recent investigations. Here, for the first time, we described the management of moving duck flocks and the structure of the moving duck flock network in quantitative terms so that factors influencing the risk of HPAIV transmission can be identified. By following moving duck flock farmers over a period of 6 months in Java, Indonesia, we were able to describe the movement of flocks and to characterise the network of various types of actors associated with the production system. We used these data to estimate the basic reproductive number for HPAI virus spread. Our results suggest that focussing HPAI prevention measures on duck flocks alone will not be sufficient. Instead, the role of transporters of moving duck flocks, hatcheries and rice paddy owners, in the spread of the HPAI virus needs to be recognised.

  16. Survey for West Nile virus antibodies in wild ducks, 2004-06, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) in ducks has been reported in North America in isolated cases of mortality in wild waterbirds and following outbreaks in farmed ducks. Although the virus has been noted as an apparent incidental finding in several species of ducks, little is known about the prevalence of exposure or the outcome of infection with WNV in wild ducks in North America. From 2004–06, we collected sera from 1,406 wild-caught American Wigeon (Anas americana), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) ducks at national wildlife refuges (NWRs) in North Dakota and Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) at NWRs in South Carolina and Tennessee. We measured the prevalence of previous exposure to WNV in these ducks by measuring WNV antibodies and evaluated variation in exposure among species, age, and year. Additionally, we evaluated the performance of a commercial antibody to wild bird immunoglobulin in duck species that varied in their phylogenetic relatedness to the bird species the antibody was directed against. As determined by a screening immunoassay and a confirmatory plaque reduction neutralization assay, the prevalence of WNV antibody was 10%. In light of experimental studies that show ducks to be relatively resistant to mortality caused by WNV, the antibody prevalence we detected suggests that wild ducks may be less-frequently exposed to WNV than expected for birds inhabiting wetlands where they may acquire infection from mosquitoes.

  17. Effects of Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of Chinese traditional food: roast duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiming; Xie, Fan; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yuqiang; Tang, Wen; Xiao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Roast duck is one kind of representative roast food whose flavor is mainly produced by the Maillard reaction. However, some potentially toxic compounds are generated in the thermal process and are a potential health risk. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of the Maillard reaction on flavor and safety of a Chinese traditional food: roast duck. Ducks with different roasting times (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were analyzed. The 40 and 50 min roast ducks exhibited an acceptable degree of sensory attributes, but the 60 min roast duck showed the most abundant aroma compounds. Antioxidant activities were observed to increase with roasting, and the 60 min roast duck showed the highest antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenylpicryhydrazyl, 39.3 µmol Trolox g(-1) sample). The highest content of acrylamide (0.21 µg g(-1)) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.089 µg g(-1)) were detected in the 50 and 60 min roast duck extract, respectively. Furthermore, water extract from 60 min roast ducks manifested a higher lactose dehydrogenase release ratio (51.9%) and greatly increased cell apoptosis. The drastic Maillard reaction in duck induced by long roasting time could be advantageous for color, aroma and antioxidant activities in roast ducks, but might be not beneficial to health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulated byToll-like receptors mediate innate and adaptive immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223959 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulate...ol. 2007 Feb;147(2):199-207. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-lik... immunity. PubmedID 17223959 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulat

  19. Long-term response in episodic acidification to declining SO42– deposition in two streams in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Laudon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trends in anthropogenically driven episodic acidification associated with extended winter snow melt/rain episodes between 1983 and 1998 were investigated for two streams in Nova Scotia, Canada. The anthropogenic contribution to Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC was analysed using the Boreal Dilution Model (Bishop et al., 2000 modified by applying a sea-salt correction to all input hydrochemistry. The anthropogenic contribution to episodic ANC decline was statistically significant and strongly correlated with the decline in acid deposition, which decreased by approximately 50% during the period of record. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the BDM can be applied to surface waters with sea-salt contributions although the correction increases model uncertainty. Results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of reduced emissions in North America in the last decades in decreasing the severity of episodic acidification in the Atlantic region of Canada. Keywords: episodic acidification, acidification recovery, Nova Scotia, snowmelt, winter

  20. Integrated Digital Technologies for the Architectural Rehabilitation & Conservation of Beinn Bhreagh Hall & Surrounding Site, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, K.; Ward, S.; Santana Quintero, M.; Morrison, T.

    2015-08-01

    This contribution summarizes the collaboration between Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) and Heritage Standing in the use of digital technologies to document the Beinn Bhreagh Hall historic site (house and immediate surroundings) in Baddeck, Nova Scotia for its rehabilitation and protection. The project objectives were to develop a prototype for research and training using 3D scanning, and Building Information Modelling (BIM), as well as other emerging surveying tools to understand the state of conservation of Historic Places in Canada, providing relevant and appropriate information for their rehabilitation and maintenance. The vehicle of this research was the documentation and modelling of this important landmark, the summer home of Dr. Alexander Graham Bell in Victoria County, Nova Scotia. This unique 19thC building, currently under review for designated as a national historic site.

  1. Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) perspective: Harlequin duck population recovery following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: Progress, process, and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowman, Timothy D.; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Dean, Thomas A.; Jewett, Stephen C.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Holland-Bartels, Leslie E.

    2002-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, we studied the status of recovery of harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) populations during 1995-1998. We evaluated potential constraints to full recovery, including (1) exposure to residual oil, (2) food limitation, and (3) intrinsic demographic limitations on population growth rates. In this paper, we synthesize the findings from our work and incorporate information from other harlequin duck research and monitoring programs to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the response of this species to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. We conclude that harlequin duck populations had not fully recovered by 1998. Furthermore, adverse effects continued as many as 9 years after the oil spill, in contrast to the conventional paradigm that oil spill effects on bird populations are short-lived. These conclusions are based on the findings that (1) elevated cytochrome P450 induction on oiled areas indicated continued exposure to oil in 1998, (2) adult female winter survival was lower on oiled than unoiled areas during 1995-1998, (3) fall population surveys by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game indicated numerical declines in oiled areas during 1995-1997, and (4) densities on oiled areas in 1996 and 1997 were lower than expected using models that accounted for effects of habitat attributes. Based on hypothesized links between oil contamination and demography, we suggest that harlequin duck population recovery was constrained primarily by continued oil exposure. Full population recovery also will be delayed by the time necessary for intrinsic population growth to allow return to pre-spill numbers following cessation of residual oil spill effects. Although not all wildlife species were affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, and some others may have recovered quickly from any effects, harlequin duck life history characteristics and benthic, nearshore feeding habits make them susceptible to both initial

  2. Restoration ecology: aiding and abetting secondary succession on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    P.J. Vander Kloet; T.S. Avery; S.P. Vander Kloet; G.R. Milton

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of using vegetative clumps derived from seeds with a variety of origins to establish nuclei for regeneration of bog vegetation on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (Canada) was tested using seeds within scats (excrement) and seeds from berries, various techniques for creating clumps, and different clump sizes. Direct placement of scat pieces on peat in the field did not produce successful colonisation. Vegetative clumps begun in a greenhouse, whether from seed...

  3. The environmental and socio-economic impacts and benefits associated with developing a natural gas distribution system in Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buszynski, M.E.; Peacock, T. [Sempra Atlantic Gas Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    The discovery of large natural gas reserves off the Scotian Shelf has resulted in the development and construction of offshore production platforms as well as underwater and onshore pipelines to transport natural gas to markets on the eastern seaboard. A billion-dollar expenditure is proposed to establish a local distribution company to construct and maintain approximately 8000 km of distribution and lateral pipelines in the province of Nova Scotia. The many aspects of the proposed program were described with particular focus on the regulatory hearings. The paper also discussed the different landscapes that will be crossed and the specialized construction techniques that will be used to meet environmental and economic challenges. The mechanisms in place to ensure maximum benefit for Nova Scotians were also discussed. The proposed project was also compared to other local megaprojects in the province such as the Sable Offshore Energy Project and the Interprovincial Pipeline through Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Some of the successful strategies for implementing benefits plans related to large energy projects were also described. Sempra has been awarded the franchise to distribute natural gas in Nova Scotia. The company has developed a benefits plan that offers significant local involvement in terms of labour and materials. 4 figs.

  4. “Not a Vacation, But a Hardening Process”: The Self-Empowerment Work of Therapeutic Craft in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Morton

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article will examine the development of a state-sponsored therapeutic craft regime in Nova Scotia in the early to mid-twentieth century. Built on the notion that postwar residents needed "work therapy - not a vacation, but a hardening process" (Black n.d. a: 3 - therapeutic craft emerged in Nova Scotia through a complex combination of the individualization of work habits, the desire to construct an antimodern regional identity around handwork, and the notion that both infirm patients and the province as a whole could be healed from economic stagnation through craft. Key to the success of Nova Scotia's therapeutic craft regime was occupational therapist Mary E. Black's career as director of the provincial government's Handicrafts and Home Industries Division from 1943 to 1955. Black's healthcare training led her to seek out therapeutic possibilities in everyday work activities, not to mention a therapeutic solution to what she called "the atti-tude of most Nova Scotians"[:] defeatism" (Black 1949: 46. Her ability to turn seemingly disparate things - such as Scandinavian design, the ordered work of occupational rehabilitation, and a phenomenological focus on what she called “in-dividualistic existence” (Black n.d. b: 2 - into a unified therapeutic solution demonstrates that the contemporary rise of therapeutic culture under the increased individualism of the neoliberal era has an established historical root in the postwar period that remains important to understand.

  5. The estimation of genetic distance and discriminant variables on breed of duck (Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan) by morphological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    B Brahmantiyo; L.H Prasetyo; A.R Setioko; R.H Mulyono

    2003-01-01

    A study on morphological body conformation of Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan ducks was carried out to determine the genetic distance and discriminant variables. This research was held in Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi, Bogor using 65 Alabio ducks, 40 Bali ducks, 36 Khaki Campbell ducks, 60 Mojosari ducks and 30 Pegagan ducks. Seven different body parts were measured, they were the length of femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus, the circumference of tarsometatarsu...

  6. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    OpenAIRE

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-01-01

    Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the e...

  7. Maternal transfer of dechloranes and their distribution among tissues in contaminated ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping-Fan; Yu, Lian-Lian; Li, Long; Zhang, Yun; Li, Xing-Hong

    2016-05-01

    The tissue concentrations of dechlorane plus and its analogues were determined in ducks collected from several e-waste recycling villages of Taizhou, China. Compared with the published literature, the relatively high concentrations of these compounds were detected in ducks, indicating serious DP contamination. Since both the duck meat and eggs were important components for diet, this result reminded us of keeping a watchful eye on human dietary exposure to DP and its analogues in this study area. The wet-weight concentrations of DP and its analogues were significantly related to tissue lipid content (p ducks. On the basis of lipid adjustment, the significantly lower levels in brain than those in liver and blood, displayed the occurrence of liver sequestration and blood-brain barrier to DP and its analogues in the duck (p ducks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Crustal structure beneath discovery bank in the South Scotia Sea from group velocity tomography and seismic reflection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuan, A.; Lodolo, E.; Panza, G.F.

    2003-09-01

    Bruce, Discovery, Herdman and Jane Banks, all located along the central-eastern part of the South Scotia Ridge (i.e., the Antarctica-Scotia plate boundary), represent isolated topographic reliefs surrounded by relatively young oceanic crust, whose petrological and structural nature is still the subject of speculations due to the lack of resolving data. In the Scotia Sea and surrounding regions negative anomalies of about 34% are reported in large-scale group velocity tomography maps. The spatial resolution (∼500 km) of these maps does not warrant any reliable interpretation of such anomalies. A recent surface wave tomography in the same area, performed using broad band seismic stations and 300 regional events, shows that in the period range from 15 s to 50 s the central-eastern part of the South Scotia Ridge is characterized by negative anomalies of the group velocities as large as 6. The resolution of our data set (∼300 km) makes it possible to distinguish an area (centered at 61 deg S and 36 deg W) with a crust thicker than 25 km, and a shear wave velocity vs. depth profile similar to that found beneath the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and southern South America. Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves are inverted in the period range from 15 s to 80 s to obtain shear wave velocity profiles that suggest a continental nature of Discovery Bank. The continental-type crust of this topographic relief is in agreement with the interpretation of a multi-channel seismic reflection profile acquired across this rise. Peculiar acoustic facies are observed in this profile and are interpreted as thinned and faulted continental plateau. The boundaries of the negative group velocity anomalies are marked by a high seismicity rate. Historical normal faulting earthquakes with magnitude around 7 are localised between the low velocity anomaly region in the eastern South Scotia Ridge and the high velocity anomaly region associated with the surrounding oceanic crust

  9. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, P; Kaewmanee, T; Benjakul, S; Baharin, B S

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a range of 9.30-11.80% of protein, 11.40-13.52% of fat, 1.50-1.74% of sugar and 1.10-1.17% of ash. Proteins, lipids, and ash contents are found to be greatly enhanced during the pickling and salting process of pidan and salted duck eggs. However, the alkaline induced aggregation of pidan leads to degradation and subsequent generation of free peptides and amino acids. Very few amino acids are found to be lost during the pickling and storage. However, no such losses of amino acids are reported in salted duck eggs during the salting process of 14 d. Phospholipids and cholesterol contents are lower in pidan oil and salted duck egg yolk oil. Thus, the pidan and salted duck eggs are nutritionally rich alternatives of duck egg products which will benefit the human health during consumption.

  10. Microwave Irradiation of Nanohydroxyapatite from Chicken Eggshells and Duck Eggshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Adzliana Sajahan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to similarity in composition to the mineral component of bones and human hard tissues, hydroxyapatite with chemical formula Ca10(PO46(OH2 has been widely used in medical field. Both chicken and duck eggshells are mainly composed of calcium carbonate. An attempt has been made to fabricate nanohydroxyapatite (nHA by chicken (CES and duck eggshells (DES as calcium carbonate source (CaCO3. CES and DES were reacted with diammonium hydrogen [(NH42HPO4] solution and subjected to microwave heating at 15 mins. Under the effect of microwave irradiation, nHA was produced directly in the solution and involved in crystallographic transformation. Sample characterization was done using by X-ray diffraction (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  11. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  12. Food use and nutrition of black ducks nesting in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, K.J.; Owen, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Based on 32 adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) collected during the nesting seasons of 1974-76, the proportion of macro invertebrates (as aggregate [average] percent of dry weight) in the diet of males, egg-laying females, and postlaying females was 60, 75, and 55%, respectivey. Sample sizes were small, and the differences associated with sex and reproductive condition were not signficant. Molluscs, Isopods, ephemeropteran and odonate nymphs, and coleopteran, trichopteran, and dipteran larvae contributed 74% of the dry weight and 64% of the gross energy ingested. Data from proximate analyses of 9 invertebrate and 9 plant foods were combined with food habits data to estimate the nutrients available to breeding hens. We concluded that females with access to an adequate amount of natural food including invertebrates and the seeds and tubers of aquatic plants would obtain sufficient minerals, protein, and energy for reproduction. Food quality does not appear to limit the density of black ducks nesting in Maine.

  13. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  14. Factors which influence Nova Scotia farmers in implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Gordon, R.; Burton, D.; Yiridoe, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency and renewable energy use can reduce farm operating costs and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Responses (n=224, representing a 32% response rate) from a mail survey were used to assess use and interest in energy efficient and renewable energy options on farms in Nova Scotia, Canada. Energy efficiency options used the most were behavior, insulation, and lighting. Few farms used renewable energy options. Approximately 78% of farmers indicated an interest in implementing energy efficiency and renewable energy options. Interest varied by farm type and size. Interest increased with farm size. The two main efficiency options of interest were lighting (60.8%) and insulation (43.7%), while wind power development (55.5%) and solar water heating (24.5%) were the main renewable options of interest. Farmers concerned about power and equipment reliability were less likely to be interested in implementing options. Farmers concerned about the environment were more likely to be interested in implementing options. Current use of certain energy efficiency technologies, such as efficient lighting, influenced implementation interest

  15. Arbitrating a fiction: Canadian federalism and the Nova Scotia/Newfoundland and Labrador boundary dispute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baier, G. [University of British Columbia, Dept. of Political Science, Vancouver, BC(Canada); Groarke, P.

    2003-09-30

    The dispute between the provinces of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador, regarding ownership of natural resources to be found in the offshore area lying between the two provinces is discussed. Constitutionally, ownership of offshore natural resources belongs to the federal government. In this instance, the intention was to share control over development and revenues with the provinces through joint management accords, however, a dispute over offshore boundary arose, which eventually resulted in an arbitration tribunal. This paper analyzes the terms of reference for the tribunal and its findings, and concludes that the tribunal process was flawed. The authors cast doubts on the appropriateness of the tribunal's role, the method by which it reached its decision, and the legality of its findings. They conclude that the tribunal merely cloaks a political decision in legal garb since there are no genuine boundaries between the provinces, and the tribunal process simply apportioned federal resources between two provinces. The authors ultimately conclude that by resorting to the tribunal process the federal minister of natural resources was able to avoid political responsibility for making an unpopular decision by relying on a pseudo-judicial body for technical recommendations, and in so doing undermined the legitimacy of the Canadian federal system by obscuring the already murky lines of accountability of the federal and provincial governments. 57 end notes.

  16. Shaded seafloor relief, backscatter strength, and surficial geology; German Bank, Scotian Shelf, offshore Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Valentine, Page C.

    2010-01-01

    This map is part of a three-map series of German Bank, located on the Scotian Shelf off southern Nova Scotia.  This map is the product of a number of surveys (1997-2003) that used a multibeam sonar system to map 5321 km2 of the seafloor.  Other surveys collected geological data for scientific interpretation.  This map sheet shows the seafloor topography of German Bank in shaded-relief view and seafloor depth (coded by colour) at a scale of 1:1000,000.  Topographic contours generated from the multibeam data are shown (in white) on the colour-coded multibeam topography at a depth interval of 20 m.  Bathymetic contours (in blue) outside the multibeam survey area, presented at a depth interval of 10 m, are from the Natural Resource Map series (Canadian Hydrographic Service, 1967, 1971a, 1971b, 1972). Sheet 2 shows coloured backscatter strength in shaded-relief view.  Sheet 3 shows seafloor topography in shaded-relief view with colour-coded surficial geological units.

  17. Dispersion and toxicity of metals from abandoned gold mine tailings at Goldenville, Nova Scotia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.K.T.; Gauthier, A.; Nriagu, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    As its name indicates, Goldenville was a famous gold mining area in Nova Scotia where large quantities of mercury were used in the gold recovery process. It is estimated that the 3 million tons of tailings left from the mining activities which lasted from 1860 to 1945 contain 470 kg of Cd, 37-300 kg of Pb, 6800 kg of Hg, 20-700 kg of As and 2600 kg of Tl. Analysis of metal contents of stream water, stream and lake sediments, tailings, and vegetation show that the tailings have been distributed over time across the stream basin to form a tailing field of approximately 2 km 2 . There is a continuous release of As, Hg, Pb, Tl and other metals from the tailing field, resulting in contamination of ecosystems downstream including the Gagogan Harbor of the Atlantic Ocean. Stream water and sediments of Lake Gagogan located downstream from the mine were found toxic to the benthic community. A loss of fish habitat was observed. Although the mines were closed over 50 years ago, sedimentary records of metal loadings into Lake Gagogan show that the release of metals from the tailings has not slowed down. Analysis of metal tolerant species in the area suggests that horsetails (Equisetum rubiaceae and E. sylvaticum) can be used in phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and mercury. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. The energy accounts for the Nova Scotia genuine progress index : executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipp, J.; Cain, S.; Colman, R.; Parmenter, R.; Milne, K.; Mullaly, H.; Wysocki, A.

    2005-10-01

    GPI Atlantic has developed a Genuine Progress Index (GPI) involving a new measure of sustainability, wellbeing and quality of life in order to better evaluate energy supply and demand by accounting for all benefits and costs including natural capital, social capital, human capital, and conventional produced capital. The executive summary provides an energy overview and presents indicators of energy sustainability including socio-economic, health and environmental and institutional indicators. Socio-economic indicators are organized across the following 6 areas of concern: reliability, affordability, employment; energy efficiency, energy consumption; and energy production and supply. Health and environmental trends examined include carbon monoxide; nitrogen oxide; sulphur dioxide; mercury; total particulate matter; volatile organic compounds; and greenhouse gas emissions. Trends over time are assessed to determine if energy use is becoming more or less sustainable. Institutional indicators are grouped according to several areas of concern, such as leading by example; creating societal change; reporting; and evaluation. The full cost of energy was then discussed using the underlying physical indicators. It was concluded that Nova Scotia is not making sufficient progress towards sustainability in its energy system, and that the production and use of energy are the leading causes of a number of serious environmental problems. Several recommendations are made for government to lead on a number of initiatives. 4 tabs

  19. Recovery following experimental harvesting of Laminaria longicruris and L. digitata in southwestern Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B D

    1985-01-01

    Laminaria population variables and understory community composition were monitored just prior to, and for two summers following, a September 1980 experimental total harvest of L. longicruris De la Pylaie and L. digitata (L.) Lamouroux within two plots in Lobster Bay, Nova Scotia. Both plots, distinguished mainly by depth, were characterized by high Laminaria standing crop and no recent history of extensive sea urchin grazing. Within the shallower plot (2-3 m below MSL), recovery could not be assessed thoroughly due to ice damage, but within the deeper plot (3-4 m below MSL), L. longicruris regrew cropped biomass and attained maximum observed abundance within one year. Both Laminaria species required two years to mature to pre-harvest population characteristics. Survivorship of 0-1 year old and mature populations of both species was generally low (0-67% per year); however, the higher maximum life expectancy of L. digitata (>4 years vs 2 years) can result in that species persisting to the disadvantage of L. longicruris. Analysis of understory community composition for both harvested plots and their adjacent controls weakly distinguished the harvested plots one summer after harvesting from all others. It is doubtful the distinction is attributable to harvesting and in neither site was there evidence of a critical change in the understory community. Management implications for the commercial harvest of the brown alga Laminaria are discussed.

  20. Dispersion and toxicity of metals from abandoned gold mine tailings at Goldenville, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.K.T. [National Water Research Institute, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington (Canada); Gauthier, A. [Environmental Protection Branch, Environment Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada); Nriagu, J.O. [Department of Environmental and Industrial Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1999-03-22

    As its name indicates, Goldenville was a famous gold mining area in Nova Scotia where large quantities of mercury were used in the gold recovery process. It is estimated that the 3 million tons of tailings left from the mining activities which lasted from 1860 to 1945 contain 470 kg of Cd, 37-300 kg of Pb, 6800 kg of Hg, 20-700 kg of As and 2600 kg of Tl. Analysis of metal contents of stream water, stream and lake sediments, tailings, and vegetation show that the tailings have been distributed over time across the stream basin to form a tailing field of approximately 2 km{sup 2}. There is a continuous release of As, Hg, Pb, Tl and other metals from the tailing field, resulting in contamination of ecosystems downstream including the Gagogan Harbor of the Atlantic Ocean. Stream water and sediments of Lake Gagogan located downstream from the mine were found toxic to the benthic community. A loss of fish habitat was observed. Although the mines were closed over 50 years ago, sedimentary records of metal loadings into Lake Gagogan show that the release of metals from the tailings has not slowed down. Analysis of metal tolerant species in the area suggests that horsetails (Equisetum rubiaceae and E. sylvaticum) can be used in phytoremediation of sites contaminated with arsenic and mercury. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Moving Forward with School Nutrition Policies: A Case Study of Policy Adherence in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Shearer, Cindy L; Veugelers, Paul J; Kirk, Sara F L

    2015-12-01

    Many Canadian school jurisdictions have developed nutrition policies to promote health and improve the nutritional status of children, but research is needed to clarify adherence, guide practice-related decisions, and move policy action forward. The purpose of this research was to evaluate policy adherence with a review of online lunch menus of elementary schools in Nova Scotia (NS) while also providing transferable evidence for other jurisdictions. School menus in NS were scanned and a list of commonly offered items were categorized, according to minimum, moderate, or maximum nutrition categories in the NS policy. The results of the menu review showed variability in policy adherence that depended on food preparation practices by schools. Although further research is needed to clarify preparation practices, the previously reported challenges of healthy food preparations (e.g., cost, social norms) suggest that many schools in NS are likely not able to use these healthy preparations, signifying potential noncompliance to the policy. Leadership and partnerships are needed among researchers, policy makers, and nutrition practitioners to address the complexity of issues related to food marketing and social norms that influence school food environments to inspire a culture where healthy and nutritious food is available and accessible to children.

  2. Pipelines update : new tolls and new opportunities in gas gathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, E.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the new TransCanada energy transmission system was given. TransCanada has ownership interests in seven other North American natural gas pipelines and the integration of former NOVA Gas Transmission, TransCanada Energy Transmission and ANG Pipeline organizations into a single organization is nearing completion. Integration efforts have been driven by TransCanada's commitment to provide customers with lower costs and improved service levels. The service enhancements will include one-stop shopping, customer advisory councils, harmonized design criteria, optimized operations/maintenance, and consistent billing processes. The new toll design which will replace the current postage-stamp pricing regime offered by NGTL was also reviewed, emphasizing key features such as pricing, term linked tolls, interruptible/short term tolls, renewal incentive, risk/reward collar, transition period and new services

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROLACTIN HORMONE LEVEL, MOLTING AND DUCK EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Susanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to obtain information on the mechanism of molting and the prolactin hormone levels affecting egg production. The study utilized AP (crossbred of Alabio ♂ with Peking ♀ and PA (crossbred of Peking ♂ and Alabio ♀ ducks with a total of 180 birds. The observed variables were the duration of cessation of egg production before and after molting, the prolactin hormone level in the period of molting, the egg production period before and after molting. The data was analyzed using ANOVA, regression and correlation. The results showed that AP crossbred had fewer molting (23.33% compared to PA (50.00%. The mechanism of molting is always preceded by cessation of egg production, molting and relaying. The prolactin hormone concentrations of AP and PA in the period before and after molting were significantly higher than in the period of molting. At the egg production period before molting, the prolactin hormone concentration of AP ducks was higher than the PA ducks. So that the egg production of AP before molting (0-16 weeks was higher than the PA. The egg production of AP was higher than PA, 256.66±6.00 vs 232.22±6.64 eggs for 48 weeks. So it can be concluded that the prolactin hormone affects the molting and egg production.

  4. Identification of double-yolked duck egg using computer vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available The double-yolked (DY egg is quite popular in some Asian countries because it is considered as a sign of good luck, however, the double yolk is one of the reasons why these eggs fail to hatch. The usage of automatic methods for identifying DY eggs can increase the efficiency in the poultry industry by decreasing egg loss during incubation or improving sale proceeds. In this study, two methods for DY duck egg identification were developed by using computer vision technology. Transmittance images of DY and single-yolked (SY duck eggs were acquired by a CCD camera to identify them according to their shape features. The Fisher's linear discriminant (FLD model equipped with a set of normalized Fourier descriptors (NFDs extracted from the acquired images and the convolutional neural network (CNN model using primary preprocessed images were built to recognize duck egg yolk types. The classification accuracies of the FLD model for SY and DY eggs were 100% and 93.2% respectively, while the classification accuracies of the CNN model for SY and DY eggs were 98% and 98.8% respectively. The CNN-based algorithm took about 0.12 s to recognize one sample image, which was slightly faster than the FLD-based (about 0.20 s. Finally, this work compared two classification methods and provided the better method for DY egg identification.

  5. Electronic Toll And Traffic Management Systems, National Cooperative Highway Research Program Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION OR ETC AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT OR ETTM, AUTOMATIC VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION OR AVI : ELECTRONIC TOLL COLLECTION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT (ETTM) SYSTEMS ARE NOT A FUTURISTIC DREAM, THEY ARE OPERATING OR ARE BEING TESTED TODAY I...

  6. A dynamic feedback-control toll pricing methodology : a case study on Interstate 95 managed lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Recently, congestion pricing emerged as a cost-effective and efficient strategy to mitigate the congestion problem on freeways. This study develops a feedback-control based dynamic toll approach to formulate and solve for optimal tolls. The study com...

  7. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a congested bottleneck. A fast lane reserves a more than proportional share of capacity to a designated group of travellers. Travellers are otherwise identical and other travellers can use the reserved capacity when it would otherwise be idle. The paper shows that such a fast...... welfare improving when demand is elastic....... lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  8. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    This paper considers a congested bottleneck. A fast lane reserves a more than proportional share of capacity to a designated group of travellers. Travellers are otherwise identical and other travellers can use the reserved capacity when it would otherwise be idle. The paper shows that such a fast...... welfare improving when demand is elastic....... lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  9. The evaluation model of the design of toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shuting

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the dramatic increase in traffic burden has highlighted the necessity of rational allocation of toll plaza. At the same time, the need to consider a lot of factors has enhanced the design requirements. In this background, we carry out research on this subject. We propose a reasonable assumption, and abstract the toll plaza into a model only related to B and L. By using the queuing theory and traffic flow theory, we define the throughput, cost and accident prevent with B and L to acquire the base model. By using the method of linear weighting in economics to calculate this model, the optimal B and L strategies are obtained.

  10. Experimental susceptibility of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) for West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Porter, Robert E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) has been reported in a variety of wild ducks in the US, but little is known about the pathogenesis and outcome of exposure of the disease in these species. Previous experimental studies of WNV in ducks either have challenged a small number of ducks with WNV or have tested domesticated ducks. To determine susceptibility and immune response, we challenged 7-wk-old Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) with a 1999 American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) isolate of WNV. Wood Ducks were susceptible to infection with the virus, and, although clinical signs or mortality were not observed, microscopic lesions were noted, particularly in the heart and brain. West Nile virus viremia peaked on day 2 postinfection (pi) at 104.54 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus/mL serum and WNV was shed orally (between 102and 102.9 PFU per swab) and cloacally. Specific anti-WNV antibody response was rapid, with anti-WNV IgM detected on day 3 pi followed on day 5 pi by anti-WNV IgG. Neutralizing antibodies were detected by plaque-reduction neutralization assay in one duck on day 4 pi, and in all sampled ducks on day 5. These results indicate that Wood Ducks are susceptible to WNV, but it is unlikely that significant WNV mortality events occur in Wood Ducks or that ducks play a significant role in transmission. However, WNV viremia was sufficient, in theory, to infect mosquitoes, and oral and cloacal shedding of the virus may increase the risk of infection to other waterbirds.

  11. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin in Healthy and Renal Damaged Muscovy Ducks following Intravenous and Oral Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aboubakr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics aspects of levofloxacin were studied in healthy and experimentally renal damaged Muscovy ducks after single intravenous (IV and oral (PO dose of 10 mg kg−1 bwt. Following IV administration, elimination half-life (t1/2(β and mean residence time (MRT were longer in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones. Total clearance (Cltot in renal damaged ducks (0.20 L kg−1 h−1 was significantly lower as compared to that in healthy ones (0.41 L kg−1 h−1. Following PO administration, the peak serum concentration (Cmax was higher in renal damaged than in healthy ducks and was achieved at maximum time (tmax of 2.47 and 2.05 h, respectively. The drug was eliminated (t1/2(el at a significant slower rate (3.94 h in renal damaged than in healthy ducks (2.89 h. The pharmacokinetic profile of levofloxacin is altered in renal damaged ducks due to the increased serum levofloxacin concentrations compared with that in clinically healthy ducks. Oral administration of levofloxacin at 10 mg kg−1 bwt may be highly efficacious against susceptible bacteria in ducks. Also, the dose of levofloxacin should be reduced in renal damaged ducks. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic integration revealed significantly higher values for Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios in renal damaged ducks than in healthy ones, indicating the excellent pharmacokinetic characteristics of levofloxacin in renal damaged ducks.

  12. Substantial-Motivational Mechanism for Substantiation of Tolling Operations in Conditions of the European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Melnyk Olga G; Kots Iryna I.

    2016-01-01

    The article is concerned with conceptualization of substance, distinguishing characteristics and motives of the implementation of tolling operations in conditions of the European integration. The study, based on the systematization and analysis of existing scientific approaches to definition of essence of tolling and tolling operations, has disclosed the dominating poli-positionality and ambiguity in this area. Economical autonomy of tolling operations has been determined, t...

  13. DMPD: Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18280610 Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. Thompson JM...how Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. PubmedID 18280610 Title Toll-like recepto...rs regulation of viral infection and disease. Authors Thompson JM, Iwasaki A. Pub

  14. DMPD: The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic methods. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16001129 The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic methods. Beutler B. I...mmunogenetics. 2005 Jul;57(6):385-92. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forwar...d genetic methods. PubmedID 16001129 Title The Toll-like receptors: analysis by forward genetic meth

  15. DMPD: Viral recognition by Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17336545 Viral recognition by Toll-like receptors. Barton GM. Semin Immunol. 2007 F...eb;19(1):33-40. Epub 2007 Mar 2. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Viral recognition by Toll-like receptors.... PubmedID 17336545 Title Viral recognition by Toll-like receptors. Authors Barton GM. Publication Semin Imm

  16. DMPD: All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16446382 All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition. Wagner H, Bauer S. J Exp... Med. 2006 Feb 20;203(2):265-8. Epub 2006 Jan 30. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition.... PubmedID 16446382 Title All is not Toll: new pathways in DNA recognition. Authors

  17. DMPD: Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15662540 Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. Li X, Qin J.... J Mol Med. 2005 Apr;83(4):258-66. Epub 2005 Jan 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Modulation of Toll-i...nterleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. PubmedID 15662540 Title Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor

  18. DMPD: Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15178705 Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. Tsan MF, Gao B. J Leukoc Biol. ...2004 Sep;76(3):514-9. Epub 2004 Jun 3. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Endogenous ligands of Toll-like re...ceptors. PubmedID 15178705 Title Endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors. Authors Tsan MF, Gao B. Publicat

  19. DMPD: Role of Toll-like receptor responses for sepsis pathogenesis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18086373 Role of Toll-like receptor responses for sepsis pathogenesis. Weighardt H,... of Toll-like receptor responses for sepsis pathogenesis. PubmedID 18086373 Title Role of Toll-like receptor... responses for sepsis pathogenesis. Authors Weighardt H, Holzmann B. Publication

  20. Spreading Of Avian Flu On Duck And Its Impact On Social Economy: Lesson Learnt From Avian Flu Cases On Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyak Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bird flu disease that attacks duck dismissed the notion of duck immune to bird flu disease. Learning from the experience of bird flu disease that attacks poultry in the year of 2004-2005, necessary to measure the spread of disease prevention bird flu in ducks. This paper aims to describe the business and trade patterns of duck associated with the spread of avian influenza and predict the socio-economic impact of bird flu on duck farms in Indonesia. Duck rearing patterns mostly are in the extensive and semi-intensive system, that have large potential disease transmission occured between duck and wild. Illegal trade in the crossborder region and imports from countries that re-export it, ias alo become potential as well as the entry point to the bird flu virus in Indonesia. Ducks trade between regions by land transportation is difficult to control as well becomes the potential media to spread of the virus to a wider area. The economic impact of bird flu on duck business occured due to the death of ducks, decline in production and loss of job opportunities, while that on demand reduction was not significant. Small scale farmers that were bankrupt as a result of bird flu outbreaks may require technical assistance and access to capital for recovery. In the future, development of ducks business should be directed at duck farms into a semi-intensive and intensive system to facilitate the control of epidemic diseases

  1. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  2. Tissue distribution of metals in white-fronted geese and spot-billed ducks from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2013-07-01

    This study presents concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd in livers, kidneys, muscles and bones of white-fronted geese Anser albifrons (geese) and spot-billed ducks Anas poecilorhyncha (ducks). Iron in livers, kidneys and muscles, Zn in muscles, Mn and Cd in every tissue, Cu in livers, muscles and bones and Pb in bones differed between species, and there were significant differences among tissues in both species. Essential elements such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were within the background levels. Lead concentrations in livers of 7 of 14 geese and 7 of 19 ducks and in bones of 4 of 19 ducks exceeded background concentrations for waterfowl (5 μg/g dw for the liver, 10 μg/g dw for the bone). Almost all samples of both species had the background Cd concentrations in the liver (33 of 33 geese and ducks) and kidney (14 geese and 18 ducks). Tissue concentrations of Cd were greater in geese than ducks. In contrast, tissue concentrations of Pb in bones were greater in ducks than in geese. These different trends for Cd and Pb reflect a short and/or long term difference in exposure and degree of accumulation of these metals.

  3. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marchese, Krysten; Romano, Marcelo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana I; Uhart, Marcela

    2015-05-01

    Numerous experiments under controlled conditions and extensive investigation of waterfowl die-offs have demonstrated that exposure to lead from spent gunshot is highly detrimental to the health of waterfowl. However, few studies have focused on examining the more subtle sub-lethal effects of lead toxicity on ducks in non-experimental settings. In our study, the health of ducks exposed to varying amounts of lead under natural conditions was assessed by correlating individual lead exposure with relevant indices of health. Based on hunter-killed wild ducks in Argentina, we measured spleen mass, body condition, examined bone marrow smears, and determined Ca and P in bone tissue. In free-ranging live-trapped ducks we determined basic hematology and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Using multivariate analyses, we found that, when controlling for the potential confounding effect of site type, year, duck species, body mass and age, lead levels in the liver were negatively associated with body condition and spleen mass. Spleen mass was also lower in ducks with higher lead levels in their bones. In live ducks, high blood lead levels were associated with low packed cell volume and red cell morphologic abnormalities. These findings suggest that, despite the lack of recorded lead-induced mortality in the region, lead exposure results in less conspicuous but still significant impacts on the health of ducks, which could have serious implications for their conservation. Moreover, this evidence further supports the need for urgently banning lead shot in the region.

  5. Sentinel model for influenza A virus monitoring in free-grazing ducks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyapisitsopa, Supanat; Chaiyawong, Supassama; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Jairak, Waleemas; Prakairungnamthip, Duangduean; Bunpapong, Napawan; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) can cause influenza in birds and mammals. In Thailand, free-grazing ducks are known IAV reservoirs and can spread viruses through frequent movements in habitats they share with wild birds. In this study, the sentinel model for IAV monitoring was conducted over 4 months in two free-grazing duck flocks. IAV subtypes H4N6 (n=1) and H3N8 (n=5) were isolated from sentinel ducks at the ages of 13 and 15 weeks. Clinical signs of depression and ocular discharge were observed in the infected ducks. Phylogenetic analysis and genetic characterization of the isolated IAVs indicated that all Thai IAVs were clustered in the Eurasian lineage and pose low pathogenic avian influenza characteristics. Serological analysis found that antibodies against IAVs could be detected in the ducks since 9-weeks-old. In summary, our results indicate that the sentinel model can be used for IAV monitoring in free-grazing duck flocks. Since free-grazing ducks are potential reservoirs and transmitters of IAVs, routine IAV surveillance in free-grazing duck flocks can be beneficial for influenza prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine against H9N2 avian influenza virus in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qiaoyang; Shen, Weixia; Liu, Qinfang; Rong, Guangyu; Chen, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Li, Zejun

    2015-09-17

    Wild ducks play an important role in the evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Domestic ducks in China are known to carry and spread H9N2 AIVs that are thought to have contributed internal genes for the recent outbreak of zoonotic H7N9 virus. In order to protect animal and public health, an effective vaccine is urgently needed to block and prevent the spread of H9N2 virus in ducks. We developed an inactivated H9N2 vaccine (with adjuvant Montanide ISA 70VG) based on an endemic H9N2 AIV and evaluated this vaccine in ducks. The results showed that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine was able to induce a strong and fast humoral immune response in vaccinated ducks. The hemagglutination inhibition titer in the sera increased fast, and reached its peak of 12.3 log2 at 5 weeks post-vaccination in immunized birds and remained at a high level for at least 37 weeks post-vaccination. Moreover, viral shedding was completely blocked in vaccinated ducks after challenge with a homologous H9N2 AIV at both 3 and 37 weeks post-vaccination. The results of this study indicate that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine induces high and prolonged immune response in vaccinated ducks and are efficacious in protecting ducks from H9N2 infection.

  7. Effects of ACTH, capture, and short term confinement on glucocorticoid concentrations in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, P.B.; Hollmén, Tuula E.; Atkinson, S.; Mashburn, K.L.; Tuomi, P.A.; Esler, Daniel N.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Rizzolo, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about baseline concentrations of adrenal hormones and hormonal responses to stress in sea ducks, although significant population declines documented in several species suggest that sea ducks are exposed to increased levels of environmental stress. Such declines have been observed in geographically distinct harlequin duck populations. We performed an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge to evaluate adrenal function and characterize corticosterone concentrations in captive harlequin ducks and investigated the effects of capture, surgery, and short term confinement on corticosterone concentrations in wild harlequin ducks. Harlequin ducks responded to the ACTH challenge with an average three-fold increase in serum corticosterone concentration approximately 90 min post injection, and a four- to five-fold increase in fecal glucocorticoid concentration 2 to 4 h post injection. Serum corticosterone concentrations in wild harlequin ducks increased within min of capture and elevated levels were found for several hours post capture, indicating that surgery and confinement maintain elevated corticosterone concentrations in this species. Mean corticosterone concentrations in wild harlequin ducks held in temporary captivity were similar to the maximum response levels during the ACTH challenge in captive birds. However, large variation among individuals was observed in responses of wild birds, and we found additional evidence suggesting that corticosterone responses varied between hatch year and after hatch year birds.

  8. Epidemiologic Investigation of Riemerella anatipestifer in a Commercial Duck Company by Serotyping and DNA Fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    A commercial duck company that raises approximately two million Pekin ducks per year experienced an outbreak of Riemerella anatipestifer(RA)on nine farms over a one year period. Due to concerns that the bacteria was being spread from farm to farm, an investigation using serotyping and DNA fingerprin...

  9. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  10. Transmission dynamics of the recently-identified BYD virus causing duck egg-drop syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen K Vaidya

    Full Text Available Baiyangdian (BYD virus is a recently-identified mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes severe disease in ducks, with extremely rapid transmission, up to 15% mortality within 10 days and 90% reduction in egg production on duck farms within 5 days of infection. Because of the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses, the characterization of BYD virus and its epidemiology are important public health concerns. Here, we develop a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of this novel virus. We validate the model against BYD outbreak data collected from duck farms in Southeast China, as well as experimental data obtained from an animal facility. Based on our model, the basic reproductive number of BYD virus is high (R(0 = 21 indicating that this virus is highly transmissible, consistent with the dramatic epidemiology observed in BYDV-affected duck farms. Our results indicate that younger ducks are more vulnerable to BYD disease and that ducks infected with BYD virus reduce egg production (to about 33% on average for about 3 days post-infection; after 3 days infected ducks are no longer able to produce eggs. Using our model, we predict that control measures which reduce contact between mosquitoes and ducks such as mosquito nets are more effective than insecticides.

  11. Comparative effects of fumonisins on sphingolipid metabolism and toxicity in ducks and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlasher, Emad; Geng, Xiuyu; Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh Xuan; Tardieu, Didier; Bailly, Jean-Denis; Auvergne, Alain; Guerre, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins that are found worldwide in maize and maize products. Their main toxic effects have been well characterized in poultry, but differences between species have been demonstrated. Ducks appeared very sensitive to toxicity, whereas turkeys are more resistant. At the same time, alterations of sphingolipid metabolism, with an increase of the concentration of the free sphinganine (Sa) in serum and liver, have been demonstrated in the two species, but the link between the toxicity of FBs and Sa accumulation remains difficult to interpret. The aim of the present work was to compare the effects of FBs (10 mg FB1 + FB2/kg body weight) on sphingolipid metabolism in ducks and turkeys. Growth, feed consumption, and serum biochemistry were also investigated to evaluate toxicity. The main results showed that FBs increased Sa concentrations in liver and serum in ducks and turkeys, but these accumulations were not directly correlated with toxicity. Sa accumulation was higher in the livers of turkeys than in ducks, whereas Sa levels were higher in the sera of ducks than in turkeys. Hepatic toxicity was more pronounced in ducks than in turkeys and accompanied a decrease of body weight and an increase of serum biochemistry in ducks but not in turkeys. So, although FBs increase Sa concentration in the livers of both species, this effect is not directly proportional to toxicity. The mechanisms of FB toxicity and/or the mechanisms of protection of ducks and turkeys to the Sa accumulation within the liver remain to be established.

  12. Inositol-P6 induced structural changes in duck major haemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamiji Babalola

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... of duck (Anas platyrhinchos) have been carried out in the presence of ... dependence profile of the apparent second-order rate constant of both oxy- and ... Key words: 5,5‟-Dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoate), duck, haemoglobin, inositol-P6, sulphydryl group. ... Saigo, 1999), thereby making it possible to detect the.

  13. 78 FR 14413 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LUCKY DUCK; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel LUCKY DUCK; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... should refer to docket number MARAD-2013-0019. Written comments may be submitted by hand or by mail to... LUCKY DUCK is: Intended Commercial Use Of Vessel: ``The vessel is to be operated as a sailing...

  14. A polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of virulent and attenuated strains of duck plague virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhixun; Huang, Li; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Luo, Sisi

    2017-11-01

    Sequence analysis of duck plague virus (DPV) revealed that there was a 528bp (B fragment) deletion within the UL2 gene of DPV attenuated vaccine strain in comparison with field virulent strains. The finding of gene deletion provides a potential differentiation test between DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain based on their UL2 gene sizes. Thus we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting to the DPV UL2 gene for simultaneous detection of DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain, 827bp for virulent strain and 299bp for attenuated strain. This newly developed PCR for DPV was highly sensitive and specific. It detected as low as 100fg of DNA on both DPV virulent and attenuated strains, no same size bands were amplified from other duck viruses including duck paramyxovirus, duck tembusu virus, duck circovirus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, duck hepatitis virus type I, avian influenza virus and gosling plague virus. Therefore, this PCR assay can be used for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of DPV virulent and attenuated strains affecting ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Consumer Experiences Calling Toll-Free Corporate Hotlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles L.; Smart, Denise T.

    1994-01-01

    Finds that dimensions that contribute to caller satisfaction (of toll-free corporate hotlines) included operator characteristics such as knowledge, courtesy, and interest; specific behaviors such as apologizing for a problem, thanking the consumer for calling, and encouraging them to call again; and reducing time placed on "hold." (SR)

  16. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) expression on polymorphonuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To establish a foundation for further researches on the improvement of polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) functions in dairy cow during perinatal period, the counting of PMN, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) on PMN was studied during this critical period.

  17. New Professionals on tap? The human resource challenges in developing a new generation of municipal and local government managers in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Molloy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Canadian governments are facing significant human resource management challenges due to pending retirements, projected labour market shortages and the workplace expectations of New Professionals. This paper explores human resource recruitment planning initiatives, which have been undertaken by Nova Scotia municipalities, in order to attract and retain a new generation of municipal government managers. We will argue, in line with a recent Association of Municipal Administrators (AMA of Nova Scotia municipal report that Nova Scotia municipalities must take intergenerational issues into account, for management succession planning to be successful. Our exploration of municipal succession planning will take place in the context of a larger study, which we have done on “New Professional” recruitment, retention and development initiatives in Canada

  18. SU-E-I-33: Establishment of CT Diagnostic Reference Levels in Province Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkopi, E; Abdolell, M; Duffy, S [Dalhousie University and Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate patient radiation dose from the most frequently performed CT examinations and to establish provincial diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as a tool for protocol optimization. Methods: The study investigated the following CT examinations: head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis (CAP). Dose data, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP), were collected from 15 CT scanners installed during 2004–2014 in 11 hospital sites of Nova Scotia. All scanners had dose modulation options and multislice capability (16–128 detector rows). The sample for each protocol included 15 average size patients (70±20 kg). Provincial DRLs were calculated as the 75th percentile of patient dose distributions. The differences in dose between hospitals were evaluated with a single factor ANOVA statistical test. Generalized linear modeling was used to determine the factors associated with higher radiation dose. A sample of 36 abdominal studies performed on three different scanners was blinded and randomized for an assessment by an experienced radiologist who graded the imaging quality of anatomic structures. Results: Data for 900 patients were collected. The DRLs were proposed using CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy*cm) values for CT head (67 and 1049, respectively), chest (12 and 393), abdomen/pelvis (16 and 717), and CAP (14 and 1034). These DRLs were lower than the published national data except for the head CTDIvol. The differences between the means of the dose distributions from each scanner were statistically significant (p<0.05) for all examinations. A very weak correlation was found between the dose and the scanner age or the number of slices with Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.011–0.315. The blinded analysis of image quality demonstrated no clinically significant difference except for the noise category. Conclusion: Provincial DRLs were established for typical CT examinations. The variations in dose between the hospitals

  19. Suicidal behaviours in adolescents in Nova Scotia, Canada: protective associations with measures of social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Donald B; Asbridge, Mark; Kisely, Steve; Rasic, Daniel

    2012-10-01

    Few studies of adolescent suicidality have examined its associations with social capital. We explored associations of measures of individual level social capital with self-reported suicide ideation and suicide attempt in adolescents in Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Canada, controlling for other factors known to be associated with adolescent suicidality. We surveyed 1,597 grade 10-12 students at three high schools in 2006 using self-completion questionnaires. Both sexes were combined for analysis. Outcome measures were suicidal ideation and attempt in the previous year. Measures of social capital included perceptions of trustworthiness and helpfulness of others at school, frequency of religious attendance and participation in extracurricular activities. Logistic regressions were carried out to determine associations of social capital with suicidality while controlling for other factors. Perceived trustworthiness and helpfulness were protective for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in the previous year. In adjusted analyses, there were interactions of gender and social capital-females reporting more social capital were more protected from suicide attempt relative to males with similar levels of social capital. This study provides initial evidence of protective associations of individual level social capital with adolescent suicidality. Our findings suggest that among adolescents low social capital as measured by perceptions of trust and helpfulness of others at school may be a warning sign for suicidality, particularly for females. It may be helpful to inquire of young people how they perceive the trustworthiness and helpfulness of their school environment as a measure of how supportive that environment might be to them when they are facing challenges to their mental health.

  20. U-Pb and Rb-Sr geochronology of the Wedgeport granitoid pluton, southwestern Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, R.F.; Keppie, J.D.; Odom, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Zircons from biotite monzogranite of the Wedgeport Pluton, intrusive into deformed metasediments of the Cambrian(?) Goldenville formation in the southwestern Meguma Terrane of Nova Scotia, yield concordant U-Pb ages of 316 ± 5 Ma. This is interpreted as the time of intrusion and crystallization. Within the error limits, the 323 ± 0.0056 Rb-Sr analyses of mineral separates of biotite, potassium feldspar, and quartz-plagioclase from several samples yield subparallel, internal isochrons with an average age of 257 ± 8 Ma. Initial ratios of the internal isochrons range from 0.716 to 0.759. A slow-cooling model for the latter data is discarded because the mineral data fall on straight lines. Instead, a reheating event related to plutonism ca 257 Ma ago, which was sufficient to cause local grain-to-grain migration and reequilibration of strontium and rubidium but not large-scale redistribution, is invoked. This reheating is also inferred to be responsible for the hydrothermal alteration and Sn-U mineralization concentrated along the northwestern margin of the pluton. A dextral northeast-southeast shear zone cutting the pluton is also inferred to be ca. 257 Ma old. It may be related to the last stages of westward abduction of the Meguma Terrane. These results provide a clear example of Permo-Carboniferous plutonism in the southwestern Meguma Terrane and suggest a similar interpretation may apply to other anomalously young ages recorded in this area. In light of these results, the Permo-Carboniferous age of the large East Kemptville tin deposit and its location in a dextral shear zone suggest that the association of younger plutonism and shear zones may be a significant factor for economic mineralization. (22 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.)

  1. Chemical characteristics of North American surface layer outflow: Insights from Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Dylan B.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Holzinger, Rupert; Williams, Brent J.; Allan, James D.; Jimenez, José L.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Roberts, James M.; White, Allen B.; Hudman, Rynda C.; Bertschi, Isaac T.; Stohl, Andreas

    2006-12-01

    We present a factor analysis-based method for differentiating air masses on the basis of source influence and apply the method to a broad suite of trace gas and aerosol measurements collected at Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia, during the summer of 2004 to characterize the chemical composition of atmospheric outflow from eastern North America. CO, ozone, and aerosol mass were elevated by 30%, 56%, and more than 300% at Chebogue Point during U.S. outflow periods. Organic aerosol mass was highest during U.S. pollution events, but made up the largest fraction (70%) of the total aerosol during periods of primary and especially secondary biogenic influence, indicating the importance of both anthropogenic and biogenic organic aerosol. Anthropogenic and oxygenated volatile organic compounds account for the bulk of the gas-phase organic carbon under most conditions; however, biogenic compounds are important in terms of chemical reactivity. Biogenic emissions thus have a significant impact on the chemistry of air masses downwind of the polluted northeastern United States. Using output from a global 3-D model of atmospheric composition (GEOS-Chem), we estimate that CO directly emitted from U.S. pollution sources makes up 28% of the total CO observed at Chebogue Point during U.S. outflow events and 19% at other times, although more work is needed to improve U.S. emission estimates for CO and other pollutants. We conclude that the effects of North American pollution on the chemistry of the western North Atlantic boundary layer are pervasive and not restricted to particular events.

  2. Circulation, retention, and mixing of waters within the Weddell-Scotia Confluence, Southern Ocean: The role of stratified Taylor columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Michael P.; Meijers, Andrew S.; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Brown, Peter J.; Venables, Hugh J.; Abrahamsen, E. Povl; Jullion, Loïc.; Messias, Marie-José

    2015-01-01

    The waters of the Weddell-Scotia Confluence (WSC) lie above the rugged topography of the South Scotia Ridge in the Southern Ocean. Meridional exchanges across the WSC transfer water and tracers between the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to the north and the subpolar Weddell Gyre to the south. Here, we examine the role of topographic interactions in mediating these exchanges, and in modifying the waters transferred. A case study is presented using data from a free-drifting, intermediate-depth float, which circulated anticyclonically over Discovery Bank on the South Scotia Ridge for close to 4 years. Dimensional analysis indicates that the local conditions are conducive to the formation of Taylor columns. Contemporaneous ship-derived transient tracer data enable estimation of the rate of isopycnal mixing associated with this column, with values of O(1000 m2/s) obtained. Although necessarily coarse, this is of the same order as the rate of isopycnal mixing induced by transient mesoscale eddies within the ACC. A picture emerges of the Taylor column acting as a slow, steady blender, retaining the waters in the vicinity of the WSC for lengthy periods during which they can be subject to significant modification. A full regional float data set, bathymetric data, and a Southern Ocean state estimate are used to identify other potential sites for Taylor column formation. We find that they are likely to be sufficiently widespread to exert a significant influence on water mass modification and meridional fluxes across the southern edge of the ACC in this sector of the Southern Ocean.

  3. Hydrophobic duck feathers and their simulation on textile substrates for water repellent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuyang; Chen Xianqiong; Xin, J H

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the non-wetting phenomena of duck feathers, the water repellent property of duck feathers was studied at the nanoscale. The microstructures of the duck feather were investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging method through a step-by-step magnifying procedure. The SEM results show that duck feathers have a multi-scale structure and that this multi-scale structure as well as the preening oil are responsible for their super hydrophobic behavior. The microstructures of the duck feather were simulated on textile substrates using the biopolymer chitosan as building blocks through a novel surface solution precipitation (SSP) method, and then the textile substrates were further modified with a silicone compound to achieve low surface energy. The resultant textiles exhibit super water repellent properties, thus providing a simple bionic way to create super hydrophobic surfaces on soft substrates using flexible material as building blocks

  4. Effect of Housing System, Slaughter Age and Sex on Slaughter and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hrnčár

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of housing system slaughterage and sex on performance and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Theexperiment was carried out in half-operation conditions experimental base ofDepartment of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry of Slovak Universityof Agriculture in Nitra. A total of 60 one day old ducklings (type Peking DuckWhite were randomly divided to 2 housing groups: three-floor cage system anddeep litter system, both under uniform microclimate conditions. The housingsystem, slaughter age and sex significantly affected the slaughter weights ofbroiler ducks in 49 and 56 day of fattening. The results of this study showed the influenceof housing system, sex and slaughter age on slaughter and carcass parameters.The slaughter and carcass parameters were statistically higher (P0.05. The some slaughterand carcass parameters of male ducks were statistically higher (P<0.05 comparedwith female ducks.

  5. Mapping wetlands in Nova Scotia with multi-beam RADARSAT-2 Polarimetric SAR, optical satellite imagery, and Lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahncke, Raymond; Leblon, Brigitte; Bush, Peter; LaRocque, Armand

    2018-06-01

    Wetland maps currently in use by the Province of Nova Scotia, namely the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) wetland inventory map and the swamp wetland classes of the DNR forest map, need to be updated. In this study, wetlands were mapped in an area southwest of Halifax, Nova Scotia by classifying a combination of multi-date and multi-beam RADARSAT-2 C-band polarimetric SAR (polSAR) images with spring Lidar, and fall QuickBird optical data using the Random Forests (RF) classifier. The resulting map has five wetland classes (open-water/marsh complex, open bog, open fen, shrub/treed fen/bog, swamp), plus lakes and various upland classes. Its accuracy was assessed using data from 156 GPS wetland sites collected in 2012 and compared to the one obtained with the current wetland map of Nova Scotia. The best overall classification was obtained using a combination of Lidar, RADARSAT-2 HH, HV, VH, VV intensity with polarimetric variables, and QuickBird multispectral (89.2%). The classified image was compared to GPS validation sites to assess the mapping accuracy of the wetlands. It was first done considering a group consisting of all wetland classes including lakes. This showed that only 69.9% of the wetland sites were correctly identified when only the QuickBird classified image was used in the classification. With the addition of variables derived from lidar, the number of correctly identified wetlands increased to 88.5%. The accuracy remained the same with the addition of RADARSAT-2 (88.5%). When we tested the accuracy for identifying wetland classes (e.g. marsh complex vs. open bog) instead of grouped wetlands, the resulting wetland map performed best with either QuickBird and Lidar, or QuickBird, Lidar, and RADARSAT-2 (66%). The Province of Nova Scotia's current wetland inventory and its associated wetland classes (aerial-photo interpreted) were also assessed against the GPS wetland sites. This provincial inventory correctly identified 62.2% of the grouped wetlands

  6. Effects of Alfalfa Meal on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Tract Development of Growing Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Jiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05. ii Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05. iii Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05. This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.

  7. Local Duck Fanning At Paddy Three Times Planting Areas ("IP Padi 300"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setioko A.R

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of duck husbandry in Indonesia is still run traditionally, herded in rice field or in the swampy area. This kind of husbandry seemed to be much preferred by farmers as they thought it was a simple and did not need high skill and high capital "IP padi 300" was a term of rice planting system tree times instead of twice in a year. This kind of changing might have significantly affected duck faming. The objective of the study was to observe the interactively effect of "IP padi 300" to duck husbandry at the same area. Two locations were choosen (Subang, West Jawa and Pemalang, Central Java with 5 farmers at each location to be involved in the study. As many as 1200 laying pullet ducks were distributed to 10 farmers at two locations. The farmers were suggested to raise laying ducks with their own systems (fully intensive, semi intensive and fully herded and were observed for 6 months. Biota was observed on both field and in the crop of the laying ducks. There was an interactive effect of "IP padi 300" and the duck farming on the same area. The availability of feed was increased on the "IP padi 300", which gave benefit to duck farming especially fue herded system, not to go far from owner's home base. Whilst the benefit to "IP padi 300" was assumed to the reduction of pest and desease, which was frequently attacked the rice field. The production of egg from herded duck was very fluctuative due to the movement and feed availability in the rice field. Field biota in Subang and Pemalang was very much the same in profile, although "golden snail" was only found in Subang. Ducks' crop content seemed to be very much similar with the profile of field biota, although rice grain was the most in the crop. Thus, it was found that field biota was not reduced by "IP padi 300", in fact it was rather increased.

  8. Dynamically Determining the Toll Plaza Capacity by Monitoring Approaching Traffic Conditions in Real-Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheolsun Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analytical method for dynamically adjusting toll plaza capacity to cope with a sudden shift in demand. The proposed method uses a proxy measure developed using discharge rate observed at toll plazas and segment travel times measured by probe vehicles. The effectiveness of the method has been evaluated by analyzing the empirical data obtained from toll plazas in the San Francisco Bay Area before and after toll plaza capacity changed. Findings indicate that the estimated number of vehicles stored near the upstream of toll plaza based on discharge rate and their travel times can be used as a proxy measure for predicting the effect of changes in toll plaza capacity. The proposed model can aid government agencies to dynamically adjust the toll plaza capacity in response to a sudden shift in demand due to various situations of failure.

  9. Temporal flexibility of reproduction in temperate-breeding dabbling ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.

    2000-01-01

    I compared nesting intervals during three consecutive years in five species of temperate-nesting dabbling ducks (Mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], Northern Pintail [Anas acuta], Northern Shoveler [Anas clypeata], Blue-winged Teal [Anas discors], Gadwall [Anas strepera]) and assessed whether differences existed in timing of refractoriness. Most nesting by females of all five species ended by the summer solstice. Nesting ended earliest for Northern Shovelers and Northern Pintails and latest for Gadwalls. Some Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls continued to nest into mid- and late summer, whereas Northern Shovelers and Northern pintails did not. Mallards, Blue-winged Teal, and Gadwalls accounted for 99% (81 of 82) of flightless broods resulting from nests initiated during mid- or late summer in North Dakota and 98% (58 of 59) of flightless juveniles shot on or after 1 October by a random sample of duck hunters from across the United States. Early cessation of breeding by Northern Shovelers may have evolved in response to the species' limited flexibility in diet. Photorefractory mechanisms that limit most breeding to spring presumably evolved in response to severe constraints on reproductive success when nesting continued through summer(e.g. mortality of late-hatched young and molting females due to low temperatures). Interspecific differences in photosensitivity may account for variation in timing of cessation of nesting in late spring, but controlled experiments are needed to assess the possible role of non-photic influences. My results suggest that the refractory mechanisms controlling length of the breeding in temperate-nesting dabbling ducks are more varied and complex than previously thought, with non-photic influences (e.g. water conditions, food availability, food quality) having a larger role than indicated by earlier research.

  10. Salted and preserved duck eggs: a consumer market segmentation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jennifer; Wiseman, Kelleen; Cheng, K M

    2015-08-01

    The combination of increasing ethnic diversity in North America and growing consumer support for local food products may present opportunities for local producers and processors in the ethnic foods product category. Our study examined the ethnic Chinese (pop. 402,000) market for salted and preserved duck eggs in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objective of the study was to develop a segmentation model using survey data to categorize consumer groups based on their attitudes and the importance they placed on product attributes. We further used post-segmentation acculturation score, demographics and buyer behaviors to define these groups. Data were gathered via a survey of randomly selected Vancouver households with Chinese surnames (n = 410), targeting the adult responsible for grocery shopping. Results from principal component analysis and a 2-step cluster analysis suggest the existence of 4 market segments, described as Enthusiasts, Potentialists, Pragmatists, Health Skeptics (salted duck eggs), and Neutralists (preserved duck eggs). Kruskal Wallis tests and post hoc Mann-Whitney tests found significant differences between segments in terms of attitudes and the importance placed on product characteristics. Health Skeptics, preserved egg Potentialists, and Pragmatists of both egg products were significantly biased against Chinese imports compared to others. Except for Enthusiasts, segments disagreed that eggs are 'Healthy Products'. Preserved egg Enthusiasts had a significantly lower acculturation score (AS) compared to all others, while salted egg Enthusiasts had a lower AS compared to Health Skeptics. All segments rated "produced in BC, not mainland China" products in the "neutral to very likely" range for increasing their satisfaction with the eggs. Results also indicate that buyers of each egg type are willing to pay an average premium of at least 10% more for BC produced products versus imports, with all other characteristics equal. Overall

  11. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  12. The Growth of Protein Crystals Using McDUCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Felicia; Wilson, Lori; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Most of the current microgravity crystal growth hardware is optimized to produce crystals within the limited time available on orbit. This often results in the actual nucleation and growth process being rushed or the system not coming to equilibrium within the limited time available. Longer duration hardware exists, but one cannot readily pick out crystals grown early versus those which nucleated and grew more slowly. We have devised a long duration apparatus, the Multi-chamber Dialysis Unit for Crystallization Kinetics, or McDUCK. This apparatus-is a series of protein chambers, stacked upon a precipitant reservoir chamber. All chambers are separated by a dialysis membrane, which serves to pass small molecules while retaining the protein. The volume of the Precipitant chamber is equal to the sum of the volumes of the protein chamber. In operation, the appropriate chambers are filled with precipitant solution or protein solution, and the McDUCK is placed standing upright, with the precipitant chamber on the bottom. The precipitant diffuses upwards over time, with the time to reach equilibration a function of the diffusivity of the precipitant and the overall length of the diffusion pathway. Typical equilibration times are approximately 2-4 months, and one can readily separate rapid from slow nucleation and growth crystals. An advantage on Earth is that the vertical precipitant concentration gradient dominates that of the solute, thus dampening out solute density gradient driven convective flows. However, large Earth-grown crystals have so far tended to be more two dimensional. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of lysozyme crystals grown in McDUCK have indicated that the best, and largest, come from the middle chambers, suggesting that there is an optimal growth rate. Further, the improvements in diffraction resolution have been better signal to noise ratios in the low resolution data, not an increase in resolution overall. Due to the persistently large crystals

  13. Irradiation studies of mallard duck eggs material containing Mirex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, R.H.; Grodner, R.M.; Graves, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs containing Mirex (dodecachloropentacyclo[5.3.0.0 2 , 6 .0 3 , 9 .0 4 , 8 ]decane) from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhychos l.), fed diets with the insecticide incorporated at levels of 1 and 100 ppM for 25 weeks, were subjected to ultraviolet (uv) and γ irradiation. Seven derivatives were obtained on photolysis and eight derivatives were obtained from γ irradiation. Irradiation products appeared to be mono and dihydro derivatives of Mirex. Structural assignments for two monohydro derivatives and three dihydro derivatives were made on the basis of retention time and mass spectral data

  14. Two-Dimensional Zymography of Proteases from Steatotic Duck Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkesman, Jeff; Padrón, María Fernanda; Kurz, Liliana; Rémignon, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Protease activity present in liver cells with steatosis can be electrophoretically characterized. Zymographic techniques allow semi-quantitative results, successfully detecting cathepsin and metalloprotease activity using polyacrylamide gels copolymerized with gelatin and quantified by densitometry. By using specific inhibitors, the identity of the proteases can be confirmed. 2D zymography allows the determination of both M r. and pI of the metalloprotease and cathepsin activity present in the homogenates. The analysis of liver proteases activities in force fed ducks may elucidate the mechanisms behind steatosis development.

  15. Archiving California’s historical duck nesting data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Brady, Caroline; Eadie, John M.; Yarris, Greg S.

    2015-07-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the California Waterfowl Association (CWA) and other organizations, have compiled large datasets on the nesting ecology and management of dabbling ducks and associated upland nesting birds (Northern Harriers [Circus cyaneus], Short-eared Owls [Asio flammeus], Ring-necked Pheasants [Phasianus colchicus], and American Bitterns [Botaurus lentiginosus]) throughout California on Federal Refuges, State Wildlife Areas, and private lands, some participating in State and Federal habitat programs. These datasets encompass several long-term monitoring programs at multiple sites throughout California, and include data from more than 26,000 nests and span nearly 30 years.

  16. Age-class separation of blue-winged ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, W.L.; Moore, J.L.; Twedt, D.J.; Mensik, John G.; Logerwell, E.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate determination of age is of fundamental importance to population and life history studies of waterfowl and their management. Therefore, we developed quantitative methods that separate adult and immature blue-winged teal (Anas discors), cinnamon teal (A. cyanoptera), and northern shovelers (A. clypeata) during spring and summer. To assess suitability of discriminant models using 9 remigial measurements, we compared model performance (% agreement between predicted age and age assigned to birds on the basis of definitive cloacal or rectral feather characteristics) in different flyways (Mississippi and Pacific) and between years (1990-91 and 1991-92). We also applied age-classification models to wings obtained from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service harvest surveys in the Mississippi and Central-Pacific flyways (wing-bees) for which age had been determined using qualitative characteristics (i.e., remigial markings, shape, or wear). Except for male northern shovelers, models correctly aged lt 90% (range 70-86%) of blue-winged ducks. Model performance varied among species and differed between sexes and years. Proportions of individuals that were correctly aged were greater for males (range 63-86%) than females (range 39-69%). Models for northern shovelers performed better in flyway comparisons within year (1991-92, La. model applied to Calif. birds, and Calif. model applied to La. birds: 90 and 94% for M, and 89 and 76% for F, respectively) than in annual comparisons within the Mississippi Flyway (1991-92 model applied to 1990-91 data: 79% for M, 50% for F). Exclusion of measurements that varied by flyway or year did not improve model performance. Quantitative methods appear to be of limited value for age separation of female blue-winged ducks. Close agreement between predicted age and age assigned to wings from the wing-bees suggests that qualitative and quantitative methods may be equally accurate for age separation of male blue-winged ducks. We interpret annual

  17. Thoughts on controls on evolution and dispersal of benthos in the Magellan-Scotia Sea region: a workshop proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R.A. Thomson

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scotia Arc and the Scotia Sea comprise a geologically young feature of the Earth’s surface that evolved over the last 40 million years (Ma or so, between the southern tip of South America and the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. With the notable exception of the much younger South Sandwich Islands, the islands, banks and seamounts of the arc represent dispersed fragments of a previous continental link between southern South America (Magellan region and the Antarctic Peninsula. The benthic marine shelf faunas of the region are the focus of the IBMANT (Investigación Biolólogica Marina en Magallanes relacionada con la Antártida programme, and those of the surrounding oceanic deeps are the focus of ANDEEP (Antarctic Benthic Deep-Sea Biodiversity. Elucidating the potential relationships between the faunas of the region and the profound geographical, oceanographic and climatic changes undergone by the region in later Cenozoic time is hampered by significant unknowns in the geological history, the expense of further geoscientific exploration to fill these, and a general lack of communication between the biological and geological science communities. It is suggested that the time is opportune for a truly multidisciplinary workshop at which all the involved science communities have much to gain from the others.

  18. An integrated approach to dam safety evaluation. A case study: Upper Lake Falls Dam, Nova Scotia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, P.M.; Rattue, D.A.; Brown, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Upper Lake Falls Dam is located in southwestern Nova Scotia. It is the uppermost hydroelectric development in a series of six developments on the Mersey River. The total capacity of the Mersey River system is 42 MW. The reservoir of Upper Lake Falls, Lake Rossignol, is the largest in Nova Scotia with a total area of 66 square miles and a gross storage of 800,000 acre-feet. An overview is presented of the hydrologic and hydraulic investigations carried out for the dam, which is classified as having high hazard potential because of permanent village and urban developments located downstream. The general methodology adopted in the study consisted of the following: gathering and verifying all meteorologic and hydrologic data; evaluating the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) assumed to occur over the basin, and of the antecedent conditions prior to the PMP; calibrating a watershed model on flood events generated by rainfall, and by a combination of snowmelt and rainfall, and verifying the model using additional hydrologic events; deriving the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) using the PMP results simulated on the calibrated watershed model; hydrodynamic routing of the flood hydrograph through all the developments; dambreak analysis, following sequential or independent failures; and flood inundation mapping. Details are given of safety analysis of the earthfill and concrete dam structures, reservoir management and cost-benefit analyses. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  19. Effects of different wavelengths of light on the biology, behavior, and production of grow-out Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C L; Colton, S; Haas, R; Rice, M; Porter, A; Schenk, A; Meelker, A; Fraley, S M; Fraley, G S

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that red light conditions may improve growth and decrease aggressive behaviors in chickens and turkeys; however, more recent studies suggest that blue-green light may improve production of broilers over red light. To date, no research has been conducted to examine whether different wavelengths of light have an impact on production in the Pekin duck. To determine this, we raised Pekin ducks under aviary conditions that were similar to standard commercial barns. The ducks were kept in 3 different pens: red light (approximately 625 nm), blue light (approximately 425 nm), and white light. Light sources in each pen were standardized to produce a peak energy at 1.6 × 10³ μM photons/m²/s at the level of the ducks' heads. Ducks were given ad libitum access to water and commercial duck diet, and were housed on pine shavings at a density of 0.43 m²/duck. Ducks were evaluated weekly for BW and condition and a subjective measure of the duck's anxiety levels was determined. We found that ducks housed under blue light had significantly (P study (processing age; 35 d). Unlike ducks housed under red or white light, ducks housed in the blue pen showed a higher level of anxiety; while evaluators were in the pen a majority of them began panting, they were much less inquisitive than other ducks, they took longer to exhibit normal social behavior once evaluation was completed, and they frequently "swarmed" when no people were present. There were no differences in any measurements between the red and white-lighted pens. These data suggest that unlike the chicken, blue lights may be inappropriate for raising Pekin ducks in a commercial setting. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Thinking like a duck: fall lake use and movement patterns of juvenile ring-necked ducks before migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Charlotte L; Fieberg, John; Scharenbroich, Christopher; Herwig, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    The post-fledging period is one of the least studied portions of the annual cycle in waterfowl. Yet, recruitment into the breeding population requires that young birds have sufficient resources to survive this period. We used radio-telemetry and generalized estimating equations to examine support for four hypotheses regarding the drivers of landscape scale habitat use and movements made by juvenile ring-necked ducks between the pre-fledging period and departure for migration. Our response variables included the probability of movement, distances moved, and use of different lake types: brood-rearing lakes, staging lakes, and lakes with low potential for disturbance. Birds increased their use of staging areas and lakes with low potential for disturbance (i.e., without houses or boat accesses, >100 m from roads, or big lakes with areas where birds could sit undisturbed) throughout the fall, but these changes began before the start of the hunting season and their trajectory was not changed by the onset of hunting. Males and females moved similar distances and had similar probabilities of movements each week. However, females were more likely than males to use brood-rearing lakes later in the fall. Our findings suggest juvenile ring-necked ducks require different lake types throughout the fall, and managing solely for breeding habitat will be insufficient for meeting needs during the post-fledging period. Maintaining areas with low potential for disturbance and areas suitable for staging will ensure that ring-necked ducks have access to habitat throughout the fall.

  1. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  2. Death feigning by ducks in response to predation by red foxes (Vulpes fulva)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    Predation by captive red foxes (Vulpes fulva) on approximately 50 ducks comprised of five species was observed in tests conducted at the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota. Most ducks were attacked from a rear or lateral position and seized in the cervical or thoracic region. All birds became immobile (death-feigned) immediately when seized and with few exceptions remained motionless during prey-handling and for varying lengths of time thereafter. Initial death feints lasted from 20 sec to 14 min. Recovery was delayed by tactile, visual and, possibly, auditory cues from the foxes. Death-feigning birds appeared alert and often took advantage of escape opportunities. Twenty-nine birds survived initial capture and handling by the foxes. Naive foxes were wary of ducks during initial confrontations, but experienced foxes showed little hesitation in attacking them. After capture, most ducks were taken alive to lay-down sites where they were mouthed and often killed. Then the ducks were usually cached or taken to dens or pups. Several birds were cached alive. Red foxes appear to have adapted to the escape of death-feigning ducks by learning to kill some birds soon after capture and by the evolution of an appendage-severing behavior. Death feigning appears to be a highly developed antipredator behavior of ducks that facilitates the escape of some birds after capture by red foxes.

  3. Optimizing the Performance of Solo Duck Wave Energy Converter in Tide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinming Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The high efficiency performance of the Edinburgh Duck wave energy converter (WEC in 2D regular wave tests makes it a promising wave energy conversion scheme. A solo Duck WEC will be able to apply the point absorber effect to further enhance its performance. Since released degree of freedom will decrease the efficiency, a Duck WEC with fixed pitching axis will be a better option. However, for fixed supported WECs, tide is a non-ignorable consideration. In this paper, a movable mass method is utilized in the whole tidal range to not only balance the Duck to appropriate beak angles, but also follow the variation of hydrodynamic coefficients to keep cancelling the reactance of the system impedance so that complex conjugate control can be realized to optimize the power capture performance of the Duck WEC in tide. Results show that the beak angle should be adjusted to as large a value as possible so that the response amplitude of the Duck at maximum relative capture width will be reasonable small, and the lowest weight of the movable mass is found when its designed position locates at the center of the Duck profile.

  4. Mitochondrial D-loop sequence of domesticated waterfowl in Central Java: goose and muscovy duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R.; Iswari, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the genetic characterization of domesticated waterfowl (goose and Muscovy duck) in Central Java based on a D-loop mtDNA gene. The D-loop gene was amplified using PCR technique by specific primer and sequenced using dideoxy termination method. Multiple alignments of D-loop gene obtained were 710 nucleotides at position 74 to 783 at the 5’ end (for goose) and 712 nucleotides at position 48 to 759 at the 5’ end (for Muscovy duck). The results of the polymorphism analysis on D-loop sequences of muscovy duck produced 3 haplotypes. In the D-loop gene of goose does not show polymorphism, with substitution at G117A. Phylogenetic trees reconstructions of goose and Muscovy duck, which was collected during this research compared with another species from Anser, Chairina and Anas was generated 2 forms of clusters. The first group consists of all kind of Muscovy duck together with Chairina moschata and Anas, while the second group consists of all geese and Anser cygnoides the other. The determination of Muscovy duck and geese identity can be distinguished from the genetic marker information. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, it can be concluded that the Muscovy duck is closely related to Chairina moschata, while geese is closely related to Anser cygnoides.

  5. Science foundation Chapter 5 Appendix 5.1: Case study diving ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Yarris, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Diving ducks are the most abundant group of waterfowl that overwinter in the open bays and ponds of San Francisco Bay (SFB). Species within this group are primarily benthivores that dive to obtain their macroinvertebrate prey in bottom sediments, although at times they may eat plant matter or forage in the water column. These migratory species include bay ducks (lesser scaup Aythya affinis, greater scaup A. marila, canvasback A. valisineria), sea ducks (surf scoter Melanitta perspicillata and bufflehead Bucephala albeola), and a stiff-tailed duck (ruddy duck Oxyura jamaicensis). These species vary from largest to smallest body mass: canvasback, greater scaup, surf scoter, lesser scaup, ruddy duck, and bufflehead. Their breeding grounds range from Central Valley grasslands, intermountain wetlands, prairie potholes, boreal forest, and Arctic tundra. Their wintering populations in SFB are most abundant between October and April, and SFB comprises up to 50% of the number counted during midwinter surveys on the lower Pacific coast. Species are found in all SFB regions, but greater scaup and surf scoter are most often seen in subtidal to intertidal waters and are not commonly found in baylands. In contrast, ruddy duck and bufflehead populations are most abundant in baylands, particularly in managed ponds. Canvasbacks are commonly found at estuaries or creek mouths.

  6. Phylogenetic and pathogenic characterization of novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, Katrina; Skerratt, Lee; Franson, J. Christian; Hollmen, Tuula E.

    2015-01-01

    Novel adenoviruses were isolated from a long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) mortality event near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in 2000. The long-tailed duck adenovirus genome was approximately 27 kb. A 907 bp hexon gene segment was used to design primers specific for the long-tailed duck adenovirus. Nineteen isolates were phylogenetically characterized based on portions of their hexon gene and 12 were most closely related to Goose adenovirus A. The remaining 7 shared no hexon sequences with any known adenoviruses. Experimental infections of mallards with a long-tailed duck reference adenovirus caused mild lymphoid infiltration of the intestine and paint brush hemorrhages of the mucosa and dilation of the intestine. This study shows novel adenoviruses from long-tailed ducks are diverse and provides further evidence that they should be considered in cases of morbidity and mortality in sea ducks. Conserved and specific primers have been developed that will help screen sea ducks for adenoviral infections.

  7. Detection and molecular characterization of J subgroup avian leukosis virus in wild ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangwei; Liu, Lanlan; Hao, Ruijun; Han, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in wild ducks in China, we examined samples from 528 wild ducks, representing 17 species, which were collected in China over the past 3 years. Virus isolation and PCR showed that 7 ALV-J strains were isolated from wild ducks. The env genes and the 3'UTRs from these isolates were cloned and sequenced. The env genes of all 7 wild duck isolates were significantly different from those in the prototype strain HPRS-103, American strains, broiler ALV-J isolates and Chinese local chicken isolates, but showed close homology with those found in some layer chicken ALV-J isolates and belonged to the same group. The 3'UTRs of 7 ALV-J wild ducks isolates showed close homology with the prototype strain HPRS-103 and no obvious deletion was found in the 3'UTR except for a 1 bp deletion in the E element that introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study demonstrated the presence of ALV-J in wild ducks and investigated the molecular characterization of ALV-J in wild ducks isolates.

  8. Evaluation of chlorpyrifos transferred from contaminated feed to duck commodities and dietary risks to Chinese consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Ji, Xiaofeng; He, Liang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wei, Wei; Qiang, Mingrong; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Yuwei

    2015-06-03

    The present study describes chlorpyrifos residues in duck commodities through the duck food chain, transfer factors, and dietary risks to Chinese consumers. After duck feeding experiments with pellet feed that lasted for 42 days, chlorpyrifos residues found in all samples collected from the ducks on maximum estimated dose group (3.20 mg/kg level) were from chlorpyrifos had a low persistency in duck meat and metabolism organs. The chronic exposure assessment revealed that only 0.034-0.150% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI; 0-0.01 mg/kg/bw/day) of chlorpyrifos was consumed via the duck commodities for different age and gender groups in China. The acute exposure assessments of different age and gender groups were only 0.019-0.082% of the acute reference dose (ARfD; 0-0.1 mg/kg/bw). The results show that the single dietary exposure risk of chlorpyrifos raised by the intake of duck commodities was quite low in China.

  9. Advertising displays of male Musk Ducks indicate population subdivision across the Nullarbor Plain of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Fullagar, P.J.; Slater, E.C.; Paton, D.C.; Afton, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    Acoustic advertising displays (n=75) of male Musk Ducks Biziura lobata were analysed at ten widely spaced geographic localities in South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia. Vocalisations differed in a fixed, non-overlapping pattern between allopatric Musk Duck populations in southeastern and southwestern Australia. These findings suggest that Musk Duck populations are subdivided by the Nullarbor Plain, the arid treeless desert at the head of the Great Australian Bight. Three vocalisations performed by male Musk Ducks not previously reported in the literature were documented also. Vocalisations of captive Musk Ducks collected from different geographic regions (southeast and southwest) differed between regions from which captives originally were collected and were unlike those performed by wild birds. Based on calls of immature Musk Ducks, acoustic variation within regional populations and the apparent inability of captive Musk Ducks reared in isolation to develop the wild type adult call, regional dialects seemingly are acquired in a social context by repeated observance of adult males and some combination of social imprinting, learning, or practice.

  10. Duck egg-drop syndrome caused by BYD virus, a new Tembusu-related flavivirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingliang Su

    Full Text Available Since April 2010, a severe outbreak of duck viral infection, with egg drop, feed uptake decline and ovary-oviduct disease, has spread around the major duck-producing regions in China. A new virus, named BYD virus, was isolated in different areas, and a similar disease was reproduced in healthy egg-producing ducks, infecting with the isolated virus. The virus was re-isolated from the affected ducks and replicated well in primary duck embryo fibroblasts and Vero cells, causing the cytopathic effect. The virus was identified as an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus with a size of approximately 55 nm in diameter. Genomic sequencing of the isolated virus revealed that it is closely related to Tembusu virus (a mosquito-borne Ntaya group flavivirus, with 87-91% nucleotide identity of the partial E (envelope proteins to that of Tembusu virus and 72% of the entire genome coding sequence with Bagaza virus, the most closely related flavivirus with an entirely sequenced genome. Collectively our systematic studies fulfill Koch's postulates, and therefore, the causative agent of the duck egg drop syndrome occurring in China is a new flavivirus. Flavivirus is an emerging and re-emerging zoonotic pathogen and BYD virus that causes severe egg-drop, could be disastrous for the duck industry. More importantly its public health concerns should also be evaluated, and its epidemiology should be closely watched due to the zoonotic nature of flaviviruses.

  11. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam A. Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI. Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1 and the other fifteen (Group 2 were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1. The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1. Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis. Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations. Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1 became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs.

  12. Morphometric Traits of Muscovy Ducks from Two Agro Ecological Zones of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation between Muscovy ducks from the guinea savannah and rainforest zones of Nigeria was examined using multivariate discriminant analysis. Data comprised eight morphometric traits measured in a total of 435 adult ducks randomly selected in the two agro-ecological zones. Common descriptive statistics showed that ducks from the rainforest zone had higher (P< 0.05 body weight, foot length and thigh circumference, while their guinea savannah counterparts were longer (P< 0.05 in the neck. Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that foot length, neck length, thigh circumference and body length were more effective in discriminating between the duck populations. The low Mahalanobis distance of 3.39, as revealed by the canonical discriminant analysis, is an indication of high gene flow between ducks from the two agro-ecological zones. The cluster analysis also revealed the homogeneity of the genetic identity of the duck populations. The present information will be the basis for further characterization, conservation and sustainable genetic improvement strategies for indigenous ducks.

  13. Effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on growth performance in Muscovy ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sheng-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary Bacillus subtilis natto could affect growth performance of Muscovy ducks. A total of 120 hundred Muscovy ducks at the age of 1 day were randomly assigned to four groups (30 Muscovy ducks/group, and fed with diets supplemented with 0% (control group, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto, respectively during the 6-week feeding period. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Muscovy ducks were significantly improved by the dietary addition of Bacillus subtilis natto, and the results were more significant in 0.4% dietary Bacillus subtilis natto treatment group; Also, Bacillus subtilis natto reduced Escherichia coli and Salmonella colonies, and increased lactobacilli population in the ileum and the cecum. Biochemical parameters, including total protein, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase, AKP (alkaline phosphatase, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4 contents (pBacillus subtilis natto was added to the diets (p0.05. The results of the present study indicate that diets with 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto improved the growth performance of Muscovy ducks by increasing the absorption of protein, simulating hormone secretion, suppressing harmful microflora, and improving the duodenal structure and immune functions of Muscovy ducks. It is suggested that Bacillus subtilis natto is a potential candidate to be used use as a probiotic to improve the growth performance of Muscovy ducks.

  14. Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2014-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of adiposity in domestic ducks by transcriptomic comparison with their wild counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Luo, J; Li, J X; Li, J J; Wang, D Q; Tian, Y; Lu, L Z

    2015-06-01

    Excessive adiposity is a major problem in the duck industry, but its molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Genetic comparisons between domestic and wild animals have contributed to the exploration of genetic mechanisms responsible for many phenotypic traits. Significant differences in body fat mass have been detected between domestic and wild ducks. In this study, we used the Peking duck and Anas platyrhynchos as the domestic breed and wild counterpart respectively and performed a transcriptomic comparison of abdominal fat between the two breeds to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome basis of adiposity in ducks. We obtained approximately 350 million clean reads; assembled 61 250 transcripts, including 23 699 novel ones; and identified alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, skipped exons and retained intron as the main alternative splicing events. A differential expression analysis between the two breeds showed that 753 genes exhibited differential expression. In Peking ducks, some lipid metabolism-related genes (IGF2, FABP5, BMP7, etc.) and oncogenes (RRM2, AURKA, CYR61, etc.) were upregulated, whereas genes related to tumor suppression and immunity (TNFRSF19, TNFAIP6, IGSF21, NCF1, etc.) were downregulated, suggesting adiposity might closely associate with tumorigenesis in ducks. Furthermore, 280 576 single-nucleotide variations were found differentiated between the two breeds, including 8641 non-synonymous ones, and some of the non-synonymous ones were found enriched in genes involved in lipid-associated and immune-associated pathways, suggesting abdominal fat of the duck undertakes both a metabolic function and immune-related function. These datasets enlarge our genetic information of ducks and provide valuable resources for analyzing mechanisms underlying adiposity in ducks. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. A comparison of long bone development in historical and contemporary ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyhe, R C; Applegate, T J; Lilburn, M S; Karcher, D M

    2012-11-01

    The selection for growth and carcass traits in poultry meat species has contributed to increased interest in understanding and characterizing skeletal growth as the birds struggle to balance skeletal development with increased BW and muscle mass. The objective of this study was to compare the physical characteristics and mineralization of the tibia and femur from commercial Pekin ducks representing circa 1993 and 2010 commercial strains. In 1993, the femur and tibia were collected from 8 ducks at 11 ages between 11 and 53 d. A similar study was done in 2010 in which the femur and tibia were collected from 8 ducks at 12 sample ages between 10 and 49 d. All bones were weighed and the length and width at 50% of length were measured. Each bone was subsequently cut into epiphyseal (top 25% of length) and diaphyseal (midregion at 50% of length) sections. Each bone segment was extracted with ether, hot weighed, and ashed. The 2010 contemporary ducks reached market weight faster than the 1993 ducks. Therefore, statistical comparisons were made at common BW as well as at common ages. The mean tibia length of the 2010 duck was 0.75 cm greater (P ducks. The percentage epiphyseal ash in the femur was 10% lower (P ducks but there were no significant differences by 18 d of age. The lower epiphyseal ash values at both younger ages and smaller BW in the 2010 contemporary ducks suggests that it is critical to monitor those factors that influence bone mineralization in contemporary ducklings that can achieve market BW at earlier chronological ages.

  17. Penggantian Sebagian Ransum Komersial dengan Polar dan Aditif Duck mix terhadap Komposisi Fisik Karkas Itik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Siti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The substitution a part of commercial feed with pollard and duck mix additive on duck carcass physic composition ABSTRACT. The aim of this experiment was to study pollard optimum levels with additive complex mineral vitamin on the carcass physic composition Balinese male duck age 10 weeks, was carried out at Jl. Binginambe, Kediri village, Tabanan Regency. The design which used in this experiment a completely randomized design Those four treatments were ration contain 100% commercial feed (A; ration with 85% commercial feed + 15% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (B; ration with 70% commercial feed + 30% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (C; ration with 55% commercial feed + 45% pollard + 0,3% duck mix (D, respectively. The variables which measured were carcass weight, carcass percent, and carcass physic composition. The result of this experiment showed that the substitution commercial feed with pollard from 15-45% and duck mix were not significant (P >0.05 decrease carcass percent, carcass bone percent than treatment A. Meat percent on treatment B 1.81% non significant (P>0.05 increase than treatment A, but C and D treatments 2.63% and 4.87% significantly increase than treatment A. Subcutan fat on C and D treatments 6.72% and 6.67% significant lower (P <0.05 than treatment A, and D treatment 4.91% significant lower than treatment B. From the result of this experiment can be concluded that substitution pollard from 15%-45% with additive 0.3% duck mix were decrease carcass percent and bone carcass percent, but substitution pollard 30% and 45% can increase meat carcass percent and decrease fat Balinese male duck age 10 weeks.

  18. Current Views of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On microbial invasion, the host immediately evokes innate immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that Toll-like receptors (TLRs play crucial roles in innate responses that lead not only to the clearance of pathogens but also to the efficient establishment of acquired immunity by directly detecting molecules from microbes. In terms of intracellular TLR-mediated signaling pathways, cytoplasmic adaptor molecules containing Toll/IL-1R (TIR domains play important roles in inflammatory immune responses through the production of proinflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide, and type I interferon, and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. In this paper, we will describe our current understanding of the relationship between TLRs and their ligands derived from pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Moreover, we will review the historical and current literature to describe the mechanisms behind TLR-mediated activation of innate immune responses.

  19. Comparison of Different Toll Policies in the Dynamic Second-best Optimal Toll Design Problem : Case study on a Three-link network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sta?ková, K.; Olsder, J.J.; Bliemer, M.C.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamic optimal toll design problem is considered as a one leader-many followers hierarchical non-cooperative game. On a given network the road authority as the leader tolls some links in order to reach its objective, while travelers as followers minimize their perceived travel

  20. Toll-Like Receptors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hosseini, Akbar; Majidi, Jafar; Baradaran, Behzad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of transmembrane receptors, which play a key role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Beside of recognizing specific molecular patterns that associated with different types of pathogens, TLRs may also detect a number of self-proteins and endogenous nucleic acids. Activating TLRs lead to the heightened expression of various inflammatory genes, which have a protective role against infection. Data rising predominantly from human patients an...

  1. Assembly of Oligomeric Death Domain Complexes during Toll Receptor Signaling*

    OpenAIRE

    Moncrieffe, Martin C.; Grossmann, J. Günter; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila Toll receptor is activated by the endogenous protein ligand Spätzle in response to microbial stimuli in immunity and spatial cues during embryonic development. Downstream signaling is mediated by the adaptor proteins Tube, the kinase Pelle, and the Drosophila homologue of myeloid differentiation primary response protein (dMyD88). Here we have characterized heterodimeric (dMyD88-Tube) and heterotrimeric (dMyD88-Tube-Pelle) death domain complexes. We show ...

  2. Substantiation of the road toll for heavy transport vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Burmaka, N.; Chernykh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The existing and possible additional sources of developing state and local road funds of Ukraine have been considered. The formula for calculating monthly road toll for heavy transport vehicles has been proposed. This formula includes the payment rate per every kilometer of distance, the vehicle capacity utilization factor and the run with the load. The payment rate per every kilometer of distance for transport vehicles depending on the allowed total weight has been substantiated. The given r...

  3. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  4. Ecology of fall-migrating ducks in central Illinois: A radar perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Benjamin J.

    Research from the last two decades has elucidated the importance of migration in the annual cycle of ducks, but many aspects of migration ecology remain poorly understood due to the difficulty of investigating movements that occur over large spatial scales, at substantial heights and at night. Weather surveillance radar (WSR) offers a unique tool for observing movements of birds aloft, but until now has been used primarily to address questions only relevant to broad taxonomic groups. Using thermal infrared imaging, portable radar, and natural history, I ground-truthed WSR echoes originating from a complex of wetlands in the central Illinois River valley to develop a technique for identifying and enumerating ducks as they emigrated from this important stopover area. With this technique, I quantified duck emigrations during 7 falls (1996, 1997, 2003, and 2005-2008). I used WSR-derived estimates of annual turnover in combination with aerial inventory estimates of duck use to estimate the average amount of time ducks spent at my study site during fall (stopover duration). The mean stopover duration estimate of 11 days (SD = 4 days) was much shorter than a historical estimate (28 days) that has been use for regional waterfowl conservation planning. I also regressed average annual stopover duration estimates against an index of annual foraging habitat quality and found a strong, positive relationship (r2 = 0.71), suggesting ducks assessed local habitat conditions and adjusted time spent at the site. Weather influences the timing of migration in many avian taxa, but this relationship is poorly understood for ducks. An evaluation of competing models including 15 years of data indicated following winds aloft, no precipitation, less cloud cover, decreasing temperatures, increasing barometric pressure and date best predicted emigration (R2 = 0.52). Based on this model, the odds of a duck emigration occurring when winds were following and precipitation was absent were 13.2 to

  5. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil.2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds.3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil.4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  6. MARKETING STRATEGY FOR START UP BUSINESS OF BROILER PEKING DUCK FARM WITH ECO-GREEN INTEGRATED

    OpenAIRE

    Silitonga N.; Syah T.Y.R.; Erni N.

    2018-01-01

    The increasing number and the rate of Banten population growth from year to year make it as a potential market which is quite large for the development of broiler duck farming business in the future. In this case, intensive system broiler Peking duck farming which is integrated, economic, and eco-green intensive, eco-green commonly utilizes Azolla microphylla and flour of pluchea leaves and other germ plasmas as the feed supplements. As a company in Peking duck farming with Eco Green concept,...

  7. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting-Wei, E-mail: M10126010@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jai-Wei, E-mail: joeylee@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hsueh-Yen, E-mail: M9926012@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsiao, E-mail: M10126011@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chun-Yen, E-mail: cychu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Animal Vaccine Technology, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun, E-mail: sllin100@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo Ping, E-mail: guoping@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Department of Cosmetics and Fashion styling, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chi, E-mail: chiyu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  8. Assembly of Oligomeric Death Domain Complexes during Toll Receptor Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieffe, Martin C.; Grossmann, J. Günter; Gay, Nicholas J.

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila Toll receptor is activated by the endogenous protein ligand Spätzle in response to microbial stimuli in immunity and spatial cues during embryonic development. Downstream signaling is mediated by the adaptor proteins Tube, the kinase Pelle, and the Drosophila homologue of myeloid differentiation primary response protein (dMyD88). Here we have characterized heterodimeric (dMyD88-Tube) and heterotrimeric (dMyD88-Tube-Pelle) death domain complexes. We show that both the heterodimeric and heterotrimeric complexes form kidney-shaped structures and that Tube is bivalent and has separate high affinity binding sites for dMyD88 and Pelle. Additionally we found no interaction between the isolated death domains of Pelle and dMyD88. These results indicate that the mode of assembly of the heterotrimeric dMyD88-Tube-Pelle complex downstream of the activated Toll receptor is unique. The measured dissociation constants for the interaction between the death domains of dMyD88 and Tube and of Pelle and a preformed dMyD88-Tube complex are used to propose a model of the early postreceptor events in Drosophila Toll receptor signaling. PMID:18829464

  9. Assembly of oligomeric death domain complexes during Toll receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieffe, Martin C; Grossmann, J Günter; Gay, Nicholas J

    2008-11-28

    The Drosophila Toll receptor is activated by the endogenous protein ligand Spätzle in response to microbial stimuli in immunity and spatial cues during embryonic development. Downstream signaling is mediated by the adaptor proteins Tube, the kinase Pelle, and the Drosophila homologue of myeloid differentiation primary response protein (dMyD88). Here we have characterized heterodimeric (dMyD88-Tube) and heterotrimeric (dMyD88-Tube-Pelle) death domain complexes. We show that both the heterodimeric and heterotrimeric complexes form kidney-shaped structures and that Tube is bivalent and has separate high affinity binding sites for dMyD88 and Pelle. Additionally we found no interaction between the isolated death domains of Pelle and dMyD88. These results indicate that the mode of assembly of the heterotrimeric dMyD88-Tube-Pelle complex downstream of the activated Toll receptor is unique. The measured dissociation constants for the interaction between the death domains of dMyD88 and Tube and of Pelle and a preformed dMyD88-Tube complex are used to propose a model of the early postreceptor events in Drosophila Toll receptor signaling.

  10. The Aedes aegypti toll pathway controls dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Xi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference-based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway-associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway.

  11. Novel genetic markers of the carbonic anhydrase II gene associated with egg production and reproduction traits in Tsaiya ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M-T; Cheng, Y-S; Huang, M-C

    2013-02-01

    In our previous cDNA microarray study, we found that the carbonic anhydrase II (CA2) gene is one of the differentially expressed transcripts in the duck isthmus epithelium during egg formation period. The aim of this study was to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CA2 gene of Tsaiya ducks. The relationship of SNP genotype with egg production and reproduction traits was also investigated. A total of 317 ducks from two lines, a control line with no selection and a selected line, were employed for testing. Three SNPs (C37T, A62G and A65G) in the 3'-untranslated region of the CA2 gene were found. SNP-trait association analysis showed that SNP C37T and A62G were associated with duck egg weight besides fertility. The ducks with the CT and AG genotypes had a 1.46 and 1.62 g/egg lower egg weight as compared with ducks with the CC and AA genotypes, respectively (p ducks with CT and AG genotypes had 5.20% and 4.22% higher fertility than those with CC and AA genotypes, respectively (p duck fertility, and the diplotype H1H4 was dominant for duck fertility. These findings might provide the basis for balanced selection and may be used in marker-assisted selection to improve egg weight and fertility simultaneously in the Tsaiya ducks. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Genomic and pathogenic analysis of a Muscovy duck parvovirus strain causing short beak and dwarfism syndrome without tongue protrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu; Wan, Chunhe; Fu, Guanghua; Qi, Baomin; Cheng, Longfei; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Zhenhai

    2017-12-01

    In 2008, clinical cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) caused by Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) infection were found in mule duck and Taiwan white duck farms in Fujian, China. A MDPV LH strain causing duck SBDS without tongue protrusion was isolated in this study. Phylogenetic analysis show that the MDPV LH strain was clustered together with other MDPV strains, but divergent from GPV isolates. Two major fragment deletions were found in the inverted terminal repeats (ITR) of MDPV LH similar to the ones in the ITR of MDPV GX5, YY and SAAS-SHNH strains. To investigate the pathogenicity of the MDPV LH strain, virus infection of young mule ducks was performed. The infected ducks showed SBDS symptoms including retard growth and shorten beaks without tongue protrusion. Atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was identified in the infected ducks. The results show that MDPV LH strain is moderately pathogenic to mule duck, leading to occurrence of SBDS. As far as we know, it is the first study showing that SBDS without tongue protrusion, and atrophy of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius possibly associated with immunosuppression were found in the MDPV-infected ducks. The established duck-MDPV-SBDS system will help us to further work on the virus pathogenesis and develop efficacious vaccine against MDPV infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Trade patterns facilitating highly pathogenic avian influenza virus dissemination in the free-grazing layer duck system in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A; Dinh, T X; Han, T A; Do, D V; Nhu, T V; Pham, L T; Nguyen, T T T; Newman, S; Häsler, B; Pfeiffer, D U; Vergne, T

    2018-04-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to threaten smallholder poultry producers in several South-east Asian countries, including Vietnam. In particular, the free-grazing duck system has been repeatedly highlighted as a major risk factor for HPAI outbreaks. Free-grazing ducks, which scavenge on rice paddies after the harvest, account for a large proportion of the duck population in Vietnam and the wider South-east Asian region. However, the structure and dynamics of the free-grazing duck production from farm to consumption has not been described for Vietnam. In this study, we used a value chain approach to provide a complete picture of the actors involved in the production and marketing of free-grazing duck eggs and spent layer ducks, as well as to investigate the governance structure of this food system. Group interviews and key informant interviews were conducted in two provinces located in the Mekong River Delta (MRD) and the Red River Delta (RRD). The results presented here highlight similarities and differences in farming and trade practices between the two provinces. The trade of spent layer ducks involved large volumes of live ducks being sent to China and Cambodia for consumption, generating a substantial risk of transboundary spread of pathogens, including HPAI viruses. We describe the major role of "duck yards", which act as hubs in the northbound trade of spent layer ducks. These yards should be considered as essential links in the value chain of spent layer ducks when considering HPAI surveillance and control. The veterinary authorities are only marginally involved in the value chain activities, and their influence could be strengthened by increasing surveillance activities for instance in duck yards. Last, we discuss the dynamics of the duck value chain and further implications for future HPAI management policies. © 2017 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The economic impact of a partnership-measurement model of disease management: Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crémieux, Pierre-Yves; Fortin, Pierre; Meilleur, Marie-Claude; Montague, Terrence; Royer, Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Improving Cardiovascular Outcomes in Nova Scotia (ICONS) was a five-year, community partnership-based disease-management project that sought, as a primary goal, to improve the care and outcomes of patients with heart disease in Nova Scotia. This program, based on a broad stakeholder partnership, provided repeated measurement and feedback on practices and outcomes as well as widespread communication and education among all partners. From a clinical viewpoint, ICONS was successful. For example, use of proven therapies for the target diseases improved and re-hospitalization rates decreased. Stakeholders also perceived a sense of satisfaction because of their involvement in the partnership. However, the universe of health stakeholders is large, and not many have had an experience similar to ICONS. These other health stakeholders, such as decision-makers concerned with the cost of care and determining the value for cost, might, nonetheless, benefit from knowledge of the ICONS concepts and results, particularly economic analyses, as they determine future health policy. Using budgetary data on actual dollars spent and a robust input-output methodology, we assessed the economic impact of ICONS, including trickle-down effects on the Canadian and Nova Scotian economies. The analysis revealed that the $6.22 million invested in Nova Scotia by the private sector donor generated an initial net increase in total Canadian wealth of $5.32 million and a global net increase in total Canadian wealth of $10.23 million, including $2.27 million returned to the different governments through direct and indirect taxes. Thus, the local, provincial and federal governments are important beneficiaries of health project investments such as ICONS. The various government levels benefit from the direct influx of private funds into the publicly funded healthcare sector, from direct and indirect tax revenues and from an increase in knowledge-related employment. This, of course, is in addition to the

  15. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  16. Inheritance patterns of enzymes and serum proteins of mallard-black duck hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R.P.; Meritt, D.W.; Block, S.B.; Cole, M.A.; Sulkin, S.T.; Lee, F.B.; Henny, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1976, a breeding program was used to produce hybrids of black ducks and mallards for the evaluation of inheritance patterns of serum proteins and serum, liver and muscle enzymes. In addition to the crosses designed to produce hybrids, a series of matings in 1975 and 1976 were designed to evaluate inheritance patterns of a hybrid with either a black duck or mallard. At the F1 level, hybrids were easily distinguished using serum proteins. However, once a hybrid was crossed back to either a mallard or black duck, only 12?23% of the progeny were distinguishable from black ducks or mallards using serum proteins and 23?39% using esterases. Muscle, serum and liver enzymes were similar between the two species.

  17. Harlequin duck capture and EROD activity data from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 2011, 2013, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This data set includes capture information and ethoxyresorufin­O­deethylase (EROD) activity results for harlequin ducks sampled during March 2011, 2013, and 2014 in...

  18. Cloning and characterisation of the SpToll gene from green mud crab, Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongyang; Qiao, Jie; Zhang, Yueling; Guo, Lingling; Huang, He; Yan, Fang; Li, Yuanyou; Wang, Xiuying

    2012-05-01

    Toll/Toll-like receptors (TLRs), one of the most important pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), play a crucial role in innate immune responses in both invertebrates and vertebrates. In this study, we cloned and characterised a Toll gene from Scylla paramamosain (SpToll). Bioinformatic analysis predicted that SpToll contained one open reading frame of 3018bp and encoded a single-pass transmembrane domain protein of 1005 amino acids. Further, SpToll could be clustered into one branch along with other arthropod Tolls in a phylogenetic tree. SpToll transcripts could be detected by RT-PCR from all tissues examined including the heart, gill, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestine, muscle, eyestalk and hemocytes. Infection by Vibrio parahemolyticus up-regulated SpToll mRNA expression in hemocytes after 48h. The profile of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) domain of SpToll in three healthy crabs was then evaluated. Two hundred and twenty SNPs with a frequency of about 1.0-4.0% were identified in hemocyte DNA/cDNA. Surprisingly, the adenine to guanine transition at position 1372 (c.1372A>G) had a frequency of about 50%. Finally, the results showed that challenge with V. parahemolyticus stimulated the appearance of two sets of SNPs in crabs. More importantly, the c.1372A>G mutation could contribute to a low mortality after V. parahemolyticus infection and introduce variation of charge and secondary structure into the SpToll polypeptide. In summary, these studies suggested a novel Toll homologue in crab and identified a SNP with potential pathogen-resistant activities. The result will be important for the investigation of crab immune defense mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physicochemical properties of meat of ducks of mulberries in modern technologies of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Galin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the chemical composition of mullards duck meat in comparison with the ducks of the Beijingg white breed and musk ducks. The chemical analysis results allow us to note the high moisture content for mullard duck meat. The low fat content for white and red mullard duck meat opens up wide opportunities for the development of an assortment of meat products with a functional orientation. The limited amino acids are determined. The total number of essential amino acids in the mullard duck meat is higher than in musk (by 1.02 g / 100 g protein and Beijingg (by 0.86 g / 100 g protein, which indicates a higher biological value. The limiting amino acid is methionine and cysteine. The article presents the results of the raw material aroma assessment using the "MAG 8" - "electronic nose" analyzer. The content of easily volatile compounds in the equilibrium gas phase for samples of muscle and fat tissue from ducks of different breeding was compared and evaluated. The most informative in the matrix are sensors with films of polydiethylene glycol succinate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol PEG-2000, 18-crown-6, trioctylphosphine oxidase, which show maximum sensitivity to polar and nitrogen-containing compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons. This is explained by the fact that the easily volatile fraction of both meat and fat of the samples under study is represented by a variety of organic compounds of different concentrations. Such a variety of substances can be perceived by tasters as "a noticeable smell, difficult". In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the aroma of muscle and fat tissue of mulard ducks is more intense, more saturated than the Beijingg duck. The obtained data on the chemical composition indicate possible dietary properties of meat of ducks of mullards. The rich, pronounced aroma of muscle and fatty tissue causes high organoleptic parameters of the finished product, which is

  20. Campylobacter jejuni colonization and population structure in urban populations of ducks and starlings in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vathsala; Stevenson, Mark; Marshall, Jonathan; Fearnhead, Paul; Holland, Barbara R; Hotter, Grant; French, Nigel P

    2013-08-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and the population structure of C. jejuni in European starlings and ducks cohabiting multiple public access sites in an urban area of New Zealand. The country's geographical isolation and relatively recent history of introduction of wild bird species, including the European starling and mallard duck, create an ideal setting to explore the impact of geographical separation on the population biology of C. jejuni, as well as potential public health implications. A total of 716 starling and 720 duck fecal samples were collected and screened for C. jejuni over a 12 month period. This study combined molecular genotyping, population genetics and epidemiological modeling and revealed: (i) higher Campylobacter spp. isolation in starlings (46%) compared with ducks (30%), but similar isolation of C. jejuni in ducks (23%) and starlings (21%), (ii) significant associations between the isolation of Campylobacter spp. and host species, sampling location and time of year using logistic regression, (iii) evidence of population differentiation, as indicated by FST , and host-genotype association with clonal complexes CC ST-177 and CC ST-682 associated with starlings, and clonal complexes CC ST-1034, CC ST-692, and CC ST-1332 associated with ducks, and (iv) greater genetic diversity and genotype richness in ducks compared with starlings. These findings provide evidence that host-associated genotypes, such as the starling-associated ST-177 and ST-682, represent lineages that were introduced with the host species in the 19th century. The isolation of sequence types associated with human disease in New Zealand indicate that wild ducks and starlings need to be considered as a potential public health risk, particularly in urban areas. © 2013 The Authors. Microbiology Open published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fa Qiong; Li, Ang; Lan, Jing Jing; Wang, Yue Ming; Yan, Mei Jiao; Lian, Sen Yang; Wu, Xu

    2018-01-01

    The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC) supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated) with ABCG2 (up-regulated) and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  2. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of formation of green eggshell color in ducks through global gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fa Qiong Xu

    Full Text Available The green eggshell color produced by ducks is a threshold trait that can be influenced by various factors, such as hereditary, environment and nutrition. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic regulation of the formation of eggs with green shells in Youxian ducks. We performed integrative analysis of mRNAs and miRNAs expression profiling in the shell gland samples from ducks by RNA-Seq. We found 124 differentially expressed genes that were associated with various pathways, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporter and solute carrier supper family pathways. A total of 31 differentially expressed miRNAs were found between ducks laying green eggs and white eggs. KEGG pathway analysis of the predicted miRNA target genes also indicated the functional characteristics of these miRNAs; they were involved in the ABC transporter pathway and the solute carrier (SLC supper family. Analysis with qRT-PCR was applied to validate the results of global gene expression, which showed a correlation between results obtained by RNA-seq and RT-qPCR. Moreover, a miRNA-mRNA interaction network was established using correlation analysis of differentially expressed mRNA and miRNA. Compared to ducks that lay white eggs, ducks that lay green eggs include six up-regulated miRNAs that had regulatory effects on 35 down-regulated genes, and seven down-regulated miRNAs which influenced 46 up-regulated genes. For example, the ABC transporter pathway could be regulated by expressing gga-miR-144-3p (up-regulated with ABCG2 (up-regulated and other miRNAs and genes. This study provides valuable information about mRNA and miRNA regulation in duck shell gland tissues, and provides foundational information for further study on the eggshell color formation and marker-assisted selection for Youxian duck breeding.

  4. Restoration ecology: aiding and abetting secondary succession on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Vander Kloet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using vegetative clumps derived from seeds with a variety of origins to establish nuclei for regeneration of bog vegetation on abandoned peat mines in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick (Canada was tested using seeds within scats (excrement and seeds from berries, various techniques for creating clumps, and different clump sizes. Direct placement of scat pieces on peat in the field did not produce successful colonisation. Vegetative clumps begun in a greenhouse, whether from seeds extracted from scats or berries, were 60–100 % successful when transplanted into abandoned peat mines depending on the initial size of the transplant. Based on annual growth rate, Vaccinium oxycoccos has the greatest capacity to quickly colonise abandoned peat mines. Other promising taxa were Vaccinium vitis-ideae and the genus Empetrum.

  5. Deadly occupations: Assessing tuberculosis and accidental mortality among male workers in Sydney and Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, 1909–1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ludlow

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines associations between occupation and cause of death among 802 working-age males (15 to 64 years of age who diedin two single-industry communities (Glace Bay and Sydney in Nova Scotia between 1909 and 1917. Employment in mining and steelmanufacturing is assessed for cause-specific mortality among men who died in Canada’s early industrial era, with a particular focus ondeaths due to tuberculosis (n=140, or 18% of deaths and accidents (n=225, or 28% of deaths. Factoring in the effects of occupation,age at death, birthplace, community, and marital status, logistic regression results indicate that, among the men who died, occupation is a significant predictor for accidental deaths (relative to all other causes of death but not for tuberculosis-related deaths. Interpretation of these results is grounded in a broader perspective on the nature of living and working conditions in these two single-industry communities.

  6. Methylmercury: Second generation reproductive and behavioral effects of mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) whose parents were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury (equal to about 0.1 ppm mercury in a natural diet) also were fed a diet containing 0.5 ppm mercury beginning at 9 days of age and continuing through their reproductive season. Mercury in the eggs of treated hens averaged 0.86 ppm. Hens fed 0.5 ppm mercury made less efficient use of feed and laid a greater percentage of eggs outside nestboxes compared with controls. Hens fed mercury also produced fewer 1-week-old ducklings than did controls. There were no significant differences between controls and ducklings from parents fed 0.5 ppm mercury in approach responses to tape-recorded maternal calls, in avoidance of a frightening stimulus, or in open-field behavior. Ducklings from parents fed 0.5 pprn mercury did not grow as fast as did control ducklings.

  7. [Book review] Ducks, geese and swans of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.

    1983-01-01

    This is the 3rd edition of the classic work "The Ducks, Geese and Swans of North America," which was first published in December 1942.  The original edition was authored by Francis C. Kortright with color plates by T. M. Shortt. An authoritative reference on North American waterfowl for many years, the book had become outdated as a result of major advances in the field of waterfowl biology. The need to update the 1st edition culminated in the publication in 1976 of a 2nd edition authored by Frank Bellrose. Readers interested in comparing features of the 1976 edition with other major recent works on North American waterfowl by P. A. Johnsgard and R. S. Palmer should read Weller (1977, Auk 94: 173).

  8. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle occupant safety in Nova Scotia--a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, Natalie L; Kirkland, Susan A; LeBlanc, John C; Langille, Donald B

    2012-03-01

    To determine discrepancies between knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle restraints (CMVRs) and vehicle seating position amongst parents within the province of Nova Scotia. Random telephone survey. The Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Four hundred and twenty-six households with at least one child under the age of 12 years, totaling 723 children. The proportion of parents whose children who should be in a specific stage of CMVR and sitting in the rear seat of the vehicle, and who demonstrate correct knowledge of that restraint system and seating position, yet do not use that restraint system/seating position for their child (demonstrate practice discrepant from their knowledge). Awareness of what restraint system to use is good (>80%). However, knowledge of when it is safe to graduate to the next stage is low (30-55%), most marked for when to use a seatbelt alone. Awareness of the importance of sitting in the rear seat of a vehicle was universal. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice were most marked with booster seats and rear-seating of older children. Factors influencing incorrect practice (prematurely graduated to a higher-level restraint system than what is appropriate for age and weight) included lower household income, caregiver education level, and knowledge of when to graduate from forward-facing car seats and booster seats. Incorrect practice was also more commonly observed amongst children of weight and/or age approaching (but not yet reaching) recommended graduation parameters of the appropriate CMVR. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice are evident through all stages of CMVRs, but most marked with booster seats. The roles of lower socioeconomic status and gaps in CMVR legislation, in influencing discrepant practice, must be acknowledged and suggest the need for targeted education concurrent with development of comprehensive all-stages CMVR policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: Environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Timothy W. [Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Guyn, Lindsay [Department of Information and Evaluation Unit, Mental Health and Psychiatric Services, Calgary Health Region (Canada); Lane, Stephanie E.

    2006-09-15

    In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current

  10. Terrestrial liming to promote Atlantic Salmon recovery in Nova Scotia - approaches needed and knowledge gained after a trial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, S. M.; Angelidis, C.; Armstrong, M.; Biagi, K. M.; Clair, T. A.; Jackson, N.; Breen, A.

    2014-09-01

    Populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Southwest Nova Scotia (SWNS) have plummeted since the 1980s. Acidification is considered a main threat to this population. The lakes and streams of SWNS were among the most heavily acidified in North America during the last century and calcium levels are predicted to continue to fall in coming decades. One of the most promising mitigation options to reduce the risk of extirpation of the SWNS Salmo salar is terrestrial liming; however, both the chemistry of SWNS rivers, and effective strategies for terrestrial liming in SWNS are poorly understood. Here we have launched the first terrestrial liming study in Nova Scotia, employing a test hydrologic source area liming strategy in a 5 ha experimental catchment in SWNS, Maria Brook; we apply an average local application rate of 13 t ha-1 to 10% of the 47 ha catchment. We employ high frequency stream monitoring to complement grab sampling to identify which constituents pose a threat to Salmo salar and to identify strategies for larger scale terrestrial liming that would fit the local conditions. Results indicate that the water chemistry conditions are currently at toxic levels for Salmo salar throughout the year, with levels of ionic aluminium exceeding toxic thresholds almost 100% of the time. The stream chemistry in Maria Brook is remarkably similar to pre-recovery conditions in other heavily acidified watersheds, such as Birkenes in Norway. Our results support the hypothesis that there has been no recovery from acidification in SWNS. Results from the first year of post-liming do not show an improvement in stream chemistry levels, and further lime application is needed to improve the water chemistry conditions to needed levels for the recovery of Salmo salar.

  11. Incidence and Carrier Frequency of CFTR Gene Mutations in Pregnancies With Echogenic Bowel in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle E; Allen, Victoria M; Brock, Jo-Ann K

    2018-03-01

    Fetal echogenic bowel (echogenic bowel) is associated with cystic fibrosis (CF), with a reported incidence ranging from 1% to 13%. Prenatal testing for CF in the setting of echogenic bowel can be done by screening parental or fetal samples for pathogenic CFTR variants. If only one pathogenic variant is identified, sequencing of the CFTR gene can be undertaken, to identify a second pathogenic variant not covered in the standard screening panel. Full gene sequencing, however, also introduces the potential to identify variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) that can create counselling challenges and cause parental anxiety. To provide accurate counselling for families in the study population, the incidence of CF associated with echogenic bowel and the carrier frequency of CFTR variants were investigated. All pregnancies for which CF testing was undertaken for the indication of echogenic bowel (from Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island) were identified (January 2007-July 2017). The CFTR screening and sequencing results were reviewed, and fetal outcomes related to CF were assessed. A total of 463 pregnancies with echogenic bowel were tested. Four were confirmed to be affected with CF, giving an incidence of 0.9% in this cohort. The carrier frequency of CF among all parents in the cohort was 5.0% (1 in 20); however, when excluding parents of affected fetuses, the carrier frequency for the population was estimated at 4.1% (1 in 25). CFTR gene sequencing identified an additional VUS in two samples. The incidence of CF in pregnancies with echogenic bowel in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island is 0.9%, with an estimated population carrier frequency of 4.1%. These results provide the basis for improved counselling to assess the risk of CF in the pregnancy, after parental carrier screening, using Bayesian probability. Counselling regarding VUSs should be undertaken before gene sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by

  12. Development of local knowledge of environmental contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: Environmental health practice from an environmental justice perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Timothy W.; Guyn, Lindsay; Lane, Stephanie E.

    2006-01-01

    In Sydney, Nova Scotia, from 1901 through 1988 a coke and steel factory operated with no pollution controls, depositing over a million tons of particulate matter and releasing several thousands of tons of coal tar into the estuary. Previously we documented the presence of lead, arsenic and PAHs, in soil above Canadian guidelines, and in house dust in the communities surrounding the site [Lambert, TW, Lane, S. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds. Environ Health Perspect 2004; 112:35-41.]. In this paper we further the research by documenting and developing community knowledge with a study of resident's observations and experiences of the industrial contamination. We conducted two surveys, a quantitative door-to-door survey and qualitative dust interview, designed to complement each other and bring together the observations and experiences in the different communities to develop the local knowledge. The combined methodology uses techniques from both social and physical science, and was developed with the cooperation of community members. The research supports the proposition that local knowledge adds contextual meaning that complements the physical measurement of environmental contaminants, in order to understand the complex environment in which people live, and the multiple exposure pathways through which they can be affected. Residents in all three communities provided vivid observations and detailed experiences of the industrial pollution in their community and homes. The local knowledge is consistent with our physical data and review of the historical scientific research in Sydney, and supports the inference that the community was adversely impacted by the coke and steel facility. From a justice perspective, the three communities should be equally considered for remediation as part of the 'tar pond remediation policy' rather than the current policy of including

  13. The ESASSI-08 cruise in the South Scotia Ridge region: An inverse model property-transport analysis over the Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Margarita; Gomis, Damià; Del Mar Flexas, Maria; Jordà, Gabriel; Naveira-Garabato, Alberto; Jullion, Loic; Tsubouchi, Takamasa

    2010-05-01

    The ESASSI-08 oceanographic cruise carried out in January 2008 was the most significant milestone of the ESASSI project. ESASSI is the Spanish component of the Synoptic Antarctic Shelf-Slope Interactions (SASSI) study, one of the core projects of the International Polar Year. Hydrographical and biochemical (oxygen, CFCs, nutrients, chlorophyll content, alkalinity, pH, DOC) data were obtained along 11 sections in the South Scotia Ridge (SSR) region, between Elephant and South Orkney Islands. One of the aims of the ESASSI project is to determine the northward outflow of cold and ventilated waters from the Weddell Sea into the Scotia Sea. For that purpose, the accurate estimation of mass, heat, salt, and oxygen transport over the Ridge is requested. An initial analysis of transports across the different sections was first obtained from CTD and ADCP data. The following step has been the application of an inverse method, in order to obtain a better estimation of the net flow for the different water masses present in the region. The set of property-conservation equations considered by the inverse model includes mass, heat and salinity fluxes. The "box" is delimited by the sections along the northern flank of the SSR, between Elephant Island and 50°W, the southern flank of the Ridge, between 51.5°W and 50°W, the 50°W meridian and a diagonal line between Elephant Island and 51.5°W, 61.75°S. Results show that the initial calculations of transports suffered of a significant volume imbalance, due to the inherent errors of ship-ADCP data, the complicated topography and the presence of strong tidal currents in some sections. We present the post-inversion property transports across the rim of the box (and their error bars) for the different water masses.

  14. Linkage of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging to provincial administrative health care databases in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, A M; Kephart, G; Rockwood, K

    2001-01-01

    The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) was a cohort study that included 528 Nova Scotian community-dwelling participants. Linkage of CSHA and provincial Medical Services Insurance (MSI) data enabled examination of health care utilization in this subsample. This article discusses methodological and ethical issues of database linkage and explores variation in the use of health services by demographic variables and health status. Utilization over 24 months following baseline was extracted from MSI's physician claims, hospital discharge abstracts, and Pharmacare claims databases. Twenty-nine subjects refused consent for access to their MSI file; health card numbers for three others could not be retrieved. A significant difference in healthcare use by age and self-rated health was revealed. Linkage of population-based data with provincial administrative health care databases has the potential to guide health care planning and resource allocation. This process must include steps to ensure protection of confidentiality. Standard practices for linkage consent and routine follow-up should be adopted. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) began in 1991-92 to explore dementia, frailty, and adverse health outcomes (Canadian Study of Health and Aging Working Group, 1994). The original CSHA proposal included linkage to provincial administrative health care databases by the individual CSHA study centers to enhance information on health care utilization and outcomes of study participants. In Nova Scotia, the Medical Services Insurance (MSI) administration, which drew the sampling frame for the original CSHA, did not retain the list of corresponding health card numbers. Furthermore, consent for this access was not asked of participants at the time of the first interview. The objectives of this study reported here were to examine the feasibility and ethical considerations of linking data from the CSHA to MSI utilization data, and to explore variation in health

  15. Modelling the distribution of chickens, ducks, and geese in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Wu, Junxi; Ellis, Erie C.; Gale, Fred; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Global concerns over the emergence of zoonotic pandemics emphasize the need for high-resolution population distribution mapping and spatial modelling. Ongoing efforts to model disease risk in China have been hindered by a lack of available species level distribution maps for poultry. The goal of this study was to develop 1 km resolution population density models for China's chickens, ducks, and geese. We used an information theoretic approach to predict poultry densities based on statistical relationships between poultry census data and high-resolution agro-ecological predictor variables. Model predictions were validated by comparing goodness of fit measures (root mean square error and correlation coefficient) for observed and predicted values for 1/4 of the sample data which were not used for model training. Final output included mean and coefficient of variation maps for each species. We tested the quality of models produced using three predictor datasets and 4 regional stratification methods. For predictor variables, a combination of traditional predictors for livestock mapping and land use predictors produced the best goodness of fit scores. Comparison of regional stratifications indicated that for chickens and ducks, a stratification based on livestock production systems produced the best results; for geese, an agro-ecological stratification produced best results. However, for all species, each method of regional stratification produced significantly better goodness of fit scores than the global model. Here we provide descriptive methods, analytical comparisons, and model output for China's first high resolution, species level poultry distribution maps. Output will be made available to the scientific and public community for use in a wide range of applications from epidemiological studies to livestock policy and management initiatives.

  16. Differential effects of coyotes and red foxes on duck nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Sargeant, A.; Grier, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Low recruitment rates prevail among ducks in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America, primarily because of high nest depredation rates. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a major predator of duck eggs, but fox abundance is depressed by coyotes (Canis latrans). We tested the hypothesis that nest success of upland-nesting ducks is higher in areas with coyotes than in areas with red foxes. We conducted the study during 1990-92 in uplands of 36 areas managed for nesting ducks in North Dakota and South Dakota. Overall nest success averaged 32% (95% CI = 25-40) on 17 study areas where coyotes were the principal canid and 17% (CI = 11-25) on 13 study areas where red foxes were the principal canid (P = 0.01). Both canids were common on 6 other areas, where nest success averaged 25% (CI = 13-47). Habitat composition, predator communities with the exception of canids, and species composition of duck nests in coyote and red fox areas were similar overall. Upon examining only nests with greater than or equal to 6 eggs on the last visit prior to hatch or depredation, we determined nests with evidence characteristic of fox predation accounted for 4% of depredated nests in coyote areas and 27% in fox areas (P = 0.001). An expanding coyote population is contributing to higher overall nest success. Management of coyotes may be an effective method for increasing duck nest success.

  17. Effects of dietary gossypol concentration on growth performance, blood profiles, and hepatic histopathology in meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Yang, G L; Liu, G N; Wang, J P; Bai, S P; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Zhang, K Y

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM. All diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. The experiment included 2 phases, the starter phase (1 to 3 wk) where the test diets contained graded levels of CSM and the growth phase (4 to 5 wk) where birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet to examine the recovery of ducks after CSM withdrawal. Dietary CSM and gossypol linearly (P ducks among all treatments. These results suggest that meat ducks' dietary TG and FG concentration should be lower than 928.9 and 77.2 mg/kg, respectively, during d 1 to 21 of age and that a 2-wk withdrawal of diets containing gossypol should be considered. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Comparative amino acid digestibility for broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, C; Adeola, O

    2013-09-01

    A total of 608 three-week-old male broiler chickens and White Pekin ducks were used in a 5-d trial to compare ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) and canola meal (CM) using the regression method. A corn-casein-cornstarch-based diet was mixed to contain 15% CP. Cornstarch was replaced with test ingredient (SBM or CM) to contain 18 or 21% of CP in 4 other diets. A nitrogen-free diet (NFD) was used for standardization of apparent digestibility. Birds received a standard starter diet (23% CP) from d 0 to 14 posthatch and then 6 experimental diets for 5 d. On d 19 posthatch, birds were asphyxiated with CO(2), and digesta from the distal section of ileum was collected. The ileal digestibility of AA from the test ingredients was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis using data on daily apparent ileal digestible AA and total AA intakes. The basal endogenous losses of N and all AA for ducks were significantly higher than those for broilers. For ileal AA digestibility by regression of apparent digestible AA intake against AA intake, there was a higher (P ducks compared with broilers (P ducks, and Lys and Pro of broilers (P study showed that ducks have higher basal endogenous AA losses compared with broiler chickens as well as higher ileal Cys and Pro digestibility estimates derived from regression approach, indicating that data obtained from broilers should not be used to formulate diets for ducks.

  19. Infectious diseases, parasites, and biological toxins in sea ducks: Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J. Christian

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses disease agents in the broad sense, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoan and helminth parasites, and biological toxins. Some of these agents are known to cause mortality in sea ducks, some are thought to be incidental findings, and the significance of others is yet poorly understood. Although the focus of the chapter is on free-living sea ducks, the study of disease in this taxonomic group has been relatively limited and examples from captive sea ducks and other wild waterfowl are used to illustrate the pathogenicity of certain diseases. Much of the early work in sea ducks consisted of anecdotal and descriptive reports of parasites, but it was soon recognized that diseases such as avian cholera, renal coccidiosis, and intestinal infections with acanthocephalans were causes of mortality in wild populations. More recently, adenoviruses, reoviruses, and the newly emergent Wellfleet Bay virus, for example, also have been linked to die-offs of sea ducks. Declining populations of animals are particularly vulnerable to the threats posed by disease and it is important that we improve our understanding of the significance of disease in sea ducks. To conclude, we offer our recommendations for future directions in this field.

  20. Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus replication by mimic peptides in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongyu; Liu, Changhong; Yang, Ying; Zhu, Haihong; Chen, Feng; Liu, Jihong; Zhou, Linfu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of specific mimic peptides targeting duck hepatitis B virus polymerase (DHBVP) on duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) replication in primary duck hepatocytes. Phage display technology (PDT) was used to screen for mimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP and the associated coding sequences were determined using DNA sequencing. The selected mimic peptides were then used to treat primary duck hepatocytes infected with DHBV in vitro. Infected hepatocytes expressing the mimic peptides intracellularly were also prepared. The cells were divided into mimic peptide groups (EXP groups), an entecavir-treated group (positive control) and a negative control group. The medium was changed every 48 h. Following a 10-day incubation, the cell supernatants were collected. DHBV-DNA in the cellular nucleus, cytoplasm and culture supernatant was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eight mimic peptides were selected following three PDT screening rounds for investigation in the DHBV-infected primary duck hepatocytes. The qPCR results showed that following direct treatment with mimic peptide 2 or 7, intracellular expression of mimic peptide 2 or 7, or treatment with entecavir, the DHBV-DNA levels in the culture supernatant and cytoplasm of duck hepatocytes were significantly lower than those in the negative control (Pmimic peptide 7 was lower than that in the other groups (Pmimic peptide 7 was significantly lower than that in the other groups (PMimic peptides specifically targeting DHBVP, administered directly or expressed intracellularly, can significantly inhibit DHBV replication in vitro .

  1. Transcriptome analysis of duck liver and identification of differentially expressed transcripts in response to duck hepatitis A virus genotype C infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng; Lan, Daoliang; Zhang, Huanrong; Ma, Jing; Yue, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Duck is an economically important poultry and animal model for human viral hepatitis B. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying host-virus interaction remain unclear because of limited information on the duck genome. This study aims to characterize the duck normal liver transcriptome and to identify the differentially expressed transcripts at 24 h after duck hepatitis A virus genotype C (DHAV-C) infection using Illumina-Solexa sequencing. After removal of low-quality sequences and assembly, a total of 52,757 unigenes was obtained from the normal liver group. Further blast analysis showed that 18,918 unigenes successfully matched the known genes in the database. GO analysis revealed that 25,116 unigenes took part in 61 categories of biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. Among the 25 clusters of orthologous group categories (COG), the cluster for "General function prediction only" represented the largest group, followed by "Transcription" and "Replication, recombination, and repair." KEGG analysis showed that 17,628 unigenes were involved in 301 pathways. Through comparison of normal and infected transcriptome data, we identified 20 significantly differentially expressed unigenes, which were further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of the 20 unigenes, nine matched the known genes in the database, including three up-regulated genes (virus replicase polyprotein, LRRC3B, and PCK1) and six down-regulated genes (CRP, AICL-like 2, L1CAM, CYB26A1, CHAC1, and ADAM32). The remaining 11 novel unigenes that did not match any known genes in the database may provide a basis for the discovery of new transcripts associated with infection. This study provided a gene expression pattern for normal duck liver and for the previously unrecognized changes in gene transcription that are altered during DHAV-C infection. Our data revealed useful information for future studies on the duck genome and provided new insights into the molecular

  2. Physical and chemical data collected using bottle casts from the GENERAL SAN MARTIN in the Scotia Sea and Weddell Sea from 14 December 1963 to 11 January 1964 (NODC Accession 0000791)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in the Scotia Sea and Weddell Sea from the GENERAL SAN MARTIN. Data were collected from 14 December 1963...

  3. Impact of curcumin supplementation in monochromatic light on lipid serum profile of sexually mature female Magelang ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kasiyati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of curcumin supplementation inexpose monochromatic light on serum lipid concentrations of sexually mature female magelang duck. One hundred and ninety two female magelang ducks were assigned into a completely randomized design with a 4×4 factorial arrangement and each experimental unit was repeated 3 times, each with 4 female magelang ducks. The first factor was dose of curcumin supplementation consisted of 4 levels i.e., 0, 9, 18, and 36 mg/duck/day. The second factor was the color of monochromatic light consisted of 4 levels i.e., white, red, green, and blue colors. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The result showed that serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL were lower (P<0.05 while high density lipoprotein (HDL were higher (P<0.05 in experimental ducks supplemented with a curcumin dose of 36 mg/duck/day in variety of monochromatic light colors compared to control experimental ducks without curcumin supplementation. The curcumin doses of 18 or 36 mg/duck/day within red, green, or blue light had the potential to modulate lipid metabolism, as indicated by the increased serum concentration of HDL and the decreased serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, VLDL, and LDL of the experimental female magelang ducks.

  4. Examination of Growth Hormone (GH) Gene Polymorphism and its Association with Body Weight and Selected Body Dimensions in Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurowski, Artur; Frieske, Anna; Kokoszynski, Dariusz; Mroczkowski, Sławomir; Bernacki, Zenon; Wilkanowska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to assess the polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene and its association with some morphological traits (body weight--BW, length of trunk with neck--LTN, length of trunk--LT, chest girth--CG, length of breast bone--LBB, length of shank--LS). Polymorphism in intron 2 of the GH gene was evaluated for four duck populations (Pekin ducks AF51, Muscovy ducks from a CK and CRAMMLCFF mother and Mulard ducks). Genetic polymorphism was determined with the PCR-RFLP method using the BsmFI restriction enzyme. In the studied duck sample two alleles (GH(C) and GH(T)) and three genotypes (GH/TT, GH/CT, GH/CC) were found at locus GH/BsmFI. In both groups of Muscovies and in Mulards the dominant allele was GH(T). On the contrary in Pekin ducks AF51, the frequency of both alleles was found to be similar. The most frequent genotype in the examined ducks was GH/TT. In Pekin ducks AF51 three genotypes were observed, while in Mulard ducks and in male Muscovy ducks from a mother marked as CK, two genotypes (GH/TT and GH/CT) were identified. Muscovy duck females from a CK mother and all males and females of Muscovy duck from a CRAMMLCFF mother were monomorphic with only the GH/TTgenotype detected. The results showed that males of Pekin duck AF51 with the GH/TT genotype were characterized by higher (P ducks AF51, this same trend was observed; individuals with GH/TT genotype were superior (P ducks with the GH/TT genotype were distinguished by higher values of all evaluated traits compared to ducks with GH/CT and GH/CC genotypes, however most of the recorded differences were not significant. The only trait markedly impacted (P < 0.05) by the polymorphism of the GH gene intron 2 was the LS value in males.

  5. Is ability to hepatic steatosis influenced by age at the beginning of the overfeeding period in Muscovy and Pekin ducks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartrin, P; Bernadet, M D; Sannier, M; Baéza, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of species (Muscovy and Pekin ducks) and age at the beginning of the overfeeding period on fatty liver production, carcass composition and lipid and moisture content of the liver and breast muscle. We reared four groups of 40 ducks per species for the study, starting at 2-week intervals in order to have four different ages together at the beginning of the overfeeding period (10, 12, 14 and 16 weeks). At the end of the overfeeding period, all ducks were slaughtered. Our results confirmed the high levels of difference in carcass composition and lipid content in the plasma, liver and breast muscle between Muscovy and Pekin ducks at all ages. Pekin ducks were not able to develop a high degree of hepatic steatosis, but had increased lipid storage in peripheral adipose and muscle tissues than Muscovy ducks. However, the fatty liver weight of Pekin ducks increased with age, with lipid deposition in the liver and peripheral tissues. The ability of Muscovy ducks to produce fatty livers remained unchanged with age in line, with lipid deposition in the liver and peripheral tissues. The sites of lipid deposition thus depend on species and not on the physiological maturity of ducks.

  6. Risks of avian influenza transmission in areas of intensive free-ranging duck production with wild waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelle, Julien; Zhao, Delong; Gilbert, Marius; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Gaidet, Nicolas; Prosser, Diann J.; Liu, Ying; Li, Peng; Shu, Yuelong; Xiao, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    For decades, southern China has been considered to be an important source for emerging influenza viruses since key hosts live together in high densities in areas with intensive agriculture. However, the underlying conditions of emergence and spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) have not been studied in detail, particularly the complex spatiotemporal interplay of viral transmission between wild and domestic ducks, two major actors of AIV epidemiology. In this synthesis, we examine the risks of avian influenza spread in Poyang Lake, an area of intensive free-ranging duck production and large numbers of wild waterfowl. Our synthesis shows that farming of free-grazing domestic ducks is intensive in this area and synchronized with wild duck migration. The presence of juvenile domestic ducks in harvested paddy fields prior to the arrival and departure of migrant ducks in the same fields may amplify the risk of AIV circulation and facilitate the transmission between wild and domestic populations. We provide evidence associating wild ducks migration with the spread of H5N1 in the spring of 2008 from southern China to South Korea, Russia, and Japan, supported by documented wild duck movements and phylogenetic analyses of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 sequences. We suggest that prevention measures based on a modification of agricultural practices may be implemented in these areas to reduce the intensity of AIV transmission between wild and domestic ducks. This would require involving all local stakeholders to discuss feasible and acceptable solutions.

  7. The estimation of genetic distance and discriminant variables on breed of duck (Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan by morphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Brahmantiyo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on morphological body conformation of Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell, Mojosari and Pegagan ducks was carried out to determine the genetic distance and discriminant variables. This research was held in Research Institute for Animal Production, Ciawi, Bogor using 65 Alabio ducks, 40 Bali ducks, 36 Khaki Campbell ducks, 60 Mojosari ducks and 30 Pegagan ducks. Seven different body parts were measured, they were the length of femur, tibia, tarsometatarsus, the circumference of tarsometatarsus, the length of third digits, wing and maxilla. General Linear Models and simple discriminant analysis were used in this observation (SAS package program. Male and female Pegagan ducks had morphological size bigger than Alabio, Bali, Khaki Campbell and Mojosari ducks. Khaki Campbell ducks were mixed with Bali ducks (47.22% and Pegagan ducks from isolated location in South Sumatera were lightly mixed with Alabio and Bali. Mahalanobis genetic distance showed that Bali and Khaki Campbell ducks, also, Alabio and Mojosari ducks had similarity, with genetic distance of 1.420 and 1.548, respectively. Results from canonical analysis showed that the most discriminant variables were obtained from the length of femur, tibia and third digits.

  8. THE DIGESTIBILITY OF NUTRIENTS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS AND SOURCES OF LIPIDS IN DUCK DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Yu. Sychov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of digestibility of nutrients in ducklings was performed by use of feed contained the lipids from different levels and sources. Experimental studies were conducted in terms of problem research laboratory of feed additives of National Agriculture University of Ukraine. The material for scientific experiments was the ducklings of cross STAR 53 H.Y. Experiment was carried out by group-analog method. We determined the optimal content of crude fat in fodder of young ducks at the first stage of experiment and the best source of lipids at second stage. We increased the crude fat in duckling feed by the introduction of sunflower oil at first stage. The amount of fat in the duck feed was 5% in control group and this were 3% and 7% in group II and III. The ducks from experimental groups received feed with sunflower oil at the second stage of experiment, the ducks of group II and III obtained feed from soya, rapeseed, and palm fat. Feeding the ducks was done per group twice per day – in morning and evening. It was registered that the feeding of 8-14 days ducks by food with crude fat of 7% plausible increased the digestibility of protein by 3.2%, of fat by 5.1%, and nitrogen-free extractives matters by 2.7%. At the same time the use of feed for 36-42 days ducks with crude fat of 7% allows to get the best results with the more higher level of protein and fat digestibility by 4.9% and 4.8% respectively. The use of feed with the addition of soybean oil for duck feeding have a positive effect towards increasing the level of digestibility of organic matter, protein, fat, and fiber in all the duck age groups. At the same time the use of feed containing palm oil reduces the digestibility of fat by 4,1-6,7%  compared to control group, that obtained feed with sunflower oil . We confirmed the prospect of further research in order to to establish the optimal ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in the diet of ducks and to determine their

  9. Nonbreeding Duck Use and Management Contribution Trends for Central Flyway Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Kent; Davis, Craig A.; Harris, Grant; Haukos, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the U.S. portion of the Central Flyway, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages waterfowl on numerous individual units (i.e., Refuges) within the National Wildlife Refuge System. Presently, the extent of waterfowl use that Refuges receive and the contribution of Refuges to waterfowl populations (i.e., the proportion of the Central Flyway population registered at each Refuge) remain unassessed. Such an evaluation would help determine to what extent Refuges support waterfowl relative to stated targets, aid in identifying species requiring management attention, inform management targets, and improve fiscal efficiencies. Using historic monitoring data (1954–2008), we performed this assessment for 23 Refuges in Texas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska during migration and wintering months (October–March). We examined six dabbling ducks and two diving ducks, plus all dabbling ducks and all diving ducks across two periods (long-term [all data] and short-term [last 10 October–March periods]). Individual Refuge use was represented by the sum of monthly duck count averages for October–March. We used two indices of Refuge contribution: peak contribution and January contribution. Peak contribution was the highest monthly count average for each October–March period divided by the indexed population total for the Central Flyway in the corresponding year; January contribution used the January count average divided by the corresponding population index. Generally, Refuges in Kansas, Nebraska, and New Mexico recorded most use and contribution for mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Refuges along the Texas Gulf Coast recorded most use and contribution for other dabbling ducks, with Laguna Atascosa and Aransas (including Matagorda Island) recording most use for diving ducks. The long-term total January contribution of the assessed Refuges to ducks wintering in the Central Flyway was greatest for green-winged teal Anas creccawith 35%; 12–15% for American

  10. DMPD: Nuclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17349209 Nuclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. Carmody...uclear factor-kappaB: activation and regulation during toll-like receptorsignaling. Authors Carmody

  11. Simulation-Based Testbed Development for Analyzing Toll Impacts on Freeway Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Traffic congestion has been a world-wide problem in metropolitan areas all over the world. Toll-based traffic management is one of the most applicable solutions against freeway congestion. This research chooses two toll roads, the SR-167 HOT Lane and...

  12. Expressions of toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and relative cellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the expressions of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IFN-γ (IFN- gamma), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with tuberculosis (TB) infection. Methods: Two groups of ...

  13. Stimulation of the innate immune system of carp: role of Toll-like receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietretti, D.

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), named after the Toll gene identified in fruit flies, are a family of evolutionary conserved proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. TLRs are found inside or on the surface of immune cells of virtually all-living animals and recognize integral parts

  14. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available m. 2007 May 25;282(21):15319-23. Epub 2007 Mar 29. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons. Pub...medID 17395581 Title Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons. Authors Uematsu S,

  15. DMPD: Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to Tolls. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16095970 Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to Tolls. Jefferies CA, Fit...zgerald KA. Trends Mol Med. 2005 Sep;11(9):403-11. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Interferon gene regulation: not all roads... lead to Tolls. PubmedID 16095970 Title Interferon gene regulation: not all roads lead to

  16. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  17. Influence of indoor microbial aerosol on the welfare of meat ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G L; Wei, L M; Liu, Y Y; Liu, J Y; Wang, Y; Gao, J; Chai, T J; Cai, Y M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of microbial aerosols on ducks' welfare and provide information on which to establish microbial aerosol concentration standards for poultry. A total of 1800 1-d-old Cherry Valley ducks were randomly divided into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E) with 360 ducks in each. To obtain objective data, each group had three replications. Different microbial aerosol concentrations in different groups were created by controlling ventilation and bedding cleaning frequency. Group A was the control group and hygienic conditions deteriorated progressively from group B to E. A 6-stage Andersen impactor was used to detect the aerosol concentration of aerobes, fungi, gram-negative bacteria and an AGI-30 microbial air sampler detected endotoxins. Physiological stress was evaluated in the ducks by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) values in serum. To assess the effects of bioaerosol factors, welfare indicators including fluctuating asymmetry (FA), appearance and gait as well as the Lactobacillus caecal concentration were evaluated. The data showed group D had already reached the highest limit of concentration of airborne aerobic bacteria, airborne fungi, airborne gram-negative bacteria and airborne endotoxin. The ducks in this group had significantly increased serum ACTH values and significantly decreased caecal lactobacilli concentration. Furthermore, appearance and gait scores, wing length and overall FA and caecal Lactobacillus concentration in this group were significantly increased at 6 and 8 weeks of age. In conclusion, high concentrations of microbial aerosol adversely affected the welfare of meat ducks. The microbial aerosol values in group D suggest a preliminary upper limit concentration of bioaerosols in ambient air for healthy meat ducks.

  18. Flow cytometric DNA analysis of ducks accumulating 137Cs on a reactor reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, L.S.; Dallas, C.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Evans, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study was to detect red blood cell (rbc) DNA abnormalities in male, game-farm mallard ducks as they ranged freely and accumulated 137Cs (radiocesium) from an abandoned nuclear reactor cooling reservoir. Prior to release, the ducks were tamed to enable recapture at will. Flow cytometric measurements conducted at intervals during the first year of exposure yielded cell cycle percentages of DNA (G0/G1, S, G2 + M phases) of rbc, as well as coefficients of variation (CV) in the G0/G1 phase. DNA histograms of exposed ducks were compared with two sets of controls which were maintained 30 and 150 miles from the study site. 137Cs live wholebody burdens were also measured in these animals in a parallel kinetics study, and an approximate steady-state equilibrium was attained after about 8 months. DNA histograms from 2 of the 14 contaminated ducks revealed DNA aneuploid-like patterns after 9 months exposure. These two ducks were removed from the experiment at this time, and when sampled again 1 month later, one continued to exhibit DNA aneuploidy. None of the control DNA histograms demonstrated DNA aneuploid-like patterns. There were no significant differences in cell cycle percentages at any time point between control and exposed animals. A significant increase in CV was observed at 9 months exposure, but after removal of the two ducks with DNA aneuploidy, no significant difference was detected in the group monitored after 12 months exposure. An increased variation in the DNA and DNA aneuploidy could, therefore, be detected in duck rbc using flow cytometric analysis, with the onset of these effects being related to the attainment of maximal levels of 137Cs body burdens in the exposed animals

  19. Quantitative transmission characteristics of different H5 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niqueux, Éric; Picault, Jean-Paul; Amelot, Michel; Allée, Chantal; Lamandé, Josiane; Guillemoto, Carole; Pierre, Isabelle; Massin, Pascale; Blot, Guillaume; Briand, François-Xavier; Rose, Nicolas; Jestin, Véronique

    2014-01-10

    EU annual serosurveillance programs show that domestic duck flocks have the highest seroprevalence of H5 antibodies, demonstrating the circulation of notifiable avian influenza virus (AIV) according to OIE, likely low pathogenic (LP). Therefore, transmission characteristics of LPAIV within these flocks can help to understand virus circulation and possible risk of propagation. This study aimed at estimating transmission parameters of four H5 LPAIV (three field strains from French poultry and decoy ducks, and one clonal reverse-genetics strain derived from one of the former), using a SIR model to analyze data from experimental infections in SPF Muscovy ducks. The design was set up to accommodate rearing on wood shavings with a low density of 1.6 ducks/m(2): 10 inoculated ducks were housed together with 15 contact-exposed ducks. Infection was monitored by RNA detection on oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs using real-time RT-PCR with a cutoff corresponding to 2-7 EID50. Depending on the strain, the basic reproduction number (R0) varied from 5.5 to 42.7, confirming LPAIV could easily be transmitted to susceptible Muscovy ducks. The lowest R0 estimate was obtained for a H5N3 field strain, due to lower values of transmission rate and duration of infectious period, whereas reverse-genetics derived H5N1 strain had the highest R0. Frequency and intensity of clinical signs were also variable between strains, but apparently not associated with longer infectious periods. Further comparisons of quantitative transmission parameters may help to identify relevant viral genetic markers for early detection of potentially more virulent strains during surveillance of LPAIV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D; Zimmerman, Guthrie S; Dwyer, Chris P; Fleming, Kathleen K; Padding, Paul I; Devers, Patrick K; Johnson, Fred A; Runge, Michael C; Roberts, Anthony J

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  1. Tropism and infectivity of duck-derived egg drop syndrome virus in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kang

    Full Text Available Egg drop syndrome virus (EDSV can markedly decrease egg production in laying hens. Duck is the natural host of EDSV. EDSV derived from ducks abrogate egg drop in laying hens. We have previously confirmed that duck-derived EDSVs have a variety of replication activities in chick embryo liver (CEL cells. However, it is currently unclear whether duck-derived EDSV could display tropism and adaptation in laying hens. This study assessed whether duck-derived EDSV can adapt to laying hens, and estimated the inducing factors. Complete genome sequences of duck-derived EDSVs (D11-JW-012, D11-JW-017, and D11-JW-032 isolates with various replication efficiency in CEL cells and C10-GY-001 isolate causing disease in laying hens were analyzed to find their differences. Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequence revealed that C10-GY-001, D11-JW-032, and strain 127 virus as vaccine were clustered into the same group, with D11-JW-012 and D11-JW-017 clustered in another group. Comparison between D11-JW-012 isolate that poorly replicated and D11-JW-017 isolate that replicated well in CEL cells in same cluster revealed six amino acid differences on IVa2, DNA polymerase, endopeptidase, and DNA-binding protein. These amino acids might be key candidates enhancing cellular tropism in chicken. When the pathogenicities of these isolates in laying hens were compared, D11-JW-032 showed severe signs similar to 127 virus, D11-JW-017 showed intermediate signs, while D11-JW-012 showed almost no sign. Eleven amino acids differed between D11-JW-032 and D11-JW-017, and 17 amino acids were different between D11-JW-032 and D11-JW-012. These results suggest that EDSVs derived from ducks have various pathogenicities in laying hens. Key amino acid candidates might have altered their affinity to tropism of laying hens, causing difference pathogenicities.

  2. The status of sea ducks in the North Pacific Rim: Toward their conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudie, R. Ian; Brault, Solange; Conant, Bruce; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Vermeer, Kees; McCabe, Richard E.; Wadsworth, Kelly G.

    1994-01-01

    Sea ducks (tribe Mergini after Johnsgard 1960) are the most northerly distributed ducks, and species diversity is greatest in the North Pacific. They exploit a diversity of inshore and offshore marine habitats during the non-breeding season, and their use of habitat during breeding varies from coastal through freshwater wetlands of the tundra and taiga (Figure 1, Appendix 1). Non-breeding cohorts frequent marine habitats most of the year. Sea ducks thus are important indicators of the quality of freshwater and marine ecosystems of northern biomes.Of the 17 species discussed in this manuscript, at least 3 are reported to be declining (Appendix 2). However, the basis for many of those assessments is equivocal because there has been little effort to monitor populations. The efforts to more precisely assess their status point to catastrophic declines (Kertell 1991, Stehn et a 1993). Conservation problems related to sea ducks have a long history throughout the Holarctic. For example, the Labrador duck (Camptorhynchus labradorius) became extinct in 1875. (Phillips 1925); common eiders (Somateria mollissima) declined seriously throughout the northern hemisphere (Townsend 1914, Phillips 1925, Doughty 1979); harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) experienced declines in Iceland and Greenland (Gudmundsson1971, Salomonson 1950), and more recently have been designated endangered in eastern Canada (Committee On the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada 1990). In Russia, all species of eider and harlequin ducks have been closed to sport hunting since 1981, and the Chinese mergansers (Mergus squamatus) presently are extremely rare and fully protected, i.e. category one of the red book (Solomonov 1987).

  3. Isolation and characterization of a subtype C avian metapneumovirus circulating in Muscovy ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shikai; Chen, Feng; Cao, Sheng; Liu, Jiajia; Lei, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Song, Yongfeng; Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Chuang; Qin, Jianping; Li, Haiyan

    2014-07-25

    Subtype C avian metapneumovirus (aMPV-C), is an important pathogen that can cause egg-drop and acute respiratory diseases in poultry. To date, aMPV-C infection has not been documented in Muscovy ducks in China. Here, we isolated and characterized an aMPV-C, designated S-01, which has caused severe respiratory disease and noticeable egg drop in Muscovy duck flocks in south China since 2010. Electron microscopy showed that the isolate was an enveloped virus exhibiting multiple morphologies with a diameter of 20-500 nm. The S-01 strain was able to produce a typical cytopathic effect (CPE) on Vero cells and cause death in 10- to 11-day-old Muscovy duck embryos. In vivo infection of layer Muscovy ducks with the isolate resulted in typical clinical signs and pathological lesions similar to those seen in the original infected cases. We report the first complete genomic sequence of aMPV-C from Muscovy ducks. A phylogenetic analysis strongly suggested that the S-01 virus belongs to the aMPV-C family, sharing 92.3%-94.3% of nucleotide identity with that of aMPV-C, and was most closely related to the aMPV-C strains isolated from Muscovy ducks in France. The deduced eight main proteins (N, P, M, F, M2, SH, G and L) of the novel isolate shared higher identity with hMPV than with other aMPV (subtypes A, B and D). S-01 could bind a monoclonal antibody against the F protein of hMPV. Together, our results indicate that subtype-C aMPV has been circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in South China, and it is urgent for companies to develop new vaccines to control the spread of the virus in China.

  4. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances inunderstanding the role of Toll-like receptors in anti-viral immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223961 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances i...147(2):217-26. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: r...nity. PubmedID 17223961 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances inund

  5. A Method for Estimation of Death Tolls in Disastrous Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, C.; Tien, Y.; Teng, T.

    2004-12-01

    Fatality tolls caused by the disastrous earthquake are the one of the most important items among the earthquake damage and losses. If we can precisely estimate the potential tolls and distribution of fatality in individual districts as soon as the earthquake occurrences, it not only make emergency programs and disaster management more effective but also supply critical information to plan and manage the disaster and the allotments of disaster rescue manpower and medicine resources in a timely manner. In this study, we intend to reach the estimation of death tolls caused by the Chi-Chi earthquake in individual districts based on the Attributive Database of Victims, population data, digital maps and Geographic Information Systems. In general, there were involved many factors including the characteristics of ground motions, geological conditions, types and usage habits of buildings, distribution of population and social-economic situations etc., all are related to the damage and losses induced by the disastrous earthquake. The density of seismic stations in Taiwan is the greatest in the world at present. In the meantime, it is easy to get complete seismic data by earthquake rapid-reporting systems from the Central Weather Bureau: mostly within about a minute or less after the earthquake happened. Therefore, it becomes possible to estimate death tolls caused by the earthquake in Taiwan based on the preliminary information. Firstly, we form the arithmetic mean of the three components of the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) to give the PGA Index for each individual seismic station, according to the mainshock data of the Chi-Chi earthquake. To supply the distribution of Iso-seismic Intensity Contours in any districts and resolve the problems for which there are no seismic station within partial districts through the PGA Index and geographical coordinates in individual seismic station, the Kriging Interpolation Method and the GIS software, The population density depends on

  6. Infrared vision for the nondestructive inspection of the historic Dery Bridge toll panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, C.; Cloutier, I.; Gagne, S.; Maldague, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Dery Gorge holds one of the first toll bridges in Quebec that was in effect from the construction of the bridge in 1804 to be finally abolished in 1910. The toll pricing was indicated on a wooden panel, which was originally installed on the bridge's toll keeper's house, In its present condition this panel shows the toll rates in French and English corresponding to the last period during which the toll was in operation (c.1860-1870), Nevertheless, some indications of older inscriptions can also be partially seen. The main goal of this work was to improve the visibility of the hidden inscriptions by exploring two infrared vision techniques: infrared reflectography and infrared thermography. (author)

  7. Infrared vision for the nondestructive inspection of the historic Dery Bridge toll panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Castanedo, C. [Laval Univ., Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Computer Vision and Systems Lab., Laval, Quebec (Canada); Cloutier, I.; Gagne, S. [Centre de conservation du Quebec, Quebec (Canada); Maldague, X. [Laval Univ., Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Computer Vision and Systems Lab., Laval, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    The Dery Gorge holds one of the first toll bridges in Quebec that was in effect from the construction of the bridge in 1804 to be finally abolished in 1910. The toll pricing was indicated on a wooden panel, which was originally installed on the bridge's toll keeper's house, In its present condition this panel shows the toll rates in French and English corresponding to the last period during which the toll was in operation (c.1860-1870), Nevertheless, some indications of older inscriptions can also be partially seen. The main goal of this work was to improve the visibility of the hidden inscriptions by exploring two infrared vision techniques: infrared reflectography and infrared thermography. (author)

  8. Phylogenetic relationships and pathogenicity variation of two Newcastle disease viruses isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yinfeng; Li, Yanling; Yuan, Runyu; Li, Xianwei; Sun, Minhua; Wang, Zhaoxiong; Feng, Minsha; Jiao, Peirong; Ren, Tao

    2014-08-12

    Newcastle disease (ND) is an OIE listed disease caused by virulent avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) strains, which is enzootic and causes large economic losses in the poultry sector. Genotype VII and genotype IX NDV viruses were the predominant circulating genotype in China, which may possibly be responsible for disease outbreaks in chicken flocks in recent years. While ducks and geese usually have exhibited inapparent infections. In the present study, we investigate the complete genome sequence, the clinicopathological characterization and transmission of two virulent Newcastle disease viruses, SS-10 and NH-10, isolated from domestic ducks in Southern China in 2010. F, and the complete gene sequences based on phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that SS-10 (genotype VII) and NH-10 (genotype IX) belongs to class II. The deduced amino acid sequence was (112)R-R-Q-K/R-R-F(117) at the fusion protein cleavage site. Animal experiment results showed that the SS-10 virus isolated from ducks was highly pathogenic for chickens and geese, but low pathogenic for ducks. It could be detected from spleen, lung, kidney, trachea, small intestine, bursa of fabricius, thymus, pancreas and cecal tonsils, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and could transmit to the naive contact birds. Moreover, it could transmit to chickens, ducks and geese by naive contact. However, the NH-10 virus isolated from ducks could infect some chickens, ducks and geese, but only caused chickens to die. Additionally, it could transmit to the naive contact chickens, ducks, and geese. The two NDV isolates exhibited different biological properties with respect to pathogenicity and transmission in chickens, ducks and geese. Therefore, no species-preference exists for chicken, duck or goose viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VII NDVs between ducks, geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  9. The first whole genome sequence and pathogenicity characterization of a fowl adenovirus 4 isolated from ducks associated with inclusion body hepatitis and hydropericardium syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Liu, Linlin; Wang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yanping; Qi, Xiaole; Liu, Changjun; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei; Cui, Hongyu

    2017-10-01

    In June 2015, an infectious disease with high prevalence causing severe hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) first appeared in duck farms of northeast China. The disease showed high morbidity of 35% and mortality of 15% in a commercial duck farm with 200,000 45-day-old ducks. One strain of hypervirulent fowl adenovirus serotype 4 was identified and designated as HLJDAd15. The whole genome of the duck isolate was sequenced and found to contain the same large deletions as a genotype that has become prevalent in chickens in China recently, indicating that this disease might be transmitted from chickens to ducks. The pathogenicity of HLJDAd15 was evaluated in SPF chickens and ducks. The results showed that chickens were more susceptible to this new genotype of fowl adenovirus, and it was more difficult to infect ducks than chickens with the duck origin virus. Thus, it appears that this severe HPS in ducks is far more likely to have been transmitted from chickens to ducks than from ducks to ducks. Therefore, transmission from chickens to ducks constitutes a threat to the duck farming industry, and this transmission route is a very important consideration for the prevention and control of the new genotype of fowl adenovirus. This is the first whole genome sequence of a FAdV-4 isolated from ducks, and this information is important for understanding the molecular characteristics and evolution of aviadenoviruses. The potential risks of infection with this new hypervirulent FAdV-4 genotype in chickens and ducks urgently require an effective vaccine.

  10. Taking tea in the parlour: middle-class formation and gender construction in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1760-1850

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Ann Judith

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of tea etiquette was a significant marker of middle-class gentility and contributed to middle-class formation and gender construction in colonial Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Early middle-class settlers brought tea ware and employed the tea ritual to set standards of gentility that determined social inclusion or exclusion. Tea drinking shifted from a predominantly masculine activity in the late eighteenth century, as commercial and political men met in their parlours over tea, to ...

  11. "Everyone just keeps their eyes closed and their fingers crossed": sexual health communication among black parents and children in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Antoinette N; Gahagan, Jacqueline C; George, Clemon

    2013-07-22

    Black Canadian youth remain disproportionally affected by an array of social and health issues, including sexually transmitted infections. While research exists in support of the involvement of parents as a key means to prevent or modify harmful behaviours among youth, less is known about how parent-child communication can serve as a prevention intervention strategy within Black families in Canada. This study explores sexual health communication between Black parents and youth in Nova Scotia and identifies facilitators, obstacles and issues that families face in dialoguing about sexual health. Focus groups and in-depth interview sessions were held with a diverse sample of parents of Black youth, health and education professionals, and Black youth in Nova Scotia, as part of a larger study aimed at exploring parent-child communication on sexual health and HIV. The research team worked in partnership with and received feedback from key informants and a community advisory committee throughout the various stages of this study. All sessions were audio-taped with permission and thematic analysis was carried out on the verbatim transcripts. Six key themes emerged from the data analysis in relation to parent-child communication within Black families in Nova Scotia: 1. the gendered nature of [sexual] health communication; 2. fear and uncertainty as obstacles; 3. open and honest dialogue from an early age as a facilitator; 4. media as both a catalyst and a barrier; 5. peers as a catalyst; and 6. time constraints as an obstacle. The findings of this study reveal that parent-child communication regarding sexual health promotion within Black families in Nova Scotia remains varied and is heavily affected by a myriad of intersecting determinants of health faced by Black youth and their parents. Health promotion interventions aimed at fostering and supporting parent-child communication on sexual health must simultaneously target both parents and youth and further, such efforts must

  12. DMPD: Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17667936 Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor prote... (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 receptor adaptor proteins. ...PubmedID 17667936 Title Structure, function and regulation of the Toll/IL-1 recep

  13. DMPD: The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17621314 The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. Lan...) Show The negative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. PubmedID 17621314 Title The ne...gative regulation of Toll-like receptor and associated pathways. Authors Lang T,

  14. DMPD: Toll-like receptors: novel pharmacological targets for the treatment ofneurological diseases. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17974478 Toll-like receptors: novel pharmacological targets for the treatment ofneu...png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors: novel pharmacological targets for the treatment ofneur...ological diseases. PubmedID 17974478 Title Toll-like receptors: novel pharmacological target

  15. DMPD: The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476921 The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. P...of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. PubmedID 15476921 Title The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod prote...ins in bacterial infection. Authors Philpott DJ, Girardi

  16. DMPD: Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17142025 Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic cells. Watt...) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic cells. PubmedID... 17142025 Title Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic ce

  17. DMPD: Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic scienceresearch. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15069387 Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic science...te immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic scienceresearch. PubmedID 15069387 Title... Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic sciencer

  18. DMPD: Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17888644 Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? Marsla... Toll-like receptors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? PubmedID 17888644 Title Toll-like recep...tors: paving the path to T cell-driven autoimmunity? Authors Marsland BJ, Kopf M.

  19. Expanding Free School-based Human Papilloma Virus (HPV Vaccination Programs to Include School-aged Males in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Krater-Melamed

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bill 70 (HPV Vaccine Act was presented to the Nova Scotia House of Assembly with the aim of expanding the current Nova Scotia school-based HPV vaccination program to include males. In recent years, increased awareness of HPV and HPV-caused cancers has led to the implementation of school-based female HPV vaccination programs across Canada. Changing guidelines, based on recent evidence, suggest that males should also be included in these programs. Program expansion to include males aims to reduce the prevalence of HPV-causing cancers and their ensuing costs, to promote equal access to healthcare services, and to make Nova Scotia a leader in HPV prevention. Support from the Canadian public and high profile political actors along with pressure from other provinces and interest groups, including the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, influenced the passing of the HPV Vaccine Act. In order to implement this reform, the provincial financial commitment to the previous HPV program was expanded to cover the cost of male vaccination.

  20. Blood lead exposure concentrations in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Stephen K.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.; Hung, I-Kuai

    2015-01-01

    The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is a non-migratory waterfowl species dependent upon coastal marsh systems, including those on the Texas Chenier Plain National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) Complex, and considered a regional indicator species of marsh habitat quality. Research from the early 1970s, 1990s, and early-2000s indicated that mottled ducks continued to exhibit elevated wing-bone lead (Pb) concentrations, decades after implementation of non-toxic shot regulations. However, wing-bone concentrations reflect lifetime accumulation of Pb, whereas blood Pb concentrations reflect more recent exposure. To identify current potentially relevant temporal windows of Pb exposure, we collected 260 blood samples from mottled ducks during summer (n=124) and winter (n=136) from 2010–2012 on the Texas Chenier Plain NWR Complex. We quantified baseline blood Pb concentrations for all ages of mottled ducks, and hypothesized that blood lead concentrations would remain elevated above background levels (200 µg L–1) despite the 1983 and 1991 lead shot bans. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from below detection limits to >12,000 µg L–1, where >200 µg L–1 was associated with exposure levels above background concentrations. Male mottled ducks had the greatest blood Pb concentrations (30 times greater than females) with concentrations greater during winter than summer. Likewise, the proportion of exposed (>200 µg L–1) females increased from 14%–47% from summer to winter, respectively. Regardless of sex, adult mottled duck blood Pb concentrations were five times greater than juveniles, particularly during winter. We identified five plausible models that influenced blood Pb levels where year, site, and interactions among age*sex*season and between age*season were included in the top-ranked models. Frequency of exposure was greatest during winter, increasing from 12% in summer to 55% in winter, indicating that a temporal exposure window to environmental Pb exists between nesting

  1. Contrasting nest survival patterns for ducks and songbirds in northern mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Todd; Shaffer, Terry L.; Madden, Elizabeth M.; Nenneman, Melvin P.

    2017-01-01

    Management actions intended to protect or improve habitat for ducks may benefit grassland-nesting passerines, but scant information is available to explore this assumption. During 1998–2003, we examined nest survival of ducks and songbirds to determine whether effects of prescribed fire and other habitat features (e.g., shrub cover and distance to habitat edges) were similar for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota. We used the logistic-exposure method to estimate survival of duck and songbird nests (n = 3,171). We used an information-theoretic approach to identify factors that most influenced nest survival. Patterns of nest survival were markedly different between taxonomic groups. For ducks, nest survival was greater during the first postfire nesting season (daily survival rate [DSR] = 0.957, 85% CI = 0.951–0.963), relative to later postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.946, 85% CI = 0.942–0.950). Furthermore duck nest survival and nest densities were inversely related. Duck nest survival also was greater as shrub cover decreased and as distance from cropland and wetland edges increased. Passerines had lower nest survival during the first postfire nesting season (DSR = 0.934, 85% CI = 0.924–0.944), when densities also were low compared to subsequent postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.947, 85% CI = 0.944–0.950). Parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) reduced passerine nest survival and this effect was more pronounced during the first postfire nesting season compared to subsequent nesting seasons. Passerine nest survival was greater as shrub cover decreased and perhaps for more concealed nests. Duck and songbird nest survival rates were not correlated during this study and for associated studies that examined additional variables using the same dataset, suggesting that different mechanisms influenced their survival. Based on our results, ducks should not be considered direct surrogates for passerines

  2. Effect of dietary energy and protein content on growth and carcass traits of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q F; Cherry, P; Doster, A; Murdoch, R; Adeola, O; Applegate, T J

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary energy and protein concentrations on growth performance and carcass traits of Pekin ducks from 15 to 35 d of age. In experiment 1, 14-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary metabolizable energy (11.8, 12.8, and 13.8 MJ/kg) and 3 crude protein concentrations (15, 17, and 19%) in a 3×3 factorial arrangement (6 replicate pens; 66 ducks/pen). Carcass characteristics were evaluated on d 28, 32, and 35. In Experiment 2, 15-d-old ducks (6 replicate cages; 6 ducks/cage) were randomly allotted to the 9 diets that were remixed with 0.5% chromic oxide. Excreta were collected from d 17 to 19, and ileal digesta was collected on d 19 to determine AMEn and amino acid digestibility. In Experiment 1, there were interactions (Pducks were fed a high dietary AMEn (13.75 MJ/kg) and high CP (19%, 1.21% SID Lys). These results provide a framework for subsequent modeling of amino acid and energy inputs and the corresponding outputs of growth performance and carcass components. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  3. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  4. Nutritive Value of Fermented Water Hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes Leaf with Aspergillus niger in Tegal Duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Mangisah

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Two steps of experiment were conducted to evaluate the proximate composition and nutritive value of fermented water hyacinth leaf (WHL with Aspergillus niger in Tegal duck. Twenty two heads of eight-week Tegal ducks with an average body weight of 1202.55 + 111.14 g were used in this experiment. There were two treatments namely: non-fermented (NFWH and fermented with Aspergillus niger (FWHAN. Each treatment was replicated 10 times. Data gathered were analyzed using t-student test. The proximate composition between NFWH and FWHAN showed an increase in crude protein/CP (11.44 vs 16.09% and ash (12.76 vs 22.37% but a decrease in crude fiber/CF (21.51 vs 16.62% and nitrogen free extract/NFE (53.20 vs 43.59%. The nutritive value of diet for eight-week Tegal ducks showed that fermentation of WHL with Aspergillus niger significantly increased CP digestibility, true metabolizable energy (TME and nitrogen retention (NR, but not for CF digestibility. It could be concluded that fermentation of WHL with Aspergillus niger increases the nutrient quality and the nutritive value of diet for eight-week Tegal ducks in term of CP digestibility, TME and NR. (Animal Production 12(2: 100-104 (2010Key Words: water hyacinth leaf, fermentation, Aspergillus niger, biological value, Tegal ducks

  5. QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE EVALUATION OF NUGGETS PREPARED FROM SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p<0.05 moisture content however pH, fat and protein content were significantly higher (p<0.05 in duck nuggets. TBA values, TVs and (TPC were highest in duck nuggets but were within the acceptable level up to 7th day of refrigerated storage (4±1°C in both types of nuggets. Both nuggets maintain their sensory quality up to 7th day of refrigeration storage but spent hen nuggets were preferred by consumers compared to nuggets prepared from spent duck meat. Result of the study indicated that, despite the comparative differences among these nuggets, spent duck and hen meat could be used for preparation of nutritionally rich and acceptable nuggets.

  6. DNA microarray global gene expression analysis of influenza virus-infected chicken and duck cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh V. Kuchipudi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article pertain to the article by Kuchipudi et al. (2014 titled “Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Chickens But Not Ducks Is Associated with Elevated Host Immune and Pro-inflammatory Responses” [1]. While infection of chickens with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes often leads to 100% mortality within 1 to 2 days, infection of ducks in contrast causes mild or no clinical signs. The rapid onset of fatal disease in chickens, but with no evidence of severe clinical symptoms in ducks, suggests underlying differences in their innate immune mechanisms. We used Chicken Genechip microarrays (Affymetrix to analyse the gene expression profiles of primary chicken and duck lung cells infected with a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI H2N3 virus and two HPAI H5N1 virus subtypes to understand the molecular basis of host susceptibility and resistance in chickens and ducks. Here, we described the experimental design, quality control and analysis that were performed on the data set. The data are publicly available through the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEOdatabase with accession number GSE33389, and the analysis and interpretation of these data are included in Kuchipudi et al. (2014 [1].

  7. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on theproduction performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in thestudy with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75%and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each ofwhich consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feedintake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative dataobtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computerprogram. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca levelon feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  8. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS DIETARY LEVEL ON EGG PRODUCTION OF THE BANTUL LOCAL DUCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sasongko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of various calcium and phosphorus levels on the production performance of Bantul Duck. A total of 270 female ducks, 26 weeks age, were used in the study with a 3x3 factorial treatment, which is a combination of three levels of Ca: 3.75; 3.25 and 2.75% and three levels of P: 0.45, 0.35 and 0.25%. Each treatment occupied three replication cages, each of which consisted of 10 ducks. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks.. Data recorded were: (a feed intake (g/duck/day, (b egg production (% HDA, and (c feed conversion. All quantitative data obtained during the study were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA using SPSS computer program. The results of the variables recorded did not show significantly difference. Increasing Ca level on feed showed an increasing trend of egg production. The average feed consumption ranged at 151-159 g/duck/day; egg production was 75-84%, and the feed conversion was 184-212 g/egg.

  9. Mechanism and capacities of reducing ecological cost through rice-duck cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pan; Huang, Huang; Liao, Xiaolan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Huabin; Chen, Aiwu; Chen, Can

    2013-09-01

    Rice-duck cultivation is the essence of Chinese traditional agriculture. A scientific assessment of the mechanism and its capacity is of theoretical significance and practical value in improving modern agricultural technology. The duck's secretions, excreta and their treading, pecking and predation decrease the occurrence of plant diseases, pests and weeds, enrich species diversity and improve the field environment. The rice-duck intergrowth system effectively prevents rice planthoppers and rice leafhoppers. The control effects can be up to 98.47% and 100% respectively; it also has effects on the control of Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and the rice leafrollers. Notable control results are found on sheath blight, while the effects on other diseases are about 50%. Harm from weeds is placed under primary control; prevention of weeds is sequenced by broadleaf weeds > sedge weeds > Gramineae weeds. Contents of soil organic matter, N, P and K are improved by the system; nutrient utilization is accelerated, resulting in decreased fertilizer application. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 1-2% and duck fodder is saved in this system. There is also an obvious economic benefit. Compared to conventional rice cultivation, rice-duck cultivation shows great benefits to ecologic cost and economic income. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Shoreface translation and the Holocene stratigraphic record: Examples from Nova Scotia, the Mississippi Delta and eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Ron; Penland, S.

    1984-01-01

    Classic descriptive models of barrier sedimentation have been developed with data from the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These models are dominated by low to moderate rates of relative sea level (RSL) rise and wave energy. Barriers respond by landward recycling of sediment through the mechanism of shoreface retreat. Sedimentation processes on the central coast of New South Wales (N.S.W.), Australia, consist of rapid RSL rise in early Holocene times followed by a stillstand since 6500 B.P. Wave energy is relatively high year-round and sand sources for barrier formation are only found on the inner shelf. Barrier sedimentation on the central coast of N.S.W. exhibits a thick, composite sequence composed of a basal marine transgressive sand overlain by regressive beach and dune facies. The Louisiana coast surrounding the Mississippi delta is underlain by compacting deltaic muds which generate very rapid rates of RSL rise. The Louisiana coast experiences low wave energy punctuated by high-energy tropical and extra-tropical storm events. Barrier sediments accumulate from the erosion of deltaic headlands and undergo a transformation from subaerial barrier island systems to subaqueous shoals located on the inner shelf. Drumlins experience coastal erosion on the Eastern Shore of Nova Scotia and provide a sediment source for compartmented estuary mouth barriers. An ongoing, moderate rise of RSL results from the passage of a glacial forebulge. Wave energy is intermediate between Louisiana and N.S.W. and displays a seasonal pattern dominated by frequent winter storms. Coastal barrier sedimentation is episodic, consisting of a period of beach ridge progradation followed by barrier destruction and re-establishment further landward. The three contrasting sedimentary sequences found in examples from Louisiana, N.S.W. and Nova Scotia indicate that presently available sedimentation models from locations such as the middle Atlantic or Texas coasts of the United States

  11. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinheng; Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huanmin; Chen, Feng; Chen, Weiguo; Xie, Qingmei

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  12. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinheng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Zhong, Yangjin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Liu, Yang [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Zhang, Huanmin [USDA, Agriculture Research Service, Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory, East Lansing, MI 48823 (United States); Chen, Feng [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); Chen, Weiguo [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Xie, Qingmei, E-mail: qmx@scau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University & Guangdong Provincial Key Lab of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510642 (China); South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The results of the analyses were in conformity with AdV properties. The full genome sequence was determined and analyzed. The new isolate (named CH-GD-12-2014) shared over 91% sequence identity with duck AdV-2 representing the species Duck aviadenovirus B. The most important distinguishing feature between the two DAdV strains was the presence of a second fiber gene in the Chinese isolate. Phylogeny reconstruction confirmed the affiliation of the virus with goose and duck AdVs in the genus Aviadenovirus. Experimental infection resulted in embryo death, and intramuscular inoculation provoked morbidity and mortality among ducks and chickens. - Highlights: • A duck adenovirus type 3 was isolated and the complete genome of DAdV-3 was obtained. • Physicochemical properties and electron microscopy were researched. • Pathogenicity of duck adenovirus type 3 was researched.

  13. The Birth of a research animal. Ibsen's The Wild Duck and the origin of a new animal science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.A.E.

    2000-01-01

    What role does the wild duck play in Ibsen's famous drama? I argue that, besides mirroring the fate of the human cast members, the duck is acting as animal subject in a quasi-experiment, conducted in a private setting. Analysed from this perspective, the play allows us to discern the epistemological

  14. A Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies to Improve the electrical System on the Duck Valley Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman Atkins, Shoshone-Paiute; Mark Hannifan, New West Technologies

    2005-06-30

    A range of sustainable energy options were assessed for feasibility in addressing chronic electric grid reliability problems at Duck Valley IR. Wind power and building energy efficiency were determined to have the most merit, with the Duck Valley Tribes now well positioned to pursue large scale wind power development for on- and off-reservation sales.

  15. Establishment of an H6N2 Influenza Virus Lineage in Domestic Ducks in Southern China ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K.; Bahl, J.; Fan, X. H.; Vijaykrishna, D.; Cheung, C. L.; Webby, R. J.; Webster, R. G.; Chen, H.; Smith, Gavin J. D.; Peiris, J. S. M.; Guan, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple reassortment events between different subtypes of endemic avian influenza viruses have increased the genomic diversity of influenza viruses circulating in poultry in southern China. Gene exchange from the natural gene pool to poultry has contributed to this increase in genetic diversity. However, the role of domestic ducks as an interface between the natural gene pool and terrestrial poultry in the influenza virus ecosystem has not been fully characterized. Here we phylogenetically and antigenically analyzed 170 H6 viruses isolated from domestic ducks from 2000 to 2005 in southern China, which contains the largest population of domestic ducks in the world. Three distinct hemagglutinin lineages were identified. Group I contained the majority of isolates with a single internal gene complex and was endemic in domestic ducks in Guangdong from the late 1990s onward. Group II was derived from reassortment events in which the surface genes of group I viruses were replaced with novel H6 and N2 genes. Group III represented H6 viruses that undergo frequent reassortment with multiple virus subtypes from the natural gene pool. Surprisingly, H6 viruses endemic in domestic ducks and terrestrial poultry seldom reassort, but gene exchanges between viruses from domestic ducks and migratory ducks occurred throughout the surveillance period. These findings suggest that domestic ducks in southern China mediate the interaction of viruses between different gene pools and facilitate the generation of novel influenza virus variants circulating in poultry. PMID:20463062

  16. Molecular characterization, phylogeny analysis and pathogenicity of a Muscovy duck adenovirus strain isolated in China in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to characterize a novel adenovirus (AdV) isolated from diseased Muscovy ducks in China. After the AdV was successfully propagated in duck embryo fibroblasts, the morphological and physicochemical properties of the virions were studied by electron microscopy and different tests. The ...

  17. Failure to transmit avian vacuolar myelinopathy to mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R.S.; Nutter, F.B.; Augspurger, T.; Rocke, T.E.; Thomas, N.J.; Stoskopf, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) is a neurologic disease that has been diagnosed in free-ranging birds in the southeastern United States. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leuocephalus), American coots (Fulica americana), and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) have been affected. Previous investigations have not determined the etiology of this disease. In November and December 2002, we attempted to induce AVM in game-farmed mallards through four, 7-day exposure trials. Mallards were housed in six groups of eight, with two of these groups serving as controls. One group was housed with AVM-affected coots; one group was tube fed daily with water from the lake where affected coots were captured; one group was tube fed daily with aquatic vegetation (Hydrilla verticillata) from the same lake; and another group was tube fed daily with sediment from the lake. No ducks exhibited clinical neurologic abnormalities consistent with AVM and no evidence of AVM was present at histopathologic examination of brain tissue. Although limitations in sample size, quantity of individual doses, frequency of dose administration, duration of exposure, and timing of these trials restrict the interpretation of the findings, AVM was not readily transmitted by direct contact, water, hydrilla, or sediment in this investigation.

  18. Red fox prey demands and implications to prairie duck production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during spring and summer with 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to determine prey demands, feeding characteristics, and growth rates using natural foods. Pups began eating prey the 4th week after birth. Then, prey consumption averaged 1.38 and 1.90 kg/pup/week for weeks 5-8 and 9-12 of the denning season respectively, and 2.54 kg/pup/week for the postdenning period. Feeding by adults averaged 2.25 kg/adult/week. Free water was not needed by either pups or adults. About 90 percent of the prey offered to pups on simulated natural diets was consumed, remains varied with prey availability and prey type. Prey biomass required by a typical fox family was estimated at 18.5 kg/km2 for the 12-week denning season and 2.4 kg/km2/week for the postdenning period. Because of the large prey demands, ducks could represent a small part of the foxes' diet and yet be of consequence to the productivity of particular species. An example is provided for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

  19. Sublethal effects of cadmium ingestion on mallard ducks. [Anas platyrhynchos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giulio, R T; Scanlon, P F

    1984-11-01

    Juvenile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) drakes were fed diets containing 0, 50, 150, or 450 ppM cadmium for 42 +/- 1 days in order to assess the impacts of cadmium ingestion on energy metabolism and tissue metal concentrations in this species. Most significant effects on energy metabolism were observed only in the 450 ppM group which displayed reduced body and liver weights, increased kidney weights, reduced liver aldolase activity, increased plasma concentrations of uric acid, decreased plasma triiodothyronine concentrations, and elevated adrenal weights and adrenal corticosterone concentrations. Ducks in the 150 ppM group displayed increased adrenal and kidney weights and elevated plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Among all treatments, increased cadmium and zinc concentrations in both livers and kidneys were dose-related; a similar trend was observed for copper concentrations in kidneys but not livers. Cadmium interference with carbohydrate metabolism in similar studies with mammals was more severe than that observed in mallards in the present study. 52 references, 6 tables.

  20. Feeding ducks, bacterial chemotaxis, and the Gini index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaudecerf, François J.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-08-01

    Classic experiments on the distribution of ducks around separated food sources found consistency with the "ideal free" distribution in which the local population is proportional to the local supply rate. Motivated by this experiment and others, we examine the analogous problem in the microbial world: the distribution of chemotactic bacteria around multiple nearby food sources. In contrast to the optimization of uptake rate that may hold at the level of a single cell in a spatially varying nutrient field, nutrient consumption by a population of chemotactic cells will modify the nutrient field, and the uptake rate will generally vary throughout the population. Through a simple model we study the distribution of resource uptake in the presence of chemotaxis, consumption, and diffusion of both bacteria and nutrients. Borrowing from the field of theoretical economics, we explore how the Gini index can be used as a means to quantify the inequalities of uptake. The redistributive effect of chemotaxis can lead to a phenomenon we term "chemotactic levelling," and the influence of these results on population fitness are briefly considered.

  1. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  2. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson, Guy; Pero, Vincent (Shoshone-Paiute Nation, Duck Valley Indian Reservation, Owyhee, NV)

    2000-01-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservations' Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect the critical riparian areas, natural springs, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project was begun in 1997 with the hiring of a fisheries biologist and the creation of a new department for the Tribes. The project's goals are to protect and enhance the springs, Owyhee River, its tributaries, and to develop a database that can be used by other fisheries professionals which includes information on water quality and fish composition, health, abundance, and genetic makeup. One habitat portion of the project is a focus on protection the numerous springs that provide clean, cool water to the Owyhee River. This will be accomplished through enclosure fences of the spring heads and water troughs to provide clean cool drinking water for wildlife and livestock. Another habitat portion of the project involves protecting headwater areas of streams with native fish populations. This is accomplished through enclosure fencing and riparian plantings on any eroded or degraded banks in the enclosure area. Finally, we monitor and evaluate the areas protected and enhanced. This is accomplished through biological sampling for temperature, Oxygen, sedimentation, and measurements of water depth, bank height and undercut, and width of stream. With the habitat and biological indices we will be able to evaluate how well protective measures are doing, and where to focus future efforts.

  3. Early spawning of Antarctic krill in the Scotia Sea is fuelled by “superfluous” feeding on non-ice associated phytoplankton blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katrin; Atkinson, Angus; Venables, Hugh J.; Pond, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The spawning success of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) is generally assumed to depend on substantial winter sea ice extent, as ice biota can serve as a food source during winter/spring and the seasonal ice melt conditions the upper water column for extensive phytoplankton blooms. However, direct observations during spring are rare. Here we studied krill body condition and maturity stage in relation to feeding (i.e. stomach fullness, diet, absorption of individual fatty acids and defecation rate) across the Scotia Sea in November 2006. The phytoplankton concentrations were low at the marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the southern Scotia Sea (Stn. 1, 2, and 3), high in open waters of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF) in the central Scotia Sea (Stn. 5), and moderate further north (Stn. 6 and 7). Krill had low lipid reserves (˜6.5% of dry mass, DM), low mass:length ratios (˜1.7 mg DM mm -1), and small digestive glands (˜7% of total DM) near the ice edge. The stomachs contained lithogenic particles, diatom debris, and bacterial fatty acids, but low proportions of diatom-indicating fatty acids, which suggest that these krill were feeding on detritus rather than on fresh ice algae. In the SACCF, krill had higher lipid reserves (˜10% of DM), high mass:length ratios (˜2.2 mg DM mm -1), and large digestive glands (˜16% of total DM). Stomach content and tissue composition indicate feeding on diatoms. In the north, moderate food concentrations co-occurred with low lipid reserves in krill, and moderate mass:length ratios and digestive gland sizes. Only in the phytoplankton bloom in the SACCF had the mating season already started and some females were about to spawn. Based on the way krill processed their food at the different stations, we indicate two mechanisms that can lead to fast regeneration of body reserves and oocyte maturation in E. superba. One is "superfluous" feeding at high food concentrations, which maximises the overall nutrient gain

  4. Genetic characterization of a potentially novel goose parvovirus circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in Fujian Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Chen, Shi-Long; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Li, Zhao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel goose parvovirus (MDGPV/PT) isolated from an affected Muscovy duck in Fujian Province, China. In this study, the NS1 sequence analyses indicated a close genetic relationship between MDGPV/PT and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) strains, although MDGPV/DY, which was isolated from a Muscovy duck in 2006 in Sichuan Province, could be divided into GPV-related groups. Phylogenetic analysis showed that except for differences in the NS1 gene, MDGPV strains PT and DY are closely related to a parvovirus that infects domestic waterfowls. This is the first demonstration of recombination between goose and Muscovy duck parvoviruses in nature, and MDGPV/PT might have led to the generation of a novel waterfowl parvovirus strain circulating in Muscovy duck flocks in China.

  5. Toll-Like Receptors in the Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Hosseini, Akbar; Majidi, Jafar; Baradaran, Behzad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of transmembrane receptors, which play a key role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Beside of recognizing specific molecular patterns that associated with different types of pathogens, TLRs may also detect a number of self-proteins and endogenous nucleic acids. Activating TLRs lead to the heightened expression of various inflammatory genes, which have a protective role against infection. Data rising predominantly from human patients and animal models of autoimmune disease indicate that, inappropriate triggering of TLR pathways by exogenous or endogenous ligands may cause the initiation and/or perpetuation of autoimmune reactions and tissue damage. Given their important role in infectious and non-infectious disease process, TLRs and its signaling pathways emerge as appealing targets for therapeutics. In this review, we demonstrate how TLRs pathways could be involved in autoimmune disorders and their therapeutic application. PMID:26793605

  6. Toll-like receptors as targets for immune disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keogh, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Since the identification of the first Toll-like receptor (TLR) in humans in 1997, understanding of the molecular basis for innate immunity has increased significantly. The TLR family and downstream signalling pathways have been extensively characterised, There is now significant evidence suggesting a role for TLRs in human inflammatory and immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, allergy\\/asthma and atherosclerosis. Various approaches have been taken to identify novel therapeutic agents targeting TLRs including biologics, small molecules and nucleic acid-based drugs. Several are now being evaluated in the clinic and showing promise against various diseases. This review paper outlines the recent advances in the understanding of TLR biology and highlights novel TLR agonists and antagonists in development for the treatment of immune diseases.

  7. Novel drugs targeting Toll-like receptors for antiviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mira C; Shirey, Kari Ann; Pletneva, Lioubov M; Boukhvalova, Marina S; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo; Vogel, Stefanie N; Blanco, Jorge Cg

    2014-09-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are sentinel receptors of the host innate immune system that recognize conserved 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' of invading microbes, including viruses. The activation of TLRs establishes antiviral innate immune responses and coordinates the development of long-lasting adaptive immunity in order to control viral pathogenesis. However, microbe-induced damage to host tissues may release 'danger-associated molecular patterns' that also activate TLRs, leading to an overexuberant inflammatory response and, ultimately, to tissue damage. Thus, TLRs have proven to be promising targets as therapeutics for the treatment of viral infections that result in inflammatory damage or as adjuvants in order to enhance the efficacy of vaccines. Here, we explore recent advances in TLR biology with a focus on novel drugs that target TLRs (agonists and antagonists) for antiviral therapy.

  8. Managing change : natural gas transportation to the eastern toll zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiante, U.

    2001-01-01

    The Cogenerators Alliance includes Ontario's largest end-use natural gas consumers, Tractebel Power, Westcoast Power, Lake Superior Power, TransAlta Energy, Cardinal Power of Canada and Whitby Cogeneration. Together, they represent 157,798 GJ/day contracted volume. This paper focused on the changing face of the natural gas industry in North America with closer economic ties between Canada, the United States and Mexico in a competitive energy market. The role of Alliance Pipeline in transporting natural gas to markets and the implication of regulation and toll increases were also discussed. It was noted that there is a need for regulatory changes to provide existing pipelines with the appropriate tools needed to ensure the competitive environment will function effectively. tabs., figs

  9. Cannabinoids and Innate Immunity: Taking a Toll on Neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Downer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biologically active components of cannabis have therapeutic potential in neuroinflammatory disorders due to their anti-inflammatory propensity. Cannabinoids influence immune function in both the peripheral and the central nervous system (CNS, and the components of the cannabinoid system, the cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids, have been detected on immune cells as well as in brain glia. Neuroinflammation is the complex innate immune response of neural tissue to control infection and eliminate pathogens, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs, a major family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that mediate innate immunity, have emerged as players in the neuroinflammatory processes underpinning various CNS diseases. This review will highlight evidence that cannabinoids interact with the immune system by impacting TLR-mediated signaling events, which may provide cues for devising novel therapeutic approaches for cannabinoid ligands.

  10. Toll-Like Receptors: Role in Dermatological Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswin Hari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a class of conserved receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs present in microbes. In humans, at least ten TLRs have been identified, and their recognition targets range from bacterial endotoxins to lipopeptides, DNA, dsRNA, ssRNA, fungal products, and several host factors. Of dermatological interest, these receptors are expressed on several skin cells including keratinocytes, melanocytes, and Langerhans cells. TLRs are essential in identifying microbial products and are known to link the innate and adaptive immune systems. Over the years, there have been significant advances in our understanding of TLRs in skin inflammation, cutaneous malignancies, and defence mechanisms. In this paper, we will describe the association between TLRs and various skin pathologies and discuss proposed TLR therapeutics.

  11. Toll-like receptors as therapeutic targets in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, Catherine M

    2008-12-01

    Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that act as a first-line of defence in the innate immune response by recognising and responding to conserved molecular patterns in microbial factors and endogenous danger signals. Cystic fibrosis (CF)-affected airways represent a milieu potentially rich in TLR agonists and the chronic inflammatory phenotype evident in CF airway epithelial cells is probably due in large part to activation of TLRs. Objective\\/methods: To examine the prospects of developing novel therapies for CF by targeting TLRs. We outline the expression and function of TLRs and explore the therapeutic potential of naturally-occurring and synthetic TLR inhibitors for CF. Results\\/conclusion: Modulation of TLRs has therapeutic potential for the inflammatory lung manifestations of CF.

  12. The Effect of Zingiber Officinale Rosc in The Diets of Performance in Culled Layer Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjokorda Gede Belawa Yadnya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was design using a completely randomized block design (CRBD with four treatments. Treatment were diets without Zingiber officinale rosc (A, diets contain 2,91% Zingiber officinale Rosc  (B, diets contain 5,66%. Zingiber officinale Rosc (C, and diets contain 8,26% Zingiber officinale Rosc (D. Each treatment with five replicates, and each replicate consist four culled layer ducks. Variable observed were feed conversation ratio, carcass physical composition, and meat quality. It was concluded that present  Zingiber officinale Rosc in the diets could be improved of performance in culled layer ducks.   Keywords : Zingiber officinale Rosc, Culled layer ducks, and  meat qualit

  13. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, meat quality and tibia development of Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya Ru; Zhang, Lu Shuang; Wang, Zhong; Liu, Yang; Li, Fu Huang; Yuan, Jian Min; Xia, Zhao Fei

    2018-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of stocking density on performance, meat quality and tibia development in Pekin ducks reared on a plastic wire floor. A total of 372 healthy, 21-day-old, male ducks with similar body weight (BW) were randomly allotted to stocking densities of five (low), eight (medium) and 11 (high) birds/m 2 . Each group had six replicates. Results showed that compared with the low density group, medium and high stocking density caused a decrease in final BW at 42 days old, and in average daily gain, European performance index (p study, the stocking density of male Pekin ducks should be adjusted between five and eight birds/m 2 . © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Effect of Gamma Radiation to the Content of Nutrition Duck Egg Environment Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutjipto; Yohannes Sardjono

    2007-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation dose of 0.7 kGy to the content of nutrition duck egg environment sample of Turi area, Bantul Yogyakarta has been studied. This research is conducted to determine the effect of gamma radiation 0.7 kGy to the nutrition duck egg which stored during 21 days. The grouped of some fresh duck egg sample to become 2 group. First group with 0 kGy (non irradiation) and the second group with 0.7 kGy dose. The irradiation sample was conducted at Kartini reactor Beamport. After the desired dose reached, the duck egg was lifted. Both irradiated and non irradiated duck egg then stored during 21 days. The research design used is Complete Block Random Device (RABL) with pattern factorial and restating as block. First factor : Dose of Irradiation (D) : D 1 = 0 kGy (non irradiation) and D 2 = 0.7 kGy. Second factors : stored time (P) : P 1 = 0 and day of P 2 = 21 days. The analysis of water content, total protein, dissolve protein, ash and fat was carried out. The research result shows that the gamma irradiation have no significant effect to the water content, total protein, dissolve protein, ash and fat both in white and also duck egg yolk for day of 0 (P> 0.05). For storage during 21 days, gamma radiation have significant effect to the water content, total protein, dissolve protein both in white and also duck egg yolk (P 0.05), because the irradiation process do not influence the availability of mineral in egg yolk and also have no significant effect to fat content (P> 0.05), because at the protein have compound which able to kill bacterium, so-called with lysozyme, besides high protein alkalinity which do not advantage growth of bacterium, so that during storage do not happened protein lipolysis by enzyme of lipase yielded by microbe. The effect of gamma radiation to the duck egg which stored during 21 days shows that the water content at white duck egg rising to 1.02 % wb, the protein total decreasing to 0.99 % db, the dissolve protein decreasing to 0

  15. Mid-winter European dabbling duck distributions are not linked to species body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Delany, Simon; Fox, Anthony David

    are likely to play a major role in determining the wintering distribution of short- to medium-distance migratory bird species and its inter-annual variability. As avian thermoregulatory costs scale allometrically with body size, we predicted that the mean mid-winter temperature experienced by six species...... of dabbling ducks wintering in Western Europe would be negatively correlated with body mass. We found no evidence for such a relationship in a large-scale analysis testing for a link between temperature and dabbling duck distributions, suggesting that other factors such as those related to feeding ecology......In order to understand the current changes and to predict future changes in wintering dabbling duck (Anas sp.) distributions in response to climate change, it is important to understand how species distribute themselves on a continental scale in response to temperature. Thermoregulatory costs...

  16. Short beak and dwarfism syndrome of mule duck is caused by a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palya, Vilmos; Zolnai, Anna; Benyeda, Zsófia; Kovács, Edit; Kardi, Veronika; Mató, Tamás

    2009-04-01

    From the early 1970s to the present, numerous cases of short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) have been reported in mule ducks from France. The animals showed strong growth retardation with smaller beak and tarsus. It was suggested that the syndrome was caused by goose parvovirus on the basis of serological investigation, but the causative agent has not been isolated and the disease has not so far been reproduced by experimental infection. The aim of the present study was to characterize the virus strains isolated from field cases of SBDS, and to reproduce the disease experimentally. Phylogenetic analysis proved that the parvovirus isolates obtained from SBDS of mule duck belonged to a distinct lineage of goose parvovirus-related group of waterfowl parvoviruses. The authors carried out experimental infections of 1-day-old, 2-week-old and 3-week-old mule ducks by the oral route with three different parvovirus strains: strain D17/99 of goose parvovirus from Derzsy's disease, strain FM of Muscovy duck parvovirus from the parvovirus disease of Muscovy ducks, and strain D176/02 isolated from SBDS of mule duck. The symptoms of SBDS of the mule duck could only be reproduced with the mule duck isolate (strain D176/02) following 1-day-old inoculation. Infection with a genetically different strain of goose parvovirus isolated from classical Derzsy's disease (D17/99) or with the Muscovy duck parvovirus strain (FM) did not cause any clinical symptoms or pathological lesions in mule ducks.

  17. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddman Rolf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors enable the host to recognize a large number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, viral RNA, CpG-containing DNA and flagellin. Toll-like receptors have also been shown to play a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of Toll-like receptors as a primary part of our microbe defense system has been shown in several studies, but their possible function as mediators in allergy and asthma remains to be established. The present study was designed to examine the expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis, focusing on changes induced by exposure to pollen. Methods 27 healthy controls and 42 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis volunteered for the study. Nasal biopsies were obtained before and during pollen season as well as before and after allergen challenge. The seasonal material was used for mRNA quantification of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 with real-time polymerase chain reaction, whereas specimens achieved in conjunction with allergen challenge were used for immunohistochemical localization and quantification of corresponding proteins. Results mRNA and protein representing Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 could be demonstrated in all specimens. An increase in protein expression for all three receptors could be seen following allergen challenge, whereas a significant increase of mRNA only could be obtained for Toll-like receptor 3 during pollen season. Conclusion The up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis supports the idea of a role for Toll-like receptors in allergic airway inflammation.

  18. Development of a Medical Humanities Program at Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine, Nova Scotia, Canada, 1992-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jock

    2003-10-01

    The Medical Humanities Program at Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine in Nova Scotia, Canada, was initiated in 1992 to incorporate the medical humanities into the learning and experiences of medical students. The goal of the program was to gain acceptance as an integral part of the medical school. The program assumed a broad concept of the medical humanities that includes medical history, literature, music, art, multiculturalism, philosophy, epistemology, theology, anthropology, professionalism, history of alternative therapies, writing, storytelling, health law, international medicine, and ethics. Phase I of the program has provided the same elective and research opportunities in the medical humanities that are available to the students in clinical and basic sciences, and has encouraged and legitimized the involvement of the humanities in the life and learning of the medical student through a wide array of programs and activities. Phase II will focus on further incorporation of the humanities into the curriculum. Phase III will be the development of a graduate program in medical humanities to train more faculty who will incorporate the humanities into their teaching and into the development of education programs.

  19. Assessing the potential for isotopic partitioning of soil respiration at research sites in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risk, D.; Kellman, L.; Black, M. [Saint Francis Xavier Univ., Antigonish, NS (Canada). Environmental Sciences Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    The stable isotope ratios of carbon and oxygen in different tree species were studied with respect to different tissues, at different points within the tree, through soil profiles and in carbon dioxide respired from laboratory incubations. Although isotopic methods of partitioning autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration have been used with some success, stable isotopic methods are complicated by the fact that carbon isotope fractionations are small in natural systems, and radiocarbon techniques are time and equipment intensive. Studies that use isotopic analysis opportunistically, such as in C3/C4 transitional systems, have proven to be the most successful. Previously unexploited opportunities have the potential to be used for stable isotope-based partitioning in natural systems if the autotrophic/heterotrophic process distribution in the profile is well understand and if there is good process resolution and concurrent analyses using physical partitioning methods such as trenches. This study explored the different paths of opportunity in terms of background isotopic characterization that is being carried out for an existing network of carbon flux research sites in eastern Nova Scotia and in western Newfoundland. The new continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) at the Environmental Earth Sciences Laboratory at St. Francis Xavier University was used for the isotopic analyses. The isotopic information will be evaluated for potential partitioning opportunities, considering the combination of approaches that will give the best chances of success. Isotopic partitioning trials will take place at suitable sites.

  20. Effects of workplace policy on continuing professional development: the case of occupational therapy in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Elizabeth; Sheffield, Suzanne Le-May; Stadnyk, Robin; Beagan, Brenda

    2006-04-01

    Continuing professional development is essential for professionals to remain competent, and for effective recruitment and retention. This paper reports a qualitative study of the effects of workplace policy on continuing professional development on a small, dispersed profession in a resource-challenged province, using the case example of occupational therapy in Nova Scotia. The study used a multi-methods design, theoretically based on institutional ethnography. Methods were critical appraisal of the literature, interview and focus group data collection with 28 occupational therapists and 4 health services administrators, and a review of workplace policy. The study identified a policy wall. Notable policies were those which defined who is responsible for continuing professional development, and which limited employee benefits and work flexibility options for those with family duties. It appears that a female-dominated profession, such as occupational therapy, may also face gender-based challenges. Suggestions are offered for workplace policy makers, unions, provincial regulatory organizations, and health professionals. The findings are generally applicable to any small, dispersed health profession operating in resource-challenged conditions.

  1. Pilot study investigating ambient air toxics emissions near a Canadian kraft pulp and paper facility in Pictou County, Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Emma; Guernsey, Judith R; Walker, Tony R; Kim, Jong Sung; Sherren, Kate; Andreou, Pantelis

    2017-09-01

    Air toxics are airborne pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, including certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs), prioritized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While several EPA-designated air toxics are monitored at a subset of Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) sites, Canada has no specific "air toxics" control priorities. Although pulp and paper (P&P) mills are major industrial emitters of air pollutants, few studies quantified the spectrum of air quality exposures. Moreover, most NAPS monitoring sites are in urban centers; in contrast, rural NAPS sites are sparse with few exposure risk records. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate prioritized air toxic ambient VOC concentrations using NAPS hourly emissions data from a rural Pictou, Nova Scotia Kraft P&P town to document concentration levels, and to determine whether these concentrations correlated with wind direction at the NAPS site (located southwest of the mill). Publicly accessible Environment and Climate Change Canada data (VOC concentrations [Granton NAPS ID: 31201] and local meteorological conditions [Caribou Point]) were examined using temporal (2006-2013) and spatial analytic methods. Results revealed several VOCs (1,3-butadiene, benzene, and carbon tetrachloride) routinely exceeded EPA air toxics-associated cancer risk thresholds. 1,3-Butadiene and tetrachloroethylene were significantly higher (p towns and contribute to poor health in nearby communities.

  2. Comparison of Bayesian and frequentist approaches in modelling risk of preterm birth near the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canty Angelo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compares the Bayesian and frequentist (non-Bayesian approaches in the modelling of the association between the risk of preterm birth and maternal proximity to hazardous waste and pollution from the Sydney Tar Pond site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods The data includes 1604 observed cases of preterm birth out of a total population of 17559 at risk of preterm birth from 144 enumeration districts in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Other covariates include the distance from the Tar Pond; the rate of unemployment to population; the proportion of persons who are separated, divorced or widowed; the proportion of persons who have no high school diploma; the proportion of persons living alone; the proportion of single parent families and average income. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression, quasi-likelihood Poisson regression and weighted linear regression models were fitted to the data. Results The results of the analyses were compared together with their limitations. Conclusion The results of the weighted linear regression and the quasi-likelihood Poisson regression agrees with the result from the Bayesian hierarchical modelling which incorporates the spatial effects.

  3. The influence of intrinsic and extrinsic job values on turnover intention among continuing care assistants in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Donna M; Keefe, Janice M; McGrath, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the influence that intrinsic and extrinsic job values have on the turnover intention of continuing care assistants (CCAs) who work either in home care or facility-based care in Nova Scotia (n = 188). Factor analysis of job values identified three latent job values structures: "compensation and commitment," "flexibility and opportunity," and "positive work relationships." Using binary logistic regression, we examined the predictive utility of these factors on two indices of turnover intention. Regression results indicate that, in general, job values constructs did not significantly predict turnover intention when controlling for demographics and job characteristics. However, a trend was found for the "positive work relationships" factor in predicting consideration of changing employers. In addition, CCAs who work in facility-based care were significantly more likely to have considered leaving their current employer. With projected increases in the demand for these workers in both home and continuing care, more attention is needed to identify and address factors to reduce turnover intention.

  4. Determining appropriate wind turbine setback distances: Perspectives from municipal planners in the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Ian; Betts, Stephen; Rapaport, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a series of interviews to investigate how municipal planners in three Canadian provinces (Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario) influence setbacks that regulate appropriate locations for wind turbines. Setbacks are provisions in local land use policies that dictate required separation distances between wind turbines and other land uses. Results of the study indicate that planners are not using a consistent method to ascertain appropriate distances and are often constrained by a lack of experience, resources, and expertise. These findings have important implications for wind energy regulation. Setbacks are intended to reasonably protect the public from the impacts of wind turbines, while allowing for some development. Municipalities in Canada may be best placed to consider local impacts of wind power, but the challenges identified raise concerns about potential arbitrariness. Setbacks that are unjustifiably high can unnecessarily close off territory and limit the ability to reach renewable energy targets. Taking regulatory power away from municipalities, as has happened in Ontario, can facilitate achievement of provincial targets, but may also increase opposition to projects at the local level. - Highlights: ► Inconsistent methods used for establishing wind turbine setbacks. ► Most common method used is a review of other setback by-laws. ► Barriers to implementation of setbacks include knowledge, resources, and consensus. ► Recommend documentation of planning process in setting setbacks.

  5. The ESASSI-08 cruise in the South Scotia Ridge region: preliminary analysis of hydrodynamic and biogeochemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis, D.; Flexas, M. M.; Palmer, M.; Jordà, G.; Orsi, A. H.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    The ESASSI-08 oceanographic cruise carried out in January 2008 was the major milestone of ESASSI, the Spanish component of SASSI (a core project of the International Polar Year devoted to study the shelf-slope exchanges in different locations of Antarctica). The sampling strategy of the cruise consisted of 11 full-depth CTD/ADCP sections across the northern and southern slope of the South Scotia Ridge (SSR), between Elephant and Orkney Islands. The sections extend from shelf waters to open sea and the profiles were gathered at an unprecedented spatial resolution over the slope (about 2 nm). Water samples for chemical and biological analysis were also collected at each station; the analyzed parameters include trace gases (CFCs), oxygen isotopes, carbon-related parameters, and nutrients. In this presentation we show the overall distribution of the main variables across the different sections. Namely, we present: a water mass analysis (in terms of potential temperature, salinity and neutral density), estimates of velocities and fluxes across different transects and distributions of biogeochemical parameters. The ultimate aims of the ESASSI project are: 1) to elucidate the fate of the ASF when it enters the SSR from the Weddell Sea; 2) to estimate the shelf-slope exchanges for different parameters; and 3) to quantify the importance of the ventilation associated with intermediate waters flowing over the SSR with respect to the ventilation associated with bottom waters that are blocked by the SSR and flow around the Orkney Plateau.

  6. A documentation of structures in unconsolidated sediments along the north shore of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, T.R.

    1988-12-01

    During the summer of 1987 the north shore of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia, was examined for evidence of structures in unconsolidated sediments. This shoreline exposes the eastern extension of the Cobequid-Chedabucto fault system which was active from the Devonian until at least the Permian, and possible into the Mesozoic. The primary aim of the study was to document, measure and record any structures in unconsolidated sediments. In all, thirty-four structure locations were found; of these, twenty-nine were in glacial outwash deltas, the results of the Late Wisconsinan ice retreat. The most important structures include: 1) conjugate normal faults in Advocate Harbour sands and muds at East Finney Brook; 2) associated faults and folds in the Advocate Harbour bottomset muds at Lower Five Islands; and 3) major convolutions in Advocate Harbour bottomset muds at Economy Point. The convolutions are the results of seismic shaking which either postdated delta formation or triggered synsedimentary slumping. The faults and folds at Lower Five Islands were formed by extension related to either delta slumping or possible bedrock movement. The conjugate fault set at East Finney Brook is the result of an extensional event probably caused by late NE-SW normal fault reactivation. It is unclear whether this reactivation is the result of glacial rebound or neotectonic movement

  7. Movements and foraging effort of Steller's Eiders and Harlequin Ducks wintering near Dutch Harbor, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J.A.; Flint, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the movements and foraging effort of radio-marked Steller's Eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to evaluate habitat quality in an area impacted by industrial activity near Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Foraging effort was relatively low, with Steller's Eiders foraging only 2.7 ± 0.6 (SE) hours per day and Harlequin Ducks 4.1 ± 0.5 hours per day. Low-foraging effort during periods of high-energetic demand generally suggests high food availability, and high food availability frequently corresponds with reductions in home range size. However, the winter ranges of Harlequin Ducks did not appear to be smaller than usual, with the mean range size in our study (5.5 ± 1.1 km2) similar to that reported by previous investigators. The mean size of the winter ranges of Steller's Eiders was similar (5.1 ± 1.3 km2), but no comparable estimates are available. Eutrophication of the waters near Dutch Harbor caused by seafood processing and municipal sewage effluent may have increased populations of the invertebrate prey of these sea ducks and contributed to their low-foraging effort. The threat of predation by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) that winter near Dutch Harbor may cause Steller's Eiders and Harlequin Ducks to move further offshore when not foraging, contributing to an increase in range sizes. Thus, the movement patterns and foraging behavior of these ducks likely represent a balance between the cost and benefits of wintering in a human-influenced environment.

  8. Ducks and passerines nesting in northern mixed-grass prairie treated with fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Todd A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Madden, Elizabeth M.; Berkey, Gordon B.

    2011-01-01

    Prescribed fire is an important, ecology-driven tool for restoration of grassland systems. However, prescribed fire remains controversial for some grassland managers because of reported reductions in bird use of recently burned grasslands. Few studies have evaluated effects of fire on grassland bird populations in the northern mixed-grass prairie region. Fewer studies yet have examined the influence of fire on nest density or survival. In our review, we found no studies that simultaneously examined effects of fire on duck and passerine nesting. During 1998—2003, we examined effects of prescribed fire on the density of upland-nesting ducks and passerines nesting in north-central North Dakota, USA. Apparent nest densities of gadwall (Anas strepera), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and all duck species combined, were influenced by fire history of study units, although the degree of influence was not compelling. Fire history was not related to nest densities of blue-winged teal (A. discors), northern shoveler (A. clypeata), or northern pintail (A. acuta); however, apparent nest densities in relation to the number of postfire growing seasons exhibited a strikingly similar pattern among all duck species. When compared to ducks, fire history strongly influenced apparent nest densities of clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), and bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). For most species examined, apparent nest densities were lowest in recently burned units, increased during the second postfire growing season, and stabilized or, in some cases, decreased thereafter. Prescribed fire is critical for restoring the ecology of northern mixed-grass prairies and our findings indicate that reductions in nest densities are limited mostly to the first growing season after fire. Our results support the premise that upland-nesting ducks and several grassland passerine species are adapted to periodic fires occurring at a frequency similar to that

  9. Effect of cooking methods on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and duck breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, G Z; Wang, G Y; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2010-05-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), potent mutagens/carcinogens, are pyrolysis formed during the cooking of meat and fish. In the present study, the effects of various cooking methods, pan-frying, deep-frying, charcoal grilling and roasting on the formation of HAAs in chicken breast and duck breast were studied. The various HAAs formed during cooking were isolated by solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that chicken breast cooked by charcoal grilling contained the highest content of total HAAs, as high as 112 ng/g, followed by pan-fried duck breast (53.3 ng/g), charcoal grilled duck breast (32 ng/g), pan-fried chicken breast (27.4 ng/g), deep-fried chicken breast (21.3 ng/g), deep-fried duck breast (14 ng/g), roasted duck breast (7 ng/g) and roasted chicken breast (4 ng/g). For individual HAA, the most abundant HAA was 9H-pyrido-[4,3-b]indole (Norharman), which was detected in charcoal grilled chicken breast at content as high as 32.2 ng/g, followed by 1-methyl-9H-pyrido[4,3-b] indole (Harman) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]pyridine(PhIP) at 32 and 31.1 ng/g in charcoal grilled chicken breast, respectively. The content of PhIP in pan-fried duck and chicken breast were 22 and 18.3 ng/g, respectively. Generally, the type and content of HAAs in cooked poultry meat varies with cooking method and cooking conditions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anemia and mechanism of erythrocyte destruction in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.

    1968-01-01

    In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.

  11. Cancers take their Toll--the function and regulation of Toll-like receptors in cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, R; Alvero, A B; Silasi, D-A

    2008-01-01

    proliferation, would also be key factors in regulating and enhancing cancer progression. The TLR pathways, which play a critical role in tissue repair, are also key regulators in cancer progression as well as chemoresistance. TLRs serve as cell surface sensors that can initiate pathways leading to proliferation......Cancer could be deemed as an abnormal and uncontrolled tissue repair process. Therefore, it would not be surprising that factors that function in the tissue repair process, such as cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, as well as growth signals for compensatory...... and chemoresistance; as well as mediators that are able to regulate the infiltrating immune cells to provide further support for cancer progression....

  12. A study on liquid lithium flow in rectangular duck perpendicular to a intense magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xiuzhong; Chen Ke; Liu Yang; Zhang Qinshun

    2001-01-01

    A research on high-speed liquid-metal lithium flow through a non-expanding rectangular duck under uniform intense magnetic field is presented. A equations set with Poisson equation and Helmholtz equation, which control the electrical field and flow field respectively, has been deduced by analysis and PHsolver, a program to solve the equations set, has also been finished. The current density distribution and flow field in the non-expanding rectangular channel with intense magnetic field have been obtained from PHsolver by applying the wall-function in the boundary wall. The velocity profile in the duck appears M-shaped

  13. Sequence-specific inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus reverse transcription by peptide nucleic acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robaczewska, Magdalena; Narayan, Ramamurthy; Seigneres, Beatrice

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) appear as promising new antisense agents, that have not yet been examined as hepatitis B virus (HBV) inhibitors. Our aim was to study the ability of PNAs targeting the duck HBV (DHBV) encapsidation signal epsilon to inhibit reverse transcription (RT...... in primary duck hepatocytes (PDH). RESULTS: Both PNAs reproducibly inhibited DHBV RT in a dose-dependent manner with IC(50) of 10nM, whereas up to 600-fold higher concentration of S-ODNs was required for similar inhibition. The PNA targeting the bulge and upper stem of epsilon appeared as more efficient RT...

  14. Profilicollis botulus (Van Cleave, 1916) from diving ducks and shore crabs of British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, H L

    1989-02-01

    Adults of Profilicollis botulus were found in 6 species of diving ducks in British Columbia including 3 new hosts: common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula (L.); Barrow's goldeneye, B. islandica (Gmelin); and greater scaup, Aythya marila (L.). The identification of the species was verified by the examination of co-types and specimens from eider ducks, Somateria mollissima (L.), from Scotland and oldsquaw, Clangula hyemalis (L.), from New Brunswick. Cystacanths from the hairy shore crab, Hemigrapsus oregonensis (Dana), were similar in morphology to those from Carcinus maenas (L.) from Scotland.

  15. Biodiesel production by transesterification of duck tallow with methanol on alkali catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyong-Hwan [Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Kim, Jin [Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)]|[Department of Advanced Chemicals Graduate School, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea); Lee, Ki-Young [Center for Functional Nano Fine Chemicals, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)]|[Department of Applied Chemical Engineering and The Research Institute for Catalysis, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    Duck tallow was employed as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel by transesterification with methanol. The content of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was evaluated on various alkali catalysts during transesterification. The composition and chemical properties of the FAME were investigated in the raw duck tallow and the biodiesel products. The major constituent in the biodiesel product was oleic acid. The FAME content was 97% on KOH catalyst in the reaction. It was acceptable for the limit of European biodiesel qualities for BD100. Acid value, density, and kinematic viscosity of the biodiesel products also came up to the biodiesel qualities. (author)

  16. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Sumarmono

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thoroughly and ground using a 5 mm diameter grinding plate. The ground meat was divided into 4 batches (group of treatments; one batch was treated with iced tap water (M1, one batch with 0.1% NaCl solution (M2, one batch with 0.5% NaHCO3 solution (M3, and one batch was left as is as control (M4. Variables measured were water holding capacity (WHC, pH, emulsion capacity and stability of the meat; and firmness and tenderness of the meat gel. Results showed that M1 meat has significantly higher WHC (less percentage of free water than control (M4, whereas M2 and M3 meat has similar WHC to control. Processing caused the ground duck meat to have significantly higher pH than control. The highest meat pH was observed in M3, followed by M2, M1 and control. Processing duck meat with iced tap water, NaCl or NaHCO3 produced significantly more tender meat gel compared to untreated meat (as is. Tenderness of meat gel of M3 was the most tender followed by M2 and M1. Similar results for meat gel firmness were observed. No significant differences were observed in term of emulsion capacity (expressed as ml oil/gr protein and ml oil/gr fresh meat, emulsion stability (expressed as ml oil and total liquid released per 100 gr emulsion, and cooking recovery (%. The study reported in this paper offers simple processing technologies to improve functional characteristics of spent duck meat to be use as raw material for the production of emulsion type meat products. (Animal Production 12

  17. Carbonate deposition on tail feathers of ruddy ducks using evaporation ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Substantial carbonate deposits were observed on rectrices of Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) collected during 1982-1984 on evaporation ponds in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Carbonate deposits were composed of about 75% aragonite and 25% calcite, both polymorphous forms of CaCO3. Significantly more carbonate deposits were observed on Ruddy Ducks as length of exposure to agricultural drain water increased, during the 1983-1984 field season when salt concentrations in the ponds were higher, and in certain evaporation-pond systems.

  18. Tissue tropism of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in naturally infected mute swans (Cygnus Olor ), domestic geese (Aser Anser var. domestica), pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and mulard ducks ( Cairina moschata x anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeredi, Levente; Dán, Adám; Pálmai, Nimród; Ursu, Krisztina; Bálint, Adám; Szeleczky, Zsófia; Ivanics, Eva; Erdélyi, Károly; Rigó, Dóra; Tekes, Lajos; Glávits, Róbert

    2010-03-01

    The 2006 epidemic due to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 in Hungary caused the most severe losses in waterfowl which were, according to the literature at the time, supposed to be the most resistant to this pathogen. The presence of pathological lesions and the amount of viral antigen were quantified by gross pathology, histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the organs of four waterfowl species [mute swans (n = 10), domestic geese (n = 6), mulard ducks (n = 6) and Pekin ducks (n = 5)] collected during the epidemic. H5N1 subtype HPAIV was isolated from all birds examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRRT-PCR) was also applied on a subset of samples [domestic geese (n = 3), mulard (n = 4) and Pekin duck (n = 4)] in order to compare its sensitivity with IHC. Viral antigen was detected by IHC in all cases. However, the overall presence of viral antigen in tissue samples was quite variable: virus antigen was present in 56/81 (69%) swan, 22/38 (58%) goose, 28/46 (61%) mulard duck and 5/43 (12%) Pekin duck tissue samples. HPAIV subtype H5N1 was detected by qRRT-PCR in all birds examined, in 19/19 (100%) goose, 7/28 (25%) mulard duck and 12/28 (43%) Pekin duck tissue samples. As compared to qRRTPCR, the IHC was less sensitive in geese and Pekin ducks but more sensitive in mulard ducks. The IHC was consistently positive above 4.31 log10 copies/reaction but it gave very variable results below that level. Neurotropism of the isolated virus strains was demonstrated by finding the largest amount of viral antigen and the highest average RNA load in the brain in all four waterfowl species examined.

  19. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  20. Ligands, cell-based models, and readouts required for Toll-like receptor action.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dellacasagrande, Jerome

    2012-02-01

    This chapter details the tools that are available to study Toll-like receptor (TLR) biology in vitro. This includes ligands, host cells, and readouts. The use of modified TLRs to circumvent some technical problems is also discussed.

  1. Role of toll like receptors in bacterial and viral diseases – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avishek Das

    2017-05-20

    May 20, 2017 ... Cellular Immunology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of North ... Background: Toll like receptors are key-receptors of the innate immune ...... Triggering TLR7 in mice induces immune activation and lymphoid.

  2. Modeling Single Occupant Vehicle Behavior in High-Occupancy Toll (HOT) Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-14

    High-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are in operation, under construction, and planned for in several major metropolitan areas. The premise behind HOT lanes is to allow single occupant vehicles (SOVs) to access high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes (and theo...

  3. Investigation of the feasibility of toll and transit agency equity sharing : white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    This research project frames the institutional constraints and opportunities for equity sharing that currently exist in the highway, transit and toll agency realms and identifies statutory, regulatory and/or policy changes that may be requried. It al...

  4. Establishment of a rice-duck integrated farming system and its effects on soil fertility and rice disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-Qing; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    Rice-duck integrated farming is an ecological farming system newly established in some areas of southern China . It was reported that the ducks walking around the paddy fields is beneficial to control weed hazards and reduce rice pests and diseases. To study and evaluate the effects of the rice-duck integrated farming on soil fertility and rice disease control, a field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai in 2014. It includes a treatment of raising ducks in the fields and a control without ducks. The treatment was implemented by building a duck coop nearby the experimental fields and driving 15 ducks into a plot at daytime since the early stage of rice growth. Each plot is 667 m2 in area. The treatment and control were replicated for three times. No any herbicides, pesticides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers were applied during the experiment to prevent any disturbance to duck growing and rice weed hazards and disease incidences from agrochemicals. The results are as follows: (1) The incidences of rice leaf rollers (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and stem borers treated with ducks, 0.45%and 1.18% on average, respectively, are lower than those of the control, 0.74% and 1.44% on average, respectively. At the late stage of rice growth, the incidence of rice sheath blight treated with ducks, 13.15% on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 16.9% on average; and the incidence of rice planthoppers treated with ducks, 11.3 per hill on average, is also significantly lower than that of the control, 47.4 per hill on average. (2) The number of weeds in the plots treated with ducks, 8.3 per m2 on average, is significantly lower than that of the control, 87.5 m2 on average. (3) Raising ducks in the fields could also enhance soil enzyme activity and nutrient status. At the late stage of rice growth, the activities of urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in the soils treated with ducks are 1.39 times, 1.40 times, 1

  5. Corneal Opacity in Domestic Ducks Experimentally Infected With H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y; Nakamura, K; Yamada, M; Mase, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic ducks can be a key factor in the regional spread of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus in Asia. The authors performed experimental infections to examine the relationship between corneal opacity and H5N1 HPAI virus infection in domestic ducks (Anas platyrhyncha var domestica). A total of 99 domestic ducks, including 3 control birds, were used in the study. In experiment 1, when domestic ducks were inoculated intranasally with 2 H5N1 HPAI viruses, corneal opacity appeared more frequently than neurologic signs and mortality. Corneal ulceration and exophthalmos were rare findings. Histopathologic examinations of the eyes of domestic ducks in experiment 2 revealed that corneal opacity was due to the loss of corneal endothelial cells and subsequent keratitis with edema. Influenza viral antigen was detected in corneal endothelial cells and some other ocular cells by immunohistochemistry. Results suggest that corneal opacity is a characteristic and frequent finding in domestic ducks infected with the H5N1 HPAI virus. Confirming this ocular change may improve the detection rate of infected domestic ducks in the field. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Effects of different rearing systems on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and serum biochemical parameters of Chaohu ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Ah Kan Razafindrabe, Richard-Hermann; Chen, Kaikai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yang, Lei; Wang, Li; Chen, Xingyong; Jin, Sihua; Geng, Zhaoyu

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted using a total of 360 22-day-old Chaohu ducks to evaluate the effect of rearing system on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and serum parameters of male and female Chaohu ducks. The birds were divided and raised in separate pens according to sex and rearing system, with three replicate pens of 30 male or 30 female ducks per pen for each rearing system. The rearing systems consisted of a floor rearing system (FRS) and a net rearing system (NRS). Results showed that ducks raised in NRS had better growth performance, whereas, ducks raised in FRS exhibited better carcass traits and meat color, and lower intramuscular fat. For the serum parameters, NRS significantly decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content, and enhanced total protein and triacylglycerol contents. Male ducks had lower abdominal fat percentage, and higher growth performance and shear force, but there were no other significant differences between sexes. No rearing system × sex interaction was observed in the present study, revealing that rearing system had the same effect on both sexes. In conclusion, NRS was beneficial to the growth performance of Chaohu ducks, whereas this system had some negative effects on carcass traits, meat quality and serum profiles. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Isolation and Genomic Characterization of a Duck-Origin GPV-Related Parvovirus from Cherry Valley Ducklings in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Dou, Yanguo; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Zhenjie; Zheng, Xiaoqiang; Niu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Jing; Yu, Xianglong; Diao, Youxiang

    2015-01-01

    A newly emerged duck parvovirus, which causes beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS) in Cherry Valley ducks, has appeared in Northern China since March 2015. To explore the genetic diversity among waterfowl parvovirus isolates, the complete genome of an identified isolate designated SDLC01 was sequenced and analyzed in the present study. Genomic sequence analysis showed that SDLC01 shared 90.8%-94.6% of nucleotide identity with goose parvovirus (GPV) isolates and 78.6%-81.6% of nucleotide identity with classical Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of 443 nucleotides (nt) of the fragment A showed that SDLC01 was highly similar to a mule duck isolate (strain D146/02) and close to European GPV isolates but separate from Asian GPV isolates. Analysis of the left inverted terminal repeat regions revealed that SDLC01 had two major segments deleted between positions 160-176 and 306-322 nt compared with field GPV and MDPV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of Rep and VP1 encoded by two major open reading frames of parvoviruses revealed that SDLC01 was distinct from all GPV and MDPV isolates. The viral pathogenicity and genome characterization of SDLC01 suggest that the novel GPV (N-GPV) is the causative agent of BADS and belongs to a distinct GPV-related subgroup. Furthermore, N-GPV sequences were detected in diseased ducks by polymerase chain reaction and viral proliferation was demonstrated in duck embryos and duck embryo fibroblast cells.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIAL LOAD OF SAUSAGES PREPARED FROM DIFFERENT COMBINATION OF SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to assess the microbial load of sausages prepared from different combination of spent duck and spent hen meat. The combination are 100% spent duck (T1, 75%+ 25% spent duck and spent hen (T2, 50%+50% spent duck and spent hen (T3, 25%+75% spent duck and spent hen (T4 and 100% spent hen (T5. All the samples of different combination were subjected to total plate count (TPC, total psychrophilic count (TPSC and total Coliform count (TCC. Mean of TPC for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were 4.69, 4.62, 4.60, 4.49 and 4.46 log 10 CFU/gm respectively, while mean TPSC were 4.46, 4.46, 4.43, 4.36 and 4.36 log CFU/gm respectively There were no significant (p<0.05 difference between the different group of combination of sausages for TPS as well as TPSC but varies significantly (p<0.05 from 14th day of storage in both cases. The coliform group of bacteria will not be detected in any combination of sausages. It is concluded that microbial load of sausage prepared from spent duck is high and it is decreases as the percentage of duck meat decreases but, the upper limit of bacteria in each group of sausages is within limit and hence it is safe for human consumption.

  9. Classification of busses and lorries in an automatic road toll system

    OpenAIRE

    Jarl, Adam

    2003-01-01

    An automatic road toll system enables the passing vehicles to change lanes and no stop is needed for payment. Because of different weight of personal cars, busses, lorries (trucks) and other vehicles, they affect the road in different ways. It is of interest to categorize the vehicles into different classes depending of their weight so that the right fee can be set. An automatic road toll system developed by Combitech Traffic Systems AB (now Kapsch TrafficCom AB), Joenkoping, Sweden, classifi...

  10. The relationship between emotional labor status and workplace violence among toll collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Yosub; Rhie, Jeongbae

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to identify the emotional labor and workplace violence status among toll collectors by assessing and comparing the same with that in workers in other service occupation. It also aimed to analyze the relationship between emotional labor and workplace violence. Methods This study examined emotional labor and workplace violence status in 264 female toll collectors from August 20 to September 4, 2015. The emotional labor was assessed using the Korean Emotional Labor Sc...

  11. Roles of Toll-like receptors in allogeneic islet transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Han; Hong, Juho; Kim, Beom Seok; Lee, Eun Won; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Han, Kyu Hyun; Yeom, Hye-Jung; Lee, Eun Mi; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Oh, Kook-Hwan; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2012-11-27

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the rejection of solid organ allografts. However, the roles of TLRs in islets are still controversial. We investigated the roles of TLRs in donor islets together with those in recipients in allogeneic islet transplantation. To assess the roles of TLRs in either donor islets or recipients, allogeneic islet transplantation was performed using myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-knockout (KO), TLR4-KO, or Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-KO mice. Both polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced the mRNA expression of regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted, interferon-γ-inducible protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-8, and inducible nitric oxide synthase in murine islets, whereas the induction was attenuated in TRIF-KO, interferon-β promoter stimulator-1-KO, and TLR4-KO mice. When islets from MyD88-KO, TLR4-KO, or TRIF-KO C57BL/6 mice were transplanted to BALB/c recipients, graft survival was not better than that of wild-type (WT) islets. However, the survival of the MyD88-KO islet allograft was significantly prolonged when combined with anti-CD40L. In parallel, LPS stimulation in donor islets interfered with anti-CD40L blockade-mediated long-term survival of islet allografts in TLR4-KO recipients. LPS stimulation increased the perigraft infiltration of both T cells and macrophages. Then again, when islets from WT BALB/c mice were transplanted to MyD88-KO, TRIF-KO, or WT C57BL/6 mice, there was no difference in graft survival, although some of the MyD88-KO recipients obtained long-term graft survival. However, anti-CD40L prolonged graft survival significantly in MyD88-KO recipients. The absence of MyD88 in either donors or recipients decreased the perigraft infiltration of inflammatory cells when combined with anti-CD40L. TLRs in both donor islets and recipients are involved in islet allograft

  12. Ducks as a potential reservoir for Pasteurella multocida infection detected using a new rOmpH-based ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongchang; Chen, Cuiteng; Cheng, Longfei; Lu, Ronghui; Fu, Guanghua; Shi, Shaohua; Chen, Hongmei; Wan, Chunhe; Lin, Jiansheng; Fu, Qiuling; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-28

    Pasteurella multocida is an important pathogen of numerous domestic poultry and wild animals and is associated with a variety of diseases including fowl cholera. The aim of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on recombinant outer-membrane protein H (rOmpH) for detection of anti-P. multocida antibodies in serum to determine their prevalence in Chinese ducks. The P. multocida ompH gene was cloned into pET32a, and rOmpH was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Western blotting revealed that purified rOmpH was recognized by duck antisera against P. multocida, and an indirect ELISA was established. During analysis of serum samples (n=115) from ducks, the rOmpH ELISA showed 95.0% specificity, 100% sensitivity and a 92.0% κ coefficient (95% confidence interval 0.844-0.997) as compared with a microtiter agglutination test. Among 165 randomly selected serum samples, which were collected in 2015 and originated from six duck farms across Fujian Province, China, anti-P. multocida antibodies were detected in 22.42% of apparently healthy ducks, including 25 of 90 sheldrakes (27.8%), eight of 50 Peking ducks (16.0%) and four of 25 Muscovy ducks (16%). Overall, the data suggest that rOmpH is a suitable candidate antigen for the development of an indirect ELISA for detection of P. multocida in ducks; moreover, our results showed that ducks could serve as a potential reservoir for P. multocida infection.

  13. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass traits, and foot pad lesions of White Pekin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M; Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Wen, Z G; Huang, W; Hou, S S

    2014-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of stocking density on growth performance, carcass yield, and foot pad lesions of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 14 d of age (experiment 1) and from 14 to 42 d of age (experiment 2), respectively. All ducks were reared in raised plastic wire-floor pens with a pen size of 30 m(2), and males and females were mixed at a ratio of 1:1 in each pen of both experiments. In experiment 1, a total of 10,200 ducks that were 1 d old were allotted to 20 pens according to the stocking densities of 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 birds/m(2) (or 8.4, 9.7, 10.9, 11.9, and 13.0 kg of actually achieved BW/m(2)), respectively, with 4 replicates per treatment. In experiment 2, a total of 3,150 ducks that were 14 d old were allotted to 15 pens according to the stocking densities of 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 birds/m(2) (or 17.0, 20.3, 23.6, 26.9, and 29.9 kg of actually achieved BW/m(2)), respectively, with 3 replicates per treatment. The stocking density had significant effects on final BW and weight gain of starter and growing ducks (P 0.05). The final BW and weight gain of starter and growing ducks all decreased with increasing density (P ducks were reduced significantly as stocking density increased from 17 to 21 birds/m(2) (P ducks decreased significantly when stocking density was 9 birds/m(2) (P ducks (P > 0.05). © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability.

  15. Combined prediction model of death toll for road traffic accidents based on independent and dependent variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhong-xiang; Lu, Shi-sheng; Zhang, Wei-hua; Zhang, Nan-nan

    2014-01-01

    In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability.

  16. A Cost Effective Security Technology Integrated with RFID Based Automated Toll Collection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiya Hossain

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crime statistics and research on criminology show that under similar circumstances,crimes are more likely to occur in developing countries than in developed countries due to their lack ofsecurity measures. Transport crimes on highways and bridges are one of the most common crimes in the developing nations. Automation of various systems like the toll collection system is being introduced in the developing countries to avoid corruption in the collection of toll, decrease cost and increase operational efficiency. The goal of this research is to find an integrated solution that enhances security along with the advantage of automated toll collection. Inspired by the availability of many security systems, this research presents a system that can block a specific vehicle or a particular type of vehicles at the toll booths based on directives from the law enforcement agencies. The heart of the system is based on RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology. In this system, by sending a text message the law enforcement agency or the authority that controls the toll booths can prevent the barrier from being liftedeven after deduction of the toll charge if the passing vehicle has a security issue. The designed system should help the effort of reducing transport crimes on highways and bridges of developing countries.

  17. Alcohol resistance in Drosophila is modulated by the Toll innate immune pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutwine, B R; Ghezzi, A; Pietrzykowski, A Z; Atkinson, N S

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown that alcohol alters the activity of the innate immune system and that changes in innate immune system activity can influence alcohol-related behaviors. Here, we show that the Toll innate immune signaling pathway modulates the level of alcohol resistance in Drosophila. In humans, a low level of response to alcohol is correlated with increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. The Toll signaling pathway was originally discovered in, and has been extensively studied in Drosophila. The Toll pathway is a major regulator of innate immunity in Drosophila, and mammalian Toll-like receptor signaling has been implicated in alcohol responses. Here, we use Drosophila-specific genetic tools to test eight genes in the Toll signaling pathway for effects on the level of response to ethanol. We show that increasing the activity of the pathway increases ethanol resistance whereas decreasing the pathway activity reduces ethanol resistance. Furthermore, we show that gene products known to be outputs of innate immune signaling are rapidly induced following ethanol exposure. The interaction between the Toll signaling pathway and ethanol is rooted in the natural history of Drosophila melanogaster. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. Estimation and correction of visibility bias in aerial surveys of wintering ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, A.T.; Gerard, P.D.; Dinsmore, S.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Incomplete detection of all individuals leading to negative bias in abundance estimates is a pervasive source of error in aerial surveys of wildlife, and correcting that bias is a critical step in improving surveys. We conducted experiments using duck decoys as surrogates for live ducks to estimate bias associated with surveys of wintering ducks in Mississippi, USA. We found detection of decoy groups was related to wetland cover type (open vs. forested), group size (1?100 decoys), and interaction of these variables. Observers who detected decoy groups reported counts that averaged 78% of the decoys actually present, and this counting bias was not influenced by either covariate cited above. We integrated this sightability model into estimation procedures for our sample surveys with weight adjustments derived from probabilities of group detection (estimated by logistic regression) and count bias. To estimate variances of abundance estimates, we used bootstrap resampling of transects included in aerial surveys and data from the bias-correction experiment. When we implemented bias correction procedures on data from a field survey conducted in January 2004, we found bias-corrected estimates of abundance increased 36?42%, and associated standard errors increased 38?55%, depending on species or group estimated. We deemed our method successful for integrating correction of visibility bias in an existing sample survey design for wintering ducks in Mississippi, and we believe this procedure could be implemented in a variety of sampling problems for other locations and species.

  19. Dietary calcium deficiency in laying ducks impairs eggshell quality by suppressing shell biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Tian, Zhi Mei; Zhang, Han Xing; Ruan, Dong; Li, Yan; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Chun Tian; Lin, Ying Cai

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary calcium deficiency on the process of shell formation. Four hundred and fifty female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) at 22 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups. Ducks were fed one of two calcium-deficient diets (containing 1.8% or 0.38% calcium, respectively) or a calcium-adequate control diet (containing 3.6% calcium) for 67 days (depletion period) and then all ducks were fed a calcium-adequate diet for an additional 67 days (repletion period). Compared with the calcium-adequate control, the average shell thickness, egg shell weight, breaking strength, mammillae density and mammillary knob thickness of shell from ducks that consumed the diet with 0.38% calcium were significantly decreased (Pducks fed 0.38% calcium but not 1.8% calcium. Plasma estradiol concentration was decreased by both of the calcium-deficient diets (Pstudy suggest that dietary calcium deficiency negatively affects eggshell quality and microarchitecture, probably by suppressing shell biomineralization. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Association analysis between feed efficiency studies and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T; Chen, L; Du, X; Lai, S J; Huang, S P; Liu, Y L; Lu, L Z

    2016-10-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is now considered a more reasonable metric to evaluate animal feed efficiency. In this study, the correlation between RFI and other feed efficiency traits was investigated and gene expression within the hypothalamus was determined in low RFI (LRFI) and high RFI (HRFI) ducks. Further, several hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mean feed intake value was 160 g/day, whereas the egg mass laid (EML) and body weight were approximately 62.4 g/day and 1.46 kg respectively. Estimates for heritability of RFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake were 0.26, 0.18 and 0.23 respectively. RFI is phenotypically positively correlated with feed intake and FCR (P ducks compared with LRFI ducks (P ducks. The results indicate that selection for LRFI could reduce feed intake without significant changes in EML, whereas selection on FCR will increase EML. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. No More Peking Ducks in Hong Kong: Provoking Critical Thinking through "Subversive Teaching."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gwendolyn

    Education in Hong Kong has been developed along a British model that uses examination results to determine students' academic futures: to be allowed to go on to a university to study or to go into the workplace with a tenth-grade education. The system has been described by likening students to Peking ducks who are forced to eat, fattened up for…

  2. The accumulation and elimination of radiocesium by naturally contaminated wood ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendley, T.T.; Manlove, M.N.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The accumulation of radiocesium was studied in hand-reared wood ducks which were released into a South Carolina swamp habitat which had been contaminated with production reactor effluents. The uptake of radiocesium by the ducks was described as: ln pCi radiocesium/g live body weight = 0.36 + 0.18 (days). There was no effect of sex on uptake rate. The average estimated time required to attain practical equilibrium (0.90 Qsub(e)) was 17.3 days, with a range from 10.2 to 26.8 days. Ducks which were recaptured after attaining equilibrium concentrations in the field (averaging 16.6 pCi radiocesium/g live body weight) showed single-component elimination-rate curves when confined in a semi-natural pen for elimination studies. Radiocesium elimination under penned conditions was described as: ln % initial body burden = 4.60-0.13 (days). Elimination-rate and body weight showed a negative linear correlation for the penned birds although there was no effect of sex on loss-rate. Radiocesium biological half-times for the penned ducks averaged 5.6 days with a range from 3.2 to 9.3 days. Calculations based on biological half-times determined from studies with the penned birds, were successful in accurately predicting both the levels and rates of radiocesium accumulation by free-living birds in the field. (author)

  3. Regression tree analysis for predicting body weight of Nigerian Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntunji Abel Olusegun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric parameters and their indices are central to the understanding of the type and function of livestock. The present study was conducted to predict body weight (BWT of adult Nigerian Muscovy ducks from nine (9 morphometric parameters and seven (7 body indices and also to identify the most important predictor of BWT among them using regression tree analysis (RTA. The experimental birds comprised of 1,020 adult male and female Nigerian Muscovy ducks randomly sampled in Rain Forest (203, Guinea Savanna (298 and Derived Savanna (519 agro-ecological zones. Result of RTA revealed that compactness; body girth and massiveness were the most important independent variables in predicting BWT and were used in constructing RT. The combined effect of the three predictors was very high and explained 91.00% of the observed variation of the target variable (BWT. The optimal regression tree suggested that Muscovy ducks with compactness >5.765 would be fleshy and have highest BWT. The result of the present study could be exploited by animal breeders and breeding companies in selection and improvement of BWT of Muscovy ducks.

  4. Duckling survival, fecundity, and habitat selection of mottled duck broods on the upper Texas Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Elizabeth A.; Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) on the western Gulf Coast have exhibited a steep population decline since the mid 1990s. Low rates of breeding incidence and nest success have been implicated in this decline, but duckling survival and the habitat needs of broods have not been previously investigated in this region. We fitted mottled duck ducklings and adult females with radio transmitters and tracked broods to estimate duckling survival and brood habitat selection on the upper Texas Gulf Coast. Duckling survival to 30 days was high (range among models 0.354–0.567) compared to other dabbling duck species. Estimated fecundity was low, (range among models 0.398–0.634) however, indicating that overall reproductive output is low. Within coastal marsh, broods selected home ranges with more water cover and less upland and fresh marsh landcover than was available in the study area. Within coastal marsh home ranges, broods selected for water cover relative to other landcover types, and there was some evidence that broods avoided unvegetated landcover. Although high quality brood habitat is undeniably important, management efforts to increase mottled duck population growth on the western Gulf Coast may best be spent on increasing nesting habitat quality to increase nest success and breeding incidence.

  5. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (Pcontamination in waterfowl. In canvasback ducks 200 ppb of lead in the blood caused a 75% decrease in delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, a magnitude of enzyme inhibition that disturbs heme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  6. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  7. Does access to open water affect the health of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, K K M; Broom, D M

    2011-02-01

    Access to open water is considered good for the welfare of Pekin ducks. These studies investigated the effect that the type of water resource, provided over either straw bedding or a rubber mesh, had on measures of duck health. Pekin strain ducklings (n = 2,600) were managed in pens of 100 on straw over a solid concrete floor. In study 1, one of two water resources (nipple, n = 5 pens; wide-lip bell drinker, n = 5 pens), was located directly over the straw. In study 2, one of three water resources (narrow-lip bell drinker, n = 6 pens; trough, n = 5 pens; and bath, n = 5 pens) was located over a rubber mesh. On d 16, 24, 29, 35, and 43, (study 1) or d 21, 29, 35, and 43 posthatch (study 2), 10 birds were selected from each pen and weighed, and then feather hygiene, footpad dermatitis, eye health, gait score, and nostril condition scores were taken. Treatment had no effect on BW in either study, but in study 2, ducks in the open water treatments had higher scores (P blocked nostrils in the trough and bath treatments than in the narrow-lip bell drinker treatment in study 2 (P = 0.01). Provision of open water, particularly over a properly constructed drainage area, improved some aspects of duck health (improved feather hygiene and BW, and fewer dirty and blocked nostrils). However, further work is needed to investigate these treatments on a commercial scale.

  8. Functional characterization of duck LSm14A in IFN-β induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kexin; Li, Huilin; Chen, Huanchun; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Luo, Rui; Jin, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Human LSm14A is a key component of processing body (P-body) assembly that mediates interferon-β (IFN-β) production by sensing viral RNA or DNA. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report duck LSm14A (duLSm14A) cloning from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). Full-length duLSm14A encoded 461 amino acids and was highly homologous with chicken and swan goose sequences. More interestingly, the duLSm14A mRNA was extensively expressed in all the studied tissues. In DEFs, duLSm14A was localized in the cytoplasm as P-body-like dots. Expression of duLSm14A induced IFN-β through the activation of interferon regulatory factor-1 and nuclear factor-κB in DEFs. Furthermore, knockdown of duLSm14A by small interfering RNA notably decreased poly(I:C)- or duck reovirus-induced IFN-β production. The present study results indicate that the duLSm14A is an essential sensor that mediates duck innate immunity against viral infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MARKETING STRATEGY FOR START UP BUSINESS OF BROILER PEKING DUCK FARM WITH ECO-GREEN INTEGRATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silitonga N.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number and the rate of Banten population growth from year to year make it as a potential market which is quite large for the development of broiler duck farming business in the future. In this case, intensive system broiler Peking duck farming which is integrated, economic, and eco-green intensive, eco-green commonly utilizes Azolla microphylla and flour of pluchea leaves and other germ plasmas as the feed supplements. As a company in Peking duck farming with Eco Green concept, it requires the right marketing strategy to get into the target market. Therefore, the focus of this study is the marketing strategy to start up the business of eco-green integrated Peking duck farming. The results of the analysis of this study are that the marketing strategies used are: objectives and target marketing; analysis of market situation, market size, market share, market description; strategy of marketing, segmenting, targeting, positioning; tactics of marketing, networking, interaction, common interest, experience; CRM, continuity marketing, one to one marketing, partnership; blueprint for building a winning sales force; marketing budget, sales estimation, net marketing contribution.

  10. Perception of poultry farmers on duck farming in Kwara State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the perception of poultry farmers on duck farming in Kwara state, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed in selecting 80 poultry farmers used in the study. Analytical tools used include frequency counts, charts, mean, percentage and Pearson Product moment correlation. Results showed ...

  11. Correlates of Harlequin Duck densities during winter in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel N.; Bowman, Timothy D.; Dean, T.A.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Jewett, S.C.; McDonald, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated relationships of Harlequin Duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) densities to habitat attributes, history of habitat contamination by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, and prey biomass density and abundance during winters 1995-1997 in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Habitat features that explained variation in duck densities included distance to streams and reefs, degree of exposure to wind and wave action, and dominant substrate type. After accounting for these effects, densities were lower in oiled than unoiled areas, suggesting that population recovery from the oil spill was not complete, due either to lack of recovery from initial oil spill effects or continuing deleterious effects. Prey biomass density and abundance were not strongly related to duck densities after accounting for habitat and area effects. Traits of Harlequin Ducks that reflect their affiliation with naturally predictable winter habitats, such as strong site fidelity and intolerance of increased energy costs, may make their populations particularly vulnerable to chronic oil spill effects and slow to recover from population reductions, which may explain lower densities than expected on oiled areas nearly a decade following the oil spill.

  12. 50 CFR 21.54 - Control order for muscovy ducks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating... Counties in Texas, and in Alaska, Hawaii, and U.S. territories and possessions, landowners and Federal... Zapata Counties in Texas. In these counties, take of muscovy ducks, their nests, and their eggs may be...

  13. Quantitative feed restriction of Pekin breeder ducks from 3 weeks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0,01) lower in body mass than those restricted from 8 weeks of age. The aversion of mass loss during this period could have contributed to the improved performance recorded during the laying period. At 60 weeks of age, the ducks restricted in intake from. 3 weeks were still highly significantly (P ",;;0,01) lighter in body mass ...

  14. A participatory approach to sustainable energy strategy development in a carbon-intensive jurisdiction: The case of Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Michelle; Wheeler, David; Woolston, Genna

    2011-01-01

    The need for governments to reduce the exposure of energy consumers to future increases in fossil fuel prices places urgent pressure on policy-makers to deliver fundamental transformations in energy strategies, particularly in jurisdictions with high dependency on fossil fuel sources (). This transformation is unlikely without a high level of stakeholder engagement in the policy development process. This paper describes two policy development processes recently undertaken in Nova Scotia in which the inclusion of stakeholder views was central to the approach. The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency involving the inception of an independent performance-based administrator. The second required the delivery of a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation in the Province. It involved recommendations for changes in institutional arrangements, financial incentives and technological options. This process was followed by new commitments to renewable energy developments, new infrastructure for the importation of hydro-electricity, and the announcement of FITs for ocean energy. In both cases, recommendations were made by an independent academic institution, and the Government responded directly to a majority of recommendations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and the implications for future energy policy making in carbon-intensive jurisdictions. - Research highlights: → Fundamental transformations in energy policy require stakeholder engagement to be successful. → We describe two policy development processes where stakeholder views were key considerations. → The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency. → The second delivered a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation. → In each case, the Government directly responded to the majority of recommendations.

  15. Identifying the sources driving observed PM2.5 temporal variability over Halifax, Nova Scotia, during BORTAS-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Gibson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The source attribution of observed variability of total PM2.5 concentrations over Halifax, Nova Scotia, was investigated between 11 July and 26 August 2011 using measurements of PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 chemical composition (black carbon, organic matter, anions, cations and 33 elements. This was part of the BORTAS-B (quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants using Aircraft and Satellites experiment, which investigated the atmospheric chemistry and transport of seasonal boreal wildfire emissions over eastern Canada in 2011. The US EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF receptor model was used to determine the average mass (percentage source contribution over the 45 days, which was estimated to be as follows: long-range transport (LRT pollution: 1.75 μg m−3 (47%; LRT pollution marine mixture: 1.0 μg m−3 (27.9%; vehicles: 0.49 μg m−3 (13.2%; fugitive dust: 0.23 μg m−3 (6.3%; ship emissions: 0.13 μg m−3 (3.4%; and refinery: 0.081 μg m−3 (2.2%. The PMF model describes 87% of the observed variability in total PM2.5 mass (bias = 0.17 and RSME = 1.5 μg m−3. The factor identifications are based on chemical markers, and they are supported by air mass back trajectory analysis and local wind direction. Biomass burning plumes, found by other surface and aircraft measurements, were not significant enough to be identified in this analysis. This paper presents the results of the PMF receptor modelling, providing valuable insight into the local and upwind sources impacting surface PM2.5 in Halifax and a vital comparative data set for the other collocated ground-based observations of atmospheric composition made during BORTAS-B.

  16. A participatory approach to sustainable energy strategy development in a carbon-intensive jurisdiction: The case of Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michelle, E-mail: adamsm@dal.c [School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, 6100 University Avenue, Suite 5010, Halifax, NS, B3H 3J5 (Canada); Wheeler, David [Plymouth Business School, University of Plymouth, Cookworthy Building, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Woolston, Genna [School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, 6100 University Avenue, Suite 5010, Halifax, NS, B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    The need for governments to reduce the exposure of energy consumers to future increases in fossil fuel prices places urgent pressure on policy-makers to deliver fundamental transformations in energy strategies, particularly in jurisdictions with high dependency on fossil fuel sources (). This transformation is unlikely without a high level of stakeholder engagement in the policy development process. This paper describes two policy development processes recently undertaken in Nova Scotia in which the inclusion of stakeholder views was central to the approach. The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency involving the inception of an independent performance-based administrator. The second required the delivery of a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation in the Province. It involved recommendations for changes in institutional arrangements, financial incentives and technological options. This process was followed by new commitments to renewable energy developments, new infrastructure for the importation of hydro-electricity, and the announcement of FITs for ocean energy. In both cases, recommendations were made by an independent academic institution, and the Government responded directly to a majority of recommendations. The paper concludes with a discussion of lessons learned and the implications for future energy policy making in carbon-intensive jurisdictions. - Research highlights: {yields} Fundamental transformations in energy policy require stakeholder engagement to be successful. {yields} We describe two policy development processes where stakeholder views were key considerations. {yields} The first delivered a new institutional framework for electricity energy efficiency. {yields} The second delivered a strategy to significantly increase renewable energy generation. {yields} In each case, the Government directly responded to the majority of recommendations.

  17. Deep seismic studies of conjugate profiles from the Nova Scotia - Moroccan and the Liguro-Provencal margin pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, F.; Biari, Y.; Sahabi, M.; Aslanian, D.; Philippe, S.; Schnabel, M.; Moulin, M.; Louden, K. E.; Funck, T.; Reichert, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    The structure of conjugate passive margins provides information about rifting styles, opening of an ocean and formation of it's associated sedimentary basins. In order to distinguish between tectonic inheritance and structures directly related to rifting of passive margins conjugate profiles have to be acquired on margins on diverse locations and different ages. In this study we use new and existing reflection and wide-angle seismic data from two margin pairs, the 200 Ma year old Nova-Scotia - Morocco margin pair and the only 20 Ma Gulf of Lions - Sardinia margin pair. On both margin pairs wide-angle seismic data combined with reflection seismic data were acquired on conjugate profiles on sea and extended on land. Forward modelling of the deep crustal structure along the four transects indicates that a high velocity zone (HVZ) (> 7.2 km/s) is present at the base of the lower crust on all four margins along the ocean-continental transition zone (OCT). This may represent either exhumed upper mantle material or injection of upper mantle material into proto-oceanic crust at the onset of sea-floor spreading. However the width of the HVZ might strongly differ between conjugates, which may be the result of tectonic inheritance, for example the presence of ancient subduction zones or orogens. Both margin pairs show a similar unthinned continental crustal thickness. Crustal thinning and upper-to-lower crustal thickness vary between margin pairs, but remain nearly symmetric on conjugate profiles and might therefore depend on the structure and mechanical properties of the original continental crust. For the Mediterranean margin pair, the oceanic crust is similar on both sides, with a thickness of only 4-5 km. For the Atlantic margin pair, oceanic crustal thickness is higher on the Moroccan Margin, a fact that can be explained by either asymmetric spreading or by the volcanic underplating, possibly originating from the Canary Hot Spot.

  18. Is the minimum enough? Affordability of a nutritious diet for minimum wage earners in Nova Scotia (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Felicia D; Williams, Patricia L; Watt, Cynthia G

    2014-05-09

    This paper aims to assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia (NS) from 2002 to 2012 using an economic simulation that includes food costing and secondary data. The cost of the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB) was assessed with a stratified, random sample of grocery stores in NS during six time periods: 2002, 2004/2005, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2012. The NNFB's cost was factored into affordability scenarios for three different household types relying on minimum wage earnings: a household of four; a lone mother with three children; and a lone man. Essential monthly living expenses were deducted from monthly net incomes using methods that were standardized from 2002 to 2012 to determine whether adequate funds remained to purchase a basic nutritious diet across the six time periods. A 79% increase to the minimum wage in NS has resulted in a decrease in the potential deficit faced by each household scenario in the period examined. However, the household of four and the lone mother with three children would still face monthly deficits ($44.89 and $496.77, respectively, in 2012) if they were to purchase a nutritiously sufficient diet. As a social determinant of health, risk of food insecurity is a critical public health issue for low wage earners. While it is essential to increase the minimum wage in the short term, adequately addressing income adequacy in NS and elsewhere requires a shift in thinking from a focus on minimum wage towards more comprehensive policies ensuring an adequate livable income for everyone.

  19. Apparent survival of adult Leach's Storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa breeding on Bon Portage Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle T. Fife

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Leach's Storm-petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa; hereafter storm-petrel, one of the most widespread procellariiform seabirds in the world, appear to be declining in many parts of their breeding range. As part of a regional effort to assess status of storm-petrel colonies in eastern North America, we estimated apparent survival and recapture probabilities from 2009 to 2014 for adults on Bon Portage Island (43° 28' N, 65° 44' W, located off the southwestern coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. Mean annual survival estimated for this colony was low (0.78 ± 0.04 compared with other procellariiforms, e.g., > 0.90 for many albatrosses and petrels. Storm-petrels that were fitted with very high frequency (VHF radio tags had an average of 0.11 ± 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01 to 0.21 higher survival probabilities than those that were not, possibly because VHF tags were attached to known, established breeders. There was weak evidence that survival was reduced by an average of 0.07 ± 0.04 for storm-petrels in study plots that were occupied by Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus and their chicks; however, this result was not statistically significant (95% CI: -0.15 to 0.02. Low adult survival is an early indication that this important colony may be under stress. However, further work is needed to determine if the colony is indeed declining and, if so, to determine the cause(s of the decline so that they may be addressed.

  20. Protocol for determining primary healthcare practice characteristics, models of practice and patient accessibility using an exploratory census survey with linkage to administrative data in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Emily Gard; Gibson, Richard J; Lawson, Beverley; Burge, Frederick

    2017-03-16

    There is little evidence on how primary care providers (PCPs) model their practices in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, what services they offer or what accessibility is like for the average patient. This study will create a database of all family physicians and primary healthcare nurse practitioners in NS, including information about accessibility and the model of care in which they practice, and will link the survey data to administrative health databases. 3 census surveys of all family physicians, primary care nurse practitioners (ie, PCPs) and their practices in NS will be conducted. The first will be a telephone survey conducted during typical daytime business hours. At each practice, the person answering the telephone will be asked questions about the practice's accessibility and model of care. The second will be a telephone survey conducted after typical daytime business hours to determine what out-of-office services PCP practices offer their patients. The final will be a tailored fax survey that will collect information that could not be obtained in the first 2 surveys plus new information on scope of practice, practice model and willingness to participate in research. Survey data will be linked with billing data from administrative health databases. Multivariate regression analysis will be employed to assess whether access and availability outcome variables are associated with PCP and model of practice characteristics. Negative binomial regression analysis will be employed to assess the association between independent variables from the survey data and health system use outcomes from administrative data. This study has received ethical approval from the Nova Scotia Health Authority and the Health Data Nova Scotia Data Access Committee. Dissemination approached will include stakeholder engagement at local and national levels, conference presentations, peer-reviewed publications and a public website. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to