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Sample records for scorpius region ngc

  1. NEW MEMBERS OF THE SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS COMPLEX AND AGES OF ITS SUB-REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Zuckerman, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Bessell, M. S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Advanced Studies, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2012-07-15

    We have spectroscopically identified {approx}100 G-, K-, and M-type members of the Scorpius-Centaurus complex. To deduce the age of these young stars we compare their Li {lambda}6708 absorption line strengths against those of stars in the TW Hydrae association and {beta} Pictoris moving group. These line strengths indicate that Sco-Cen stars are younger than {beta} Pic stars whose ages of {approx}12 Myr have previously been derived from a kinematic traceback analysis. Our derived age, {approx}10 Myr, for stars in the Lower Centaurus Crux and Upper Centaurus Lupus subgroups of ScoCen is younger than previously published ages based on the moving cluster method and upper main-sequence fitting. The discrepant ages are likely due to an incorrect (or lack of) cross-calibration between model-dependent and model-independent age-dating methods.

  2. Leaking Photons from the HII Region NGC 7538

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisi, Matteo; Anderson, Loren D.; Balser, Dana S.; Bania, Thomas M.; Wenger, Trey

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the NRAO Green Bank Telescope and the INT Photometric H-Alpha Survey of the Northern Galactic Plane (IPHAS), we analyze the ionizing radiation that is escaping the photo-dissociation region (PDR) boundary of the HII region NGC 7538. We find extended radio continuum and radio recombination line (RRL) emission outside the PDR toward the north and east of the region. This suggests that a non-uniform PDR morphology is affecting the amount of radiation "leaking" through the PDR. We quantify the leaking photon fraction along the line of sight, and use a numerical model to estimate the leaking photon fraction in three dimensions of both radio continuum and H-alpha emission. We detect carbon RRL emission near the PDR and find a decrease in the helium-to-hydrogen ionic abundance ratio with increasing distance from the central position. This indicates a softening of the radiation field within the PDR. Using Herschel Space Observatory data, we create a dust temperature map of the region and show that small dust temperature enhancements to the north and east of NGC 7538 coincide with extended radio emission. We discuss implications for maintaining the ionization of the warm interstellar medium by HII regions.

  3. The Disk and Extraplanar Regions of NGC 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2005-03-01

    The stellar content of the nearby SB(s)m galaxy NGC 55 is investigated using images obtained with the Gemini South and Canada-France-Hawaii telescopes. The (K, H-K) and (K, J-K) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of stars near the plane of the disk reveal signatures of large-scale star formation during recent and intermediate epochs in the form of red supergiants (RSGs) with MK=-11.5, and an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) that peaks near MK=-10. Comparisons with stellar evolution models suggest that the brightest RSGs have an age near 8 Myr. A well-defined plume, which stellar evolution models suggest contains stars with masses near the RSG-AGB transition, is detected in CMDs constructed both from infrared and visible wavelength observations. It is concluded that star formation in the thin disk of NGC 55 has occurred at a significant rate for at least the past 0.1-0.2 Gyr, and this is consistent with other indicators. The near-infrared spectral energy distribution of the integrated light near the center of the galaxy is consistent with that in other Magellanic irregular galaxies, indicating that the star-forming history of NGC 55, when averaged over timescales of 0.1-1 Gyr, has likely not been peculiar when compared with other late-type systems. Evidence is also presented that the disk contains a large population of old [log(tyr)~10] stars, and it is argued that a stable disk has been in place in NGC 55 for a significant fraction of the age of the universe. At projected distances in excess of 2 kpc off of the disk plane, the brightest AGB stars have ages 10+3-2 Gyr. Thus, despite indications that dust and gas are present in the envelope surrounding the NGC 55 disk, the AGB content suggests that recently formed stars do not occur in large numbers in the extraplanar region. The (r'-i') colors of the RGB in the extraplanar region are consistent with [Fe/H] between -2.2 and -0.7, with the majority of stars having [Fe/H]>-1.2, and the mean metallicity inferred from the RGB

  4. The Extended Region Around the Planetary Nebula NGC 3242

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This ultraviolet image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows NGC 3242, a planetary nebula frequently referred to as 'Jupiter's Ghost.' The unfortunate name of 'planetary nebula' for this class of celestial object is a historical legacy credited to William Herschel during the 18th century a time when telescopes where small and objects like these, at least the central region, looked very similar to gas-giant planets such as Saturn and Jupiter. In fact, NGC 3242 has no relation to Jupiter or any other planet. Telescopes and their detectors have dramatically improved over the past few centuries. Our understanding of what planetary nebulae truly are has improved accordingly. When stars with a mass similar to our sun approach the end of their lives by exhausting supplies of hydrogen and helium fuel in their cores, they swell up into cool red-giant stars. In a last gasp before death, they expel the layers of gas in their outer atmosphere. This exposes the core of the dying star, a dense hot ball of carbon and oxygen called a white dwarf. The white dwarf is so hot that it shines very brightly in the ultraviolet. The ultraviolet light from the white dwarf, in turn, ionizes the gaseous material expelled by the star causing it to glow. A planetary nebula is really the death of a low-mass star. Although low-mass stars like our sun live for billions of years, planetary nebulae only last for about ten thousand years. As the central white dwarf quickly cools and the ultraviolet light dwindles, the surrounding gas also cools and fades. In this image of NGC 3242 from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, the extended region around the planetary nebula is shown in dramatic detail. The small circular white and blue area at the center of the image is the well-known portion of the famous planetary nebula. The precise origin and composition of the extended wispy white features is not known for certain. It is most likely material ejected during the star's red-giant phase before the white

  5. The distribution of water in the high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334 I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emprechtinger, M.; Lis, D. C.; Bell, T.; Phillips, T. G.; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.; Rolffs, R.; van der Tak, F.; Ceccarelli, C.; Aarts, H.; Bacmann, A.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G.; Boogert, A.; Bottinelli, S.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Castets, A.; Caux, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Coutens, A.; Crimier, N.; Demyk, K.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P.; Helmich, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Jacq, T.; Kahane, C.; Kama, M.; Klotz, A.; Kooi, J.; Langer, W.; Lefloch, B.; Loose, A.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pacheco, S.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J.; Risacher, C.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Stutzki, J.; Tielens, X.; van der Wiel, M.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. We present observations of twelve rotational transitions of (H2O)-O-16, (H2O)-O-18, and (H2O)-O-17 toward the massive star-forming region NGC 6334 I, carried out with Herschel/HIFI as part of the guaranteed time key program Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS). We analyze

  6. The extended narrow line region of NGC 4151. : I. Emission line ratios and their implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penston, M. V.; Robinson, A.; Alloin, D.; Appenzeller, I.; Aretxaga, I.; Axon, D. J.; Baribaud, T.; Barthel, P.; Baum, S. A.; Boisson, C.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Clavel, J.; Colina, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Diaz, A.; Dietrich, M.; Durret, F.; Dyson, J. E.; Gondhalekar, P.; van Groningen, E.; Jablonka, P.; Jackson, N.; Kollatschny, W.; Laurikainen, E.; Lawrence, A.; Masegosa, J.; McHardy, I.; Meurs, E. J. A.; Miley, G.; Moles, M.; O'Brien, P.; O'Dea, C.; del Olmo, A.; Pedlar, A.; Perea, J.; Perez, E.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Perry, J.; Pilbratt, G.; Rees, M.; Robson, I.; Rodriguez-Pascual, P.; Rodriguez Espinosa, J. M.; Santos-Lleo, M.; Schilizzi, R.; Stasińska, G.; Stirpe, G. M.; Tadhunter, C.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Unger, S.; Vila-Vilaro, V.; Vilchez, J.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M. J.; Yates, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents the first results from long-slit spectra of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 which give average diagnostic ratios of weak lines in the Extended Narrow Line Region (ENLR) of the galaxy and the first direct density measurement in an ENLR. These data confirm that the ENLR is kinematically

  7. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the central star forming region in NGC 1140 (exp 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Gallagher, John S. Iii

    1994-01-01

    We present broadband images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope's Planetary Camera of the central supergiant H II region in the amorphous galaxy NGC 1140. These images allow observations to a resolution of about 13 pc at the galaxy, and they reveal that its central 1/2 kpc contains 6-7 blue, luminous, compact super star clusters, many of which would be comparable in luminosity to globular clusters at the same age. A blue arc-shaped structure near the center may be a grouping of less luminous, R136/NGC 2070-sized clusters or a sheet of OB stars. Additional somewhat less luminous and redder clusters are also found farther out from the center. If these clusters are older, they too could have had luminosities comparable to those of the central six clusters at a comparable age. Thus, we find that NGC 1140 is remarkable in the number of extreme clusters that it has formed recently in a relatively small area of the galaxy. Since NGC 1140 exhibits global characteristics that are consistent with a recent merger, these clusters are likely to be a product of that event. This galaxy adds to the number of cases where rapid star formation has evidently produced super star clusters.

  8. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel: HIFI spectroscopy of NGC 1333

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, L. E.; Dominik, C.; Whyborn, N.

    2010-01-01

    “Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel” (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 in several H_(2)^(16)O, H_(2)^(18)O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are r...

  9. Shock-excited NH3 (3, 3) masers in the NGC 6334 star-forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Jackson, James M.

    1995-01-01

    We report the discovery of four NH3 (3, 3) masers in the NGC 6334 star formation region. The masers are found in two of the seven far-infrared continuum sources where high-mass star formation is taking place in this molecular cloud. These masers occur at the ends of high-velocity molecular outflows; no maser emission was found near regions without high-velocity outflows. The NH3 masers are not associated with any other type of maser. These results confirm that the NH3 (3, 3) masers are caused by shocks and probably mark the location where the molecular outflow jet impinges upon the ambient medium.

  10. HST Snapshot Study of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters: Inner Region of NGC 6441

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Smith, Horace A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Catelan, Marcio; Sweigart, Allen V.; Layden, Andrew C.; Rich, R. Michael

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope snapshot program to survey the inner region of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6441 for its variable stars. A total of 57 variable stars was found including 38 RR Lyrae stars, 6 Population II Cepheids, and 12 long period variables. Twenty-four of the RR Lyrae stars and all of the Population II Cepheids were previously undiscovered in ground-based surveys. Of the RR Lyrae stars observed in h s survey, 26 are pulsating in the fundamental mode with a mean period of 0.753 d and 12 are first-overtone mode pulsators with a mean period of 0.365 d. These values match up very well with those found in ground-based surveys. Combining all the available data for NGC 6441, we find mean periods of 0.759 d and 0.375 d for the RRab and RRc stars, respectively. We also find that the RR Lyrae in this survey are located in the same regions of a period-amplitude diagram as those found in ground-based surveys. The overall ratio of RRc to total RR Lyrae is 0.33. Although NGC 6441 is a metal-rich globular cluster and would, on that ground, be expected either to have few RR Lyrae stars, or to be an Oosterhoff type I system, its RR Lyrae more closely resemble those in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. However, even compared to typical Oosterhoff type II systems, the mean period of its RRab stars is unusually long. We also derived I-band period-luminosity relations for the RR Lyrae stars. Of the six Population II Cepheids, five are of W Virginis type and one is a BL Herculis variable star. This makes NGC 6441, along with NGC 6388, the most metal-rich globular cluster known to contain these types of variable stars. Another variable, V118, may also be a Population II Cepheid given its long period and its separation in magnitude from the RR Lyrae stars. We examine the period-luminosity relation for these Population II Cepheids and compare it to those in other globular clusters and in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We argue that there does

  11. The Age of Upper Scorpius from Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Trevor; Hillenbrand, Lynne

    2018-01-01

    The Upper Scorpius OB association is the nearest region of recent massive star formation and thus an important benchmark for investigations concerning astrophysical timescales. Classical estimates of the association age based on the kinematics of high-mass members and a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram of the full stellar population established an age of 5 Myr. However, recent analyses based on the H-R diagram for intermediate- and high-mass members suggest an older age of 11 Myr. Importantly, the H-R diagram ages of stars in Upper Scorpius (and other clusters of a similar age) are mass-dependent, such that low-mass members appear younger than their high-mass counterparts. Here we report an age that is self-consistent in the mass range of 0.3–5 M⊙, and based on the fundamentally-determined masses and radii of eclipsing binaries (EBs). We present nine EBs in Upper Scorpius, four of which are newly reported here and all of which were discovered from K2 photometry. Joint fitting of the eclipse photometry and radial velocities from newly acquired Keck-I/HIRES spectra yields precise masses and radii for those systems that are spectroscopically double-lined. We identify one of the EB components as a slowly pulsating B-star. We use these EBs to develop an empirical mass-radius relation for pre-main-sequence stars, and to evaluate the predictions of widely-used stellar evolutionary models. Our results are consistent with previous studies that indicate most models underestimate the masses of low-mass stars by tens of percent based on H-R diagram analyses. Models including the effects of magnetic fields produce better agreement between the observed bulk and radiative parameters of these young, low-mass stars. From the orbital elements and photometrically inferred rotation periods, we consider the dynamical states of several binaries and compare with expectations from tidal dissipation theories.

  12. The clouds which form the extended emission line region of NGC 4388

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, L.

    1987-09-01

    Observations of the NGC 4388 galaxy (which is classified as Seifert 2 galaxy), performed at the Cassegrain focus of the La Silla 2.2-m telescope, are discussed. Long-slit spectroscopy was obtained at position angles 23 and 152 deg, with the O III line emission observed over a total extension of 24 arcsec symmetric to the nucleus. Contrary to the general behavior observed in the O III line profile of Seyfert galaxies, the NGC 4388 galaxy shows a peculiar red asymmetry. The overall O III line 5007-A profile is composed, both at position angles of 23 and 152 deg, of five clearly distinguishable components, separated by up to 600 km/s: the main component C2, which extends over the central region from 3 arcsec NE to 6 arcsec SE; two other major components, C3 and C4, extending over a region of +/- 6 arcsec symmetrically with respect to the nucleus; and two smaller components, C1 and C5, concentrated at the center. It is suggested that these components could be associated with a system of giant clouds confined to the inner six arcsecs from the nucleus.

  13. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-07-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  14. An infrared study of the NGC 1977 H II region/molecular cloud interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinen, P.; Harvey, P. M.; Wilking, B. A.; Evans, N. J., II

    1985-01-01

    The results of an infrared study of the H II region NGC 1977 and the adjacent dense molecular cloud are reported. Extensive far-infrared maps with 45 arcsec resolution allow the spatial structure of the dust temperature and optical depth variations across the ionization front to be delineated. Analysis of the dust energetics indicates that the only significant energy source is the B1 V star HD 37018 which ionizes the H II region. This result, together with a favorable geometry, provides a good opportunity to determine the ratio of ultraviolet absorption efficiency to far-infrared emission efficiency, 790 + 460 or - 180. Analysis of the gas energetics indicates that collisions with warm dust grains can explain the observed gas temperatures.

  15. Massive Star Formation in NGC4038/4039: HII Regions and Supernova Remnants in "The Antennae"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, S. G.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Fisher, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The nearest merger, NGC4038/4039 ("The Antennae, Arp244), is undergoing a starburst apparently triggered and driven by the ongoing interaction. The system provides an excellent laboratory to study star formation processes because well-studied and nearby (21 Mpc assumed here). Models of the interaction suggest that the interaction's first periapse occurred 200 Myr ago, and that final coalescence will occur in another 100 Myr. Blue and H alpha images show a continuous loop of bright knots around the NGC4038 (northern) nucleus, continuing down through the NGC4039 (southern) nucleus. Recent HST V and I images resolve the star-forming knots into several thousand blue compact clusters, with ages 5Myr for the youngest clusters. Far Ultraviolet (lambda 1500A) observations directly detect O and B stars in regions of low extinction; the total mass of young stars so observed is approximately 8 x 10 (exp 5) solar mass. FIR observations imply a star formation rate of approximately 5 M (sub 0) dot yr (sup -1) or greater. We used the VLA at 6 and 4 cm to obtain high resolution radio images of the star-formation regions in NGC4038/4038. We used high resolution imaging to identify compact radio emitting regions and spectral indices of the compact regions to differentiate between thermal sources such as HII regions (flat spectra) and supernova, remnants (steep spectra). We found that compact radio sources produce approximately 12% and/sim 25 strongest radio emission occurs between the galaxies, at an optically unremarkable location near but not coincident with an extremely red cluster. The radio peak is at a location of intense star formation (as detected in the mid-IR, reference?) and of dense molecular gas. We identify 115 individual compact 6cm radio sources and 63 individual 4 cm sources in the system, to a limiting luminosity of approximately 2 x 10 (exp 1) 8 W Hz (sup -1) (or /sim4x the luminosity of Cas A). Of the strongest sources, for which the h flux densities are large

  16. Photoionization modelling of the giant broad-line region in NGC 3998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Prior high angular resolution spectroscopic observations of the Low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (Liner) in NGC 3998 obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) revealed a rich UV-visible spectrum consisting of broad permitted and broad forbidden emission lines. The photoionization code XSTAR is employed together with reddening-insensitive emission line diagnostics to constrain a dynamical model for the broad-line region (BLR) in NGC 3998. The BLR is modelled as a large H+ region ∼ 7 pc in radius consisting of dust-free, low-density ∼ 104 cm-3, low-metallicity ∼ 0.01 Z/Z⊙ gas. Modelling the shape of the broad H α emission line significantly discriminates between two independent measures of the black hole (BH) mass, favouring the estimate of de Francesco, Capetti & Marconi (2006). Interpreting the broad H α emission line in terms of a steady-state spherically symmetric inflow leads to a mass inflow rate of 1.4 × 10-2 M⊙ yr-1, well within the present uncertainty of calculations that attempt to explain the observed X-ray emission in terms of an advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). Collectively, the model provides an explanation for the shape of the H α emission line, the relative intensities and luminosities for the H Balmer, [O III], and potentially several of the broad UV emission lines, as well as refining the initial conditions needed for future modelling of the ADAF.

  17. Imaging spectrophotometry of ionized gas in NGC 1068. I - Kinematics of the narrow-line region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Gerald; Bland, Jonathan; Tully, R. Brent

    1990-01-01

    The kinematics of collisionally excited forbidden N II 6548, 6583 across the inner 1 arcmin diameter of the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 is mapped using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer and low-noise CCD. The stack of monochromatic images, which spatially resolved the high-velocity gas, was analyzed for kinematic and photometric content. Profiles agree well with previous long-slit work, and their complete spatial coverage makes it possible to constrain the gas volume distribution. It is found that the narrow-line region is distributed in a thick center-darkened, line-emitting cylinder that envelopes the collimated radio jet. Three distinct kinematic subsystems, of which the cylinder is composed, are discussed in detail. Detailed behavior of the emission-line profiles, at the few points in the NE quadrant with simple kinematics, argues that the ionized gas develops a significant component of motion perpendicular to the jet axis.

  18. X-ray narrow emission lines from the nuclear region of NGC 1365

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whewell, M.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Page, M. J.

    2016-11-01

    Context. NGC 1365 is a Seyfert 2 galaxy with a starburst ring in its nuclear region. In this work we look at the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) data from four 2012-13, three 2007 and two 2004 observations of NGC 1365, in order to analyse and characterise in a uniform way the soft X-ray narrow-line emitting gas in the nucleus. Aims: We characterise the narrow-line emitting gas visible by XMM-Newton RGS and make comparisons between the 2012-13 spectra and those from 2004-07, already published. Methods: This source is usually absorbed within the soft X-ray band, with a typical neutral column density of >1.5 × 1023 cm-2, and only one observation of the nine we investigate shows low enough absorption for the continuum to emerge in the soft X-rays. We stack all observations from 2004-07, and separately three of the four observations from 2012-13, analysing the less absorbed observation separately. We first model the spectra using Gaussian profiles representing the narrow line emission. We fit physically motivated models to the 2012-13 stacked spectra, with collisionally ionised components representing the starburst emission and photoionised line emission models representing the AGN line emission. The collisional and photoionised emission line models are fitted together (rather than holding either one constant), on top of a physical continuum and absorption model. Results: The X-ray narrow emission line spectrum of NGC 1365 is well represented by a combination of two collisionally ionised (kT of 220 ± 10 and 570 ± 15 eV) and three photoionised (log ξ of 1.5 ± 0.2, 2.5 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.2) phases of emitting gas, all with higher than solar nitrogen abundances. This physical model was fitted to the 2012-13 stacked spectrum, and yet also fits well to the 2004-07 stacked spectrum, without changing any characteristics of the emitting gas phases. Our 2004-07 results are consistent with previous emission line work using these data, with five additional

  19. NGC628 with SITELLE : I. Imaging Spectroscopy of 4285 HII region candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau-Nepton, L.; Robert, C.; Martin, R. P.; Drissen, L.; Martin, T.

    2018-02-01

    This is the first paper of a series dedicated to nebular physics and the chemical evolution of nearby galaxies by investigating large samples of HII regions with the CFHT imaging spectrograph SITELLE. We present a technique adapted to imaging spectroscopy to identify and extract parameters from 4285 HII region candidates found in the disc of NGC 628. Using both the spatial and spectral capabilities of SITELLE, our technique enables the extraction of the position, dust extinction, velocity, Hα profile, diffuse ionized gas (DIG) background, luminosity, size, morphological type, and the emission line fluxes for individual spaxels and the integrated spectrum for each region. We have produced a well-sampled HII region luminosity function and studied its variation with galactocentric radius and level of the DIG background. We found a slope α of -1.12 ±0.03 with no evidence of a break at high luminosity. Based on the width of the region profile, bright regions are rather compact, while faint regions are seen over a wide range of sizes. The radius function reveals a slope of -1.81 ±0.02. BPT diagrams of the individual spaxels and integrated line ratios confirm that most detections are HII regions. Also, maps of the line ratios show complex variations of the ionisation conditions within HII regions. All this information is compiled in a new catalogue for HII regions. The objective of this database is to provide a complete sample which will be used to study the whole parameter space covered by the physical conditions in active star-forming regions.

  20. The molecular H2 and stellar discs in the nuclear region of NGC 4258

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, R. B.; da Silva, Patrícia; Steiner, J. E.

    2018-01-01

    NGC 4258 is an SABbc Seyfert galaxy, located at a distance of 7.2 ± 0.3 Mpc. This object is well known by its nearly edge-on molecular nuclear disc, located between 0.16 and 0.28 pc from the nucleus, whose H2O maser emission allows a very precise measurement of the central supermassive black hole mass (M•(maser) = 3.78 ± 0.01 × 107 M⊙). We analyse the emission line properties and the stellar kinematics in a data cube of the central region of NGC 4258, obtained, in the K band, with the near-infrared integral field spectrograph, at the Gemini-North telescope. The nuclear spectrum, after the starlight subtraction, shows only the H2λ2.1218 μm and Br γ emission lines, the latter having a broad component with FWHMBr γ(broad) = 1600 ± 29 km s-1. The spatial morphology and kinematics of the H2λ2.1218 μm line are consistent with a rotating molecular disc around the supermassive black hole, with an upper limit for its diameter of 15.7 pc. The inner radio jet in this object is, in projection, almost perpendicular to the H2 emitting disc detected in this work, and also to the H2O maser emitting disc. The main features of the maps of the stellar kinematic parameters are well reproduced by a model of a thin rotating stellar circular disc. The supermassive black hole mass provided by this dynamical modelling (M•(broad) = 2.8 ± 1.0 × 107 M⊙) is compatible, at 1σ level, with the precise measurement resulting from the H2O maser emission.

  1. The planetary nebulae and H II regions in NGC 6822 revisited. Clues to AGB nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Peña, Miriam; Flores-Durán, Sheila; Hernández-Martínez, Liliana

    2016-02-01

    Aims: The chemical behaviour of an ample sample of planetary nebulae (PNe) in NGC 6822 is analysed. Methods: Spectrophotometric data of 11 PNe and two H ii regions were obtained with the OSIRIS spectrograph attached to the Gran Telescopio Canarias. Data for other 13 PNe and three H ii regions were retrieved from the literature. Physical conditions and chemical abundances of O, N, Ne, Ar, and S were derived in a consistent way for 19 PNe and 4 H ii regions. Results: Abundances in the PNe sample are widely distributed showing 12 + log (O/H) from 7.4 to 8.2 and 12 + log (Ar/H) from 4.97 to 5.80. Two groups of PNe can be differentiated: one old with low metallicity (12 + log (O/H) treatment of convection and on the assumptions about the overshoot of the convective core during the core H-burning phase, provided there is reasonable agreement between the observed and predicted N/O and Ne/H ratios if initial masses of more massive stars are about 4 M⊙.

  2. Cannibalization and rebirth in the NGC 5387 system. I. The stellar stream and star-forming region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Verbiscer, Anne [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Martínez-Delgado, David [Max Planck Institut fur Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); D' Onghia, Elena [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zibetti, Stefano [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Gabany, R. Jay [Black Bird II Observatory, Alder Springs, CA 93602 (United States); Blanton, Michael, E-mail: rbeaton@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We have identified a low surface brightness stellar stream from visual inspection of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging for the edge-on, spiral galaxy NGC 5387. An optically blue overdensity coincident with the stream intersection with the NGC 5387 disk was also identified in SDSS and in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey contributing 38% of the total far-UV integrated flux from NGC 5387. Deeper optical imaging was acquired with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope that confirmed the presence of both features. The stellar stream is red in color, (B – V) = 0.7, has a stellar mass of 6 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉}, which implies a 1:50 merger ratio, has a circular radius, R{sub circ} ∼ 11.7 kpc, formed in ∼240 Myr, and the progenitor had a total mass of ∼4 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉}. Spectroscopy from LBT+MODS1 was used to determine that the blue overdensity is at the same redshift as NGC 5387, consists of young stellar populations (∼10 Myr), is metal-poor (12 + log (O/H) = 8.03), and is forming stars at an enhanced rate (∼1-3 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). The most likely interpretations are that the blue overdensity is (1) a region of enhanced star formation in the outer disk of NGC 5387 induced by the minor accretion event or (2) the progenitor of the stellar stream experiencing enhanced star formation. Additional exploration of these scenarios is presented in a companion paper.

  3. Cannibalization and Rebirth in the NGC 5387 System. I. The Stellar Stream and Star-forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Rachael L.; Martínez-Delgado, David; Majewski, Steven R.; D'Onghia, Elena; Zibetti, Stefano; Gabany, R. Jay; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Blanton, Michael; Verbiscer, Anne

    2014-08-01

    We have identified a low surface brightness stellar stream from visual inspection of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) imaging for the edge-on, spiral galaxy NGC 5387. An optically blue overdensity coincident with the stream intersection with the NGC 5387 disk was also identified in SDSS and in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Deep Imaging Survey contributing 38% of the total far-UV integrated flux from NGC 5387. Deeper optical imaging was acquired with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope that confirmed the presence of both features. The stellar stream is red in color, (B - V) = 0.7, has a stellar mass of 6 × 108 M ⊙, which implies a 1:50 merger ratio, has a circular radius, R circ ~ 11.7 kpc, formed in ~240 Myr, and the progenitor had a total mass of ~4 × 1010 M ⊙. Spectroscopy from LBT+MODS1 was used to determine that the blue overdensity is at the same redshift as NGC 5387, consists of young stellar populations (~10 Myr), is metal-poor (12 + log (O/H) = 8.03), and is forming stars at an enhanced rate (~1-3 M ⊙ yr-1). The most likely interpretations are that the blue overdensity is (1) a region of enhanced star formation in the outer disk of NGC 5387 induced by the minor accretion event or (2) the progenitor of the stellar stream experiencing enhanced star formation. Additional exploration of these scenarios is presented in a companion paper. Based on observations with the VATT: the Alice P. Lennon Telescope and the Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility.

  4. The fate of NGC602, an intense region of star-formation in the Wing of the SMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, Elena

    2017-08-01

    This is a small 2 orbit proposal designed to measure the internal dynamics of NGC602, a small region of intense star formation in the Wing of the SMC, with a low gas and dust density that has been often considered an unfavorable place for star formation. Small regions of massive star formation are important to study for our understanding of the process of star and cluster formation, the ionization of the interstellar medium, and the injection of energy and momentum into their host galaxy. By combining our new observations with archival ACS/WFC data acquired in July 2004, we will be able to measure the relative proper motions of the NGC602 sub-structures better than 2.3 km/s and investigate the nature of the apparently isolated massive stars found around NGC602. This study will provide unique observational data to characterize the early phase of cluster evolution and test cluster formation theories. It will also address significant open issues in star formation, cluster dynamics and the origin of isolated supernovae and GRBs.

  5. ALMA high spatial resolution observations of the dense molecular region of NGC 6302

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander-García, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Neri, R.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The mechanism behind the shaping of bipolar planetary nebulae is still poorly understood. It is becoming increasingly clear that the main agents must operate at their innermost regions, where a significant equatorial density enhancement should be present and related to the collimation of light and jet launching from the central star preferentially towards the polar directions. Most of the material in this equatorial condensation must be lost during the asymptotic giant branch as stellar wind and later released from the surface of dust grains to the gas phase in molecular form. Accurately tracing the molecule-rich regions of these objects can give valuable insight into the ejection mechanisms themselves. Aims: We investigate the physical conditions, structure and velocity field of the dense molecular region of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 by means of ALMA band 7 interferometric maps. Methods: The high spatial resolution of the 12CO and 13CO J = 3-2 ALMA data allows for an analysis of the geometry of the ejecta in unprecedented detail. We built a spatio-kinematical model of the molecular region with the software SHAPE and performed detailed non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer with the shapemol plug-in. Results: We find that the molecular region consists of a massive ring out of which a system of fragments of lobe walls emerge and enclose the base of the lobes visible in the optical. The general properties of this region are in agreement with previous works, although the much greater spatial resolution of the data allows for a very detailed description. We confirm that the mass of the molecular region is 0.1 M⊙. Additionally, we report a previously undetected component at the nebular equator, an inner, younger ring inclined 60° with respect to the main ring, showing a characteristic radius of 7.5 × 1016 cm, a mass of 2.7 × 10-3M⊙, and a counterpart in optical images of the nebula. This inner ring has the same kinematical age as

  6. An X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Central Regions of NGC 4593

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Laura W.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Wilms, Jörn; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth

    2007-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of XMM-Newton EPIC-pn data for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593. We discuss the X-ray spectral properties of this source, as well as its variations with time. The 0.5-10 keV spectrum shows significant complexity beyond a simple power-law form, with clear evidence existing for a ``soft excess,'' as well as absorption by highly ionized plasma (a warm absorber) within the central engine of this active galactic nucleus. We show that the soft excess is best described as originating from thermal Comptonization by plasma that is appreciably cooler than the primary X-ray-emitting plasma; we find that the form of the soft excess cannot be reproduced adequately by reflection from an ionized accretion disk. The only measurable deviation from the power-law continuum in the hard spectrum comes from the presence of cold and ionized fluorescent iron Kα emission lines at 6.4 and 6.97 keV, respectively. While constraints on the ionized iron line are weak, the cold line is found to be narrow at CCD resolution with a flux that does not track the temporal changes in the underlying continuum, implying an origin in the outer radii of the accretion disk or the putative molecular torus of Seyfert unification schemes. The X-ray continuum itself varies on all accessible timescales. We detect a ~230 s time lag between soft and hard EPIC-pn bands that, if interpreted as scattering timescales within a Comptonizing disk corona, can be used to constrain the physical size of the primary X-ray source to a characteristic length scale of ~2rg. Taken together, the small implied coronal size and the large implied iron-line emitting region indicate a departure from the current picture of a ``typical'' AGN geometry.

  7. MULTIPLICITY, DISKS, AND JETS IN THE NGC 2071 STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Osorio, Mayra; Anglada, Guillem; Gomez, Jose F. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huetor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); D' Alessio, Paola; Rodriguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torrelles, Jose M., E-mail: carrasco@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (CSIC)-UB/IEEC, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-02-10

    We present centimeter (cm) and millimeter (mm) observations of the NGC 2071 star-forming region performed with the Very Large Array (VLA) and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We detected counterparts at 3.6 cm and 3 mm for the previously known sources IRS 1, IRS 2, IRS 3, and VLA 1. All these sources show spectral energy distributions (SEDs) dominated by free-free thermal emission at cm wavelengths and thermal dust emission at mm wavelengths, suggesting that all of them are associated with young stellar objects (YSOs). IRS 1 shows a complex morphology at 3.6 cm, with changes in the direction of its elongation. We discuss two possible explanations to this morphology: the result of changes in the direction of a jet due to interactions with a dense ambient medium, or that we are actually observing the superposition of two jets arising from two components of a binary system. Higher angular resolution observations at 1.3 cm support the second possibility, since a double source is inferred at this wavelength. IRS 3 shows a clear jet-like morphology at 3.6 cm. Over a timespan of four years, we observed changes in the morphology of this source that we interpret as due to ejection of ionized material in a jet. The emission at 3 mm of IRS 3 is angularly resolved, with a deconvolved size (FWHM) of {approx}120 AU, and seems to be tracing a dusty circumstellar disk perpendicular to the radio jet. An irradiated accretion disk model around an intermediate-mass YSO can account for the observed SED and spatial intensity profile at 3 mm, supporting this interpretation.

  8. Photon dominated regions in NGC 3603 [CI] and mid-J CO line emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roellig, M.; Kramer, C.; Rajbahak, C.; Minamidani, T.; Sun, K.; Simon, R.; Ossenkopf, Volker; Cubick, M.; Hitschfeld, M.; Aravena, M.; Bensch, F.; Bertoldi, F.; Bronfman, L.; Fujishita, M.; Fukui, Y.; Graf, U. U.; Honingh, N.; Ito, S.; Jakob, H.; Jacobs, K.; Klein, U.; Koo, B. -C.; May, J.; Miller, M.; Miyamoto, Y.; Mizuno, N.; Onishi, T.; Park, Y. -S.; Pineda, J.; Rabanus, D.; Sasago, H.; Schieder, R.; Stutzki, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Yonekura, Y.

    Aims. We aim at deriving the excitation conditions of the interstellar gas as well as the local FUV intensities in the molecular cloud surrounding NGC 3603 to get a coherent picture of how the gas is energized by the central stars. Methods. The NANTEN2-4 m submillimeter antenna is used to map the

  9. Revealing the photodissociation region : HST/NICMOS imaging of NGC 7027

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latter, WB; Dayal, A; Bieging, JH; Meakin, C; Hora, JL; Kelly, DM; Tielens, AGGM

    2000-01-01

    We report results from a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Near-Infrared Camera and Multiobject Spectrometer (NICMOS) program to study the distribution of hot neutral (molecular hydrogen) and ionized circumstellar material in the young planetary nebulae NGC 7027. HST/NICMOS provided very high spatial

  10. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel . HIFI spectroscopy of NGC 1333

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Yıldız, U. A.; Doty, S. D.; Herczeg, G. J.; Liu, F.-C.; Parise, B.; Jørgensen, J. K.; van Kempen, T. A.; Brinch, C.; Wampfler, S. F.; Bruderer, S.; Benz, A. O.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Deul, E.; Bachiller, R.; Baudry, A.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Bjerkeli, P.; Blake, G. A.; Bontemps, S.; Braine, J.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Daniel, F.; de Graauw, Th.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Fich, M.; Fuente, A.; Giannini, T.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Helmich, F.; Herpin, F.; Jacq, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kaufman, M. J.; Larsson, B.; Lis, D.; Liseau, R.; Marseille, M.; McCoey, C.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Olberg, M.; Pearson, J. C.; Plume, R.; Risacher, C.; Santiago-García, J.; Saraceno, P.; Shipman, R.; Tafalla, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van der Tak, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Beintema, D.; de Jonge, A.; Dieleman, P.; Ossenkopf, V.; Roelfsema, P.; Stutzki, J.; Whyborn, N.

    2010-10-01

    “Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel” (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory observed three deeply embedded protostars in the low-mass star-forming region NGC 1333 in several H_216O, H_218O, and CO transitions. Line profiles are resolved for five H_216O transitions in each source, revealing them to be surprisingly complex. The line profiles are decomposed into broad (>20 km s-1), medium-broad (~5-10 km s-1), and narrow (20 km s-1), indicating that its physical origin is the same as for the broad H_216O component. In one of the sources, IRAS4A, an inverse P Cygni profile is observed, a clear sign of infall in the envelope. From the line profiles alone, it is clear that the bulk of emission arises from shocks, both on small (⪉1000 AU) and large scales along the outflow cavity walls (~10 000 AU). The H2O line profiles are compared to CO line profiles to constrain the H2O abundance as a function of velocity within these shocked regions. The H2O/CO abundance ratios are measured to be in the range of ~0.1-1, corresponding to H2O abundances of ~10-5-10-4 with respect to H2. Approximately 5-10% of the gas is hot enough for all oxygen to be driven into water in warm post-shock gas, mostly at high velocities. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 2 and 3 (page 6) are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Stellar Population and Star Formation History of the Distant Galactic H II Regions NGC 2282 and Sh2-149

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.; Mondal, S.; Jose, J.; Das, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    We present here the recent results on two distant Galactic H II regions, namely NGC 2282 and Sh2-149, obtained with multiwavelength observations. Our optical spectroscopic analysis of the bright sources have been used to identify the massive members, and to derive the fundamental parameters such as age and distance of these regions. Using IR color-color criteria and Hα-emission properties, we have identified and classified the candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in these regions. The 12CO(1-0) continuum maps along with the K-band extinction maps, and spatial distribution of YSOs are used to investigate the structure and morphology of the molecular cloud associated with these H II regions. Overall analysis of these regions suggests that the star formation occurs at the locations of the denser gas, and we also find possible evidences of the induced star formation due to the feedback from massive stars to its surrounding molecular medium.

  12. Magnetized Converging Flows toward the Hot Core in the Intermediate/High-mass Star-forming Region NGC 6334 V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Carmen; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, S/N, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia (Spain); Zamora-Avilés, Manuel; Palau, Aina; Ballesteros-Paredes, Javier [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Hauyu Baobab [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping, E-mail: juarez@ice.cat [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-07-20

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations at 345 GHz toward the intermediate/high-mass cluster-forming region NGC 6334 V. From the dust emission we spatially resolve three dense condensations, the brightest one presenting the typical chemistry of a hot core. The magnetic field (derived from the dust polarized emission) shows a bimodal converging pattern toward the hot core. The molecular emission traces two filamentary structures at two different velocities, separated by 2 km s{sup −1}, converging to the hot core and following the magnetic field distribution. We compare the velocity field and the magnetic field derived from the SMA observations with magnetohydrodynamic simulations of star-forming regions dominated by gravity. This comparison allows us to show how the gas falls in from the larger-scale extended dense core (∼0.1 pc) of NGC 6334 V toward the higher-density hot core region (∼0.02 pc) through two distinctive converging flows dragging the magnetic field, whose strength seems to have been overcome by gravity.

  13. Proper Motions of Young Stellar Outflows in the Mid-infrared with Spitzer (IRAC). I. The NGC 1333 Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, A. C.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S. J.; Arce, H. G.

    2013-02-01

    We use two 4.5 μm Spitzer (IRAC) maps of the NGC 1333 region taken over a ~7 yr interval to determine proper motions of its associated outflows. This is a first successful attempt at obtaining proper motions of stellars' outflow from Spitzer observations. For the outflow formed by the Herbig-Haro objects HH7, 8, and 10, we find proper motions of ~9-13 km s-1, which are consistent with previously determined optical proper motions of these objects. We determine proper motions for a total of eight outflows, ranging from ~10 to 100 km s-1. The derived proper motions show that out of these eight outflows, three have tangential velocities <=20 km s-1. This result shows that a large fraction of the observed outflows have low intrinsic velocities and that the low proper motions are not merely a projection effect.

  14. Reproduction of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luksenburg, JA; Pedersen, T; Falk-Petersen, IB

    The reproduction and life history events of the shorthorn sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius were studied in an unexploited high latitude population in Tromso, northern Norway. Shorthorn sculpins were sampled from November 1998 to March 1999 to determine sex ratio, spawning period, oogenesis, fecundity,

  15. The emission-line regions in the nucleus of NGC 1313 probed with GMOS-IFU: a supergiant/hypergiant candidate and a kinematically cold nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.

    2017-04-01

    NGC 1313 is a bulgeless nearby galaxy, classified as SB(s)d. Its proximity allows high spatial resolution observations. We performed the first detailed analysis of the emission-line properties in the nuclear region of NGC 1313, using an optical data cube obtained with the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph. We detected four main emitting areas, three of them (regions 1, 2 and 3) having spectra typical of H II regions. Region 1 is located very close to the stellar nucleus and shows broad spectral features characteristic of Wolf-Rayet stars. Our analysis revealed the presence of one or two WC4-5 stars in this region, which is compatible with results obtained by previous studies. Region 4 shows spectral features (as a strong Hα emission line, with a broad component) typical of a massive emission-line star, such as a luminous blue variable, a B[e] supergiant or a B hypergiant. The radial velocity map of the ionized gas shows a pattern consistent with rotation. A significant drop in the values of the gas velocity dispersion was detected very close to region 1, which suggests that the young stars there were formed from this cold gas, possibly keeping low values of velocity dispersion. Therefore, although detailed measurements of the stellar kinematics were not possible (due to the weak stellar absorption spectrum of this galaxy), we predict that NGC 1313 may also show a drop in the values of the stellar velocity dispersion in its nuclear region.

  16. Dissecting galaxies: separating star formation, shock excitation and AGN activity in the central region of NGC 613

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca L.; Groves, Brent; Kewley, Lisa J.; Medling, Anne M.; Shastri, Prajval; Maithil, Jaya; Kharb, Preeti; Banfield, Julie; Longbottom, Fergus; Dopita, Michael A.; Hampton, Elise J.; Scharwächter, Julia; Sutherland, Ralph; Jin, Chichuan; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie

    2017-10-01

    The most rapidly evolving regions of galaxies often display complex optical spectra with emission lines excited by massive stars, shocks and accretion on to supermassive black holes. Standard calibrations (such as for the star formation rate) cannot be applied to such mixed spectra. In this paper, we isolate the contributions of star formation, shock excitation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity to the emission line luminosities of individual spatially resolved regions across the central 3 × 3 kpc2 region of the active barred spiral galaxy NGC 613. The star formation rate and AGN luminosity calculated from the decomposed emission line maps are in close agreement with independent estimates from data at other wavelengths. The star formation component traces the B-band stellar continuum emission, and the AGN component forms an ionization cone which is aligned with the nuclear radio jet. The optical line emission associated with shock excitation is cospatial with strong H2 and [Fe II] emission and with regions of high ionized gas velocity dispersion (σ ≳ 100 km s-1). The shock component also traces the outer boundary of the AGN ionization cone and may therefore be produced by outflowing material interacting with the surrounding interstellar medium. Our decomposition method makes it possible to determine the properties of star formation, shock excitation and AGN activity from optical spectra, without contamination from other ionization mechanisms.

  17. NEAR-INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE SOUTHERN REGION OF THE YOUNG OPEN CLUSTER NGC 2264

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinas, Naibi; Lada, Elizabeth A. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Teixiera, Paula S. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lada, Charles J. [Harvard-Smithsonian CFA, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We have obtained JHK near-IR images and JH band low-resolution spectra of candidate members of the southern region of the young open cluster NGC 2264. We have determined spectral types from H-band spectra for 54 sources, 25 of which are classified for the first time. The stars in our sample cover a large range of spectral types (A8-M8). Using a cluster distance of 780 pc, we determined a median age of 1 Myr for this region of NGC 2264, with 90% of the stars being 5 Myr or younger. To improve the statistical significance of our sample, we included 66 additional cluster members within our field of view with optical spectral classification in the literature. We derived infrared excesses using stellar properties to model the photospheric emission for each source and the extinction to correct FLAMINGOS near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR photometry, and obtained a disk fraction of 51% {+-} 5% for the region. Binning the stars by stellar mass, we find a disk fraction of 38% {+-} 9% for the 0.1-0.3 solar mass group, 55% {+-} 6% for 0.3-1 solar masses, and 58% {+-} 10% for the higher than 1 solar mass group. The lower disk fraction for the lower mass stars is similar to the results found in non-cluster regions like Taurus and Chamaeleon, but differs from the older 3 Myr cluster IC 348 in which the disk fraction is lower for the higher mass stars. This mass-dependent disk fraction is accentuated in the sample with isochrone ages younger than 2 Myr. Here, we find that 45% {+-} 11% of the 0.1-0.3 solar mass stars have disks, 60% {+-} 7% of the 0.3-1 solar mass stars have disks, and all 1-3 solar mass stars have disks. Stellar masses might be an important factor in the ability of a system to form or retain a disk early on. However, regardless of the stellar mass, the large infrared excesses expected from optically thick disks disappear within the first 2 Myr for all stars in our study and small excesses from optically thin disks are found mostly in sources younger than 4 Myr.

  18. Angular Momentum Evolution of Young Stars in the nearby Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Samuel N.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Pecaut, Mark J.

    2017-07-01

    We report the results of a study of archival SuperWASP light curves for stars in Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen), the nearest OB association. We use SuperWASP time-series photometry to extract rotation periods for 189 candidate members of the Sco-Cen complex and verify that 162 of those are members of the classic Sco-Cen subgroups of Upper Scorpius (US), Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL), and Lower Centaurus-Crux (LCC). This study provides the first measurements of rotation periods explicitly for large samples of pre-main-sequence (pre-MS) stars spanning the UCL and LCC subgroups. Our final sample of 157 well-characterized pre-MS stars spans ages of ˜10-20 Myr, spectral types of ˜F3-M0, and masses of M ≃ 0.3-1.5 {{ M }}⊙ {{N}}. For this sample, we find a distribution of stellar rotation periods with a median of P rot ≃ 2.4 days, an overall range of 0.2 P rot V2394 Oph is a heavily reddened (A V ≃ 5 mag) massive contact binary in the LDN 1689 cloud whose Gaia astrometry is clearly consistent with kinematic membership with the Ophiuchus star-forming region.

  19. Evolutionary status of dense cores in the NGC 1333 IRAS 4 star-forming region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumpia, E.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Kwon, W.; Tobin, J. J.; Fuller, G. A.; Plume, R.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Protostellar evolution after the formation of the protostar is becoming reasonably well characterized, but the evolution from a prestellar core to a protostar is not well known, although the first hydrostatic core (FHSC) must be a pivotal step. Aims: NGC 1333 - IRAS 4C is a potentially very young object that we can directly compare with the nearby Class 0 objects IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B. Observational constraints are provided by spectral imaging from the JCMT Spectral Legacy Survey (330-373 GHz). We present integrated intensity and velocity maps of several species, including CO, H2CO and CH3OH. CARMA observations provide additional information with which we can distinguish IRAS 4C from other evolutionary stages. Methods: We present the observational signatures of the velocity of an observed outflow, the degree of CO depletion, the deuterium fractionation of [DCO+]/[HCO+], and gas kinetic temperatures. Results: We report differences between the three sources in four aspects: a) the kinetic temperature as probed using the H2CO lines is much lower toward IRAS 4C than the other two sources; b) the line profiles of the detected species show strong outflow activity toward IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B, but not toward IRAS 4C; c) the HCN/HNC is <1 toward IRAS 4C, which confirms the cold nature of the source; d) the degree of CO depletion and the deuteration are lowest toward the warmest of the sources, IRAS 4B. Conclusions: IRAS 4C seems to be in a different evolutionary state than the sources IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B. We can probably exclude the FHSC stage becaues of the relatively low Lsmm/Lbol ( 6%), and we investigate the earliest accretion phase of Class 0 stage and the transition between Class 0 to Class I. Our results do not show a consistent scenario for either case; the main problem is the absence of outflow activity and the cold nature of IRAS 4C. The number of FHSC candidates in Perseus is 10 times higher than current models predict, which suggests that the lifespan of

  20. NGC 2770

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöne, Christina C.; Michalowski, Michal; Leloudas, Giorgos

    2009-01-01

    NGC 2770 has been the host of three supernovae (SNe) of Type Ib during the last ten years, SN 1999eh, SN 2007uy, and SN 2008D. SN 2008D attracted special attention due to the serendipitous discovery of an associated X-ray transient. In this paper, we study the properties of NGC 2770 and specifica......NGC 2770 has been the host of three supernovae (SNe) of Type Ib during the last ten years, SN 1999eh, SN 2007uy, and SN 2008D. SN 2008D attracted special attention due to the serendipitous discovery of an associated X-ray transient. In this paper, we study the properties of NGC 2770...... and specifically the three SN sites to investigate whether this galaxy is in any way peculiar to cause a high frequency of SNe Ib. We model the global spectral energy distribution of the galaxy from broadband data and derive a star formation and SN rate comparable to the values of the Milky Way. We further study...... the galaxy using longslit spectroscopy covering the major axis and the three SN sites. From the spectroscopic study we find subsolar metallicities for the SN sites, a high extinction and a moderate star formation rate. In a high-resolution spectrum, we also detect diffuse interstellar bands in the line...

  1. NGC 1566: analysis of the nuclear region from optical and near-infrared Integral Field Unit spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Patrícia; Steiner, J. E.; Menezes, R. B.

    2017-10-01

    We analysed the centre of NGC 1566, which hosts a well-studied active galactic nucleus (AGN), known for its variability. With the aid of techniques such as Principal Component Analysis Tomography, analysis of the emission-line spectra, channel maps, Penalized Pixel Fitting and spectral synthesis applied to the optical and near-infrared data cubes, besides the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images, we found that: (1) the AGN has a Seyfert 1 emission, with a very strong featureless continuum that we described as a power law with spectral index of 1.7. However, this emission may come not only from the AGN [as its point spread function (PSF) is broader than the PSF of the broad-line region (BLR)], but from hot and young stars, the same ones that probably account for the observed σ-drop. (2) There is a correlation between redshift and the full width at half-maximum of the BLR emission lines. With a simple model assuming gravitational redshift, we described it as an emitting ring with varying emitting radii and small inclination angles. (3) There is an H ii region close to the AGN, which is composed of many substructures forming an apparent spiral with a velocity gradient. (4) We also detected a probable outflow coming from the AGN and it seems to contaminate the H ii region emission. (5) We identified an H2 rotating disc with orientation approximately perpendicular to this outflow. This suggests that the rotating disc is an extension of an inner torus/disc structure, which collimates the outflow emission, according to the Unified Model.

  2. Mapping Excitation in the Inner Regions of the Planetary Nebula NGC 5189 Using HST WFC3 Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehkar, Ashkbiz; Karovska, Margarita; Maksym, W. Peter; Montez, Rodolfo, Jr.

    2018-01-01

    The planetary nebula (PN) NGC 5189 around a Wolf–Rayet [WO] central star demonstrates one of the most remarkable complex morphologies among PNe with many multiscale structures, showing evidence of multiple outbursts from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) progenitor. In this study, we use multiwavelength Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations to study the morphology of the inner 0.3 pc × 0.2 pc region surrounding the central binary that appears to be a relic of a more recent outburst of the progenitor AGB star. We applied diagnostic diagrams based on emission-line ratios of Hα λ6563, [O III] λ5007, and [S II] λ λ 6716,6731 images to identify the location and morphology of low-ionization structures within the inner nebula. We distinguished two inner, low-ionization envelopes from the ionized gas, within a radius of 55 arcsec (∼0.15 pc) extending from the central star: a large envelope expanding toward the northeast, and its smaller counterpart envelope in the opposite direction toward the southwest of the nebula. These low-ionization envelopes are surrounded by a highly ionized gaseous environment. We believe that these low-ionization expanding envelopes are a result of a powerful outburst from the post-AGB star that created shocked wind regions as they propagate through the previously expelled material along a symmetric axis. Our diagnostic mapping using high-angular resolution line-emission imaging can provide a novel approach to detection of low-ionization regions in other PNe, especially those showing a complex multiscale morphology.

  3. The Low-Mass Stellar Content of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, H.; Kunkel, M.; Brander, W.; Zinnecker, H.; Neuhauser, R.; Schmitt, J.; Mayor, M.; Udry, S.

    2000-01-01

    Based on ROSAT observations and data obtained with ground-based telescopes, we have carried out an extensive study of the low-mass pre-main-sequence population in Upper Scorpius, the youngest subgroup of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association.

  4. Optical and near-infrared IFU spectroscopy of the nuclear region of the AGN-starburst galaxy NGC 7582

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, T. V.; Steiner, J. E.; May, D.; Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Menezes, R. B.

    2018-02-01

    NGC 7582 is an SB(s)ab galaxy which displays evidences of simultaneous nuclear activity and star formation in its centre. Previous optical observations revealed, besides the H II regions, an ionization cone and a gas disc in its central part. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images in both optical and infrared bands show the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and a few compact structures that are possibly associated with young stellar clusters. In order to study in detail both the AGN and evidence for star formation, we analyse optical (Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph) and near-infrared (Spectrograph for Integral Field Observations in the Near Infrared) archival data cubes. We detected five nebulae with strong He II λ4686 emission in the same region where an outflow is detected in the [O III] λ5007 kinematic map. We interpreted this result as clouds that are exposed to high-energy photons emerging from the AGN throughout the ionization cone. We also detected Wolf-Rayet features which are related to emission of one of the compact clusters seen in the HST image. Broad Hα and Br γ components are detected at the position of the nucleus. [Fe II] λ1.644 μm, H2λ2.122 μm and Br γ flux maps show two blobs, one north and the other south from the nucleus, that seem to be associated with five previously detected mid-infrared sources. Two of the five He II nebulae are partially ionized by photons from starbursts. However, we conclude that the main source of excitation of these blobs is the AGN jet/disc. The jet orientation indicates that the accretion disc is nearly orthogonal to the dusty torus.

  5. ANNUAL PARALLAX DETERMINATION TOWARD A NEW X-RAY-EMITTING CLASS 0 CANDIDATE WITH THE WATER MASER IN THE NGC 2264 STAR-FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamezaki, Tatsuya; Imura, Kenji; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Handa, Toshihiro [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Tsuboi, Yohko [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Nagayama, Takumi; Hirota, Tomoya; Sunada, Kazuyoshi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, Mitaka Office, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Chibueze, James O. [East Asian ALMA Regional Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kawai, Eiji [Kashima Space Technology Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 893-1 Hirai, Kashima, Ibaraki 314-8501 (Japan); Nakano, Makoto, E-mail: kamezaki@milkyway.sci.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Education and Welfare Science, Oita University, Oita 870-1192 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    In our multi-epoch observation of the star-forming region NGC 2264 with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry, we detected two water maser features. We have measured the annual parallax of the maser sources for the first time in NGC 2264 and derived 1.356 ± 0.098 mas, corresponding to the distance of 738{sub −50}{sup +57} pc, which is consistent with its previously reported photometric observations. One of the maser features is located near a dust continuum core, CMM4S, positionally corresponding to the X-ray source FMS2-1269 listed in Flaccomio et al. Re-analyzing Chandra X-ray data, we found that FMS2-1269 is still surrounded by a dense envelope of a H{sub 2} column density, 5.4 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}. We suggest that the maser detected near the CMM4S core is most likely associated with the X-ray-emitting Class 0 candidate FMS2-1269. The other maser feature is found to emerge from a high-velocity outflow of 150 km s{sup –1} and is associated with the 3.6 cm radio continuum source NGC 2264 VLA 3 located close to IRS1.

  6. Red supergiant stars in NGC 4449, NGC 5055, and NGC 5457

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Sohn, Yong-Jong; Asplund, Martin; Casagrande, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Nearby galaxies are ideal objects for the study of the mechanisms of galaxy formation and evolution, and massive stars in nearby galaxies are useful sources to investigate the structures and formation of the galaxies. It is important to gather the contents of massive stars for a number of galaxies spanning various metallicities. We focus on the red supergiants (RSGs) in nearby galaxies NGC 4449, NGC 5055, and NGC 5457, and the photometric properties of RSGs of three galaxies were investigated using near-infrared (JHK) imaging data obtained from WFCAM UKIRT. The (J - K, K)0 CMDs are investigated and compared with theoretical isochrones (Figure 1). The majority of RSGs in three galaxies have common age ranges from log(t yr ) = 6.9 to log(t yr ) = 7.3, and this indicates that these galaxies have experienced recent star formation within 20 Myr. Spatial correlation of RSGs with H II regions and their colour distribution were also investigated. For NGC 4449 and NGC 5457, the RSGs are spatially correlated with the H II regions, which however is not the case for NGC 5055. We found a similar colour distribution and a constant peak magnitude of M K = -11.9 for the RSGs in the three galaxies.

  7. Properties of dust grains in planetary nebulae. I. The ionized region of NGC 6445

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, PAM; Van de Steene, GC; Beintema, DA; Martin, PG; Pottasch, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    One of the factors influencing the spectral evolution of a planetary nebula is the fate of the dust grains that are emitting the infrared continuum. Several processes have been proposed that either destroy the grains or remove them from the ionized region. To test whether these processes are

  8. A Revised Broad-line Region Radius and Black Hole Mass for the Narrow-line Seyfert 1 NGC 4051

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, K. D.; Watson, L. C.; Peterson, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    ) radius and the optical continuum luminosity—the R BLR-L relationship. Our new measurements of the lag time between variations in the continuum and Hß emission line made from spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 4051 lead to a measured BLR radius of R BLR = 1.87+0.54 -0.50 light days and black hole mass of M...

  9. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel: highly excited molecular emission from the NGC 1333 IRAS 4B outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczeg, G. J.; Karska, A.; Bruderer, S.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Visser, R.; Wampfler, S. F.; Bergin, E. A.; Yıldız, U. A.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Gracia-Carpio, J.

    2012-04-01

    During the embedded phase of pre-main sequence stellar evolution, a disk forms from the dense envelope while an accretion-driven outflow carves out a cavity within the envelope. Highly excited (E' = 1000 - 3000 K) H2O emission in spatially unresolved Spitzer/IRS spectra of a low-mass Class 0 object, NGC 1333 IRAS 4B, has previously been attributed to the envelope-disk accretion shock. However, the highly excited H2O emission could instead be produced in an outflow. As part of the survey of low-mass sources in the Water in Star Forming Regions with Herschel (WISH-LM) program, we used Herschel/PACS to obtain a far-IR spectrum and several Nyquist-sampled spectral images to determine the origin of excited H2O emission from NGC 1333 IRAS 4B. The spectrum has high signal-to-noise in a rich forest of H2O, CO, and OH lines, providing a near-complete census of far-IR molecular emission from a Class 0 protostar. The excitation diagrams for the three molecules all require fits with two excitation temperatures. The highly excited component of H2O emission is characterized by subthermal excitation of ~1500 K gas with a density of ~3 × 106 cm-3, conditions that also reproduce the mid-IR H2O emission detected by Spitzer. On the other hand, a high density, low temperature gas can reproduce the H2O spectrum observed by Spitzer but underpredicts the H2O lines seen by Herschel. Nyquist-sampled spectral maps of several lines show two spatial components of H2O emission, one centered at ~5'' (1200 AU) south of the central source at the position of the blueshifted outflow lobe and a heavily extincted component centered on-source. The redshifted outflow lobe is likely completely obscured, even in the far-IR, by the optically thick envelope. Both spatial components of the far-IR H2O emission are consistent with emission from the outflow. In the blueshifted outflow lobe over 90% of the gas-phase O is molecular, with H2O twice as abundant than CO and 10 times more abundant than OH. The gas

  10. Fine-scale motion in NGC 6514 and NGC 6523

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Townsley, L. K.; Castaneda, Hector O.

    1987-01-01

    Velocity maps of the inner regions of the bright H II regions NGC 6514 and NGC 6523 were made with unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution in the 5007 A line of forbidden O III. In addition to the advantages of an instrumental full width at half-maximum intensity of only 5.4 km/s, the small thermal width of the heavy oxygen ion also allows determination of accurate line widths and velocities. The CCD spectra were numerically fitted to Gaussian line profiles and revealed two separate velocity systems in NGC 6523. The data sets of radial velocities were used to derive the dependence of the most probable turbulent velocities upon the sample sizes, and the spatial dependence of the structure function. These relationships are the basic functions for comparison with the predictions of the models for turbulence in H II regions.

  11. Soft X-ray spectral variations in Scorpius X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S. M.; Charles, P. A.; Bowyer, S.; Blissett, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Soft X-ray spectra of Scorpius X-1 obtained with the low-energy detectors of the A-2 experiment on HEAO 1 are presented. The raw count spectra are deconvolved using the Kahn and Blissett technique to reveal the presence of oxygen absorption in the range 0.5-0.7 keV. The strength of this feature is shown to vary on a time scale of order hours. These results are interpreted as evidence for variable X-ray photoionization of circumsource material in the system. An alternative model, involving variable Compton broadening of an oxygen edge, is also discussed.

  12. NEW RADIAL ABUNDANCE GRADIENTS FOR NGC 628 AND NGC 2403

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Croxall, Kevin V. [Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Marble, Andrew R. [National Solar Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Smith, J. D. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gordon, Karl [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Garnett, Donald R., E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: croxall.5@osu.edu, E-mail: amarble@nso.edu, E-mail: jd.smith@utoledo.edu, E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu, E-mail: robk@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2013-10-01

    Motivated by recent interstellar medium studies, we present high quality MMT and Gemini spectroscopic observations of H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 2403 in order to measure their chemical abundance gradients. Using long-slit and multi-object mask optical spectroscopy, we obtained measurements of the temperature sensitive auroral lines [O III] λ4363 and/or [N II] λ5755 at a strength of 4σ or greater in 11 H II regions in NGC 628 and 7 regions in NGC 2403. These observations allow us, for the first time, to derive an oxygen abundance gradient in NGC 628 based solely on 'direct' oxygen abundances of H II regions: 12 + log(O/H) = (8.43 ± 0.03) + (–0.017 ± 0.002) × R{sub g} (dex kpc{sup –1}), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of σ = 0.10 dex, from 14 regions with a radial coverage of ∼2-19 kpc. This is a significantly shallower slope than found by previous 'strong-line' abundance studies. In NGC 2403, we derive an oxygen abundance gradient of 12 + log(O/H) = (8.48 ± 0.04) + (–0.032 ± 0.007)× R{sub g} (dex kpc{sup –1}), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of σ = 0.07 dex, from seven H II with a radial coverage of ∼1-10 kpc. Additionally, we measure the N, S, Ne, and Ar abundances. We find the N/O ratio decreases with increasing radius for the inner disk, but reaches a plateau past R{sub 25} in NGC 628. NGC 2403 also has a negative N/O gradient with radius, but we do not sample the outer disk of the galaxy past R{sub 25} and so do not see evidence for a plateau. This bi-modal pattern measured for NGC 628 indicates dominant contributions from secondary nitrogen inside of the R{sub 25} transition and dominantly primary nitrogen farther out. As expected for α-process elements, S/O, Ne/O, and Ar/O are consistent with constant values over a range in oxygen abundance.

  13. Astrometry and spatio-kinematics of H{sub 2}O masers in the massive star-forming region NGC 6334I(North) with VERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chibueze, James O. [East Asian ALMA Regional Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Omodaka, Toshihiro; Handa, Toshihiro; Imai, Hiroshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Kurayama, Tomoharu [Center for Fundamental Education, Teikyo University of Science, 2525 Yatsusawa, Uenohara, Yamanashi 409-0193 (Japan); Nagayama, Takumi; Sunada, Kazuyoshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nakano, Makoto, E-mail: james.chibueze@nao.ac.jp [Faculty of Education and Welfare Science, Oita University, Oita 870-1192 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    We measured the trigonometric parallax of an H{sub 2}O maser source associated with the massive star-forming region NGC 6334I(North), hereafter as NGC 6334I(N), with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry. The derived annual parallax is 0.789 ± 0.161 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.26{sub −0.21}{sup +0.33} kpc. Using the new distance, we recalculated the physical parameters (masses and luminosities) of the dust continuum cores in the region, and the revised parameters are only ∼50% of their originally reported values. We also traced 23 relative proper motions of the H{sub 2}O masers associated with SMA1 (central millimeter source in the region) between epochs, which exhibit an average amplitude of maser proper motion of ∼2.03 mas yr{sup –1} (∼12.22 km s{sup –1}), tracing a bipolar outflow. The bipolar outflow structure extends through ∼600 mas (∼720 AU), with a dynamical timescale of ∼295 yr. Using an expanding flow model, we derived the most plausible dynamical center of the outflow, pointing to SMA1b (1.3 cm and 7 mm continuum source) as the outflow driving source. Based on our results and other existing parallax results, we derive the pitch angles of the Sagittarius arm as 6.°2 ± 5.°4 along the Galactic longitude range of ∼0.°7 – ∼40.°1 assuming a perfect logarithmic spiral. We derived the peculiar motion of NGC 6334I(N) to be –4 ± 1 km s{sup –1} toward the Galactic center, 8 ± 2 km s{sup –1} in the direction of the Galactic rotation, and 25 ± 2 km s{sup –1} toward the Galactic north pole.

  14. Astrometry and Spatio-kinematics of H2O Masers in the Massive Star-forming Region NGC 6334I(North) with VERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibueze, James O.; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Handa, Toshihiro; Imai, Hiroshi; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Nagayama, Takumi; Sunada, Kazuyoshi; Nakano, Makoto; Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki

    2014-04-01

    We measured the trigonometric parallax of an H2O maser source associated with the massive star-forming region NGC 6334I(North), hereafter as NGC 6334I(N), with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry. The derived annual parallax is 0.789 ± 0.161 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.26^{+0.33}_{-0.21} kpc. Using the new distance, we recalculated the physical parameters (masses and luminosities) of the dust continuum cores in the region, and the revised parameters are only ~50% of their originally reported values. We also traced 23 relative proper motions of the H2O masers associated with SMA1 (central millimeter source in the region) between epochs, which exhibit an average amplitude of maser proper motion of ~2.03 mas yr-1 (~12.22 km s-1), tracing a bipolar outflow. The bipolar outflow structure extends through ~600 mas (~720 AU), with a dynamical timescale of ~295 yr. Using an expanding flow model, we derived the most plausible dynamical center of the outflow, pointing to SMA1b (1.3 cm and 7 mm continuum source) as the outflow driving source. Based on our results and other existing parallax results, we derive the pitch angles of the Sagittarius arm as 6.°2 ± 5.°4 along the Galactic longitude range of ~0.°7 - ~40.°1 assuming a perfect logarithmic spiral. We derived the peculiar motion of NGC 6334I(N) to be -4 ± 1 km s-1 toward the Galactic center, 8 ± 2 km s-1 in the direction of the Galactic rotation, and 25 ± 2 km s-1 toward the Galactic north pole.

  15. The Size of the Broad Line Region in M84 (NGC 4374)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Nicholas A.; Eracleous, M.

    2010-01-01

    M84 is a giant elliptical galaxy located in the Virgo cluster. Prior imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) revealed a small, highly inclined, nuclear ionized gas disk, the kinematics of which indicate the presence of a 1.5 billion solar mass black hole. Two prominent radio jets emerge perpendicular to the nuclear ionized gas disk terminating in large radio lobes that extend beyond the visible galaxy. Plausible kinematic models are used to constrain the size of the broad line region (BLR) in M84 by modeling the shape of the broad Hα emission line profile. The analysis indicates that the emitting volume is large with an outer radius between 6 and 10 pc, depending on whether the kinematic model is represented by a spherically symmetric free-fall or a Keplerian disk. The inferred size makes the BLR in M84 the largest yet to be measured. The BLR contains less than 2754 M⊙ of dense, ≥ 103 cm-3, ionized gas, leading to a very low filling factor of ≤ 3 x 10-2. The fact that the BLR in M84 is so large may explain why the AGN is unable to sustain the ionization seen there. Thus, the AGN in M84 is not simply a scaled down quasar. The gas density is pivotal in deciding between an accretion disk and a spherically symmetric infall as the origin for the broad Hα emission line seen in M84.

  16. Water distribution in shocked regions of the NGC 1333-IRAS 4A protostellar outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, G.; Nisini, B.; Codella, C.; Lorenzani, A.; Yıldız, U. A.; Antoniucci, S.; Bjerkeli, P.; Cabrit, S.; Giannini, T.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Mottram, J. C.; Tafalla, M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Water is a key molecule in protostellar environments because its line emission is very sensitive to both the chemistry and the physical conditions of the gas. Observations of H2O line emission from low-mass protostars and their associated outflows performed with HIFI onboard the Herschel Space Observatory have highlighted the complexity of H2O line profiles, in which different kinematic components can be distinguished. Aims: The goal is to study the spatial distribution of H2O, in particular of the different kinematic components detected in H2O emission, at two bright shocked regions along IRAS 4A, one of the strongest H2O emitters among the Class 0 outflows. Methods: We obtained Herschel-PACS maps of the IRAS 4A outflow and HIFI observations of two shocked positions. The largest HIFI beam of 38'' at 557 GHz was mapped in several key water lines with different upper energy levels, to reveal possible spatial variations of the line profiles. A large velocity gradient (LVG) analysis was performed to determine the excitation conditions of the gas. Results: We detect four H2O lines and CO (16-15) at the two selected shocked positions. In addition, transitions from related outflow and envelope tracers are detected. Different gas components associated with the shock are identified in the H2O emission. In particular, at the head of the red lobe of the outflow, two distinct gas components with different excitation conditions are distinguished in the HIFI emission maps: a compact component, detected in the ground-state water lines, and a more extended one. Assuming that these two components correspond to two different temperature components observed in previous H2O and CO studies, the LVG analysis of the H2O emission suggests that the compact (about 3'', corresponding to about 700 AU) component is associated with a hot (T ~ 1000 K) gas with densities nH2 ~ (1-4) × 105 cm-3, whereas the extended (10''-17'', corresponding to 2400-4000 AU) one traces a warm (T ~ 300

  17. NGC6819

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, R.; Brogaard, K.; Miglio, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present an extensive peakbagging effort on Kepler data of similar to 50 red giant stars in the open star cluster NGC6819. By employing sophisticated pre-processing of the time series and Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques we extracted individual frequencies, heights and line widths for hundreds...... of oscillation modes. We show that the 'average' asteroseismic parameter delta nu(02), derived from these, can be used to distinguish the stellar evolutionary state between the red giant branch (RGB) stars and red clump (RC) stars. Masses and radii are estimated using asteroseismic scaling relations, both...... to the ensemble reveal overmassive members that likely evolved via mass transfer in a blue straggler phase. We suggest that KIC 4937011, a low-mass Li-rich giant, is a cluster member in the RC phase that experienced very high mass loss during its evolution. Such over- and undermassive stars need to be considered...

  18. Probing the Physics of Narrow-line Regions in Active Galaxies. III. Accretion and Cocoon Shocks in the LINER NGC 1052

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Ho, I.-Ting; Dressel, Linda L.; Sutherland, Ralph; Kewley, Lisa; Davies, Rebecca; Hampton, Elise; Shastri, Prajval; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Bhatt, Harish; Ramya, S.; Scharwächter, Julia; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Zaw, Ingyin; James, Bethan; Juneau, Stéphanie; Srivastava, Shweta

    2015-03-01

    We present Wide Field Spectrograph integral field spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph spectroscopy for the low-ionization nuclear emission line region (LINER) galaxy NGC 1052. We infer the presence of a turbulent accretion flow forming a small-scale accretion disk. We find a large-scale outflow and ionization cone along the minor axis of the galaxy. Part of this outflow region is photoionized by the active galactic nucleus and shares properties with the extended narrow-line region of Seyfert galaxies, but the inner (R≲ 1.0″) accretion disk and the region around the radio jet appear shock excited. The emission-line properties can be modeled by a “double-shock” model in which the accretion flow first passes through an accretion shock in the presence of a hard X-ray radiation, and the accretion disk is then processed through a cocoon shock driven by the overpressure of the radio jets. This model explains the observation of two distinct densities (˜104 and ˜106 cm-3) and provides a good fit to the observed emission-line spectrum. We derive estimates for the velocities of the two shock components and their mixing fractions, the black hole mass, and the accretion rate needed to sustain the LINER emission and derive an estimate for the jet power. Our emission-line model is remarkably robust against variation of input parameters and hence offers a generic explanation for the excitation of LINER galaxies, including those of spiral type such as NGC 3031 (M81).

  19. HST/ACS DIRECT AGES OF THE DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES NGC 147 AND NGC 185

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geha, M. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Weisz, D. [Astronomy Department, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Grocholski, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Dolphin, A. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Marel, R. P. van der [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Guhathakurta, P., E-mail: marla.geha@yale.edu [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We present the deepest optical photometry for any dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observations of the Local Group dE galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. Our F606W and F814W color–magnitude diagrams are the first to reach below the oldest main sequence turnoff in a dE galaxy, allowing us to determine full star formation histories in these systems. The ACS fields are located roughly ∼1.5 effective radii from the galaxy center to avoid photometric crowding. While both ACS fields show unambiguous evidence for old and intermediate age stars, the mean age of NGC 147 is ∼4–5 Gyr younger as compared to NGC 185. In NGC 147, only 40% of stars were in place 12.5 Gyr ago (z ∼ 5), with the bulk of the remaining stellar population forming between 5 to 7 Gyr. In contrast, 70% of stars were formed in NGC 185 prior to 12.5 Gyr ago with the majority of the remaining population forming between 8 to 10 Gyr ago. Star formation has ceased in both ACS fields for at least 3 Gyr. Previous observations in the central regions of NGC 185 show evidence for star formation as recent as 100 Myr ago, and a strong metallicity gradient with radius. This implies a lack of radial mixing between the center of NGC 185 and our ACS field. The lack of radial gradients in NGC 147 suggests that our inferred SFHs are more representative of its global history. We interpret the inferred differences in star formation histories to imply an earlier infall time into the M31 environment for NGC 185 as compared to NGC 147.

  20. Probing the cold and warm molecular gas in the Whirlpool Galaxy: Herschel SPIRE-FTS observations of the central region of M51 (NGC 5194)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirm, M. R. P.; Wilson, C. D.; Kamenetzky, J.; Parkin, T. J.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P.; Rangwala, N.; Spinoglio, L.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Cooray, A.; De Looze, I.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Wu, R.

    2017-10-01

    We present Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) intermediate-sampled mapping observations of the central ˜8 kpc (˜150 arcsec) of M51, with a spatial resolution of 40 arcsec. We detect four 12CO transitions (J = 4-3 to J = 7-6) and the [C i] 3P2-3P1 and 3P1-3P0 transitions. We supplement these observations with ground-based observations of 12CO J = 1-0 to J = 3-2 and perform a two-component non-local thermodynamic equilibrium analysis. We find that the molecular gas in the nucleus and centre regions has a cool component (Tkin ˜ 10-20 K) with a moderate but poorly constrained density (n(H2) ˜ 103-106 cm-3), as well as significant molecular gas in a warmer (Tkin ˜ 300-3000 K), lower density (n(H2) ˜ 101.6-102.5 cm-3) component. We compare our CO line ratios and calculated densities along with ratios of CO to total infrared luminosity to a grid of photon-dominated region (PDR) models and find that the cold molecular gas likely resides in PDRs with a field strength of G0 ˜ 102. The warm component likely requires an additional source of mechanical heating, from supernovae and stellar winds or possibly shocks produced in the strong spiral density wave. When compared to similar two-component models of other star-forming galaxies published as part of the Very Nearby Galaxies Survey (Arp 220, M82 and NGC 4038/39), M51 has the lowest density for the warm component, while having a warm gas mass fraction that is comparable to those of Arp 220 and M82, and significantly higher than that of NGC 4038/39.

  1. Identification of young stellar variables with KELT for K2 - II. The Upper Scorpius association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, Megan; Oelkers, Ryan J.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Gaidos, Eric; Somers, Garrett; Mamajek, Eric; Cargile, Phillip A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua; Stevens, Daniel J.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Lund, Michael B.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; James, David; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2018-01-01

    High-precision photometry from space-based missions such as K2 and Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite enables detailed studies of young star variability. However, because space-based observing campaigns are often short (e.g. 80 d for K2), complementary long-baseline photometric surveys are critical for obtaining a complete understanding of young star variability, which can change on time-scales of minutes to years. We therefore present and analyse light curves of members of the Upper Scorpius association made over 5.5 yr by the ground-based Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT), which complement the high-precision observations of this region taken by K2 during its Campaigns 2 and 15. We show that KELT data accurately identify the periodic signals found with high-precision K2 photometry, demonstrating the power of ground-based surveys in deriving stellar rotation periods of young stars. We also use KELT data to identify sources exhibiting variability that is likely related to circumstellar material and/or stellar activity cycles; these signatures are often unseen in the short-term K2 data, illustrating the importance of long-term monitoring surveys for studying the full range of young star variability. We provide the KELT light curves as electronic tables in an ongoing effort to establish legacy time series data sets for young stellar clusters.

  2. Very Low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Upper Scorpius Using Gaia DR1: Mass Function, Disks, and Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Neil J.; Scholz, Aleks; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of the brown dwarf population in star-forming regions is dependent on knowing distances and proper motions and therefore will be improved through the Gaia space mission. In this paper, we select new samples of very low-mass objects (VLMOs) in Upper Scorpius using UKIDSS colors and optimized proper motions calculated using Gaia DR1. The scatter in proper motions from VLMOs in Upper Scorpius is now (for the first time) dominated by the kinematic spread of the region itself, not by the positional uncertainties. With age and mass estimates updated using Gaia parallaxes for early-type stars in the same region, we determine masses for all VLMOs. Our final most complete sample includes 453 VLMOs of which ˜125 are expected to be brown dwarfs. The cleanest sample is comprised of 131 VLMOs, with ˜105 brown dwarfs. We also compile a joint sample from the literature that includes 415 VLMOs, out of which 152 are likely brown dwarfs. The disk fraction among low-mass brown dwarfs (M< 0.05 {M}⊙ ) is substantially higher than in more massive objects, indicating that disks around low-mass brown dwarfs survive longer than in low-mass stars overall. The mass function for 0.01< M< 0.1 {M}⊙ is consistent with the Kroupa Initial Mass Function. We investigate the possibility that some “proper motion outliers” have undergone a dynamical ejection early in their evolution. Our analysis shows that the color-magnitude cuts used when selecting samples introduce strong bias into the population statistics due to varying levels of contamination and completeness.

  3. New Portraits of Spiral Galaxies NGC 613, NGC 1792 and NGC 3627

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    of this photo retains the original pixels. Note the many arms and the pronounced dust bands. North is up and East is left. NGC 613 is a beautiful barred spiral galaxy in the southern constellation Sculptor. This galaxy is inclined by 32 degrees and, contrary to most barred spirals, has many arms that give it a tentacular appearance. Prominent dust lanes are visible along the large-scale bar. Extensive star-formation occurs in this area, at the ends of the bar, and also in the nuclear regions of the galaxy. The gas at the centre, as well as the radio properties are indicative of the presence of a massive black hole in the centre of NGC 613. NGC 1792 ESO PR Photo 33b/03 ESO PR Photo 33b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 473 x 400 pix - 26k] [Normal - JPEG: 946 x 800 pix - 376k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2716 x 2297 pix - 3.2M] PR Photo 33b/03 shows the starburst spiral galaxy NGC 1792 . Note the numerous background galaxies in this sky field. North is up and East is to the left. NGC 1792 is located in the southern constellation Columba (The Dove) - almost on the border with the constellation Caelum (The Graving Tool) - and is a so-called starburst spiral galaxy. Its optical appearance is quite chaotic, due to the patchy distribution of dust throughout the disc of this galaxy. It is very rich in neutral hydrogen gas - fuel for the formation of new stars - and is indeed rapidly forming such stars. The galaxy is characterized by unusually luminous far-infrared radiation; this is due to dust heated by young stars. M 66 (NGC 3627) ESO PR Photo 33c/03 ESO PR Photo 33c/03 [Preview - JPEG: 469 x 400 pix - 24k] [Normal - JPEG: 938 x 800 pix - 383k] [Full Res - JPEG: 2698 x 2300 pix - 3.0M] PR Photo 33c/03 of the spiral galaxy M 66 (or NGC 3627). North towards upper left, West towards upper right. The third galaxy is NGC 3627 , also known as Messier 66, i.e. it is the 66th object in the famous catalogue of nebulae by French astronomer Charles Messier (1730 - 1817). It is located in the constellation

  4. Ionospheric effects of X-ray source Scorpius XR-1. [on terrestrial radio propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppoff, I. G.; Whitten, R. C.; Willoughby, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    A simple two-ion model was employed to evaluate the ionospheric effects of various nocturnal ionization sources. The model was used to calculate the decay of the electron number density at 90 km with and without illumination by Scorpius XR-1 X rays. Reflection parameters for the determination of the effect of cosmic x-ray sources on radio wave propagation were also obtained. The results obtained in the investigation do not support the proposal made by Anathakrishnan and Ramanathan (1969) that the X-ray source in Scorpius XR-1 affects the nighttime lower ionosphere of the earth.

  5. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393. II. Investigating the Extended Narrow-line Region Using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Space Telescope Narrow-line Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksym, W. Peter; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Junfeng [Department of Astronomy, Physics Building, Xiamen University Xiamen, Fujian, 361005 (China); Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa, E-mail: walter.maksym@cfa.harvard.edu [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, IF, CP 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-07-20

    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) designed to take full advantage of Chandra 's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble Space Telescope narrow-line images of [O iii], [S ii], and H α , as well as previously unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. The X-rays provide unprecedented evidence that the S-shaped arms that envelope the nuclear radio outflows extend only ≲0.″2 (≲50 pc) across. The high-resolution multiwavelength data suggest that the extended narrow-line region is a complex multiphase structure in the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Its ionization structure is highly stratified with respect to outflow-driven bubbles in the bicone and varies dramatically on scales of ∼10 pc. Multiple findings show likely contributions from shocks to the feedback in regions where radio outflows from the AGN most directly influence the ISM. These findings include H α evidence for gas compression and extended MUV emission and are in agreement with existing STIS kinematics. Extended filamentary structure in the X-rays and optical suggests the presence of an undetected plasma component, whose existence could be tested with deeper radio observations.

  6. A GMOS-N IFU study of the central H ii region in the blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 4449: kinematics, nebular metallicity and star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Nimisha; James, Bethan L.; Irwin, Mike J.

    2017-10-01

    We use integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph North (GMOS-N) to study the central H ii region in a nearby blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy NGC 4449. The IFS data enable us to explore the variation of physical and chemical conditions of the star-forming region and the surrounding gas on spatial scales as small as 5.5 pc. Our kinematical analysis shows possible signatures of shock ionization and shell structures in the surroundings of the star-forming region. The metallicity maps of the region, created using direct Te and indirect strong line methods (R23, O3N2 and N2), do not show any chemical variation. From the integrated spectrum of the central H ii region, we find a metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 7.88 ± 0.14 ({˜ }0.15^{+0.06}_{-0.04} Z⊙) using the direct method. Comparing the central H ii region metallicity derived here with those of H ii regions throughout this galaxy from previous studies, we find evidence of increasing metallicity with distance from the central nucleus. Such chemical inhomogeneities can be due to several mechanisms, including gas loss via supernova blowout, galactic winds or metal-poor gas accretion. However, we find that the localized area of decreased metallicity aligns spatially with the peak of star-forming activity in the galaxy, suggesting that gas accretion may be at play here. Spatially resolved IFS data for the entire galaxy are required to confirm the metallicity inhomogeneity found in this study and determine its possible cause.

  7. The extraordinary outburst in the massive protostellar system NGC6334I-MM1: dimming of the hypercompact HII region and destruction of water masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Crystal; Hunter, Todd Russell

    2018-01-01

    I will present results from multi-epoch JVLA 1.3 and 0.7 cm observations of the massive protostellar outburst in NGC6334I-MM1. The continuum data reveal that as of 2016, the free-free emission from the central protostar dropped by a factor of 5 since 2011, likely in response to the outburst observed in the millimeter continuum that began in 2015. Additionally, the water maser emission toward MM1 has dramatically reduced. In contrast, the water masers in other locations in the protocluster have flared, with the strongest spots associated with CM2, a non-thermal radio source that appears to mark a shock aligned with a jet emanating northward from MM1. The pre-outburst luminosity and HCHII region are consistent with a deeply-embedded central object having a spectral type of B3 (ZAMS). The observed quenching of the HCHII region suggests a reduction in uv photon production due either to an elevated disk-mediated accretion rate that is ongoing, or the rapid accretion of a substantial mass (0.1 Msun) which has caused the protostellar photosphere to expand and radiate at a much larger luminosity, but with a lower effective temperature. These data demonstrate the need for higher sensitivity and higher angular resolution ~1 cm centimeter observations, as enabled by the ngVLA, to trace the evolution of massive protostellar accretion.

  8. Interacting galaxy NGC4656 and its unusual dwarf companion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasov, Anatoly V.; Saburova, Anna S.; Egorov, Oleg V.; Uklein, Roman I.

    2017-08-01

    We studied the nearby edge-on galaxy NGC4656 and its dwarf low surface brightness companion with the enhanced UV brightness, NGC4656UV, belonging to the interacting system NGC4631/56. Regular photometric structure and relatively big size of NGC4656UV allows us to consider this dwarf galaxy as a separate group member rather than a tidal dwarf. Spectral long-slit observations were used to obtain the kinematical parameters and gas-phase metallicity of NGC4656UV and NGC4656. Our rough estimate of the total dynamical mass of NGC4656UV allowed us to conclude that this galaxy is the dark-matter dominated LSB dwarf or ultradiffuse galaxy. Young stellar population of NGC4656UV, as well as strong local non-circular gas motions in NGC4656 and the low oxygen gas abundance in the region of this galaxy adjacent to its dwarf companion, give evidence in favour of the accretion of metal-poor gas on to the discs of both galaxies.

  9. Properties of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Northwest Photon Dominated Region of NGC 7023. I. PAH Size, Charge, Composition, and Structure Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, C.; Bregman, Jesse; Allamandola, L. J

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectral map of the northwest photon dominated region (PDR) in NGC 7023 was analyzed exclusively using PAH spectra from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (www.astrochem.org/pahdb). The 5-15 micron spectrum at each pixel is fitted using a non-negative-least-squares fitting approach. The fits are of good quality, allowing decomposition of the PAH emission into four subclasses: size, charge, composition, and hydrogen adjacency (structure). Maps tracing PAH subclass distributions across the region paint a coherent astrophysical picture. Once past some 20 seconds of arc from HD 200775, the emission is dominated by the more stable, large, symmetric, compact PAH cations with smaller, neutral PAHs taking over along the lines-of-sight toward the more distant molecular cloud. The boundary between the PDR and the denser cloud material shows up as a distinct discontinuity in the breakdown maps. Noteworthy is the requirement for PANH cations to fit the bulk of the 6.2 and 11.0 micron features and the indication of PAH photo-dehydrogenation and fragmentation close to HD 200775. Decomposition of the spectral maps into "principal" subclass template spectra provides additional insight into the behavior of each subclass. However, the general applicability of this computationally more efficient approach is presently undetermined. This is the first time the spectra of individual PAHs are exclusively used to fit the 5-15 micron region and analyze the spatial behavior of the aromatic infrared bands, providing fundamental, new information about astronomical PAH subpopulations including their dependence on, and response to, changes in local conditions.

  10. [Fe III] EMISSION LINES IN THE PLANETARY NEBULA NGC 2392

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Chau, W.; Hsia, C.-H.; Kwok, S. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Fang, X.; Liu, X.-W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Koning, N., E-mail: zhangy96@hku.hk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2012-07-20

    NGC 2392 is a young double-shell planetary nebula (PN). Its intrinsic structure and shaping mechanism are still not fully understood. In this paper we present new spectroscopic observations of NGC 2392. The slits were placed at two different locations to obtain the spectra of the inner and outer regions. Several [Fe III] lines are clearly detected in the inner region. We infer that NGC 2392 might have an intrinsic structure similar to the bipolar nebula Mz 3, which also exhibits a number of [Fe III] lines arising from the central regions. In this scenario, the inner and outer regions of NGC 2392 correspond to the inner lobes and the outer outflows of Mz 3, respectively. We construct a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model to examine our hypothesis. We also compare the physical conditions and chemical composition of the inner and outer regions, and discuss the implications on the formation of this type of PN.

  11. ROSAT PSPC observations of the early-type galaxies NGC 507 and NGC 499: Central cooling and mass determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, G.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a deep observation of NGC 507 and NGC 499 with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). The X-ray emission of NGC 507 is extended at least out to 1000 sec (458 kpc at a distance of 94.5 Mpc). The radial profile of X-ray surface brightness goes as Sigma(sub x) is approximately r(exp -1.8) outside the core region. The radial profile is a function of energy such that the softer X-rays have a smaller core radius and a flatter slope. Spectral analysis reveals that the emission temperature, with an average of 1 keV, peaks at an intermediate radius of 2-3 min and falls toward the center (possibly decreases outward as well). The absorption column density is consistent with the Galactic line-of-sight value. The X-ray emission of NGC 499 is extended to 300 sec and suggests a similarly cooler core. The cooler cores of NGC 507 and NGC 499 are strong evidence of the presence of cooling flows in these galaxies. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium outside the cooling radius, the estimated mass-to-light ratio of NGC 507 is 97 +/- 16 within 458 kpc, indicative of the presence of a heavy halo. Similarly, the mass-to-light ratio of NGC 499 is 89 +/- 14 within 137 kpc. Near the edge of the X-ray-emitting region of NGC 507 we detect 19 soft, unresolved sources. These sources do not have optical counterparts and are significantly in excess of the expected number of background serendipitous sources. We speculate that they may represent cooling clumps in the halo of NGC 507. If there are many undetected cooling clumps distributed at large radii, then the radial profile of the X-ray surface brightness does not directly reflect the potential, adding uncertainty to the measurement of the binding mass; the gas mass could also be overestimated.

  12. Abundances in planetary nebulae : NGC 2792

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Surendiranath, R.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Roellig, T. L.

    The mid-infrared spectrum of the rather circular planetary nebula NGC2792 taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope is presented. This spectrum is combined with the ultraviolet IUE spectrum and with the spectrum in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The

  13. Abundances of planetary nebula NGC 5315

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Salas, JB; Koornneef, J; Feibelman, WA

    2002-01-01

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebula NGC 5315 is presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to previous

  14. Eight new MSPs in NGC 6440 and NGC 6441

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freire, P.C.C.; Ransom, S.M.; Bégin, S.; Stairs, I.H.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Frey, L.H.; Camilo, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of five new millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster NGC 6440 and three new ones in NGC 6441; each cluster has one previously known pulsar. Four of the new pulsars are found in binary systems. One of the new pulsars, PSR J1748-2021B in NGC 6440, is notable for its

  15. Contact Toxicity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Acantholimon scorpius

    OpenAIRE

    Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari, Abbas Delazar, Farriba Hesmati Afshar, Dena Parsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Plumbaginaceae plants family is a valuable natural insecticidal compound. This research focused on contact toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil obtained from Acantholimon scorpus. Methods: The essential oil from the aerial parts of A. scorpius was extracted by hydrodistillation method and tested for their toxicity against Oryzeaphilus mercator (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenerbrionidae). Chemical compounds of the essential oil was an...

  16. The structure of NGC 7538 IRS9: A massive star forming region with spatially constrained warm gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Steven; Bowers, Brant

    2015-08-01

    An important question in the study of massive protostars is the physical structure of the star forming region. An extension of the Shu infall model to high masses would suggest the existence of a spherical envelope surrounding a central, massive disk. On the other hand, turbulence, outflows, instabilities, or other forces might disrupt such a disk or prevent one from forming in the first place. Observations of acetylene in ro-vibrational absorption on GEMINI provide spatially constrained observations of high-lying transitions. We model the absorption and compare the model predictions with the observations, in order to constrain the models. The implications for the physical structure are discussed, and future observations to test the results are suggested.

  17. Long slit spectroscopy of diffuse ionized gas in NGC 55

    OpenAIRE

    Otte, B.; Dettmar, R. -J.

    1999-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of emission line ratios and velocities are presented for ionized gas across the central plane of NGC 55, a late-type galaxy in the Sculptor group. The low metallicity in NGC 55 leads to relatively low line ratios of [S II]/H$\\alpha$ and [N II]/H$\\alpha$ for H II regions as well as the diffuse ionized gas. These are the first spectroscopical measurements of line ratios in ionized gas exterior to the stellar disc of NGC 55. Analysis of the line ratios and the relative...

  18. Concentrations in the Local Association. 1. The southern concentrations NGC 2516, IC 2602, Centaurus-Lupus and Upper Scorpius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggen, O.J. (Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile))

    1983-07-01

    Extensive intermediate band and H..beta.. observations and the available astrometry, have been used to support the suggestions that (1) several southern concentrations of stars are moving with the Pleiades and ..cap alpha.. Persei clusters (Local Association) and (2) the Local Association contains an appreciable percentage of the main-sequence stars near the Sun but the non-random distribution of the brighter association members focuses attention on a few concentrations, or 'clusters'. (3) All of the concentrations discussed here are larger than about 10 pc and the largest, in Lupus-Centaurus, is shown to be accompanied by A to G type main-sequence stars.

  19. Far UV study on the non-thermal activity in the narrow line galaxies NGC 4507 and NGC 5506

    CERN Document Server

    Bergeron, J; Perola, C

    1981-01-01

    The narrow line high excitation galaxies NGC 4507 and NGC 5506 were observed with the IUE satellite. The continua of both galaxies, when combined with optical observations, show a flattening at log nu >14.9. The reddening correction cannot be estimated with accuracy. The UV non-stellar component is hard; after reddening correction it can be fitted with a power law, f/sub nu / varies as nu /sup - alpha /. The energy content in the Lyman continuum is large enough to power the narrow line region providing the coverage factor is of order unity. In the case of NGC 4507 the spectral lines are studied. (25 refs).

  20. THE AGES OF HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN NGC 2403 AND NGC 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Binder, Breanna A.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16803 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew, E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: bbinder@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: mce@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon Company, Tucson, AZ 85734 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We have examined resolved stellar photometry from HST imaging surrounding 18 high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) candidates in NGC 300 and NGC 2403 as determined from combined Chandra/HST analysis. We have fit the color-magnitude distribution of the surrounding stars with stellar evolution models. All but one region in NGC 300 and two in NGC 2403 contain a population with an age between 20 and 70 Myr. One of the candidates is the ultraluminous X-ray source in NGC 2403, which we associate with a 60 {+-} 5 Myr old population. These age distributions provide additional evidence that 16 of these 18 candidates are HMXBs. Furthermore, our results suggest that the most common HMXB age in these galaxies is 40-55 Myr. This preferred age is similar to observations of HMXBs in the Small Magellanic Cloud, providing new evidence of this formation timescale, but in higher metallicity populations. We suggest that this preferred HMXB age is the result of the fortuitous combination of two physical effects. First, this is the age of a population when the greatest rate of core-collapse events should be occurring, maximizing neutron star production. Second, this is the age when B stars are most likely to be actively losing mass. We also discuss our results in the context of HMXB feedback in galaxies, confirming HMXBs as a potentially important source of energy for the interstellar medium in low-mass galaxies.

  1. NGC 6334 and NGC 6357. Insights from spectroscopy of their OB star populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russeil, D.; Adami, C.; Bouret, J. C.; Hervé, A.; Parker, Q. A.; Zavagno, A.; Motte, F.

    2017-11-01

    Aims: The formation of high-mass stars is still debated. For this reason, several projects such as Herschel-HOBYS are focussed on the study of the earliest phases of massive star formation. As a result, massive star-forming complexes such as NGC 6334 and NGC 6357 have been observed in the far-infrared to study their massive dense cores where massive stars are expected to form. However, to better characterise the environments of these cores we need to understand the previous massive star formation history. To better characterise the environment of these massive dense cores we study the previous high-mass star formation and how these stars act on their environments. Methods: This study is based on the spectral classification of the OB stars identified towards NGC 6334 and NGC 6357 with spectra taken with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). From the subsequent spectral classification of 109 stars across these regions we were able to evaluate the following: distance, age, mass, global star-forming efficiency (SFE), and star formation rate (SFR) of the regions. The physical conditions of the ionised gas for both complexes was also derived. Results: We confirm that NGC 6334 and NGC 6357 belong to the Saggitarius-Carina arm which, in this direction, extends from 1 kpc to 2.2 kpc. From the location of the stars in Hertzprung-Russell diagram we show that stars older than 10 Myr are broadly spread across these complexes, while younger stars are mainly located in the H II regions and stellar clusters. Our data also suggests that some of the young stars can be considered runaway stars. We evaluate a SFE of 0.019-0.007+0.008 and 0.021-0.003+0.004 and a SFR of 1.1 × 103 ± 300 M⊙ Myr-1 and 1.7 × 103 ± 400 M⊙ Myr-1 for NGC 6334 and NGC 6357, respectively. We note that 29 OB stars have X-ray counterparts, most of them belonging to NGC 6357. This suggests that molecular clouds in NGC 6357 are more impacted by X-ray flux and stellar winds than in

  2. Multiwavelength study of the star-formation in the bar of NGC 2903

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popping, G.; Perez, I.; Zurita, A.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. The nearby barred spiral NGC 2903 has an active starburst at its centre and HII regions distributed along its bar. We analyse the star-formation properties in the bar region of NGC 2903 and study its links to the typical bar morphological features. Methods. We combine space and ground-based

  3. Search for gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 in the first Advanced LIGO observing run with a hidden Markov model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G; Allocca, A.; Almoubayyed, H.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bawaj, M.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Etienne, Z. B.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, D J; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blari, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Deelman, E; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.J.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. 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A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.E.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, S.W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kramer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang-Cheol, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, W. H.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Luck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana Hernandez, I.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magana Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mayani, R.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. 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Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y. -F.; Wang, Y. -F.; Ward, L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, G.W.K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Suvorova, S.; Moran, W.; Evans, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    Results are presented from a semicoherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, using data collected during the first Advanced LIGO observing run. The search combines a frequency domain matched filter (Bessel-weighted F-statistic) with a

  4. Abundances of planetary nebulae NGC 3242 and NGC 6369

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.

    2008-01-01

    The spectra of the planetary nebulae NGC3242 and NGC6369 are reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The aim is to determine the chemical composition of these objects. We also make use of International

  5. AGN-Induced Cavities in NGC 1399 And NGC 4649

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurkin, K.; /New Mexico U.; Dunn, R.J.H.; /Southampton U.; Gentile, G.; Taylor, G.B.; /New Mexico U.; Allen, S.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-14

    We present an analysis of archival Chandra and VLA observations of the E0 galaxy NGC1399 and the E2 galaxy NGC4649 in which we investigate cavities in the surrounding X-ray emitting medium caused by the central AGN. We calculate the jet power required for the AGN to evacuate these cavities and find values of {approx} 8x10{sup 41} erg s-1 and {approx} 14x10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} for the lobes of NGC1399 and {approx} 7x10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1} and {approx} 6x1041 erg s{sup -1} for those of NGC4649. We also calculate the k/f values for each cavity, where k is the ratio of the total particle energy to that of electrons radiating in the range of 10 MHz to 10 GHz, and f is the volume filling factor of the plasma in the cavity. We find that the values of k/f for the lobes of NGC1399 are {approx} 93 and {approx} 190, and those of the lobes of NGC4649 are {approx} 15000 and {approx} 12000. We conclude that the assumed spectrum describes the electron distribution in the lobes of NGC1399 reasonably well, and that there are few entrained particles. For NGC4649, either there are many entrained particles or the model spectrum does not accurately describe the population of electrons.

  6. Contact Toxicity and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Acantholimon scorpius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardalan Pasdaran Lashgari, Abbas Delazar, Farriba Hesmati Afshar, Dena Parsa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plumbaginaceae plants family is a valuable natural insecticidal compound. This research focused on contact toxicity and chemical composition of essential oil obtained from Acantholimon scorpus. Methods: The essential oil from the aerial parts of A. scorpius was extracted by hydrodistillation method and tested for their toxicity against Oryzeaphilus mercator (Coleoptera: Silvanidae and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenerbrionidae. Chemical compounds of the essential oil was analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Results: The essential oil showed toxic effect on tested insects. This oil showed 90.0% mortality of O. mercator and 85.2% mortality of T. castaneum at a dose of 12 μl /l air after 48h of exposure. The constituents of this oil were identified, representing more than 82.9% of the total essential oil composition. Hexadecanoic acid, tetrahydrogeranyl acetone and oleic acid were the main compounds of the essential oil. Conclusion: According to the result the essential oil of A. scorpius showed a noticeable insecticidal activity in contact toxicity model.

  7. A directed search for gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 with initial LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J S; Ashton, G; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barclay, S; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauer, Th S; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Benacquista, M; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, C D; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchman, S; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio,, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, C; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dartez, L; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Dominguez, E; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fuentes-Tapia, S; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C J; Guo, X; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Hee, S; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heinzel, G; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Islas, G; Isler, J C; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N G; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Le, J; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magana-Sandoval, F; Magee, R; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; McWilliams, S; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moore, B; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Nardecchia, I; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A H; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; Oram, R; O'Reilly, B; Ortega, W; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Pai, S; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patrick, Z; Pedraza, M; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Post, A; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Reula, O; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sawadsky, A; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Serafinelli, R; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Szczepanczyk, M; Szeifert, G; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Tellez, G; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Tshilumba, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C van den; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Xie, S; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, Q; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J

    2014-01-01

    We present results of a search for continuously-emitted gravitational radiation, directed at the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1. Our semi-coherent analysis covers 10 days of LIGO S5 data ranging from 50-550 Hz, and performs an incoherent sum of coherent $\\mathcal{F}$-statistic power distributed amongst frequency-modulated orbital sidebands. All candidates not removed at the veto stage were found to be consistent with noise at a 1% false alarm rate. We present Bayesian 95% confidence upper limits on gravitational-wave strain amplitude using two different prior distributions: a standard one, with no a priori assumptions about the orientation of Scorpius X-1; and an angle-restricted one, using a prior derived from electromagnetic observations. Median strain upper limits of 1.3e-24 and 8e-25 are reported at 150 Hz for the standard and angle-restricted searches respectively. This proof of principle analysis was limited to a short observation time by unknown effects of accretion on the intrinsic spin...

  8. Membership and Dynamical Parameters of the Open Cluster NGC 1039

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxin; Ma, Jun; Wu, Zhenyu; Zhou, Xu

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we analyze the open cluster NGC 1039. This young open cluster is observed as a part of Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut Multicolor Sky Survey. Combining our observations with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric data, we employ the Padova stellar model and the zero-age main-sequence curve to the data to derive a reddening, E(B-V)=0.10+/- 0.02, and a distance modulus, {(m-M)}0=8.4+/- 0.2, for NGC 1039. The photometric membership probabilities of stars in the region of NGC 1039 are derived using the spectral energy distribution-fitting method. According to the membership probabilities ({P}{SED}) obtained here, 582 stars are cluster members with {P}{SED} larger than 60%. In addition, we determine the structural parameters of NGC 1039 by fitting its radial density profile with the King model. These parameters are a core radius, {R}{{c}}=4.44+/- 1.31 {pc}; a tidal radius, {R}{{t}}=13.57+/- 4.85 {pc}; and a concentration parameter of {C}0={log}({R}{{t}}/{R}{{c}})=0.49+/- 0.20. We also fit the observed mass function of NGC 1039 with masses from 0.3 {M}⊙ to 1.65 {M}⊙ with a power-law function {{Φ }}(m)\\propto {m}α to derive its slopes of mass functions of different spatial regions. The results obtained here show that the slope of the mass function of NGC 1039 is flatter in the central regions (α = 0.117), becomes steeper at larger radii (α = -2.878), and breaks at {m}{break}≈ 0.80 {M}⊙ . In particular, for the first time, our results show that the mass segregation appears in NGC 1039.

  9. The outer envelopes of globular clusters. II. NGC 1851, NGC 5824 and NGC 1261*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, P. B.; Da Costa, G. S.; Mackey, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present a second set of results from a wide-field photometric survey of the environs of Milky Way globular clusters. The clusters studied are NGC 1261, NGC 1851 and NGC 5824: all have data from the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m telescope. NGC 5824 also has data from the Magellan Clay telescope with MegaCam. We confirm the existence of a large diffuse stellar envelope surrounding NGC 1851 of size at least 240 pc in radius. The radial density profile of the envelope follows a power-law decline with index γ = -1.5 ± 0.2 and the projected shape is slightly elliptical. For NGC 5824, there is no strong detection of a diffuse stellar envelope, but we find the cluster is remarkably extended and is similar in size (at least 230 pc in radius) to the envelope of NGC 1851. A stellar envelope is also revealed around NGC 1261. However, it is notably smaller in size with radius ∼105 pc. The radial density profile of the envelope is also much steeper with γ = -3.8 ± 0.2. We discuss the possible nature of the diffuse stellar envelopes, but are unable to draw definitive conclusions based on the current data. NGC 1851, and potentially NGC 5824, could be stripped dwarf galaxy nuclei, akin to the cases of ω Cen, M54 and M2. On the other hand, the different characteristics of the NGC 1261 envelope suggest that it may be the product of dynamical evolution of the cluster.

  10. ASCA observation of three bright early-type galaxies: NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Mushotzky, Richard; Tsuru, Takeshi; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Loewenstein, Michael; Makishima, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Mihara, Tatehiro

    1994-01-01

    We report Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) 0.3-10 keV and X-ray observations of three early type galaxies, NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636. The extended mission in these galaxies is well described by thin thermal eimssion from hot gas. The gas temperature is 0.92 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4472, 0.79 +/- 0.01 keV for NGC 4406, and 0.73 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4636. The metal abundance for NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636 are, under the assumption of solar ratios, 0.63 +/- 0.15, 0.45 +/- 0.10, and 0.38 +/- 0.07, respectively. Detailed analysis has allowed determination of the abundances of oxygen, silicon, sulfur, and iron. The observed abundances are consistent with the solar ratios. For NGC 4472 and NGC 4406 we also determined the mean temperature of the gas producing the Si lines from the ratio of the Si H to He-like lines and find it to be consistent with the continuum temperature. The X-ray temperature is in good agreement with the observed optical velocity dispersion, stellar density profile, and gas density profile. Our data indicates that the supernova rate should be less than one fifth of the nominal rate in early type galaxies. We derive the mass of these systems within fixed angular scales and find that M/L greater than 40, confirming that elliptical galaxies are dark matter dominated at large radii.

  11. Ionized Gas Outflows from the MAGNUM Survey: NGC 1365 and NGC 4945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Venturi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AGN feedback, acting through strong outflows accelerated in the nuclear region of AGN hosts, is invoked as a key ingredient for galaxy evolution by many models to explain the observed BH-galaxy scaling relations. Recently, some direct observational evidence of radiative mode feedback in action has been finally found in quasars at z >1.5. However, it is not possible to study outflows in quasars at those redshifts on small scales (≲100 pc, as spatial information is limited by angular resolution. This is instead feasible in nearby active galaxies, which are ideal laboratories to explore outflow structure and properties, as well as the effects of AGN on their host galaxies. In this proceeding we present preliminary results from the MAGNUM survey, which comprises nearby Seyfert galaxies observed with the integral field spectrograph VLT/MUSE. We focus on two sources, NGC 1365 and NGC 4945, that exhibit double conical outflows extending on distances >1 kpc. We disentangle the dominant contributions to ionization of the various gas components observed in the central ~5.3 kpc of NGC 1365. An attempt to infer outflow 3D structure in NGC 4945 is made via simple kinematic modeling, suggesting a hollow cone geometry.

  12. Galaxy NGC 1850

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    By spying on a neighboring galaxy, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured an image of a young, globular-like star cluster -- a type of object unknown in our Milky Way Galaxy. The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2001/25 and http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc. The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The double cluster NGC 1850 lies in a neighboring satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. It has two relatively young components. The main, globular-like cluster is in the center. A smaller cluster is seen below and to the right, composed of extremely hot, blue stars and fainter red T-Tauri stars. The main cluster is about 50 million years old; the smaller one is 4 million years old. A filigree pattern of diffuse gas surrounds NGC 1850. Scientists believe the pattern formed millions of years ago when massive stars in the main cluster exploded as supernovas. Hubble can observe a range of star types in NGC 1850, including the faint, low-mass T-Tauri stars, which are difficult to distinguish with ground-based telescopes. Hubble's fine angular resolution can pick out these stars, even in other galaxies. Massive stars of the OB type emit large amounts of energetic ultraviolet radiation, which is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. From Hubble's position above the atmosphere, it can detect this ultraviolet light. NGC 1850, the brightest star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud, is in the southern constellation of Dorado, called the Goldfish or the Swordfish. This image was created from five archival exposures taken by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 between April 3, 1994 and February 6, 1996. More information about the Hubble Space Telescope is online at http://www.stsci.edu. More information about the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 is at http://wfpc2.jpl.nasa.gov. The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space

  13. Deep observation of the NGC 1275 region with MAGIC: search of diffuse γ-ray emission from cosmic rays in the Perseus cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Buson, S.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Di Pierro, F.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.; Pfrommer, C.; Pinzke, A.; Zandanel, F.

    2016-05-01

    Clusters of galaxies are expected to be reservoirs of cosmic rays (CRs) that should produce diffuse γ-ray emission due to their hadronic interactions with the intra-cluster medium. The nearby Perseus cool-core cluster, identified as the most promising target to search for such an emission, has been observed with the MAGIC telescopes at very-high energies (VHE, E ≳ 100 GeV) for a total of 253 h from 2009 to 2014. The active nuclei of NGC 1275, the central dominant galaxy of the cluster, and IC 310, lying at about 0.6° from the centre, have been detected as point-like VHE γ-ray emitters during the first phase of this campaign. We report an updated measurement of the NGC 1275 spectrum, which is described well by a power law with a photon index Γ = 3.6 ± 0.2stat ± 0.2syst between 90 GeV and 1200 GeV. We do not detect any diffuse γ-ray emission from the cluster and so set stringent constraints on its CR population. To bracket the uncertainties over the CR spatial and spectral distributions, we adopt different spatial templates and power-law spectral indexes α. For α = 2.2, the CR-to-thermal pressure within the cluster virial radius is constrained to be ≲ 1-2%, except if CRs can propagate out of the cluster core, generating a flatter radial distribution and releasing the CR-to-thermal pressure constraint to ≲ 20%. Assuming that the observed radio mini-halo of Perseus is generated by secondary electrons from CR hadronic interactions, we can derive lower limits on the central magnetic field, B0, that depend on the CR distribution. For α = 2.2, B0 ≳ 5-8 μG, which is below the ~25 μG inferred from Faraday rotation measurements, whereas for α ≲ 2.1, the hadronic interpretation of the diffuse radio emission contrasts with our γ-ray flux upper limits independently of the magnetic field strength.

  14. The NGC 454 system: anatomy of a mixed ongoing merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plana, H.; Rampazzo, R.; Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Amram, Ph.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2017-12-01

    This paper focuses on NGC 454, a nearby interacting pair of galaxies (AM 0112-554, RR23), composed of an early-type (NGC 454 E) and a star-forming late-type companion (NGC 454 W). We aim at characterizing this wet merger candidate via a multi-λ analysis, from near-UV (NUV) to optical using Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT), and mapping the H α intensity (I) distribution, velocity (Vr) and velocity dispersion (σ) fields with SAM+Fabry-Perot@SOAR observations. Luminosity profiles suggest that NGC 454 E is an S0. Distortions in its outskirts caused by the ongoing interaction are visible in both optical and NUV frames. In NGC 454 W, the NUV-UVOT images and the H α show a set of star-forming complexes connected by a faint tail. H α emission is detected along the line connecting NGC 454 E to the NGC 454 main H II complex. We investigate the (I-σ), (I-Vr) and (Vr-σ) diagnostic diagrams of the H II complexes, most of which can be interpreted in a framework of expanding bubbles. In the main H II complex, enclosed in the UV brightest region, the gas velocity dispersion is highly supersonic reaching 60 km s-1. However, H α emission profiles are mostly asymmetric indicating the presence of multiple components with an irregular kinematics. Observations point towards an advanced stage of the encounter. Our smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations with chemo-photometric implementation suggest that this mixed pair can be understood in terms of a 1:1 gas/halo encounter giving rise to a merger in about 0.2 Gyr from the present stage.

  15. New spectral types in NGC 3603

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, N.; Melena, N.; Massey, P.; Zangari, A.

    NGC 3603 is a giant H II region known to harbor a large population of massive stars. Its central cluster is the closest galactic counterpart to the R136 cluster in 30 Dor, in the Large Magellanic Cloud (Walborn 1973). It is very compact (76 arcsecs in diameter) which makes it an extremely difficult target for individual stars spectroscopy. Some stars lying mostly in the periphery of NGC 3603 have been classified from the ground by Moffat (1983), but for the highly crowded core only one study was available at present (Drissen et al. 1995), which was performed with the Faint Object Spectrograph on board of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Among the massive members of NGC 3603 there are some of the objects showing H-rich WN + abs spectra, also found in the R136 cluster in 30 Doradus (Massey & Hunter 1998). During 2 nights in April 2006, we have made use of the excellent seeing and large aperture of the Magellan telescopes to obtain individual spectroscopy for stars in the crowded core of NGC 3603. We used the IMACS spectrograph in F4 mode at the Baade (Magellan I) telescope, with a 600 l/mm grating and a 0.7 arcsec long slit. From these observations we were able to derive new spectral types for 26 stars: 16 of which are classified here for the first time, while for the remaining 10 we have revised previous spectral classifications, finding very good general agreement, but exact coincidence for only 2 of them. This rises to 38 the number of stars in this massive star forming region, for which spectral classification is available. Not surprisingly, most of the newly classified spectra belong to the earliest O-subtypes. This work is part of a more comprehensive study (Melena et al. 2007) in which archival HST/ACS-HRC images (P.I. Maiz-Apellaniz) have been used to derive new photometry for stars in the cluster, including those for which there is spectroscopy. Having new spectral types and improved photometry, allowed us to determine new values for the reddening (E (B

  16. Tails and streams around the Galactic globular clusters NGC 1851, NGC 1904, NGC 2298 and NGC 2808

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; Martínez-Delgado, David; Navarrete, Camila; Catelan, Márcio; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Antoja, Teresa; Sollima, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    We present Dark Energy Camera imaging for the peculiar Galactic globular clusters NGC 1851, NGC 1904 (M 79), NGC 2298 and NGC 2808. Our deep photometry reveals that all the clusters have an important contribution of stars beyond their King tidal radii and present tails with different morphologies. We have also explored the surroundings of the clusters where the presence of the Canis Major overdensity and/or the low Galactic latitude Monoceros ring at d⊙ ˜ 8 kpc is evident. A second stellar system is found at d⊙ ˜ 17 kpc and spans at least 18 deg × 15 deg in the sky. As one of the possible scenarios to explain that feature, we propose that the unveiled system is part of Monoceros explained as a density wave moving towards the outer Milky Way. Alternatively, the unveiled system might be connected with other known halo substructures or associated with the progenitor dwarf galaxy of NGC 1851 and NGC 1904, which are widely considered accreted globular clusters.

  17. A REVISED AGE FOR UPPER SCORPIUS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY AMONG THE F-TYPE MEMBERS OF THE SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Bubar, Eric J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    We present an analysis of the ages and star formation history of the F-type stars in the Upper Scorpius (US), Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL), and Lower Centaurus-Crux (LCC) subgroups of Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen), the nearest OB association. Our parent sample is the kinematically selected Hipparcos sample of de Zeeuw et al., restricted to the 138 F-type members. We have obtained classification-resolution optical spectra and have also determined the spectroscopic accretion disk fraction. With Hipparcos and 2MASS photometry, we estimate the reddening and extinction for each star and place the candidate members on a theoretical H-R diagram. For each subgroup we construct empirical isochrones and compare to published evolutionary tracks. We find that (1) our empirical isochrones are consistent with the previously published age-rank of the Sco-Cen subgroups; (2) subgroups LCC and UCL appear to reach the main-sequence turn-on at spectral types {approx}F4 and {approx}F2, respectively. An analysis of the A-type stars shows US reaching the main sequence at about spectral type {approx}A3. (3) The median ages for the pre-main-sequence members of UCL and LCC are 16 Myr and 17 Myr, respectively, in agreement with previous studies, however we find that (4) Upper Sco is much older than previously thought. The luminosities of the F-type stars in US are typically a factor of {approx}2.5 less luminous than predicted for a 5 Myr old population for four sets of evolutionary tracks. We re-examine the evolutionary state and isochronal ages for the B-, A-, and G-type Upper Sco members, as well as the evolved M supergiant Antares, and estimate a revised mean age for Upper Sco of 11 {+-} 1 {+-} 2 Myr (statistical, systematic). Using radial velocities and Hipparcos parallaxes we calculate a lower limit on the kinematic expansion age for Upper Sco of >10.5 Myr (99% confidence). However, the data are statistically consistent with no expansion. We reevaluate the inferred masses for the known

  18. Nucler star formation in NGC 6240

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquali, A.; Gallagher, J. S.; de Grijs, R.

    2003-01-01

    We have made use of archival HST BVIJH photometry to constrain the nature of the three discrete sources, A1, A2 and B1, identified in the double nucleus of NGC 6240. STARBURST99 models have been fitted to the observed colours, under the assumption, first, that these sources can be treated as star clusters (i.e. single, instantaneous episodes of star formation), and subsequently as star-forming regions (i.e. characterised by continuous star formation). For both scenarios, we estimate ages as y...

  19. Is cold gas fuelling the radio galaxy NGC 315?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; Peck, A. B.; Oosterloo, T. A.; van Moorsel, G.; Capetti, A.; Fanti, R.; Parma, P.; Ruiter de, H.R.

    2009-01-01

    We present WSRT, VLA and VLBI observations of the Hi absorption in the radio galaxy NGC 315. The main result is that two Hi absorbing systems are detected against the central region. In addition to the known highly redshifted, very narrow component, we detect relatively broad (FWZI similar to 150 km

  20. Mapping Diffuse HI Content in MHONGOOSE Galaxies NGC 1744 and NGC 7424

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Amy; Pisano, Daniel J.; Pingel, Nickolas

    2017-01-01

    The universe contains an abundance of neutral atomic hydrogen, or HI. This HI holds the key to knowing how stars are born, how galaxies form and develop, and how dark matter halos accrete gas from the cosmic web. One of the most crucial questions regarding galaxy formation today is how galaxies accrete their gas and how accretion processes affect subsequent star formation. We are trying to answer these questions by mapping the HI content in a four square degree region around galaxies NGC 1744 and NGC 7424, galaxies to be observed as part of the MHONGOOSE survey. NGC 1744 has already been observed extensively with the VLA, so we will be able to quantify the differences in emission. To do this our GBT maps must be sensitive to column densities on the order of ~1018 cm-2. With such low column densities, we will be able to search for features of the cosmic web in the form of tidal interactions and cosmic web filaments with its relation to star-forming galaxies.

  1. Study of star formation in NGC 1084

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, S.; Sahu, D. K.; Prabhu, T. P.

    2007-10-01

    We present UBVRI broad-band, Hα narrow-band photometry of the star-forming complexes in the infrared bright galaxy NGC 1084. Results of medium-resolution spectroscopy of some of the brighter complexes are also discussed. Spectroscopic data are used to better estimate the internal reddening within the galaxy which is found to be highly variable and to calculate metallicity which is close to the solar value. A diagnostic diagram identifies the shocked regions within this galaxy. The narrow-band Hα flux and its equivalent width are used to determine the star formation rates of the complexes and the distribution of ages. Star formation rates for a few of the complexes are found to be as high as 0.5Msolar yr-1. The star-forming complexes lie in the age range 3 to 6.5 Myr. A U - B versus V - I colour-colour mixed population model created using the Starburst99 model colours is used to estimate the ages of the stellar populations present within these regions. Using this technique, it is found that the star formation in NGC 1084 has taken place in a series of short bursts over the last 40 Myr or so. It is proposed that the likely trigger for enhanced star formation is merger with a gas-rich dwarf galaxy.

  2. An ALMA continuum survey of circumstellar disks in the upper Scorpius OB association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present ALMA 880 μm continuum observations of 20 K- and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB association (Upper Sco) that are surrounded by protoplanetary disks. These data are used to measure the dust content in disks around low-mass stars (0.1-1.6 M {sub ☉}) at a stellar age of 5-11 Myr. Thirteen sources were detected in the 880 μm dust continuum at ≥3σ with inferred dust masses between 0.3 and 52 M {sub ⊕}. The dust masses tend to be higher around the more massive stars, but the significance is marginal in that the probability of no correlation is p ≈ 0.03. The evolution in the dust content in disks was assessed by comparing the Upper Sco observations with published continuum measurements of disks around ∼1-2 Myr stars in the Class II stage in the Taurus molecular cloud. While the dust masses in the Upper Sco disks are on average lower than in Taurus, any difference in the dust mass distributions is significant at less than 3σ. For stellar masses between 0.49 M {sub ☉} and 1.6 M {sub ☉}, the mean dust mass in disks is lower in Upper Sco relative to Taurus by Δlog M {sub dust} = 0.44 ± 0.26.

  3. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopic Observations of the Upper Scorpius Eclipsing Binary EPIC 203868608

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Kim, Hwihyun; Kaplan, Kyle; McLane, Jacob; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2017-06-01

    EPIC 203868608 is a source in the ~10 Myr old Upper Scorpius OB association. Using K2 photometry and ground-based follow-up observations, David et al. (2016) found that it consists of two brown dwarfs with a tertiary object at a projected separation of ~20 AU; the former objects appear to be a double-lined eclipsing binary with a period of 4.5 days. This is one of only two known eclipsing SB2s where both components are below the hydrogen-burning limit. We present additional follow-up observations of this system from the IGRINS high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. Our measured radial velocities do not follow the orbital solution presented by David et al. (2016). Instead, our combined IGRINS plus literature radial velocity dataset appears to indicate a period significantly different than that of the eclipsing binary obvious from the K2 light curve. We will discuss possible scenarios to account for the conflicting observations of this system.

  4. Radial velocities and metallicities from infrared Ca ii triplet spectroscopy of open clusters. II. Berkeley 23, King 1, NGC 559, NGC 6603, and NGC 7245

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, R.; Casamiquela, L.; Ospina, N.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Monteagudo, L.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Open clusters are key to studying the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc. However, there is a deficiency of radial velocity and chemical abundance determinations for open clusters in the literature. Aims: We intend to increase the number of determinations of radial velocities and metallicities from spectroscopy for open clusters. Methods: We acquired medium-resolution spectra (R ~ 8000) in the infrared region Ca ii triplet lines (~8500 Å) for several stars in five open clusters with the long-slit IDS spectrograph on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, Spain). Radial velocities were obtained by cross-correlation fitting techniques. The relationships available in the literature between the strength of infrared Ca ii lines and metallicity were also used to derive the metallicity for each cluster. Results: We obtain ⟨Vr⟩ = 48.6 ± 3.4, -58.4 ± 6.8, 26.0 ± 4.3, and -65.3 ± 3.2 km s-1 for Berkeley 23, NGC 559, NGC 6603, and NGC 7245, respectively. We found [ Fe/H ] = -0.25 ± 0.14 and -0.15 ± 0.18 for NGC 559 and NGC 7245, respectively. Berkeley 23 has low metallicity, [ Fe/H ] = -0.42 ± 0.13, which is similar to other open clusters in the outskirts of the Galactic disc. In contrast, we derived high metallicity ([ Fe/H ] = +0.43 ± 0.15) for NGC 6603, which places this system among the most metal-rich known open clusters. To our knowledge, this is the first determination of radial velocities and metallicities from spectroscopy for these clusters, except NGC 6603, for which radial velocities had been previously determined. We have also analysed ten stars in the line of sight to King 1. Because of the large dispersion obtained in both radial velocity and metallicity, we cannot be sure that we have sampled true cluster members. Based on observations made with the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the

  5. Accurate Distances to Important Spiral Galaxies: M63, M74, NGC 1291, NGC 4559, NGC 4625, and NGC 5398

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-01

    Accurate distances are fundamental for interpreting various measured properties of galaxies. Surprisingly, many of the best-studied spiral galaxies in the Local Volume have distance uncertainties that are much larger than can be achieved with modern observation techniques. Using Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, we use the tip of the red giant branch method to measure the distances to six galaxies that are included in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey program and its offspring surveys. The sample includes M63, M74, NGC 1291, NGC 4559, NGC 4625, and NGC 5398. We compare our results with distances reported to these galaxies based on a variety of methods. Depending on the technique, there can be a wide range in published distances, particularly from the Tully–Fisher relation. In addition, differences between the planetary nebular luminosity function and surface brightness fluctuation techniques can vary between galaxies, suggesting inaccuracies that cannot be explained by systematics in the calibrations. Our distances improve upon previous results, as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in an optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian maximum likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties.

  6. Dark matter in NGC 4472

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Michael

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to constrain the total mass distribution of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 by constructing simultaneous equilibrium models for the gas and stars. Emphasis is given to reconciling the value of the emission-weighted average value of kT derived from the Ginga spectrum with the amount of dark matter needed to account for velocity dispersion observations.

  7. A search for candidate radio supernova remnants in the nearby irregular starburst galaxies NGC 4214 and NGC 4395

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a search for new candidate radio su­pernova remnants (SNRs in the nearby starburst irregular galaxies NGC 4214 and NGC 4395 using archived radio observations made with the Very Large Array (VLA at the wavelengths of 3.5 cm, 6 cm and 20 cm for NGC 4214 and 6 cm and 20 cm for NGC 4395. These observations were analyzed as part of our ongoing search for candidate radio SNRs in nearby galaxies: the goal of this search is to prepare a large sample of candidate radio SNRs for the purpose of a robust statistical study of the properties of these sources. Based on our analysis, we have confirmed the nonthermal nature of the discrete radio sources α and β in NGC 4214 and classify these sources as candidate radio SNRs based on their positional coincidences with HII regions in that galaxy. We have measured the flux densities of the two candidate radio SNRs at each wavelength and calculated corresponding spectral indices: we have also measured flux densities of two other discrete radio sources in these galaxies - ρ in NGC 4214 and #3 in NGC 4395 which we suspect to be additional candidate radio SNRs based on their positional coincidences with other HII regions in these galaxies. However, the radio data presently available for these sources can­not confirm such a classification and additional observations are needed. We have also calculated the radio luminosities Lradio at the wavelength of 20 cm for these two candidate radio SNRs as well as the corresponding values for the minimum total energy Emin required to power these radio sources via synchrotron emission and the corresponding magnetic field strength Bmin. We have compared our mean calculated values for these properties with the mean values for populations of candidate radio SNRs in other starburst galaxies: while the values for Lradio and Bmin are roughly comparable to the values seen in other starburst galaxies, the mean value for Emin is higher than the mean value of any

  8. UNCOVERING THE NUCLEUS CANDIDATE FOR NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail: gunth@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: camperi@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: mpaguero@oac.uncor.edu, E-mail: rdiaz@gemini.edu, E-mail: pgomez@gemini.edu, E-mail: mschirmer@gemini.edu, E-mail: guille@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  9. THE STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION OF THE SPIRAL GALAXIES NGC-1566 AND NGC-2815

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOTTEMA, R

    Long slit absorption line spectroscopy has been obtained of the close to face-on Sc galaxy NGC 1566 and inclined Sb galaxy NGC 2815. These observations provided stellar radial velocities and stellar velocity dispersions as a function of radius for both galaxies. For NGC 1566 a radially decreasing

  10. SWAN: NGC 253’s Nucleated Star Bursting Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Mark; Ott, Juergen; Meier, David; Momjian, Emmanuel; Walter, Fabian; Rand, Richard

    2015-08-01

    We present the first results from SWAN: Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies. Nearby galaxies are conveniently located to probe molecular gas properties on scales of 10 to 200 pc, which are appropriate for Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs). The resolution of the VLA in D and C configurations maps to a few 10’s of parsecs in these galaxies. To advance studies of galaxy evolution it is paramount to understand how processes in the molecular ISM and star formation are linked on these scales. We have observed the metastable transitions of ammonia and the 22GHz water maser line in four nearby galaxies: NGC 253, IC 342, NGC 2146, and NGC 6946. These galaxies were chosen to span an order of magnitude in star formation rate, and a range of galactic ecosystems. We use the ammonia transitions to derive kinetic temperatures, which exposes the heating and cooling balance of the ISM. We then aim to relate these conditions to energetic feedback from star formation indicated by water masers. Currently our analysis is focused on NGC 253. NGC 253 is a barred spiral galaxy with a nucleated starburst of ≈3M⊙ per year. We have observed ammonia transitions (1,1) to (5,5) and the 22GHz water maser line with a resolution of ≈63pc. We have identified nine regions across the nucleated starburst for study. The ammonia (3,3) line appears to be masing in the centermost 200pc. In combination with Large Velocity Gradient models (LVG) we find that the properties of the molecular gas is warm, ranging from 100K to 160K, with molecular hydrogen densities from 2.2e3 cm-3 to 4.8e3 cm-3. We have identified two regions of water maser emission. The first region is a north south extension, about the center of the galaxy, with a major axis of ≈7”(150pc) and a minor axis of ≈3”(90pc), and the second is a nearby region ≈6”(100pc) to the southeast of the galaxy center. By means of these measurements, we gain an understanding of the molecular ISM associated with the nucleated

  11. Upper Limits on Gravitational Waves from Scorpius X-1 from a Model-based Cross-correlation Search in Advanced LIGO Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bawaj, M.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Chatziioannou, K.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Deelman, E.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Galloway, D. K.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Gonzlez, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y. -M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krmer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Luck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magaa; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mayani, R.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Prrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Rynge, M.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Tayra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahi, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; Van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y. -F.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Steeghs, D.; Wang, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a semicoherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1, using data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. The search method uses details of the modeled, parametrized continuous signal to combine coherently data separated by

  12. The Dusty Disc of NGC 247

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    This image of NGC 247, taken by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, reveals the fine details of this highly inclined spiral galaxy and its rich backdrop. Astronomers say this highly tilted orientation, when viewed from Earth, explains why the distance to this prominent galaxy was previously overestimated. The spiral galaxy NGC 247 is one of the closest spiral galaxies of the southern sky. In this new view from the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope in Chile large numbers of the galaxy's component stars are clearly resolved and many glowing pink clouds of hydrogen, marking regions of active star formation, can be made out in the loose and ragged spiral arms. NGC 247 is part of the Sculptor Group, a collection of galaxies associated with the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253, also shown in eso0902 and eso1025). This is the nearest group of galaxies to our Local Group, which includes the Milky Way, but putting a precise value on such celestial distances is inherently difficult. To measure the distance from the Earth to a nearby galaxy, astronomers have to rely on a type of variable star called a Cepheid to act as a distance marker. Cepheids are very luminous stars, whose brightness varies at regular intervals. The time taken for the star to brighten and fade can be plugged into a simple mathematical relation that gives its intrinsic brightness. When compared with the measured brightness this gives the distance. However, this method isn't foolproof, as astronomers think this period-luminosity relationship depends on the composition of the Cepheid. Another problem arises from the fact that some of the light from a Cepheid may be absorbed by dust en route to Earth, making it appear fainter, and therefore further away than it really is. This is a particular problem for NGC 247 with its highly inclined orientation, as the line of sight to the Cepheids passes through the galaxy's dusty disc. However, a

  13. NGC 4945: The Milky Way's not-so-distant Cousin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ESO has released a striking new image of a nearby galaxy that many astronomers think closely resembles our own Milky Way. Though the galaxy is seen edge-on, observations of NGC 4945 suggest that this hive of stars is a spiral galaxy much like our own, with swirling, luminous arms and a bar-shaped central region. These resemblances aside, NGC 4945 has a brighter centre that likely harbours a supermassive black hole, which is devouring reams of matter and blasting energy out into space. As NGC 4945 is only about 13 million light-years away in the constellation of Centaurus (the Centaur), a modest telescope is sufficient for skygazers to spot this remarkable galaxy. NGC 4945's designation comes from its entry number in the New General Catalogue compiled by the Danish-Irish astronomer John Louis Emil Dreyer in the 1880s. James Dunlop, a Scottish astronomer, is credited with originally discovering NGC 4945 in 1826 from Australia. Today's new portrait of NGC 4945 comes courtesy of the Wide Field Imager (WFI) instrument at the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. NGC 4945 appears cigar-shaped from our perspective on Earth, but the galaxy is actually a disc many times wider than it is thick, with bands of stars and glowing gas spiralling around its centre. With the use of special optical filters to isolate the colour of light emitted by heated gases such as hydrogen, the image displays sharp contrasts in NGC 4945 that indicate areas of star formation. Other observations have revealed that NGC 4945 has an active galactic nucleus, meaning its central bulge emits far more energy than calmer galaxies like the Milky Way. Scientists classify NGC 4945 as a Seyfert galaxy after the American astronomer Carl K. Seyfert, who wrote a study in 1943 describing the odd light signatures emanating from some galactic cores. Since then, astronomers have come to suspect that supermassive black holes cause the turmoil in the centre of Seyfert galaxies. Black holes

  14. Millimeter VLBI of NGC 1052: Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Baczko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The LINER galaxy NGC 1052 is an ideal target to study the innermost regions of active galactic nuclei (AGN, given its close distance of about 20 Mpc. The source was observed at 29 epochs from 2005 to 2009 with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA at 43 GHz. Here, we present a kinematic study of its twin-jet system from a subset of 9 epochs at 43 GHz carried out in 2005 and 2006, finding a bright central feature as the dynamic center. The resulting mean velocities of β = v / c = 0 . 46 ± 0 . 08 and β = 0 . 69 ± 0 . 02 for the western and eastern jet, respectively, give hints towards higher velocities in the eastern jet.

  15. VARIABLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 5024

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonova, M.; Stalin, C. S., E-mail: rita@iiap.res.in, E-mail: stalin@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India)

    2011-12-15

    We present the results of a commissioning campaign to observe Galactic globular clusters for the search of microlensing events. The central 10' Multiplication-Sign 10' region of the globular cluster NGC 5024 was monitored using the 2 m Himalayan Chandra Telescope in R-band for a period of about 8 hr on 2010 March 24. Light curves were obtained for nearly 10,000 stars using a modified Differential Image Analysis technique. We identified all known variables within our field of view and revised the periods and status of some previously reported short-period variables. We report about 70 new variable sources and present their equatorial coordinates, periods, light curves, and possible types. Out of these, 15 are SX Phe stars, 10 are W UMa-type stars, and 14 are probable RR Lyrae stars. Nine of the newly discovered SX Phe stars and one eclipsing binary belong to the blue straggler star population.

  16. A SPITZER IRS SURVEY OF NGC 1333: INSIGHTS INTO DISK EVOLUTION FROM A VERY YOUNG CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, L. A.; Watson, Dan M.; Kim, K. H.; Manoj, P.; Remming, I.; Sheehan, P.; Forrest, W. J.; Mamajek, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Adame, L.; McClure, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Furlan, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 264-723, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Espaillat, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ausfeld, K.; Rapson, V. A., E-mail: laa@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu [Center for Imaging Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We report on the {lambda} = 5-36 {mu}m Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 79 young stellar objects in the very young nearby cluster NGC 1333. NGC 1333's youth enables the study of early protoplanetary disk properties, such as the degree of settling and the formation of gaps and clearings. We construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using our IRS data as well as published photometry and classify our sample into SED classes. Using 'extinction-free' spectral indices, we determine whether the disk, envelope, or photosphere dominates the spectrum. We analyze the dereddened spectra of objects that show disk-dominated emission using spectral indices and properties of silicate features in order to study the vertical and radial structure of protoplanetary disks in NGC 1333. At least nine objects in our sample of NGC 1333 show signs of large (several AU) radial gaps or clearings in their inner disk. Disks with radial gaps in NGC 1333 show more nearly pristine silicate dust than their radially continuous counterparts. We compare properties of disks in NGC 1333 to those in three other well-studied regions, Taurus-Auriga, Ophiuchus, and Chamaeleon I, and find no difference in their degree of sedimentation and dust processing.

  17. Low-mass X-ray binaries and globular clusters streamers and arcs in NGC 4278

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Abrusco, R.; Fabbiano, G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brassington, N. J. [Center for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane Campus, Hatfield, Hertordshire, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-01

    We report significant inhomogeneities in the projected two-dimensional spatial distributions of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) and globular clusters (GCs) of the intermediate mass elliptical galaxy NGC 4278. In the inner region of NGC 4278, a significant arc-like excess of LMXBs extending south of the center at ∼50'' in the western side of the galaxy can be associated with a similar overdensity of the spatial distribution of red GCs from Brassington et al. Using a recent catalog of GCs produced by Usher et al. and covering the whole field of the NGC 4278 galaxy, we have discovered two other significant density structures outside the D {sub 25} isophote to the W and E of the center of NGC 4278, associated with an overdensity and an underdensity, respectively. We discuss the nature of these structures in the context of the similar spatial inhomogeneities discovered in the LMXBs and GCs populations of NGC 4649 and NGC 4261, respectively. These features suggest streamers from disrupted and accreted dwarf companions.

  18. LITHIUM IN THE UPPER CENTAURUS LUPUS AND LOWER CENTAURUS CRUX SUBGROUPS OF SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubar, Eric J. [Department of Biology and Physical Sciences, Marymount University, Arlington, VA 22207 (United States); Schaeuble, Marc; King, Jeremy R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29630-0978 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Stauffer, John R. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We utilize spectroscopically derived model atmosphere parameters and the Li I {lambda}6104 subordinate line and the {lambda}6708 doublet to derive lithium abundances for 12 members of the Upper Centaurus Lupus and Lower Centaurus Crux subgroups of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association. The results indicate any intrinsic Li scatter in our 0.9-1.4 M{sub Sun} stars is limited to {approx}0.15 dex, consistent with the lack of dispersion in {>=}1.0 M{sub Sun} stars in the 100 Myr Pleiades and 30-50 Myr IC 2391 and 2602 clusters. Both ab initio uncertainty estimates and the derived abundances themselves indicate that the {lambda}6104 line yields abundances with equivalent or less scatter than is found from the {lambda}6708 doublet as a result of lower uncertainties for the subordinate feature, a result of low sensitivity to broadening in the subordinate feature. Because non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) corrections are less susceptible to changes in surface gravity and/or metallicity for the 6104 A line, the subordinate Li feature is preferred for deriving lithium abundances in young Li-rich stellar association stars with T{sub eff} {>=} 5200 K. At these temperatures, we find no difference between the Li abundances derived from the two Li I lines. For cooler stars, having temperatures at which main-sequence dwarfs show abundance patterns indicating overexcitation and overionization, the {lambda}6104-based Li abundances are {approx}0.4 dex lower than those derived from the {lambda}6708 doublet. The trends of the abundances from each feature with T{sub eff} suggest that this difference is due to (near)UV photoionization, which in NLTE preferentially ionizes Li atoms in the subordinate 2p state relative to the 2s resonance line state due to opacity effects. Consequently, this overionization of Li in the 2p state, apparently not adequately accounted for in NLTE corrections, weakens the {lambda}6104 feature in cooler stars. Accordingly, the {lambda}6708-based

  19. Isolated ellipticals and their globular cluster systems. III. NGC 2271, NGC 2865, NGC 3962, NGC 4240, and IC 4889

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, R.; Alabi, A.; Richtler, T.; Lane, R. R.

    2015-05-01

    As tracers of star formation, galaxy assembly, and mass distribution, globular clusters have provided important clues to our understanding of early-type galaxies. But their study has been mostly constrained to galaxy groups and clusters where early-type galaxies dominate, leaving the properties of the globular cluster systems (GCSs) of isolated ellipticals as a mostly uncharted territory. We present Gemini-South/GMOS g'i' observations of five isolated elliptical galaxies: NGC 3962, NGC 2865, IC 4889, NGC 2271, and NGC 4240. Photometry of their GCSs reveals clear color bimodality in three of them, but remains inconclusive for the other two. All the studied GCSs are rather poor with a mean specific frequency SN ~ 1.5, independently of the parent galaxy luminosity. Considering information from previous work as well, it is clear that bimodality and especially the presence of a significant, even dominant, population of blue clusters occurs at even the most isolated systems, which casts doubts on a possible accreted origin of metal-poor clusters, as suggested by some models. Additionally, we discuss the possible existence of ultra-compact dwarfs around the isolated elliptical NGC 3962. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).Globular cluster photometry is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A59Appendices are available in

  20. Na abundances in NGC6752 (Campbell+, 2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; D'Orazi, V.; Yong, D.

    2013-01-01

    We obtained high-resolution spectra (R~24000) for a sample of 20 AGB stars and 24 red giant branch stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752. (1 data file).......We obtained high-resolution spectra (R~24000) for a sample of 20 AGB stars and 24 red giant branch stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752. (1 data file)....

  1. Spatial Configuration of Stars Around Three Metal-poor Globular Clusters in the Galatic Bulge, NGC 6266, NGC 6273, and NGC 6681 : Surface Density Map and Radial Density Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihwa Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present extra-tidal features of spatial configuration of stars around three metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6273, NGC 6681 located in the Galactic bulge. The wide-field photometric data were obtained in BVI bands with the MOSAIC II camera at CTIO 4 m Blanco telescope. The derived color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs contain stars in a total 71´×71´area including a cluster and its surrounding field outside of the tidal radius of the cluster. Applying statistical filtering technique, we minimized the field star contaminations on the obtained cluster CMDs and extracted the cluster members. On the spatial stellar density maps around the target clusters, we found overdensity features beyond the tidal radii of the clusters. We also found that the radial density profiles of the clusters show departures from the best-fit King model for their outer regions which support the overdensity patterns.

  2. Dynamical Substructures of Galactic Globular Clusters III. NGC 7006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghwan Rhee

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of giant population on dynamical substructures of the central region of NGC 7006, we examine the radial variations of ellipticity and position angle on BV stellar photometry using ellipse fitting technique. Total variations of ellipticity and position angle lie in the range 0.02˜0.06 and -10° ˜ +90°, respectively, from the center out to three times the half light radius. Our ellipse fitting results, after removing giant populations, show that the apparent central dynamical substructures of NGC 7006 are mainly affected by red giant, horizontal branch stars. On the contrary, the contribution of light from subgiant stars to the inner dynamical substructure seems to be insignificant.

  3. Spectroscopic Binaries in the Orion Nebula Cluster and NGC 2264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Tobin, John J.; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Spencer, Meghin

    2016-04-01

    We examine the spectroscopic binary population for two massive nearby regions of clustered star formation, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and NGC 2264, supplementing the data presented by Tobin et al. with more recent observations and more extensive analysis. The inferred multiplicity fraction up to 10 au based on these observations is 5.3 ± 1.2% for NGC 2264 and 5.8 ± 1.1% for the ONC; these values are consistent with the distribution of binaries in the field in the relevant parameter range. Eight of the multiple systems in the sample have enough epochs to perform an initial fit for the orbital parameters. Two of these sources are double-lined spectroscopic binaries; for them, we determine the mass ratio. Our reanalysis of the distribution of stellar radial velocities toward these clusters presents a significantly better agreement between stellar and gas kinematics than was previously thought.

  4. Reverberation mapping of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B. M.; Grier, C. J.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Denney, K. D.; Martini, Paul; Zu, Y.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B.; Araya Salvo, C.; Beatty, T. G.; Bird, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny Crimea 298409 (Russian Federation); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Minezaki, T. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, 181-0015 Tokyo (Japan); Siverd, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Bord, D. J., E-mail: peterson.12@osu.edu [Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan—Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); and others

    2014-11-10

    A large reverberation-mapping study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469 has yielded emission-line lags for Hβ λ4861 and He II λ4686 and a central black hole mass measurement M {sub BH} ≈ 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, consistent with previous measurements. A very low level of variability during the monitoring campaign precluded meeting our original goal of recovering velocity-delay maps from the data, but with the new Hβ measurement, NGC 7469 is no longer an outlier in the relationship between the size of the Hβ-emitting broad-line region and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus. It was necessary to detrend the continuum and Hβ and He II λ4686 line light curves and those from archival UV data for different time-series analysis methods to yield consistent results.

  5. SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER AND NGC 2264

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounkel, Marina; Hartmann, Lee; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I. III; Spencer, Meghin [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tobin, John J., E-mail: mkounkel@umich.edu [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-04-10

    We examine the spectroscopic binary population for two massive nearby regions of clustered star formation, the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC) and NGC 2264, supplementing the data presented by Tobin et al. with more recent observations and more extensive analysis. The inferred multiplicity fraction up to 10 au based on these observations is 5.3 ± 1.2% for NGC 2264 and 5.8 ± 1.1% for the ONC; these values are consistent with the distribution of binaries in the field in the relevant parameter range. Eight of the multiple systems in the sample have enough epochs to perform an initial fit for the orbital parameters. Two of these sources are double-lined spectroscopic binaries; for them, we determine the mass ratio. Our reanalysis of the distribution of stellar radial velocities toward these clusters presents a significantly better agreement between stellar and gas kinematics than was previously thought.

  6. Mrk 71/NGC 2366: The Nearest Green Pea Analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheva, Genoveva; Oey, M. S. [University of Michigan, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1107 (United States); Jaskot, Anne E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); James, Bethan L. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present the remarkable discovery that the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 2366 is an excellent analog of the Green Pea (GP) galaxies, which are characterized by extremely high ionization parameters. The similarities are driven predominantly by the giant H ii region Markarian 71 (Mrk 71). We compare the system with GPs in terms of morphology, excitation properties, specific star-formation rate, kinematics, absorption of low-ionization species, reddening, and chemical abundance, and find consistencies throughout. Since extreme GPs are associated with both candidate and confirmed Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters, Mrk 71/NGC 2366 is thus also a good candidate for LyC escape. The spatially resolved data for this object show a superbubble blowout generated by mechanical feedback from one of its two super star clusters (SSCs), Knot B, while the extreme ionization properties are driven by the ≲1 Myr-old, enshrouded SSC Knot A, which has ∼10 times higher ionizing luminosity. Very massive stars (>100 M {sub ⊙}) may be present in this remarkable object. Ionization-parameter mapping indicates that the blowout region is optically thin in the LyC, and the general properties also suggest LyC escape in the line of sight. Mrk 71/NGC 2366 does differ from GPs in that it is one to two orders of magnitude less luminous. The presence of this faint GP analog and candidate LyC emitter (LCE) so close to us suggests that LCEs may be numerous and commonplace, and therefore could significantly contribute to the cosmic ionizing budget. Mrk 71/NGC 2366 offers an unprecedentedly detailed look at the viscera of a candidate LCE, and could clarify the mechanisms of LyC escape.

  7. Spectroscopy of the ringlike nebula toward the open cluster NGC 3572

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumaru, Junichi; Ogura, Katsuo

    1993-11-01

    Low-dispersion spectroscopy has been obtained for the ringlike nebula which Phelps and Janes (1991) found in the direction of the young open cluster NGC 3572 and suspected as a planetary nebula. Some nearby nebulosities have also been observed. Analyses of these data indicate that all of them, including the NGC 3572 ring, are H II regions. Morphological considerations of the region show that the nearby nebulosities are bright rims which are associated with the H II region BBW 342 and are partly hidden by the obscuring matter lying on this side. The NGC 3572 ring could be of the same nature. However, as the alternative interpretation, it could be a ring nebula (probably a wind-blown bubble) around a massive star (WR/Of star or LBV).

  8. Search for gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 in the first Advanced LIGO observing run with a hidden Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Almoubayyed, H.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bawaj, M.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Etienne, Z. B.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Deelman, E.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mayani, R.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Rynge, M.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahi, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.-F.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Suvorova, S.; Moran, W.; Evans, R. J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Results are presented from a semicoherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, using data collected during the first Advanced LIGO observing run. The search combines a frequency domain matched filter (Bessel-weighted F -statistic) with a hidden Markov model to track wandering of the neutron star spin frequency. No evidence of gravitational waves is found in the frequency range 60-650 Hz. Frequentist 95% confidence strain upper limits, h095 %=4.0 ×1 0-25, 8.3 ×1 0-25, and 3.0 ×1 0-25 for electromagnetically restricted source orientation, unknown polarization, and circular polarization, respectively, are reported at 106 Hz. They are ≤10 times higher than the theoretical torque-balance limit at 106 Hz.

  9. A SPITZER MIPS STUDY OF 2.5-2.0 M{sub Sun} STARS IN SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Christine H.; Bitner, Martin [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pecaut, Mark; Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Su, Kate Y. L., E-mail: cchen@stsci.edu [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    We have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m observations of 215 nearby, Hipparcos B- and A-type common proper-motion single and binary systems in the nearest OB association, Scorpius-Centaurus. Combining our MIPS observations with those of other ScoCen stars in the literature, we estimate 24 {mu}m B+A-type disk fractions of 17/67 (25{sup +6}{sub -5}%), 36/131 (27{sup +4}{sub -4}%), and 23/95 (24{sup +5}{sub -4}%) for Upper Scorpius ({approx}11 Myr), Upper Centaurus Lupus ({approx}15 Myr), and Lower Centaurus Crux ({approx}17 Myr), respectively, somewhat smaller disk fractions than previously obtained for F- and G-type members. We confirm previous IRAS excess detections and present new discoveries of 51 protoplanetary and debris disk systems, with fractional infrared luminosities ranging from L{sub IR}/L{sub *} = 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -2} and grain temperatures ranging from T{sub gr} = 40 to 300 K. In addition, we confirm that the 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m excesses (or fractional infrared luminosities) around B+A-type stars are smaller than those measured toward F+G-type stars and hypothesize that the observed disk property dependence on stellar mass may be the result of a higher stellar companion fraction around B- and A-type stars at 10-200 AU. Finally, we note that the majority of the ScoCen 24 {mu}m excess sources also possess 12 {mu}m excess, indicating that Earth-like planets may be forming via collisions in the terrestrial planet zone at {approx}10-100 Myr.

  10. High energy (gamma)-ray emission from the starburst nucleus of NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo-Santamaria, E; Torres, D F

    2005-06-15

    The high density medium that characterizes the central regions of starburst galaxies and its power to accelerate particles up to relativistic energies make these objects good candidates as {gamma}-rays sources. In this paper, a self-consistent model of the multifrequency emission of the starburst galaxy NGC 253, from radio to gamma-rays, is presented. The model is in agreement with all current measurements and provides predictions for the high energy behavior of the NGC 253 central region. Prospects for observations with the HESS array and GLAST satellite are especially discussed.

  11. Galaxy evolution in groups. NGC 3447/NGC 3447A: the odd couple in LGG 225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Rampazzo, R.; Plana, H.; Rosado, M.; Arias, L.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Local Group (LG) analogs (LGAs) are galaxy associations dominated by a few bright spirals reminiscent of the LG. The NGC 3447/NGC 3447A system is a member of the LGG 225 group, a nearby LGA. This system is considered a physical pair composed of an intermediate-luminosity late-type spiral, NGC 3447 itself, and an irregular companion, NGC 3447A, linked by a faint, short filament of matter. A ring-like structure in the NGC 3447 outskirts has been emphasised by Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) observations. Aims: This work aims to contribute to the study of galaxy evolution in low-density environments, a favourable habitat to highly effective encounters, shedding light on the evolution of the NGC 3447/NGC 3447A system. Methods: We performed a multi-λ analysis of the surface photometry of this system to derive its spectral energy distribution and structural properties using ultraviolet (UV), Swift UVOT, and optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images complemented with available far-IR observations. We also characterised the velocity field of the pair using two-dimensional Hα kinematical observations of the system obtained with PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer at the 2.1 m telescope of San Pedro Mártir (Mexico). All these data are used to constrain smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations with chemo-photometric implementation to shed light on the evolution of this system. Results: The luminosity profiles, from UV to optical wavelengths, are all consistent with the presence of a disc extending and including NGC 3447A. The overall velocity field does not emphasise any significant rotation pattern, rather a small velocity gradient between NGC 3447 and NGC 3447A. Our simulation, detached from a large grid explored to best-fit the global properties of the system, suggests that this arises from an encounter between two halos of equal mass. Conclusions: NGC 3447 and NGC 3447A belong to the same halo, NGC 3447A being a substructure of the same disk including NGC

  12. The Formation and Fate of the Young Star Cluster NGC 6231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Michael A.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Sills, Alison; Gromadzki, Mariusz; Nicolás, Medina; Borissova, Jordanka; Kurtev, Radostin; MYStIX

    2018-01-01

    The star-formation conditions that produce bound clusters is an important open question. We address this problem through a comparison of NGC 6231, a young star cluster where star-formation has recently ended, to subclusters of stars in star-forming regions from the Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray (MYStIX; Feigelson et al. 2013). Our study of NGC 6231 is based on a new census of cluster members, which we use to model the cluster’s physical structure. The cluster is well described by an isothermal ellipsoid density profile, with a moderate ellipticity, a cluster core radius of 1.2±0.2 pc, and a central density of 200 stars pc^-3. We find mild mass segregation of stars >8 Msun and no radial-age gradient. Substructure includes a small subcluster superimposed on the main cluster. Although NGC 6231 is more dynamically evolved, it follows the same mass, size, and age relations that were previously seen for the MYStIX subclusters. We argue that the NGC 6231 likely formed through the coalescence of subclusters of stars, but has expanded significantly since formation. Cluster properties are consistent with NGC 6231 surviving to become a gravitationally bound open cluster.

  13. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: SCUBA-2 observations of radiative feedback in NGC1333

    OpenAIRE

    Hatchell, J.; Wilson, T; Drabek, E.; Curtis, E; Richer, J; Nutter, D.; Di Francesco, J.; consortium, D. Ward-Thompson on behalf of the JCMT GBS

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of NGC1333 from SCUBA-2 on JCMT, observed as a JCMT Gould Belt Survey pilot project during the shared risk campaign when the first of four arrays was installed at each of 450 and 850 microns. Temperature maps are derived from 450 micron and 850 micron ratios under the assumption of constant dust opacity spectral index beta=1.8. Temperatures indicate that the dust in the northern (IRAS 6/8) region of NGC1333 is hot, 20-40 K, due to heating by the B star SVS3, other youn...

  14. The Total Mass of the Early-Type Galaxy NGC 4649 (M60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the total mass and the total mass-to-light ratio of the early-type galaxy NGC~4649 (M60 is analyzed. Use is made of two independent techniques: the X-ray methodology which is based on the temperature of the X-ray halo of NGC~4649 and the tracer mass estimator (TME which uses globular clusters (GCs observed in this galaxy. The mass is calculated in Newtonian and MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND approaches and it is found that inside 3 effective radii ($R_e$ there is no need for large amounts of dark matter. Beyond $3R_e$ the dark matter starts to play important dynamical role. The possible reasons for the discrepancy between the estimates of the total mass based on X-rays and TME in the outer regions of NGC~4649 are also discussed.

  15. The total mass of the early-type galaxy NGC 4649 (M60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the total mass and the total mass-to-light ratio of the early-type galaxy NGC 4649 (M60 is analyzed. Use is made of two independent techniques: the X-ray methodology which is based on the temperature of the X-ray halo of NGC 4649 and the tracer mass estimator (TME which uses globular clusters (GCs observed in this galaxy. The mass is calculated in Newtonian and Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND approaches and it is found that inside 3 effective radii (Re there is no need for large amounts of dark matter. Beyond 3Re the dark matter starts to play important dynamical role. The possible reasons for the discrepancy between the estimates of the total mass based on X-rays and TME in the outer regions of NGC 4649 are also discussed.

  16. Color Gradient in the King Type Globular Cluster NGC 7089

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Sohn

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We use BV CCD images to investigate the reality of the color gradient within a King type globular cluster NGC 7089. Surface photometry shows that there is a strong radial color gradient in the central region of the cluster in the sense of bluer center with the amplitude of -0.39 +/- 0.07 mag/arcsec2 in (B - V. In the outer region of the cluster, however, the radial color gradient shows a reverse case, i.e., redder toward the center. (B - V color profile which was derived from resolved stars in VGC 7089 field also shows a significant color gradient in the central region of the clusters, indicating that lights from the combination of red giant stars and blue horizontal branch stars cause the radial color gradient. Color gradient of the outer region of NGC 7089 may be due to the unresolved background of the cluster. Similar color gradients in the central area of clusters have been previously observed exserved exclusively in highly concentrated systems classified as post core collapse clusters. We caution, however, to confirm the reality of the color gradient from resolved stars, we need more accurate imaging data of the cluster with exceptional seeing condition because the effect of completeness correlates with local density of stars.

  17. NGC 5408 X-2: ULX of Superlatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakull, M.; Grise, F.; Motch, C.

    2017-10-01

    Close to the well-studied ULX NGC 5408 X-1 and its associated X-ray ionised nebula we discovered an even more powerful cousin: X-2. Apparently much less X-ray active (Lx = 1E37 erg/s) than X-1, it nevertheless also excites an extended HeIII region/ synchroton nebula displaying high-ionisation HeII4686 and [NeV]3426 emission lines. This suggests an intrinsic (or previous) X-ray power of several 1E40 erg/s. Even more outstanding is the very luminous Mv = -10 optical counterpart that underwent drastic spectral evolution with strong Halpha emission that increased its equivalent width of some 200A twenty-five years ago to an unprecedented 2000A. The system appears to be in a very rapid stage of binary evolution with currently ongoing huge mass loss and mass transfer to the compact binary component. We will discuss our findings in the framework of a common envelope phase and point out its relevance to evolutionary scenarios of stellar-mass BH-BH mergers.

  18. Extragalactic archeology in integrated light : A test case with NGC 4030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocvirk, P.; Peletier, R.; Lancon, A.

    2008-01-01

    We reconstruct the age-velocity distribution of the central region of the Sbc galaxy NGC4030, by applying STECKMAP to very high quality WHT/ISIS data. We find that the main component is a relatively young (approximate to 2 Gyr) bulge with a approximate to 100 km/s velocity dispersion. The best fit

  19. Vertical motions in the disk of NGC 5668. A link with star formation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Vicente, J; Battaner, E; Funes, JG; Corsini, EM

    2001-01-01

    We have made a detailed study of the kinematics of the ionized gas in the nearly face-on spiral galaxy NGC 5668 by means of Fabry-Perot spectroscopy using the TAURUS II interferometer at the WHT. We have found in this galaxy several regions with important vertical motions which are clearly

  20. Halo Emission of the Cat's Eye Nebula, NGC 6543 Shock Excitation by Fast Stellar Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siek Hyung

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Images taken with the Chandra X-ray telescope have for the the first time revealed the central, wind-driven, hot bubble (Chu et al. 2001, while Hubble Space Telescope (HST WFPC2 images of the Cat's Eye nebula, NGC 6543, show that the temperature of the halo region of angular radius ~ 20'', is much higher than that of the inner bright H II region. With the coupling of a photoionization calculation to a hydrodynamic simulation, we predict the observed [O III] line intensities of the halo region with the same O abundance as in the core H II region: oxygen abundance gradient does not appear to exist in the NGC 6543 inner halo. An interaction between a (leaky fast stellar wind and halo gas may cause the higher excitation temperatures in the halo region and the inner hot bubble region observed with the Chandra X-ray telescope.

  1. Searches for continuous gravitational waves from Scorpius X-1 and XTE J1751-305 in LIGO's sixth science run

    CERN Document Server

    Meadors, Grant David; Riles, Keith; Creighton, Teviet; Robinet, Florent

    2016-01-01

    Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) and X-ray transient (XTE) J1751-305 are Low-Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXBs) that may emit continuous gravitational waves detectable in the band of ground-based interferometric observatories. Neutron stars in LMXBs could reach a torque-balance steady-state equilibrium in which angular momentum addition from infalling matter from the binary companion is balanced by angular momentum loss, conceivably due to gravitational-wave emission. Torque-balance predicts a scale for detectable gravitational-wave strain based on observed X-ray flux. This paper describes a search for Sco X-1 and XTE J1751-305 in LIGO Science Run 6 data using the TwoSpect algorithm, based on searching for orbital modulations in the frequency domain. While no detections are claimed, the most stringent upper limits to date on continuous gravitational-wave emission from Sco X-1 are obtained, spanning gravitational wave frequencies from 40 to 2040 Hz and projected semi-major axes from 0.90 to 1.98 light-seconds. At optimal strai...

  2. Active galactic nuclei, neutrinos, and interacting cosmic rays in NGC 253 and NGC 1068

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M.; Zweibel, Ellen G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Gallagher III, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Everett, John E., E-mail: yoasthull@wisc.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University, IL 60208 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    The galaxies M82, NGC 253, NGC 1068, and NGC 4945 have been detected in γ-rays by Fermi. Previously, we developed and tested a model for cosmic-ray interactions in the starburst galaxy M82. Now, we aim to explore the differences between starburst and active galactic nucleus (AGN) environments by applying our self-consistent model to the starburst galaxy NGC 253 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068. Assuming a constant cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency by supernova remnants with Milky Way parameters, we calculate the cosmic-ray proton and primary and secondary electron/positron populations, predict the radio and γ-ray spectra, and compare with published measurements. We find that our models easily fit the observed γ-ray spectrum for NGC 253 while constraining the cosmic-ray source spectral index and acceleration efficiency. However, we encountered difficultly modeling the observed radio data and constraining the speed of the galactic wind and the magnetic field strength, unless the gas mass is less than currently preferred values. Additionally, our starburst model consistently underestimates the observed γ-ray flux and overestimates the radio flux for NGC 1068; these issues would be resolved if the AGN is the primary source of γ-rays. We discuss the implications of these results and make predictions for the neutrino fluxes for both galaxies.

  3. Study of X-ray point sources in NGC 5643 and NGC 7457 with Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Akram Chandrajit; Devi, A. Senorita

    2017-12-01

    In the present study we have analysed Chandra Observational data of 2 galaxies: NGC 5643 and NGC 7457. Four point sources from NGC 5643 and two point sources from NGC 7457 with net counts ≥ 100 were considered for the present study. The spectra of these sources were fitted using two spectral models- an absorbed powerlaw and an absorbed disk blackbody. The spectrum of all the sources can be explained almost equally by both the models. We report here the discovery of 3 Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), X-1, X-2 and X-3 in the galaxy NGC 5643 and one ULX, X-5 in the galaxy NGC 7457. The spectral parameters suggest that all the above four ULX sources are in hard state (Γ ˜ 1.42-1.86), which may be due to thermal comptonization. If explained by absorbed diskblackbody model, the Black Hole (BH) mass of these sources are estimated to be stellar mass BHs with X-2, & X-5 accreting at super-Eddington rate while X-1 and X-3 at sub-Eddington rate. Another ULX, X-4 in NGC 5643 which is also accreting at super-Eddington rate is found to be a variable ULX with its luminosity reducing from 4.4 × 10^{40} ergs s^{-1} to 2.27 × 10^{40} ergs s^{-1} in the 0.3-10.0 keV energy range within a period of 11 years.

  4. Asteroseismology of the Open Clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6811, and NGC 6819 from 19 Months of Kepler Photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsaro, Enrico; Stello, Dennis; Huber, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    show clear correlation with fundamental stellar parameters such as mass and radius. When the stellar populations from the clusters are compared, we see evidence for a difference in mass of the red giant branch stars and possibly a difference in structure of the red clump stars, from our measurements...... giant branch and red clump stars through the measurement of the period spacing of mixed dipole modes in 53 stars among all the three clusters to verify the stellar classification from the color-magnitude diagram. These seismic results also allow us to identify a number of special cases, including......We studied solar-like oscillations in 115 red giants in the three open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6811, and NGC 6819, based on photometric data covering more than 19 months with NASA's Kepler space telescope. We present the asteroseismic diagrams of the asymptotic parameters δν02, δν01, and ϵ, which...

  5. Dynamical Structure of NGC 4486

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Suk Park

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available The peculiar elliptical (EOp galaxy NGC 4486 and two KOII comparison stars HR5450, HR6935 were observed spectroscopically using the 74-inch telescope and Image Tube at Mt. Stomlo Observatory. From the Gaussian Broadening Function, broadened spectrum of two comparison stars were computed for the range between wavelength 4800 Å and 5400 Å. Velocity dispersions in the line of sight of M87 were obtained by visual fitting. The fitted velocity dispersion is 450 km/sec at the nucleus, 350km/sec at r=12", and 300km/sec at r=24". Using the photometric data and the central value of velocity dispersion, we determined the mass of M87. From r^(1/4 law and the Virial theorem the calculated total mass in 2.1X10^12 M⨀ and from the King Model M=1.2X10^12 M⨀. And M/L ratio of M87 is about 30.

  6. NGC 3105: A Young Cluster in the Outer Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge, T. J.

    2017-03-01

    Images and spectra of the open cluster NGC 3105 have been obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini South. The (I\\prime ,g\\prime -I\\prime ) color-magnitude diagram (CMD) constructed from these data extends from the brightest cluster members to g\\prime ˜ 23. This is ˜ 4{--}5 mag fainter than previous CMDs at visible wavelengths and allowing cluster members with sub-solar masses to be sampled. Assuming a half-solar metallicity, comparisons with isochrones yield a distance of 6.6 ± 0.3 kpc. An age of at least 32 Myr is found based on the photometric properties of the brightest stars, coupled with the apparent absence of pre-main-sequence stars in the lower regions of the CMD. The luminosity function of stars between 50 and 70 arcsec from the cluster center is consistent with a Chabrier lognormal mass function. However, at radii smaller than 50 arcsec there is a higher specific frequency of the most massive main-sequence (MS) stars than at larger radii. Photometry obtained from archival SPITZER images reveals that some of the brightest stars near NGC 3105 have excess infrared emission, presumably from warm dust envelopes. Hα emission is detected in a few early-type stars in and around the cluster, building upon previous spectroscopic observations that found Be stars near NGC 3105. The equivalent width of the NaD lines in the spectra of early-type stars is consistent with the reddening found from comparisons with isochrones. Stars with I\\prime ˜ 18.5 that fall near the cluster MS have a spectral-type A5V, and a distance modulus that is consistent with that obtained by comparing isochrones with the CMD is found assuming solar neighborhood intrinsic brightnesses for these stars.

  7. The PAH Emission Characteristics of the Reflection Nebula NGC 2023

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, Els [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Allamandola, Louis J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 N. Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Wolfire, Mark G., E-mail: epeeters@uwo.ca [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    We present 5–20 μ m spectral maps of the reflection nebula NGC 2023 obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph SL and SH modes on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, which reveal emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), C{sub 60}, and H{sub 2} superposed on a dust continuum. We show that several PAH emission bands correlate with each other and exhibit distinct spatial distributions that reveal a spatial sequence with distance from the illuminating star. We explore the distinct morphology of the 6.2, 7.7, and 8.6 μ m PAH bands and find that at least two spatially distinct components contribute to the 7–9 μ m PAH emission in NGC 2023. We report that the PAH features behave independently of the underlying plateaus. We present spectra of compact, oval PAHs ranging in size from C{sub 66} to C{sub 210}, determined computationally using density functional theory, and we investigate trends in the band positions and relative intensities as a function of PAH size, charge, and geometry. Based on the NASA Ames PAH database, we discuss the 7–9 μ m components in terms of band assignments and relative intensities. We assign the plateau emission to very small grains with possible contributions from PAH clusters and identify components in the 7–9 μ m emission that likely originate in these structures. Based on the assignments and the observed spatial sequence, we discuss the photochemical evolution of the interstellar PAH family as the PAHs are more and more exposed to the radiation field of the central star in the evaporative flows associated with the Photo-Dissociation Regions in NGC 2023.

  8. Dynamics of the globular cluster NGC 362

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Philippe; Welch, Douglas L.; Mateo, Mario; Cote, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A combination of V-band CCD images and echelle spectra of member red giants is presently used to examine the internal dynamics of the globular cluster NGC 362. A total of 285 stellar spectra were obtained of 215 stars for radial velocity determinations, and the true cluster binary fraction was determined from simulations to be 0.15 for circular orbits and 0.27 for orbits with an f(e) = e (eccentricity) distribution function. An overabundance of binaries is surmised for NGC 362 on this basis.

  9. A Detailed Study of the Variable Stars in Five Galactic Globular Clusters: IC4499, NGC4833, NGC6171 (M107), NGC6402 (M14), and NGC6584

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian W.; Darragh, Andrew; Hettinger, Paul; Hibshman, Adam; Johnson, Elliott W.; Liu, Z. J.; Pajkos, Michael A.; Stephenson, Hunter R.; Vondersaar, John R.; Conroy, Kyle E.; McCombs, Thayne A.; Reinhardt, Erik D.; Toddy, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of an extensive study intended to search for and properly classify the variable stars in five galactic globular clusters. Each of the five clusters was observed hundreds to thousands of times over a time span ranging from 2 to 4 years using the SARA 0.6m located at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. The images were analyzed using the image subtract method of Alard (2000) to identify and produce light curves of all variables found in each cluster. In total we identified 373 variables with 140 of these being newly discovered increasing the number of known variables stars in these clusters by 60%. Of the total we have identified 312 RR Lyrae variables (187 RR0, 18 RR01, 99 RR1, 8 RR2), 9 SX Phe stars, 6 Cepheid variables, 11 eclipsing variables, and 35 long period variables. For IC4499 we identified 64 RR0, 18 RR01, 14 RR1, 4 RR2, 1 SX Phe, 1 eclipsing binary, and 2 long period variables. For NGC4833 we identified 10 RR0, 7 RR1, 2 RR2, 6 SX Phe, 5 eclipsing binaries, and 9 long period variables. For NGC6171 (M107) we identified 13 RR0, 7 RR1, and 1 SX Phe. For NGC6402 (M14) we identified 52 RR0, 56 RR1, 1 RR2, 1 SX Phe, 6 Cepheids, 1 eclipsing binary, and 15 long period variables. For NGC6584 we identified 48 RR0, 15 RR1, 1 RR2, 5 eclipsing binaries, and 9 long period variables. Using the RR Lyrae variables we found the mean V magnitude of the horizontal branch to be VHB = ⟨V ⟩RR = 17.63, 15.51, 15.72, 17.13, and 16.37 magnitudes for IC4499, NGC4833, NGC6171 (M107), NGC6402 (M14), and NGC6584, respectively. From our extensive data set we were able to obtain sufficient temporal and complete phase coverage of the RR Lyrae variables. This has allowed us not only to properly classify each of the RR Lyrae variables but also to use Fourier decomposition of the light curves to further analyze the properties of the variable stars and hence physical properties of each clusters. In this poster we will give the temperature, radius, stellar mass

  10. The dark matter distribution of M87 and NGC 1399

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Recent X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies indicate that, outside the innermost about 100 kpc region, the ratio of dark matter density to baryonic matter density declines with radius. We show that this result is consistent with a cold dark matter simulation, suggesting the presence of dissipationless dark matter in the observed clusters. This is contrary to previous suggestions that dissipational baryonic dark matter is required to explain the decline in the density ratio. The simulation further shows that, in the inner 100 kpc region, the density ratio should rise with radius. We confirm this property in M87 and NGC 1399, which are close enough to allow the determination of the density ratio in the required inner region. X-ray mappings of the dark matter distribution in clusters of galaxies are therefore consistent with the presence of dissipationless dark matter.

  11. Hubble space telescope imaging of decoupled dust clouds in the ram pressure stripped Virgo spirals NGC 4402 and NGC 4522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramson, Anne; Kenney, Jeffrey D. P., E-mail: anne.abramson@yale.edu, E-mail: jeff.kenney@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We present the highest-resolution study to date of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies undergoing ram pressure stripping, using Hubble Space Telescope BVI imaging of NGC 4522 and NGC 4402, Virgo Cluster spirals that are well known to be experiencing intracluster medium (ICM) ram pressure. We find that throughout most of both galaxies, the main dust lane has a fairly well-defined edge, with a population of giant molecular cloud (GMC) sized (tens- to hundreds-of-pc scale), isolated, highly extincting dust clouds located up to ∼1.5 kpc radially beyond it. Outside of these dense clouds, the area has little or no diffuse dust extinction, indicating that the clouds have decoupled from the lower-density ISM material that has already been stripped. Several of the dust clouds have elongated morphologies that indicate active ram pressure, including two large (kpc scale) filaments in NGC 4402 that are elongated in the projected ICM wind direction. We calculate a lower limit on the H I + H{sub 2} masses of these clouds based on their dust extinctions and find that a correction factor of ∼10 gives cloud masses consistent with those measured in CO for clouds of similar diameters, probably due to the complicating factors of foreground light, cloud substructure, and resolution limitations. Assuming that the clouds' actual masses are consistent with those of GMCs of similar diameters (∼10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), we estimate that only a small fraction (∼1%-10%) of the original H I + H{sub 2} remains in the parts of the disks with decoupled clouds. Based on Hα images, a similar fraction of star formation persists in these regions, 2%-3% of the estimated pre-stripping star formation rate. We find that the decoupled cloud lifetimes may be up to 150-200 Myr.

  12. The thermal instability of the warm absorber in NGC 3783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosmann, R. W.; Holczer, T.; Mouchet, M.; Dumont, A.-M.; Behar, E.; Godet, O.; Gonçalves, A. C.; Kaspi, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The X-ray absorption spectra of active galactic nuclei frequently show evidence of winds with velocities in the order of 103 km s-1 extending up to 104 km s-1 in the case of ultra-fast outflows. At moderate velocities, these winds are often spectroscopically explained by assuming a number of absorbing clouds along the line of sight. In some cases it was shown that the absorbing clouds are in pressure equilibrium with each other. Aims: We assume a photo-ionized medium with a uniform total (gas+radiation) pressure. The irradiation causes the wind to be radiation pressure compressed (RPC). We attempt to reproduce the observed spectral continuum shape, ionic column densities, and X-ray absorption measure distribution (AMD) of the extensively observed warm absorber in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783. Methods: We compare the observational characteristics derived from the 900 ks Chandra observation to radiative transfer computations in pressure equilibrium using the radiative transfer code titan. We explore different values of the ionization parameter ξ of the incident flux and adjust the hydrogen-equivalent column density, NH0, of the warm absorber to match the observed soft X-ray continuum. From the resulting models we derive the column densities for a broad range of ionic species of iron and neon and a theoretical AMD that we compare to the observations. Results: We find an extension of the degeneracy between ξ and NH0 for the constant pressure models previously discussed for NGC 3783. Including the ionic column densities of iron and neon in the comparison between observations and data we conclude that a range of ionization parameters between 4000 and 8000 erg cm s-1 is preferred. For the first time, we present theoretical AMDs for a constant pressure wind in NGC 3783 that correctly reproduces the observed level and is in approximate agreement with the observational appearance of an instability region. Conclusions: Using a variety of observational indicators, we

  13. NGC 5291: Implications for the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, Benjamin K.; Simpson, Caroline E.; Gottesman, S. T.; Hawarden, Timothy G.

    1997-01-01

    The possible formation and evolution of dwarf irregular galaxies from material derived from perturbed evolved galaxies is addressed via an H I study of a likely example, the peculiar system NGC 5291. This system, located in the western outskirts of the cluster Abell 3574, contains the lenticular galaxy NGC 5291 which is in close proximity to a disturbed companion and is flanked by an extensive complex of numerous knots extending roughly 4 min north and 4 min south of the galaxy. In an initial optical and radio study, Longmore et al. (1979, MNRAS, 188, 285) showed that these knots have the spectra of vigorous star-forming regions, and suggested that some may in fact be young dwarf irregular galaxies. High resolution 21-cm line observations taken with the VLA are presented here and reveal that the H I distribution associated with this system encompasses not only the entire N-S complex of optical knots, but also forms an incomplete ring or tail that extends approximately 3 min to the west. The H I associated with NGC 5291 itself shows a high velocity range; the Seashell is not detected. The formation mechanism for this unusual system is unclear and two models - a large, low-luminosity ram-swept disk, and a ram-swept interaction-are discussed. The H I in the system contains numerous concentrations, mostly along the N-S arc of the star-forming complexes, which generally coincide with one or more optical knots; the larger H I features contain several x 10(exp 9) solar mass of gas. Each of the knots is compared to a set of criteria designed to determine if these objects are bound against their own internal kinetic energy and are tidally stable relative to the host galaxy. An analysis of the properties of the H I concentrations surrounding the optical star-forming complexes indicates that at least the largest of these is a bound system; it also possesses a stellar component. It is suggested that this object is a genuinely young dwarf irregular galaxy that has evolved from

  14. Star formation in low density HI gas around the elliptical galaxy NGC 2865

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Viscarra, F.; Torres-Flores, S.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Carrasco, E. R.; de Mello, D.; Arnaboldi, M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Interacting galaxies surrounded by Hi tidal debris are ideal sites for the study of young clusters and tidal galaxy formation. The process that triggers star formation in the low-density environments outside galaxies is still an open question. New clusters and galaxies of tidal origin are expected to have high metallicities for their luminosities. Spectroscopy of such objects is, however, at the limit of what can be done with existing 8-10 m class telescopes, which has prevented statistical studies of these objects. Aims: NGC 2865 is a UV-bright merging elliptical galaxy with shells and extended Hi tails. In this work we aim to observe regions previously detected using multi-slit imaging spectroscopy. Methods: We obtained new multi-slit spectroscopy of six young star-forming regions around NGC 2865, to determine their redshifts and metallicities. Results: The six emission-line regions are located 16-40 kpc from NGC 2865 and they have similar redshifts. They have ages of 10 Myr and an average metallicity of 12 +log (O/H) 8.6, suggesting a tidal origin for the regions. We note that they coincide with an extended Hi tail, which has projected density of NHI< 1019 cm-2, and displays a low surface brightness counterpart. These regions may represent the youngest of the three populations of star clusters already identified in NGC 2865. Conclusions: The high, nearly-solar, oxygen abundances found for the six regions in the vicinity of NGC 2865 suggest that they were formed by pre-enriched material from the parent galaxy, from gas removed during the most recent major merger. Given the mass and the location of the Hii regions, we can speculate that these young star-forming regions are potential precursors of globular clusters that will be part of the halo of NGC 2865 in the future. Our result supports the use of the multi-slit imaging spectroscopy as a useful tool for finding nearly-formed stellar systems around galaxies.

  15. Rapid NH changes in NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Risaliti, G.; Capalbi, M.; Elvis, M.; Nicastro, F.

    2007-05-01

    We have analysed the two longest (elapsed time >~3 d) BeppoSAX observations of the X-ray brightest Seyfert galaxy, NGC 4151, to search for spectral variability on time-scales from a few tens of kiloseconds to years. We found in both cases highly significant spectral variability below ~6 keV down to the shortest time-scales investigated. These variations can be naturally explained in terms of variations in the low energy cut-off due to obscuring matter along the line of sight. If the cut-off is modelled by two neutral absorption components, one fully covering the source and the second covering only a fraction of the source, the shortest time-scale of variability of a few days constrains the location of the obscuring matter to within 3.4 × 104 Schwarzschild radii from the central X-ray source. This is consistent with the distance of the broad emission-line region, as inferred from reverberation mapping, and difficult to reconcile with the parsec scale dusty molecular torus of Krolik & Begelman. We have also explored a more complex absorption structure, namely the presence of an ionized absorber. Although the behaviour of the ionization parameter is nicely consistent with the expectations, the results are not completely satisfactory from the statistical point of view. The overall absorption during the 2001 December observation is lower than in all other historical observations with similar 2-10 keV flux. This suggests that absorption variability plays a crucial role in the observed flux variability of this source.

  16. On the extended stellar structure around NGC 288

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2018-01-01

    We report on observational evidence of an extra-tidal clumpy structure around NGC 288 from homogeneous coverage of a large area with the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) PS1 data base. The extra-tidal star population has been disentangled from that of the Milky Way (MW) field by using a cleaning technique that successfully reproduces the stellar density, luminosity function and colour distributions of MW field stars. We have produced the cluster stellar density radial profile and a stellar density map from independent approaches, and we found the results to be in excellent agreement - the feature extends up to 3.5 times further than the cluster tidal radius. Previous works based on shallower photometric data sets have speculated on the existence of several long tidal tails, similar to that found in Pal 5. The present outcome shows that NGC 288 could hardly have such tails, but it favours the notion that the use of interactions with the MW tidal field has been a relatively inefficient process for stripping stars off the cluster. These results point to the need for a renewed overall study of the external regions of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) in order to reliably characterize them. It will then be possible to investigate whether there is any connection between detected tidal tails, extra-tidal stellar populations and extended diffuse halo-like structures, and the dynamical histories of GGCs in the Galaxy.

  17. Las Estructuras centrales de la galaxia Seyfert NGC 7582

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiz, D.; Gaspar, G.; Díaz, R.; D'Ambra, A.

    2017-10-01

    We present the first stage of the study of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 7582 through high spatial resolution NIR images obtained with the instrument Flamingos-2 of Gemini South. NGC 7582 harbours a Seyfert 2 nucleus that in 1998 experienced an unusual change in its optical emission line spectrum, remaining as a Seyfert 1 nucleus for some months. Moreover, variations in its X-ray spectrum have been interpreted as evidence of the clumpy nature of the circumnuclear absorbing material, conceived as a torus in the Unified Model. These peculiarities plus the high inclination of the galaxy make it a suitable candidate for deep infrared observations. In this work we present high resolution images of the galaxy, from which we caracterized the most central regions, specially the circumnuclear ring and a "box-type" structure, little studied to date. We performed aperture photometry of the nucleus for different radii. We find that the measured magnitudes are consistent with those reported in the literature for previous epochs, indicating that the nucleus has not suffered dramatic variations during this observation epoch.

  18. Abundances in planetary nebulae : NGC 6826

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surendiranath, R.; Pottasch, S. R.

    Aims. We determine the chemical abundances and other parameters of the nebula NGC 6826 and its central star. Methods. We present new ISO spectra and combine them with archival IUE and optical spectra from the literature to get a complete, extinction-corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of

  19. Abundances of planetary nebula NGC2392

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Roellig, T. L.

    The spectra of the planetary nebula NGC2392 is reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The aim is to determine the chemical composition of this object. We also make use of IUE and ground based spectra. Abundances determined from the

  20. The spatially resolved stellar population and ionized gas properties in the merger LIRG NGC 2623

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; González Delgado, R. M.; Pérez, E.; Sánchez, S. F.; Cid Fernandes, R.; de Amorim, A. L.; Di Matteo, P.; García-Benito, R.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; López Fernández, R.; Tadhunter, C.; Villar-Martín, M.; Roth, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    We report on a detailed study of the stellar populations and ionized gas properties in the merger LIRG NGC 2623, analyzing optical integral field spectroscopy from the CALIFA survey and PMAS LArr, multiwavelength HST imaging, and OSIRIS narrow band Hα and [NII]λ6584 imaging. The spectra were processed with the starlight full spectral fitting code, and the results are compared with those for two early-stage merger LIRGs (IC 1623 W and NGC 6090), together with CALIFA Sbc/Sc galaxies. We find that NGC 2623 went through two periods of increased star formation (SF), a first and widespread episode, traced by intermediate-age stellar populations ISP (140 Myr-1.4 Gyr), and a second one, traced by young stellar populations YSP (reported outflow. As revealed by the highest-resolution OSIRIS and HST data, a collection of HII regions is also present in the plane of the galaxy, which explains the mixture of ionization mechanisms in this system. It is unlikely that the outflow in NGC 2623 will escape from the galaxy, given the low SFR intensity ( 0.5 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2), the fact that the outflow rate is three times lower than the current SFR, and the escape velocity in the central areas is higher than the outflow velocity.

  1. NGC 4337: an overlooked old cluster in the inner disc of the Milky Way★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Giovanni; Giorgi, Edgard E.; Costa, Edgardo; Vázquez, Ruben A.

    2014-06-01

    Galactic open clusters do not survive long in the high-density regions of the inner Galactic disc. Inside the solar ring only 11 open clusters are known with ages older than 1 Gyr. We show here, basing on deep, high-quality photometry, that NGC 4337, contrary to earlier findings, is indeed an old open cluster. The cluster is located very close to the conspicuous star cluster Trumpler 20, as well misclassified in the past, and that has received so much attention in recent years. NGC 4337 shows a significant clump of He-burning stars which was not detected previously. Its beautiful colour-magnitude diagram is strikingly similar to the one of the classical old open clusters IC 4651, NGC 752, and NGC 3680, and this suggests similar age and composition. A spectroscopic study is much needed to confirm our findings. This, in turn, would also allow us to better define the inner disc radial abundance gradient and its temporal evolution. To this aim, a list of clump star candidates is provided.

  2. THE 0.3–30 keV SPECTRA OF POWERFUL STARBURST GALAXIES: NuSTAR AND CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 3256 AND NGC 3310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Wik, D. R.; Yukita, M. [The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tyler, J. B.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Antoniou, V.; Zezas, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Boggs, S.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Harrison, F. A. [Caltech Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Pasadena (United States); Maccarone, T. J. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    We present nearly simultaneous Chandra and NuSTAR observations of two actively star-forming galaxies within 50 Mpc: NGC 3256 and NGC 3310. Both galaxies are significantly detected by both Chandra and NuSTAR, which together provide the first-ever spectra of these two galaxies spanning 0.3–30 keV. The X-ray emission from both galaxies is spatially resolved by Chandra; we find that hot gas dominates the E < 1–3 keV emission while ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) provide majority contributions to the emission at E > 1–3 keV. The NuSTAR galaxy-wide spectra of both galaxies follow steep power-law distributions with Γ ≈ 2.6 at E > 5–7 keV. Using new and archival Chandra data, we search for signatures of heavily obscured or low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that both NGC 3256 and NGC 3310 have X-ray detected sources coincident with nuclear regions; however, the steep NuSTAR spectra of both galaxies restricts these sources to be either low luminosity AGNs (L{sub 2−10} {sub keV}/L{sub Edd} ≲ 10{sup −5}) or non-AGNs in nature (e.g., ULXs or crowded X-ray sources that reach L{sub 2−10} {sub keV} ∼ 10{sup 40} erg s{sup −1} cannot be ruled out). Combining our constraints on the 0.3–30 keV spectra of NGC 3256 and NGC 3310 with equivalent measurements for nearby star-forming galaxies M83 and NGC 253, we analyze the star formation rate (SFR) normalized spectra of these starburst galaxies. The spectra of all four galaxies show sharply declining power-law slopes at energies above 3–6 keV primarily due to ULX populations. Our observations therefore constrain the average spectral shape of galaxy-wide populations of luminous accreting binaries (i.e., ULXs). Interestingly, despite a completely different galaxy sample selection, emphasizing here a range of SFRs and stellar masses, these properties are similar to those of super-Eddington accreting ULXs that have been studied individually in a targeted NuSTAR ULX program. We also find that

  3. The end of the White Dwarf Cooling Sequence of NGC 6752

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedin, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    We propose to study the last HST-accessible white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence (CS) for a nearby globular cluster (GC), the chemically complex, extreme blue horizontal branch cluster NGC 6752. Over 97% of stars end their lives as WDs, and the WD CS provides constraints not only on the age, but also potentially the star formation history of a GC. The CS of WDs also lies in the least-explored region of the color-magnitude diagram of old stellar populations. Recent deep imaging with HST has successfully reached the end of the WD CS in only three classical old GCs, M4, NGC 6397 and 47 Tuc, and reveals an unexpectedly complex, and double-peaked, WD CS in the metal rich old open cluster NGC 6791. One more investigation is in progress on the massive globular Omega Centauri, where over 14 sub-populations are known to exist.While almost every cluster is known to host multiple populations, every single cluster is unique. NGC 6752 is a bridge between the relatively simple globular clusters, and Omega Cen, the most complex globular cluster known. NGC 6752 has an extended blue horizontal branch, a collapsed core and 3 chemically distinct populations. It is our last chance to add diversity to our very limited sample of WD CS, so far containing only 3 globular clusters, one old open cluster, and the complex Omega Cen system. We need to undertake this investigation while HST is still operational, as there is no foreseeable opportunity in the post-HST era to have one extra WD CS in the homogeneus optical photometric system of HST.

  4. Nuclear Star Formation in the Hot-Spot Galaxy NGC 2903

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Herrero, A.; Ryder, S. D.; Knapen, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    We present high-resolution near-infrared imaging obtained using adaptive optics and HST/NICMOS and ground-based spectroscopy of the hot-spot galaxy NGC 2903. Our near-infrared resolution imaging enables us to resolve the infrared hot spots into individual young stellar clusters or groups of these. The spatial distribution of the stellar clusters is not coincident with that of the bright H II regions, as revealed by the HST/NICMOS Pace image. Overall, the circumnuclear star formation in NGC 2903 shows a ring-like morphology with an approximate diameter of 625 pc. The SF properties of the stellar clusters and H II regions have been studied using the photometric and spectroscopic information in conjunction with evolutionary synthesis models. The population of bright stellar clusters shows a very narrow range of ages, 4 to 7 x 10(exp 6) yr after the peak of star formation, or absolute ages 6.5 to 9.5 x 10(exp 6) yr (for the assumed short-duration Gaussian bursts), and luminosities similar to the clusters found in the Antennae interacting galaxy. This population of young stellar clusters accounts for some 7 - 12% of the total stellar mass in the central 625 pc of NGC 2903. The H II regions in the ring of star formation have luminosities close to that of the super-giant H II region 30 Doradus, they are younger than the stellar clusters, and will probably evolve into bright infrared stellar clusters similar to those observed today. We find that the star formation efficiency in the central regions of NGC 2903 is higher than in normal galaxies, approaching the lower end of infrared luminous galaxies.

  5. Fibers in the NGC 1333 proto-cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacar, A.; Tafalla, M.; Alves, J.

    2017-10-01

    Are the initial conditions for clustered star formation the same as for non-clustered star formation? To investigate the initial gas properties in young proto-clusters we carried out a comprehensive and high-sensitivity study of the internal structure, density, temperature, and kinematics of the dense gas content of the NGC 1333 region in Perseus, one of the nearest and best studied embedded clusters. The analysis of the gas velocities in the position-position-velocity space reveals an intricate underlying gas organization both in space and velocity. We identified a total of 14 velocity-coherent, (tran-)sonic structures within NGC 1333, with similar physical and kinematic properties than those quiescent, star-forming (aka fertile) fibers previously identified in low-mass star-forming clouds. These fibers are arranged in a complex spatial network, build-up the observed total column density, and contain the dense cores and protostars in this cloud. Our results demonstrate that the presence of fibers is not restricted to low-mass clouds but can be extended to regions of increasing mass and complexity. We propose that the observational dichotomy between clustered and non-clustered star-forming regions might be naturally explained by the distinct spatial density of fertile fibers in these environments. Based on observations carried out under project number 169-11 with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).Based on observations with the 100-m telescope of the MPIfR (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie) at Effelsberg.Molecular line observations (spectral cubes) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A123

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fluxes of NGG7793 & NGC4945 with GMOS-S (Stanghellini+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, L.; Magrini, L.; Casasola, V.

    2016-02-01

    The NGC 7793 images were acquired with GMOS-S in 2012 September and October, while spectroscopic observations of this galaxy have been acquired in 2013 July and August. Hα images of NGC 4945 have been acquired in 2013 March, while spectroscopy was obtained in June and July of the same year. We have also acquired [OIII]5007Å continuum-subtracted images of both galaxies as part of the original program, aimed at both planetary nebula (PN) and HII region spectroscopy. (4 data files).

  7. Submillimeter Array 12CO (2-1) Imaging of the NGC 6946 Giant Molecular Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Pan, Hsi-An

    2017-04-01

    We present a 12CO (2-1) mosaic map of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946 by combining data from the Submillimeter Array and the IRAM 30 m telescope. We identify 390 giant molecular clouds (GMCs) from the nucleus to 4.5 kpc in the disk. GMCs in the inner 1 kpc are generally more luminous and turbulent, some of which have luminosities >106 K km s-1 pc2 and velocity dispersions >10 km s-1. Large-scale bar-driven dynamics likely regulate GMC properties in the nuclear region. Similar to the Milky Way and other disk galaxies, GMC mass function of NGC 6946 has a shallower slope (index > -2) in the inner region, and a steeper slope (index outer region. This difference in mass spectra may be indicative of different cloud formation pathways: gravitational instabilities might play a major role in the nuclear region, while cloud coalescence might be dominant in the outer disk. Finally, the NGC 6946 clouds are similar to those in M33 in terms of statistical properties, but they are generally less luminous and turbulent than the M51 clouds.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopic binary population of ONC and NGC2264 (Kounkel+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounkel, M.; Hartmann, L.; Tobin, J. J.; Mateo, M.; Bailey, J. I., III; Spencer, M.

    2016-06-01

    We reanalyzed all of the spectra previously obtained by T09 (Tobin et al. 2009, J/ApJ/697/1103) for the ONC region and by T15 (Tobin et al. 2015, J/AJ/149/119) for the NGC 2264 region (including several stars observed but not included in their published catalog) using Hectochelle and MIKE fibers. In addition to these data, we include new observations from these instruments (spanning 2008 Oct to 2009 Dec) and from the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS). We observed a total of four fields toward the ONC and two fields toward NGC 2264 in 2013 November and 2014 February using M2FS. The MgI filter was used covering a wavelength range of ~5100-5210Å. (4 data files).

  9. Probing the super star cluster environment of NGC 1569 using FISICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Raines, S. N.; Gruel, N.; Elston, R.; Guzman, R.; Boreman, G.; Glenn, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    We present near-IR JH spectra of the central regions of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569 using the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA). The dust-penetrating properties and available spectral features of the near-IR, combined with the integral field unit (IFU) capability to take spectra of a field, make FISICA an ideal tool for this work. We use the prominent [He i] (1.083 μm) and Paβ (1.282 μm) lines to probe the dense star-forming regions as well as characterize the general star-forming environment around the super star clusters (SSCs) in NGC 1569. We find [He i] coincident with CO clouds to the north and west of the SSCs, which provides the first, conclusive evidence for embedded star clusters here.

  10. Stellar Clusters Forming in the Blue Dwarf Galaxy NGC 5253

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Star formation is one of the most basic phenomena in the Universe. Inside stars, primordial material from the Big Bang is processed into heavier elements that we observe today. In the extended atmospheres of certain types of stars, these elements combine into more complex systems like molecules and dust grains, the building blocks for new planets, stars and galaxies and, ultimately, for life. Violent star-forming processes let otherwise dull galaxies shine in the darkness of deep space and make them visible to us over large distances. Star formation begins with the collapse of the densest parts of interstellar clouds, regions that are characterized by comparatively high concentration of molecular gas and dust like the Orion complex (ESO PR Photo 20/04) and the Galactic Centre region (ESO Press Release 26/03). Since this gas and dust are products of earlier star formation, there must have been an early epoch when they did not yet exist. But how did the first stars then form? Indeed, to describe and explain "primordial star formation" - without molecular gas and dust - is a major challenge in modern Astrophysics. A particular class of relatively small galaxies, known as "Blue Dwarf Galaxies", possibly provide nearby and contemporary examples of what may have occurred in the early Universe during the formation of the first stars. These galaxies are poor in dust and heavier elements. They contain interstellar clouds which, in some cases, appear to be quite similar to those primordial clouds from which the first stars were formed. And yet, despite the relative lack of the dust and molecular gas that form the basic ingredients for star formation as we know it from the Milky Way, those Blue Dwarf Galaxies sometimes harbour very active star-forming regions. Thus, by studying those areas, we may hope to better understand the star-forming processes in the early Universe. Very active star formation in NGC 5253 NGC 5253 is one of the nearest of the known Blue Dwarf Galaxies

  11. The optical + infrared L dwarf spectral sequence of young planetary-mass objects in the Upper Scorpius association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodieu, N.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Peña Ramírez, K.

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of photometric and spectroscopic follow-ups of the lowest mass member candidates in the nearest OB association, Upper Scorpius (∼5-10 Myr; 145 ± 17 pc), with the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC) and European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT). We confirm the membership of the large majority (>80 per cent) of candidates originally selected photometrically and astrometrically based on their spectroscopic features, weak equivalent widths of gravity-sensitive doublets and radial velocities. Confirmed members follow a sequence over a wide magnitude range (J = 17.0-19.3 mag) in several colour-magnitude diagrams with optical, near- and mid-infrared photometry and have near-infrared spectral types in the L1-L7 interval with likely masses below 15 Jupiter masses. We find that optical spectral types tend to be earlier than near-infrared spectral types by a few subclasses for spectral types later than M9. We investigate the behaviour of spectral indices, defined in the literature as a function of spectral type and gravity, by comparison with values reported in the literature for young and old dwarfs. We also derive effective temperatures in the 1900-1600 K range from fits of synthetic model-atmosphere spectra to the observed photometry, but we caution that the procedure carries large uncertainties. We determine bolometric corrections for young L dwarfs with ages of ∼5-10 Myr (Upper Sco association) and find them to be similar in the J band but larger by 0.1-0.4 mag in the K band with respect to field L dwarfs. Finally, we discover two faint young L dwarfs, Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) J1607-2146 (L4.5) and VISTA J1611-2215 (L5), that have Hα emission and possible flux excesses at 4.5 μm, pointing to the presence of accretion from a disc on to the central objects of mass below ∼15MJup at an age of 5-10 Myr.

  12. Estudio interferométrico de NGC 5236

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, M. A.; Goldes, G.; Carranza, G.; Díaz, R.; Plana, H.; Boulesteix, J.

    The kinematical properties of NGC 5236 were analyzed, by using Fabry-Perot data cubes obtained at La Silla, with a scanning interferometer associated with a TV camera photon-counting device. The parameters that define the ionized gas velocity field (Vsys, PA, Amax, Rmax, FWHM) were obtained for this galaxy, by means of a more precise technique and a better spacial sampling than previous authors. The isovelocity curves show conspicuous perturbations in the regions were the spiral arms cross, beeing the signature of deviations from uniform circular motions. For this galaxy, which has been observed by different authors and with different techniques through several years (i.e. Carranza 1972), the values here obtained for the kinematical parameters and the structure of the velocity curves, beeing more detailed, do show a general agreement with the previous ones.

  13. A blue tilt in the globular cluster system of the Milky Way-like galaxy NGC 5170

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, D.A.; Spitler, L. R.; Harris, W.E.; Bailin, J.; Strader, J.; Brodie, J.P.; Larsen, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging, in the B and I bands, of the edge-on Sb/Sc galaxy NGC 5170. Excluding the central disc region, we detect 142 objects with colours and sizes typical of globular clusters (GCs). Our main result is the discovery of a

  14. Complex molecules in the hot core of the low-mass protostar NGC 1333 IRAS 4A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottinelli, S; Ceccarelli, C; Lefloch, B; Williams, JP; Castets, A; Caux, E; Cazaux, S; Maret, S; Parise, B; Tielens, AGGM

    2004-01-01

    We report the detection of complex molecules (HCOOCH3, HCOOH, and CH3CN), signposts of a hot core like region, toward the low-mass Class 0 source NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. This is the second low-mass protostar in which such complex molecules have been searched for and reported, the other source being IRAS

  15. Disturbed Fossil Group Galaxy NGC 1132

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Doug; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jen; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Doug; Mossman, Amy; O’Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2018-02-01

    We have analyzed the Chandra archival data of NGC 1132, a well-known fossil group, i.e., a system expected to be old and relaxed long after the giant elliptical galaxy assembly. Instead, the Chandra data reveal that the hot gas morphology is disturbed and asymmetrical, with a cold front following a possible bow shock. We discuss possible origins of the disturbed hot halo, including sloshing by a nearby object, merger, ram pressure by external hotter gas, and nuclear outburst. We consider that the first two mechanisms are likely explanations for the disturbed hot halo, with a slight preference for a minor merger with a low impact parameter because of the match with simulations and previous optical observations. In this case, NGC 1132 may be a rare example of unusual late mergers seen in recent simulations. Regardless of the origin of the disturbed hot halo, the paradigm of the fossil system needs to be reconsidered.

  16. Central structures of Seyfert galaxy NGC 1672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firpo, V.; Díaz, R.; Dottori, H.; Aguero, M. P.; Bosch, G.; Hagele, G.; Cardaci, M.; Dors, O.

    2017-10-01

    We present the velocity field of the inner 4"(350 pc) of NGC1672, observed with Gemini GMOS/IFU with a spatial sampling of 0.2", spatial resolution of 0.4", and spectral resolution 6000. We determine an upper limit for the mass of the SMBH in the LINER core using the ionized gas radial velocity field, and we confirmed that the active galactic nucleus is located off-center respect to the circumnuclear disk rotation symmetry center.

  17. Uplift, Feedback, and Buoyancy: Radio Lobe Dynamics in NGC 4472

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron-Marsolais, M.; Kraft, R. P.; Bogdan, A.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Su, Y.; Nulsen, P.; Randall, S. W.; Roediger, E.

    2017-10-01

    We present results from deep (380 ks) Chandra observations of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) outburst in the massive early-type galaxy NGC 4472. We detect cavities in the gas coincident with the radio lobes and estimate the eastern and western lobe enthalpy to be (1.1+/- 0.5)× {10}56 erg and (3+/- 1)× {10}56 erg and the average power required to inflate the lobes to be (1.8+/- 0.9)× {10}41 erg s-1 and (6+/- 3)× {10}41 erg s-1, respectively. We also detect enhanced X-ray rims around the radio lobes with sharp surface brightness discontinuities between the shells and the ambient gas. The temperature of the gas in the shells is less than that of the ambient medium, suggesting that they are not AGN-driven shocks but rather gas uplifted from the core by the buoyant rise of the radio bubbles. We estimate the energy required to lift the gas to be up to (1.1+/- 0.3)× {10}56 erg and (3+/- 1)× {10}56 erg for the eastern and western rims, respectively, constituting a significant fraction of the total outburst energy. A more conservative estimate suggests that the gas in the rim was uplifted at a smaller distance, requiring only 20%-25% of this energy. In either case, if a significant fraction of this uplift energy is thermalized via hydrodynamic instabilities or thermal conduction, our results suggest that it could be an important source of heating in cool core clusters and groups. We also find evidence for a central abundance drop in NGC 4472. The iron abundance profile shows that the region along the cavity system has a lower metallicity than the surrounding undisturbed gas, similar to the central region. This also shows that bubbles have lifted low-metallicity gas from the center.

  18. Class I methanol masers in NGC 253: Alcohol at the end of the bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, S. P.; Chen, X.; Breen, S. L.; Qiao, H.-H.

    2017-11-01

    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array to observe the 36.2-GHz class I methanol maser emission towards NGC 253 and find that it is located at the interface between the nuclear ring and both ends of the galactic bar. This is thought to be the location of the inner Linblad resonance and we suggest that the maser emission in this region is likely due to large-scale cloud-cloud collisions. We have detected the first extragalactic 44.1-GHz class I methanol maser and find that it is associated with the 36.2-GHz maser emission. In contrast to the class I methanol masers found in Galactic star formation regions, the 44.1-GHz emission in NGC 253 is two orders of magnitude weaker than the 36.2-GHz masers. Both the 36.2- and 44.1-GHz emission is orders of magnitude stronger than expected from typical high-mass star formation regions. This demonstrates that the luminous class I methanol masers observed in NGC 253 are significantly different from those associated with Galactic star formation.

  19. The Newtonian and MOND dynamical models of NGC 5128: Investigation of the dark matter contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the well-known nearby early-type galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A and use the sample of its globular clusters to analyze its dynamics. We study both Newtonian and MOND models assuming three cases of orbital anisotropies: isotropic case, mildly tangentially anisotropic case and the radially anisotropic case based on the literature. We find that there are two regions with different values of the velocity dispersion: interior to ~ 3 effective radii the value of the velocity dispersion is approximately 150 km s−1 , whereas beyond ~ 3 effective radii its value increases to approximately 190 km s−1 , thus implying the increase of the total cumulative mass which is indicative of the existence of dark matter there in the Newtonian approach: the mass-to-light increases from M/LB = 7 in the inner regions to M/LB = 26 in the outer regions. We found that the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW model with dark halo provides good description of the dynamics of NGC 5128. Using three MOND models (standard, simple and toy, we find that they all provide good fits to the velocity dispersion of NGC 5128 and that no additional dark component is needed in MOND. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and Invisible Matter in Nearby Galaxies: Theory and Observations

  20. Mapping the filaments in NGC 1275

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Aracely Susan; Rich, Jeffrey; Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS)

    2018-01-01

    The giant elliptical brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) at the centers of many massive clusters are often surrounded by drawn-out forms of gaseous material. It is believed that this gaseous material is gas condensing from the intracluster medium (ICM) in a “cooling flow,” and it can directly impact the growth of the BCG. The galaxy NGC 1275 is one of the closest giant elliptical BCGs and lies at the center of the Perseus cluster. NGC 1275 has large filaments that are thought to be associated with a cooling flow, but they may also be affected by its AGN. To investigate the relationship between the AGN and the cooling flow we have mapped the filaments around NGC 1275 with the Cosmic Web Imager, an image-slicing integral field spectrograph at Palomar Observatories. We employ standard emission-line ratio diagnostics to determine the source of ionizing radiation. We use our analysis to investigate whether the formation of the extended filaments is a result of gas from the ICM collapsing onto the galaxy as it cools or if it is possible that the filaments are a result of the cluster’s interaction with the outflow driven by the AGN.

  1. of Planetary Nebulae III. NGC 6781

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo E. Schwarz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing our series of papers on the three-dimensional (3D structures and accurate distances to Planetary Nebulae (PNe, we present our study of the planetary nebula NGC6781. For this object we construct a 3D photoionization model and, using the constraints provided by observational data from the literature we determine the detailed 3D structure of the nebula, the physical parameters of the ionizing source and the first precise distance. The procedure consists in simultaneously fitting all the observed emission line morphologies, integrated intensities and the two-dimensional (2D density map from the [SII] (sulfur II line ratios to the parameters generated by the model, and in an iterative way obtain the best fit for the central star parameters and the distance to NGC6781, obtaining values of 950±143 pc (parsec – astronomic distance unit and 385 LΘ (solar luminosity for the distance and luminosity of the central star respectively. Using theoretical evolutionary tracks of intermediate and low mass stars, we derive the mass of the central star of NGC6781 and its progenitor to be 0.60±0.03MΘ (solar mass and 1.5±0.5MΘ respectively.

  2. H-alpha Tracking in the Clusters NGC 659, NGC 663, and Cygnus OB-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Eric G.; Joner, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Using the 1.2-m telescope of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory we developed a calibrated H-alpha index for monitoring both absorption and emission features. Photometric data was then obtained using the BYU West Mountain Observatory 0.9-m telescope and a specially designed set of filters to match the spectrophotometric system. This data covered from July 2013 to October 2014 on three star clusters; NGC 659, NGC 663, and Cygnus OB-2. In total there are over 40 nights of data. We will present our preliminary results from this data set.

  3. Diverse Group of Galaxy Types, NGC 3190 Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image of a diverse group of galaxy types. NGC 3190 is a dusty edge on spiral galaxy. NGC 3187 is highly distorted. The two are separated by only 35 kilo-parsecs (about half the diameter of our own Milky Way galaxy). A ring, elliptical, and other irregular galaxies are also present.

  4. A rapidly spinning supermassive black hole at the centre of NGC 1365

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risaliti, G.; Harrison, F. A.; Madsen, K. K.

    2013-01-01

    and relativistic effects near the black hole, the line shape being sensitive to its spin. Alternative models in which the distortions result from absorption by intervening structures provide an equally good description of the data, and there has been no general agreement on which is correct. Recent claims...... that the black hole (2 × 10(6) solar masses) at the centre of the galaxy NGC 1365 is rotating at close to its maximum possible speed rest on the assumption of relativistic reflection. Here we report X-ray observations of NGC 1365 that reveal the relativistic disk features through broadened Fe-line emission...... and an associated Compton scattering excess of 10-30 kiloelectronvolts. Using temporal and spectral analyses, we disentangle continuum changes due to time-variable absorption from reflection, which we find arises from a region within 2.5 gravitational radii of the rapidly spinning black hole. Absorption...

  5. The evolution of binary star clusters and the nature of NGC 2136/NGC 2137

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegies Zwart, S.F.; Rusli, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    We study the evolution of bound pairs of star clusters by means of direct N-body simulations. Our simulations include mass loss by stellar evolution. The initial conditions are selected to mimic the observed binary star clusters, NGC2136 and 2137, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Based on their rather

  6. The low-metallicity starburst NGC346: massive-star population and feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskinova, Lida

    2017-08-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is ideal to study young, massive stars at low metallicity. The compact cluster NGC346 contains about half of all O-type stars in the entire SMC. The massive-star population of this cluster powers N66, the brightest and largest HII region in the SMC. We propose to use HST-STIS to slice NGC346 with 20 long-slit exposures, in order to obtain the UV spectra of most of the massive early-type stars of this cluster. Archival data of 13 exposures that cover already a minor part of this cluster will be included in our analyses. Our aim is to quantitatively analyze virtually the whole massive-star population of NGC346. We have already secured the optical spectra of all massive stars in the field with the integral-field spectrograph MUSE at the ESO-VLT. However, for the determination of the stellar-wind parameters, i.e. the mass-loss rates and the wind velocities, ultraviolet spectra are indispensable. Our advanced Potsdam Wolf-Rayet (PoWR) code will be used for modeling the stellar and wind spectra in the course of the analysis. Finally, we will obtain:(a) the fundamental stellar and wind parameters of all stars brighter than spectral type B2V in the field, which, e,g,, will constrain the initial mass function in this young low-metallicity starburst;(b) mass-loss rates of many more OB-type stars at SMC metallicity than hitherto known, allowing to better constrain their metallicity dependence;(c) the integrated feedback by ionizing radiation and stellar winds of the whole massive-star population of NGC346, which will be used as input to model the ecology of the giant HII region N66.These HST UV data will be of high legacy value.

  7. The radio core structure of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418. A young clustered starburst revealed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenius, E.; Conway, J. E.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Aalto, S.; Beswick, R.; Costagliola, F.; Klöckner, H.-R.

    2014-06-01

    Context. The galaxy NGC 4418 contains one of the most compact obscured nuclei within a luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) in the nearby Universe. This nucleus contains a rich molecular gas environment and an unusually high ratio of infrared-to-radio luminosity (q-factor). The compact nucleus is powered by either a compact starburst or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Aims: The aim of this study is to constrain the nature of the nuclear region (starburst or AGN) within NGC 4418 via very-high-resolution radio imaging. Methods: Archival data from radio observations using the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN) and Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) interferometers are imaged. Sizes and flux densities are obtained by fitting Gaussian intensity distributions to the image. The average spectral index of the compact radio emission is estimated from measurements at 1.4 GHz and 5.0 GHz. Results: The nuclear structure of NGC 4418 visible with EVN and MERLIN consists of eight compact (104.8 K indicate that these compact features cannot be HII-regions. The complex morphology and inverted spectrum of the eight detected compact features is evidence against the hypothesis that an AGN alone is powering the nucleus of NGC 4418. The compact features could be super star clusters with intense star formation, and their associated free-free absorption could then naturally explain both their inverted radio spectrum and the low radio-to-IR ratio of the nucleus. The required star formation area density is extreme, however, and close to the limit of what can be observed in a well-mixed thermal/non-thermal plasma produced by star formation, and is also close to the limit of what can be physically sustained.

  8. The Gaia-ESO survey: the inner disk intermediate-age open cluster NGC 6802

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, B.; Geisler, D.; Friel, E.; Villanova, S.; Smiljanic, R.; Casey, A. R.; Randich, S.; Magrini, L.; San Roman, I.; Muñoz, C.; Cohen, R. E.; Mauro, F.; Bragaglia, A.; Donati, P.; Tautvaišien*error*ė, G.; Drazdauskas, A.; Ženovienė, R.; Snaith, O.; Sousa, S.; Adibekyan, V.; Costado, M. T.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Carraro, G.; Zwitter, T.; François, P.; Jofrè, P.; Sordo, R.; Gilmore, G.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Damiani, F.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Milky Way open clusters are very diverse in terms of age, chemical composition, and kinematic properties. Intermediate-age and old open clusters are less common, and it is even harder to find them inside the solar Galactocentric radius, due to the high mortality rate and strong extinction inside this region. NGC 6802 is one of the inner disk open clusters (IOCs) observed by the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). This cluster is an important target for calibrating the abundances derived in the survey due to the kinematic and chemical homogeneity of the members in open clusters. Using the measurements from Gaia-ESO internal data release 4 (iDR4), we identify 95 main-sequence dwarfs as cluster members from the GIRAFFE target list, and eight giants as cluster members from the UVES target list. The dwarf cluster members have a median radial velocity of 13.6 ± 1.9 km s-1, while the giant cluster members have a median radial velocity of 12.0 ± 0.9 km s-1 and a median [Fe/H] of 0.10 ± 0.02 dex. The color-magnitude diagram of these cluster members suggests an age of 0.9 ± 0.1 Gyr, with (m-M)0 = 11.4 and E(B-V) = 0.86. We perform the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of NGC 6802, including 27 elemental species. To gain a more general picture about IOCs, the measurements of NGC 6802 are compared with those of other IOCs previously studied by GES, that is, NGC 4815, Trumpler 20, NGC 6705, and Berkeley 81. NGC 6802 shows similar C, N, Na, and Al abundances as other IOCs. These elements are compared with nucleosynthetic models as a function of cluster turn-off mass. The α, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements are also explored in a self-consistent way. Full Tables A.3-A.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A56

  9. Hubble Space Telescope imaging of super-star clusters in NGC 1569 and NGC 1705

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Robert W.; Gallagher, John S., III; Hunter, Deidre A.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the structural properties of three super-star clusters in the nearby, H I-rich galaxies NGC 1569 and NGC 1705. The clusters, which have total absolute V magnitudes between -13.3 and -14.1, appear to be point sources on ground-based images but are partially resolved in new images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Planetary Camera. From deconvolved V- and I-band images we find that the three clusters have very compact cores with extended halos that are partially resolved into individual stars. Using new distances to the galaxies derived from color-magnitude diagrams for field stars, we find that the half-light radii are 2.2-3.4 pc. The cluster in NGC 1705 is barely resolved in the HST images. The clusters in NGC 1569, on the other hand, show significant substructure in their cores and ellipticities that are comparable to the flattenings seen in young clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The clusters show internal (V-I) color gradients. The properties of these clusters are similar to R136, the core of the luminous star-forming complex 30 Doradus in the LMC, except that R136 has a lower luminosity and central surface brightness. The half-light surface brightness of the brightest cluster (NGC 1569 A) is 1.3 x 10(exp 6) L(sub v) solar/ sq cm, which is over 65 times higher than R136 and 1200 times higher than the mean rich LMC star cluster other than R136 after allowing for aging effects. The next brightest clusters in each of these galaxies are greater than or = 2 mag fainter. Thus, the super-star clusters represent an extreme but uncommon mode of star formation. In terms of luminosity and size, they appear to be good analogs of young globular clusters.

  10. The white dwarf population of NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Santiago; García-Berro, Enrique; Althaus, Leandro G.; Camisassa, María E.

    2015-09-01

    Context. NGC 6397 is one of the most interesting, well-observed, and most thoroughly theoretically studied globular clusters. The existing wealth of observations allows us to study the reliability of the theoretical white dwarf cooling sequences of low-metallicity progenitors, to determine the age of NGC 6397 and the percentage of unresolved binaries. We also assess other important characteristics of the cluster, such as the slope of the initial mass function or the fraction of white dwarfs with hydrogen-deficient atmospheres. Aims: We present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf population of NGC 6397. In particular, we study the shape of the color-magnitude diagram and the corresponding magnitude and color distributions. Methods: To do this, we used an advanced Monte Carlo code that incorporates the most recent and reliable cooling sequences and an accurate modeling of the observational biases. Results: Our theoretical models and the observed data agree well. In particular, we find that this agreement is best for those cooling sequences that take into account residual hydrogen burning. This result has important consequences for the evolution of progenitor stars during the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase, since it implies that appreciable third dredge-up in low-mass, low-metallicity progenitors is not expected to occur. Using a standard burst duration of 1.0 Gyr, we obtain that the age of the cluster is 12.8+0.50-0.75 Gyr. Greater ages are also compatible with the observed data, but then unrealistic longer durations of the initial burst of star formation are needed to fit the luminosity function. Conclusions: We conclude that a correct modeling of the white dwarf population of globular clusters, used in combination with the number counts of main-sequence stars, provides a unique tool for modeling the properties of globular clusters.

  11. NGC 4340: Double Bar + Fossil Nuclear Ring

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin, P.; Beltran, J. C. Vega; Beckman, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    NGC 4340 is a double-barred SB0 galaxy in the Virgo cluster (Wozniak et al. 1995). Here, we present evidence that this galaxy also posseses a luminous stellar nuclear ring of relatively old stars with little or no gas. The ring lies just outside the inner bar, at the probable inner inner Lindblad resonance (IILR) of the outer bar. Careful inspection of the isophotes and unsharp masks shows that the two bars are slightly misaligned, which suggests they may be independently rotating.

  12. Herschel/HIFI observations of spectrally resolved methylidyne signatures toward the high-mass star-forming core NGC 6334I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wiel, M. H. D.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Lis, D. C.; Bell, T.; Bergin, E. A.; Comito, C.; Emprechtinger, M.; Schilke, P.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Baudry, A.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Herbst, E.; Langer, W.; Lord, S.; Neufeld, D.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Rolffs, R.; Yorke, H.; Bacmann, A.; Benedettini, M.; Blake, G.A.; Boogert, A.; Bottinelli, S.; Cabrit, S.; Caselli, P.; Castets, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Coutens, A.; Crimier, N.; Demyk, K.; Dominik, C.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Helmich, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Henning, T.; Hily-Blant, P.; Jacq, T.; Kahane, C.; Kama, M.; Klotz, A.; Lefloch, B.; Lorenzani, A.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Edwards, K.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Morris, P.; Samoska, L. A.; Teyssier, D.

    2010-01-01

    Context. In contrast to the more extensively studied dense star-forming cores, little is known about diffuse gas surrounding star-forming regions. Aims. We study the molecular gas in the Galactic high-mass star-forming region NGC 6334I, which contains diffuse, quiescent components that are

  13. Dust and PAH Emission in the Star-forming Active Nucleus of NGC 1097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. E.; Levenson, N. A.; Packham, C.; Elitzur, M.; Radomski, J.; Petric, A. O.; Wright, G. S.

    2007-04-01

    The nucleus of the nearby galaxy NGC 1097 is known to host a young, compact (ractive galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been suggested both that the nuclear stellar cluster is associated with a dusty torus and that low-luminosity AGNs like NGC 1097 do not have the torus predicted by the unified model of AGNs. To investigate these contradictory possibilities we have acquired Gemini/T-ReCS 11.7 and 18.3 μm images of the central few hundred parsecs of this galaxy at warm dust close to the central engine. Fitting of torus models shows that the observed mid-IR emission cannot be accounted for by dust heated by the central engine. Rather, the principal source heating the dust in this object is the nuclear star cluster itself, suggesting that the detected dust is not the torus of AGN unified schemes (although it is also possible that the dusty starburst itself could provide the obscuration invoked by the unified model). Comparison of Spitzer IRS and Gemini GNIRS spectra shows that, although PAH bands are strong in the immediate circumnuclear region of the galaxy, PAH emission is weak or absent in the central 19 pc. The lack of PAH emission can probably be explained largely by destruction/ionization of PAH molecules by hard photons from the nuclear star cluster. If NGC 1097 is typical, PAH emission bands may not be a useful tool with which to find very compact nuclear starbursts even in low-luminosity AGNs.

  14. The Structure of the Young Star Cluster NGC 6231. II. Structure, Formation, and Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Michael A.; Getman, Konstantin V.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Sills, Alison; Gromadzki, Mariusz; Medina, Nicolás; Borissova, Jordanka; Kurtev, Radostin

    2017-12-01

    The young cluster NGC 6231 (stellar ages ˜2-7 Myr) is observed shortly after star formation activity has ceased. Using the catalog of 2148 probable cluster members obtained from Chandra, VVV, and optical surveys (Paper I), we examine the cluster’s spatial structure and dynamical state. The spatial distribution of stars is remarkably well fit by an isothermal sphere with moderate elongation, while other commonly used models like Plummer spheres, multivariate normal distributions, or power-law models are poor fits. The cluster has a core radius of 1.2 ± 0.1 pc and a central density of ˜200 stars pc-3. The distribution of stars is mildly mass segregated. However, there is no radial stratification of the stars by age. Although most of the stars belong to a single cluster, a small subcluster of stars is found superimposed on the main cluster, and there are clumpy non-isotropic distributions of stars outside ˜4 core radii. When the size, mass, and age of NGC 6231 are compared to other young star clusters and subclusters in nearby active star-forming regions, it lies at the high-mass end of the distribution but along the same trend line. This could result from similar formation processes, possibly hierarchical cluster assembly. We argue that NGC 6231 has expanded from its initial size but that it remains gravitationally bound.

  15. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IMAGES OF NGC 6334-V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Lucas, Phil W.; Hough, James H. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Nakajima, Yasushi [Center of Information and Communication Technology, Hitotsubashi University, 2-1 Naka, Kunitachi, Tokyo 186-8601 (Japan); Nagayama, Takahiro [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Nagata, Tetsuya, E-mail: jungmi.kwon@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    We present results from deep imaging linear and circular polarimetry of the massive star-forming region NGC 6334-V. These observations show high degrees of circular polarization (CP), as much as 22% in the K{sub s} band, in the infrared nebula associated with the outflow. The CP has an asymmetric positive/negative pattern and is very extended ({approx}80'' or 0.65 pc). Both the high CP and its extended size are larger than those seen in the Orion CP region. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo light-scattering models are used to show that the high CP may be produced by scattering from the infrared nebula followed by dichroic extinction by an optically thick foreground cloud containing aligned dust grains. Our results show not only the magnetic field orientation of around young stellar objects, but also the structure of circumstellar matter such as outflow regions and their parent molecular cloud along the line of sight. The detection of the large and extended CP in this source and the Orion nebula may imply the CP origin of the biological homochirality on Earth.

  16. The physics and chemistry of photon-dominated clouds in NGC 3603

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Zoltán Sándor

    2015-04-01

    High-mass star-formation in the interstellar medium is one of the main open questions in astronomy: high-mass stars are rare, evolve fast and are frequently obscured or located in dense clusters. Most of our knowledge stems from simulations, not from direct observations. Stars are born within molecular clouds due to the perturbations of local physical and chemical processes. To investigate these perturbations, we observed one of the most prominent HII region, NGC 3603, in our Galaxy. This molecular cloud complex embraces an open cluster, with massive and hot stars, which provides strong stellar winds and radiation field. These phenomena heavily interact with the neighbouring environment and govern the local physics and chemistry. To investigate these effects and their influence, we received spectroscopy data of molecules, ions and atoms via Herschel Space Observatory. Data of ground-based telescopes were also used as complementary data. The observational results showed that the observed clouds have gas components with different temperatures as well as vigorous gas movements. Different models were used to fit the observations. We found that the observed line intensities and abundances match with the model predictions and the model results are independent from the cloud geometry. All the results we obtain, give the opportunity to characterize the physical conditions and chemical processes within NGC 3603. Based on our observations and our model calculations, we concluded that the observed molecular clouds (or part of them) are probably in gravitationally unstable stage. Hence, the star-formation process within NGC 3603 is still ongoing. This scenario is in agreement with previous studies. It is also likely, that the observed clouds do not rotate as a rigid rotor but have a torsional geometry. On the other hand, due to observational facts (e.g., large beam size, distance of NGC 3603), we were only be able to make statements about the chemistry/chemical stratification

  17. Abundance ratios and IMF slopes in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 1396 with MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentz, J. J.; La Barbera, F.; Peletier, R. F.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lisker, T.; van de Ven, G.; Loubser, S. I.; Hilker, M.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Napolitano, N.; Cantiello, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Norris, M.; Paolillo, M.; Smith, R.; Beasley, M. A.; Lyubenova, M.; Munoz, R.; Puzia, T.

    2016-12-01

    Deep observations of the dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy NGC 1396 (MV = -16.60, Mass ˜4 × 108 M⊙), located in the Fornax cluster, have been performed with the Very Large Telescope/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer spectrograph in the wavelength region from 4750 to 9350 Å. In this paper, we present a stellar population analysis studying chemical abundances, the star formation history (SFH) and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) as a function of galactocentric distance. Different, independent ways to analyse the stellar populations result in a luminosity-weighted age of ˜6 Gyr and a metallicity [Fe/H]˜ -0.4, similar to other dEs of similar mass. We find unusually overabundant values of [Ca/Fe] ˜+ 0.1, and underabundant Sodium, with [Na/Fe] values around -0.1, while [Mg/Fe] is overabundant at all radii, increasing from ˜+ 0.1 in the centre to ˜+ 0.2 dex. We notice a significant metallicity and age gradient within this dwarf galaxy. To constrain the stellar IMF of NGC 1396, we find that the IMF of NGC 1396 is consistent with either a Kroupa-like or a top-heavy distribution, while a bottom-heavy IMF is firmly ruled out. An analysis of the abundance ratios, and a comparison with galaxies in the Local Group, shows that the chemical enrichment history of NGC 1396 is similar to the Galactic disc, with an extended SFH. This would be the case if the galaxy originated from a Large Magellanic Cloud-sized dwarf galaxy progenitor, which would lose its gas while falling into the Fornax cluster.

  18. CARMA OBSERVATIONS OF PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS IN NGC 1333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plunkett, Adele L.; Arce, Hector G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven CT 06520 (United States); Corder, Stuartt A. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Av. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Mardones, Diego [Departameto de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Sargent, Anneila I. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schnee, Scott L., E-mail: adele.plunkett@yale.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We present observations of outflows in the star-forming region NGC 1333 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy (CARMA). We combined the {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO (1-0) CARMA mosaics with data from the 14 m Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory to probe the central, most dense, and active region of this protostellar cluster at scales from 5'' to 7' (or 1000 AU to 0.5 pc at a distance of 235 pc). We map and identify {sup 12}CO outflows, and along with {sup 13}CO data we estimate their mass, momentum, and energy. Within the 7' Multiplication-Sign 7' map, the 5'' resolution allows for a detailed study of morphology and kinematics of outflows and outflow candidates, some of which were previously confused with other outflow emission in the region. In total, we identify 22 outflow lobes, as well as 9 dense circumstellar envelopes marked by continuum emission, of which 6 drive outflows. We calculate a total outflow mass, momentum, and energy within the mapped region of 6 M{sub Sun }, 19 M{sub Sun} km s{sup -1}, and 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg, respectively. Within this same region, we compare outflow kinematics with turbulence and gravitational energy, and we suggest that outflows are likely important agents for the maintenance of turbulence in this region. In the earliest stages of star formation, outflows do not yet contribute enough energy to totally disrupt the clustered region where most star formation is happening, but have the potential to do so as the protostellar sources evolve. Our results can be used to constrain outflow properties, such as outflow strength, in numerical simulations of outflow-driven turbulence in clusters.

  19. Astrometry With the Hubble Space Telescope: Trigonometric Parallaxes of Planetary Nebula Nuclei NGC 6853, NGC 7293, ABELL 31, and DeHt 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. ASTROMETRY WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE: TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES OF PLANETARY NEBULA NUCLEI NGC 6853, NGC 7293, ABELL 31...present absolute parallaxes and relative proper motions for the central stars of the planetary nebulae NGC 6853 (The Dumbbell), NGC 7293 (The Helix...Abell 31, and DeHt 5. This paper details our reduction and analysis using DeHt 5 as an example. We obtain these planetary nebula nuclei (PNNi

  20. The Extended Baryonic Halo of NGC 3923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan W. Miller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Galaxy halos and their globular cluster systems build up over time by the accretion of small satellites. We can learn about this process in detail by observing systems with ongoing accretion events and comparing the data with simulations. Elliptical shell galaxies are systems that are thought to be due to ongoing or recent minor mergers. We present preliminary results of an investigation of the baryonic halo—light profile, globular clusters, and shells/streams—of the shell galaxy NGC 3923 from deep Dark Energy Camera (DECam g and i-band imaging. We present the 2D and radial distributions of the globular cluster candidates out to a projected radius of about 185 kpc, or ∼ 37 R e , making this one of the most extended cluster systems studied. The total number of clusters implies a halo mass of M h ∼ 3 × 10 13 M ⊙ . Previous studies had identified between 22 and 42 shells, making NGC 3923 the system with the largest number of shells. We identify 23 strong shells and 11 that are uncertain. Future work will measure the halo mass and mass profile from the radial distributions of the shell, N-body models, and line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD measurements of the shells using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE.

  1. The variable stars of the young LMC cluster NGC 2164

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Douglas L.; Mateo, Mario; Olszewski, Edward W.; Fischer, Philippe; Takamiya, Marianne

    1993-01-01

    The present search of the LMC cluster NGC 2164 for variable stars has uncovered one new member classical Cepheid variable with 3.772-day period; attention is also given to photometry for a previously unknown field overtone Cepheid variable with 3.4626-day period, and the 10.6878-day period HV 12078, which may be a member of the young NGC 2156 cluster. The clear separation of fundamental and overtone pulsators in the period-luminosity-color relation of known LMC cluster Cepheids establishes that the NGC 2164 member is a true overtone.

  2. Nearby Spiral Galaxy Globular Cluster Systems. II. Globular Cluster Metallicities in NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantais, Julie B.; Huchra, John P.; Barmby, Pauline; Olsen, Knut A. G.

    2010-03-01

    We present new metallicity estimates for globular cluster (GC) candidates in the Sd spiral NGC 300, one of the nearest spiral galaxies outside the Local Group. We have obtained optical spectroscopy for 44 Sculptor Group GC candidates with the Boller and Chivens (B&C) spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. There are two GCs in NGC 253 and 12 objects in NGC 300 with globular-cluster-like spectral features, nine of which have radial velocities above 0 km s-1. The remaining three, due to their radial velocities being below the expected 95% confidence limit for velocities of NGC 300 halo objects, are flagged as possible foreground stars. The non-cluster-like candidates included 13 stars, 15 galaxies, and an H II region. One GC, four galaxies, two stars, and the H II region from our sample were identified in archival Hubble Space Telescope images. For the GCs, we measure spectral indices and estimate metallicities using an empirical calibration based on Milky Way GCs. The GCs of NGC 300 appear similar to those of the Milky Way. Excluding possible stars and including clusters from the literature, the GC system (GCS) has a velocity dispersion of 68 km s-1 and has no clear evidence of rotation. The mean metallicity for our full cluster sample plus one literature object is [Fe/H] = -0.94, lying above the relationship between mean GC metallicity and overall galaxy luminosity. Excluding the three low-velocity candidates, we obtain a mean [Fe/H] = -0.98, still higher than expected, raising the possibility of significant foreground star contamination even in this sample. Visual confirmation of genuine GCs using high-resolution space-based imagery could greatly reduce the potential problem of interlopers in small samples of GCSs in low-radial-velocity galaxies. Data for this project were obtained at the Baade 6.5 m telescope, Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Stellar kinematics for NGC 2859 and NGC 4371 (Erwin+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, P.; Saglia, R. P.; Fabricius, M.; Thomas, J.; Nowak, N.; Rusli, S.; Bender, R.; Vega Beltran, J. C.; Beckman, J. E.

    2017-11-01

    We obtained long-slit spectroscopy of NGC 2959 with the ISIS spectrograph of the WHT on 2000 December 13, using the blue arm with the R600B grating. NGC 4371 was observed with an almost identical instrumental setup as part of ING service-time observations on 2001 June 4. Following standard MIDAS reduction of the ISIS observations, including bias subtraction, flat-fielding and wavelength calibration using CuAr and CuNe+CuAr lamp exposures, the extracted galaxy spectra were analysed using the Fourier Correlation Quotient method (Bender 1990A&A...229..441B; Bender, Saglia & Gerhard 1994MNRAS.269..785B) in order to determine the stellar kinematics. (2 data files).

  4. Black Holes in Bulgeless Galaxies: An XMM-Newton Investigation of NGC 3367 AND NGC 4536

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, W.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sambruna, R. M.; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local Universe reside in host galaxies with prominent bulges, supporting the hypothesis that black hole formation and growth is fundamentally connected to the build-up of galaxy bulges. However, recent mid-infrared spectroscopic studies with Spitzer of a sample of optically "normal" late-type galaxies reveal remarkably the presence of high-ionization [NeV] lines in several sources, providing strong evidence for AGNs in these galaxies. We present follow-up X-ray observations recently obtained with XMM-Newton of two such sources, the late-type optically normal galaxies NGC 3367 and NGC 4536. Both sources are detected in our observations. Detailed spectral analysis reveals that for both galaxies, the 2-10 keV emission is dominated by a power law with an X-ray luminosity in the L(sub 2- 10 keV) approximates 10(exp 39) - 10(exp 40) ergs/s range, consistent with low luminosity AGNs. While there is a possibility that X-ray binaries account for some fraction of the observed X-ray luminosity, we argue that this fraction is negligible. These observations therefore add to the growing evidence that the fraction of late-type galaxies hosting AGNs is significantly underestimated using optical observations alone. A comparison of the midinfrared [NeV] luminosity and the X-ray luminosities suggests the presence of an additional highly absorbed X-ray source in both galaxies, and that the black hole masses are in the range of 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) solar M for NGC 3367 and 10(exp 4) - (exp 10) solar M for NGC 4536

  5. The starburst ring around the Seyfert nucleus in NGC 7469

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. S.; Helfer, T. T.; Haniff, C. A.; Ward, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution radio continuum, optical emission line, and optical continuum images of the luminous Seyfert plus circumnuclear starburst hybrid galaxy NGC 7469 are presented. The radio emission from the starburst is largely confined to a ring of diameter 3 arcsec, or 1.0 kpc. There is clear evidence for optical continuum emission and probably optical line emission from the ring. The disks of NGC 1068 and NGC 7469 exhibit a strong similarity in almost all observed properties. Current star formation models can account for the luminous far-infrared emission and the strength of the nonthermal radio emission in NGC 7469, with an expected supernova rate of about one per year. The starburst ring is probably a result of concentration of gas into a ring via resonances between orbital motion and a rotating barlike or ovally distorted potential.

  6. FISICA observations of the starburst galaxy, NGC 1569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Raines, S. N.; Gruel, N.; Elston, R.; Guzman, R.; Julian, J.; Boreman, G.; Glenn, P. E.; Hull-Allen, C. G.; Hoffman, J.; Rodgers, M.; Thompson, K.; Flint, S.; Comstock, L.; Myrick, B.

    2006-06-01

    Using the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) we obtained observations of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569. We present our JH band spectra, particularly noting the existence of extended emission in Paschen β and He I.

  7. New Deep HST/ACS Photometry of NGC 1569: Constraining the Evolution of the Strongest Starburst in the Nearby Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocholski, Aaron J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Mack, J.

    2010-01-01

    Massive starbursts drive the evolution of galaxies at high redshift, but they can only be studied in detail in the nearby Universe where they are much rarer. The dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1569 has always been considered the closest example of a true starburst, with exceptionally high sustained star formation (SF) over the last Gyr. This recent SF has been extensively constrainted by HST studies that reached to near the presumed magnitude of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). These studies could not address the onset of the most ancient SF or the triggering mechanism of the current starburst. Here we present new deep HST ACS/WFC photometry of the resolved stars in NGC 1569 that goes some 4 mag deeper than any previous HST observations. These data allowed us to unequivocally detect and measure the TRGB for the first time and show that NGC 1569 is considerably farther away than previously believed. At ˜3 Mpc it is actually a member of the IC 342 group of galaxies, instead of being a starburst in isolation. In addition to the TRGB, our increased photometric depth also gives access to the fainter red clump and horizontal branch features in the I vs V-I color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of NGC 1569, allowing us to constrain for the first time even the most ancient SFH of this extreme starburst through the use of synthetic CMDs. The area sampled by our ACS/WFC observations is some 25 times larger than in previous HST studies, allowing us to characterize the spatial variations of the SFH, from the central star forming regions of NGC 1569 out into the older and more sparsely populated "halo". The results reveal the evolutionary status of this extreme starburst over cosmic time.

  8. Hubble Space Telescope Pixel Analysis of the Interacting Face-on Spiral Galaxy NGC 5194 (M51A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Ree, Chang Hee; Kyeong, Jaemann; Chung, Jiwon

    2011-10-01

    A pixel analysis is carried out on the interacting face-on spiral galaxy NGC 5194 (M51A), using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) images in the F435W, F555W, and F814W (BVI) bands. After 4 × 4 binning of the HST/ACS images to secure a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for each pixel, we derive several quantities describing the pixel color-magnitude diagram (pCMD) of NGC 5194: blue/red color cut, red pixel sequence parameters, blue pixel sequence parameters, and blue-to-red pixel ratio. The red sequence pixels are mostly older than 1 Gyr, while the blue sequence pixels are mostly younger than 1 Gyr, in their luminosity-weighted mean stellar ages. The color variation in the red pixel sequence from V = 20 mag arcsec-2 to V = 17 mag arcsec-2 corresponds to a metallicity variation of Δ[Fe/H] ~2 or an optical depth variation of Δτ V ~ 4 by dust, but the actual sequence is thought to originate from the combination of those two effects. At V compressing process by spiral density waves: dense dust → newly formed stars. The tidal interaction between NGC 5194 and NGC 5195 appears to enhance the star formation at the tidal bridge connecting the two galaxies. We find that the pixels corresponding to the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) area of NGC 5194 show a tight sequence at the bright-end of the pCMD, which are in the region of R ~ 100 pc and may be a photometric indicator of AGN properties.

  9. Hubble space telescope observations of young star clusters in NGC-4038/4039, 'the antennae' galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Bradley C.; Schweizer, Francois

    1995-01-01

    New, high-resolution images of the disks of NGC 4038/4039 obtained with the Wide Field Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. NGC 4038/4039, nicknamed The Antennae, is a prototypical example of a pair of colliding galaxies believed to be at an early stage of a merger. Down to the limiting magnitude of V approximately 23 mag, the HST images reveal a population of over 700 blue pointlike objects within the disks. The mean absolute magnitude of these objects is M(sub V) = -11 mag, with the brightest objects reaching M(sub V) approximately -15. Their mean apparent color indices ar U - V = -0.7 mag and V - 1 = 0.8 mag on the Johnson UVI passband system, while their mean indices corrected for internal reddening are (u - v)(sub 0) = -1.0 mag and (V - I(sub 0) = 0.5. Their mean effective radius, determined from slightly resolved images, is 18 pc (for H(sub 0) = 50 km/s /Mpc). Based on their luminosities and resolution, most of these objects cannot be individual stars, but are likely young compact star clusters. The brighter ones are similar to the objects found in NGC 1275 and NGC 7252, which appear to be young globular clusters formed during recent galazy mergers. Based on their U - V and V - I colors, the brightest, bluest clusters of NGC 4038/4039 appear to be less than 10 Myr old. Most of these bright clusters are relatively tightly clustered themselves, with typically a dozen individual clusters belonging to a complex identified as a giant H II region from ground-based observations. The cluster luminosity function (LF) is approximately a power law, phi(L)dL proportional to L(exp -1.78+/-0.05)dL, with no hint of a turnover at fainter magnitudes. This power-law shape agrees with the LF of Magellanic Cloud clusters and Galactic open clusters, but differs from the LF of old globular cluster systems that is typically Gaussian with a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of approximately 3 mag. Besides the blue clusters, we also find about a dozen extremely

  10. The variable stars of NGC 1866

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Douglas L.; Cote, Patrick; Fischer, Philippe; Mateo, Mario; Madore, Barry F.

    1991-01-01

    A search has been conducted for new variables in the LMC cluster NGC 1866 using new multiepoch CCD photometry. Eight previously unknown Cepheid variables, most near the cluster core, are found. Of the new variables reported by Storm et al. (188), only six of 10 appear to be Cepheids and one of these is not a member. Periods and mean magnitudes and colors for sufficiently uncrowded variables are reported, as is one red giant variable of long period and one Cepheid which is a single-lined spectroscopic binary with a velocity semiamplitude greater than or equal to 10.5 km/s. The variation of light-curve amplitude with position in the instability strip is reported along with an apparently nonvariable star, which is a radial velocity member, in the strip. A true distance modulus of 18.57 + or - 0.01 mag is obtained for the cluster.

  11. Estudio de la galaxia peculiar NGC 1487

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, E. L.; Paolantonio, S.; Gunthardt, G.

    La galaxia peculiar NGC 1487, cuya morfología sugiere un evento de ``merging" o interacción próxima, es estudiada en base a material observacional espectroscópico y fotométrico obtenido en el CASLEO. Mediante técnicas espectrofotométricas standards se determinan las principales características espectrales, los mecanismos de excitación actuantes, las condiciones físicas y las velocidades radiales de las estructuras conspicuas de la galaxia. Por otra parte, usando imágenes directas en las bandas B, V, R e I, se obtienen distribuciones detalladas de los colores B-V, V-R y R-I y detalles de su morfología.

  12. Supernova 2004ci in NGC 5980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, M.; Park, S.; Foley, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    Further to IAUC 8349, M. Armstrong reports his discovery, on images taken on June 16.997 UT, of an apparent supernova (mag 17.5) located at R.A. = 15h41m29s.83, Decl. = +15o47'13".1 (equinox 2000.0), which is 10".1 west and 2".3 south of the center of NGC 5980. Nothing was visible at this location on an image taken by Armstrong on 2003 Apr. 8. Further to IAUC 8345 and 8350, S. Park and R. J. Foley also report LOSS observations of SN 2004ci via KAIT images taken on June 15.3 (mag about 17.7) and 17.3 (mag about 17.4), giving position end figures 29s.71, 12".7. A KAIT image taken on June 12.4 showed nothing at this position (limiting mag about 19.0).

  13. NGC6543: Cat's Eye and Bull's Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, B.; Wilson, J. M.

    2000-05-01

    Deep Hubble images of NGC 6543 reveal a series of regularly spaced circular concentric ``rings'' that surround the famous Cat's Eye nebula. The rings seen in the lines of Hα , [O III], and [N II] but not the continuum. These photoionized rings are almost certainly the result of periodic spherical mass pulsations by the nucleus before the Cat's Eye formed. A good fit to the observed Hα surface brightness distribution is obtained if the bubbles were ejected with constant mass, thickness, and ejection velocity. The model can be used to estimate the total mass of the rings, ~ 0.1M⊙ , which lies between that of the core ( ~ 0.05 M⊙ ) and the surrounding halo ( ~ 0.5 M⊙ ). Assuming an ejection speed of 10 km s-1 the interpulse period is 1500 +/- 300 y, the same as the expansion age of the core itself. Hubble images of other planetaries displayed on the poster, IC 418, NGC 7027, and Hubble 5 (a bipolar) show similar sets of multiple concentric rings. Hence, it appears, regular isotropic AGB mass pulses often precede the formation of brighter and more complex PN cores. However, the interpulse time scale, ~ 103 y, is a serious problem for extant models of core thermal pulses and surface pulsations. The cores of PNe seem to form in an abrupt change of mode of mass loss, as predicted by disrputive binary companion merger models. A preprint is available from ftp://ftp.astro.washington.edu/pub/users/balick/6543paper. Financial support from NASA/STScI grant GO 7501 is very gratefully acknowledged.

  14. ALMA CO Observations of Shocks and Star Formation in the Interacting Galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Elmegreen, Bruce; Kaufman, Michele; Brinks, Elias; Struck, Curtis; Bournaud, Frederic; Sheth, Kartik; Juneau, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The spiral galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are a well-studied pair undergoing a grazing collision. ALMA CO observations of masses, column densities, and velocities are combined with HI, Hα, optical, and 24 micron data to study the star formation rates and efficiencies. The close encounter of the galaxies produced in-plane tidal forces in IC 2163, resulting in a large shock with high molecular velocity gradients and both radial and azimuthal streaming (100 km/s) that formed a pile-up of molecular gas in the resulting cuspy-oval or ``eyelid'' structure at mid-radius. The encounter also produced forces nearly orthogonal to the plane of NGC 2207, resulting in a warp. By comparing with the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation for star formation, we find that some regions of NGC 2207 with unusually high turbulent speeds (40-50 km/s) and high star formation rates (>0.01 Mo/pc2/Myr) have gas that is predominantly atomic with high density cores. Half of the CO mass is in 300 clouds each more massive than 4.0x105 Mo. The mass distribution functions for the CO clouds and star complexes in the eyelid in IC 2163 both have a slope similar to what is observed in Milky Way clouds; the CO slope is steeper in NGC 2207. The CO distribution in NGC 2207 also includes a nuclear ring, a mini-bar, and a mini-starburst region that dominates the 24 micron, radio, and Hα emission in both galaxies. Dust extinction, molecular column densities, and slightly negative molecular velocities indicate the mini-starburst region has ejected a jet of molecular gas nearly perpendicular to the plane of NGC 2207 on the near side with a kinetic energy of 1052 ergs. The large scale star formation efficiency, measured as the ratio of the summed masses of the star complexes near molecular clouds to the combined star complex and cloud masses, is 7% overall; it is 23% in the mini-starburst. The maximum age of star complexes in the galactic-scale shock front at the eyelid is about the same as the time since closest

  15. Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC3256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodruck, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis; Charlton, Jane C.

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. With this in mind, we have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC3256's Western and Eastern tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show median color values of u - g = 1.12 and r - i = 0.09 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.29 and r - i = 0.21 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to ages of approximately 450 Myr and 900 Myr for the tails, respectively. A u - g color gradient is seen in the Western tail as well, running from 1.32 to 1.08 (~2000 Myr to 400 Myr), suggesting ages inside tidal tails can have significant variations.

  16. Metallicities of young massive clusters in NGC 5236 (M83)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Larsen, Søren; Trager, Scott; Kaper, Lex; Groot, Paul

    2018-01-01

    We present integrated-light (IL) spectra of eight young massive clusters (YMCs) in the metal-rich spiral galaxy NGC 5236 (M83). The observations were taken with the X-Shooter spectrograph on the ESO Very Large Telescope. Through the use of theoretical isochrones and synthetic IL spectra, we derive metallicities and study the radial metallicity gradient observed through these young populations. For the inner regions of the galaxy, we observe a relatively shallow metallicity gradient of -0.37 ± 0.29 dex R_{25}^{-1}, agreeing with chemical evolution models with an absence of infall material and a relatively low mass-loss due to winds in the inner parts of the disc. We estimate a central metallicity of [Z] = +0.17 ± 0.12 dex, finding excellent agreement with that obtained via other methods (e.g. blue supergiants and J band). We infer a metallicity of 12+log(O/H) = 8.75 ± 0.08 dex at R/R25 = 0.4, which fits the stellar mass-metallicity relation compilation of blue supergiants and IL studies.

  17. Submm Observations of Massive Star Formation in the Giant Molecular Cloud NGC 6334 : Gas Kinematics with Radiative Transfer Models

    OpenAIRE

    Zernickel, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Context. How massive stars (M>8 Ms) form and how they accrete gas is still an open research field, but it is known that their influence on the interstellar medium (ISM) is immense. Star formation involves the gravitational collapse of gas from scales of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) down to dense hot molecular cores (HMCs). Thus, it is important to understand the mass flows and kinematics in the ISM. Aims. This dissertation focuses on the detailed study of the region NGC 6334,...

  18. Far-ultraviolet observation of the globular cluster NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieball, A.; Rasekh, A.; Knigge, C.; Shara, M.; Zurek, D.

    2017-07-01

    We present an observational far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) study of the core region of the globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397. The observations were obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS, FUV) and the Wide Field Camera 3 (NUV) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Here, we focus on the UV-bright stellar populations such as blue stragglers (BSs), white dwarfs (WDs) and cataclysmic variables (CVs). We present the first FUV - NUV colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) for this cluster. To support our classification of the stellar populations, we compare our FUV - NUV CMD with optical data from the ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. The FUV - NUV CMD indicates 16 sources located in the WD area, and 10 BSs within the 25 × 25 arcsec2 of the STIS FUV data. 18 Chandra X-ray sources are located within the FUV field of view. 13 of those have an NUV counterpart, of which 9 sources also have an FUV counterpart. Out of those, five sources are previously suggested CVs, and indeed, all five are located in the WD/CV region in our FUV - NUV CMD. Another CV has only an FUV but no NUV counterpart. We also detect an NUV (but no FUV) counterpart to the millisecond pulsar (MSP) located in the core of this cluster. The NUV light curves of the CVs and MSP show flickering behaviour typical of CVs. We found that the BSs and CVs are the most centrally concentrated populations. This might be an effect of mass segregation or it might indicate the preferred birth place of BSs and CVs via dynamical interactions in the dense core region of GCs. Horizontal branch stars are the least centrally concentrated population and absent in the innermost area of the core.

  19. Characterizing the Supernova Remnant Population of the Fireworks Galaxy, NGC 6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, William

    2017-08-01

    Characterizing large uniform samples of supernova remnants (SNRs) in spiral galaxies can lead to fundamental insights about the stellar cycle of life, death, and rebirth. We have underway a comprehensive multiwavelength (optical, near-IR, radio, X-ray) campaign using both imaging and spectroscopy to identify and characterize the rich SNR population in NGC 6946, which has produced more historical SNe than any other galaxy. Our catalog of 200 candidates from ground-based imaging is missing key information about their size and morphology, since at the 5.9 Mpc distance, where 1 = 33 pc, all the smaller (younger) SNRs are unresolved. We request HST (WFC3 UVIS) imaging in H-alpha and [S II] 6716, 6731 of seven fields in NGC 6946, which will allow us to (a) measure sizes and morphologies of the ground-based SNR candidates, (b) identify small-diameter SNR candidates missed in the ground-based survey or located in confused regions, (c) search for optical traces from any of the 7 (out of 9) historical SNe within our survey region, and (d) search for any exceptional objects such as very young SNRs or micro-quasars that may be masquerading as normal SNR candidates. We also propose to use deep photometry and CMD-fitting on archival HST-ACS two-color broadband imagery of three fields, plus one additional ACS field proposed here, to determine the age of the stellar population surrounding many of the SNRs, and thus constrain the masses of their progenitor SNe. Finally, we will compare NGC 6946 with a similarly comprehensive analysis we have done for M83 to understand what characteristics might be galaxy dependent versus more universal.

  20. Spitzer observations of NGC 2264: the nature of the disk population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, P. S.; Lada, C. J.; Marengo, M.; Lada, E. A.

    2012-04-01

    Aims: NGC 2264 is a young cluster with a rich circumstellar disk population which makes it an ideal target for studying the evolution of stellar clusters. Our goal is to study the star formation history of NGC 2264 and to analyse the primordial disk evolution of its members. Methods: The study presented is based on data obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, combined with deep near-infrared (NIR) ground-based FLAMINGOS imaging and previously published optical data. Results: We build NIR dust extinction maps of the molecular cloud associated with the cluster, and determine it to have a mass of 2.1 × 103 M⊙ above an AV of 7 mag. Using a differential Ks-band luminosity function (KLF) of the cluster, we estimate the size of the population of NGC 2264, within the area observed by FLAMINGOS, to be 1436 ± 242 members. The star formation efficiency is ≥ ~25%. We identify the disk population and divide it into 3 groups based on their spectral energy distribution slopes from 3.6 μm to 8 μm and on the 24 μm excess emission: (i) optically thick inner disks, (ii) anaemic inner disks, and (iii) disks with inner holes, or transition disks. We analyse the spatial distribution of these sources and find that sources with thick disks segregate into sub-clusterings, whereas sources with anaemic disks do not. Furthermore, sources with anaemic disks are found to be unembedded (i.e., with AV evolution, our findings support the emerging disk evolution paradigm of two distinct evolutionary paths for primordial optically thick disks: a homologous one where the disk emission decreases uniformly at NIR and mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths, and a radially differential one where the emission from the inner region of the disk decreases more rapidly than from the outer region (forming transition disks).

  1. The chemical composition of the low-mass Galactic globular cluster NGC 6362

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Dalessandro, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Cassisi, S.; Fiorentino, G.; Ibata, R. A.; Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.

    We present chemical abundances for 17 elements in a sample of 11 red giant branch stars in NGC 6362 from UVES spectra. NGC 6362 is one of the least massive globulars where multiple populations have been detected, yet its detailed chemical composition has not been investigated so far. NGC 6362 turns

  2. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica em NGC 2438 e NGC 2440

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbe, A. C.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    Tradicionalmente, as abundâncias em nebulosas planetárias e regiões HII têm sido obtidas de linhas excitadas colisionalmente, as quais são fortemente dependentes da temperatura eletrônica. Alternativamente, as abundâncias químicas podem ser determinadas de linhas de recombinação, as quais são quase independententes da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, consideráveis diferenças têm sido encontradas entre estes dois métodos. Estas discrepâncias têm sido atribuídas às flutuações espaciais da temperatura eletrônica. Entretanto, as magnitudes necessárias de flutuações de temperatura eletrônica são consideravelmente mais altas do que aquelas preditas pelos modelos padrões de fotoionização e os mecânismos físicos que poderiam explicar as grandes flutuações de temperatura são desconhecidas. Desta forma, o estudo de variações da temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII e nebulosas planetárias tem ganho um renovado interesse. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados preliminares de um estudo observacional sobre variações internas da temperatura eletrônica nas nebulosas planetárias NGC 2440 e NGC 2438. Analisamos dados espectrofotométricos de fenda longa, com alta razão sinal-ruído, na faixa de 3300-6800 Å, com o espectrógrafo Cassegrain Boller & Chivens acoplado ao telescópio de 1.52 m do European Southern Observatory (ESO). Temperaturas eletrônicas foram derivadas da razão [OIII](l4959+l5007)/l4363 em diferentes posições em cada nebulosa planetária. Flutuações da temperatura eletrônica foram detectadas e suas magnitudes foram estimadas em NGC 2440 e NGC 2438.

  3. A tidally distorted dwarf galaxy near NGC 4449.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R M; Collins, M L M; Black, C M; Longstaff, F A; Koch, A; Benson, A; Reitzel, D B

    2012-02-08

    NGC 4449 is a nearby Magellanic irregular starburst galaxy with a B-band absolute magnitude of -18 and a prominent, massive, intermediate-age nucleus at a distance from Earth of 3.8 megaparsecs (ref. 3). It is wreathed in an extraordinary neutral hydrogen (H I) complex, which includes rings, shells and a counter-rotating core, spanning ∼90 kiloparsecs (kpc; refs 1, 4). NGC 4449 is relatively isolated, although an interaction with its nearest known companion--the galaxy DDO 125, some 40 kpc to the south--has been proposed as being responsible for the complexity of its H I structure. Here we report the presence of a dwarf galaxy companion to NGC 4449, namely NGC 4449B. This companion has a V-band absolute magnitude of -13.4 and a half-light radius of 2.7 kpc, with a full extent of around 8 kpc. It is in a transient stage of tidal disruption, similar to that of the Sagittarius dwarf near the Milky Way. NGC 4449B exhibits a striking S-shaped morphology that has been predicted for disrupting galaxies but has hitherto been seen only in a dissolving globular cluster. We also detect an additional arc or disk ripple embedded in a two-component stellar halo, including a component extending twice as far as previously known, to about 20 kpc from the galaxy's centre.

  4. Sodium abundances of AGB and RGB stars in Galactic globular clusters. II. Analysis and results of NGC 104, NGC 6121, and NGC 6809

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Primas, F.; Charbonnel, C.; Van der Swaelmen, M.; Bono, G.; Chantereau, W.; Zhao, G.

    2017-11-01

    Aims: We investigate the Na abundance distribution of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in Galactic globular clusters (GCs) and its possible dependence on GC global properties, especially age and metallicity. Methods: We analyze high-resolution spectra of a large sample of AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic GCs NGC 104, NGC 6121, and NGC 6809 obtained with FLAMES/GIRAFFE at ESO/VLT, and determine their Na abundances. This is the first time that the AGB stars in NGC 6809 are targeted. Moreover, to investigate the dependence of AGB Na abundance dispersion on GC parameters, we compare the AGB [Na/H] distributions of a total of nine GCs, with five determined by ourselves with homogeneous method and four from literature, covering a wide range of GC parameters. Results: NGC 104 and NGC 6809 have comparable AGB and RGB Na abundance distributions revealed by the K-S test, while NGC 6121 shows a lack of very Na-rich AGB stars. By analyzing all nine GCs, we find that the Na abundances and multiple populations of AGB stars form complex picture. In some GCs, AGB stars have similar Na abundances and/or second-population fractions as their RGB counterparts, while some GCs do not have Na-rich second-population AGB stars, and various cases exist between the two extremes. In addition, the fitted relations between fractions of the AGB second population and GC global parameters show that the AGB second-population fraction slightly anticorrelates with GC central concentration, while no robust dependency can be confirmed with other GC parameters. Conclusions: Current data roughly support the prediction of the fast-rotating massive star (FRMS) scenario. However, considering the weak observational and theoretical trends where scatter and exceptions exist, the fraction of second-population AGB stars can be affected by more than one or two factors, and may even be a result of stochasticity. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal

  5. The origin of the UV/optical lags in NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Emma; Done, Chris

    2017-09-01

    The new multiwavelength monitoring campaign on NGC 5548 shows clearly that the variability of the ultraviolet (UV)/optical light curves lags by progressively longer times at longer wavelengths, as expected from reprocessing off an optically thick disc, but that the time-scales are longer than expected for a standard Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disc. We build a full spectral-timing reprocessing model to simulate the UV/optical light curves of NGC 5548. We show that disc reprocessing of the observed hard X-ray light curve produces optical light curves with too much fast variability as well as too short a lag time. Suppressing the fast variability requires an intervening structure preventing the hard X-rays from illuminating the disc. We propose this is the disc itself, perhaps due to atomic processes in the UV lifting the photosphere, increasing the scaleheight, making it less dense and less able to thermalize, so that it radiates low-temperature Comptonized emission as required to produce the soft X-ray excess. The outer edge of the puffed-up Comptonized disc region emits far-UV (FUV) flux, and can illuminate the outer thin blackbody disc, but while this gives reprocessed variable emission that is much closer to the observed UV and optical light curves, the light travel lags are still too short to match the data. We reverse engineer a solution to match the observations and find that the luminosity and temperature of the lagged emission are not consistent with material at the light travel lag distance responding to the irradiating flux (either FUV or X-ray). We conclude that the UV/optical lags of NGC 5548 are neither the light travel time from X-ray reprocessing nor the light travel time from FUV reprocessing, but instead could be the time-scale for the outer blackbody disc vertical structure to respond to the changing FUV illumination.

  6. ROTATIONAL DYNAMICS AND STAR FORMATION IN THE NEARBY DWARF GALAXY NGC 5238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew T.; Teich, Yaron G., E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: amcnicho@nrao.edu, E-mail: yateich@gmail.com; and others

    2016-12-01

    We present new H i spectral-line images of the nearby low-mass galaxy NGC 5238, acquired with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. Located at a distance of 4.51 ± 0.04 Mpc, NGC 5238 is an actively star-forming galaxy with widespread H α and ultraviolet (UV) continuum emission. The source is included in many ongoing and recent nearby galaxy surveys, but until this work the spatially resolved qualities of its neutral interstellar medium have remained unstudied. Our H i images resolve the disk on physical scales of ∼400 pc, allowing us to undertake a detailed comparative study of the gaseous and stellar components. The H i disk is asymmetric in the outer regions, and the areas of high H i mass surface density display a crescent-shaped morphology that is slightly offset from the center of the stellar populations. The H i column density exceeds 10{sup 21} cm{sup −2} in much of the disk. We quantify the degree of co-spatiality of dense H i gas and sites of ongoing star formation as traced by far-UV and H α emission. The neutral gas kinematics are complex; using a spatially resolved position–velocity analysis, we infer a rotational velocity of 31 ± 5 km s{sup −1}. We place NGC 5238 on the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation and contextualize the system among other low-mass galaxies.

  7. Another Nonsegregated Blue Straggler Population in a Globular Cluster: the Case of NGC 2419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Vespe, F.; Bellazzini, M.; Rood, R. T.

    2008-07-01

    We have used a combination of ACS HST high-resolution and wide-field Subaru data in order to study the blue straggler star (BSS) population over the entire extension of the remote Galactic globular cluster NGC 2419. The BSS population presented here is among the largest ever observed in any stellar system, with more than 230 BSSs in the brightest portion of the sequence. The radial distribution of the selected BSSs is essentially the same as that of the other cluster stars. In this sense the BSS radial distribution is similar to that of ω Centauri and unlike that of all Galactic globular clusters studied to date, which have highly centrally segregated distributions and, in most cases, a pronounced upturn in the external regions. As in the case of ω Centauri, this evidence indicates that NGC 2419 is not yet relaxed even in the central regions. This observational fact is in agreement with estimated half-mass relaxation time, which is of the order of the cluster age. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA HST, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Also based on Subaru observations collected at the Hawaii National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  8. Investigating Open Clusters Melotte 111 and NGC 6811

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunshefski, Linda; Paust, Nathaniel E. Q.; van Belle, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    We present photometry and color-magnitude diagrams for the open clusters Melotte 111 (Coma Bernices) and NGC 6811. These clusters were observed with Lowell Observatory’s Discovery Channel Telescope Large Monolithic Imager in the V and I bands. The images were reduced with IRAF and photometry was performed with DAOPHOT/ALLSTAR. The resulting photometry extends many magnitudes below the main sequence turnoff. Both clusters are located nearby, (Melotte 111 d=86 pc and NGC 6811 d=1,107) and are evolutionarily young (Melotte 111, age=450 Myr and NGC 6811, age=1,000 Myr). This work marks the first step of a project to determine the cluster main sequence mass functions and examine how the mass functions evolve in young stellar populations.

  9. Planetary Nebulae as Probes of Dark Matter in NGC 3384

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Benoit; Merritt, David; Williams, T. B.

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained radial velocities of 68 planetary nebulae surrounding the SB0 galaxy NGC 3384 in the Leo I group, using the CTIO 4 m telescope and the Rutgers Fabry-Perot interferometer. The PN system exhibits a well-ordered rotation field aligned with the photometric axes of the galaxy. The rotation curve is flat from about 2 kpc until at least 7 kpc. Our results imply that at least a third of the dynamical mass of the NGC 3379/3384 system may be accounted for in the two bright galaxies.

  10. NGC 2849 y NGC 6134: dos cúmulos abiertos más para el proyecto BOCCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Bragaglia, A.; Cignoni, M.; Donati, P.; Tosi, M.; Marconi, G.

    The "Bologna Open Cluster Chemical Evolution" (BOCCE) project is a photometric and spectroscopic survey of Galactic open clusters (OCs), to be used as tracers of the properties and evolution of the Galactic disk. The main OCs parameters are derived in a precise and homogeneous way, and they will be used, for example, to determine the metallicity distribution in the Galactic disk and how it has evolved with time. We present here part of our last effort, concerning the photometric data obtained for NGC 2849 and NGC 6134. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. Spectroscopic evidence of distinct stellar populations in the counter-rotating stellar disks of NGC 3593 and NGC 4550

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccato, L.; Morelli, L.; Pizzella, A.; Corsini, E. M.; Buson, L. M.; Dalla Bontà, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We present the results of integral-field spectroscopic observations of the two disk galaxies NGC 3593 and NGC 4550 obtained with the Visible Multi Object Spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. Both galaxies are known to host two counter-rotating stellar disks, with the ionized gas corotating with one of them. We measured in each galaxy the surface brightness, kinematics, mass surface density, and the stellar populations of the two stellar components, as well as the distribution, kinematics, and metallicity of the ionized-gas component to constrain the formation scenario of these peculiar galaxies. Methods: We applied a novel spectroscopic decomposition technique to both galaxies, to disentangle at each position in the field of view the relative contribution of the two counter-rotating stellar and one ionized-gas components to the observed spectrum. We measured the kinematics and the line strengths of the Lick indices of the two counter-rotating stellar components. We modeled the data of each stellar component with single stellar population models that account for the α/Fe overabundance. Results: In both galaxies we successfully separated the main from the secondary stellar component that is less massive and rotates in the same direction as the ionized-gas component. The two stellar components have exponential surface-brightness profiles. In NGC 3593 they have different scale lengths, with the secondary one dominating the innermost 500 pc. In NGC 4550 they have the same scale lengths, but slightly different scale heights. In both galaxies, the two counter-rotating stellar components have different stellar populations. The secondary stellar disk is younger, more metal poor, and more α-enhanced than the main galaxy stellar disk. Such a difference is stronger in NGC 3593 than in NGC 4550. Conclusions: Our findings rule out an internal origin of the secondary stellar component and favor a scenario where it formed from gas accreted on retrograde orbits from

  12. Measuring light echoes in NGC 4051

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T. J.; Miller, L.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2017-06-01

    Five archived X-ray observations of NGC 4051, taken using the NuSTAR observatory, have been analysed, revealing lags between flux variations in bands covering a wide range of X-ray photon energy. In all pairs of bands compared, the harder band consistently lags the softer band by at least 1000 s, at temporal frequencies ˜5 × 10-5 Hz. In addition, soft-band lags up to 400 s are measured at frequencies ˜2 × 10-4 Hz. Light echoes from an excess of soft band emission in the inner accretion disc cannot explain the lags in these data, as they are seen in cross-correlations with energy bands where the softer band is expected to have no contribution from reflection. The basic properties of the time delays have been parametrized by fitting a top-hat response function that varies with photon energy, taking fully into account the covariance between measured time lag values. The low-frequency hard-band lags and the transition to soft-band lags are consistent with time lags arising as reverberation delays from circumnuclear scattering of X-rays, although greater model complexity is required to explain the entire spectrum of lags. The scattered fraction increases with increasing photon energy as expected, and the scattered fraction is high, indicating the reprocessor to have a global covering fraction ˜50 per cent around the continuum source. Circumnuclear material, possibly associated with a disc wind at a few hundred gravitational radii from the primary X-ray source, may provide suitable reprocessing.

  13. The X-/γ-Ray Correlation in NGC 4945 and the Nature of Its γ-Ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojaczyński, Rafał; Niedźwiecki, Andrzej

    2017-11-01

    We report hints for the correlation between the X-ray and γ-ray emission in the nearby galaxy NGC 4945, which harbors both an active galactic nucleus and a nuclear starburst region. We have divided the Fermi/LAT observations of NGC 4945 into two data sets, comprising events detected during the low (L) and high (H) level of X-ray emission from the active nucleus of this galaxy, determined using the Swift/BAT light curve. Both data sets contain an equal amount of 3.8 years of LAT data and NGC 4945 is detected with a similar statistical significance of ˜ 15σ in L and 14σ in H. However, the slope of the γ-ray spectrum hardens with the increase of the X-ray flux, with the photon index {{Γ }}=2.47+/- 0.07 in L and 2.11 ± 0.08 in H. The change is confirmed by a systematic variation of the spectral energy distribution as well as a substantial reversal of the γ-ray signal in significance maps for low and high γ-ray energies. The X-/γ-ray correlation indicates that the γ-ray production is dominated by the active nucleus rather than by cosmic rays interacting with the interstellar medium. We discuss possible locations of the γ-ray source. We also compare NGC 4945 with other starburst galaxies detected by LAT and we note similarities between those with active nuclei, e.g., unlikely high efficiencies of γ-ray production in starburst scenario, which argues for a significant contribution of their active nuclei to the γ-ray emission.

  14. Spatially Resolved Dust, Gas, and Star Formation in the Dwarf Magellanic Irregular NGC 4449

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzetti, D.; Wilson, G. W.; Draine, B. T.; Roussel, H.; Johnson, K. E.; Heyer, M. H.; Wall, W. F.; Grasha, K.; Battisti, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Rosa González, D.; Vega, O.; Puschnig, J.; Yun, M.; Östlin, G.; Evans, A. S.; Tang, Y.; Lowenthal, J.; Sánchez-Arguelles, D.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the relation between gas and star formation in subgalactic regions, ∼360 pc to ∼1.5 kpc in size, within the nearby starburst dwarf NGC 4449, in order to separate the underlying relation from the effects of sampling at varying spatial scales. Dust and gas mass surface densities are derived by combining new observations at 1.1 mm, obtained with the AzTEC instrument on the Large Millimeter Telescope, with archival infrared images in the range 8–500 μm from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory. We extend the dynamic range of our millimeter (and dust) maps at the faint end, using a correlation between the far-infrared/millimeter colors F(70)/F(1100) (and F(160)/F(1100)) and the mid-infrared color F(8)/F(24) that we establish for the first time for this and other galaxies. Supplementing our data with maps of the extinction-corrected star formation rate (SFR) surface density, we measure both the SFR–molecular gas and the SFR–total gas relations in NGC 4449. We find that the SFR–molecular gas relation is described by a power law with an exponent that decreases from ∼1.5 to ∼1.2 for increasing region size, while the exponent of the SFR–total gas relation remains constant with a value of ∼1.5 independent of region size. We attribute the molecular law behavior to the increasingly better sampling of the molecular cloud mass function at larger region sizes; conversely, the total gas law behavior likely results from the balance between the atomic and molecular gas phases achieved in regions of active star formation. Our results indicate a nonlinear relation between SFR and gas surface density in NGC 4449, similar to what is observed for galaxy samples. Based on observations obtained with the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano—a binational collaboration between INAOE (Mexico) and the University of Massachusetts–Amherst (USA).

  15. Nuclear Gas Dynamics of NGC2110: A Black Hole Offset from the Host Galaxy Mass Center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the central regions of many galaxies are unlikely to be in a static steady state, with instabilities caused by sinking satellites, the influence of a supermassive black hole or residuals of galaxy formation, resulting in the nuclear black hole orbiting the galaxy center. The observational signature of such an orbiting black hole is an offset of the active nucleus (AGN) from the kinematic center defined by the galaxy rotation curve. This orbital motion may provide fuel for the AGN, as the hole 'grazes' on the ISM, and bent radio jets, due to the motion of their source. The early type (E/SO) Seyfert galaxy, NGC2210, with its striking twin, 'S'-shaped radio jets, is a unique and valuable test case for the offset-nucleus phenomenon since, despite its remarkably normal rotation curve, its kinematically-measured mass center is displaced both spatially (260 pc) and kinematically (170 km/s) from the active nucleus located in optical and radio studies. However, the central kinematics, where the rotation curve rises most steeply, have been inaccessible with ground-based resolutions. We present new, high resolution WFPC2 imaging and long-slit STIS spectroscopy of the central 300 pc of NGC2110. We discuss the structure and kinematics of gas moving in the galactic potential on subarcsecond scales and the reality of the offset between the black hole and the galaxy mass center.

  16. Luminous, pc-scale CO 6-5 emission in the obscured nucleus of NGC 1377

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, S.; Muller, S.; Costagliola, F.; Sakamoto, K.; Gallagher, J. S.; Falstad, N.; König, S.; Dasyra, K.; Wada, K.; Combes, F.; García-Burillo, S.; Kristensen, L. E.; Martín, S.; van der Werf, P.; Evans, A. S.; Kotilainen, J.

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution submillimeter line and continuum observations are important in probing the morphology, column density, and dynamics of the molecular gas and dust around obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs). With high-resolution (0.̋06 × 0.̋05 (6 × 5 pc)) ALMA 690 GHz observations we have found bright (TB > 80 K) and compact (full width half maximum size (FWHM) size of 10 × 7 pc) CO 6-5 line emission in the nuclear region of the extremely radio-quiet galaxy NGC 1377. The CO 6-5 intensity is partially aligned with the previously discovered jet/outflow of NGC 1377 and is tracing dense (n > 104cm-3) hot molecular gas at the base of the outflow. The velocity structure is complex and shifts across the jet/outflow are discussed in terms of separate overlapping kinematical components or rotation. High-velocity gas (Δv ± 145km s-1) is detected inside r http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/608/A22

  17. High spatial resolution observations of NGC 7027 with a 10 micron array camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, J. F.; Lamb, G. M.; Peck, M. C.; Moseley, H.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Tresch-Fienberg, R.; Fazio, G. G.

    1984-01-01

    First observations of a planetary nebula with an infrared charge injection device (CID) array camera are reported. The 10 micron images of NGC 7027 have spatial resolution comparable to that of the highest resolution (less than 2 arcsec) radio aperture-synthesis maps of this source. A much closer correspondence between the mid-infrared and radio appearance of NGC 7027 was found than was known previously, confirming that warm dust is coextensive and well mixed with the gas in the ionized zone. Using maps at three wavelengths, the spatial dependence of the shape of the 8-13 micron spectrum within the nebula is examined. The dip at 9.60 microns is shallowest in regions of enhanced optical extinction (as determined from new images near 4000 and 9000 A obtained with an optical charge coupled device). The 9.60 micron emission is strongest in these same positions. It is shown that the results may be explained not by silicate absorption, but by a combination of emission from two distinct grain populations, one of which is also partly responsible for the variation in extinction across the nebula.

  18. NGC 6334 V revisited: The complex nature of the infrared nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, M.; Persi, P.; Roth, M.

    2017-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis is presented of the most recent infrared observations of the small, very young and enigmatic infrared nebula associated with NGC 6334-V. We re-analized images from the Spitzer/IRAC (3.6 a 8 μm), Herschel/SPIRE/PACS (70 a 500 μm), VISTA (1.2 a 2.2 μm), VLT/VISIR (11.3 a 18.7 μm) and HST/NICMOS (2.0 μm) archives. The very high spatial resolution from the latter two sets, combined with very recent sub-millimetre maps, allow us to suggest several possible star-formation scenarios that explain the observed infrared and radio properties of the region. Evidence is provided of the presence of a small population of low and medium-mass young stars embedded in the infrared reflection nebulosity NGC 6334 V that coexist with the nearby much younger Class 0 protostars.

  19. EXPLORING THE UNUSUALLY HIGH BLACK-HOLE-TO-BULGE MASS RATIOS IN NGC 4342 AND NGC 4291: THE ASYNCHRONOUS GROWTH OF BULGES AND BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, Akos; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Li, Zhiyuan; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Jones, Christine [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-str. 1, 85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Mihos, J. Christopher; Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Guo, Qi [Partner Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Schindler, Sabine, E-mail: abogdan@cfa.harvard.edu [Institut fuer Astro- und Teilchenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2012-07-10

    We study two nearby early-type galaxies, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are 6.9{sup +3.8}{sub -2.3}% and 1.9% {+-} 0.6%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of {approx}0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are Almost-Equal-To 5.1{sigma} and Almost-Equal-To 3.4{sigma} outliers from the M{sub .}-M{sub bulge} scaling relation, respectively. In this paper, we explore the origin of the unusually high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-ray observations of the hot gas content of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC 4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which {approx}> 90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explain the observed high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios. Therefore, we conclude that these galaxies formed with low stellar masses, implying that the bulge and black hole did not grow in tandem. We also find that the black hole mass correlates well with the properties of the dark matter halo, suggesting that dark matter halos may play a major role in regulating the growth of the supermassive black holes.

  20. THE PATTERN SPEED OF THE BAR IN NGC-936

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MERRIFIELD, MR; KUIJKEN, K

    1995-01-01

    We have used the Tremaine-Weinberg method to measure the angular speed of rotation for the bar in the SBO galaxy NGC 936. With this technique, the bar's pattern speed, Omega(p), can be derived from the luminosity and stellar-kinematic information in long-slit spectral observations taken parallel to

  1. Spatial distribution of dust in the shell elliptical NGC 5982

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Burgo, C.; Carter, D.; Sikkema, G.

    Aims. Shells in Ellipticals are peculiar faint sharp edged features that are thought to be formed by galaxy mergers. We determine the shell and dust distributions, and colours of a well-resolved shell and the underlying galaxy in NGC 5982, and compare the spatial distributions of the dust and gas

  2. A 500 PARSEC HALO SURROUNDING THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR NGC 1851

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Using imaging that shows 4 mag of main-sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (> 250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of

  3. Astrometric and photometric study of the open cluster NGC 2323

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin M.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of the open cluster NGC 2323 using astrometric and photometric data. In our study we used two methods that are able to separate open cluster’s stars from those that belong to the stellar background. Our results of calculations by these two methods indicate that: 1 according to the membership probability, NGC 2323 should contain 497 stars, 2 the cluster center should be at 07h 02m 48.s02 and -08° 20' 17''74,3 the limiting radius of NGC 2323 is 2.31 ± 0.04 pc, the surface number density at this radius is 98.16 stars pc −2, 4 the magnitude function has a maximum at about mv = 14 mag, 5 the total mass of NGC 2323 is estimated dynamically by using astrometric data to be 890 M_, and statistically by using photometric data to be 900 M_, and 6 the distance and age of the cluster are found to be equal to 900 ± 100 pc, and 140 ± 20 Myr, respectively. Finally the dynamical evolution parameter τ of the cluster is about 436.2.

  4. Mass outflow in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crenshaw, D.M.; Kraemer, S.B.; Schmitt, H.R.; Kaastra, J.S.; Arav, N.; Gabel, J.R.; Korista, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the intrinsic UV absorption and emission lines in an historically low-state spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, which we obtained in 2004 February at high spatial and spectral resolution with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We

  5. HI observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 2146

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taramopoulos, A; Payne, H; Briggs, FH

    NGC 2146 is a peculiar spiral galaxy which is currently undergoing a major burst of star formation and is immersed in a extended HT structure that has morphological and kinematical resemblence to a strong tidal interaction. This paper reports aperture synthesis observations carried out in the 21 cm

  6. The Brightest Young Star Clusters in NGC 5253

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzetti, D.; Johnson, K.E.; Adamo, A.; Gallagher III, J.S.; Andrews, J.E.; Smith, L.J.; Clayton, G.C.; Lee, J.C.; Sabbi, E.; Ubeda, L.; Kim, H.; Ryon, J.E.; Thilker, D.; Bright, S.N.; Zackrisson, E.; Kennicutt, R.C.; de Mink, S.E.; Whitmore, B.C.; Aloisi, A.; Chandar, R.; Cignoni, M.; Cook, D.; Dale, D.A.; Elmegreen, B.G.; Elmegreen, D.M.; Evans, A.S.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D.A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E.K.; Krumholz, M.R.; Waterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Brown, T.M.; Christian, C.; Dobbs, C.; Herrero, A.; Kahre, L.; Messa, M.; Nair, P.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Tosi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 5253 hosts a number of young, massive star clusters, the two youngest of which are centrally concentrated and surrounded by thermal radio emission (the "radio nebula"). To investigate the role of these clusters in the starburst energetics, we combine new and

  7. NGC 5548 in a Low-Luminosity State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Denney, Kelly D.; Cackett, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    We describe results from a new ground-based monitoring campaign on NGC 5548, the best studied reverberation-mapped AGN. We find that it was in the lowest luminosity state yet recorded during a monitoring program, namely L(5100) = 4.7 x 10^42 ergs s^-1. We determine a rest-frame time lag between f...

  8. The ISO-SWS spectrum of planetary nebula NGC 7027

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salas, JB; Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Wesselius, PR

    We present the infrared spectrum of the planetary nebula NGC7027 observed with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS), on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). These data allow us to derive the electron density and, together with the IUE and optical spectra, the electron temperature for

  9. The central star of the Planetary Nebula NGC 6537

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value

    2000-01-01

    The fact that Space Telescope WFPC2 images of the planetary nebula NGC 6537 fail to show the central star is used to derive a limit to its magnitude: it is fainter than a magnitude of 22.4 in the visible. This is used to derive a lower limit to the temperature of the star. The Zanstra temperature is

  10. Swift Confirmation of new transient activity in NGC 6440

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahramian, A.; Kennea, J. A.; Altamirano, D.; Beri, Aru; Heinke, C. O.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Tetarenko, A. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Degenaar, Nathalie

    2017-10-01

    Following report of enhanced X-ray brightness from the direction of the globular cluster NGC 6440 (ATel #10821), we observed this cluster on 2017-10-05 18:52:35 UT for 1.5 ks with Swift/XRT in Photon Counting mode.

  11. Quenching of Star Formation in Molecular Outflow Host NGC 1266

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alatalo, K.; Nyland, K. E.; Graves, G.; Deustua, S.; Young, L. M.; Davis, T. A.; Crocker, A. F.; Bureau, M.; Bayet, E.; Blitz, L.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.; Wong, Tony; Ott, Jürgen

    We detail the rich molecular story of NGC 1266, its serendipitous discovery within the ATLAS3D survey (Cappellari et al. 2011) and how it plays host to an AGN-driven molecular outflow, potentially quenching all of its star formation (SF) within the next 100 Myr. While major mergers appear to play a

  12. Molecular Gasdynamics of the Young Nuclear Starburst in the Barred Galaxy NGC 3504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Jeffrey D. P.; Carlstrom, John E.; Young, Judith S.

    1993-12-01

    We present CO (J = 1 → 0) interferometry at 2".5 resolution and Hα CCD observations of the circumnuclear starburst region of the barred spiral galaxy NGC 3504. The CO emission is centrally peaked, extends over a region 16" (1.6 kpc) in diameter, and is relatively azimuthally symmetric. The CO radial distribution is well fitted by an exponential with a scale length of 2".3 (220 pc). This simple distribution is surprisingly unusual for the center of a galaxy. The velocity field is consistent with purely circular motions. Gas comprises ˜40% of the dynamical mass within a radius of 100 pc (1"), if the "standard" CO-H2 relationship is assumed. If isothermal and self-gravitating, the circumnuclear gas disk has a scale height of only 5-10 pc, and a spatially averaged proton density of 104 cm-3 at radii less than 300 pc. The rotation curve and the dust-lane morphology indicate the presence of an outer inner Lindblad resonance (OILR) at a radius of ˜5", and an inner inner Lindblad resonance (IILR) at a radius of ˜2". The starburst and most of the circumnuclear gas disk seem to be located between the OILR and the IILR. The maximum value of Ω-κ/2 is nearly twice as large as the bar pattern speed of the large-scale bar, and the OILR and the IILR are well separated, and these may be important dynamical differences between NGC 3504 and nonstarburst barred galaxies. The rate of high-mass star formation per unit gas mass, as traced by the ratio of Hα to CO emission, is uniformly high over the portion of the rotation curve which is nearly solid body, and drops by a factor of ˜4 where the rotation curve turns over and flattens out. Since the CO radial distribution is not ringlike despite the fact that gas is being consumed more rapidly in the center, we believe that the starburst in NGC 3504 is in an early phase of its evolution. The Toomre Q stability parameter is approximately constant at 0.9±0.2 throughout the circumnuclear molecular gas disk, so the simple

  13. VELOCITY PROFILES OF GALAXIES WITH CLAIMED BLACK-HOLES .1. OBSERVATIONS OF M31, M32, NGC-3115 AND NGC-4594

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMAREL, RP; RIX, HW; CARTER, D; FRANX, M; WHITE, SDM; DEZEEUW, T

    1994-01-01

    The presence of a massive black hole has been invoked to match the observed rotation velocities and velocity dispersions at the centres of M31, M32, NGC 3115 and NGC 4594. Here we determine stellar line-of-sight velocity profiles of these galaxies, from high spatial resolution, high S/N spectra

  14. WIYN OPEN CLUSTER STUDY. LVII. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES OF SOLAR-TYPE DWARFS IN THE HYADES AND NGC 752

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maderak, Ryan M.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Cummings, Jeffery D. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); King, Jeremy R., E-mail: ryan.maderak@mtmc.edu, E-mail: con@astro.indiana.edu, E-mail: jking2@clemson.edu, E-mail: jcummings@astro-udec.cl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Oxygen has been proposed to be a superior tracer, compared to iron, for studying galactic chemical evolution. In the context of improving our understanding of the evolution of Galactic oxygen using open clusters, we present a spectroscopic analysis of oxygen and iron abundances in the 650 Myr old Hyades cluster and in the 1.45 Gyr old cluster NGC 752, using high-dispersion 7774 Å O I triplet region spectra of dwarfs in these clusters acquired with the Hydra MOS on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. Motivated by recent improvements in analysis of the triplet, we use a strictly differential analysis in solar-type stars to obtain reliable O abundances. Using stars whose radial velocities and spectral cross-correlation analyses are consistent with single-star membership, we report Hyades cluster averages of [O/H] = 0.195 ± 0.010 and [Fe/H] = 0.130 ± 0.009 based on 22 stars, and NGC 752 cluster averages of [O/H] = –0.077 ± 0.02 and [Fe/H] = –0.063 ± 0.013 based on 36 stars (where the errors are σ{sub μ}; we discuss possible additional systematic errors). These cluster abundance averages are in very good agreement with most previous determinations. Whereas the [O/H] cluster averages utilize only stars found in the ''prime'' T {sub eff} range straddling the solar T {sub eff}, the [Fe/H] cluster averages come from stars exhibiting a flat [Fe/H]-T {sub eff} relation of over 1000 K for the Hyades and nearly 2000 K for NGC 752. Previous studies of open clusters younger than NGC 752 have reported oxygen triplet over abundances in cool dwarfs, as compared to oxygen abundances of the prime-T {sub eff} range. We report that NGC 752 also shows such overabundances, at a higher level than the Hyades overabundances, and thus contradicts the idea of a decline of such overabundances with increasing age. We discuss evidence for and against correlations of the oxygen overabundances with rotation, X-ray luminosity, chromospheric activity, and metallicity.

  15. The Physical Characteristics of Interstellar Medium in NGC 3665 with Herschel Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng-Yuan; Zhao, Yinghe; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Shi, Yong

    2018-02-01

    We present the analysis of the physical properties of the interstellar medium in the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 3665, based on the far-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data as observed by the Herschel Space Observatory. The fit to the spectral energy distribution reveals a high dust content in the galaxy, with a dust-to-stellar mass ratio of {M}dust}/M * ∼ 1.1 × 10‑4 that is nearly three times larger than the mean value of local S0+S0a galaxies. For the ionized regions (H II regions), the electron density (n e ) is around 49.5 ± 11.9 cm‑3 based on the [N II] 122 μm/[N II] 205 μm ratio. For the photodissociation regions, the heating efficiency ranges from 1.26 × 10‑3 to 1.37 × 10‑3 based on the ([C II]+[O I] 63 μm)/{L}TIR}, which is slightly lower than other local galaxies; the hydrogen nucleus density and the strength of the far-UV radiation field are n ∼ 104 cm‑3 and G 0 ∼ 10‑0.25, respectively. The above results are consistent with the presence of weak active galactic nuclei and a low level of star-forming activity in NGC 3665. Our results give strong support to the “morphological quenching” scenario, where a compact, massive bulge can stabilize the amount of cool gas against star formation. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  16. Confirmation of Multiple Pattern Speeds in the Barred, Grand Design Spiral Galaxy NGC 4321

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas; Speights, Jason C.

    2018-01-01

    Previous measurements of the pattern speed in NGC 4321 show evidence for a pattern speed that decreases with increasing radius. These measurements used a version of the Tremaine-Weinberg method that assumes a constant value of the pattern speed across the disk, so we checked those results using a general form of the method that excludes the assumption of a constant pattern speed. We find 3 approximately constant values of the pattern speed for the nuclear, bar, and spiral arms, consistent with previous measurements, but our values for the nuclear and bar regions are larger. The larger values are explainable as due to the bias from averaging when applying the version of the method that assumes a constant value of the pattern speed. Our results are consistent with mode coupling of the bar and the beginning of the spirals at the 4:1 ultra harmonic resonance.

  17. The Composition of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; Rich, R. M.; Caldwell, N.; Mateo, M.; Bailey, J. I.; Crane, J. D.

    2017-03-01

    Observations of red giants in the Bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) mounted on the Nasmuth-East port of the Magellan-Clay 6.5-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory reveal a spread in metallicity. Members have been confirmed with radial velocity. NGC 6273 has at least two populations separated by 0.2-0.3 dex in [Fe/H]. The sodium and aluminum abundances are correlated while the magnesium and aluminum abundances are anti-correlated. The cluster also shows a rise in the abundance of the s-process element lanthanum with [Fe/H] similar to other massive clusters. The cluster contains a possible third population depleted in most elements by 0.3 dex.

  18. Long-term X-ray Variability of NGC 4945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Amara; /UC, Davis /SLAC

    2007-08-29

    Though short-term X-ray variability has been studied for the active galaxy NGC 4945, long-term studies promise to contribute to our understanding of the processes involved in accretion onto supermassive black holes. In order to understand the relationship between black hole mass and breaks in the power spectral density (PSD), the long-term X-ray variability of NGC 4945 was studied over the energy range 8-30 keV. Observations occurred over the year 2006 using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The data was reduced using the package FTOOLS, most notably the scripts Rex and faxbary. Light curves were produced and a PSD was obtained using a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. Preliminary studies of the light curve show greater X-ray variability at higher frequencies. This result complements previous studies of NGC 4945 by Martin Mueller. However, the PSD produced must go through further study before accurate results can be obtained. A way to account for the window function of the PSD must be found before the behavior at lower frequencies can be studied with accuracy and the relationship between black hole mass and the break in NGC 4945's PSD can be better understood. Further work includes exploration into ways to subtract the window function from the PSD, as well as a closer analysis of the PSD produced by averaging the data into logarithmic bins. The possibility of a better way to bin the data should be considered so that the window function would be minimized.

  19. 0935+05 Supernova 1995D in NGC 2962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    1995-02-01

    Reiki Kushida of Yatsugatake South Base Observatory discovers 0935+05 Supernova 1995D in NGC 2962. Magnitude 14.0. Position RA 09h 40m 54.79s DEC +5° 08' 26.6" (2000). Nova AQL 95 confirmed spectroscopically "as a slow 'FE II'-class nova in its post-maximum phase of development. Requests continue to monitor 1436-63 Nova Cir 95.

  20. HALOGAS Observations of NGC 4559: Anomalous and Extraplanar H i and its Relation to Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Carlos J.; Walterbos, René A. M. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88001 (United States); Heald, George [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, 26 Dick Perry Ave, Kensington, WA 6151 (Australia); Fraternali, Filippo [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Patterson, Maria T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Rand, Richard J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 1919 Lomas Blvd. NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Józsa, Gyula I. G. [SKA South Africa Radio Astronomy Research Group, 3rd Floor, The Park, Park Rd., Pinelands 7405 (South Africa); Gentile, Gianfranco [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Serra, Paolo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Via della Scienza 5, I-09047 Selargius (Italy)

    2017-04-20

    We use new deep 21 cm H i observations of the moderately inclined galaxy NGC 4559 in the HALOGAS survey to investigate the properties of extraplanar gas. We use TiRiFiC to construct simulated data cubes to match the H i observations. We find that a thick-disk component of scale height ∼2 kpc, characterized by a negative vertical gradient in its rotation velocity (lag) of ∼13 ± 5 km s{sup −1} kpc{sup −1} is an adequate fit to extraplanar gas features. The tilted ring models also present evidence for a decrease in the magnitude of the lag outside R {sub 25}, and a radial inflow of ∼10 km s{sup −1}. We extracted lagging extraplanar gas through Gaussian velocity profile fitting. From both the 3D models and extraction analyses we conclude that ∼10%–20% of the total H i mass is extraplanar. Most of the extraplanar gas is spatially coincident with regions of star formation in spiral arms, as traced by H α and GALEX FUV images, so it is likely due to star formation processes driving a galactic fountain. We also find the signature of a filament of a kinematically “forbidden” H i feature, containing ∼1.4 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙} of H i, and discuss its potential relationship to a nearby H i hole. We discover a previously undetected dwarf galaxy in H i located ∼0.°4 (∼58 kpc) from the center of NGC 4559, containing ∼4 × 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}. This dwarf has counterpart sources in SDSS with spectra typical of H ii regions, and we conclude that it is two merging blue compact dwarf galaxies.

  1. Dynamics of the young LMC cluster NGC 1866

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Philippe; Welch, Douglas L.; Cote, Patrick; Mateo, Mario; Madore, Barry F.

    1992-01-01

    The 1.0-m telescope at Las Campanas was used to obtain V-band CCD images of the young LMC cluster NGC 1866 out to a projected radius of 100 pc. Radial velocities with a mean precision of 1.0 km/s were measured for 69 member supergiants using the echelle spectrograph on the 2.5-m telescope. The total cluster luminosity is 6.5 +/-0.3 x 10 exp 5 solar luminosities. A star-subtracted, median-filtered U frame was employed to determine photometric shape parameters. The stellar radial velocities indicate that NGC 1866 has a systemic velocity of 301.2 +/-1.0 km/s. A comparison of the derived values for NGC 1866 and the theoretical nu-0/sigma-0 - epsilon relationship indicates that the observed flattening is consistent with rotation. The quality of the fits for models with rotation is clearly superior to those without, and isotropic orbits agree best with the data in both cases.

  2. The multiwavelength spectrum of NGC 3115: Hot accretion flow properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Ivan; Nemmen, Rodrigo; Wong, Ka-Wah; Wu, Qingwen; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2018-01-01

    NGC 3115 is the nearest galaxy hosting a billion solar mass black hole and is also a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN). X-ray observations of this LLAGN are able to spatially resolve the hot gas within the sphere of gravitational influence of the supermassive black hole. These observations make NGC 3115 an important testbed for black hole accretion theory in galactic nuclei since they constrain the outer boundary conditions of the hot accretion flow. We present a compilation of the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) of the nucleus of NGC 3115 from radio to X-rays. We report the results from modeling the observed SED with radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. The radio emission can be well-explained by synchrotron emission from the RIAF without the need for contribution from a relativistic jet. We obtain a tight constraint on the RIAF density profile, ρ (r) ∝ r^{-0.73 _{-0.02} ^{+0.01}}, implying that mass-loss through subrelativistic outflows from the RIAF is significant. The lower frequency radio observation requires the synchrotron emission from a nonthermal electron population in the RIAF, similarly to Sgr A*.

  3. NGC 5626: a massive fast rotator with a twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, S.; Sarzi, M.; Baes, M.; Puerari, I.

    2018-02-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of the dust-lane elliptical NGC 5626 based on MUSE observations. These data allow us to robustly classify this galaxy as a fast rotator and to infer a virial mass of 1011.7 M⊙, making it one of the most massive fast rotators known. In addition, the depth and extent of the MUSE data reveal a strong kinematic twist in the stellar velocity field (by up to 45° beyond 1.5Re). A comparison with the ATLAS3D sample underlines the rareness of this system, although we show that such a large-scale kinematic twist could have been missed by the ATLAS3D data due to the limited spatial sampling of this survey (typically extending to 0.6Re for massive early-type galaxies). MUSE thus has the potential to unveil more examples of this type of galaxies. We discuss the environment and possible formation history of NGC 5626 and finally argue how a merger between the Milky Way and Andromeda could produce a galaxy of the same class as NGC 5626.

  4. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. V. Optical Spectroscopic Campaign and Emission-line Analysis for NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, L.; Fausnaugh, M. M.; Barth, A. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Bentz, M. C.; De Rosa, G.; Denney, K. D.; Goad, M. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Korista, K. T.; Kriss, G. A.; Pogge, R. W.; Bennert, V. N.; Brotherton, M.; Clubb, K. I.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Filippenko, A. V.; Greene, J. E.; Grier, C. J.; Vestergaard, M.; Zheng, W.; Adams, Scott M.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Bigley, A.; Brown, Jacob E.; Brown, Jonathan S.; Canalizo, G.; Comerford, J. M.; Coker, Carl T.; Corsini, E. M.; Croft, S.; Croxall, K. V.; Deason, A. J.; Eracleous, Michael; Fox, O. D.; Gates, E. L.; Henderson, C. B.; Holmbeck, E.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Jensen, J. J.; Johnson, C. A.; Kelly, P. L.; Kim, S.; King, A.; Lau, M. W.; Li, Miao; Lochhaas, Cassandra; Ma, Zhiyuan; Manne-Nicholas, E. R.; Mauerhan, J. C.; Malkan, M. A.; McGurk, R.; Morelli, L.; Mosquera, Ana; Mudd, Dale; Muller Sanchez, F.; Nguyen, M. L.; Ochner, P.; Ou-Yang, B.; Pancoast, A.; Penny, Matthew T.; Pizzella, A.; Poleski, Radosław; Runnoe, Jessie; Scott, B.; Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Shappee, B. J.; Shivvers, I.; Simonian, Gregory V.; Siviero, A.; Somers, Garrett; Stevens, Daniel J.; Strauss, M. A.; Tayar, Jamie; Tejos, N.; Treu, T.; Van Saders, J.; Vican, L.; Villanueva, S., Jr.; Yuk, H.; Zakamska, N. L.; Zhu, W.; Anderson, M. D.; Arévalo, P.; Bazhaw, C.; Bisogni, S.; Borman, G. A.; Bottorff, M. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Breeveld, A. A.; Cackett, E. M.; Carini, M. T.; Crenshaw, D. M.; De Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Dietrich, M.; Edelson, R.; Efimova, N. V.; Ely, J.; Evans, P. A.; Ferland, G. J.; Flatland, K.; Gehrels, N.; Geier, S.; Gelbord, J. M.; Grupe, D.; Gupta, A.; Hall, P. B.; Hicks, S.; Horenstein, D.; Horne, Keith; Hutchison, T.; Im, M.; Joner, M. D.; Jones, J.; Kaastra, J.; Kaspi, S.; Kelly, B. C.; Kennea, J. A.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. C.; Klimanov, S. A.; Lee, J. C.; Leonard, D. C.; Lira, P.; MacInnis, F.; Mathur, S.; McHardy, I. M.; Montouri, C.; Musso, R.; Nazarov, S. V.; Netzer, H.; Norris, R. P.; Nousek, J. A.; Okhmat, D. N.; Papadakis, I.; Parks, J. R.; Pott, J.-U.; Rafter, S. E.; Rix, H.-W.; Saylor, D. A.; Schnülle, K.; Sergeev, S. G.; Siegel, M.; Skielboe, A.; Spencer, M.; Starkey, D.; Sung, H.-I.; Teems, K. G.; Turner, C. S.; Uttley, P.; Villforth, C.; Weiss, Y.; Woo, J.-H.; Yan, H.; Young, S.; Zu, Y.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic monitoring program targeting NGC 5548 as part of a larger multiwavelength reverberation mapping campaign. The campaign spanned 6 months and achieved an almost daily cadence with observations from five ground-based telescopes. The Hβ and He II λ4686 broad emission-line light curves lag that of the 5100 Å optical continuum by {4.17}-0.36+0.36 {days} and {0.79}-0.34+0.35 {days}, respectively. The Hβ lag relative to the 1158 Å ultraviolet continuum light curve measured by the Hubble Space Telescope is ˜50% longer than that measured against the optical continuum, and the lag difference is consistent with the observed lag between the optical and ultraviolet continua. This suggests that the characteristic radius of the broad-line region is ˜50% larger than the value inferred from optical data alone. We also measured velocity-resolved emission-line lags for Hβ and found a complex velocity-lag structure with shorter lags in the line wings, indicative of a broad-line region dominated by Keplerian motion. The responses of both the Hβ and He II emission lines to the driving continuum changed significantly halfway through the campaign, a phenomenon also observed for C IV, Lyα, He II(+O III]), and Si IV(+O IV]) during the same monitoring period. Finally, given the optical luminosity of NGC 5548 during our campaign, the measured Hβ lag is a factor of five shorter than the expected value implied by the R BLR-L AGN relation based on the past behavior of NGC 5548.

  5. Spectroscopic Analysis of the Companion to the Binary MSP PSR J1740-5340 in NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbi, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Gratton, R.; Bragaglia, A.; Possenti, A.; D'Amico, N.

    2005-10-01

    By means of high-resolution spectra, we have measured radial velocities of the companion (hereafter COM J1740-5340) to the eclipsing millisecond pulsar PSR J1740-5340 in the galactic globular cluster NGC 6397. The radial velocity curve enables us to derive the mass ratio (MPSR/MCOM = 5.85 +/- 0.13). The derived abundances are fully compatible with those of normal unperturbed stars in NGC 6397, with the exception of a few elements. The lack of C, in particular, suggests that the star has been peeled down to regions where incomplete CNO burning occurs, supporting a scenario where the companion is a turn-off star which has lost most of its mass. A detailed analysis of the Hα lines reveals that optically thin hydrogen gas resided outside the Roche lobe of COM J1740-5340. The line morphology suggests the presence of a steam of material going from the companion toward the neutron star; this material never reachs the neutron star surface, being driven back by the pulsar radiation, far beyond COM J1740-5340. The unexpected detection of strong He I absorption lines implies the existence of regions at T > 10,000 K, which are significantly warmer than the rest of the star, and reveals the existence of a region on the companion surface, heated by the millisecond pulsar flux.

  6. The Wolf-Rayet star population in the dwarf galaxy NGC 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal-Ibero, A.; Walsh, J. R.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Sandin, C.; Relaño, M.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Quantifying the number, type, and distribution of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars is a key component in the context of galaxy evolution, since they put constraints on the age of the star formation bursts. Nearby galaxies (distances ≲5 Mpc) are particularly relevant in this context since they fill the gap between studies in the Local Group, where individual stars can be resolved, and galaxies in the Local Volume and beyond. Aims: We intend to characterise the W-R star population in one of these systems, NGC 625, which is a low-metallicity dwarf galaxy suffering a currently declining burst of star formation. Methods: Optical integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data have been obtained with the VIMOS-IFU and the HR_Orange and HR_Blue gratings at the Very Large Telescope covering the starburst region of NGC 625. Ancillary Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images in the F555W and F814W bands are also used for comparison. We estimate the number of W-R stars using a linear combination of three W-R templates: one early-type nitrogen (WN) star, one late-type WN star, and one carbon-type (WC) star (or oxygen-type (WO) star). Fits using several ensembles of templates were tested. Results were confronted with i) high spatial resolution HST photometry; ii) numbers of W-R stars in nearby galaxies; and iii) model predictions. Results: The W-R star population is spread over the main body of the galaxy and is not necessarily coincident with the overall stellar distribution. Our best estimation for the number of W-R stars yields a total of 28 W-R stars in the galaxy, out of which 17 are early-type WN, six are late-type WN, and five are WC stars. The width of the stellar features nicely correlates with the dominant W-R type found in each aperture. The distribution of the different types of WR in the galaxy is roughly compatible with the way star formation has propagated in the galaxy, according to previous findings using high spatial resolution with the HST. Fits using templates at the

  7. X-ray imaging of the ionisation cones in NGC 5252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadina, M.; Guainazzi, M.; Cappi, M.; Bianchi, S.; Vignali, C.; Malaguti, G.; Comastri, A.

    2010-06-01

    Context. The physical conditions of the gas forming the narrow-line regions (NLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGN) have been extensively studied in the optical band. Recently detailed X-ray studies have shown how the emission in the 0.1-2 keV band detected in Seyfert 2 galaxies is associated to gas lying close to or associated with the NLR. Aims: We take advantage of the spectacular extension (~15”) of the NLR in the type II Seyfert galaxy NGC 5252 and of the complementary characteristics of XMM-Newton and Chandra to investigate the physical conditions of the gas in this galaxy. Methods: The X-ray data from XMM-Newton are used to define the spectral properties of the ionising nuclear source. The Chandra data are used to trace the spatial characteristics of the soft X-ray emission. This information is then compared to the optical HST characteristics of the NLR in NGC 5252. Results: The X-ray spectrum of the nucleus of NGC 5252 is intrinsically flat (Γ~1.4-1.5) and absorbed by neutral gas with a column density NH~1022 cm-2. Below ~1 keV a soft excess is detected. The high-resolution spectrum obtained with the XMM-Newton RGS shows emission lines in the 0.2-1.5 keV range which strongly indicate that the soft X-ray component is essentially due to ionised gas. Moreover, the soft X-ray emission is spatially resolved around the nucleus and well overlaps the images obtained in narrow optical bands centred around the [Oiii] emission line at 5007 Å. The [Oiii]/soft-X flux ratios along the ionisation cones are basically constant. This indicates that the electron density does not significantly deviate from the r-2 law (constant ionisation parameter) moving outward from the nucleus. Conclusions: This result combined with previous optical studies suggests two plausible but different scenarios in the reconstruction of the last ~30 000 years of history of the central AGN. The most promising one is that the source is indeed a “quasar relic” with a steady and inefficient

  8. Wide-Field Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Globular Cluster System in NGC 1399*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzia, Thomas H.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Goudfrooij, Paul; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Angelini, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive high spatial resolution imaging study of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 1399, thecentral giant elliptical cD galaxy in the Fornax galaxy cluster, conducted with the Advanced Camera for Surveys(ACS) aboard theHubble Space Telescope(HST).Using a novel technique to construct drizzled point-spreadfunction libraries for HSTACS data, we accurately determine the fidelity of GC structural parameter measurementsfrom detailed artificial star cluster experiments and show the superior robustness of the GC half-light radius,rh,compared with other GC structural parameters, such as King core and tidal radius. The measurement ofrhfor themajor fraction of the NGC 1399 GC system reveals a trend of increasingrhversus galactocentric distance,Rgal,out to about 10 kpc and a flat relation beyond. This trend is very similar for blue and red GCs, which are found tohave a mean size ratio ofrh,redrh,blue0.820.11 at all galactocentric radii from the core regions of the galaxyout to40 kpc. This suggests that the size difference between blue and red GCs is due to internal mechanismsrelated to the evolution of their constituent stellar populations. Modeling the mass density profile of NGC 1399shows that additional external dynamical mechanisms are required to limit the GC size in the galaxy halo regionstorh2 pc. We suggest that this may be realized by an exotic GC orbit distribution function, an extended darkmatter halo, andor tidal stress induced by the increased stochasticity in the dwarf halo substructure at largergalactocentric distances. We compare our results with the GCrhdistribution functions in various galaxies and findthat the fraction of extended GCs withrh5 pc is systematically larger in late-type galaxies compared with GCsystems in early-type galaxies. This is likely due to the dynamically more violent evolution of early-type galaxies.We match our GCrhmeasurements with radial velocity data from the literature and split the resulting sample at

  9. The PN.S elliptical galaxy survey : Data reduction, planetary nebula catalog, and basic dynamics for NGC 3379

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, N. G.; Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Coccato, L.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Freeman, K. C.; Merrett, H. R.; Noordermeer, E.; Capaccioli, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present results from Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PN. S) observations of the elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 and a description of the data reduction pipeline. We detected 214 planetary nebulae, of which 191 are ascribed to NGC 3379 and 23 to the companion galaxy NGC 3384. Comparison with data from

  10. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian, E-mail: csh@dmu.dk [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F.; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Leifsson, Pall S. [University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Bülowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Gustavson, Kim [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-08-15

    The former Black Angel lead–zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pb concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1–0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42–1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60–68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and

  11. DYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE INTERACTING GALAXIES IN THE NGC-520 UGC-957 SYSTEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STANFORD, SA; BALCELLS, M

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the interacting galaxies in the NGC 520/UGC 957 system are presented. Two sets of models were produced to investigate the postulated three-galaxy system of two colliding disk galaxies within NGC 520 and the dwarf galaxy UGC 957. The morphology and kinematics of the models

  12. The stellar content of the halo of NGC 5907 from deep Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zepf, SE; Liu, MC; Marleau, FR; Sackett, PD; Graham, [No Value

    We present H-band images obtained with the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) of a field 75 " (5 kpc) above the plane of the disk of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 5907. Ground-based observations have shown that NGC 5907 has a luminous halo with a shallow radial profile

  13. Star formation histories across the interacting galaxy NGC 6872, the largest-known spiral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; De Mello, Duilia F. [Physics Department, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Benford, Dominic J. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; De Oliveira, Claudia Mendes, E-mail: rafael.t.eufrasio@nasa.gov [Departamento de Astronomia, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas da USP, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-090 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    NGC 6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 μm) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  14. STAR Formation Histories Across the Interacting Galaxy NGC 6872, the Largest-Known Spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, RIchard G.; deMello, Duilia F.; Gadotti, DImitri A.; Urrutia-Viscarra, Fernanda; deOliveira, CLaudia Mendes; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    NGC6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 micrometer) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  15. The luminous infrared composite Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 7679 through the [O III] λ 5007 emission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankulova, I. M.; Golev, V. K.; Jockers, K.

    2007-07-01

    Context: NGC 7679 (Mrk 534) is a nearby (z = 0.0177) nearly face-on SB0 luminous infrared Sy2 galaxy in which starburst and AGN activities co-exist. The ionization structure is maintained by both the AGN power-law continuum and starburst. The galaxy is a bright X-ray source possessing a low X-ray column density NH Ukraine National Astronomical Observatory at peak Terskol, Caucasus, Russia. The observations were carried out in October 1996 with the Focal Reducer of the Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Germany. All observations were taken with tunable Fabry-Perot narrow-band imaging with spectral FWHM of the Airy profile δλ between 3 and 4 Å depending on the used wavelength. Results: The [O III]λ5007 emission-line image of the circumnuclear region of NGC 7679 shows elliptical isophotes extended along the PA ≈ 80° in the direction of the counterpart galaxy NGC 7682. There is a maximum of this emission which is shifted ~4 arcsec from the center as defined by the continuum emission. The maximum of ionization by the AGN power-law continuum traced by [O III]λ5007/Hα ratio is displaced by ~13 arcsec eastward from the nucleus. The direction where high ionization is observed at PA ≈ 80° ± 10° coincides with the direction to the companion galaxy NGC 7682 (PA ≈ 72°). On the contrary, at PA ~ 0° the ionization in the circumnuclear region is entirely due to hot stars. Conclusions: Both the ratio (N_ph/N_ion)hν > 55 eV ≈ 0.2-20 of the number N_ph of photons traced by [O III] to the number N_ion of high-energy ionizing photons and the presence of weak and elusive Hα broad wings indicate a hidden AGN. We conclude that the dust and gas in the high ionization direction PA ≈ 80° has a direct view to the central AGN engine. This possibly results in dust/star-formation decay. A large fraction of the unabsorbed Compton-thin Sy2s with [O III] luminosity ⪆1041 erg s-1 possesses a hidden AGN source. Based on observations obtained at the Peak Terskol

  16. Physical Parameters of Late Type Spiral Galaxies I-Mass and Luminosity of NGC 6946

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sug-Whan Kim

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Brandt model the mass distribution of the late type spiral galaxy NGC 6946 was derived, and the total mass was reestimated to understand the M/L ratio of this galaxy. Two kinds of the rotation curve with shape parameter n = 1 and 3.3 were examined. The followings are the main results; (1 The total masses of NGC 6946 are 3.1 x 10^11*M (n=1 and 2.8 x 10^11*M (n=3.3 respectively, and the corresponding M/L are about 17 and 16 for both cases. (2 The optical image in the blue light, whose radius is 9.6 kpc, has 8 x 10^10*Msolar and 1.4 x 10^11*Msolar. These give the value of M/L about 5 and 8 respectively. (3 The masses and M/L of the nuclear region within 1.2 kpc are 4.0 x 10^9*Msolar, 4.7 x 10^9*Msolar and 3, 4 for both cases. Those of the disk from 1.2 kpc to 9.6 kpc are 7.6 x 10^10*Msolar, 1.4 x 10^11*Msolar, and 5, 8. (4 The masses of the outer halo extended to few hundreds kiloparsecs are 2.3 x 10^11*Msolar and 1.4 x 10^11*Msolar. The corresponding M/L are about 62 and 37.

  17. Super-AGB-AGB Evolution and the Chemical Inventory in NGC 2419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Paolo; D'Antona, Francesca; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Carini, Roberta; D'Ercole, Annibale; vesperini, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    We follow the scenario of formation of second-generation stars in globular clusters by matter processed by hot bottom burning (HBB) in massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and super-AGB stars (SAGB). In the cluster NGC 2419 we assume the presence of an extreme population directly formed from the AGB and SAGB ejecta, so we can directly compare the yields for a metallicity Z = 0.0003 with the chemical inventory of the cluster NGC 2419. At such a low metallicity, the HBB temperatures (well above 108 K) allow a very advanced nucleosynthesis. Masses ~6 M ⊙ deplete Mg and synthesize Si, going beyond Al, so this latter element is only moderately enhanced; sodium cannot be enhanced. The models are consistent with the observations, although the predicted Mg depletion is not as strong as in the observed stars. We predict that the oxygen abundance must be depleted by a huge factor (>50) in the Mg-poor stars. The HBB temperatures are close to the region where other p-capture reactions on heavier nuclei become possible. We show that high potassium abundance found in Mg-poor stars can be achieved during HBB by p-captures on the argon nuclei, if the relevant cross section(s) are larger than listed in the literature or if the HBB temperature is higher. Finally, we speculate that some calcium production is occurring owing to proton capture on potassium. We emphasize the importance of a strong effort to measure a larger sample of abundances in this cluster.

  18. SUPER-AGB-AGB EVOLUTION AND THE CHEMICAL INVENTORY IN NGC 2419

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, Paolo; D' Antona, Francesca; Carini, Roberta [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Di Criscienzo, Marcella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); D' Ercole, Annibale [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Vesperini, Enrico, E-mail: paolo.ventura@oa-roma.inaf.it [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington (United States)

    2012-12-20

    We follow the scenario of formation of second-generation stars in globular clusters by matter processed by hot bottom burning (HBB) in massive asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and super-AGB stars (SAGB). In the cluster NGC 2419 we assume the presence of an extreme population directly formed from the AGB and SAGB ejecta, so we can directly compare the yields for a metallicity Z = 0.0003 with the chemical inventory of the cluster NGC 2419. At such a low metallicity, the HBB temperatures (well above 10{sup 8} K) allow a very advanced nucleosynthesis. Masses {approx}6 M{sub Sun} deplete Mg and synthesize Si, going beyond Al, so this latter element is only moderately enhanced; sodium cannot be enhanced. The models are consistent with the observations, although the predicted Mg depletion is not as strong as in the observed stars. We predict that the oxygen abundance must be depleted by a huge factor (>50) in the Mg-poor stars. The HBB temperatures are close to the region where other p-capture reactions on heavier nuclei become possible. We show that high potassium abundance found in Mg-poor stars can be achieved during HBB by p-captures on the argon nuclei, if the relevant cross section(s) are larger than listed in the literature or if the HBB temperature is higher. Finally, we speculate that some calcium production is occurring owing to proton capture on potassium. We emphasize the importance of a strong effort to measure a larger sample of abundances in this cluster.

  19. Investigation of Galactic open cluster remnants: the case of NGC 7193

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Angelo, Mateus; Francisco Coelho dos Santos, João, Jr.; Barbosa Corradi, Wagner José; Ferreira de Souza Maia, Francisco; Piatti, Andrés Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Galactic open clusters (OCs) that survive the early gas-expulsion phase are gradually destroyed over time by the action of disruptive dynamical processes. Their final evolutionary stages are characterized by a poorly populated concentration of stars called an open cluster remnant (OCR). This study is devoted to assessing the real physical nature of the OCR candidate NGC 7193. GMOS/Gemini spectroscopy of 53 stars in the inner target region were obtained to derive radial velocities and atmospheric parameters. We also employed photometric and proper motion data. The analysis method consists of the following steps: (i) analysis of the statistical resemblance between the cluster and a set of field samples with respect to the sequences defined in color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs); (ii) a 5-dimensional iterative exclusion routine was employed to identify outliers from kinematical and positional data; (iii) isochrone fitting to the Ks×(J-Ks) CMD of the remaining stars and the dispersion of spectral types along empirical sequences in the (J-H)×(H-Ks) diagram were checked. A group of stars was identified for which the mean heliocentric distance is compatible with that obtained via isochrone fitting and whose metallicities are compatible with each other. Fifteen of the member stars observed spectroscopically were identified together with another 19 probable members. Our results indicate that NGC 7193 is a genuine OCR, of a once very populous OC, for which the following parameters were derived: d = 501±46 pc, t=2.5+/-1.2 Gyr, =-0.17+/-0.23 and E(B-V)=0.05+/-0.05. Its luminosity and mass functions show depletion of low mass stars, confirming the OCR is in a dynamically evolved state. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: NSF (United States), STFC (United Kingdom), NRC (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), ARC (Australia), CNPq (Brazil) and CONICET (Argentina).

  20. NGcGM3 Ganglioside: A Privileged Target for Cancer Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Active specific immunotherapy is a promising field in cancer research. N-glycolyl (NGc gangliosides, and particularly NGcGM3, have received attention as a privileged target for cancer therapy. Many clinical trials have been performed with the anti-NGc-containing gangliosides anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody racotumomab (formerly known as 1E10 and the conjugated NGcGM3/VSSP vaccine for immunotherapy of melanoma, breast, and lung cancer. The present paper examines the role of NGc-gangliosides in tumor biology as well as the available preclinical and clinical data on these vaccine products. A brief discussion on the relevance of prioritization of cancer antigens in vaccine development is also included.

  1. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Messa, M.; Kim, H.; Grasha, K.; Cook, D. O.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Ubeda, L.; Smith, L. J.; Bright, S. N.; Runnholm, A.; Andrews, J. E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Thilker, D.; Walterbos, R.; Wofford, A.; Aloisi, A.; Ashworth, G.; Brown, T. M.; Chandar, R.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Clayton, G. C.; Dale, D. A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, D. M.; Evans, A. S.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Grebel, E. K.; Herrero, A.; Hunter, D. A.; Johnson, K. E.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Krumholz, M. R.; Lennon, D.; Levay, K.; Martin, C.; Nota, A.; Östlin, G.; Pellerin, A.; Prieto, J.; Regan, M. W.; Sabbi, E.; Sacchi, E.; Schaerer, D.; Schiminovich, D.; Shabani, F.; Tosi, M.; Van Dyk, S. D.; Zackrisson, E.

    2017-06-01

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify their genuine nature, produce multiband photometry (from NUV to NIR), and derive their physical properties via spectral energy distribution fitting analyses. We use the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628 as a test case for demonstrating the impact that LEGUS will have on our understanding of the formation and evolution of YSCs and compact stellar associations within their host galaxy. Our analysis of the cluster luminosity function from the UV to the NIR finds a steepening at the bright end and at all wavelengths suggesting a dearth of luminous clusters. The cluster mass function of NGC 628 is consistent with a power-law distribution of slopes ˜ -2 and a truncation of a few times 105 {M}⊙ . After their formation, YSCs and compact associations follow different evolutionary paths. YSCs survive for a longer time frame, confirming their being potentially bound systems. Associations disappear on timescales comparable to hierarchically organized star-forming regions, suggesting that they are expanding systems. We find mass-independent cluster disruption in the inner region of NGC 628, while in the outer part of the galaxy there is little or no disruption. We observe faster disruption rates for low mass (≤104 {M}⊙ ) clusters, suggesting that a mass-dependent component is necessary to fully describe the YSC disruption process in NGC 628. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  2. The Survey of Centaurus A's Baryonic Structures (SCABS) - II. The extended globular cluster system of NGC 5128 and its nearby environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Mieske, Steffen; Lançon, Ariane; Zhang, Hongxin; Eigenthaler, Paul; Bovill, Mia Sauda

    2017-08-01

    New wide-field u΄g΄r΄I΄z΄ Dark Energy Camera observations centred on the nearby giant elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 covering ˜21 deg2 are used to compile a new catalogue of ˜3200 globular clusters (GCs). We report 2404 newly identified candidates, including the vast majority within ˜140 kpc of NGC 5128. We find evidence for a transition at a galactocentric radius of Rgc ≈ 55 kpc from GCs 'intrinsic' to NGC 5128 to those likely to have been accreted from dwarf galaxies or that may transition to the intragroup medium of the Centaurus A galaxy group. We fit power-law surface number density profiles of the form Σ _{N, R_gc}∝ R_gc^Γ and find that inside the transition radius, the red GCs are more centrally concentrated than the blue, with Γinner, red ≈ -1.78 and Γinner, blue ≈ -1.40, respectively. Outside this region both profiles flatten, more dramatically for the red GCs (Γouter, red ≈ -0.33) compared to the blue (Γouter, blue ≈ -0.61), although the former is more likely to suffer contamination by background sources. The median (g΄ - z΄)0 = 1.27 mag colour of the inner red population is consistent with arising from the amalgamation of two giant galaxies each less luminous than present-day NGC 5128. Both inwards and outwards of the transition radius, we find the fraction of blue GCs to dominate over the red GCs, indicating a lively history of minor mergers. Assuming the blue GCs to originate primarily in dwarf galaxies, we model the population required to explain them, while remaining consistent with NGC 5128's present-day spheroid luminosity. We find that several dozen dwarfs of luminosities Ldw, V ≃ 106-9.3 LV, ⊙, following a Schechter luminosity function with a faint-end slope of -1.50 ≲ α ≲ -1.25 is favoured, many of which may have already been disrupted in NGC 5128's tidal field.

  3. DIFFERENT DYNAMICAL AGES FOR THE TWO YOUNG AND COEVAL LMC STAR CLUSTERS, NGC 1805 AND NGC 1818, IMPRINTED ON THEIR BINARY POPULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Grijs, Richard de; Li, Chengyuan [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Hurley, Jarrod R., E-mail: a-geller@northwestern.edu [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2015-05-20

    The two Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters, NGC 1805 and NGC 1818, are approximately the same chronological age (∼30 Myr), but show different radial trends in binary frequency. The F-type stars (1.3–2.2 M{sub ⊙}) in NGC 1818 have a binary frequency that decreases toward the core, while the binary frequency for stars of similar mass in NGC 1805 is flat with radius, or perhaps bimodal (with a peak in the core). We show here, through detailed N-body modeling, that both clusters could have formed with the same primordial binary frequency and with binary orbital elements and masses drawn from the same distributions (defined from observations of open clusters and the field of our Galaxy). The observed radial trends in binary frequency for both clusters are best matched with models that have initial substructure. Furthermore, both clusters may be evolving along a very similar dynamical sequence, with the key difference that NGC 1805 is dynamically older than NGC 1818. The F-type binaries in NGC 1818 still show evidence of an initial period of rapid dynamical disruptions (which occur preferentially in the core), while NGC 1805 has already begun to recover a higher core binary frequency, owing to mass segregation (which will eventually produce a distribution in binary frequency that rises only toward the core, as is observed in old Milky Way star clusters). This recovery rate increases for higher-mass binaries, and therefore even at one age in one cluster, we predict a similar dynamical sequence in the radial distribution of the binary frequency as a function of binary primary mass.

  4. Are small-scale substructures a universal property of galaxy haloes? The case of the giant elliptical NGC 5128

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouhcine, M.; Ibata, R.; Rejkuba, M.

    2011-08-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial and chemical substructures in a remote halo field in the nearby giant elliptical galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128), situated ˜38 kpc from the centre of the galaxy. The observations were taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys instrument on-board the Hubble Space Telescope, and reach down to the horizontal branch. In this relatively small 3.8 × 3.8 kpc2 field, after correcting for Poisson noise, we do not find any statistically strong evidence for the presence of small-scale substructures in the stellar spatial distribution on scales ≳100 pc. However, we do detect the presence of significant small spatial-scale inhomogeneities in the stellar median metallicity over the surveyed field. We argue that these localized chemical substructures could be associated with not fully mixed debris from the disruption of low-mass systems. NGC 5128 joins the ranks of the late-type spiral galaxies the Milky Way, for which the stellar halo appears to be dominated by small-scale spatial substructures, and NGC 891, where localized metallicity variations have been detected in the inner extraplanar regions. This suggests that the presence of small-scale substructures may be a generic property of stellar haloes of large galaxies. This work was based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. ALMA imaging of C2H emission in the disk of NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Burillo, S.; Viti, S.; Combes, F.; Fuente, A.; Usero, A.; Hunt, L. K.; Martín, S.; Krips, M.; Aalto, S.; Aladro, R.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Casasola, V.; Henkel, C.; Querejeta, M.; Neri, R.; Costagliola, F.; Tacconi, L. J.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Aims: We study the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity on the chemistry of molecular gas in NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing whether the abundances of key molecular species such as ethynyl (C2H), which is a classical tracer of photon dominated regions (PDR), change in the different environments of the disk of the galaxy. Methods: We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the hyperfine multiplet of C2H(N = 1-0) and its underlying continuum emission in the central r ≃ 35″ (2.5 kpc) region of the disk of NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution 1.̋0 × 0.̋7 (≃ 50-70 pc). We used maps of the dust continuum emission obtained at 349 GHz by ALMA to derive the H2 gas column densities and combined these with the C2H map at matched spatial resolution to estimate the fractional abundance of this species. We developed a set of time-dependent chemical models, which include shocks, gas-phase PDRs, and gas-grain chemical models to determine the origin of the C2H gas. Results: A sizeable fraction of the total C2H line emission is detected from the r ≃ 1.3 kpc starburst (SB) ring, which is a region that concentrates the bulk of the recent massive star formation in the disk traced by the Paα emission complexes imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). However, the brightest C2H emission originates from a r ≃ 200 pc off-centered circumnuclear disk (CND), where evidence of a molecular outflow has been previously found in other molecular tracers imaged by ALMA. We also detect significant emission that connects the CND with the outer disk in a region that probes the interface between the molecular disk and ionized gas outflow out to r ≃ 400 pc. We derived the fractional abundances of C2H (X(C2H)) assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions and a set of excitation temperatures (Tex) constrained by the previous multiline CO studies of the galaxy. Our estimates range from X(C2H) ≃ a

  6. Mapping the Supernova-Rich Fireworks Galaxy NGC 6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Locke; Levesque, Emily

    2018-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) are the spectacularly violent deaths of evolved young massive stars, which expel a shock wave into the intergalactic medium that in turn can spark star formation and disperse heavy elements into their host galaxy. While a SN event can be classified by its spectral signature, determining the nature of a SN progenitor depends upon chance photometry taken prior to the event. By turning to the study of SN host environments and their surrounding interstellar medium within the unique and rare population of galaxies that have hosted three or more SN events within the last century, we are granted the opportunity to study the locations and environmental properties of stellar populations prone to supernova progenitor production. Using moderate-resolution optical slit spectra taken with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m DIS spectrograph, our goal is to map metallicity, ionization parameter, and star formation rates using emission line diagnostic ratios across each SN-rich galaxy. Dubbed the “Fireworks Galaxy” at a distance of 5.6 ± 1.5 Mpc, NGC 6946 is of particular interest as it has uniquely produced ten core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and several other massive star transients within the last century. We present spatially-resolved metallicity and star formation rate (SFR) maps of NGC 6946, tracing fifty-five slit orientations which span the face of the galaxy and cover all CCSN host sites. Future work will include both stellar population synthesis modelling to determine stellar populations, ages, and SFR histories in NGC 6946 and a further expansion of this analysis to the other SN-rich host galaxies in our sample.

  7. Nature of the warm absorber outflow in NGC 4051

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Misaki; Ebisawa, Ken

    2017-04-01

    The narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 is known to exhibit significant X-ray spectral/flux variations and have a number of emission/absorption features. X-ray observations have revealed that these absorption features are blueshifted, which indicates that NGC 4051 has warm absorber outflow. In order to constrain physical parameters of the warm absorber outflow, we analyse the archival data with the longest exposure taken by XMM-Newton in 2009. We calculate the root-mean-square (rms) spectra with the grating spectral resolution for the first time. The rms spectra have a sharp peak and several dips, which can be explained by variable absorption features and non-variable emission lines; a lower ionized warm absorber (WA1: log ξ = 1.5, v = -650 km s-1) shows large variability, whereas higher ionized warm absorbers (WA2: log ξ = 2.5, v = -4100 km s-1, WA3: log ξ = 3.4, v = -6100 km s-1) show little variability. WA1 shows the maximum variability at a time-scale of ˜104 s, suggesting that the absorber locates at ˜103 times of the Schwarzschild radius. The depth of the absorption features due to WA1 and the observed soft X-ray flux are anticorrelated in several observational sequences, which can be explained by variation of partial covering fraction of the double-layer blobs that are composed of the Compton-thick core and the ionized layer (=WA1). WA2 and WA3 show little variability and presumably extend uniformly in the line of sight. The present result shows that NGC 4051 has two types of the warm absorber outflows; the static, high-ionized and extended line-driven disc winds and the variable, low-ionized and clumpy double-layer blobs.

  8. A catalog of 120 NGC open star clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Tadross, A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A sample of 145 JHK--2MASS observations of NGC open star clusters is studied, of which 132 have never been studied before. Twelve are classified as non-open clusters and 13 are re-estimated self-consistently, after applying the same methods in order to compare and calibrate our reduction procedures. The fundamental and structural parameters of the 120 new open clusters studied here are derived using color-magnitude diagrams of JHK Near-IR photometry with the fitting of solar metallicity isoch...

  9. Dark matter deprivation in the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Richard R.; Salinas, Ricardo; Richtler, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Context. Previous studies have shown that the kinematics of the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507 do not necessarily require dark matter. This is troubling because, in the context of ΛCDM cosmologies, all galaxies should have a large dark matter component. Aims: Our aims are to determine the rotation and velocity dispersion profile out to larger radii than do previous studies, and, therefore, more accurately estimate of the dark matter content of the galaxy. Methods: We use penalised pixel-fitting software to extract velocities and velocity dispersions from GMOS slit mask spectra. Using Jeans and MONDian modelling, we then produce models with the goal of fitting the velocity dispersion data. Results: NGC 7507 has a two-component stellar halo, with the outer halo counter rotating with respect to the inner halo, with a kinematic boundary at a radius of ~110'' (~12.4 kpc). The velocity dispersion profile exhibits an increase at ~70'' (~7.9 kpc), reminiscent of several other elliptical galaxies. Our best fit models are those under mild anisotropy, which include ~100 times less dark matter than predicted by ΛCDM, although mildly anisotropic models that are completely dark matter free fit the measured dynamics almost equally well. Our MONDian models, both isotropic and anisotropic, systematically fail to reproduce the measured velocity dispersions at almost all radii. Conclusions: The counter-rotating outer halo implies a merger remnant, as does the increase in velocity dispersion at ~70''. From simulations it seems plausible that the merger that caused the increase in velocity dispersion was a spiral-spiral merger. Our Jeans models are completely consistent with a no dark matter scenario, however, some dark matter can be accommodated, although at much lower concentrations than predicted by ΛCDM simulations. This indicates that NGC 7507 may be a dark matter free elliptical galaxy. Regardless of whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor

  10. Evidence for a dusty warm absorber in NGC 3227 ?

    OpenAIRE

    Komossa, Stefanie; Fink, Henner

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed survey and pointed \\ros PSPC observations of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3227. Large amplitude X-ray variability is detected, with a factor $\\sim$ 15 change in count rate within about 3 years. Smaller changes are seen on the timescale of days, the largest being a factor of 3.5. No strong spectral variability is found throughout the pointed observation. The X-ray spectrum is modeled in terms of warm absorption and both, a dust-free warm absorber and one with internal dust, give an ...

  11. Rapid N_H changes in NGC 4151

    OpenAIRE

    Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Risaliti, G.; Capalbi, M.; Elvis, M.; Nicastro, F.; .

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed the two longest (elapsed time > 3 days) BeppoSAX observations of the X-ray brightest Seyfert galaxy, NGC 4151, to search for spectral variability on time-scales from a few tens of ksec to years. We found in both cases highly significant spectral variability below ~ 6 keV down to the shortest time-scales investigated. These variations can be naturally explained in terms of variations in the low energy cut-off due to obscuring matter along the line of sight. If the cut-off is m...

  12. Feedback of atomic jets from embedded protostars in NGC 1333

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionatos, Odysseas; Güdel, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Context. The feedback of star formation to the parent cloud is conventionally examined through the study of molecular outflows. Little is known, however, about the effect that atomic ejecta tracing fast shocks can have on small scales or on global cloud properties. Aims: Our immediate objective is to study the morphology of protostellar ejecta through far-infrared atomic lines, compare them to other outflow tracers, and associate them with their driving sources. The main goal is to study the feedback from atomic jet emission that is excited by fast shocks on the parent cloud material, and examine the relative importance of atomic jets as regulators of the star formation process. Methods: We employed [O I] and [C II] line maps of the NGC 1333 star-forming region observed with Herschel/PACS. We studied the detailed morphology and velocity distribution of the [O I] line using channel and line-centroid maps. We derived the momentum, energy, and mass flux for all the bipolar outflows traced by [O I] line emission. We compared the [O I] morphology to CO and H2 emission, and its dynamical and kinematic properties to the emission corresponding to CO outflows. Results: We find that the line-centroid maps can trace velocity structures down to 5 km s-1 which is a factor of 20 beyond the nominal velocity resolution reached by Herschel/PACS. These maps reveal an unprecedented degree of details that significantly assist in the association and characterization of outflows. We associate most of the [O I] emission with ejecta from embedded protostars. The spatial distribution of the [O I] emission closely follows the CO emission pattern and strongly correlates to the spatial distribution of the H2 emission, with the latter indicating excitation in shocks. The [O I] momentum accounts for only 1% of the momentum carried by the large-scale CO outflows. The energy released in shocks, however, corresponds to 50-100% of the energy carried away by outflows. Mass-flux estimates of the

  13. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH IMAGING OF THE NEARBY SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5668 : AN UNUSUAL FLATTENING IN METALLICITY GRADIENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Zamorano, J. [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Departamento de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Mateos, J. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Sanchez, S. F. [Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman, Calar Alto (CSIC-MPG), C/Jesus Durban Remon 2-2, E-04004 Almeria (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Boissier, S., E-mail: ramarino@fis.ucm.es [Laboratoire dAstrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille and CNRS UMR 6110, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France)

    2012-07-20

    We present an analysis of the full bidimensional optical spectral cube of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668, observed with the Pmas fiber PAcK Integral Field Unit (IFU) at the Calar Alto observatory 3.5 m telescope. We make use of broadband imaging to provide further constraints on the evolutionary history of the galaxy. This data set will allow us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disks. We investigated the properties of 62 H II regions and concentric rings in NGC 5668 and derived maps in ionized-gas attenuation and chemical (oxygen) abundances. We find that while inward of r {approx}36'' {approx} 4.4 kpc {approx} 0.36 (D{sub 25}/2) the derived O/H ratio follows the radial gradient typical of spiral galaxies, the abundance gradient beyond r {approx} 36'' flattens out. The analysis of the multi-wavelength surface brightness profiles of NGC 5668 is performed by fitting these profiles with those predicted by chemo-spectrophotometric evolutionary models of galaxy disks. From this, we infer a spin and circular velocity of {lambda} = 0.053 and v{sub c} = 167 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The metallicity gradient and rotation curve predicted by this best-fitting galaxy model nicely match the values derived from the IFU observations, especially within r {approx}36''. The same is true for the colors despite some small offsets and a reddening in the bluest colors beyond that radius. On the other hand, deviations of some of these properties in the outer disk indicate that a secondary mechanism, possibly gas transfer induced by the presence of a young bar, must have played a role in shaping the recent chemical and star formation histories of NGC 5668.

  14. Spectroscopy and Photometry of Multiple Populations along the Asymptotic Giant Branch of NGC 2808 and NGC 6121 (M4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A. F.; Milone, A. P.; Yong, D.; Da Costa, G.; Asplund, M.; Bedin, L. R.; Jerjen, H.; Nardiello, D.; Piotto, G.; Renzini, A.; Shetrone, M.

    2017-07-01

    We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of multiple populations along the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) of the intermediate-metallicity globular clusters (GCs) NGC 2808 and NGC 6121 (M4). Chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, and Ce in AGB stars from high-resolution FLAMES+UVES@VLT spectra are reported for both clusters. Our spectroscopic results have been combined with multiwavelength photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope UV survey of Galactic GCs and ground-based photometry, as well as proper motions derived by combining stellar positions from ground-based images and Gaia DR1. Our analysis reveals that the AGBs of both clusters host multiple populations with different chemical compositions. In M4, we have identified two main populations of stars with different Na/O content lying on distinct AGBs in the {m}{{F}438{{W}}} versus {C}{{F}275{{W}},{{F}}336{{W}},{{F}}438{{W}}} and the V versus {C}{{U},{{B}},{{I}}} pseudo-color-magnitude diagrams. In the more massive and complex GC NGC 2808, three groups of stars with different chemical abundances occupy different locations on the so-called “chromosome map” photometric diagram constructed for AGB stars. The spectroscopic + photometric comparison of stellar populations along the AGB and the red giants of this GC suggests that the AGB hosts stellar populations with a range in helium abundances from primordial to high contents of Y˜ 0.32. By contrast, from our data set, there is no evidence for stars with extreme helium abundance (Y˜ 0.38) on the AGB, suggesting that the most He-rich stars of NGC 2808 do not reach this phase. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programs 093.D-0789 and 094.D-0455 and on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  15. Submm Observations of Massive Star Formation in the Giant Molecular Cloud NGC 6334 : Gas Kinematics with Radiative Transfer Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernickel, A.

    2015-05-01

    Context. How massive stars (M>8 Ms) form and how they accrete gas is still an open research field, but it is known that their influence on the interstellar medium (ISM) is immense. Star formation involves the gravitational collapse of gas from scales of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) down to dense hot molecular cores (HMCs). Thus, it is important to understand the mass flows and kinematics in the ISM. Aims. This dissertation focuses on the detailed study of the region NGC 6334, located in the Galaxy at a distance of 1.7 kpc. It is aimed to trace the gas velocities in the filamentary, massive star-forming region NGC 6334 at several scales and to explain its dynamics. For that purpose, different scales are examined from 0.01-10 pc to collect information about the density, molecular abundance, temperature and velocity, and consequently to gain insights about the physio-chemical conditions of molecular clouds. The two embedded massive protostellar clusters NGC 6334I and I(N), which are at different stages of development, were selected to determine their infall velocities and mass accretion rates. Methods. This astronomical source was surveyed by a combination of different observatories, namely with the Submillimeter Array (SMA), the single-dish telescope Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX), and the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO). It was mapped with APEX in carbon monoxide (13CO and C18O, J=2-1) at 220.4 GHz to study the filamentary structure and turbulent kinematics on the largest scales of 10 pc. The spectral line profiles are decomposed by Gaussian fitting and a dendrogram algorithm is applied to distinguish velocity-coherent structures and to derive statistical properties. The velocity gradient method is used to derive mass flow rates. The main filament was mapped with APEX in hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and oxomethylium (HCO+, J=3-2) at 267.6 GHz to trace the dense gas. To reproduce the position- velocity diagram (PVD), a cylindrical model with the radiative transfer

  16. CSI 2264: Characterizing Young Stars in NGC 2264 With Short-Duration Periodic Flux Dips in Their Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; McGinnis, Pauline; Rebull, Luisa; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Turner, Neal J.; Carpenter, John; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean; Terebey, Susan; hide

    2015-01-01

    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical CoRoT light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow, periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared (IR) excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian corotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHM generally less than one day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3 stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard \\disk-locking" models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In some cases, these dips are also present in simultaneous Spitzer IRAC light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We characterize the properties of these dips, and compare the stars with light curves exhibiting this behavior to other classes of YSO in NGC 2264. A number of physical mechanisms could locally increase the dust scale height near the inner disk wall, and we discuss several of those mechanisms; the most plausible mechanisms are either a disk warp due to interaction with the stellar magnetic field or dust entrained in funnel- ow accretion columns arising near the inner disk wall.

  17. The Multi-Layer Variable Absorbers in NGC 1365 Revealed by XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, E.; Risaliti, G.; Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F.; Arevalo, P.; Baur, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brenneman, L. W.; Brightman, M.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    Between 2012 July and 2013 February, NuSTAR and XMM-Newton performed four long-look joint observations of the type 1.8 Seyfert, NGC 1365. We have analyzed the variable absorption seen in these observations in order to characterize the geometry of the absorbing material. Two of the observations caught NGC 1365 in an unusually low absorption state, revealing complexity in the multi-layer absorber that had previously been hidden. We find the need for three distinct zones of neutral absorption in addition to the two zones of ionized absorption and the Compton-thick torus previously seen in this source. The most prominent absorber is likely associated with broad-line region clouds with column densities of around approximately 10 (sup 23) per square centimeter and a highly clumpy nature as evidenced by an occultation event in 2013 February. We also find evidence of a patchy absorber with a variable column around approximately 10 (sup 22) per square centimeter and a line-of-sight covering fraction of 0.3-0.9, which responds directly to the intrinsic source flux, possibly due to a wind geometry. A full-covering, constant absorber with a low column density of approximately 1 by 10 (sup 22) per square centimeter is also present, though the location of this low density haze is unknown.

  18. NuSTAR spectral analysis of two bright Seyfert 1 galaxies: MCG +8-11-11 and NGC 6814

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, A.; Bianchi, S.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Middei, R.; Piconcelli, E.; Brenneman, L. W.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; De Rosa, A.; Petrucci, P. O.; Ursini, F.; Walton, D. J.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the NuSTAR observations of two bright Seyfert 1 galaxies, namely MCG +8-11-11 (100 ks) and NGC 6814 (150 ks). The main goal of these observations was to investigate the Comptonization mechanisms acting in the innermost regions of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) which are believed to be responsible for the UV/X-ray emission. The spectroscopic analysis of the NuSTAR spectra of these two sources revealed that although they had different properties overall (black hole masses, luminosity and Eddington ratios), they had very similar coronal properties. Both presented a power-law spectrum with a high-energy cut-off at ∼150-200 keV, a relativistically broadened Fe K α line and the associated disc reflection component, plus a narrow iron line likely emitted in Compton thin and distant matter. The intrinsic continuum was well described by Comptonization models that show for MCG +8-11-11 a temperature of the coronal plasma of kTe ∼ 60 keV and an extrapolated optical depth τ = 1.8; for NGC 6814, the coronal temperature was kTe ∼ 45 keV with an extrapolated optical depth of τ = 2.5. We compare and discuss these values to some most common Comptonization models that aim at explaining the energy production and stability of coronae in AGNs.

  19. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae kinematics and X-ray emission in the early-type galaxy NGC 5128

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimates of the mass of the galaxy NGC 5128 based on the different mass tracers, globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe, are presented. These estimates are compared with the estimate based on the X-ray methodology and it is found that the results for the mass (and mass-to-light ratio for all three approaches are in very good agreement interior to 25 arcmin; beyond 25 arcmin the X-rays predict the mass which is too high with respect to the one found using GCs and PNe. Some possible explanations for this discrepancy were discussed. The Jeans equation is also solved and its predictions for the velocity dispersion are then compared with the observed values, which extend to ~8 effective radii in the case of the GCs and ~15 effective radii in the case of the PNe. It is found that interior to ~25 arcmin (~5 effective radii dark matter does not dominate because the total mass-to-light ratio in the B band in solar units is less than 10. Based on the GCs and PNe beyond ~25 arcmin the total mass-to-light ratio increases to ~14 (at ~80 arcmin which indicates the existence of dark matter in the outer regions of NGC 5128.

  20. Star formation in NGC 4449: MAMA-detector UV imagery and Fabry-Perot Balmer-line imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert S.; Home, Allen T.; Smith, Andrew M.; Bruhweiler, Fred C.; Cheng, K.P.; Hintzen, Paul M. N.; Oliversen, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Using far-ultraviolet (FUV) and Balmer-line imagery, we investigate the star formation history of 22 large OB complexes in the Magellanic irregular galaxy NGC 4449. The FUV luminosity of NGC 4449 is comparable to those of late-type spirals and is greater than that of the LMC by approximately 2.4 mag, indicating substantial star formation in the last 10(exp 8) yr. FUV data were taken using a sounding-rocket telescope with a Multianode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector, and Balmer-line data were taken using the Goddard Fabry-Perot Imager. The resulting imagery shows bright, roughly coincident FUV and H alpha sources throughout the extent of the visible galaxy. We model these sources using cluster-evolution codes. Although all sources are a few Myr old, clear age differences are found. In particular, several of the most recently active star formation regions are located together in the galaxy's northern periphery, which is apparently coincident with a large H I reservoir. The brightest and most massive OB complexes are found along the northeast-southwest surface brightness ridgeline (the 'bar'). Over the entire galaxy, star formation rates are consistent on timescales of 10(exp 6), 10(exp 8), and 10(exp 9) yr. A history of recent star formation is suggested with two main episodes, one predominantly in the bar ending approximately 5 Myr ago, and an ongoing one associated with an observed H I cloud.

  1. Quantifying Non-star-formation-associated 8 μm Dust Emission in NGC 628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Alison F.; Calzetti, Daniela; Thilker, David A.; Aniano, Gonzalo; Draine, Bruce T.; Hunt, Leslie K.; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Sandstrom, Karin; Smith, J. D. T.

    2013-01-01

    Combining Hα and IRAC images of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628, we find that between 30% and 43% of its 8 μm dust emission is not related to recent star formation. Contributions from dust heated by young stars are separated by identifying H II regions in the Hα map and using these areas as a mask to determine the 8 μm dust emission that must be due to heating by older stars. Corrections are made for sub-detection-threshold H II regions, photons escaping from H II regions, and for young stars not directly associated with H II regions (i.e., 10-100 Myr old stars). A simple model confirms that this amount of 8 μm emission can be expected given dust and PAH absorption cross sections, a realistic star formation history, and the observed optical extinction values. A Fourier power spectrum analysis indicates that the 8 μm dust emission is more diffuse than the Hα emission (and similar to observed H I), supporting our analysis that much of the 8 μm-emitting dust is heated by older stars. The 8 μm dust-to-Hα emission ratio declines with galactocentric radius both within and outside of H II regions, probably due to a radial increase in disk transparency. In the course of this work, we have also found that intrinsic diffuse Hα fractions may be lower than previously thought in galaxies, if the differential extinction between H II regions and diffuse regions is taken into account.

  2. IUE and Einstein observations of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, G. A.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.; Mason, K. O.

    1990-01-01

    Results of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and Einstein observations of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579 are reported. Spatial profiles of the long wavelength IUE emission show a two component structure, with an unresolved core superimposed on broader underlying emission. The core spectrum shows strong C II lambda 2326 and broad Mg II lambda 2800 emission, and perhaps emission due to blends of Fe II multiplets (2300 to 23600 angstrom). The short wavelength emission is spatially unresolved, and shows C II lambda 1335, C III lambda 1909 broad C IV lambda 1550 emission, and a broad feature at approximately 1360 angstrom which may be due to 0.1 lambda 1356. Contrary to previous reports no evidence for He II lambda 1640 is found in the spectrum. An unresolved x ray source is detected at the location of the nucleus; its spectrum is well fitted by a power law of energy slope alpha approximately -0.5. These results further support the idea that NGC 4579 may contain a dwarf Seyfert nucleus.

  3. Baade-Wesselink radii for NGC 1866 Cepheids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Patrick; Welch, Douglas L.; Fischer, Philippe; Mateo, Mario; Madore, Barry F.

    1991-01-01

    Radial velocities and CCD photometry suitable for a Baade-Wesselink analysis are now available for six short-period Cepheids (HV12198, HV12199, HV12202, HV12203, HV12204, and V4) in the LMC cluster NGC 1866. As a prerequisite for such an analysis, O-C diagrams have been constructed and examined for seven of the NGC 1866 Cepheids (HV12197, HV12198, HV12199, HV12200, HV12202, HV12203, and HV12204), yielding improved periods and estimates of the rate of period change in these coeval variables. One star, HV12198, shows possible evidence for period change, but the phase mismatch due to that change is small enough to have negligible effect on its Baade-Wesselink radius. The computed radii are in good agreement with the Baade-Wesselink, theoretical and cluster/association period-radius relations of Fernie (1984) and the Galactic relation of Coulson and Caldwell (1989). The Flower (1977) color-effective temperature relation and the Becker et al. (1977) mass-luminosity relation lead to mean masses of 4.9 + or - 0.5 solar masses and 4.6 + or - 0.5 solar masses for the respective metallicities of (Y,Z) = (0.0273,0.0016) and (0.026,0.02). Pulsation constants are also computed for these stars.

  4. Studying the HI content of the NGC 4930 group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfinger, Kathrin; Kilborn, Virginia; Koribalski, Baerbel

    2011-10-01

    We propose to observe the neutral hydrogen (HI) content of the spiral-rich NGC 4930 group using the ATCA. This notable group lies 2.5° east of the Centaurus cluster core and is probably infalling for the first time. Our primary goal is to trace the evolutionary changes of spirals in different environments and to map the first signs of interaction and transformation. Our aims of the ATCA observations are (i) to study the HI properties of the group, (ii) to determine if there is an HI deficiency in the members, (iii) to look for any signs of ram pressure stripping that would indicate an interaction with a hot intra-group medium and (iv) to conduct a ‘blind’ survey for new group members, such as dwarf companions within the survey volume. We will further test the latest galaxy finding routines such as Duchamp, which are vital for the success of the upcoming ASKAP HI surveys. The NGC 4930 group is covered in the HI Parkes All Sky Survey but only two out of the nine group members are detected in HI. We propose to make mosaic observations and we expect to detect all of the known galaxies in this group.

  5. NGC 741 - Mergers and AGN feedback on galaxy groups scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, G.; Vrtilek, J.; David, L.; O'Sullivan, E.; Giacintucci, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Duchesne, S.; Raychaudhury, S.

    2017-10-01

    Low mass galaxy cluster systems and groups play an essential role in upcoming cosmological studies like those to be carried out with new instruments such as eROSITA. A detailed understanding of the astrophysical processes taking place in these systems is crucial before using them as cosmological tools. The effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and merging processes, although of special importance to quantify biases like selection effects or deviation from hydrostatic equilibrium, are poorly understood on the galaxy group scale. We present an analysis of recent deep Chandra and XMM-Newton integrations of NGC 741, which provides an excellent example of a group with multiple concurrent phenomena: both an old central radio galaxy and a spectacular infalling head-tail source (only 17 kpc from the BCG), strongly-bent jets and a 130 kpc radio trail, intriguing narrow X-ray filaments, and gas sloshing features. Supported principally by X-ray and radio continuum data, we address the merging history of the group, the nature of the X-ray filaments, the extent of gas stripping from NGC 742, the character of (ghost) cavities in the group, and the roles of the central AGN and infalling galaxy in heating the intra-group medium.

  6. A WARP IN PROGRESS: H I AND RADIO CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPIRAL NGC 3145

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, Michele [110 Westchester Rd, Newton, MA 02458 (United States); Brinks, Elias [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Struck, Curtis [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Rd., Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra M., E-mail: kaufmanrallis@icloud.com, E-mail: E.Brinks@herts.ac.uk, E-mail: curt@iastate.edu, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, 124 Raymond Av., Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    VLA H i observations and λ6 cm radio continuum observations are presented of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 3145. In optical images NGC 3145 has stellar arms that appear to cross, forming “X”-features. Our radio continuum observations rule out shock fronts at three of the four “X”-features, and our H i data provide evidence of gas motions perpendicular to the disk of NGC 3145. In large portions of NGC 3145, particularly in the middle-to-outer disk, the H i line profiles are skewed. Relative to the disk, the gas in the skewed wing of the line profiles has z-motions away from us on the approaching side of the galaxy and z-motions of about the same magnitude (∼40 km s{sup −1}) toward us on the receding side. These warping motions imply that there has been a perturbation with a sizeable component perpendicular to the disk over large spatial scales. Two features in NGC 3145 have velocities indicating that they are out-of-plane tidal arms. One is an apparent branch of a main spiral arm on the northeastern side of NGC 3145; the velocity of the branch is ∼150 km s{sup −1} greater than the spiral arm where they appear to intersect in projection. The other is the arm on the southwestern side that forms three of the “X”-features. It differs in velocity by ∼56 km s{sup −1} from that of the disk at the same projected location. H i observations are presented also of the two small companions NGC 3143 and PGC 029578. Based on its properties (enhanced SFR, H i emission 50% more extended on its northeastern side, etc.), NGC 3143 is the more likely of the two companions to have interacted with NGC 3145 recently. A simple analytic model demonstrates that an encounter between NGC 3143 and NGC 3145 is a plausible explanation for the observed warping motions in NGC 3145.

  7. The Gaia-ESO Survey and CSI 2264: Substructures, disks, and sequential star formation in the young open cluster NGC 2264

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuti, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Flaccomio, E.; Bonito, R.; Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Guarcello, M. G.; Randich, S.; Stauffer, J. R.; Cody, A. M.; Jeffries, R. D.; Alencar, S. H. P.; Alfaro, E. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Frasca, A.; Jofré, P.; Morbidelli, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Zaggia, S.

    2018-01-01

    Context. Reconstructing the structure and history of young clusters is pivotal to understanding the mechanisms and timescales of early stellar evolution and planet formation. Recent studies suggest that star clusters often exhibit a hierarchical structure, possibly resulting from several star formation episodes occurring sequentially rather than a monolithic cloud collapse. Aims: We aim to explore the structure of the open cluster and star-forming region NGC 2264 ( 3 Myr), which is one of the youngest, richest and most accessible star clusters in the local spiral arm of our Galaxy; we link the spatial distribution of cluster members to other stellar properties such as age and evolutionary stage to probe the star formation history within the region. Methods: We combined spectroscopic data obtained as part of the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) with multi-wavelength photometric data from the Coordinated Synoptic Investigation of NGC 2264 (CSI 2264) campaign. We examined a sample of 655 cluster members, with masses between 0.2 and 1.8 M⊙ and including both disk-bearing and disk-free young stars. We used Teff estimates from GES and g,r,i photometry from CSI 2264 to derive individual extinction and stellar parameters. Results: We find a significant age spread of 4-5 Myr among cluster members. Disk-bearing objects are statistically associated with younger isochronal ages than disk-free sources. The cluster has a hierarchical structure, with two main blocks along its latitudinal extension. The northern half develops around the O-type binary star S Mon; the southern half, close to the tip of the Cone Nebula, contains the most embedded regions of NGC 2264, populated mainly by objects with disks and ongoing accretion. The median ages of objects at different locations within the cluster, and the spatial distribution of disked and non-disked sources, suggest that star formation began in the north of the cluster, over 5 Myr ago, and was ignited in its southern region a few Myr later

  8. The 0.3-30 Kev Spectra Of Powerful Starburst Galaxies: Nustar And Chandra Observations Of Ngc 3256 And Ngc 3310

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Tyler, J. B.; Hornschemeier, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present nearly simultaneous Chandra and NuSTAR observations of two actively star-forming galaxies within 50 Mpc: NGC 3256 and NGC 3310. Both galaxies are significantly detected by both Chandra and NuSTAR, which together provide the first-ever spectra of these two galaxies spanning 0.3-30 ke...... with equivalent measurements for nearby star-forming galaxies M83 and NGC 253, we analyze the star formation rate (SFR) normalized spectra of these starburst galaxies. The spectra of all four galaxies show sharply declining power-law slopes at energies above 3-6 keV primarily due to ULX populations. Our......-Eddington accreting ULXs that have been studied individually in a targeted NuSTAR ULX program. We also find that NGC 3310 exhibits a factor of ≈3-10 elevation of X-ray emission over the other star-forming galaxies due to a corresponding overabundance of ULXs. We argue that the excess of ULXs in NGC 3310 is most...

  9. A candidate sub-parsec binary black hole in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 7674

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharb, P.; Lal, D. V.; Merritt, D.

    2017-10-01

    The existence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs) is predicted by models of hierarchical galaxy formation. To date, only a single binary SBH has been imaged, at a projected separation of 7.3 pc. Here, we report the detection of a candidate dual SBH with projected separation of 0.35 pc in the gas-rich interacting spiral galaxy NGC 7674 (Mrk 533). This peculiar Seyfert galaxy possesses a roughly 0.7 kpc Z-shaped radio jet. The leading model for the formation of such sources postulates the presence of an uncoalesced binary SBH created during the infall of a satellite galaxy. Using very long baseline interferometry, we imaged the central region of Mrk 533 at radio frequencies of 2, 5, 8 and 15 GHz. Two, possibly inverted-spectrum, radio cores were detected at 15 GHz only. The 8-15 GHz spectral indices of the two cores were ≥-0.33 and ≥-0.38 (±30%), consistent with accreting SBHs. We derived a jet speed of around 0.28c from multi-epoch parsec-scale data of the hotspot region and a source age of ≥ 8.2 × 103 years.

  10. Spitzer IR Sudy of Sar Formation in an Embedded Young Cluster NGC2316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Velusamy, T.; Thompson, T.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of embedded young star clusters, still contained within their parent molecular clouds provide unique data of stars of similar age to study star formation issues, such as, (i) the IMF, (ii) the frequency and lifetimes of protoplanetary disks, (iii) the history of star formation in the cluster, (iv) the evolution of the cloud and its eventual dispersal, and (v) the subsequent termination or triggering of star formation. To analyze some of these issues we obtained Spitzer IRAC observations at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8µm and MIPS observations at 24µm of NGC 2316, a young (2-3 Myr) embedded star cluster containing a central HII region powered by a B3 star. In the infrared, we detect more than 200 objects in this cluster. We used Hires deconvolution to enable the detection of point sources more efficiently in the 5.8 and 8µm images (here point source detection is severely limited by the confusion from the bright HII region and the extended dust emission within the cluster). We present results on a statistically significant sample of young stars in this cluster and discuss some of the issues on star formation in the cluster environment, listed above. This work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Planetary nebulae with UVIT: Far ultra-violet halo around the Bow Tie nebula (NGC 40)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameswara Rao, N.; Sutaria, F.; Murthy, J.; Krishna, S.; Mohan, R.; Ray, A.

    2018-01-01

    Context. NGC 40 is a planetary nebula with diffuse X-ray emission, suggesting an interaction of the high-speed wind from WC8 central star (CS) with the nebula. It shows strong C IV 1550 Å emission that cannot be explained by thermal processes alone. We present here the first map of this nebula in C IV emission using broad band filters on the Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT). Aim. We aim to map the hot C IV-emitting gas and its correspondence with soft X-ray (0.3-8 keV) emitting regions in order to study the shock interaction between the nebula and the ISM. We also aim to illustrate the potential of UVIT for nebular studies. Methods: We carry out a morphological study of images of the nebula obtained at an angular resolution of about 1.3″ in four UVIT filter bands that include C IV 1550 Å and [C II] 2326 Å lines as well as UV continuum. We also make comparisons with X-ray, optical, and IR images from the literature. Results: The [C II] 2326 Å images show the core of the nebula with two lobes on either side of CS similar to [N II]. The C IV emission in the core shows similar morphology and extent to that of diffuse X-ray emission concentrated in nebular condensations. A surprising UVIT discovery is the presence of a large faint far UV (FUV) halo in an FUV filter with λeff of 1608 Å. The UV halo is not present in any other UV filter. The FUV halo is most likely due to UV fluorescence emission from the Lyman bands of H2 molecules. Unlike the optical and IR halo, the FUV halo trails predominantly towards the south-east side of the nebular core, opposite to the CS's proper motion direction. Conclusions: Morphological similarity of C IV 1550 Å and X-ray emission in the core suggests that it results mostly from the interaction of strong CS wind with the nebula. The FUV halo in NGC 40 highlights the extensive existence of H2 molecules in the regions even beyond the optical and IR halos. Thus UV studies are important to estimate the amount of H2, which is

  12. The ISO spectrum of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 - I. Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, DA; Pottasch, [No Value

    The spectrum of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 is presented, as it was observed by the ISO short-wavelength spectrometer. The IUE spectrum observed at the same position with the same aperture is also presented.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 6811 CCD UBVRI photometry (Yontan+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yontan, T.; Bilir, S.; Bostanc, Z. F.; Ak, T.; Karaali, S.; Guver, T.; Ak, S.; Duran, S.; Paunzen, E.

    2015-09-01

    CCD UBVRI observations of NGC 6811 were carried out on 18th July 2012 using the 1m Ritchey-Chretien telescope (T100) located at the TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG) in Bakirlitepe, Antalya/Turkey. (1 data file).

  14. Metal residues, histopathology and presence of parasites in the liver and gills of fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) near a former lead-zinc mine in East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Mai; Nørregaard, Rasmus; Bach, Lis; Sonne, Christian; Søndergaard, Jens; Gustavson, Kim; Aastrup, Peter; Nowak, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    Fourhorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) and shorthorn sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) have been considered suitable local bioindicators for environmental monitoring studies in the Arctic. Because these species share many characteristics, data from the two species have previously been pooled when assessing marine metal contamination. A chemical and histological study was conducted on fourhorn and shorthorn sculpins collected around a contaminated lead-zinc mine at East Greenland to investigate whether there were any differences in the residues of metals, histopathology and parasites in liver and gills between the two sculpin species. The results demonstrated that concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) were significantly higher in the fourhorn sculpins (p<0.001) while there were no significant differences for arsenic (As) or cadmium (Cd). Furthermore, density of blood vessel fibrosis (p=0.028), prevalence and density of chondroplasia (p=0.002 and p=0.005, respectively), number of mucin-containing mucous cells (p<0.001) and chloride cells (p<0.001) and mean intensity of colonial Peritricha (p<0.001) were significantly higher in fourhorn sculpin. Based on these results we suggest that pooling the two species when conducting environmental assessments is not recommended as it can lead to incorrect conclusions. We propose that a larger study investigating the biological effects of zinc-lead mining in Greenland is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. XI. THE REMARKABLY UNDISTURBED NGC 2403 DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne; Radburn-Smith, David [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: adrienne@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: dolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present detailed analysis of color-magnitude diagrams of NGC 2403, obtained from a deep (m {approx}< 28) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observation of the outer disk of NGC 2403, supplemented by several shallow (m {approx}< 26) HST Advanced Camera for Surveys fields. We derive the spatially resolved star formation history of NGC 2403 out to 11 disk scale lengths. In the inner portions of the galaxy, we compare the recent star formation rates (SFRs) we derive from the resolved stars with those measured using GALEX FUV + Spitzer 24{mu} fluxes, finding excellent agreement between the methods. Our measurements also show that the radial gradient in recent SFR mirrors the disk exponential profile to 11 scale lengths with no break, extending to SFR densities a factor of {approx}100 lower than those that can be measured with GALEX and Spitzer ({approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}). Furthermore, we find that the cumulative stellar mass of the disk was formed at similar times at all radii. We compare these characteristics of NGC 2403 to those of its ''morphological twins'', NGC 300 and M 33, showing that the structure and age distributions of the NGC 2403 disk are more similar to those of the relatively isolated system NGC 300 than to those of the Local Group analog M 33. We also discuss the environments and HI morphologies of these three nearby galaxies, comparing them to integrated light studies of larger samples of more distant galaxy disks. Taken together, the physical properties and evolutionary history of NGC 2403 suggest that the galaxy has had no close encounters with other M 81 group members and may be falling into the group for the first time.

  16. NGC 2782: A Merger Remnant with Young Stars in its Gaseous Tidal Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Flores, S.; de Oliveira, C. Mendes; de Mello, D. F.; Scarano, S. Jr.; Urrutia-Viscarra, R.

    2012-01-01

    We have searched for young star-forming regions around the merger remnant NGC 2782. By using GALEX FUV and NUV imaging and HI data we found seven UV sources, located at distances greater than 26 kpc from the center of NGG 2782, and coinciding with its western HI tidal tail. These regions were resolved in several smaller systems when Gemini/GMOS r-band images were used. We compared the observed colors to stellar population synthesis models and we found that these objects have ages of l to ll11yr and masses ranging from 10(exp 3.9) to l0(exp 4.6) Solar Mass. By using Gemini/GMOS spectroscopic data we confirm memberships and derive high metallicities for three of the young regions in the tail (12+log(O/H)=8.74+/-0.20, 8.81+/-0.20 and 8.78+/-0.20). These metallicities are similar to the value presented by the nuclear region of NGG 2782 and also similar to the value presented for an object located close to the main body of NGG 2782. The high metallicities measured for the star-forming regions in the gaseous tidal tail of NGG 2782 could be explained if they were formed out of highly enriched gas which was once expelled from the center of the merging galaxies when the system collided. An additional possibility is that the tail has been a nursery of a few generations of young stellar systems which ultimately polluted this medium with metals, further enriching the already pre-enriched gas ejected to the tail when the galaxies collided.

  17. Chemical Abundances of Two Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Cluster NGC 1718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakari, Charli M.; McWilliam, Andrew; Wallerstein, George

    2017-05-01

    Detailed chemical abundances of two stars in the intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) globular cluster NGC 1718 are presented, based on high-resolution spectroscopic observations with the MIKE spectrograph. The detailed abundances confirm NGC 1718 to be a fairly metal-rich cluster, with an average [Fe/H] ˜ -0.55 ± 0.01. The two red giants appear to have primordial O, Na, Mg and Al abundances, with no convincing signs of a composition difference between the two stars - hence, based on these two stars, NGC 1718 shows no evidence for hosting multiple populations. The Mg abundance is lower than Milky Way field stars, but is similar to LMC field stars at the same metallicity. The previous claims of very low [Mg/Fe] in NGC 1718 are therefore not supported in this study. Other abundances (Si, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Ni, Cu, Rb, Y, Zr, La and Eu) all follow the LMC field star trend, demonstrating yet again that (for most elements) globular clusters trace the abundances of their host galaxy's field stars. Similar to the field stars, NGC 1718 is found to be mildly deficient in explosive α-elements, but moderately to strongly deficient in O, Na, Mg, Al and Cu, elements that form during hydrostatic burning in massive stars. NGC 1718 is also enhanced in La, suggesting that it was enriched in ejecta from metal-poor asymptotic giant branch stars.

  18. Solid CO_2 towards NGC7538 IRS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazzulla, G.; Nisini, B.; Leto, G.; Palumbo, M. E.; Saraceno, P.

    1998-06-01

    We report the observation of the young infrared source NGC7538 IRS1 with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) onboard the ISO satellite in the 2.4-45 mu m range. The spectrum exhibits several absorption features due to silicates and to molecular species frozen on the refractory dust. In particular the stretching and bending mode of solid CO_2 have been identified. In this paper we present a comparison of the observed absorption band at about 15.1 mu m (660 cm(-1) ) attributed to the bending mode of solid CO_2 with laboratory spectra of ion irradiated ice mixtures. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  19. Line asymmetry in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, J. M.; Bautista, Manuel; Kallman, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    We have reanalyzed the 900 ks Chandra X-ray spectrum of NGC 3783, finding evidence on the asymmetry of the spectral absorption lines. The lines are fitted with a parametric expression that results from an analytical treatment of radiatively driven winds. The line asymmetry distribution derived from the spectrum is consistent with a non-spherical outflow with a finite optical depth. Within this scenario, our model explains the observed correlations between the line velocity shifts and the ionization parameter and between the line velocity shift and the line asymmetry. The present results may provide a framework for detailed testing of models for the dynamic and physical properties of warm absorber in Seyfert galaxies.

  20. A compact CO bipolar outflow from NGC 2024 FIR6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, J.S. (Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cambridge (UK). Cavendish Lab.)

    1990-07-15

    The discovery is reported of a bipolar outflow source in the NGC 2024 cloud core, which appears to be associated with both the 1300-{mu}m continuum source FIR6, and a water maser. This flow is compact (size {approx} 0.05 pc), displays bright, wide line-wings (total width {approx} 125 km s{sup -1}) and has a mechanical luminosity L{sub CO} {approx} 15 times the solar luminosity. These properties suggest that FIR6 is a young stellar object of high mass: from the correlation of mechanical luminosity with bolometric luminosity, the source luminosity is > {approx} 10{sup 3.5} times the solar luminosity. The short dynamical timescale of this flow suggests that the system is very young, but the high inferred luminosity implies that the object has evolved beyond the stage of isothermal protostellar contraction. (author).

  1. Estudio polarimétrico de NGC 104 (47 Tucanae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, J. C.; Bassino, L. P.; Vega, E. I.; Cellone, S.; Pellizza, L.; Méndez, M.

    Se presentan observaciones polarimétricas en el Visual y sin filtro para 72 estrellas, 14 zonas de referencia y el núcleo del cúmulo globular NGC 104. Las medidas, hechas en el CASLEO con el nuevo polarimétro CASPROF, muestran un comportamiento complejo que incluye: a) dos componentes de polarización a lo largo de la visual; b) signos de envolturas polvorientas en 8 de 10 estrellas variables de largo período pertenecientes al cúmulo c) media docena de estrellas con alta polarización residual (P> 0.20 %) originada probablemente en scattering. Estas estrellas se encuentran próximas a una estructura extendida, coincidente con la región central del cúmulo, detectada en observaciones IRAS. Las observaciones son consistentes con la presencia de pequeñas cantidades de polvo originada en procesos de pérdida de masa.

  2. Gaia17biu/SN 2017egm in NGC 3191

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Subhash; Dong, Subo; Pastorello, A.

    2017-01-01

    The rare hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) have been predominantly found in low-metallicity, star-forming dwarf galaxies. Here we identify Gaia17biu/SN 2017egm as an SLSN-I occurring in a "normal" spiral galaxy (NGC 3191) in terms of stellar mass (several times 10^10 M......_sun) and metallicity (roughly solar). At redshift z=0.031, Gaia17biu is also the lowest redshift SLSN-I to date, and the absence of a larger population of SLSNe-I in dwarf galaxies of similar redshift suggests that metallicity is likely less important to the production of SLSNe-I than previously believed...

  3. Shocked molecular hydrogen in the bipolar outflow NGC 2071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, M.G. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA (USA). Ames Research Center); Geballe, T.R. (Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, Hawaii (USA); Foundation for Astronomical Research in the Netherlands (ASTRON)); Brand, P.W.J.L. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy)

    1989-06-15

    Emission from the 4u = 1 - 0 S(1) line of molecular hydrogen has been mapped in the bipolar outflow NGC 2071. The line emission peaks at six positions distributed irregularly along the two lobes, which extend over a distance of {similar to} 1 pc. These lobes are parallel to, but offset {similar to} 20 arcsec from, the lobes of high-velocity CO line emission. Spectra from 2.1 to 2.45 {mu}m of the H{sub 2} emission lines are typical of shock-excited emission. The total H{sub 2} line luminosity is estimated to be {similar to} 4.5 time the solar luminosity. Profiles of the 1-0 S(1) line are relatively narrow (< 30 km s{sup -1} FWHM) for shocked gas. The peak velocity varies systematically across the source, in a manner consistent with the observed bipolarity of the millimetre-wave CO line emission. (author).

  4. Spectroscopic Study of Low Mass Members of NGC 2244

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alty, Michelle; Ybarra, Jason E.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    The results of a near-infrared spectroscopic study of low-mass stars in open cluster NGC 2244 are presented. JH spectra of the stars were obtained using the FLAMINGOS instrument at KPNO. To determine cluster membership, we used Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared photometry along with X-ray detections from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The stars were spectral typed using absorption line ratios and spectral shapes. The stars were then plotted on an H-R diagram along with theoretical isochrones. We discuss these results in context of cluster evolution in the Rosette Molecular Complex. Work supported, in part, by the Dr. John W. Martin Summer Science Research Institute at Bridgewater College.

  5. Ages of the Bulge Globular Clusters NGC 6522 and NGC 6626 (M28) from HST Proper-motion-cleaned Color–Magnitude Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, L. O.; Nardiello, D.; Ortolani, S.; Barbuy, B.; Bica, E.; Cassisi, S.; Libralato, M.; Vieira, R. G.

    2018-01-01

    Bulge globular clusters (GCs) with metallicities [Fe/H] ≲ ‑1.0 and blue horizontal branches are candidates to harbor the oldest populations in the Galaxy. Based on the analysis of HST proper-motion-cleaned color–magnitude diagrams in filters F435W and F625W, we determine physical parameters for the old bulge GCs NGC 6522 and NGC 6626 (M28), both with well-defined blue horizontal branches. We compare these results with similar data for the inner halo cluster NGC 6362. These clusters have similar metallicities (‑1.3 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ ‑1.0) obtained from high-resolution spectroscopy. We derive ages, distance moduli, and reddening values by means of statistical comparisons between observed and synthetic fiducial lines employing likelihood statistics and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The synthetic fiducial lines were generated using α-enhanced BaSTI and Dartmouth stellar evolutionary models, adopting both canonical (Y ∼ 0.25) and enhanced (Y ∼ 0.30–0.33) helium abundances. RR Lyrae stars were employed to determine the HB magnitude level, providing an independent indicator to constrain the apparent distance modulus and the helium enhancement. The shape of the observed fiducial line could be compatible with some helium enhancement for NGC 6522 and NGC 6626, but the average magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars tend to rule out this hypothesis. Assuming canonical helium abundances, BaSTI and Dartmouth models indicate that all three clusters are coeval, with ages between ∼12.5 and 13.0 Gyr. The present study also reveals that NGC 6522 has at least two stellar populations, since its CMD shows a significantly wide subgiant branch compatible with 14% ± 2% and 86% ± 5% for first and second generations, respectively. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  6. The interstellar halo of spiral galaxies: NGC 891

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Rand, R. J.; Hester, J. Jeff

    1990-01-01

    Researchers have detected the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM) phase in the galaxy NGC 891. They found that the radial distribution of the WIM follows the molecular or young star distribution - an expected dependence. The amount of the WIM in this galaxy exceeds that in our Galaxy. The major surprize is the large thickness of the WIM phase - about 9 kpc instead 3 kpc as in our Galaxy. Clearly, this is the most significant result of the observations. The presence of low ionization gas at high z as well as at large galactocentric radii (where young stars are rare) is an important clue to the origin of the halo and observations such as the one reported here provide important data on this crucial question. In particular, the ionization of gas at high absolute z implies that either the UV photons manage to escape from the disk of the galaxy or that the extragalactic UV background plays an important role. The bulk of the WIM in spiral galaxies is a result of star-formation activity and thus these results can be understood by invoking a high star formation rate in NGC 891. Only the concerted action of supernovae can get the gas to the large z-heights as is observed in this galaxy. Support for this view comes from our detection of many worms i.e., bits and pieces of supershells in the form of kilo-parsec long vertical filaments. Researchers also saw a 600-pc size supershell located nearly one kpc above the plane of the galaxy.

  7. On the Spiral Structure of NGC 2915 and Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masset, F. S.; Bureau, M.

    2003-03-01

    NGC 2915 is a blue compact dwarf galaxy embedded in an extended, low surface brightness H I disk exhibiting a two-armed spiral structure and a central barlike component. Commonly accepted mechanisms are unable to explain the existence of these patterns, and Bureau et al. proposed disk dark matter (scaling with the H I distribution) or a rotating triaxial dark halo as alternative solutions. In an attempt to explore these mechanisms, hydrodynamic simulations were run for each case and compared to observations using customized column density and kinematic constraints. The spiral structure can be accounted for by both an unseen bar or triaxial halo, the former fitting the observations slightly better. However, the large bar mass or halo pattern frequency required make it unlikely that the spiral wave is driven by an external perturber. In particular, the spin parameter λ is much higher than predicted by current cold dark matter structure formation scenarios. The massive disk models show that when the observed gas surface density is scaled up by a factor about 10, the disk develops a spiral structure resembling closely the observed one, in perturbed density as well as perturbed velocity. This is consistent with more limited studies in other galaxies and suggests that the disk of NGC 2915 contains much more mass than is visible, tightly linked to the neutral hydrogen. A classic (quasi-)spherical halo is nevertheless still required, as increasing the disk mass further to fit the circular velocity curve would make the disk violently unstable. Scaling the observed surface density profile by an order of magnitude brings the disk and halo masses to comparable values within the disk radius. The surface density remains under Kennicutt's star formation threshold for a gaseous disk, and no stars are expected to form, as required by observations.

  8. Stellar Variability in the Intermediate Age Cluster NGC 1846

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajkos, Michael A.; Salinas, Ricardo; Vivas, Anna Katherina; Strader, Jay; Contreras, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    The existence of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters is considered a widespread phenomenon, with only a few possible exceptions. In the LMC intermediate-age globular clusters, the presence of extended main sequence turn off points (MSTOs), initially interpreted as evidence for multiple stellar populations, is now under scrutiny and stellar rotation has emerged as an alternative explanation. Here we propose yet another ingredient to this puzzle: the fact that the MSTO of these clusters passes through the instability strip making stellar variability a new alternative to explain this phenomenon. We report the first in-depth characterization of the variability, at the MSTO level, in any LMC cluster, and assess the role of variability masquerading as multiple stellar populations. We used the Gemini-S/GMOS to obtain time series photometry of NGC 1846. Using differencing image analysis, we identified 90 variables in the r-band, 68 of which were also found in the g-band. Of these 68, 57 were δ-scuti—with 35 having full phase coverage and 22 without. The average full period (Pfull) was 1.93 ± 0.79 hours. Furthermore, two eclipsing binaries and two RR Lyrae identified by OGLE were recovered. We conclude that not enough variables were found to provide a statistically significant impact on the extended MSTO, nor to explain the bifurcation of MSTO in NGC 1846. But the effect of variable stars could still be a viable explanation on clusters where only a hint of a MS extension is seen.

  9. Chandra Reveals Heavy Obscuration and Circumnuclear Star Formation in Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4968

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Yaqoob, Tahir; Levenson, N. A.; Boorman, Peter; Heckman, Timothy M.; Gandhi, Poshak; Rigby, Jane R.; Urry, C. Megan; Ptak, Andrew F.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Chandra imaging and spectral analysis of NGC 4968, a nearby (z = 0.00986) Seyfert 2 galaxy. We discover extended (approx. 1 kpc) X-ray emission in the soft band (0.5-2 keV) that is neither coincident with the narrow line region nor the extended radio emission. Based on spectral modeling, it is linked to on-going star formation [approx. 2.6-4 Mass compared to Earth yr(exp.- 1)]. The soft emission at circumnuclear scales (inner approx. 400 pc) originates from hot gas, with kT approx. 0.7 keV, while the most extended thermal emission is cooler (kT approx. 0.3 keV). We refine previous measurements of the extreme Fe K alpha equivalent width in this source (EW 2.5 + 2.6/-1.0 keV), which suggests the central engine is completely embedded within Compton-thick levels of obscuration. Using physically motivated models fit to the Chandra spectrum, we derive a Compton-thick column density [N(sub H) is greater than 1.25× 10(exp 24) cm(exp.- 2)] and an intrinsic hard (2-10 keV) X-ray luminosity of approx. 3-8× 10(exp. 42) erg s(exp. - 1) (depending on the presumed geometry of the obscurer), which is over two orders of magnitude larger than that observed. The large Fe K Alpha EW suggests a spherical covering geometry, which could be confirmed with X-ray measurements above 10 keV. NGC 4968 is similar to other active galaxies that exhibit extreme Fe K Alpha EWs (i.e., greater than 2 keV) in that they also contain on-going star formation. This work supports the idea that gas associated with nuclear star formation may increase the covering factor of the enshrouding gas and play a role in obscuring active galactic nuclei.

  10. An IFU-view of Planetary Nebulae: Exploring NGC 6720 (Ring Nebula) with KCWI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Keri; Matuszewski, Matt; Hamden, Erika; Martin, Christopher; Neill, Don; Kyne, Gillian

    2018-01-01

    Studying the interaction between the ejected stellar material and interstellar clouds is important for understanding how stellar deaths influences the pollution of matter that will later form other stars. Planetary nebulae provide ideal laboratories to study such interactions. I will present on a case study of one close-by planetary nebula, the Ring Nebula (M 57, NGC 6720), to infer the abundances, temperatures, structures, and dynamics of important atomic and ionic species in two distinct regions of the nebula using a newly-commissioned integral field spectrograph (IFS) on Keck: the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI). The advantage of an IFS over traditional filter-imaging techniques is the ability to simultaneously observe the spectrum of any given pixel in the imaging area, which provides crucial information about the dynamics of the observed region. This technique is powerful for diffuse or extended astrophysical objects, and I will demonstrate the different imaging and spectral modes of KCWI used to observe the Ring Nebula.KCWI observations of the Ring Nebula focused mainly on the innermost region of the nebula, with a little coverage of the Inner Ring. We also observed the length of the Ring in one set of observations, for which we will estimate the elemental abundances, temperatures, and dynamics of the region. KCWI observations also capture an inner arc and blob that have distinctly difference characteristics than the Ring itself and may be a direct observation of either the planetary nebula ramming into an interstellar cloud projected onto the sightline or a dense interstellar cloud being illuminated by the stellar continuum from the hot central white dwarf.

  11. Morphological evidence for a past minor merger in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ichi; Yagi, Masafumi; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2017-12-01

    Deep optical imaging with both Hyper Suprime-Cam and Suprime-Cam on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope reveals a number of outer faint structures around the archetypical Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 (M 77). We find three ultra diffuse objects (UDOs) around NGC 1068. Since these UDOs are located within the projected distance of 45 kpc from the center of NGC 1068, they appear to be associated with NGC 1068. Hereafter, we call them UDO-SW, UDO-NE, and UDO-SE where UDO = Ultra Diffuse Object, SW = southwest, NE = northwest, and SE = southeast; note that UDO-SE was already found in the SDSS Stripe 82 data. Among them, UDO-NE and UDO-SW appear to be a part of a loop or stream structure around the main body of NGC 1068, providing evidence for the physical connection to NGC 1068. We consider that UDO-SE may be a tidal dwarf galaxy. We also find another UDO-like object that is two magnitudes fainter and smaller by a factor of 3 to 5 than those of the three UDOs. This object may belong to a class of low surface brightness galaxy. Since this object is located along the line connecting UDO-NE and UDO-SW, it is suggested that this object is related to the past interaction event that formed the loop by UDO-NE and UDO-SW, thus implying the physical connection to NGC 1068. Another newly discovered feature is an asymmetric outer one-arm structure emanating from the western edge of the outermost disk of NGC 1068 together with a ripple-like structure at the opposite side. These structures are expected to arise in a late phase of a minor merger, according to published numerical simulations of minor mergers. All these lines of evidence show that NGC 1068 experienced a minor merger several billion years ago. We then discuss the minor-merger driven triggering of nuclear activity in the case of NGC 1068.

  12. Joint fit of Warm Absorbers in COS and HETG spectra of NGC 3783

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Dan; Zhang, Shui-Nai; Sun, Wei; Niu, Shu; Ji, Li

    2017-09-01

    Warm Absorbers (WAs), as an important form of AGN outflows, show absorption in both the UV and X-ray bands. Using XSTAR generated photoionization models, for the first time we present a joint fit to the simultaneous observations of HST/COS and Chandra/HETG on NGC 3783. A total of five WAs explain well all absorption features from the AGN outflows, which are spread over a wide range of parameters: ionization parameter logξ from 0.6 to 3.8, column density log {N}{{H}} from 19.5 to 22.3 cm-2, velocity v from 380 to 1060 km s-1, and covering factor from 0.33 to 0.75. Not all the five WAs are consistent in pressure. Two of them are likely different parts of the same absorbing gas, and two of the other WAs may be smaller discrete clouds that are blown out from the inner region of the torus at different periods. The five WAs suggest a total mass outflowing rate within the range of 0.22-4.1 solar mass per year.

  13. Multi-wavelength study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Blustin, A J; Behar, E; Kaastra, J S; Kahn, S M; Page, M J; Sako, M; Steenbrugge, K C

    2002-01-01

    We present the analysis of multi-wavelength XMM-Newton data from the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783, including UV imaging, X-ray and UV lightcurves, the 0.2-10 keV X-ray continuum, the iron K-alpha emission line, and high-resolution spectroscopy and modelling of the soft X-ray warm absorber. The 0.2-10 keV spectral continuum can be well reproduced by a power-law at higher energies; we detect a prominent Fe K-alpha emission line, with both broad and narrow components, and a weaker emission line at 6.9 keV which is probably a combination of Fe K-beta and Fe XXVI. We interpret the significant deficit of counts in the soft X-ray region as being due to absorption by ionised gas in the line of sight. This is demonstrated by the large number of narrow absorption lines in the RGS spectrum from iron, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, neon, argon, magnesium, silicon and sulphur. The wide range of iron states present in the spectrum enables us to deduce the ionisation structure of the absorbing medium. We find that our spectrum contai...

  14. EVIDENCE FOR PERIODICITY IN 43 YEAR-LONG MONITORING OF NGC 5548

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bon, E.; Bon, N.; Jovanović, P.; Popović, L. Č.; Stalevski, M. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia); Zucker, S. [Department of Geosciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Netzer, H. [School of Physics and Astronomy and the Wise Observatory, The Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Marziani, P. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Padova (Italy); Shapovalova, A. I.; Burenkov, A. N. [Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian AS, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachaevo-Cherkesia 369167 (Russian Federation); Komossa, S.; Britzen, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Gaskell, C. M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Chavushyan, V. H.; Valdés, J. R. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofsica, Óptica y Electrónica, Apartado Postal 51, CP 72000, Puebla, Pue, Mexico (Mexico); Sergeev, S. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny, Republic of Crimea 298409 (Russian Federation); Mura, G. La [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122—Padova (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    We present an analysis of 43 years (1972 to 2015) of spectroscopic observations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. This includes 12 years of new unpublished observations (2003 to 2015). We compiled about 1600 H β spectra and analyzed the long-term spectral variations of the 5100 Å continuum and the H β line. Our analysis is based on standard procedures, including the Lomb–Scargle method, which is known to be rather limited to such heterogeneous data sets, and a new method developed specifically for this project that is more robust and reveals a ∼5700 day periodicity in the continuum light curve, the H β light curve, and the radial velocity curve of the red wing of the H β line. The data are consistent with orbital motion inside the broad emission line region of the source. We discuss several possible mechanisms that can explain this periodicity, including orbiting dusty and dust-free clouds, a binary black hole system, tidal disruption events, and the effect of an orbiting star periodically passing through an accretion disk.

  15. Blue Straggler Masses from Pulsation Properties. I. The Case of NGC 6541

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, G.; Lanzoni, B.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Bono, G.; Marconi, M.

    2014-03-01

    We used high spatial resolution images acquired with the Wide Field Camera 3 on board Hubble Space Telescope to probe the population of variable blue straggler stars (BSSs) in the central region of the poorly studied Galactic globular cluster NGC 6541. The time sampling of the acquired multiwavelength (F390W, F555W, and F814W) data allowed us to discover three WUMa stars and nine SX Phoenicis. Periods, mean magnitudes, and pulsation modes have been derived for the nine SX Phoenicis, and their masses have been estimated by using pulsation equations obtained from linear nonadiabatic models. We found masses in the range 1.0-1.1 M ⊙, with an average value of 1.06 ± 0.09 M ⊙ (σ = 0.04), significantly in excess of the cluster main-sequence turn-off mass (~0.75 M ⊙). A mild trend between mass and luminosity seems also to be present. The computed pulsation masses turn out to be in very good agreement with the predictions of evolutionary tracks for single stars, indicating values in the range ~1.0-1.2 M ⊙ for most of the BSS population, in agreement with what was discussed in a number of previous studies.

  16. ROSAT PSPC observations of two X-ray-faint early-type galaxies: NGC 4365 and NGC 4382

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G.; Kim, D.-W.; Trinchieri, G.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of ROSAT Positive Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations of the two early-type galaxies NGC 4365 and NGC 4382. These galaxies are among those observed with Einstein to have the lowest X-ray to optical flux ratios of early-type galaxies. The PSCP data show that for radii r greater than 50 arcsec the radial distributions of the X-ray surface brightness are consistent with the optical distributions of King (1978). We also find that these galaxies have X-ray spectra significantly different from those observed in X-ray-bright ellipticals, with a relative excess of counts detected in the softest spectral channels. This confirms earlier Einstein results. The characteristics of the ROSAT PSPC do not allow us to discriminate between possible spectral models. If we adopt a two-component thermal model on the grounds of physical plausibility, we find that the spectral data can be fitted with a very soft optically thin component, with kT approximately 0.2 keV, and a hard component with kT greater than (1.0-1.5) keV. The hard component has a luminosity consistent with that expected from the integrated emission of a population of low mass-X-ray binaries in these galaxies; the nature of the very soft component is more speculative. Candidates include the coronal emission of late-type stars, supersoft X-ray sources, RS CVn, and perhaps a hot Interstellar Medium (ISM). Alternatively, the spectal data may be fitted with a 0.6-1 keV bremsstrahlung spectrum (expontential plus Gaunt), and may suggest the presence of a totally new population of X-ray sources.

  17. Infrared Spectroscopy of a Massive Obscured Star Cluster in the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/9) with NIRSPEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert; Graham; McLean; Becklin; Figer; Larkin; Levenson; Teplitz; Wilcox

    2000-04-10

    We present infrared spectroscopy of the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/9) with the near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) at the W. M. Keck Observatory. We imaged the star clusters in the vicinity of the southern nucleus (NGC 4039) with 0&farcs;39 seeing in the K band using NIRSPEC's slit-viewing camera. The brightest star cluster revealed in the near-IR [MK&parl0;0&parr0; approximately -17.9] is insignificant optically but is coincident with the highest surface brightness peak in the mid-IR (12-18 µm) Infrared Space Observatory image presented by Mirabel et al. We obtained high signal-to-noise ratio 2.03-2.45 µm spectra of the nucleus and the obscured star cluster at R approximately 1900. The cluster is very young ( approximately 4 Myr), massive (M approximately 16x106 M middle dot in circle), and compact (with a density of approximately 115 M middle dot in circle pc-3 within a 32 pc half-light radius), assuming a Salpeter initial mass function (0.1-100 M middle dot in circle). Its hot stars have a radiation field characterized by Teff approximately 39,000 K, and they ionize a compact H ii region with ne approximately 104 cm-3. The stars are deeply embedded in gas and dust (AV approximately 9-10 mag), and their strong far-ultraviolet field powers a clumpy photodissociation region with densities nH greater, similar105 cm-3 on scales of approximately 200 pc, radiating LH21-0S&parl0;1&parr0;=9600 L middle dot in circle.

  18. Bridging the Gap from Galactic to Extragalactic: Star Formation and Giant Molecular Clouds within the Nearby Spiral Galaxy NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faesi, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The questions surrounding the origins of stars are of key importance in astrophysics across a huge range in physical scales. However, until recently, investigations have been restricted to either detailed studies targeting a few nearby regions in the Milky Way, or kpc- or larger-scale studies of entire galaxies. Between these two scales lies a crucial gap in understanding. In this thesis work, I have taken steps in bridging this gap between Galactic and extragalactic star formation. I will present the results of a campaign of observations and modeling targeting the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 300. Using an extensive suite of multi-wavelength data I have characterized the star formation activity and molecular gas in a large sample of star-forming regions within this galaxy. Additionally, I have assembled an extensive (300 clouds) and high resolution (10 pc) catalog of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) based on ALMA CO observations. This unprecedented look at the population of GMCs in a nearby spiral galaxy reveals an astonishing range of morphologies and properties in the Molecular Gas as well as providing a key testbed for comparison with GMCs in the Milky Way and other nearby galaxies. The GMCs in NGC 300 appear to have similar global properties and show scaling relations consistent with those seen in the Milky Way. Furthermore, the star formation rate appears to correlate with the mass of molecular gas with approximately 250 Gyr depletion time, extending the relation discovered in the Milky Way linearly to larger scales. These results suggest a level of universality in the star formation process within spiral galaxy disks like our own Milky Way.

  19. The Globular Cluster System of NGC 4636 and Formation of Globular Clusters in Giant Elliptical Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kim, Sang Chul; Arimoto, Nobuo; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Tamura, Naoyuki; Onodera, Masato

    2012-11-01

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of the metallicities, ages, and alpha-elements of the globular clusters (GCs) in the giant elliptical galaxy (gE) NGC 4636 in the Virgo Cluster. Line indices of the GCs are measured from the integrated spectra obtained with Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph on the Subaru 8.2 m Telescope. We derive [Fe/H] values of 59 GCs based on the Brodie & Huchra method, and [Z/H], age, and [α/Fe] values of 33 GCs from the comparison of the Lick line indices with single stellar population models. The metallicity distribution of NGC 4636 GCs shows a hint of a bimodality with two peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.23(σ = 0.32) and -0.35(σ = 0.19). The age spread is large from 2 Gyr to 15 Gyr and the fraction of young GCs with age ages, and [α/Fe] values for the GCs in other nearby gEs (M87, M49, M60, NGC 5128, NGC 1399, and NGC 1407) from the line index data in the literature using the same methods as used for NGC 4636 GCs. The metallicity distribution of GCs in the combined sample of seven gEs including NGC 4636 is found to be bimodal, supported by the KMM test with a significance level of >99.9%. All these gEs harbor some young GCs with ages less than 5 Gyr. The mean age of the metal-rich GCs ([Fe/H] >-0.9) is about 3 Gyr younger than that of the metal-poor GCs. The mean value of [α/Fe] of the gE GCs is smaller than that of the Milky Way GCs. We discuss these results in the context of GC formation in gEs. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  20. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY IN NGC 1333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebull, L. M. [Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stauffer, J. R.; Cody, A. M. [Spitzer Science Center (SSC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J.; Forbrich, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, Apdo. Postal 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Covey, K. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Gutermuth, R. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M.; Bouy, H. [Depto. Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI), Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), 1200 E. California Blvd., California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Song, I. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States); Terebey, S., E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); and others

    2015-12-15

    As part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) program, we monitored NGC 1333 for ∼35 days at 3.6 and 4.5 μm using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We report here on the mid-infrared variability of the point sources in the ∼10′ × ∼20′ area centered on 03:29:06, +31:19:30 (J2000). Out of 701 light curves in either channel, we find 78 variables over the YSOVAR campaign. About half of the members are variable. The variable fraction for the most embedded spectral energy distributions (SEDs) (Class I, flat) is higher than that for less embedded SEDs (Class II), which is in turn higher than the star-like SEDs (Class III). A few objects have amplitudes (10–90th percentile brightness) in [3.6] or [4.5] > 0.2 mag; a more typical amplitude is 0.1–0.15 mag. The largest color change is >0.2 mag. There are 24 periodic objects, with 40% of them being flat SED class. This may mean that the periodic signal is primarily from the disk, not the photosphere, in those cases. We find 9 variables likely to be “dippers,” where texture in the disk occults the central star, and 11 likely to be “bursters,” where accretion instabilities create brightness bursts. There are 39 objects that have significant trends in [3.6]–[4.5] color over the campaign, about evenly divided between redder-when-fainter (consistent with extinction variations) and bluer-when-fainter. About a third of the 17 Class 0 and/or jet-driving sources from the literature are variable over the YSOVAR campaign, and a larger fraction (∼half) are variable between the YSOVAR campaign and the cryogenic-era Spitzer observations (6–7 years), perhaps because it takes time for the envelope to respond to changes in the central source. The NGC 1333 brown dwarfs do not stand out from the stellar light curves in any way except there is a much larger fraction of periodic objects (∼60% of variable brown dwarfs are periodic, compared to ∼30% of the variables overall)

  1. X-Ray and optical study of low core density globular clusters NGC6144 and E3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, S.-H.; Kong, A.K.H.; Verbunt, F.W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068970374; Lewin, W.H.G.; Bassa, C.G.; Anderson, S.F.; Pooley, D.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of two low coredensity globular clusters, NGC6144 and E3. By comparing the number of X-ray sources inside the half-mass radius to those outside, we found six X-ray sources within the half-mass radius of NGC6144,

  2. Very deep spectroscopy of the bright Saturn nebula NGC 7009 - II. Analysis of the rich optical recombination spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X.; Liu, X.-W.

    2013-03-01

    In Paper I, we presented a deep, long-slit spectrum of the bright Saturn nebula NGC 7009. Numerous permitted lines emitted by the C+, N+, O+ and Ne+ ions were detected. Gaussian profile fitting to the spectrum yielded more than 1000 lines, the majority of which are optical recombination lines (ORLs) of heavy-element ions. In the current paper, we present a critical analysis of the rich optical recombination spectrum of NGC 7009, in the context of the bi-abundance nebular model proposed by Liu et al. Transitions from individual multiplets are checked carefully for potential blended lines. The observed relative intensities are compared with the theoretical predictions based on high-quality effective recombination coefficients, now available for the recombination line spectrum of a number of heavy-element ions. The possibility of plasma diagnostics using the ORLs of various heavy-element ions is discussed in detail. The line ratios that can be used to determine electron temperature are presented for each ion, although there is still a lack of adequate atomic data and some of the lines are still not detected in the spectrum of NGC 7009 due to weakness and/or line blending. Plasma diagnostics based on the N II and O II recombination spectra both yield electron temperatures close to 1000 K, which is lower than those derived from the collisionally excited line (CEL) ratios (e.g. the [O III] and [N II] nebular-to-auroral line ratios; see Paper I for details) by nearly one order of magnitude. The very low temperatures yielded by the O II and N II ORLs indicate that they originate from very cold regions. The C2+/H+, N2+/H+, O2+/H+ and Ne2+/H+ ionic abundance ratios derived from ORLs are consistently higher, by about a factor of 5, than the corresponding values derived from CELs. In calculating the ORL ionic abundance ratios, we have used the newly available high-quality effective recombination coefficients, and adopted an electron temperature of ˜1000 K, as given by the ORL

  3. Radio jets in NGC 4151: where eMERLIN meets HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. R. A.; McHardy, I. M.; Baldi, R. D.; Beswick, R. J.; Argo, M. K.; Dullo, B. T.; Knapen, J. H.; Brinks, E.; Fenech, D. M.; Mundell, C. G.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Panessa, F.; Rampadarath, H.; Westcott, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present high-sensitivity eMERLIN radio images of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 at 1.51 GHz. We compare the new eMERLIN images to those from archival MERLIN observations in 1993 to determine the change in jet morphology in the 22 yr between observations. We report an increase by almost a factor of 2 in the peak flux density of the central core component, C4, thought to host the black hole, but a probable decrease in some other components, possibly due to adiabatic expansion. The core flux increase indicates an active galactic nucleus (AGN) that is currently active and feeding the jet. We detect no significant motion in 22 yr between C4 and the component C3, which is unresolved in the eMERLIN image. We present a spectral index image made within the 512 MHz band of the 1.51 GHz observations. The spectrum of the core, C4, is flatter than that of other components further out in the jet. We use HST emission-line images (H α, [O III] and [O II]) to study the connection between the jet and the emission-line region. Based on the changing emission-line ratios away from the core and comparison with the eMERLIN radio jet, we conclude that photoionization from the central AGN is responsible for the observed emission-line properties further than 4 arcsec (360 pc) from the core, C4. Within this region, a body of evidence (radio-line co-spatiality, low [O III]/H α and estimated fast shocks) suggests additional ionization from the jet.

  4. DETERMINATION OF CENTRAL ENGINE POSITION AND ACCRETION DISK STRUCTURE IN NGC 4261 BY CORE SHIFT MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Takafumi; Doi, Akihiro; Murata, Yasuhiro [Department of Space and Astronautical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5210 (Japan); Sudou, Hiroshi [Department of Mathematical and Design Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu City 5011-1193 (Japan); Kameno, Seiji [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107 Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Hada, Kazuhiro, E-mail: haga@vsop.isas.jaxa.jp [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-07-01

    We report multifrequency phase-referenced observations of the nearby radio galaxy NGC 4261, which has prominent two-sided jets, using the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4–43 GHz. We measured radio core positions showing observing frequency dependences (known as “core shift”) in both approaching jets and counterjets. The limit of the core position as the frequency approaches infinity, which suggests a jet base, is separated by 82 ± 16 μas upstream in projection, corresponding to (310 ± 60)R{sub s} (R{sub s}: Schwarzschild radius) as a deprojected distance, from the 43 GHz core in the approaching jet. In addition, the innermost component at the counterjet side appeared to approach the same position at infinity of the frequency, indicating that cores on both sides are approaching the same position, suggesting a spatial coincidence with the central engine. Applying a phase-referencing technique, we also obtained spectral index maps, which indicate that emission from the counterjet is affected by free–free absorption (FFA). The result of the core shift profile on the counterjet also requires FFA because the core positions at 5–15 GHz cannot be explained by a simple core shift model based on synchrotron self-absorption (SSA). Our result is apparently consistent with the SSA core shift with an additional disk-like absorber over the counterjet side. Core shift and opacity profiles at the counterjet side suggest a two-component accretion: a radiatively inefficient accretion flow at the inner region and a truncated thin disk in the outer region. We proposed a possible solution about density and temperature profiles in the outer disk on the basis of the radio observation.

  5. Diverse Nuclear Star-forming Activities in the Heart of NGC 253 Resolved with 10-pc-scale ALMA Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Ryo; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kohno, Kotaro; Izumi, Takuma; Martín, Sergio; Harada, Nanase; Takano, Shuro; Kuno, Nario; Nakai, Naomasa; Sugai, Hajime; Sorai, Kazuo; Tosaki, Tomoka; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Nakajima, Taku; Nishimura, Yuri; Tamura, Yoichi

    2017-11-01

    We present an 8 pc × 5 pc resolution view of the central ˜200 pc region of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253, based on ALMA Band 7 (λ ≃ 0.85 {mm} or ν ˜ 350 GHz) observations covering 11 GHz. We resolve the nuclear starburst of NGC 253 into eight dusty star-forming clumps, 10 pc in scale, for the first time. These clumps, each of which contains (4-10) × {10}4 {M}⊙ of dust (assuming that the dust temperature is 25 K) and up to 6× {10}2 massive (O5V) stars, appear to be aligned in two parallel ridges, while they have been blended in previous studies. Despite the similarities in sizes and dust masses of these clumps, their line spectra vary drastically from clump to clump, although they are separated by only ˜10 pc. Specifically, one of the clumps, Clump 1, exhibits line-confusion-limited spectra with at least 36 emission lines from 19 molecules (including CH3OH, HNCO, H2CO, CH3CCH, H2CS, and H3O+) and a hydrogen recombination line (H26α), while far fewer kinds of molecular lines are detected in some other clumps where fragile species, such as complex organic molecules and HNCO, completely disappear from their spectra. We demonstrate the existence of hot molecular gas ({T}{rot}({{SO}}2)=90+/- 11 K) in the former clump, which suggests that the hot and chemically rich environments are localized within a 10-pc-scale star-forming clump.

  6. CSI 2264: CHARACTERIZING YOUNG STARS IN NGC 2264 WITH SHORT-DURATION PERIODIC FLUX DIPS IN THEIR LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, John; Cody, Ann Marie; Rebull, Luisa; Plavchan, Peter; Carey, Sean [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McGinnis, Pauline; Alencar, Silvia H. P. [Departamento de Física—ICEx—UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 30270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Carpenter, John [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Turner, Neal J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Terebey, Susan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 5151 State University Drive, California State University at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90032 (United States); Morales-Calderón, María [Centro de Astrobiología, Dpto. de Astrofísica, INTA-CSIC, PO BOX 78, E-28691, ESAC Campus, Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Bouvier, Jerome; Venuti, Laura [Université de Grenoble, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Hartmann, Lee; Calvet, Nuria [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105 (United States); Micela, Giusi; Flaccomio, Ettore [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134, Palermo (Italy); Song, Inseok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602–2451 (United States); Gutermuth, Rob, E-mail: stauffer@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); and others

    2015-04-15

    We identify nine young stellar objects (YSOs) in the NGC 2264 star-forming region with optical CoRoT light curves exhibiting short-duration, shallow periodic flux dips. All of these stars have infrared excesses that are consistent with their having inner disk walls near the Keplerian co-rotation radius. The repeating photometric dips have FWHMs generally less than 1 day, depths almost always less than 15%, and periods (3 < P < 11 days) consistent with dust near the Keplerian co-rotation period. The flux dips vary considerably in their depth from epoch to epoch, but usually persist for several weeks and, in two cases, were present in data collected in successive years. For several of these stars, we also measure the photospheric rotation period and find that the rotation and dip periods are the same, as predicted by standard “disk-locking” models. We attribute these flux dips to clumps of material in or near the inner disk wall, passing through our line of sight to the stellar photosphere. In some cases, these dips are also present in simultaneous Spitzer IRAC light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We characterize the properties of these dips, and compare the stars with light curves exhibiting this behavior to other classes of YSOs in NGC 2264. A number of physical mechanisms could locally increase the dust scale height near the inner disk wall, and we discuss several of those mechanisms; the most plausible mechanisms are either a disk warp due to interaction with the stellar magnetic field or dust entrained in funnel-flow accretion columns arising near the inner disk wall.

  7. A Complete Census of Hα Emitters in NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanca, Cristina; Beccari, Giacomo; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Pasquini, Luca; Lanzoni, Barbara; Mucciarelli, Alessio

    2017-08-01

    We used a data set of archival Hubble Space Telescope images obtained through the F555W, F814W, and F656N filters to perform a complete search for objects showing {{H}}α emission in the globular cluster NGC 6397. As a photometric diagnostic, we used the {(V-{{H}}α )}0 color excess in the {(V-{{H}}α )}0-{(V-I)}0 color-color diagram. In the analyzed field of view, we identified 53 {{H}}α emitters. In particular, we confirmed the optical counterpart to 20 X-ray sources (7 cataclysmic variables, 2 millisecond pulsars and 11 active binaries) and identified 33 previously unknown sources, thus significantly enlarging the population of known active binaries in this cluster. We report the main characteristics for each class of objects. Photometric estimates of the equivalent width of the {{H}}α emission line were derived from the {(V-{{H}}α )}0-excess and, for the first time, compared to the spectroscopic measurements obtained from the analysis of MUSE spectra. The very good agreement between the spectroscopic and photometric measures fully confirmed the reliability of the proposed approach to measure the {{H}}α emission. The search demonstrated the efficiency of this novel approach to pinpoint and measure {{H}}α -emitters, thus offering a powerful tool to conduct a complete census of objects with formations and evolutions that can be strongly affected by dynamical interactions in star clusters.

  8. Red Clump stars in Kepler open cluster NGC 6819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedigamba O.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We measure the large frequency separation, Δν, and the frequency of maximum amplitude, νmax, for 10 Red Clump (RC single member (SM stars in the Kepler open cluster NGC 6819. We derive luminosities and masses for each individual RC star. A comparison of the observations with an isochrone of Age = 2.5 Gyr, Z = 0.017 with no mass loss using a statistical techniques is made. A fractional mass loss of 5 ± 3 percent is obtained if we assume that no correction to Δν between RC and red-giant branch (RGB is necessary. However, models suggest that an effective correction of about 1.9 percent in Δν is required to obtain the correct mass of RC stars owing to the different internal structures of stars in the two evolutionary stages. In this case we find that the mass loss in the red giant branch is not significantly different from zero. This finding confirms that of [6]. It is clear that the mass estimate obtained by asteroseismology is not sufficient to deduce the mass loss on the red giant branch. However, it is clearly only a few percent at most.

  9. The X-ray globular cluster NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaino, G

    1976-01-01

    A BV photometric investigation of the Southern Globular Cluster NGC 1851, was carried out using the 1 m telescope of Cerro La Silla (ESO) for the photoelectric work and the 1 m telescope of Cerro Las Campanas (CARSO) for the photographic work. Nineteen stars were observed photoelectrically, the limiting magnitude being V=16.18. Using this sequence, 156 stars were measured photographically. The derived apparent distance modulus is (m-M)/sub app/=15/sup m/.50. The reddening is E(B-V)=0/sup m/.10. The true distance modulus is (m-M) /sub 0/=15/sup m/.20. The distance is 11 kpc from the sun, 6 kpc from the galactic plane and 17 kpc from the galactic centre. The main features of the colour-magnitude diagram are: a well defined horizontal branch abundant in red stars and deficient in blue stars, a rich subgiant and asymptotic branch and a moderately populated red giant branch of medium steepness rising to Delta V=2/sup m/.5 at (B-V) /sub 0/=1.4. At the distance of 11 kpc the maximum observed luminosity of the X-ray ...

  10. Dynamics of the young binary LMC cluster NGC 1850

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Philippe; Welch, Douglas L.; Mateo, Mario

    1993-01-01

    BV CCD images and echelle spectra of 52 supergiants are used to examine the age and internal dynamics of the young binary LMC cluster NGC 1850. A color-magnitude diagram was constructed and found to contain three distinct populations of stars. Using star-subtracted, median filtered BV images, attempts were made to determine ellipticity parameters, BV luminosity profiles were constructed to project radii greater than 40. A power law model was applied to test for the presence of a tidal cutoff in the luminosity profile. Of the 52 stars with echelle spectra, a subset of 36 were used to study the cluster dynamics. A rotational signal in the radial velocities has been detected at the 93-percent confidence level, implying a rotation axis at a position angle of 100 +/- 40 deg. Values for the slope of the mass function were determined using mass luminosity relationships and different forms for the IMF. The current cluster age is similar to its central relaxation time.

  11. Discovery of two new pulsars in 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z.; Hobbs, G.; Li, D.; Ridolfi, A.; Wang, P.; Freire, P.

    2016-06-01

    We report the discovery of two new millisecond pulsars (PSRs J0024-7204aa and J0024-7204ab) in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104). Our results bring the total number of pulsars in 47 Tucanae to 25. These pulsars were discovered by reprocessing archival observations from the Parkes radio telescope. We reprocessed the data using a standard search procedure based on the PRESTO software package as well as using a new method in which we incoherently added the power spectra corresponding to ˜1100 h of observations. The newly discovered PSR J0024-7204aa, has a pulse frequency of ˜541 Hz (corresponding to a ˜1.84 ms period), which is higher than any other pulsars currently known in the cluster and ranks 12th amongst all the currently known pulsars. The dispersion measure of this pulsar, 24.941(7) cm-3 pc, is the highest in the cluster. The second discovered pulsar, PSR J0024-7204ab, is an isolated pulsar with a pulse frequency of ˜270 Hz (corresponding to a period of ˜3.70 ms).

  12. A spectroscopic study of the open cluster NGC 6250

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. J.; Stift, M. J.; Fossati, L.; Bagnulo, S.; Scalia, C.; Leone, F.; Smalley, B.

    2017-04-01

    We present the chemical abundance analysis of 19 upper main-sequence stars of the young open cluster NGC 6250 (log t ˜ 7.42 yr). This work is part of a project aimed at setting observational constraints on the theory of atomic diffusion in stellar photospheres, by means of a systematic study of the abundances of the chemical elements of early F-, A- and late B-type stars of well-determined age. Our data set consists of low-, medium- and high-resolution spectra obtained with the Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) instrument of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). To perform our analysis, we have developed a new suite of software tools for the chemical abundance analysis of stellar photospheres in local thermodynamical equilibrium. Together with the chemical composition of the stellar photospheres, we have provided new estimates of the cluster mean radial velocity, proper motion, refined the cluster membership, and we have given the stellar parameters including masses and fractional age. We find no evidence of statistically significant correlation between any of the parameters, including abundance and cluster age, except perhaps for an increase in Ba abundance with cluster age. We have proven that our new software tool may be successfully used for the chemical abundance analysis of large data sets of stellar spectra.

  13. The Absolute Proper Motion of NGC 6397 Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Richard; Cudworth, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    We compare several determinations of the absolute proper motion of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6397: (1) our own determination relative to field stars derived from scans of 38 photographic plates spanning 97 years in epoch; (2) using our proper motion membership to identify cluster stars in various catalogs in the literature (UCAC4, UCAC5, PPMXL, HSOY, Tycho-2, Hipparcos, TGAS); (3) published results from the Yale SPM Program (both tied to Hipparcos and relative to galaxies) and two from HST observations relative to galaxies. The various determinations are not in good agreement. Curiously, the Yale SPM relative to galaxies does not agree with the HST determinations, and the individual HST error ellipses are close to each other but do not overlap. The Yale SPM relative to galaxies does agree with our determination, Tycho-2, and the Yale SPM tied to Hipparcos. It is not clear which of the current determinations is most reliable; we have found evidence of systematic errors in some of them (including one of the HST determinations). This research has been partially supported by the NSF.

  14. Interstellar Polarization and Extinction towards the Open Cluster NGC 457

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topasna, Gregory A.; Daman, Eryn A.; Kaltcheva, Nadia T.

    2017-10-01

    NGC 457 is a moderately reddened and relatively young open cluster very rich in variable stars, particularly Be stars, but not associated with any prominent star-forming field. We combine new multi-wavelength polarization measurements with existing UBV and uvby photometries to obtain precise estimates of the total-to-selective extinction in the field of the cluster and re-evaluate its distance and age. The polarization measurements show a tight alignment of the polarization vectors with the Galactic plane and yield an average value of the total-to-selective extinction of 3.05 ± 0.17 for the cluster’s field. Using this value and the confirmed color excess E(B-V)=0.500+/- 0.030 mag, we obtain a distance modulus of 12.20 ± 0.39, corresponding to 2.75 ± 0.49 kpc and, assuming slightly sub-solar metallicity, an age of 15.8 Myr.

  15. Photometric Calibrations of Gemini Images of NGC 6253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Sean; Jeffery, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our analysis of the metal-rich open cluster NGC 6253 using imaging data from GMOS on the Gemini-South Observatory. These data are part of a larger project to observe the effects of high metallicity on white dwarf cooling processes, especially the white dwarf cooling age, which have important implications on the processes of stellar evolution. To standardize the Gemini photometry, we have also secured imaging data of both the cluster and standard star fields using the 0.6-m SARA Observatory at CTIO. By analyzing and comparing the standard star fields of both the SARA data and the published Gemini zero-points of the standard star fields, we will calibrate the data obtained for the cluster. These calibrations are an important part of the project to obtain a standardized deep color-magnitude diagram to analyze the cluster. We present the process of verifying our standardization process. With a standardized CMD, we also present an analysis of the cluster's main sequence turn off age.

  16. Gas inflows towards the nucleus of NGC 1358

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnorr-Müller, Allan; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Nagar, Neil M.; Robinson, Andrew; Lena, Davide

    2017-11-01

    We use optical spectra from the inner 1.8 × 2.5 kpc2 of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1358, obtained with the GMOS integral field spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope at a spatial resolution of ≈ 165 pc, to assess the feeding and feedback processes in this nearby active galaxy. Five gaseous kinematical components are observed in the emission line profiles. One of the components is present in the entire field-of-view and we interpret it as due to gas rotating in the disc of the galaxy. Three of the remaining components we interpret as associated with active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback: a compact unresolved outflow in the inner 1 arcsec and two gas clouds observed at opposite sides of the nucleus, which we propose have been ejected in a previous AGN burst. The disc component velocity field is strongly disturbed by a large-scale bar. The subtraction of a velocity model combining both rotation and bar flows reveals three kinematic nuclear spiral arms: two in inflow and one in outflow. We estimate the mass inflow rate in the inner 180 pc obtaining \\dot{M}_{in} ≈ 1.5 × 10-2 M⊙ yr-1, about 160 times larger than the accretion rate necessary to power this AGN.

  17. Comparison of MGII and CIV emission lines in NGC5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, R.; Stoner, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of a cross-correlation analysis in which the Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548 was monitored in the UV portion of its spectrum every 4 d for an 8-mo period by an international collaborative effort using the IUE satellite. The analysis shows that the CIV 1550-A line correlates with the underlying continuum with a time delay of about 10 d. A similar analysis for the MgII 2798-A line yields a much broader peak and a delay of about 50 +/- 20 d. Thus the MgII line emitting gas appears to be about 5 times more distant from the central source. The MgII and CIV profiles in this series of spectra are compared on the same velocity scale. The two lines are quite similar on the red side of the profile, with the CIV more extended on the blue side. The overall width of the CIV is as much as 40 percent larger, but it is definitely not larger by a factor or two or more. It is concluded that the motion of the broad line emitting gas is not dominated by the gravitational influence of a central massive object.

  18. Long-term optical spectral monitoring of NGC 7469

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalova, Alla I.; Popović, L. Č.; Chavushyan, V. H.; Afanasiev, V. L.; Ilić, D.; Kovačević, A.; Burenkov, A. N.; Kollatschny, W.; Spiridonova, O.; Valdes, J. R.; Bochkarev, N. G.; Patino-Alvarez, V.; Carrasco, L.; Zhdanova, V. E.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of the long-term (20-year period, from 1996 to 2015) optical spectral monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469. The variation in the light curves of the broad He II λ4686 Å Hβ and Hα lines, and the continuum at 5100 and 6300 Å have been explored. The maximum activity was in 1998, and the variability in the continuum and lines seems to have two periods of around 1200 and 2600 d; however, these periodicities should be taken with caution because of the red noise. Beside these periods, there are several short-term (1-5 d) flare-like events in the light curves. There are good correlations between the continuum fluxes and Hα and Hβ line fluxes, but significantly smaller correlation between the He II and continuum. We found that the time-lags between the continuum and broad lines are different for Hβ [˜20 light day (l.d.)] and Hα (˜3 l.d.), and that He II also has a smaller lag (˜2-3 l.d.). The Hα and Hβ line profiles show a slight red asymmetry, and the broad-line profiles did not change in the 20-year period. Using the lags and widths of Hα and Hβ, we estimated the central black hole mass and found that it is ˜(1-6) × 107 M⊙, which is in agreement with previous reverberation estimates.

  19. Why is the Main Sequence of NGC 2482 So Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Johnson, Marshall C.; Cochran, William; Endl, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of high resolution spectra of seven stars in the field of NGC 2482, an open star cluster of age 447 Myr. We confirm the previously published values of the radial velocity and metallicity of one giant star. This gives us confidence that another giant star is a bona fide cluster member, and that three stars significantly above the main sequence in a color-magnitude diagram are not members, on the basis of discordant radial velocities. Another star ~1.7 mag above the main sequence may or may not be a member. Its [Fe/H] value is ~0.1 dex more positive than two giant stars studied, and its radial velocity is 3-4 km/s less than that of the two giant stars, which is a significant difference if the velocity dispersion of the cluster is less than +/-1 km/s. To a large extent the width of the main sequence seems to be due to the presence of foreground and background stars in the same general direction, stars that masquerade as main sequence stars in the cluster.

  20. The man behind the curtain: X-rays drive the UV through NIR variability in the 2013 active galactic nucleus outburst in NGC 2617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappee, B. J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; De Rosa, G.; Mathur, S.; Zu, Y.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Jencson, J.; Holoien, T.W-S.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Adams, S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Prieto, J. L. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Grupe, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Im, M. [CEOU/Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Szczygieł, D. M. [Warsaw University Astronomical Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Brimacombe, J. [Coral Towers Observatory, Cairns, Queensland A-4870 (Australia); Campillay, A., E-mail: shappee@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); and others

    2014-06-10

    After the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae discovered a significant brightening of the inner region of NGC 2617, we began a ∼70 day photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign from the X-ray through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. We report that NGC 2617 went through a dramatic outburst, during which its X-ray flux increased by over an order of magnitude followed by an increase of its optical/ultraviolet (UV) continuum flux by almost an order of magnitude. NGC 2617, classified as a Seyfert 1.8 galaxy in 2003, is now a Seyfert 1 due to the appearance of broad optical emission lines and a continuum blue bump. Such 'changing look active galactic nuclei (AGNs)' are rare and provide us with important insights about AGN physics. Based on the Hβ line width and the radius-luminosity relation, we estimate the mass of central black hole (BH) to be (4 ± 1) × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. When we cross-correlate the light curves, we find that the disk emission lags the X-rays, with the lag becoming longer as we move from the UV (2-3 days) to the NIR (6-9 days). Also, the NIR is more heavily temporally smoothed than the UV. This can largely be explained by a simple model of a thermally emitting thin disk around a BH of the estimated mass that is illuminated by the observed, variable X-ray fluxes.

  1. Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby Galaxies (SWAN): Resolved Ammonia Thermometry, and Water and Methanol Masers in the Nuclear Starburst of NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Mark; Ott, Jürgen; Rand, Richard; Meier, David S.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Schinnerer, Eva

    2017-06-01

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array molecular line observations of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253, from SWAN, the Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies. SWAN is a molecular line survey at centimeter wavelengths designed to reveal the physical conditions of star-forming gas over a range of star-forming galaxies. NGC 253 has been observed in four 1 GHz bands from 21 to 36 GHz at 6″ ˜ 100 pc) spatial and 3.5 km s-1 spectral resolution. In total we detect 19 transitions from 7 molecular and atomic species. We have targeted the metastable inversion transitions of ammonia (NH3) from (1, 1) to (5, 5) and the (9, 9) line, the 22.2 GHz water (H2O) ({6}16{--}{5}23) maser, and the 36.1 GHz methanol (CH3OH) ({4}-1{--}{3}0) maser. Using NH3 as a thermometer, we present evidence for uniform heating over the central kpc of NGC 253. The molecular gas is best described by a two kinetic temperature model with a warm 130 K and a cooler 57 K component. A comparison of these observations with previous ALMA results suggests that the molecular gas is not heated in photon-dominated regions or shocks. It is possible that the gas is heated by turbulence or cosmic rays. In the galaxy center we find evidence for NH3(3, 3) masers. Furthermore, we present velocities and luminosities of three water maser features related to the nuclear starburst. We partially resolve CH3OH masers seen at the edges of the bright molecular emission, which coincides with expanding molecular superbubbles. This suggests that the masers are pumped by weak shocks in the bubble surfaces.

  2. Two groups of red giants with distinct chemical abundances in the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553 through the eyes of APOGEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baitian; Cohen, Roger E.; Geisler, Doug; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Majewski, Steven R.; Villanova, Sandro; Carrera, Ricardo; Zamora, Olga; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Shetrone, Matthew; Frinchaboy, Peter; Meza, Andres; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Lin, Chien-Cheng; Lane, Richard R.; Nitschelm, Christian; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey

    2017-02-01

    Multiple populations revealed in globular clusters (GCs) are important windows to the formation and evolution of these stellar systems. The metal-rich GCs in the Galactic bulge are an indispensable part of this picture, but the high optical extinction in this region has prevented extensive research. In this work, we use the high-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data from Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) to study the chemical abundances of NGC 6553, which is one of the most metal-rich bulge GCs. We identify 10 red giants as cluster members using their positions, radial velocities, iron abundances, and NIR photometry. Our sample stars show a mean radial velocity of -0.14 ± 5.47 km s-1, and a mean [Fe/H] of -0.15 ± 0.05. We clearly separate two populations of stars in C and N in this GC for the first time. NGC 6553 is the most metal-rich GC where the multiple stellar population phenomenon is found until now. Substantial chemical variations are also found in Na, O, and Al. However, the two populations show similar Si, Ca, and iron-peak element abundances. Therefore, we infer that the CNO, NeNa, and MgAl cycles have been activated, but the MgAl cycle is too weak to show its effect on Mg. Type Ia and Type II supernovae do not seem to have significantly polluted the second generation stars. Comparing with other GC studies, NGC 6553 shows similar chemical variations as other relatively metal-rich GCs. We also confront current GC formation theories with our results, and suggest possible avenues for improvement in the models.

  3. The extraordinary outburst in the massive protostellar system NGC6334I-MM1: the emergence of Class II 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Todd Russell; Brogan, Crystal; MacLeod, Gordon; Chibueze, James; Cyganowski, Claudia; Chandler, Claire J.; Friesen, Rachel; Hirota, Tomoya; Young, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Our 2015 and 2016 ALMA 1.3 to 0.87 mm observations (resolution ~ 200 au) of the massive protocluster NGC6334I revealed that an extraordinary outburst (luminosity increase of 70x) had occurred in the dominant millimeter dust core MM1 when compared with earlier SMA data from 2008. We describe new results from our recent JVLA A-configuration observations of the 5 cm continuum and 6.7 GHz methanol masers in this region. These Class II masers had not previously been detected toward MM1 in any interferometric observations recorded over the past 30 years that targeted the bright masers toward other members of the protocluster (MM2 and MM3 = NGC6334F). Strong masers now appear both toward and adjacent to MM1 with the strongest spots located in a dust cavity about 1 arcsec (1300 au) north of the MM1B hypercompact HII region, along the same direction as a jet and the compact synchrotron source CM2. These data provide direct observational evidence of the effects of episodic accretion onto a deeply-embedded high mass protostar and affords a unique opportunity to assess the ongoing impact of this event on the surrounding cluster. These data demonstrate the need for higher sensitivity and higher angular resolution centimeter observations, as enabled by the ngVLA, to trace the earliest phases of massive star formation.

  4. Near-IR TRGB Distance to Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy NGC 147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the distance modulus of nearby dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 147 estimated from the Tip of Red-giant Branch (TRGB method applying to the color-magnitude diagrams and luminosity functions in the near-infrared JHK bands. Apparent magnitudes of TRGBs in each band are obtained by applying Savitzky-Golay filter to the luminosity functions, and the theoretical absolute magnitudes are estimated from Yonsei-Yale isochrones. The derived values of distance modulus to NGC 147 are (m-M=23.69±0.12, 23.78±0.17, and 23.85±0.22 for J, H, and K bands, respectively. Distance modulus in bolometric magnitude is also derived as (m-M=23.87±0.11. We compare the derived values of the TRGB distance modulus to NGC 147 in the near-infrared bands with the previous results in other bands.

  5. Story of the discovery of a massive black hole in NGC 4258

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, M.

    In 1992, Nakai found higher velocity components of water maser in NGC 4258 in using Nobeyama 45-m telescope. This was somewhat by chance but greatly indebted to the idea and efforts of Japanese radio astronomical predecessors: the wide-band spectrometers (AOS) and HEMT receiver equipped at Nobeyama 45-m telescope made the discovery possible. KNIFE (Kashima-Nobeyama Interferometer) and new compact correlator named NAOCO made quick confirmation that the line is not artificial signal but real astronomical maser emission from the center of NGC 4258. VLBA in US was timely completed its construction and just in operation in 1994. From the minute observation of NGC 4258 we found the evidence of massive black hole at the center of the galaxy.

  6. Dust and PAH emission in the star-forming active nucleus of NGC 1097

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, R. E.; Levenson, N. A.; Packham, C.; Elitzur, M.; Radomski, J.; Petric, A. O.; Wright, G. S.

    2007-01-01

    The nucleus of the nearby galaxy, NGC 1097, is known to host a young, compact (r < 9 parsec) nuclear star cluster as well as a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been suggested both that the nuclear stellar cluster is associated with a dusty torus, and that low-luminosity AGN like NGC 1097 do not have the torus predicted by the unified model of AGN. To investigate these contradictory possibilities we have acquired Gemini/T-ReCS 11.7 micron and 18.3 micron images of the centr...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ubvy photometry of NGC2419 (Frank+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, M. J.; Koch, A.; Feltzing, S.; Kacharov, N.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Irwin, M.

    2015-07-01

    Imaging of NGC 2419 in the intermediate-band Stromgren filters u, b, v and y was obtained in February 2012 using the Wide Field Camera (WFC) at the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Spain. The resulting photometric catalog containing 1197 detections in the unvignetted field of the camera, passing basic quality cuts (magnitude uncertainty, sharpness, {chi}) in all four filters is made available here. It covers NGC 2419 out to about 25 arcmin, several times beyond its tidal radius, but is incomplete in the cluster centre due to crowding. (1 data file).

  8. Outflow vs. Infall in Spiral Galaxies: Metal Absorption in the Halo of NGC 891

    OpenAIRE

    Bregman, Joel N.; Miller, Eric D.; Seitzer, Patrick; Cowley, C. R.; Miller, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Gas accreting onto a galaxy will be of low metallicity while halo gas due to a galactic fountain will be of near-solar metallicity. We test these predictions by measuring the metal absorption line properties of halo gas 5 kpc above the plane of the edge-on galaxy NGC 891, using observations taken with HST/STIS toward a bright background quasar. Metal absorption lines of Fe II, Mg II, and Mg I in the halo of NGC 891 are clearly seen, and when combined with recent deep H I observations, we are ...

  9. Interpretation of a Variable Reflection Nebula Associated with HBC 340 and HBC 341 in NGC 1333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahm, S. E. [U.S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 West Naval Observatory Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86005-8521 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    We present multi-epoch, R -band imaging obtained from the Palomar Transient Factory of a small, fan-shaped reflection nebula in NGC 1333 that experiences prominent brightness fluctuations. Photometry of HBC 340 (K7e) and HBC 341 (M5e), a visual pair of late-type, young stellar objects lying near the apex of the nebula, demonstrates that while both are variable, the former has brightened by more than two magnitudes following a deep local minimum in 2014 September. Keck high-dispersion ( R  ∼ 45,000–66,000), optical spectroscopy of HBC 340 suggests that the protostar is a spectroscopic binary (HBC 340Aa + HBC 340Ab). Both HBC 340 and HBC 341 exhibit strong H α and forbidden line emission, consistent with accretion and outflow. We conclude that the brightness fluctuations in the reflection nebula represent light echos produced by varying incident radiation emanating from HBC 340. The short-term variability observed in the protostar is attributed to irregular accretion activity, while correlated, dipping behavior on a several hundred day timescale may be due to eclipse-like events caused by orbiting circumstellar material. Archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the region reveals a second, faint (F814W ∼ 20.3 mag) companion to HBC 340 that lies 1.″02 (∼235 au) east of the protostar. If associated, this probable substellar mass object (20–50 Jupiter masses), HBC 340B, is likely unrelated to the observed brightness variations. The sustained brightening of HBC 340 since late 2014 can be explained by an EXor-like outburst, the recovery from a long duration eclipse event caused by obscuring circumstellar dust, or by the gradual removal of extincting material from along the line of sight. Our analysis here favors one of the extinction scenarios.

  10. A Tale of Two Tails: Exploring Stellar Populations in the Tidal Tails of NGC 3256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodruck, Michael; Charlton, Jane C.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy interactions can inject material into the intergalactic medium via violent gravitational dynamics, often visualized in tidal tails. The composition of these tails has remained a mystery, as previous studies have focused on detecting tidal features, rather than the composite material itself. We have developed an observing program using deep, multiband imaging to probe the chaotic regions of tidal tails in search for an underlying stellar population. NGC 3256's twin tidal tails serve as a case study for this new technique. Our results show color values of u - g = 1.15 and r - i = 0.08 for the Western tail, and u - g = 1.33 and r - i = 0.22 for the Eastern tail, corresponding to discrepant ages between the tails of approximately 320 Myr and 785 Myr, respectively. With the interaction age of the system measured at 400 Myr, we find the stellar light in Western tail to be dominated by disrupted star clusters formed during and after the interaction, whereas the light from the Eastern tail is dominated by a 10 Gyr population originating from the host galaxies. We fit the Eastern tail color to a Mixed Stellar Population (MSP) model comprised 94% by mass of a 10 Gyr stellar population, and 6% of a 309 Myr population. We find 52% of the bolometric flux originating from this 10 Gyr population. We also detect a blue to red color gradient in each tail, running from galactic center to tail tip. In addition to tidal tail light, we detect 29 star cluster candidates (SCCs) in the Western tail and 19 in the Eastern, with mean ages of 282 Myr and 98 Myr respectively. Interestingly, we find an excess of very blue SCCs in the Eastern tail as compared to the Western tail, marking a recent, small episode of star formation.

  11. Dissecting the extended main-sequence turn-off of the young star cluster NGC 1850

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correnti, Matteo; Goudfrooij, Paul; Bellini, Andrea; Kalirai, Jason S.; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2017-05-01

    We use the Wide Field Camera 3 onboard the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain deep, high-resolution photometry of the young (˜100 Myr) star cluster NGC 1850 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We analyse the cluster colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) and find that it hosts an extended main-sequence turn-off (MSTO) and a double main sequence (MS). We demonstrate that these features cannot be due to photometric errors, field star contamination or differential reddening. From a comparison with theoretical models and Monte Carlo simulations, we show that a coeval stellar population featuring a distribution of stellar rotation rates can reproduce the MS split quite well. However, it cannot reproduce the observed MSTO region, which is significantly wider than the simulated ones. Exploiting narrow-band Hα imaging, we find that the MSTO hosts a population of Hα-emitting stars that are interpreted as rapidly rotating Be-type stars. We explore the possibility that the discrepancy between the observed MSTO morphology and that of the simulated simple stellar population (SSP) is caused by the fraction of these objects that are highly reddened, but we rule out this hypothesis. We demonstrate that the global CMD morphology is well reproduced by a combination of SSPs that covers an age range of ˜35 Myr as well as a wide variety of rotation rates. We derive the cluster mass and escape velocity, and use dynamical evolution models to predict their evolution starting at an age of 10 Myr. We discuss these results and their implications in the context of the extended MSTO phenomenon.

  12. TIME VARIABLE BROAD-LINE EMISSION IN NGC 4203: EVIDENCE FOR STELLAR CONTRAILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devereux, Nick, E-mail: devereux@erau.edu [Department of Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Prescott, AZ 86301 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    Dual epoch spectroscopy of the lenticular galaxy, NGC 4203, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope has revealed that the double-peaked component of the broad H{alpha} emission line is time variable, increasing by a factor of 2.2 in brightness between 1999 and 2010. Modeling the gas distribution responsible for the double-peaked profiles indicates that a ring is a more appropriate description than a disk and most likely represents the contrail of a red supergiant star that is being tidally disrupted at a distance of {approx}1500 AU from the central black hole. There is also a bright core of broad H{alpha} line emission that is not time variable and identified with a large-scale inflow from an outer radius of {approx}1 pc. If the gas number density is {>=}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}, as suggested by the absence of similarly broad [O I] and [O III] emission lines, then the steady state inflow rate is {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, which exceeds the inflow requirement to explain the X-ray luminosity in terms of radiatively inefficient accretion by a factor of {approx}6. The central active galactic nucleus (AGN) is unable to sustain ionization of the broad-line region; the discrepancy is particularly acute in 2010 when the broad H{alpha} emission line is dominated by the contrail of the infalling supergiant star. However, ram pressure shock ionization produced by the interaction of the infalling supergiant with the ambient interstellar medium may help alleviate the ionizing deficit by generating a mechanical source of ionization supplementing the photoionization provided by the AGN.

  13. Evolution of the accretion disc around the supermassive black hole of NGC 7213

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimoia, Jaderson S.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Winge, Cláudia; Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Eracleous, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We present observations of the double-peaked broad H α profile emitted by the active nucleus of NGC 7213 using the Gemini South Telescope in 13 epochs between 2011 September 27 and 2013 July 23. This is the first time that the double-peaked line profile of this nucleus - typical of gas emission from the outer parts of an accretion disc surrounding a supermassive black hole (SMBH) - is reported to vary. From the analysis of the line profiles we find two variability time-scales: (1) the shortest one, between 7 and 28 d, is consistent with the light travel time between the ionizing source and the part of the disc emitting the line; and (2) a longer one of ≳3 m corresponding to variations in the relative intensity of the blue and red sides of the profile, which can be identified with the dynamical time-scale of this outer part of the accretion disc. We modelled the line profiles as due to emission from a region between ≈300 and 3000 gravitational radii of a relativistic, Keplerian accretion disc surrounding the SMBH. Superposed on the disc emissivity, the model includes an asymmetric feature in the shape of a spiral arm with a rotation period of ≈21 m, which reproduces the variations in the relative intensity of the blue and red sides of the profile. Besides these variations, the rms variation profile reveals the presence of another variable component in the broad line, with smaller velocity width W68 (the width of the profile corresponding to 68 per cent of the flux) of ∼2100 km s-1.

  14. Near-IR period-luminosity relations for pulsating stars in ω Centauri (NGC 5139)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, C.; Catelan, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Alonso-García, J.; Gran, F.; Dékány, I.; Minniti, D.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: The globular cluster ω Centauri (NGC 5139) hosts hundreds of pulsating variable stars of different types, thus representing a treasure trove for studies of their corresponding period-luminosity (PL) relations. Our goal in this study is to obtain the PL relations for RR Lyrae and SX Phoenicis stars in the field of the cluster, based on high-quality, well-sampled light curves in the near-infrared (IR). Methods: Observations were carried out using the VISTA InfraRed CAMera (VIRCAM) mounted on the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). A total of 42 epochs in J and 100 epochs in KS were obtained, spanning 352 days. Point-spread function photometry was performed using DoPhot and DAOPHOT crowded-field photometry packages in the outer and inner regions of the cluster, respectively. Results: Based on the comprehensive catalog of near-IR light curves thus secured, PL relations were obtained for the different types of pulsators in the cluster, both in the J and KS bands. This includes the first PL relations in the near-IR for fundamental-mode SX Phoenicis stars. The near-IR magnitudes and periods of Type II Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars were used to derive an updated true distance modulus to the cluster, with a resulting value of (m - M)0 = 13.708 ± 0.035 ± 0.10 mag, where the error bars correspond to the adopted statistical and systematic errors, respectively. Adding the errors in quadrature, this is equivalent to a heliocentric distance of 5.52 ± 0.27 kpc. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, with the VISTA telescope (project ID 087.D-0472, PI R. Angeloni).

  15. Accretion disk reverberation with Hubble Space Telescope observations of NGC 4593

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cackett, Edward; McHardy, Ian; Horne, Keith D.; Goad, Michael; Edelson, Rick; Korista, Kirk T.; Chiang, Chia-Ying

    2017-08-01

    Irradiation of the accretion disk by X-ray/EUV photons should lead to wavelength-dependent UV/optical continuum time lags as the hotter, inner parts of the disk will see the variable irradiating flux before the cooler, outer parts of the disk. Recently, there has been a significant improvement in wavelength-dependent lag measurements from high-cadence monitoring and a picture is emerging that the accretion disk sizes are a factor of 2 - 3 larger than predicted by the standard disk model. We obtained Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy of NGC 4593 as part of a larger multi-wavelength reverberation mapping campaign including monitoring by Swift and Kepler. From 2016 July 12 to 2016 August 6 we performed 26 observations with an approximately daily cadence using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The spectra cover a nearly continuous wavelength range from approximately 1150 - 10000Å. The continuum is significantly variable at all wavelengths, with variations at 1150Å leading variations at 8950Å by approximately 1.2 days. In the scenario where X-rays or EUV photons drive variability in the accretion disk the time lags should follow λ4/3. Here, we see a significant deviation from this around the Balmer jump, indicating a large contribution to the lags from diffuse continuum emission in the broad line region. However, even when taking this diffuse continuum lag into account, we still find that the accretion disk lags are a factor of about 3 larger than expected from the standard disk model.

  16. Interpretation of a Variable Reflection Nebula Associated with HBC 340 and HBC 341 in NGC 1333

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, S. E.; Hillenbrand, L. A.

    2017-11-01

    We present multi-epoch, R-band imaging obtained from the Palomar Transient Factory of a small, fan-shaped reflection nebula in NGC 1333 that experiences prominent brightness fluctuations. Photometry of HBC 340 (K7e) and HBC 341 (M5e), a visual pair of late-type, young stellar objects lying near the apex of the nebula, demonstrates that while both are variable, the former has brightened by more than two magnitudes following a deep local minimum in 2014 September. Keck high-dispersion (R ˜ 45,000-66,000), optical spectroscopy of HBC 340 suggests that the protostar is a spectroscopic binary (HBC 340Aa + HBC 340Ab). Both HBC 340 and HBC 341 exhibit strong Hα and forbidden line emission, consistent with accretion and outflow. We conclude that the brightness fluctuations in the reflection nebula represent light echos produced by varying incident radiation emanating from HBC 340. The short-term variability observed in the protostar is attributed to irregular accretion activity, while correlated, dipping behavior on a several hundred day timescale may be due to eclipse-like events caused by orbiting circumstellar material. Archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the region reveals a second, faint (F814W ˜ 20.3 mag) companion to HBC 340 that lies 1.″02 (˜235 au) east of the protostar. If associated, this probable substellar mass object (20-50 Jupiter masses), HBC 340B, is likely unrelated to the observed brightness variations. The sustained brightening of HBC 340 since late 2014 can be explained by an EXor-like outburst, the recovery from a long duration eclipse event caused by obscuring circumstellar dust, or by the gradual removal of extincting material from along the line of sight. Our analysis here favors one of the extinction scenarios.

  17. The Horizontal Branch Population of NGC 1851 as Revealed by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Annapurni; Sahu, Snehalata; Postma, Joseph E.; Côté, Patrick; Hutchings, J. B.; Darukhanawalla, N.; Chung, Chul; Tandon, S. N.; Kameswara Rao, N.; George, K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Girish, V.; Mohan, R.; Murthy, J.; Pati, A. K.; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Stalin, C. S.; Choudhury, S.

    2017-12-01

    We present the UV photometry of the globular cluster NGC 1851 using images acquired with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) onboard the ASTROSAT satellite. Point-spread function fitting photometric data derived from images in two far-UV (FUV) filters and one near-UV (NUV) filter are used to construct color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), in combination with HST and ground-based optical photometry. In the FUV, we detect only the bluest part of the cluster horizontal branch (HB); in the NUV, we detect the full extent of the HB, including the red HB, blue HB, and a small number of RR Lyrae stars. UV variability was detected in 18 RR Lyrae stars, and three new variables were also detected in the central region. The UV/optical CMDs are then compared with isochrones of different age and metallicity (generated using Padova and BaSTI models) and synthetic HB (using helium-enhanced Y 2 models). We are able to identify two populations among the HB stars, which are found to have either an age range of 10-12 Gyr, or a range in Y ini of 0.23-0.28, for a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.2 to -1.3. These estimations from the UV CMDs are consistent with those from optical studies. The almost-complete sample of the HB stars tends to show a marginal difference in spatial/azimuthal distribution among the blue and red HB stars. Thus, this study showcases the capability of UVIT, with its excellent resolution and large field of view, to study the hot stellar population in Galactic globular clusters.

  18. Mapping the dark matter in the NGC 5044 group with ROSAT: Evidence for a nearly homogeneous cooling flow with a cooling wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Laurence P.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William; Daines, Stuart

    1994-01-01

    The NGC 5044 group of galaxies was observed by the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) for 30 ks during its reduced pointed phase (1991 July). Due to the relatively cool gas temperature in the group (kT = 0.98 +/- 0.02 keV) and the excellent photon statistics (65,000 net counts), we are able to determine precisely a number of fundamental properties of the group within 250 kpc of the central galaxy. In particular, we present model-independent measurements of the total gravitating mass, the temperature and abundance profiles of the gas, and the mass accretion rate. Between 60 and 250 kpc, the gas is nearly isothermal with T varies as r(exp (-0.13 +/- 0.03)). The total gravitating mass of the group can be unambiguously determined from the observed density and temperature profiles of the gas using the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium. Within 250 kpc, the gravitating mass is 1.6 x 10(exp 13) solar mass, yielding a mass-to-light ratio of 130 solar mass/solar luminosity. The baryons (gas and stars) comprise 12% of the total mass within this radius. At small radii, the temperature clearly increases outward and attains a maximum value at 60 kpc. The positive temperature gradient in the center of the group confirms the existence of a cooling flow. The cooling flow region extends well beyond the temperature maximum with a cooling radius between 100 and 150 kpc. There are two distinct regions in the cooling flow separated by the temperature maximum. In the outer region, the gas is nearly isothermal with a unifor m Fe abundance of approximately 80% solar, the flow is nearly homogeneous with dot-M= 20 to 25 solar mass/year, the X-ray contours are spherically symmetric, and rho(sub gas) varies as r(exp -1.6). In the inner region, the temperature profile has a positive gradient, the mass accretion rate decreases rapidly inward, the gas density profile is steeper, and the X-ray image shows some substrucutre. NGC 5044 is offset from the centroid of the outer X

  19. Extreme flux states of NGC 4151 observed with INTEGRAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiński, P.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Walter, R.; Paltani, S.; Beckmann, V.; Soldi, S.; Ferrigno, C.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.

    2010-11-01

    We present a comprehensive spectral analysis of all INTEGRAL data obtained so far for the X-ray-bright Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151. We also use all contemporaneous data from RXTE, XMM-Newton, Swift and Suzaku. We find a linear correlation between the medium- and hard-energy X-ray fluxes measured by INTEGRAL, which indicates an almost constant spectral index over 6 yr. The majority of INTEGRAL observations were made when the source was either at a very bright or very dim hard-X-ray state. We find that thermal Comptonization models applied to the bright state yields the plasma temperature of ~=50-70keV and its optical depth of ~=1.3-2.6, depending on the assumed source geometry. For the dim state, these parameters are in the ranges of ~=180-230 keV and ~=0.3-0.7, respectively. The Compton parameter is for all the spectra, indicating a stable geometry. Using this result, we can determine the reflection effective solid angles associated with the close and distant reprocessing media as and , respectively. The plasma energy balance, the weak disc reflection and a comparison of the UV fluxes illuminating the plasma to the observed ones are all consistent with an inner hot accretion surrounded by an outer cold disc. The disc truncation radius can be determined from an approximate equipartition between the observed UV and X-ray emission, and from the fitted disc blackbody model, as ~15 gravitational radii. Alternatively, our results can be explained by a mildly relativistic coronal outflow. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Spain), the Czech Republic and Poland and with participation of Russia and the US. E-mail: Lubiński@ncac.torun.pl (PL); aaz@camk.edu.pl (AAZ)

  20. Fotometría UBVI en NGC 6231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baume, G. L.; Vázquez, R. A.; Feinstein, A.

    Se ha realizado fotometría CCD UBVI en la zona del cúmulo abierto NGC 6231, habiéndose observado 1062 estrellas hasta una magnitud V≈ 19. Esto posibilita tener una imagen clara de la parte inferior de la secuencia principal del cúmulo. Combinando nuestros datos con tipos espectrales tomados de la literatura pudimos re-derivar la ley de absorción en dirección a este cúmulo y encontrar que los valores de R muestran variaciones de estrella a estrella. La secuencia principal inferior muestra también algunos rasgos intrigantes: hay un codo notorio en V≈ 13.5 seguido por un gran ``spread'' de magnitudes a color constante entre las estrellas débiles y una inusualmente alta densidad de estrellas a lo largo de una banda que se extiende 1.5 mag encima de la ZAMS. Los cálculos indican que el número esperado de estrellas de campo en dirección al cúmulo debería ser menor que el observado. Una re-evaluación de las funciones de luminosidad y masa dentro de los límites -7.5 < MV < 1.5 mag y 2 Msolar < M arroja pendientes planas para ambas funciones, lo que parece ser típico de cúmulos muy jóvenes. Todos estos rasgos son congruentes con un escenario joven donde las estrellas en fase de contracción están arribando a la secuencia principal.

  1. Analysis of Co-spatial UV-optical HST/STIS Spectra of Planetary Nebula NGC 3242

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy R.; Henry, Richard B. C.; Balick, Bruce; Kwitter, Karen B.; Dufour, Reginald J.; Shaw, Richard A.; Corradi, Romano L. M.

    2016-10-01

    This project sought to consider two important aspects of the planetary nebula NGC 3242 using new long-slit HST/STIS spectra. First, we investigated whether this object is chemically homogeneous by spatially dividing the slit into different regions and calculating the abundances of each region. The major result is that the elements of He, C, O, and Ne are chemically homogeneous within uncertainties across the regions probed, implying that the stellar outflow was well-mixed. Second, we constrained the stellar properties using photoionization models computed by CLOUDY and tested the effects of three different density profiles on these parameters. The three profiles tested were a constant density profile, a Gaussian density profile, and a Gaussian with a power-law density profile. The temperature and luminosity were not affected significantly by the choice of density structure. The values for the stellar temperature and luminosity from our best-fit model are {89.7}-4.7+7.3 kK and log(L/L ⊙) = {3.36}-0.22+0.28, respectively. Comparing to evolutionary models on an HR diagram, this corresponds to an initial and final mass of {0.95}-0.09+0.35{M}⊙ and {0.56}-0.01+0.01{M}⊙ , respectively. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  2. SN2015bh: NGC2770's 4th supernova or a luminous blue variable on its way to a Wolf-Rayet star?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thone, C. C.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Leloudas, G.

    2017-01-01

    shell plunging into a dense CSM. The emission lines show a single narrow P Cygni profile during the LBV phase and a double P Cygni profile post maximum suggesting an association of the second component with the possible SN. Since 1994 the star has been redder than an LBV in an S-Dor-like outburst. SN......Very massive stars in the final phases of their lives often show unpredictable outbursts that can mimic supernovae, so-called, "SN impostors", but the distinction is not always straightforward. Here we present observations of a luminous blue variable (LBV) in NGC2770 in outburst over more than 20...... 2015bh lies within a spiral arm of NGC2770 next to several small star-forming regions with a metallicity of similar to 0.5 solar and a stellar population age of 7-10 Myr. SN 2015bh shares many similarities with SN 2009ip and may form a new class of objects that exhibit outbursts a few decades prior...

  3. An x-ray study of massive star forming regions with CHANDRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfeng

    2007-08-01

    Massive stars are characterized by powerful stellar winds, strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and consequently devastating supernovae explosions, which have a profound influence on their natal clouds and galaxy evolution. However, the formation and evolution of massive stars themselves and how their low-mass siblings are affected in the wind-swept and UV-radiation-dominated environment are not well understood. Much of the stellar populations inside of the massive star forming regions (MSFRs) are poorly studied in the optical and IR wavelengths because of observational challenges caused by large distance, high extinction, and heavy contamination from unrelated sources. Although it has long been recognized that X-rays open a new window to sample the young stellar populations residing in the MSFRs, the low angular resolution of previous generation X-ray telescopes has limited the outcome from such studies. The sensitive high spatial resolution X-ray observations enabled by the Chandra X- ray Observatory and the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) have significantly improved our ability to study the X-ray-emitting populations in the MSFRs in the last few years. In this thesis, I analyzed seven high spatial resolution Chandra /ACIS images of two massive star forming complexes, namely the NGC 6357 region hosting the 1 Myr old Pismis 24 cluster (Chapter 3) and the Rosette Complex including the 2 Myr old NGC 2244 cluster immersed in the Rosette Nebula (Chapter 4), embedded clusters in the Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC; Chapter 5), and a triggered cluster NGC 2237 (Chapter 6). The X-ray sampled stars were studied in great details. The unique power of X-ray selection of young stellar cluster members yielded new knowledge in the stellar populations, the cluster structures, and the star formation histories. The census of cluster members is greatly improved in each region. A large fraction of the X-ray detections have optical or near-infrared (NIR) stellar counterparts

  4. Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope Study of the Globular Cluster NGC 288

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, A.K.H.; Bassa, C.G.; Pooley, D.; Levin, W.H.G.; Homer, L.; Verbunt, F.W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068970374; Anderson, S.F.; Margon, B.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations of the globular cluster NGC 288.We detect four X-ray sources within the core radius and seven additional sources within the half-mass radius down to a limiting luminosity of LX ¼ 7 ; 1030 ergs s 1 (assuming cluster membership) in the 0.3Y7 keV

  5. New constraints on the star formation history of the star cluster NGC 1856

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correnti, M.; Goudfrooij, P.; Puzia, T.H.; de Mink, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    We use the Wide Field Camera 3 onboard the Hubble Space Telescope to obtain deep, high-resolution photometry of the young (age ∼ 300 Myr) star cluster NGC 1856 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We compare the observed colour-magnitude diagram (CMD), after having applied a correction for differential

  6. NGC 6362: The Least Massive Globular Cluster with Chemically Distinct Multiple Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucciarelli, Alessio; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Massari, Davide; Bellazzini, Michele; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Lanzoni, Barbara; Lardo, Carmela; Salaris, Maurizio; Cassisi, Santi

    2016-01-01

    We present the first measure of Fe and Na abundances in NGC 6362, a low-mass globular cluster (GC) where first- and second-generation stars are fully spatially mixed. A total of 160 member stars (along the red giant branch (RGB) and the red horizontal branch (RHB)) were observed with the

  7. No Evidence of Mass Segregation in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 6101

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Massari, D.; Lanzoni, B.; Miocchi, P.; Beccari, G.

    We used a combination of Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based data to probe the dynamical state of the low-mass Galactic globular cluster NGC 6101. We have rederived the structural parameters of the cluster by using star counts and we find that it is about three times more extended than thought

  8. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE SUPERGIANT H I SHELL AND PUTATIVE COMPANION IN NGC 6822

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, John M.; O' Leary, Erin M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Bigiel, Frank [Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Cole, Andrew A.; Walter, Fabian [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 37, Hobart 7001, Tasmania (Australia); De Blok, W.J.G., E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu, E-mail: eoleary@macalester.edu, E-mail: dweisz@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: bigiel@uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: andrew.cole@utas.edu.au, E-mail: edeblok@ast.uct.ac.za, E-mail: walter@mpia.de [Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa)

    2012-03-10

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging of six positions spanning 5.8 kpc of the H I major axis of the Local Group dIrr NGC 6822, including both the putative companion galaxy and the large H I hole. The resulting deep color-magnitude diagrams show that NGC 6822 has formed >50% of its stars in the last {approx}5 Gyr. The star formation histories of all six positions are similar over the most recent 500 Myr, including low-level star formation throughout this interval and a weak increase in star formation rate during the most recent 50 Myr. Stellar feedback can create the giant H I hole, assuming that the lifetime of the structure is longer than 500 Myr; such long-lived structures have now been observed in multiple systems and may be the norm in galaxies with solid-body rotation. The old stellar populations (red giants and red clump stars) of the putative companion are consistent with those of the extended halo of NGC 6822; this argues against the interpretation of this structure as a bona fide interacting companion galaxy and against its being linked to the formation of the H I hole via an interaction. Since there is no evidence in the stellar population of a companion galaxy, the most likely explanation of the extended H I structure in NGC 6822 is a warped disk inclined to the line of sight.

  9. Atomic hydrogen bridge fueling NGC 4418 with gas from VV 655

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenius, E.; Costagliola, F.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Aalto, S.; Spoon, H.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Conway, J. E.; Privon, G. C.; König, S.

    2017-11-01

    Context. The galaxy NGC 4418 harbours a compact (http://www.aanda.orgThe radio continuum image and the spectral cube presented in Fig. 1 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A43

  10. New outburst of the accreting-millisecond X-ray pulsar NGC 6440 X-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altamirano, D.; Patruno, A.; Heinke, C.; Linares, M.; Markwardt, C.; Strohmayer, T.

    2010-01-01

    On Friday 19th, 2010 (19h 13m 26s UT), the RXTE galactic bulge scans detected a flux excess in the direction of the globular cluster NGC 6440. This globular cluster is known to harbor at least 24 X-ray sources (Pooley et al. 2002, ApJ 573, 184), of which two have been identified as

  11. NGC 4435 : a bulge-dominated galaxy with an unforeseen low-mass central black hole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccato, L; Sarzi, M; Pizzella, A; Corsini, EM; Bonta, ED; Bertola, F

    2006-01-01

    We present the ionized gas kinematics of the SB0 galaxy NGC 4435 from spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. This galaxy has been selected on the basis of its ground-based spectroscopy, for displaying a position-velocity diagram consistent with the presence of a

  12. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emission closely follows the ultraviolet emission mapped by ...

  13. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the. Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emis- sion closely follows the ultraviolet emission ...

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Candidate globular clusters in NGC 5170 (Forbes+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, D. A.; Spitler, L. R.; Harris, W. E.; Bailin, J.; Strader, J.; Brodie, J. P.; Larsen, S. S.

    2010-09-01

    The data for this work were taken using the ACS/WFC camera on board the HST as part of proposal ID 9766 (PI Forbes). Two pointings along the major axis of NGC 5170 were obtained in the F435W (B) and F814W (I) filters with a total exposure time of 3720 and 940s at each pointing. (1 data file).

  15. WIYN open cluster study. LX. Spectroscopic binary orbits in NGC 6819

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milliman, Katelyn E.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Gosnell, Natalie M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Geller, Aaron M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Meibom, Søren [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Platais, Imants, E-mail: milliman@astro.wisc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present the current state of the WOCS radial-velocity (RV) survey for the rich open cluster NGC 6819 (2.5 Gyr) including 93 spectroscopic binary orbits with periods ranging from 1.5 to 8000 days. These results are the product of our ongoing RV survey of NGC 6819 using the Hydra Multi-Object Spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. We also include a detailed analysis of multiple prior sets of optical photometry for NGC 6819. Within a 1° field of view, our stellar sample includes the giant branch, the red clump, and blue straggler candidates, and extends to almost 2 mag below the main sequence (MS) turnoff. For each star observed in our survey we present all RV measurements, the average RV, and velocity variability information. Additionally, we discuss notable binaries from our sample, including eclipsing binaries (WOCS 23009, WOCS 24009, and WOCS 40007), stars noted in Kepler asteroseismology studies (WOCS 4008, WOCS 7009, and WOCS 8007), and potential descendants of past blue stragglers (WOCS 1006 and WOCS 6002). We find the incompleteness-corrected binary fraction for all MS binaries with periods less than 10{sup 4} days to be 22% ± 3% and a tidal circularization period of 6.2{sub −1.1}{sup +1.1} days for NGC 6819.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities in M35 (NGC 2168) (Geller+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, A. M.; Mathieu, R. D.; Braden, E. K.; Meibom, S.; Platais, I.; Dolan, C. J.

    2012-05-01

    We present 5201 radial-velocity (RV) measurements of 1144 stars as part of an ongoing study of the young (150Myr) open cluster M35 (NGC 2168). We have observed M35 since 1997, using the Hydra Multi-Object Spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5m telescope. (1 data file).

  17. e-MERLIN 5GHz observations of SN2017eaw in NGC6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Megan; Torres, Miguel Perez; Beswick, Rob; Wrigley, Nick

    2017-05-01

    We observed the position of SN2017eaw in NGC6946 (ATel #10372) with e-MERLIN at a central frequency of 5.1 GHz on May 19/20 2017. The supernova was observed over 18 hours, with 10 hours spent on-target.

  18. Comparing the white dwarf cooling sequences in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, Harvey B.; Goldsbury, Ryan; Heyl, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hurley, Jarrod [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Dotter, Aaron [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Kalirai, Jason S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Woodley, Kristin A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fahlman, Gregory G. [National Research Council, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Rich, R. Michael [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shara, Michael M., E-mail: richer@astro.ubc.ca, E-mail: rgoldsb@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: heyl@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: jhurley@swin.edu.au, E-mail: dotter@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: jkalirai@stsci.edu, E-mail: kwoodley@ucolick.org, E-mail: greg.fahlman@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: mshara@amnh.org [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West and 79th Street, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Using deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, color-magnitude diagrams are constructed for the globular clusters 47 Tuc and NGC 6397. As expected, because of its lower metal abundance, the main sequence of NGC 6397 lies well to the blue of that of 47 Tuc. A comparison of the white dwarf cooling sequences of the two clusters, however, demonstrates that these sequences are indistinguishable over most of their loci—a consequence of the settling out of heavy elements in the dense white dwarf atmosphere and the near equality of their masses. Lower quality data on M4 continues this trend to a third cluster whose metallicity is intermediate between these two. While the path of the white dwarfs in the color-magnitude diagram is nearly identical in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397, the numbers of white dwarfs along the path are not. This results from the relatively rapid relaxation in NGC 6397 compared to 47 Tuc and provides a cautionary note that simply counting objects in star clusters in random locations as a method of testing stellar evolutionary theory is likely dangerous unless dynamical considerations are included.

  19. Search for continuous gravitational waves from neutron stars in globular cluster NGC 6544

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoebeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Sigurdsson, S.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a directed search for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth initial LIGO science run. The target was the nearby globular cluster NGC 6544 at a distance of approximate to 2.7 kpc. The search covered a broad band of frequencies along with first and second frequency

  20. Chemical analysis of eight giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 6366

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Arthur A.; Brito, Alan Alves; Campos, Fabíola; Dias, Bruno; Barbuy, Beatriz

    2018-02-01

    The metal-rich Galactic globular cluster NGC 6366 is the fifth closest to the Sun. Despite its interest, it has received scarce attention, and little is known about its internal structure. Its kinematics suggests a link to the halo, but its metallicity indicates otherwise. We present a detailed chemical analysis of eight giant stars of NGC 6366, using high resolution and high quality spectra (R > 40 000, S/N > 60) obtained at the VLT (8.2 m) and CFHT (3.6 m) telescopes. We attempted to characterize its chemistry and to search for evidence of multiple stellar populations. The atmospheric parameters were derived using the method of excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II lines and from those atmospheric parameters we calculated the abundances for other elements and found that none of the elements measured presents star-to-star variation greater than the uncertainties. We compared the derived abundances with those of other globular clusters and field stars available in the literature. We determined a mean [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.03 for NGC 6366 and found some similarity of this object with M 71, another inner halo globular cluster. The Na-O anticorrelation extension is short and no star-to-star variation in Al is found. The presence of second generation stars is not evident in NGC 6366.

  1. The vertical extent and kinematics of the HI in NGC 2403

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, WE; Sancisi, R; Swaters, RA

    2000-01-01

    The neutral hydrogen line profiles along the major axis of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2403 show a wing towards the systemic velocity. This asymmetry can be explained with the presence of an abnormally thick HI disk (FWHM similar to 5 kpc) or with a two-component structure: a thin disk and a slowly

  2. Neutral hydrogen and star formation in the irregular galaxy NGC 4449

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunter, DA; Van Woerden, H; Gallagher, JS

    1999-01-01

    We present high-resolution interferometric data of the inner 30' of the H I gas of the irregular galaxy NGC 4449. In addition to the previously known two counter-rotating gas systems, the H I exhibits an unusual ring morphology and high velocity dispersions in the outer part of the optical galaxy.

  3. La galaxia NGC 6876 y su sistema de cúmulos globulares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, A. I.; Bassino, L. P.; Caso, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    We present preliminary results of the deep photometric study of the elliptical galaxy NGC6876, located at the center of the Pavo group, and its globular cluster system. We use images obtained with the GMOS camera mounted on the Gemini South telescope, in the and bands, with the purpose of disentangling the evolutionary history of the galaxy on the basis of their characteristics.

  4. The shape of the dark matter halo in the early-type galaxy NGC 2974

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Krajnovic, Davor; van de Ven, Glenn; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Morganti, Raffaella; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    2008-01-01

    We present HI observations of the elliptical galaxy NGC 2974, obtained with the Very Large Array. These observations reveal that the previously detected HI disc in this galaxy is in fact a ring. By studying the harmonic expansion of the velocity field along the ring, we constrain the elongation of

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 6819 CCD UBV photometry (Ak+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, T.; Bostanci, Z. F.; Yontan, T.; Bilir, S.; Guver, T.; Ak, S.; Urgup, H.; Paunzen, E.

    2016-11-01

    CCD UBVRI images of the open cluster NGC 6819 and standard stars selected from Landolt (2009, Cat. J/AJ/137/4186) were acquired on 2015 May 18 using a 1-m Ritchey-Chretien telescope (T100) located at the TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG) in Bakirlitepe, Antalya/Turkey. (1 data file).

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 225 CCD UBV photometry (Bilir+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, S.; Bostanci, Z. F.; Yontan, T.; Guver, T.; Bakis, V.; Ak, T.; Ak, S.; Paunzen, E.; Eker, Z.

    2016-11-01

    CCD UBVRI images of the open cluster NGC 225 and standard stars selected from Landolt (2009, Cat. J/AJ/137/4186) were acquired on 2012 July 18 using a 1-m Ritchey-Chretien telescope (T100) located at the TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG) in Bakirlitepe, Antalya/Turkey. (1 data file).

  7. The chemical composition of the low-mass Galactic globular cluster NGC 6362

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Dalessandro, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Cassisi, S.; Fiorentino, G.; Ibata, R. A.; Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.

    2017-06-01

    We present chemical abundances for 17 elements in a sample of 11 red giant branch stars in NGC 6362 from UVES spectra. NGC 6362 is one of the least massive globulars where multiple populations have been detected, yet its detailed chemical composition has not been investigated so far. NGC 6362 turns out to be a metal-intermediate ([Fe/H] = -1.07 ± 0.01 dex) cluster, with its α-peak and Fe-peak elements content compatible with that observed in clusters with similar metallicity. It also displays an enhancement in its s-process element abundances. Among the light elements involved in the multiple populations phenomenon, only [Na/Fe] shows star-to-star variations, while [Al/Fe] and [Mg/Fe] do not show any evidence for abundance spreads. A differential comparison with M4, a globular cluster with similar mass and metallicity, reveals that the two clusters share the same chemical composition. This finding suggests that NGC 6362 is indeed a regular cluster, formed from gas that has experienced the same chemical enrichment of other clusters with similar metallicity.

  8. Dark Matter and Extragalactic Gas Clouds in the NGC 4532/DDO 137 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, G. L.; Lu, N. Y.; Salpeter, E. E.; Connell, B. M.

    1998-01-01

    H I synthesis mapping of NGC 4532 and DDO 137, a pair of Sm galaxies on the edge of the Virgo cluster, is used to determine rotation curves for each of the galaxies and to resolve the structure and kinematics of three extragalactic H I clouds embedded in an extended envelope of diffuse HI discovered in earlier Arecibo studies of the system.

  9. Chemical Complexity in the Eu-enhanced Monometallic Globular NGC 5986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Caldwell, Nelson; Rich, R. Michael; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Olszewski, Edward W.; Walker, Matthew G.

    2017-06-01

    NGC 5986 is a poorly studied but relatively massive Galactic globular cluster that shares several physical and morphological characteristics with “iron-complex” clusters known to exhibit significant metallicity and heavy-element dispersions. In order to determine whether NGC 5986 joins the iron-complex cluster class, we investigated the chemical composition of 25 red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch cluster stars using high-resolution spectra obtained with the Magellan-M2FS instrument. Cluster membership was verified using a combination of radial velocity and [Fe/H] measurements, and we found the cluster to have a mean heliocentric radial velocity of +99.76 km s-1 (σ = 7.44 km s-1). We derived a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.54 dex (σ = 0.08 dex), but the cluster’s small dispersion in [Fe/H] and low [La/Eu] abundance preclude it from being an iron-complex cluster. NGC 5986 has =+0.76 {dex} (σ = 0.08 dex), which is among the highest ratios detected in a Galactic cluster, but the small [Eu/Fe] dispersion is puzzling because such high values near [Fe/H] ˜ -1.5 are typically only found in dwarf galaxies exhibiting large [Eu/Fe] variations. NGC 5986 exhibits classical globular cluster characteristics, such as uniformly enhanced [α/Fe] ratios, a small dispersion in Fe-peak abundances, and (anti)correlated light-element variations. Similar to NGC 2808, we find evidence that NGC 5986 may host at least four to five populations with distinct light-element compositions, and the presence of a clear Mg-Al anticorrelation along with an Al-Si correlation suggests that the cluster gas experienced processing at temperatures ≳65-70 MK. However, the current data do not support burning temperatures exceeding ˜100 MK. We find some evidence that the first- and second-generation stars in NGC 5986 may be fully spatially mixed, which could indicate that the cluster has lost a significant fraction of its original mass. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m

  10. A two-stage outflow in NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, D.; Steiner, J. E.

    2017-07-01

    We present an analysis of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 of archive data from the Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared (SINFONI)-Very Large Telescope, in the HK bands with pixel scales of 0.1 (data set 1 - DS1) and 0.025 (DS2) arcsec. The data are revisited with a sophisticated data treatment, such as the differential atmospheric refraction correction and the application of a Butterworth filtering and deconvolution. The gain in the process is quantified by a significant improvement in the Strehl ratio and it shows that an unprecedented high spatial resolution is achieved. For DS1, a detailed study of the H2, [Fe II] and [Si VI] emission lines reveals a three-phase gas morphology: (1) the low-velocity [Fe II] emission representing the glowing wall of an hourglass structure, (2) the high-velocity compact blobs of low and high ionization emissions filling the hourglass volume and (3) the distribution of H2 molecular gas defines the thick and irregular walls of a bubble surrounding a cavity. Both the hourglass and the molecular emissions have an asymmetry caused by the fragmentation of the north-eastern molecular wall, closest to the active galactic nucleus, resulting in high-velocity compact blobs of ionized gas outside the bubble. The south-western part of the bubble is excavated by the jet, where the blobs remain confined and are blown along the bubble's inner boundary. We propose that those blobs are driven by a hot 'secondary wind' coming from the spot where the jet interacts and injects its energy in the molecular gas. The combination of a primary wind launched by the central source and the secondary wind is what we call a two-stage outflow. For DS2, we detected a [Si VI] outflow nearly coplanar to the maser disc and orthogonal to the CO outflow found by a previous study. Such unexpected scenario is interpreted as the interaction between the central radiation field and a two-phase gas density torus.

  11. Constraining the age of the NGC 4565 H I disk WARP: Determining the origin of gas WARPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Bell, Eric F.; Monachesi, Antonela [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Holwerda, Benne W. [European Space Agency, ESTEC, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Bailin, Jeremy [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We have mapped the distribution of young and old stars in the gaseous H I warp of NGC 4565. We find a clear correlation of young stars (<600 Myr) with the warp but no coincident old stars (>1 Gyr), which places an upper limit on the age of the structure. The formation rate of the young stars, which increased ∼300 Myr ago relative to the surrounding regions, is (6.3{sub −1.5}{sup +2.5})×10{sup −5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. This implies a ∼60 ± 20 Gyr depletion time of the H I warp, similar to the timescales calculated for the outer H I disks of nearby spiral galaxies. While some stars associated with the warp fall into the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) region of the color-magnitude diagram, where stars could be as old as 1 Gyr, further investigation suggests that they may be interlopers rather than real AGB stars. We discuss the implications of these age constraints for the formation of H I warps and the gas fueling of disk galaxies.

  12. The black hole mass of NGC 4151. II. Stellar dynamical measurement from near-infrared integral field spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Valluri, Monica; Brown, Jonathan S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); McGregor, Peter J. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Office 610, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Vestergaard, Marianne [Dark Cosmology Centre, The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Física, CP 15051, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); Riffel, Rogemar A., E-mail: christopher.onken@anu.edu.au, E-mail: mvalluri@umich.edu [Departamento de Física, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-08-10

    We present a revised measurement of the mass of the central black hole (M{sub BH} ) in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. The new stellar dynamical mass measurement is derived by applying an axisymmetric orbit-superposition code to near-infrared integral field data obtained using adaptive optics with the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS). When our models attempt to fit both the NIFS kinematics and additional low spatial resolution kinematics, our results depend sensitively on how χ{sup 2} is computed—probably a consequence of complex bar kinematics that manifest immediately outside the nuclear region. The most robust results are obtained when only the high spatial resolution kinematic constraints in the nuclear region are included in the fit. Our best estimates for the black hole mass and H-band mass-to-light ratio are M{sub BH} ∼ 3.76 ± 1.15 × 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉} (1σ error) and Y{sub H} ∼ 0.34 ± 0.03 M{sub ☉}/L{sub ☉} (3σ error), respectively (the quoted errors reflect the model uncertainties). Our black hole mass measurement is consistent with estimates from both reverberation mapping (3.57{sub −0.37}{sup +0.45}×10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}) and gas kinematics (3.0{sub −2.2}{sup +0.75}×10{sup 7} M{sub ⊙}; 1σ errors), and our best-fit mass-to-light ratio is consistent with the photometric estimate of Y{sub H} = 0.4 ± 0.2 M{sub ☉}/L{sub ☉}. The NIFS kinematics give a central bulge velocity dispersion σ{sub c} = 116 ± 3 km s{sup –1}, bringing this object slightly closer to the M{sub BH}-σ relation for quiescent galaxies. Although NGC 4151 is one of only a few Seyfert 1 galaxies in which it is possible to obtain a direct dynamical black hole mass measurement—and thus, an independent calibration of the reverberation mapping mass scale—the complex bar kinematics makes it less than ideally suited for this purpose.

  13. Probing the Accretion Disk and Central Engine Structure of the NGC 4258 with Suzaku and XMM-Newton Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Markoff, Sera; Tueller, Jack; Wilms, Joern; Young, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We present an X-ray study of the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) in NGC 4258 using data from Suzaku, XMM-Newton, and the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope survey. We find that signatures of X-ray reprocessing by cold gas are very weak in the spectrum of this Seyfert-2 galaxy; a weak, narrow fluorescent K(alpha) emission line of cod iron is robustly detected in both the Suzaku and XMM-Newton spectra but at a level much below that of most other Seyfert-2 galaxies. We conclude that the circumnuclear environment of this AGN is very "clean" and lacks the Compton-thick obscuring torus of unified Seyfert schemes. From the narrowness of the iron line, together with evidence of line flux variability between the Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations, we constrain the line emitting region to be between 3 x 10(exp 3)r(sub g) and 4 x 10(exp 4)r(sub g), from the black hole. We show that the observed properties of the iron line can be explained if the line originates from the surface layers of a warped accretion disk. In particular, we present explicit calculations of the expected iron line from a disk warped by Lens-Thirring precession from a misaligned central black hole. Finally, the Suzaku data reveal clear evidence of large amplitude 2-10 keV variability on timescales of 50 ksec and smaller amplitude flares on timescales as short as 5-10 ksec. If associated with accretion disk processes, such rapid variability requires an origin in the innermost regions of the disk (r approx. equals 10(r(sub g) or less). Analysis of the difference spectrum between a high- and low-flux states suggests that the variable component of the X-ray emission is steeper and more absorbed than the average AGN emission, suggesting that the primary X-ray source and absorbing screen have a spatial structure on comparable scales. We note the remarkable similarity between the circumnuclear environment of NGC 4258 and another well studied low-luminosity AGN, M81*.

  14. NGC 7419: a young open cluster with a number of very young intermediate mass pre-MS stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Annapurni; Mathew, Blesson; Bhatt, Bhuwan Chandra; Ramya, S.

    2006-08-01

    We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of the young open cluster NGC 7419, which is known to host a large number of classical Be stars for reasons not well understood. Based on CCD photometric observations of 327 stars in UBV passbands, we estimated the cluster parameters as, reddening [E(B - V)] = 1.65 +/- 0.15 mag and distance = 2900 +/- 400 pc. The turn-off age of the cluster was estimated as 25 +/- 5 Myr using isochrone fits. UBV data of the stars were combined with the JHK data from Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and were used to create the near-infrared (NIR) (J - H) versus (H - K) colour-colour diagram. A large fraction of stars (42 per cent) was found to have NIR excess and their location in the diagram was used to identify them as intermediate mass pre-main-sequence (MS) stars. The isochrone fits to pre-MS stars in the optical colour-magnitude diagram showed that the turn-on age of the cluster is 0.3-3 Myr. This indicates that there has been a recent episode of star formation in the vicinity of the cluster. Slitless spectra were used to identify 27 stars which showed Hα in emission in the field of the cluster, of which six are new identifications. All these stars were found to show NIR excess and are located closer to the region populated by Herbig Ae/Be stars in the (J - H) versus (H - K) diagram. Slit spectra of 25 stars were obtained in the region 3700-9000 Å. The spectral features were found to be very similar to those of Herbig Be stars. These stars were found to be more reddened than the main-sequence stars by 0.4 mag, on an average. Thus, the emission-line stars found in this cluster are more similar to the Herbig Be-type stars where the circumstellar material is the remnant of the accretion disc. We conclude that the second episode of star formation has led to the formation of a large number of Herbig Be stars as well as intermediate mass pre-MS stars in the field of NGC 7419, thus explaining the presence of emission-line stars in

  15. Regrowth of stellar disks in mature galaxies: The two component nature of NGC 7217 revisited with VIRUS-W† ⋄

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Coccato, Lodovico; Bender, Ralf; Drory, Niv; Gössl, Claus; Landriau, Martin; Saglia, Roberto P.; Thomas, Jens; Williams, Michael J.

    2015-02-01

    We have obtained high spectral resolution (R ~ 9000), integral field observations of the three spiral galaxies NGC 3521, NGC 7217 and NGC 7331 using the new fiber-based Integral Field Unit instrument VIRUS-W at the 2.7 m telescope of the McDonald Observatory in Texas. Our data allow us to revisit previous claims of counter rotation in these objects. A detailed kinematic decomposition of NGC 7217 shows that no counter rotating stellar component is present. We find that NGC 7217 hosts a low dispersion, rotating disk that is embedded in a high velocity dispersion stellar halo or bulge that is co-rotating with the disk. Due to the very different velocity dispersions (~ 20 km s-1 vs. 150 km s-1) , we are further able to perform a Lick index analysis on both components separately which indicates that the two stellar populations are clearly separated in (Mgb,) space. The velocities and dispersions of the faster component are very similar to those of the interstellar gas as measured from the [O iii] emission. Morphological evidence of active star formation in this component further suggests that NGC 7217 may be in the process of (re)growing a disk inside a more massive and higher dispersion stellar halo.

  16. XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the Galaxy Group NGC 5044. 1; Evidence for Limited Multiphase Hot Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.; Lewis, Aaron D.; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2003-01-01

    Using new XMM and Chandra observations, we present an analysis of the temperature structure of the hot gas within a radius of 100 kpc of the bright nearby galaxy group NGC 5044. A spectral deprojection analysis of data extracted from circular annuli reveals that a two-temperature model (2T) of the hot gas is favored over single-phase or cooling flow (M = 4.5 +/- 0.2 solar mass/yr) models within the central approx.30 kpc. Alternatively, the data can be fitted equally well if the temperature within each spherical shell varies continuously from approx.T(sub h) to T(sub c) approx. T(sub h)/2, but no lower. The high spatial resolution of the Chandra data allows us to determine that the temperature excursion T(sub h) approaches T(sub c) required in each shell exceeds the temperature range between the boundaries of the same shell in the best-fitting single-phase model. This is strong evidence for a multiphase gas having a limited temperature range. We do not find any evidence that azimuthal temperature variations within each annulus on the sky can account for the range in temperatures within each shell. We provide a detailed investigation of the systematic errors on the derived spectral models considering the effects of calibration, plasma codes, bandwidth, variable NH, and background rate. We find that the RGS gratings and the EPIC and ACIS CCDs give fully consistent results when the same models are fitted over the same energy ranges for each instrument. The cooler component of the 2T model has a temperature (T(sub c) approx. 0.7 keV) similar to the kinetic temperature of the stars. The hot phase has a temperature (T(sub h) approx. 1.4 keV) characteristic of the virial temperature of the solar mass halo expected in the NGC 5044 group. However, in view of the morphological disturbances and X-ray holes visible in the Chandra image within R approx. equals 10 kpc, bubbles of gas heated to approx.T(sub h) in this region may be formed by intermittent AGN feedback. Some

  17. NuSTAR SPECTROSCOPY OF MULTI-COMPONENT X-RAY REFLECTION FROM NGC 1068

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Franz E. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Arévalo, Patricia [EMBIGGEN Anillo, Concepción (Chile); Walton, Dominic J.; Baloković, Mislav; Brightman, Murray; Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Koss, Michael J. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Puccetti, Simonetta [ASDC-ASI, Via del Politecnico, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Gandhi, Poshak [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alexander, David M.; Moro, Agnese Del [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Boggs, Steve E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Brandt, William N.; Luo, Bin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, Andrea [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hickox, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); and others

    2015-10-20

    We report on high-energy X-ray observations of the Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with NuSTAR, which provide the best constraints to date on its >10 keV spectral shape. The NuSTAR data are consistent with those from past and current instruments to within cross-calibration uncertainties, and we find no strong continuum or line variability over the past two decades, which is in line with its X-ray classification as a reflection-dominated Compton-thick active galactic nucleus. The combined NuSTAR, Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift BAT spectral data set offers new insights into the complex secondary emission seen instead of the completely obscured transmitted nuclear continuum. The critical combination of the high signal-to-noise NuSTAR data and the decomposition of the nuclear and extranuclear emission with Chandra allow us to break several model degeneracies and greatly aid physical interpretation. When modeled as a monolithic (i.e., a single N{sub H}) reflector, none of the common Compton reflection models are able to match the neutral fluorescence lines and broad spectral shape of the Compton reflection hump without requiring unrealistic physical parameters (e.g., large Fe overabundances, inconsistent viewing angles, or poor fits to the spatially resolved spectra). A multi-component reflector with three distinct column densities (e.g., with best-fit values of N{sub H} of 1.4 × 10{sup 23}, 5.0 × 10{sup 24}, and 10{sup 25} cm{sup −2}) provides a more reasonable fit to the spectral lines and Compton hump, with near-solar Fe abundances. In this model, the higher N{sub H} component provides the bulk of the flux to the Compton hump, while the lower N{sub H} component produces much of the line emission, effectively decoupling two key features of Compton reflection. We find that ≈30% of the neutral Fe Kα line flux arises from >2″ (≈140 pc) and is clearly extended, implying that a significant fraction (and perhaps most) of the <10 keV reflected component

  18. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 253

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowski, A. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Acero, F. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, CC 72, Place Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Aharonian, F.; Bernloehr, K.; Bochow, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Akhperjanian, A. G. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia); Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barnacka, A. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Becherini, Y. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Becker, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Birsin, E. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Biteau, J.; Brun, F. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Boisson, C. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Bolmont, J. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris Cedex 5 (France); Bordas, P. [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Brun, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bulik, T., E-mail: stefan.ohm@le.ac.uk [Astronomical Observatory, The University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Collaboration: H.E.S.S. Collaboration; and others

    2012-10-01

    Very high energy (VHE; E {>=} 100 GeV) and high-energy (HE; 100 MeV {<=} E {<=} 100 GeV) data from {gamma}-ray observations performed with the H.E.S.S. telescope array and the Fermi-LAT instrument, respectively, are analyzed in order to investigate the non-thermal processes in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The VHE {gamma}-ray data can be described by a power law in energy with differential photon index {Gamma} = 2.14 {+-} 0.18{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub sys} and differential flux normalization at 1 TeV of F{sub 0} = (9.6 {+-} 1.5{sub stat}(+ 5.7, -2.9){sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A power-law fit to the differential HE {gamma}-ray spectrum reveals a photon index of {Gamma} 2.24 {+-} 0.14{sub stat} {+-} 0.03{sub sys} and an integral flux between 200 MeV and 200 GeV of F(0.2-200 GeV) = (4.9 {+-} 1.0{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. No evidence for a spectral break or turnover is found over the dynamic range of both the LAT instrument and the H.E.S.S. experiment: a combined fit of a power law to the HE and VHE {gamma}-ray data results in a differential photon index {Gamma} = 2.34 {+-} 0.03 with a p-value of 30%. The {gamma}-ray observations indicate that at least about 20% of the energy of the cosmic rays (CRs) capable of producing hadronic interactions is channeled into pion production. The smooth alignment between the spectra in the HE and VHE {gamma}-ray domain suggests that the same transport processes dominate in the entire energy range. Advection is most likely responsible for charged particle removal from the starburst nucleus from GeV to multiple TeV energies. In a hadronic scenario for the {gamma}-ray production, the single overall power-law spectrum observed would therefore correspond to the mean energy spectrum produced by the ensemble of CR sources in the starburst region.

  19. Stability of the hydrogenated benzene in the PDR of the planetary nebula NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitian-Lara, Heidy M.; Wolff, Wania; Boechat-Roberty, Heloisa M.

    2017-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, (PAHs), constituted by benzene (C6H6) rings, as well as hydrogenated PAHs (Hn-PAHs), compounds with excess peripheral H atoms, emit infrared bands (3-12 μm) due to their vibrational transitions. These molecules are present in different astrophysical environments. For example, the band at 3.3μm, assigned to vibration of aromatic C-H bonds, is generally accompanied by the band at 3.4μm, assigned to vibration of aliphatic C-H bonds. The abundances of these molecules in circumstellar environments depend on the rates of formation and destruction by UV and X-rays radiation. We study experimentally the photoionization and photodissociation of the cyclohexane molecule (C6H12), a prototype Hn-PAH, using synchrotron radiation at UV (10-100 eV) and soft X-ray (280-310 eV) energies and the time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The measurements were performed at Brazilian National Light Synchrotron (LNLS) using the toroidal grating monochromator (TGM) beamline. From the mass spectra of ionic fragments produced by the interaction of photons with the molecule in gas phase, the production of each ion was quantified as a function of the photon energy. Moreover, the stability of C6H12 and C6H6 was analyzed by the identification of the produced ions. A greater production of ethyl (C2Hn+) and propyl (C4Hn+) ion groups was observed from the photodissociation of C6H12. We determined the photon flux as a function of the energy in the photodissociation region (PDR) of the planetary nebula NGC 7027, taking into account the attenuation caused by the H and the dust grains. From these photon flux values and the photoionization and photodissociation cross-sections, the ionization and destruction rates of C6H12 and C6H6 were determined. We concluded that the aromatic structure is more stable than the aliphatic structure against UV and X-ray radiation emitted by central star. Acknowledgments: CNPq, CAPES, LNLS.

  20. Discovery of massive star formation quenching by non-thermal effects in the centre of NGC 1097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, F. S.; Minguez, P.; Prieto, M. A.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Observations show that massive star formation quenches first at the centres of galaxies. To understand quenching mechanisms, we investigate the thermal and non-thermal energy balance in the central kpc of NGC 1097—a prototypical galaxy undergoing quenching—and present a systematic study of the nuclear star formation efficiency and its dependencies. This region is dominated by the non-thermal pressure from the magnetic field, cosmic rays and turbulence. A comparison of the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio of the molecular clouds shows that most of them are magnetically critical or supported against the gravitational collapse needed to form the cores of massive stars. Moreover, the star formation efficiency of the clouds drops with the magnetic field strength. Such an anti-correlation holds with neither the turbulent nor the thermal pressure. Hence, a progressive build up of the magnetic field results in high-mass stars forming inefficiently, and this may be the cause of the low-mass stellar population in the bulges of galaxies.

  1. MULTI-WAVELENGTH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PHOTOMETRY OF STELLAR POPULATIONS IN NGC 288

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotto, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, ' ' Galileo Galilei' ' Universita di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, Padova I-35122 (Italy); Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Jerjen, H. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua (Italy); Anderson, J.; Bellini, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3800 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S., E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it, E-mail: luigi.bedin@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: amarino@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: jerjen@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: jayander@stsci.edu, E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo (Italy)

    2013-09-20

    We present new UV observations for NGC 288, taken with the WFC3 detector on board the Hubble Space Telescope, and combine them with existing optical data from the archive to explore the multiple-population phenomenon in this globular cluster (GC). The WFC3's UV filters have demonstrated an uncanny ability to distinguish multiple populations along all photometric sequences in GCs thanks to their exquisite sensitivity to the atmospheric changes that are telltale signs of second-generation enrichment. Optical filters, on the other hand, are more sensitive to stellar-structure changes related to helium enhancement. By combining both UV and optical data, we can measure the helium variation. We quantify this enhancement for NGC 288 and find that the variation is typical of what we have come to expect in other clusters.

  2. The Variability and Spectrum of NGC 4051 from Deep, Simultaneous EUVE and XTE Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruscione, Antonella; Cagnoni, Ilaria; Papadakis, Iossif; McHardy, Ian

    1998-01-01

    We present timing and spectral analysis of the data collected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 during 1996. NGC 4051 was observed twice in May 1996 and again in December 1996 for a total of more than 200 ksec. The observations were always simultaneous with hard X-ray observations conducted with the X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE). The EUVE light curves are extremely variable during each observation, with the maximum variability during May 1996 when we registered changes by a factor of 21 over 8 hours and more than a factor of 24 variations from peak to minimum. We detected signal in the EUVE spectrograph in the 75-100 Arange which is well fitted by absorbed power law models. We will illustrate the results of our spectral and detailed power spectrum analysis for the simultaneous EUVE and XTE spectra and light curves and discuss the consequences on possible emission mechanisms.

  3. Deuterium chemistry in the young massive protostellar core NGC 2264 CMM3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Z.; Shalabiea, O. M.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we present the first attempt of modelling the deuterium chemistry in the massive young protostellar core NGC 2264 CMM3. We investigated the sensitivity of this chemistry to the physical conditions in its surrounding environment. The results showed that deuteration, in the protostellar gas, is affected by variations in the core density, the amount of gas depletion onto grain surfaces, the CR ionisation rate, but it is insensitive to variations in the H2 ortho-to-para ratio. Our results, also, showed that deuteration is often enhanced in less-dense, partially depleted (chemistry in protostellar cores is: (i) sensitive to variations in the physical conditions in its environment, (ii) insensitive to changes in the H2 ortho-to-para ratio. We also conclude that the core NGC 2264 CMM3 is in its early stages of chemical evolution with an estimated age of (1-5)×104 yrs.

  4. Detailed non-LTE calculations of the iron emission from NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, David L.; Klein, Richard I.; Castor, John I.; Nash, J. K.

    1989-01-01

    The X-ray iron line emission from NGC 1068 observed by the Ginga satellite is modeled using the new multiline, multilevel, non-LTE radiative transport code ALTAIR and a detailed atomic model for Ne-like through stripped iron. The parameter space of the obscured type 1 Seyfert nucleus model for this object is studied. The equivalent width is greater than previously predicted. It is found that detailed radiative transfer can have a significant effect on the observed line flux both for the K alpha line and for the L-shell emission. The ionization of the iron increases with temperature. Therefore the K alpha equivalent width and energy is a function not only of the ionization parameter, but also of the column depth and temperature. For a likely model of NGC 1068 it is found that the iron abundance is about twice solar, but that modifications of this model may permit a smaller abundance.

  5. High-resolution Spectroscopic Abundances of Red Giant Branch Stars in NGC 6681

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Erin M.; Knaizev, Alexei; McWilliam, Andrew; Chaboyer, Brian

    2017-09-01

    We obtain high-resolution spectra of nine red giant branch stars in NGC 6681 and perform the first detailed abundance analysis of stars in this cluster. We confirm cluster membership for these stars based on consistent radial velocities of 214.5 ± 3.7 km s-1 and find a mean [Fe/H] = -1.63 ± 0.07 dex and [α/Fe] = 0.42 ± 0.11 dex. Additionally, we confirm the existence of a Na-O anti-correlation in NGC 6681 and identify two populations of stars with unique abundance trends. With the use of HST photometry from Sarajedini et al. and Piotto et al. we are able to identify these two populations as discrete sequences in the cluster CMD. Although we cannot confirm the nature of the polluter stars responsible for the abundance differences in these populations, these results do help put constraints on possible polluter candidates.

  6. ALMA Observations on Molecular Gas in the Merger-Induced Starburst NGC 3256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audi, Clayton Moses

    2018-01-01

    Luminous infrared NGC 3256 is a merging pair of galaxies and the brightest within ~36 Mpc. Dynamical simulations suggest the system began interacting ~450 Myr ago and is in the later states of merger between two gas-rich progenitors. The systems hosts an extreme central starbust that can be seen across a wide range of wavelength.We report ALMA observation taken from ALMA Science verification data on NGC3256 in Band 3. The datasets were converted in a uniform manner using CASA 4.3. We aimed at calibrating and refining the uncalibrated datasets through Tsys+WVR, Bandpass, Gain, and Flux. The spectral window centered on the CO(1-0) emission line in the galaxy offered the highest frequency spectral window and made it possible to map the distribution and velocity of the CO(1-0) gas.

  7. Low dark matter content of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the kinematics and dynamics of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821 based on its globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe. We use PNe and GCs to extract the kinematics of NGC 821 which is then used for the dynamical modelling based on the Jeans equation. We apply the Jeans equation using the Newtonian mass-follows-light approach assuming constant mass-to-light ratio and find that using such an approach we can successfully fit the kinematic data. The inferred constant mass-to-light ratio, 4:2 < M=LB < 12:4 present throughout the whole galaxy, implies the lack of significant amount of dark matter. We also used three different MOND approaches and found that we can fit the kinematic data without the need for additional, dark, component. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations

  8. OUTER-DISK POPULATIONS IN NGC 7793: EVIDENCE FOR STELLAR RADIAL MIGRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Roskar, Rok [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Debattista, Victor P. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Streich, David; De Jong, Roelof S.; Vlajic, Marija [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Holwerda, Benne W. [European Space Agency, ESTEC, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Purcell, Chris W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Zucker, Daniel B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2012-07-10

    We analyzed the radial surface brightness profile of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 using HST/ACS images from the GHOSTS survey and a new HST/WFC3 image across the disk break. We used the photometry of resolved stars to select distinct populations covering a wide range of stellar ages. We found breaks in the radial profiles of all stellar populations at 280'' ({approx}5.1 kpc). Beyond this disk break, the profiles become steeper for younger populations. This same trend is seen in numerical simulations where the outer disk is formed almost entirely by radial migration. We also found that the older stars of NGC 7793 extend significantly farther than the underlying H I disk. They are thus unlikely to have formed entirely at their current radii, unless the gas disk was substantially larger in the past. These observations thus provide evidence for substantial stellar radial migration in late-type disks.

  9. The Environment of X-Ray Binaries in the Dwarf Starburst Galaxy NGC 1569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David M.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Raines, Steven N.

    2008-05-01

    We use deep, J and Ks observations of NGC 1569 acquired with FLAMINGOS on the KPNO 4-m to search for star cluster counterparts to X-ray binaries identified in archived Chandra images of this dwarf starburst galaxy. Performing near-IR photometry on the star cluster counterparts, we determine their colors, luminosities and masses. Comparing these results to the properties for all clusters in this galaxy, we search for trends in clusters associated with X-ray sources. Combining this study with FISICA, near-IR spectral observations, we further characterize the surroundings to X-ray binaries in NGC 1569. Contrasting this work with findings from a similar study performed on the Antennae galaxies, a large, merging system, we investigate the differences in X-ray binary environments.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Green Bank Telescope observations of NGC 2403 (de Blok+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blok, W. J. G.; Keating, K. M.; Pisano, D. J.; Fraternali, F.; Walter, F.; Oosterloo, T.; Brinks, E.; Bigiel, F.; Leroy, A.

    2014-08-01

    We observed NGC 2403 with the Green Bank Telescopes in the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen, in 21 sessions between 29 May and 30 September 2009. The beam size of the observations is 8.7'. We include a FITS file containing the data-cube (pos-pos-vel) of the HI emission line of NGC 2403. We used equatorial coordinates for the spatial dimensions and VLSR for the spectral dimension. The pixel size is 1.75' in spatial dimension and the spectral resolution is 5.2km/s. All values are in Jy/beam. The data-cube spans an area of about 4x4 degrees (RAxDec) around the center of the maps at 07:35:29.9 +65:35:48.5 (EQ=J2000) and the velocity ranges from -895.6 to 1745.0km/s. (2 data files).

  11. A white dwarf cooling age of 8 Gyr for NGC 6791 from physical separation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G; Renedo, Isabel; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Córsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, René D; Salaris, Maurizio; Isern, Jordi

    2010-05-13

    NGC 6791 is a well studied open cluster that it is so close to us that can be imaged down to very faint luminosities. The main-sequence turn-off age ( approximately 8 Gyr) and the age derived from the termination of the white dwarf cooling sequence ( approximately 6 Gyr) are very different. One possible explanation is that as white dwarfs cool, one of the ashes of helium burning, (22)Ne, sinks in the deep interior of these stars. At lower temperatures, white dwarfs are expected to crystallize and phase separation of the main constituents of the core of a typical white dwarf ((12)C and (16)O) is expected to occur. This sequence of events is expected to introduce long delays in the cooling times, but has not hitherto been proven. Here we report that, as theoretically anticipated, physical separation processes occur in the cores of white dwarfs, resolving the age discrepancy for NGC 6791.

  12. Variable stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 6939

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, G.; Georgiev, Ts.; Niedzielski, A.

    2008-05-01

    The results of CCD photometric survey performed with the 90/180 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain Telescope of the Nicolaus Copernicus University Astronomical Observatory in Piwnice (Poland) and the 70/172 cm Schmidt Telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory (NAO) at Rozhen (Bulgaria) of the field of the 1 Gyr old open cluster NGC 6939 are presented. Twenty two variable stars were detected, four of them previously known. Four eclipsing systems (3 detached and 1 contact binary) were found to be members of the cluster. Analysis of the brightness of the contact binary V20 strongly supports the distance to the cluster of 1.74 ± 0.20 kpc. The small population of contact binaries in NGC 6939 confirms also the relatively young age of the cluster.

  13. The flux-dependent X-ray time lags in NGC 4051

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alston, W.N.; Vaughan, S.; Uttley, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray time lags for the highly variable Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051, based on a series of XMM-Newton observations taken in 2009. We investigate the Fourier frequency dependent time lags in the light curves between the 0.3-1.0 keV and 2.0-5.0 keV energy bands as a function

  14. THE CHANDRA LOCAL VOLUME SURVEY: THE X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATION OF NGC 404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, B.; Williams, B. F.; Weisz, D. R. [University of Washington, Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Eracleous, M. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Center for Gravitational Wave Physics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gaetz, T. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kong, A. K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Skillman, E. D. [University of Minnesota, Astronomy Department, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present a comprehensive X-ray point-source catalog of NGC 404 obtained as part of the Chandra Local Volume Survey. A new 97 ks Chandra ACIS-S observation of NGC 404 was combined with archival observations for a total exposure of {approx}123 ks. Our survey yields 74 highly significant X-ray point sources and is sensitive to a limiting unabsorbed luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.35-8 keV band. To constrain the nature of each X-ray source, cross-correlations with multi-wavelength data were generated. We searched overlapping Hubble Space Telescope observations for optical counterparts to our X-ray detections, but find only two X-ray sources with candidate optical counterparts. We find 21 likely low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), although this number is a lower limit due to the difficulties in separating LMXBs from background active galactic nuclei. The X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) in both the soft and hard energy bands are presented. The XLFs in the soft band (0.5-2 keV) and the hard band (2-8 keV) have a limiting luminosity at the 90% completeness limit of 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1} and 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}, respectively, significantly lower than previous X-ray studies of NGC 404. We find the XLFs to be consistent with those of other X-ray populations dominated by LMXBs. However, the number of luminous (>10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}) X-ray sources per unit stellar mass in NGC 404 is lower than is observed for other galaxies. The relative lack of luminous XRBs may be due to a population of LMXBs with main-sequence companions formed during an epoch of elevated star formation {approx}0.5 Gyr ago.

  15. MUSE stares into the shadows: the high-resolution dust attenuation curve of NGC 5626

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, S.; Sarzi, M.; Baes, M.; Fritz, J.; Puerari, I.

    2017-12-01

    The newest generation of integral field unit spectrographs brings three-dimensional mapping of nearby galaxies one step closer. While the focus up to this point was mostly on stars and ionized gas, it is also possible to look at dust in a new, more complete way. Using MUSE science verification observations of NGC 5626, we map the interstellar matter in this dusty lenticular. We use the resolving power of MUSE to measure the optical attenuation with a spectral resolution of 6.25 Å, at physical scales of 0.1-1 kpc. The integrated attenuation curve of NGC 5626 shows a smooth, slightly steeper than Milky Way and SMC attenuation curves. Several sharp features are superimposed: we measure lower attenuation at spectral emission lines and higher attenuation for the sodium line doublet. No correlation was observed between sodium line strength and reddening by dust on spatially resolved scales. Additionally, the continuum attenuation was found to be independent from the Balmer decrement (tracing ionized gas attenuation). We model and interpret the variations in the attenuation curves of each spatial resolution element of NGC 5626. We find that the amount and distribution of dust along the line of sight is highly degenerate with any variation in the intrinsic extinction law. Our analysis shows that the interstellar matter in NGC 5626 resides in a regular and well-settled disc. Our results preach caution in the application of simple recipes to de-redden global galaxy spectra and underlines the need for more realistic dust geometries when constructing such correction formulas.

  16. A new measurement of the baryonic fraction using the sparse NGC 3258 group of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristian; Yoshii, Y.; Sommer-Larsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    )(-1) kpc is found to be 0.065(-0.020)(+0.051) for h(50) = 1, where h(50) = H-0/50 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), in good agreement with the universal value of 0.05 +/- 0.01 predicted by standard big bang nucleosynthesis for a universe with Omega(0) = 1 and h(50) = 1. Since the deep potential of the NGC 3258 group...

  17. WISDOM Project - II. Molecular gas measurement of the supermassive black hole mass in NGC 4697

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Bureau, Martin; Onishi, Kyoko; Cappellari, Michele; Iguchi, Satoru; Sarzi, Marc

    2017-07-01

    As part of the mm-Wave Interferometric Survey of Dark Object Masses (WISDOM) project, we present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby fast-rotating early-type galaxy NGC 4697. This estimate is based on Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-3 observations of the 12CO(2-1) emission line with a linear resolution of 29 pc (0.53 arcsec). We find that NGC 4697 hosts a small relaxed central molecular gas disc with a mass of 1.6 × 107 M⊙, co-spatial with the obscuring dust disc visible in optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We also resolve thermal 1 mm continuum emission from the dust in this disc. NGC 4697 is found to have a very low molecular gas velocity dispersion, σgas = 1.65^{+0.68}_{-0.65} km s-1. This seems to be partially because the giant molecular cloud mass function is not fully sampled, but other mechanisms such as chemical differentiation in a hard radiation field or morphological quenching also seem to be required. We detect a Keplerian increase of the rotation of the molecular gas in the very centre of NGC 4697, and use forward modelling of the ALMA data cube in a Bayesian framework with the KINematic Molecular Simulation (kinms) code to estimate an SMBH mass of (1.3_{-0.17}^{+0.18}) × 108 M⊙ and an I-band mass-to-light ratio of 2.14_{-0.05}^{+0.04} M⊙/L⊙ (at the 99 per cent confidence level). Our estimate of the SMBH mass is entirely consistent with previous measurements from stellar kinematics. This increases confidence in the growing number of SMBH mass estimates being obtained in the ALMA era.

  18. EVIDENCE FOR CO SHOCK EXCITATION IN NGC 6240 FROM HERSCHEL SPIRE SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, P.O. Box 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Kristensen, L. E.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Loenen, A. F.; Israel, F. P. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Weiss, A.; Papadopoulos, P. P.; Guesten, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 16, Bonn, D-53121 (Germany); Walter, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Isaak, K. [ESA Astrophysics Missions Division, ESTEC, P.O. Box 299, NL-2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Aalto, S. [Department of Radio and Space Science, Onsala Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Armus, L.; Diaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [University of Crete, Department of Physics, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Dasyra, K. M. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA (CNRS:UMR8112), 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014, Paris (France); Evans, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Gonzalez-Alfonso, E. [Universidad de Alcala Henares, Departamente de Fisica, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2013-01-10

    We present Herschel SPIRE FTS spectroscopy of the nearby luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240. In total 20 lines are detected, including CO J = 4 - 3 through J = 13 - 12, 6 H{sub 2}O rotational lines, and [C I] and [N II] fine-structure lines. The CO to continuum luminosity ratio is 10 times higher in NGC 6240 than Mrk 231. Although the CO ladders of NGC 6240 and Mrk 231 are very similar, UV and/or X-ray irradiation are unlikely to be responsible for the excitation of the gas in NGC 6240. We applied both C and J shock models to the H{sub 2} v = 1-0 S(1) and v = 2-1 S(1) lines and the CO rotational ladder. The CO ladder is best reproduced by a model with shock velocity v{sub s} = 10 km s{sup -1} and a pre-shock density n{sub H} = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. We find that the solution best fitting the H{sub 2} lines is degenerate. The shock velocities and number densities range between v{sub s} = 17-47 km s{sup -1} and n{sub H} = 10{sup 7}-5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, respectively. The H{sub 2} lines thus need a much more powerful shock than the CO lines. We deduce that most of the gas is currently moderately stirred up by slow (10 km s{sup -1}) shocks while only a small fraction ({approx}< 1%) of the interstellar medium is exposed to the high-velocity shocks. This implies that the gas is rapidly losing its highly turbulent motions. We argue that a high CO line-to-continuum ratio is a key diagnostic for the presence of shocks.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kinematics of NGC 2768 from planetary nebulae (Forbes+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, D. A.; Cortesi, A.; Pota, V.; Foster, C.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Merrifield, M. R.; Brodie, J. P.; Strader, J.; Coccato, L.; Napolitano, N.

    2013-04-01

    Velocity data for 315 PNe in NGC 2768 were acquired using the PN.S spectrograph (Douglas et al., 2002PASP..114.1234D) in 2007 and are available at www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/pns/ and in Cortesi et al., Cat. J/A+A/549/A115. The radial surface density distribution and velocity data for GCs come from the imaging and spectroscopy of Pota et al. (2013MNRAS.428..389P). (1 data file).

  20. A Spectroscopic Analysis of the Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 6273 (M19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Crane, Jeffrey D.

    2015-08-01

    A combined effort utilizing spectroscopy and photometry has revealed the existence of a new globular cluster class. These “anomalous” clusters, which we refer to as “iron-complex” clusters, are differentiated from normal clusters by exhibiting large (≳0.10 dex) intrinsic metallicity dispersions, complex sub-giant branches, and correlated [Fe/H] and s-process enhancements. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, we have measured radial velocities and chemical abundances for red giant branch stars in the massive, but scarcely studied, globular cluster NGC 6273. The velocities and abundances were determined using high resolution (R ˜ 27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay 6.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that NGC 6273 has an average heliocentric radial velocity of +144.49 km s-1 (σ = 9.64 km s-1) and an extended metallicity distribution ([Fe/H] = -1.80 to -1.30) composed of at least two distinct stellar populations. Although the two dominant populations have similar [Na/Fe], [Al/Fe], and [α/Fe] abundance patterns, the more metal-rich stars exhibit significant [La/Fe] enhancements. The [La/Eu] data indicate that the increase in [La/Fe] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. A third more metal-rich population with low [X/Fe] ratios may also be present. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins clusters such as ω Centauri, M2, M22, and NGC 5286 as a new class of iron-complex clusters exhibiting complicated star formation histories. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  1. Exploring the Chemical Composition and Double Horizontal Branch of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Olszewski, Edward W.; Walker, Matthew G.

    2018-02-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic analyses have shown that the Galactic bulge cluster Terzan 5 hosts several populations with different metallicities and ages that manifest as a double red horizontal branch (HB). A recent investigation of the massive bulge cluster NGC 6569 revealed a similar, though less extended, HB luminosity split, but little is known about the cluster’s detailed chemical composition. Therefore, we have used high-resolution spectra from the Magellan–M2FS and VLT–FLAMES spectrographs to investigate the chemical compositions and radial velocity distributions of red giant branch and HB stars in NGC 6569. We found the cluster to have a mean heliocentric radial velocity of ‑48.8 km s‑1 (σ = 5.3 km s‑1 148 stars) and =-0.87 dex (19 stars), but the cluster’s 0.05 dex [Fe/H] dispersion precludes a significant metallicity spread. NGC 6569 exhibits light- and heavy-element distributions that are common among old bulge/inner Galaxy globular clusters, including clear (anti)correlations between [O/Fe], [Na/Fe], and [Al/Fe]. The light-element data suggest that NGC 6569 may be composed of at least two distinct populations, and the cluster’s low =-0.11 dex indicates significant pollution with r-process material. We confirm that both HBs contain cluster members, but metallicity and light-element variations are largely ruled out as sources for the luminosity difference. However, He mass fraction differences as small as ΔY ∼ 0.02 cannot be ruled out and may be sufficient to reproduce the double HB.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 188 V12 VI light curves (Meibom+, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibom, S.; Grundahl, F.; Clausen, J. V.; Mathieu, R. D.; Frandsen, S.; Pigulski, A.; Narwid, A.; Steslicki, M.; Lefever, K.

    2011-11-01

    A detailed description of the spectroscopic observations and radial velocity measurements of stars in NGC 188 can be found in Geller et al. (2008, Cat. J/AJ/135/2264). The spectroscopic observations of V12 were acquired from 1996 September to 2001 July with the WIYN telescope and the Hydra multiobject spectrograph in a single 250Å wide echelle order centered on 5130Å and with a resolution of ~20000. (2 data files).

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Stellar radial velocities in NGC 188 (Geller+, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, A. M.; Mathieu, R. D.; Harris, H. C.; McClure, R. D.

    2011-01-01

    The Domain Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) data set contains multiple RV measurements of 77 stars within the magnitudes of 10.8<=V<=16 covering dates from 1973 December through 1966 November. We have used the Hydra Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) on the WIYN 3.5m telescope to conduct our ongoing WOCS RV survey of NGC 188 from 1996 to the present. (1 data file).

  4. e-MERLIN detection of SN2017eaw in NGC6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argo, Megan; Torres, Miguel Perez; Beswick, Rob; Wrigley, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Since our previously-reported non-detection (ATel #10421), we have continued to observe SN2017eaw in NGC6946 with e-MERLIN at 5.1 GHz. In each observation, the target was observed in phase-referencing mode with 2022+6136 as the phase calibrator, 1331+305 as the flux calibrator, and 1407+284 as the bandpass calibrator.

  5. NUCLEAR RADIO JET FROM A LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IN NGC 4258

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Akihiro [The Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Kohno, Kotaro [Institute of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Nakanishi, Kouichiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kameno, Seiji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University, 1-21-35 Korimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Inoue, Makoto [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hada, Kazuhiro [INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, Bologna I-40129 (Italy); Sorai, Kazuo [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita 10 Nishi 8, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    The nearby low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN) NGC 4258 has a weak radio continuum component at the galactic center. We investigate its radio spectral properties on the basis of our new observations using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array at 100 GHz and archival data from the Very Large Array at 1.7-43 GHz and the James Clerk Maxwell telescope at 347 GHz. The NGC 4258 nuclear component exhibits (1) an intra-month variable and complicated spectral feature at 5-22 GHz and (2) a slightly inverted spectrum at 5-100 GHz ({alpha} {approx} 0.3; F {sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup {alpha}}) in time-averaged flux densities, which are also apparent in the closest LLAGN M81. These similarities between NGC 4258 and M81 in radio spectral natures in addition to previously known core shift in their AU-scale jet structures produce evidence that the same mechanism drives their nuclei. We interpret the observed spectral property as the superposition of emission spectra originating at different locations with frequency-dependent opacity along the nuclear jet. Quantitative differences between NGC 4258 and M81 in terms of jet/counter jet ratio, radio loudness, and degree of core shift can be consistently understood by fairly relativistic speeds ({Gamma} {approx}> 3) of jets and their quite different inclinations. The picture established from the two closest LLAGNs is useful for understanding the physical origin of unresolved and flat/inverted spectrum radio cores that are prevalently found in LLAGNs, including Sgr A*, with starved supermassive black holes in the present-day universe.

  6. Two regimes of galaxy dynamics: mass models of NGC 5055 and DDO 154

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Milena

    2017-08-01

    We derive detailed dynamical models for two galaxies, the massive spiral galaxy NGC 5055 and the dwarf irregular DDO 154. We used Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) and isothermal halo models for the dark matter (DM) distribution, along with the most recent and reliable radio observations of H i to determine the rotation curves of these galaxies. Contributions from the neutral gas and the luminous matter were accounted for. For NGC 5055, the latest stellar population synthesis (SPS) models, combining metallicity and age as indicators of the stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) were used to better constrain both the DM model and the contribution to the total mass from all components. The isothermal dark halo model successfully fitted both observed rotation curves with realistic values for stellar M/L, while the NFW model needed further constraints for M/L to fit the rotation curve of DDO 154. In the case of NGC 5055, we found the best-fitting M/L in the 3.6 μm band (M/L3.6) for stellar disc to be 0.57 ± 0.04 for isothermal, and 0.50 ± 0.05 for NFW DM model. The most probable value for M/L3.6 from SPS models is 0.46, which is in agreement within uncertainties with our best-fitting NFW model. In the case of DDO 154, we obtained the stellar disc M/L3.6 of 0.25 ± 0.20 for the isothermal DM model. The stellar disc M/L3.6 for the NFW model was fixed to 0.26, as best reasonable value. For NGC 5055, we derived radial profiles of stellar M/L for our best estimate for a particular DM model.

  7. First confirmed ultra-compact dwarf galaxy in the NGC 5044 group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faifer, Favio R.; Escudero, Carlos G.; Scalia, María C.; Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Norris, Mark; De Rossi, María E.; Forte, Juan C.; Cellone, Sergio A.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) are stellar systems displaying colours and metallicities between those of globular clusters (GCs) and early-type dwarf galaxies, as well as sizes of Reff ≲ 100 pc and luminosities in the range -13.5 GMOS deep images of several fields around NGC 5044 and in spectroscopic multi-object data of one of these fields, we detected an unresolved source with g' 20.6 mag, compatible with being an UCD. Its radial velocity was obtained with FXCOR and the penalized pixel-fitting (pPXF) code. To study its stellar population content, we measured the Lick/IDS indices and compared them with predictions of single stellar population models, and we used the full spectral fitting technique. Results: The spectroscopic analysis of the UCD revealed a radial velocity that agrees with the velocity of the elliptical galaxy NGC 5044. From the Lick/IDS indices, we have obtained a luminosity-weighted age and metallicity of 11.7+ 1.4-1.2 Gyr and [Z/H] = -0.79 ± 0.04 dex, respectively, as well as [α/ Fe] = 0.30 ± 0.06. From the full spectral fitting technique, we measured a lower age (8.52 Gyr) and a similar total metallicity ([Z/H] = -0.86 dex). Conclusions: Our results indicate that NGC 5044-UCD1 is most likely an extreme GC (MV -12.5 mag) belonging to the GC system of the elliptical galaxy NGC 5044.

  8. Variability of accretion flow in the core of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madejski, Grzegorz

    2003-07-23

    This paper reports the analysis of variability data for the Seyfert 1 type active galaxy NGC 4151. It covers the optical flux history for the last 90 years and X-ray flux for last 27 years. It presents the power spectrum density and structure function, and, based on the features in these functions, discusses the properties of the accretion flow onto a supermassive black hole, presumably powering the active nucleus of the galaxy.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SABOCA NGC 3603 IRS 9A images (Hummel+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, C. A.; Stanke, T.; Galvan-Madrid, R.; Koribalski, B. S.

    2015-10-01

    Observations of NGC 3603 MM2 at 350um with the SABOCA bolometer array attached to the APEX telescope on the Chajnantor plateau in Chile were carried out on September 15, 2011, providing a beam FWHM of 7.8". The precipitable water vapor column was about 0.2mm during the observations, which lasted about 15 minutes for a spiral raster map of about 1.5 arcminutes in radius centered on IRS 9A. (2 data files).

  10. GeMS MCAO observations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 28