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Sample records for scorpion mesobuthus tamulus

  1. Consequences of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus (Pocock, 1900 envenomation in albino mice

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    MK Chaubey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus Pocock (Buthidae venom on albino mice (NIH strain. Whole venom was obtained by electrical stimulation and its toxicity was determined in albino mice by subcutaneous envenomation. The venom LD50 was 2.5 mg kg-1 of mouse body weight. Toxic effects on different biochemical and enzymatic parameters in blood serum and other tissues of albino mice were determined after experimental envenomation with sublethal doses of M. tamulus gangeticus venom. Increased levels of glucose, uric acid and cholesterol, as well as decreased serum total proteins, were observed at 2 and 4 hours after the envenomation. In the liver and muscles, glycogen content dropped after venom injection. Moreover, M. tamulus gangeticus venom elevated the enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase (ACP, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in the serum of albino mice. In conclusion, M. tamulus gangeticus can be considered a lethal scorpion species.

  2. A fusion protein containing a lepidopteran-specific toxin from the South Indian red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus and snowdrop lectin shows oral toxicity to target insects

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    Fitches Elaine

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence suggesting a role in plant defence, the use of plant lectins in crop protection has been hindered by their low and species-specific insecticidal activity. Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA is transported to the haemolymph of insects after oral ingestion, and can be used as a basis for novel insecticides. Recombinant proteins containing GNA expressed as a fusion with a peptide or protein, normally only toxic when injected into the insect haemolymph, have the potential to show oral toxicity as a result of GNA-mediated uptake. Results A gene encoding a toxin, ButaIT, from the red scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus was synthesised and assembled into expression constructs. One construct contained ButaIT alone, whereas the other contained ButaIT fused N-terminally to a GNA polypeptide (ButaIT/GNA. Both recombinant proteins were produced using the yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression host, and purified. Recombinant ButaIT and ButaIT/GNA were acutely toxic when injected into larvae of tomato moth (Lacanobia oleracea, causing slow paralysis, leading to mortality or decreased growth. ButaIT/GNA was chronically toxic when fed to L. oleracea larvae, causing decreased survival and weight gain under conditions where GNA alone was effectively non-toxic. Intact ButaIT/GNA was detected in larval haemolymph from insects fed the fusion protein orally, demonstrating transport of the linked polypeptide across the gut. Proteolysis of the fusion protein was also observed. ButaIT/GNA was significantly more toxic that GNA alone when fed to the homopteran Nilaparvata lugens (rice brown planthopper in liquid artificial diet. Conclusion The ButaIT/GNA recombinant fusion protein is toxic to lepidopteran larvae both when injected and when fed orally, showing the utility of GNA as a carrier to transport potentially toxic peptides and proteins across the insect gut. Although ButaIT has been claimed to be lepidopteran

  3. In vitro neutralization of the scorpion, Buthus tamulus venom toxicity.

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    Venkateswarlu, Y; Janakiram, B; Reddy, G R

    1988-01-01

    Scorpion (Buthus tamulus) venom was subjected to neutralization by treating the venom with various chemicals such as hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, thiourea, formaldehyde, zinc sulphate, acetic acid and trichloroacetic acid. The venom was also subjected to heat treatment. The levels of total protein, free amino acids and protease activity in neutralized venom decreased significantly. The decrease in venom protein and free amino acids was in proportion to the duration of the heat treatment and the concentration of chemicals used except zinc sulphate, sodium hydroxide and thiourea. Protease activity of neutralized venom samples also showed a decrease except with zinc sulphate which enhanced the enzyme activity. Intramuscular injection of formaldehyde, trichlcroacetic acid and heat treated venoms into albino rats produced low mortality while thiourea and zinc sulphate were not effective in reducing the mortality. Hydrochloric acid and acetic acid treated venoms reduced the mortality by 50% with a decrease in the symptoms of envenomation. The changes were attributed to the denaturing of venom protein by chemical and heat treatments.

  4. Mesobuthus eupeus scorpionism in Sanliurfa region of Turkey

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    O. Ozkan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology and clinical findings of scorpion stings in Sanliurfa region of Turkey, from May to September 2003, were evaluated in this study. Mesobuthus eupeus (M. eupeus plays a role on 25.8% of the scorpionism cases. This study also showed that intoxications caused by M. eupeus in the southeast of Anatolia region were seen in hot months of the summer, especially on July. Females and people above 15 years old were mostly affected and stung on extremities. Intense pain in the affected area was observed in 98.7% cases, hyperemia in 88.8%, swelling in 54.6%, burning in 19.7%, while numbness and itching were seen less frequently. In our study, the six most frequently observed symptoms were local pain, hyperemia, swelling, burning, dry mouth, thirst, sweating, and hypotension. In this study involving 152 M. eupeus toxicity cases, patients showed local and systemic clinical effects but no death was seen. Autonomic system and local effects characterized by severe pain, hyperemia and edema were dominantly seen in toxicity cases.

  5. Lateral medullary syndrome after a scorpion sting

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    Vineeth Varghese Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion bites are a common problem in Southern parts of India. The sting of Mesobuthus tamulus belonging to the Buthidae family is known for being fatal. The toxidrome of scorpion sting is known for its effect on the cardiovascular system, and there have been rare reports of cerebrovascular accidents as well. We describe a case of lateral medullary syndrome secondary to scorpion sting. As per the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case report of the same.

  6. Biochemical and Histopathological study of Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom in the experimental rabbits

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    Koohi, M.K.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical and subtropical countries, envenomation by scorpions (so-called scorpionism represents a serious public health problem. In the present study, the toxic effects of mice LD50 injections of Mesobuthus eupeus (Me venom on the kidney and liver of anesthetized rabbits were investigated. Six rabbits were selected and ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine were measured at 0, 1 and 3 hours after envenomation and histopathological studies were carried out postmortem. All the animals showed signs and symptoms ofenvenomation within 30-40 minutes and died 3 to 3.5 hours after venom injection. Histopathological examinations revealed glumerolar congestion, dilated vessels of interstitium and focal interstitial congestion in the kidney and focal hemorrhage, central vein congestion, congested vessels in portal areas and dilatedsinusoids in the liver at 3 to 3.5 hrs following venom injection. In addition, biochemical analyses indicated significant rise in the levels of ALT and creatinine following Mesobuthus eupeus envenomation in animals at 3 hrs. However no significant changes were observed at 1 hr. In conclusion, scorpion (Mesobuthuseupeus venom leads to damage in vital organs such as liver and kidney.

  7. Clinico-epidemiology of stings and envenoming of Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae), the Indian red scorpion from Jaffna Peninsula in northern Sri Lanka.

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    Kularatne, Senanayake A M; Dinamithra, Nandana P; Sivansuthan, Sivapalan; Weerakoon, Kosala G A D; Thillaimpalam, Bhanu; Kalyanasundram, Vithiya; Ranawana, Kithsiri B

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, stings of a lethal scorpion species were recorded from Jaffna Peninsula in the northern dry zone of Sri Lanka. This species was identified as Hottentotta tamulus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) which is the Indian red scorpion commonly found in Maharashtra, India. The Teaching Hospital, Jaffna recorded 84 H. tamulus stings over a year in 2012 and of them, 23 cases provided offending scorpions (proven cases). Three localities in Jaffna were recorded as hotspots of scorpion stings namely Palali, Achchuvali and Karainagar. Of the proven cases, 13 (57%) and 10 (43%) were males and females respectively and had a mean age of 30 years (SD ± 20 years). Among them, 5 (22%) were children below 12 years. In 13 (57%) patients stings occurred inside their houses including two children (40%). Six (26%) stings occurred at night when the victims were in sleep. Median time taken to arrive at the hospital from the time of stinging was 58 min (range 8-550 min). Signs of over activation of autonomic nervous system predominated the clinical picture-tachycardia in 14 (61%), high blood pressure in 11 (48%), excessive sweating in 9 (39%), excessive salivation in 5 (22%), hypotension in 4 (17%) and piloerection in 3 (13%). Children showed higher predilection to develop tachycardia - 4 (80%) and excessive salivation - 3 (60%). Priapism was not observed and 17 (74%) patients have developed intense pain at the site of sting. The commonest ECG change was tachycardia (73%) and occasional T wave inversion. Prazosin as a treatment was given to 22 (96%) patients. All patients made recovery and 13 (57%) patients left the hospital within two days. In future, there is a potential risk of spreading this species to elsewhere in the country and may disturb the ecological balance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neutralizing effects of polyvalent antivenom on severe inflammatory response induced by Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom

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    Zayerzadeh1 E.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of Mesobuthus eupeus (Me scorpion venom on inflammatory response following injection. Additionally, the present study examined whether immunotherapy at specific time intervals would be effective on inflammatory response after Me venom inoculation. Animals were divided randomly into four groups: the first group received LD50 of venom and the second and third groups of animals; immunotherapy was performed in different time intervals and fourth group was considered as control group. Me venom inoculation is caused respiratory perturbations such as respiratory distress, respiration with open mouth, crepitation and finally respiratory arrest. Me inoculation is resulted in increased pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1. Venom injection also induced inflammatory response, characterized by significant increase in serum white blood cells and neutrophils at 30, 60 and 180 min following envenomation. Simultaneous administration of antivenom and venom prevented entirely clinical sings, cytokines and hematological changes. Delayed immunotherapy gradually ameliorated clinical features, cytokines changes and hematological abnormalities related to the envenomation. In conclusion, our observations indicate injection of M. eupeus scorpion venom induces severe inflammatory response which can be one of the causes of clinical complications. Additionally, immunotherapy beyond 1 h after envenomation with appropriate dose and route in victims with severe inflammatory response related to the M.eupeus scorpion envenomation is beneficial.

  9. Cardiopulmonary complications induced by Iranian Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom in anesthetized rabbits

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    E Zayerzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is a life-threatening condition, especially in children and elderly individuals affected by respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the toxic effects of median lethal dose (LD50 injections of Mesobuthus eupeus (Me venom on the heart and lungs of anesthetized rabbits were investigated. Six rabbits were selected and alterations in their electrocardiogram, heart rate, respiration and blood pressure before and after venom injection were recorded. Cardiac troponin T (cTnT, creatinine kinase muscle-brain fraction (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured at 0, 1 and 3 hours after envenomation and pathology studies were carried out postmortem. All the animals showed signs and symptoms of envenomation within 40 minutes and died 3 to 3.5 hours after venom injection. Pathology studies revealed alveolar edema in 100% of the rabbits and myocardial infarction in 16%. The main histopathological changes were myocytolysis, coagulation necrosis, focal hemorrhage, thrombus formation both in myocardium and on endocardial surfaces as well as inflammatory infiltrates in the heart and hemorrhage, vascular thrombus and interstitial inflammation in the lungs. ECG monitoring of rabbits showed ST elevation, ST depression and inverted T and Q waves. In addition, although cTnT levels increased in 16% of the animals and serum LDH was also augmented, none of these changes was statistically significant. The enzyme CK-MB also did not show any change after Me venom injection. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that Me venom killed animals in less than 3.5 hours through severe pulmonary damage and it appears that the deaths could not be attributed to cardiovascular lesions. Therefore, Me venom effects on the lungs are so important that they appear to be independent of heart damage.

  10. A Combinational Strategy upon RNA Sequencing and Peptidomics Unravels a Set of Novel Toxin Peptides in Scorpion Mesobuthus martensii

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    Ning Luan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion venom is deemed to contain many toxic peptides as an important source of natural compounds. Out of the two hundred proteins identified in Mesobuthus martensii (M. martensii, only a few peptide toxins have been found so far. Herein, a combinational approach based upon RNA sequencing and Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC MS/MS was employed to explore the venom peptides in M. martensii. A total of 153 proteins were identified from the scorpion venom, 26 previously known and 127 newly identified. Of the novel toxins, 97 proteins exhibited sequence similarities to known toxins, and 30 were never reported. Combining peptidomic and transcriptomic analyses, the peptide sequence of BmKKx1 was reannotated and four disulfide bridges were confirmed within it. In light of the comparison of conservation and variety of toxin amino acid sequences, highly conserved and variable regions were perceived in 24 toxins that were parts of two sodium channel and two potassium channel toxins families. Taking all of this evidences together, the peptidomic analysis on M. martensii indeed identified numerous novel scorpion peptides, expanded our knowledge towards the venom diversity, and afforded a set of pharmaceutical candidates.

  11. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY CLINICAL COURSE AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF SCORPION STING IN PAEDIATRIC AGE GROUP

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    Ramesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION We know that habitat of scorpion is warm, and dry region. They inhibit commonly under logs, debris, paddy husk, sugar cane fields, and Coconut and banana plantations. (1 Konaseema region of Andhra Pradesh is famous for paddy, banana and coconut which are good habitat for scorpion. It is a retrospective study in which all the date of scorpion sting cases admitted in Konaseema institute of medical science and general hospital the only referral hospital in Konaseema region in last 3 years that is from Oct 2012 to Nov 2015 was collected. Mesobuthus tamulus is common in Andhra Pradesh. With the combined use of SAV and prazosin mortality has been reduced. But the awareness about the scorpion to the parent and its habitat will prevent the sting.

  12. Tc 99m - scorpion venom: labelling, biodistribution and scintiimaging

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    Murugesan, S.; Noronha, O.P.D.; Samuel, A.M.; Murthy, K. Radha Krishna

    1999-01-01

    Labelling of scorpion (Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis Pocock) venom was successfully achieved with Tc 99m using direct tin reduction procedure. Biodistribution studies were carried out in Wistar rats at different time intervals after i.v. administration of the labelled venom. Scintiimages were obtained after scorpion envenoming using a large field of view gamma camera to ascertain the pharmacological action of venom in the body. Within 5 min of administration, labelled venom was found in the blood (27.7%), muscle (30.11%), bone (13.3%), kidneys (11.5%), liver (10.4%) and other organs. The level of venom in the kidneys was higher than in the liver. The labelled venom was excreted through renal and hepatobiliary pathways. An immunoreactivity study was carried out in rabbits after i.v. injection of labelled scorpion venom followed by the injection of the species specific antivenom. A threefold increase in uptake by the kidneys ss was observed compared with that seen with scorpion venom alone. the neutralisation of the venom in the kidneys was higher than in the liver. (author)

  13. Scorpions

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    Wagenaar Hummelinck, P.

    1940-01-01

    This survey of the scorpions of the Leeward Group is based on author’s collection and therefore includes some mainlandrecords from northern Venezuela and northeastern Colombia. Material from Curaçao, deposited in the “Zoölogisch Museum, Amsterdam” (A) and the “Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie,

  14. Investigations on the role of insulin and scorpion antivenom in scorpion envenoming syndrome

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    K. Radha Krishna Murthy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute myocardiopathy in alloxan treated experimental dogs and rabbits was induced by subcutaneous (SQ injection of scorpion venom from Mesobuthus tamulus concanesis, Pocock. Envenoming resulted in an initial transient hypertension (180-320 mm Hg. followed by hypotension. Simultaneous administration of venom and species-specific scorpion antivenom (SAV prevented hypertension and hypotension. Hypotension did not occur when SAV was given 60 min after envenoming. Blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, amylase, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, platelet count, red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin (Hb, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG, and glutathione levels were increased 60 and 90 min after envenoming. Total white blood cell (WBC count was reduced 60 min and increased 90 min after envenoming. Simultaneous administration of venom and SAV did not alter Hb, MCHC, and packed cell volume (PCV levels, or ECG, and cardiovascular, biochemical, metabolic, and hormonal changes. Hematological parameters were reversed when SAV was given 30 and 60 min after envenoming. PCV, Hb, and MCHC values returned to normal 120 min after SAV. Alloxan-treated dogs showed increased blood glucose, cholesterol, glucagon, cortisol levels; reduced glycogen content of liver, cardiac and skeletal muscles; and reduced insulin levels and insulin/ glucagon ratio (I/G ratio. Envenoming in the alloxan pre-treated dogs further increased these levels and reduced tissue glycogen content, insulin levels, and I/G ratio. Administration of 4 U of insulin to alloxan pre-treated envenomed rabbits caused a biochemical and clinical improvement and increased glycogen content of all tissues in comparison with the values from those administered with SAV to alloxan pre-treated envenomed animals. SAV administration to envenomed alloxan pre-treated rabbits did not cause clinical or

  15. Epidemiological Survey of Scorpion Sting Cases and Identification of Scorpion Fauna in Hamadan City, Iran (2013

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    M. Nazari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is among the countries with a variety of scorpion species, particu-larly dangerous ones. Death due to scorpion sting occurs in all parts of the country. Mortality from scorpion sting depends on various factors such as scorpion species, age of the stung per-son, stung body site and geographical area. Considering the fact that so far no research on the fauna and epidemiological aspect of scorpion stings has been done in Hamadan city, we con-ducted this research. Materials & Methods: This is a cross sectional- descriptive study. To determine the scorpion fauna of the region using a random cluster sampling in specified locations from May to Sep-tember in 2013 and was attempting we caught scorpions and put them in containers of alcohol (70% and identified them based on Iran scorpions´ key. In order to investigate cases of scor-pion stings, we referred to the health center of Hamadan province and using questionnaires, we collected data related to the patients during 2010-2013. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: A total of 98 collected scorpion species named Mesobuthus eupeus, Androctonus crassicauda, Odontobuthus doriae and Razianus zarudnyi (Family: Buthidae, were identified. Mesobuthus eupeus species with 89.7% of the samples collected had the highest frequency. Totally, 797 cases of scorpion sting were documented in the Health Center of Hamadan Prov-ince, including 498 (62.5% male and 299 (37.5% females. The results of this study showed that most cases of scorpion stings in the age group of 25 to 34 years, in 2011 in July and in the rural areas were 29.6%, 33.1%, 28.9%, 64.4%, respectively. The most stung organs were hands, with 48.2%. All patients (100% during the study were treated. Conclusion: Due to the low-risk species of scorpions in the region and lack of mortality reports in the past few years, it is recommended to revise administering anti-scorpion serum in the health centers. Adequate

  16. Mesobuthus Venom-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides Possess Intrinsic Multifunctionality and Differential Potential as Drugs

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    Bin Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal venoms are a mixture of peptides and proteins that serve two basic biological functions: predation and defense against both predators and microbes. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are a common component extensively present in various scorpion venoms (herein abbreviated as svAMPs. However, their roles in predation and defense against predators and potential as drugs are poorly understood. Here, we report five new venom peptides with antimicrobial activity from two Mesobuthus scorpion species. These α-helical linear peptides displayed highly bactericidal activity toward all the Gram-positive bacteria used here but differential activity against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. In addition to the antibiotic activity, these AMPs displayed lethality to houseflies and hemotoxin-like toxicity on mice by causing hemolysis, tissue damage and inducing inflammatory pain. Unlike AMPs from other origins, these venom-derived AMPs seem to be unsuitable as anti-infective drugs due to their high hemolysis and low serum stability. However, MeuTXKβ1, a known two-domain Mesobuthus AMP, is an exception since it exhibits high activity toward antibiotic resistant Staphylococci clinical isolates with low hemolysis and high serum stability. The findings that the classical AMPs play predatory and defensive roles indicate that the multifunctionality of scorpion venom components is an intrinsic feature likely evolved by natural selection from microbes, prey and predators of scorpions. This definitely provides an excellent system in which one can study how a protein adaptively evolves novel functions in a new environment. Meantimes, new strategies are needed to remove the toxicity of svAMPs on eukaryotic cells when they are used as leads for anti-infective drugs.

  17. Fauna and Geographical Distribution of Scorpions in Ilam Province, South Western Iran.

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    Sharifinia, Narges; Gowhari, Iman; Hoseiny-Rad, Manijeh; Aivazi, Ali Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    Scorpions' stings and their own mortalities place them among the most important health and medical problems. The dreadful features and especially their poisonous stings are considered a major cause of human stress and abhorrence/phobia. The current study aimed to study the scorpion fauna of Ilam Province, south western Iran in order to manage scorpionism related problems. In this field-laboratory investigation during March 2014 to February 2015, different parts of Ilam Province were surveyed. Nine sampling parts were selected based on geographical situation, scorpionism reports, weather, flora, and local data. Capturing scorpion was done employing a black light, and a long forceps from dusk to midnight. The collected scorpions were placed to 70% ethyl alcohol. All specimens were determined based on the valid taxonomic keys, furthermore their sexes were studied. Out of the 391 collected scorpions, 11 species were identified as follows: Hottentotta saulcyi , Mesobuthus eupeus , Compsobuthus matthiesseni , Razianus zarudnyi , Hemiscorpius lepturus , Androctonus crassicauda , Orthochirus iranus , Odontobuthus bidentatus , Buthacus macrocentrus , Scorpio maurus , and Polisius persicus . Eleven species of Buthidae, Scorpionidae and Hemiscorpiidae families from high risk areas were identified. Despite the low surface of the province, such different species reveals a diverse scorpion fauna that, in turn, shows good and suitable habits of scorpions, as considered by health staff.

  18. Purification of the Immunogenic Fractions and Determination of Toxicity in Mesobuthus eupeus (Scorpionida: Buthidae Venom.

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    Mehdi Khoobdel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Scorpions stings are a health problem in many parts of the world. Mesobuthus eupeus (Buthidae is the most prevalent species in the Middle East and Central Asia. Definition of toxicogenic and immunogenic characteristics of the venom is necessary to produce antidote. In this study, the noted properties of M. eupeus venom were evaluated.Venom was obtained by milking M. eupeus scorpions for lyophilization. Toxicity was determined after injecting the venom to albino mice and calculating LD50. Polyclonal antibodies against M. eupeus venom were obtained from immunized rabbits. The CH-Sepharose 4B column was used for isolating the specific antibodies. 10 mg of the affinity-purified antibodies were conjugated with a CH-Sepharose 4B column and M. eupeus venom was applied to the column. The bound fragments were eluted using hydrogen chloride (pH: 2.5. Crude venom and affinity-purified fractions of the venom were analyzed by SDS-PAGE technique.Lethal dose (LD was 8.75, 11.5 and 4.5 mg/kg for IP, SC and IV respectively. The LD50 of M. eupeus venom was 6.95 mg/kg. The crude venom had 12 detectable bands with molecular weights of 140, 70, 50, 33, 30, 27, 22, 18, 14, 10 kDa and two bands less than 5 kDa. The affinity-purified venom presented eight bands. The 27 kDa band was clearly sharper than other bands but 70, 18, 10 and one of the less than 5 kDa bands were not observed.Contrary to popular belief, which know scorpion venom as non-immunogenic composition, the current study was shown that the most fractions of the M. eupeus are immunogenic.

  19. Study of the Influence of Gamma Radiation on Certain Pharmacological and Biochemical Action s of Leiurus Quinquestriatus Scorpion Venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Rabo, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike the amphibians, birds, mammals and reptiles, scorpions have no back bone, as they are invertebrates. Scorpions belong to the phylum arthropoda, their bodies are segmented and their legs are jointed. They belong to the class arachnida, because they have eight legs, two pedipalps, two chelicerae and a body composed of eighteen segments. The most important species of Buthidae family are Buthotus tamulus, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Androctonus crassicauda, Androctonus australis, Tityus serrulatus, and Centruroides suffusus (Minton, 2010). Scorpions are found in East Africa, Middle East, India, as well as Central and South America. Classification of scorpions from Africa and Middle East, has been summarized by Vachon, (1966). Unlike snakes, all scorpions are venomous. The venom is injected by means of a stinger found at the tip of the telson, the terminal structure of the tail. The smallest adults may range from approximately 2 to 3 cm and the largest between 15 to 25 cm (Bucherl, 1971). Scorpions have quite variable life spans. The age range appears to be approximately 4–25 years. Scorpions prefer to live in areas where the temperatures range from 20 °C to 37 °C, but may survive from freezing temperatures to the desert heat (Hadley, 1970; Hannah's et al., 2006). The death stalker (Leiurus quinquestriatus), is a member of the Buthidae family. It is also known as Palestine yellow scorpion, Omdurman scorpion, Israeli desert scorpion and numerous other colloquial names. To eliminate confusion, especially with potentially dangerous species, the scientific name is normally used to refer to them. The name Leiurus quinquestriatus roughly translates into English as f ive-striped smooth-tail . Other species of the genus Leiurus are often referred to as d eathstalkers a s well (Werness, 2004; Minton, 2010).

  20. Scorpion fish sting

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which includes ...

  1. Insects and Scorpions

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    ... insects or scorpions can be hazardous to outdoor workers. Stinging or biting insects include bees, wasps, hornets, and fire ants. The health effects of stinging or biting insects or scorpions range ...

  2. Assessment of immunogenic characteristics of Hemiscorpius lepturus venom and its cross-reactivity with venoms from Androctonus crassicauda and Mesobuthus eupeus.

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    Khanbashi, Shahin; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Hassan; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen; Rahmani, Ali Hassan; Asmar, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus), one of the most venomous scorpions in tropical and sub-tropical areas, belongs to the Hemiscorpiidae family. Studies of antibodies in sera against the protein component of the venom from this organism can be of great use for the development of engineered variants of proteins for eventual use in the diagnosis/treatment of, and prevention of reactions to, stings. In the present in vitro study, the proteins of H. lepturus venom, which could specifically activate the production of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in victims accidently exposed to the venom from this scorpion, were evaluated and their cross-reactivity with venoms from two other important scorpion species including Androctonus crassicauda and Mesobuthus eupeus assessed. H. lepturus venom was analyzed with respect to its protein composition and its antigenic properties against antibodies found in sera collected from victims exposed to the venom of this scorpion within a previous 2-month period. The cross-reactivity of the H. lepturus venom with those from A. crassicauda and M. eupeus was assessed using ELISA and immunoblotting. Electrophoretic analysis of the venom of H. lepturus revealed several protein bands with weights of 8-116 KDa. The most frequent IgG-reactive bands in the test sera had weights of 34, 50, and 116 kDa. A weak cross-reactivity H. lepturus of venom with venoms from A. crassicauda and M. eupeus was detected. The results of immunoblotting and ELISA experiments revealed that H. lepturus venom activated the host immune response, leading to the production of a high titer of antibodies. Clearly, a determination of the major immunogenic components of H. lepturus venom could be valuable for future studies and ultimately of great importance for the potential production of recombinant or hypo-venom variants of these proteins.

  3. Scorpion image segmentation system

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    Joseph, E.; Aibinu, A. M.; Sadiq, B. A.; Bello Salau, H.; Salami, M. J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Death as a result of scorpion sting has been a major public health problem in developing countries. Despite the high rate of death as a result of scorpion sting, little report exists in literature of intelligent device and system for automatic detection of scorpion. This paper proposed a digital image processing approach based on the floresencing characteristics of Scorpion under Ultra-violet (UV) light for automatic detection and identification of scorpion. The acquired UV-based images undergo pre-processing to equalize uneven illumination and colour space channel separation. The extracted channels are then segmented into two non-overlapping classes. It has been observed that simple thresholding of the green channel of the acquired RGB UV-based image is sufficient for segmenting Scorpion from other background components in the acquired image. Two approaches to image segmentation have also been proposed in this work, namely, the simple average segmentation technique and K-means image segmentation. The proposed algorithm has been tested on over 40 UV scorpion images obtained from different part of the world and results obtained show an average accuracy of 97.7% in correctly classifying the pixel into two non-overlapping clusters. The proposed 1system will eliminate the problem associated with some of the existing manual approaches presently in use for scorpion detection.

  4. Indian red scorpion venom-induced augmentation of cardio-respiratory reflexes and pulmonary edema involve the release of histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Abhaya; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2011-02-01

    Pulmonary edema is a consistent feature of Mesobuthus tamulus (MBT) envenomation. Kinins, prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators are implicated in it. Since, histamine also increases capillary permeability, this study was undertaken to evaluate whether MBT venom utilizes histamine to produce pulmonary edema and augmentation of cardio-respiratory reflexes evoked by phenylbiguanide (PBG). Blood pressure, respiratory excursions and ECG were recorded in urethane anaesthetized adult rats. Injection of PBG (10 μg/kg) produced apnoea, hypotension and bradycardia and the responses were augmented after exposure to venom (100 μg/kg). There was increased pulmonary water content in these animals. Pretreatment with pheniramine maleate (H₁ antagonist, 3 mg/kg) blocked both venom-induced augmentation of PBG response and pulmonary edema. In another series, compound 48/80 (mast cell depletor) was treated for 4 days then the PBG responses were elicited as before. At the end of the experiments, mast cells were counted from the peritoneal fluid. The venom-induced pulmonary edema and the augmentation of PBG reflex were not observed in compound 48/80 treated animals. Further, mast cells in the peritoneal fluid were absent in this group as compared to vehicle treated group (29 ± 7.9 cells/mm³). These observations indicate that venom-induced pulmonary edema and augmentation of PBG reflexe are mediated through mast cells by involving H₁ receptors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Scorpion sting in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was cardiac involvement, and ... African scorpionism (defined as systemic symptoms and signs following .... neurotoxins which are 30 - 70 amino acid single-chain peptides ... failure and pulmonary oedema commonly seen.'3. ' " Studies.

  6. Scorpionism in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immediate local burning pain was the most pro- minent symptom. Systemic symptoms and signs developed .... Number of patients. FIG. 2. Prominent symptoms and signs of scorpionism documented in this case series. ... (Plant Protection Research Institute, Pretoria) for refer- ence purposes. The specimen identified as P.

  7. Cloning and characterization of BmK86, a novel K+-channel blocker from scorpion venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Xin; Cao, Zhijian; Yin, Shijin; Ma, Yibao; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin

    2007-01-01

    Scorpion venom represents a tremendous hitherto unexplored resource for understanding ion channels. BmK86 is a novel K + -channel toxin gene isolated from a cDNA library of Mesobuthus martensii Karsch, which encodes a signal peptide of 22 amino acid residues and a mature toxin of 35 residues with three disulfide bridges. The genomic sequence of BmK86 consists of two exons disrupted by an intron of 72 bp. Comparison with the other scorpion toxins BmK86 shows low sequence similarity. The GST-BmK86 fusion protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The fusion protein was cleaved by enterokinase and the recombinant BmK86 was purified by HPLC. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recording, the recombinant BmK86 was found to inhibit the potassium current of mKv1.3 channel expressed in COS7 cells. These results indicated that BmK86 belongs to a representative member of a novel subfamily of α-KTxs. The systematic number assigned to BmK86 is α-KTx26.1

  8. Clinical update on scorpion envenoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Cupo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Scorpion stings are currently the leading cause of venom-related injury to humans in Brazil and are a significant public health problem globally. Only scorpions of the Tityus genus are of medical importance in Brazil, and Tityus serrulatus is responsible for the most serious envenomations and deaths. The toxic effects of scorpion envenomation are due to a massive release of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurotransmitters; the severity is related to cardiac and hemodynamic changes, with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema contributing to the main causes of death. The pathophysiology of cardiac involvement has been discussed for decades and has been attributed to adrenergic discharge and a possible toxic effect of venom on the myocardium, while acute pulmonary edema may have a cardiogenic and/or non-cardiogenic origin. Currently, the clinical data point to catecholamine excess as the cause for reversible scorpion cardiomyopathy . These data include electrocardiographic changes, profiling of cardiac enzymes and troponin I, echocardiographic data with global or regional left ventricle dysfunction, and myocardial perfusion alterations compatible with spasm in the coronary microcirculation. Furthermore, recent data on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings, which are similar to those observed for stress-induced cardiomyopathy, have also been linked to catecholamine excess. The efficiency of antivenom serum treatment is controversial in the literature. Our experience in Brazil is that the management of patients with systemic manifestations of scorpion stings is based on three approaches, all of which are extremely important. These include symptomatic treatment, antivenom serum, and cardiorespiratory support.

  9. Therapeutic Potential of a Scorpion Venom-Derived Antimicrobial Peptide and Its Homologs Against Antibiotic-Resistant Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaomin Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The alarming rise in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria poses a unique challenge for the development of effective therapeutic agents. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have attracted a great deal of attention as a possible solution to the increasing problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Marcin-18 was identified from the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii at both DNA and protein levels. The genomic sequence revealed that the marcin-18 coding gene contains a phase-I intron with a GT-AG splice junction located in the DNA region encoding the N-terminal part of signal peptide. The peptide marcin-18 was also isolated from scorpion venom. A protein sequence homology search revealed that marcin-18 shares extremely high sequence identity to the AMPs meucin-18 and megicin-18. In vitro, chemically synthetic marcin-18 and its homologs (meucin-18 and megicin-18 showed highly potent inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including some clinical antibiotic-resistant strains. Importantly, in a mouse acute peritonitis model, these peptides significantly decreased the bacterial load in ascites and rescued nearly all mice heavily infected with clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from lethal bacteremia. Peptides exerted antimicrobial activity via a bactericidal mechanism and killed bacteria through membrane disruption. Taken together, marcin-18 and its homologs have potential for development as therapeutic agents for treating antibiotic-resistant, Gram-positive bacterial infections.

  10. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. RESULTS: Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species...

  11. Scorpion envenomation in children and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Bharath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was aimed to describe our experience with epidemiological characteristics, management options, and outcome of scorpion envenomation in children. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was conducted at Narayana Medical College and Hospital. The epidemiologic details including geographical locality of the event, age distribution, gender, and sting sites were noted in all hospitalized children with scorpion bite injury. Results: During the study period, a total 52 children were managed for scorpion sting. Mean age was 8.87 years. Male children were commoner victims of scorpion sting. Scorpion sting had bimodal pattern. Prazocin was used in 25 children. There was evidence of pulmonary edema in 23 cases. Seven patients required elective ventilation, and 5 of them could be weaned off within 72 hours. Mean hospital stay was 3.69 days. Two children expired in the present series. Conclusion: In present study, there was bimodal distribution of the scorpion sting cases, male children were more affected, and almost all of them improved with good outcome. We did not use anti-venin in the present study. The data from the study will serve not only to create heightened public awareness about scorpion envenomation but also to develop public awareness strategies and preventive measures.

  12. North American snake and scorpion envenomations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbeck, Jennifer; Gresham, Chip

    2013-06-01

    Envenomations by snakes and scorpions in North America, although uncommon, do occur, and the victims may seek medical treatment. Combined, snake and scorpion encounters result in more than 25,000 calls a year to poison centers. Although some similarities exist with respect to general signs of envenomation and treatment, specific nuances distinguish the medical care to be anticipated and therapies available. Regardless of geographic practice area, exposures will occur that may result in a significant envenomation. This article provides critical care nurses with fundamental knowledge of varied snake and scorpion envenomation presentations and treatments to assist in optimizing patient outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Scorpion envenomation and its management in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriga Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We describe the epidemiology, clinical features, management, and outcome of adult patients of scorpion envenomation. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study involving a total of 40 patients conducted at Narayana Medical College and Hospital. All the patients had complete blood count, blood glucose, urea, creatinine, liver function test, urine examination, electrocardiography, X-ray chest, and two-dimensional echocardiography as and when indicated. Results: During the study period, a total 40 adult patients were managed for scorpion sting. Mean age was 34.93 ± 12.6 years. Farmers 34 (85% cases were more commonly bitten by scorpion. Lower limbs (65% were common site of sting than upper limbs. Stings were more frequent during daytime 27 67.5% vs. 32.5%. Only 12 patients (30% received first aid before coming to our hospital. Many patients 28 (70% reached the hospital within 6 h of scorpion sting. Most of the patients 32 (80% were conscious. There was evidence of pulmonary edema in 15 (37.5% patients. Eight (20% patients required elective ventilation and one of the patients had fatal outcome giving an overall mortality of 2.5%. Mean hospital stay was 3.15 ± 1.67 days. Conclusion: Scorpion stings are more frequent in male farmers with most stings occurring in the lower limbs during the daytime in the study population. Local pain was the most common manifestation. Scorpion stings could nonetheless be associated with severe complications with fatal outcome. We recommend public awareness about preventive measures and early management of scorpion sting as measures of reducing scorpion sting related morbidity and mortality.

  14. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jon

    2010-04-01

    This paper updates the improvements and benefits demonstrated in the next generation Northrop Grumman SCORPION II family of persistent surveillance and target recognition systems produced by the Xetron Campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION II reduces the size, weight, and cost of all SCORPION components in a flexible, field programmable system that is easier to conceal and enables integration of over fifty different Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) and camera types from a variety of manufacturers, with a modular approach to supporting multiple Line of Sight (LOS) and Beyond Line of Sight (BLOS) communications interfaces. Since 1998 Northrop Grumman has been integrating best in class sensors with its proven universal modular Gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration to Common Operational Picture (COP) systems and remote sensor command and control. In addition to feeding COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from up to seven hundred SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays. This GUI enables a large amount of sensor data and imagery to be used for actionable intelligence as well as remote sensor command and control by a minimum number of analysts.

  15. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  16. Determination of the Median Lethal Dose and Electrophoretic Pattern of Hottentotta saulcyi (Scorpiones, Buthidae Scorpion Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ErsenAydın Yağmur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we investigated the lethal potency, electrophoretic protein pattern and in vivo effects of Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom in mice.Methods: Scorpions were collected at night, by using a UV lamp from Mardin Province, Turkey. Venom was obtained from mature H. saulcyi scorpions by electrical stimulation of the telson. The lethality of the venom was determined by i.v. injections using Swiss mice. In vivo effects of the venom were assessed by using the intraperitoneal route (ip injections into mice (20±1g and monitored for 24 h. The protein profiles of the scorpion venom were analyzed by NuPAGE® Novex® 4–12 % gradient Bis-Tris gel followed by Coomassie blue staining.Results: The lethal assay of the venom was 0.73 mg/kg in mice. We determined the electrophoretic protein pattern of this scorpion venom to be 4, 6, 9, 31, 35, 40, 46 and 69 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Analysis of electrophoresis indicated that H. saulcyi scorpion intoxicated mice exhibited autonomic nervous system symptoms (tachypnea, restlessness, hyperexcitability, convulsions, salivation, lacrimation, weakness.Conclusions: Hottentotta saulcyi scorpion venom includes short-chain neurotoxins and long-chain neurotoxins according to the electrophoretic protein patterns. The stings of H. saulcyi scorpion must be considered of risk for humans in the southeastern region, Turkey.

  17. Identification and determination of Lorestan scorpions funa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahmood reza Taherian

    2004-01-01

    Conclusion: Results shows that most of the scorpions belonged to the Buthidae family and Buthuthus Snulcyi kind which have painful stings which affect on nervous system , and are very dangerous and fatal for children and aged people , so it is important to know the treatment methods to fight against their poisons.

  18. Pulmonary Edema and Myocarditis Developing Due to Scorpion Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdegul Karadas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although most of the scorpion stings are harmless, deadly species of scorpions may cause multiorgan failure, neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and pulmonary edema. The cases should be observed in the emergency department against the possibility of development of systemic effects. Fatal complications, in particular such as pulmonary edema, and myocarditis should be considered. In this study, a case of myocarditis and pulmonary edema was detected on the patient who had applied to the emergency department due to a scorpion sting is presented.

  19. Scorpion envenomation study in Behbahan County, Southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kassiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the incidence and epidemiology of scorpion sting cases that were referred to the health services centers of Behbahan County, Khuzistan Province, southwestern Iran, during the two yeare (2007-2008. Methods: In this descriptive retrospective research, the data has come from files of scorpionstung patients referring to the health services centers of Behbahan during study period. A special scorpion sting sheet was prepared and completed for every case of scorpion sting. Analysis of 3441 case sheets received during this period was carried out. The frequencies of medical and entomoepidemiologic parameters were turned to the percentage position. Results: A total of 3 441 cases of scorpion stings were reported during the two-year period from 2007 to 2008. The average incidence of scorpion stings was 8.8‰ in the two years. The frequency of cases was higher during August, September, June and July that 2 056 cases of scorpion stings were reported. Most stings were occurred during summer. Nearly 51.3% of the cases were men. All cases had received antivenin. Majority of scorpion sting cases (56.5% lived in the rural areas. The most common sting site was the hand. About 74.4% have received the antivenin 0-6 h after the sting. The early injection of the antivenin is very important. The most of the cases of scorpion stings (59% were occurred by yellow scorpions. Conclusions: Surveillance for cases of scorpion stings must begin at all regions of Behbahan County. Treatment of cases of scorpion stings is conducted according to a protocol set by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. This protocol included directions for lines of treatment and the dose of antivenin recommended. Thereafter all cases are referred to hospital for further observation and management.

  20. The Lesser Antillean scorpions of the genus Centruroides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas, de Luis F.

    1983-01-01

    The buthid scorpions of the genus Centruroides are widely distributed in the Antillean area. They are also the most common scorpions in the majority of these islands. Nevertheless they remained almost forgotten until recently (STAHNKE 1970; ARMAS 1976, 1977, 1980, 1981, 1982; FRANCKE & SISSOM 1980).

  1. Analysis of scorpion venom composition by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zérega, Brenda E.; González-Solís, José L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the venom of two Centruroides scorpion species using Raman spectroscopy. The spectra analysis allows to determine the venoms chemical composition and to establish the main differences and similarities among the species. It is also shown that the use of Principal Component Analysis may help to tell apart between the scorpion species.

  2. Species composition and geographical distribution of Saharan scorpion fauna, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oulaid Touloun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the species composition of scorpions and to study its geographical distribution in Laayoune-Sakia El Hamra and Dakhla-Oued Ed Dahab regions in July 2014. Methods: To locate scorpions, the ground was examined through searching the places under the stones, rocks and in burrows. The nocturnal missions were also conducted using portable ultraviolet lamps. The scorpions were subsequently identified in the laboratory. Results: The results of the investigations in these regions showed the presence of five scorpion species, two of which Androctonus gonneti and Buthus bonito were endemic in Morocco. Conclusions: This work is allowed to complete the inventory of the studied scorpion fauna and provides some considerations on the distribution patterns in the study area.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the venom gland of the scorpion Scorpiops jendeki: implication for the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yingliang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Euscorpiidae, which covers Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, is one of the most widely distributed scorpion groups. However, no studies have been conducted on the venom of a Euscorpiidae species yet. In this work, we performed a transcriptomic approach for characterizing the venom components from a Euscorpiidae scorpion, Scorpiops jendeki. Results There are ten known types of venom peptides and proteins obtained from Scorpiops jendeki. Great diversity is observed in primary sequences of most highly expressed types. The most highly expressed types are cytolytic peptides and serine proteases. Neurotoxins specific for sodium channels, which are major groups of venom components from Buthidae scorpions, are not detected in this study. In addition to those known types of venom peptides and proteins, we also obtain nine atypical types of venom molecules which haven't been observed in any other scorpion species studied to date. Conclusion This work provides the first set of cDNAs from Scorpiops jendeki, and one of the few transcriptomic analyses from a scorpion. This allows the characterization of a large number of venom molecules, belonging to either known or atypical types of scorpion venom peptides and proteins. Besides, our work could provide some clues to the evolution of the scorpion venom arsenal by comparison with venom data from other scorpion lineages.

  4. Scorpion sheds 'tail' to escape: consequences and implications of autotomy in scorpions (Buthidae: Ananteris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo I Mattoni

    Full Text Available Autotomy, the voluntary shedding or detachment of a body part at a determined cleavage plane, is a common anti-predation defense mechanism in several animal taxa, including arthropods. Among arachnids, autotomy has been observed in harvestmen, mites, and spiders, always involving the loss of legs. Autotomy of the opisthosoma (abdomen was recently reported in a single species of the Neotropical buthid scorpion genus Ananteris Thorell, 1891, but few details were revealed. Based on observations in the field and laboratory, examination of material in museum collections, and scanning electron microscopy, we document autotomy of the metasoma (the hind part of the opisthosoma, or 'tail' in fourteen species of Ananteris. Autotomy is more common in males than females, and has not been observed in juveniles. When the scorpion is held by the metasoma, it is voluntarily severed at the joints between metasomal segments I and II, II and III, or III and IV, allowing the scorpion to escape. After detachment, the severed metasoma moves (twitches automatically, much like the severed tail of a lizard or the severed leg of a spider, and reacts to contact, even attempting to sting. The severed surface heals rapidly, scar tissue forming in five days. The lost metasomal segments and telson cannot be regenerated. Autotomy of the metasoma and telson results in permanent loss of the posterior part of the scorpion's digestive system (the anus is situated posteriorly on metasomal segment V and the ability to inject venom by stinging. After autotomy, scorpions do not defecate and can only capture small prey items. However, males can survive and mate successfully for up to eight months in the laboratory. In spite of diminished predation ability after autotomy, survival allows males to reproduce. Autotomy in Ananteris therefore appears to be an effective, adaptive, anti-predation escape mechanism.

  5. Epidemiology of Scorpionism in Iran during 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Rafizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scorpion sting is a major health problem in Iran. The aim of current study was to measure the inci­dence rates of scorpion stings, mortality, recovery, and affected age groups. The results of treatment with and with­out anti venom also were considered in the entire country during 2009.Methods: All the data were collected from emergency section of different hospitals and then were analyzed by re­lated software. The responsibility of such data collection and surveillance is related to the Department of Violence and Injury, Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran.Results: A total incidence of 59.5/100000 was found for the 12-month period. During the study period the most and the least cases were reported from Khuzestan and Mazandaran provinces with incidence of 541 and 0 per 100000 respectively. Totally 40220 anti venom vials were used, i.e., the ratio of 91 vial/ 100 affected cases. The stings occur mainly in rural areas (57.7%. Young people with the age group of 15–24 years old were the most victims of stings. The mortality and recovery rates of cases who had received anti venom less than 6 h of stings were calculated as 0.01% and 99.9% respectively.Conclusion: The high incidence of scorpion stings in Iran especially in Khuzestan suggests the necessity of preven­tive programmes for decreasing the incidence. Such programmes could start by community educating in the high prevalent areas. In addition prompt and local treatment is particularly important for infants and pre-school children.

  6. Brain infarcts due to scorpion stings in children: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Bouzas, A.; Ballesteros-Maresma, A.; Morales-Resendiz, M.L.; Llamas-Ibarra, F.; Martinez-Lopez, M.

    2000-01-01

    We report two children with severe neurological complications after having been stung by a scorpion. Clinical and MRI findings suggested brain infarcts. The lesions seen were in pons in one child and the right hemisphere in the other. The latter also showed possible hyperemia in the infarcted area. No vascular occlusions were observed and we therefore think the brain infarcts were a consequence of the scorpion sting. The cause of the infarct may be hypotension, shock or depressed left ventricular function, all of which are frequent in severe poisoning by scorpion sting. (orig.)

  7. Acute Toxic Myocarditis and Pulmonary Oedema Developing from Scorpion Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sahin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of scorpion stings are generally seen with a set of simple clinical findings, such as pain, oedema, numbness, and tenderness in the area of the sting. However, occasionally events, such as toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, acute pulmonary oedema, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS, which occur in scorpion sting cases are a significant problem which determine mortality and morbidity. The case presented here was a 38-year-old man who developed acute toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, and acute pulmonary oedema following a scorpion sting on the 3rd finger of his right hand.

  8. Venomous snake bites, scorpions, and spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kularatne, S A M; Senanayake, Nimal

    2014-01-01

    Neurologic dysfunction due to natural neurotoxins is an important, but neglected, public health hazard in many parts of the world, particularly in the tropics. These toxins are produced by or found among a variety of live forms that include venomous snakes, arthropods such as scorpions, spiders, centipedes, stinging insects (Hymenoptera), ticks, certain poisonous fish, shellfish, crabs, cone shells, skin secretions of dart-poison frogs, and bacterial poisons such as botulinum toxin. These toxins commonly act on neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction where acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter, but in certain situations the toxins interfere with neurotransmitters such as GABA, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, and γ-aminobutyrate. Of the toxins, α-toxins and κ-toxins (e.g., Chinese krait, Bungarus multicinctus) act on the postsynaptic membrane, blocking the receptors, whilst β-toxin (e.g., common krait, B. caeruleus) acts on the presynaptic membrane, causing impairment of acetylcholine release. Conversely, dendrotoxins of the African mamba enhance acetylcholine release. The toxins of scorpions and spiders commonly interfere with voltage-gated ion channels. Clinically, the cardinal manifestation is muscle paralysis. In severe cases respiratory paralysis could be fatal. Effective antivenoms are the mainstay of treatment of envenoming, but their lack of availability is the major concern in the regions of the globe where they are desperately needed. Interestingly, some toxins have proved to be valuable pharmaceutical agents, while some others are widely exploited to study neuromuscular physiology and pathology. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. S-alkylation of soft scorpionates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekharan-Nair, Rajeev; Moore, Dean; Chalmers, Kirsten; Wallace, Dawn; Diamond, Louise M; Darby, Lisa; Armstrong, David R; Reglinski, John; Spicer, Mark D

    2013-02-11

    The alkylation reactions of soft scorpionates are reported. The hydrotris(S-alkyl-methimazolyl)borate dications (alkyl = methyl, allyl, benzyl), which were prepared by the reaction of Tm(Me) anion and primary alkyl halides, have been isolated and structurally characterised. The reaction is, however, not universally successful. DFT analysis of these alkylation reactions (C=S versus B-H alkylation) indicates that the observed outcome is driven by kinetic factors. Extending the study to incorporate alternative imine thiones (mercaptobenzothiazole, bz; thiazoline, tz) led to the structural characterisation of di[aquo-μ-aquohydrotris(mercaptobenzothiazolyl)boratosodium], which contains sodium atoms in the κ(3)-S,S,S coordination mode. Alkylation of Na[Tbz] and Na[tzTtz] leads to decomposition resulting in the formation of the simple S-alkylated heterocycles. The analysis of the species involved in these reactions shows an inherent weakness in the B-N bond in soft scorpionates, which has implications for their use in more advanced chemistry. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Biotechnological Trends in Spider and Scorpion Antivenom Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Solà, Mireia; Jappe, Emma Christine

    2016-01-01

    in using bioactive toxins from spiders and scorpions for drug discovery purposes and for solving crystal structures of membrane-embedded receptors. Additionally, the identification and isolation of a myriad of spider and scorpion toxins has allowed research within next generation antivenoms to progress...... at an increasingly faster pace. In this review, the current knowledge of spider and scorpion venoms is presented, followed by a discussion of all published biotechnological efforts within development of spider and scorpion antitoxins based on small molecules, antibodies and fragments thereof, and next generation...... immunization strategies. The increasing number of discovery and development efforts within this field may point towards an upcoming transition from serum-based antivenoms towards therapeutic solutions based on modern biotechnology....

  11. Scorpionism by Hemiscorpius spp. in Iran: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Kamiabi, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Malihe

    2018-01-01

    Scorpions are distributed throughout Iran and the genus Hemiscorpius is particularly important in this region. Hemiscorpius lepturus is the most significant species within the genus in the country. Since scorpionism provoked by Hemiscorpius comprises a medical emergency, the present study is focused on this important issue. In order to perform the present work, a review of the medical and health-related literature was carried out in several databases. The current findings indicate that six species of Hemiscorpius are found in 15 states of Iran, mainly in the south and southwest. Deaths caused by stings were reported only for two species. The morphological characteristics and geographical distribution of H. lepturus in Iran, its venom and the toxic compounds, epidemiologic data and clinical manifestations of envenomation as well as treatment for affected people are herein reviewed and described. H. lepturus venom toxicity differs from other Iranian scorpions regarding duration and severity. Scorpionism is an important public health problem in Iran, especially in southwest and south regions and in urban areas. It is more prevalent in children and young people. H. lepturus venom is primarily a cytotoxic agent and has hemolytic, nephrotoxic and to some extent hepatotoxic activity. The use of polyvalent antivenom to prevent scorpion sting symptoms is recommended. A well-planned health education program might be useful in preventing scorpionism.

  12. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system with universal gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jonathan; Brunck, Albert

    2009-05-01

    This paper addresses improvements and benefits derived from the next generation Northrop Grumman SCORPION II family of persistent surveillance and target recognition systems produced by the Xetron campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION II reduces the size, weight, and cost of all SCORPION components in a flexible, field programmable system that is easier to conceal, backward compatible, and enables integration of over forty Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) and camera types from a variety of manufacturers, with a modular approach to supporting multiple Line of Sight (LOS) and Beyond Line of Sight (BLOS) communications interfaces. Since 1998 Northrop Grumman has been integrating best in class sensors with its proven universal modular Gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration to Common Operational Picture (COP) systems and remote sensor command and control. In addition to being fed to COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from up to seven hundred SCORPION system Gateways on single or multiple displays. This GUI enables a large amount of sensor data and imagery to be used for actionable intelligence as well as remote sensor command and control by a minimum number of analysts.

  13. Anti-scorpion venom activity of Andrographis paniculata: A combined and comparative study with anti-scorpion serum in mice

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    Ranjana S Kale

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Present study demonstrates that, both plant extract and ASV have their own scorpion venom neutralising ability in vivo and in vitro, but their combination is most effective in venom neutralizing ability.

  14. Scorpionism due to Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae in Margarita Island, northeastern Venezuela Escorpionismo por Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae na Ilha de Margarita, Nordeste da Venezuela

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    Leonardo De Sousa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first two cases of scorpion envenoming caused by Tityus neoespartanus (Buthidae are described. The accidents took place within human environments (one inside a home and the other inside a school, in the village of La Sierra, Margarita Island, State of Nueva Esparta, northeastern Venezuela. Both cases were moderately severe and developed pancreatic involvement and electrocardiographic abnormalities. This report allows inclusion of Margarita Island among the endemic areas of scorpionism in Venezuela.Descrevem se os dois primeiros casos de escorpionismo por Tityus neoespartanus (Scorpiones, Buthidae. Os acidentes ocorreram no ambiente antrópico (um no domicilio e outro na escola na aldeia de La Sierra, Ilha de Margarita, Estado de Nueva Esparta, nordeste da Venezuela. Os dois acidentes, moderadamente graves, cursaram com acometimento pancreático e alterações eletrocardiografias. Este reporte permite incluir à Ilha de Margarita entre as áreas endêmicas de escorpionismo na Venezuela.

  15. Emerging options for the management of scorpion stings

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    Chippaux JP

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Philippe ChippauxUMR 216 (Institute of Research for Development and University Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Cotonou, Bénin, FranceAbstract: Scorpion stings are common in many tropical countries. Although most scorpion stings cause only localized pain without life-threatening envenoming, about one third of stings cause systemic envenoming which can result in death. Children are particularly sensitive to scorpion envenoming. The severity of scorpion stings is related to the presence of neurotoxins in the venom that cause a sudden release of neurotransmitters from the autonomic nervous system, predominantly sympathetic. There is also a strong inflammatory response that worsens symptoms, including those of a respiratory nature. Several vital functions may be directly affected, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, and neuromuscular systems. Hypertension is constant at the beginning of systemic envenoming and sometimes has a severe cardiac and respiratory impact. Although controversial, immunotherapy is the only etiological treatment. Administered early, it prevents many complications and improves the outcome. New antivenoms are highly purified immunoglobulin fragments, the efficacy and safety of which are excellent. As a consequence, adverse reactions to antivenoms are now very rare and usually mild, which should limit any reluctance regarding their routine use. Symptomatic treatment is still necessary to support immunotherapy, especially in cases of delayed arrival at hospital. A combination of both approaches should be considered, based on local resources and constraints.Keywords: scorpion, envenoming, treatment, antivenom

  16. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman; Manthiri, Rajamohamed Abbas; Abdo, Nasreddien; Al-Duaiji, Fawzi Abdullah; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41%) was preferred followed by roots (19%), whole plant (14%) and seeds (9%). The use of latex (4%), stem (3%), flowers (3%) and bark (3%) was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%), rhizome (1%) and shoot (1%) were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  17. Microallopatry caused strong diversification in Buthus scorpions (Scorpiones: Buthidae in the Atlas Mountains (NW Africa.

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    Jan C Habel

    Full Text Available The immense biodiversity of the Atlas Mountains in North Africa might be the result of high rates of microallopatry caused by mountain barriers surpassing 4000 meters leading to patchy habitat distributions. We test the influence of geographic structures on the phylogenetic patterns among Buthus scorpions using mtDNA sequences. We sampled 91 individuals of the genus Buthus from 51 locations scattered around the Atlas Mountains (Antiatlas, High Atlas, Middle Atlas and Jebel Sahro. We sequenced 452 bp of the Cytochrome Oxidase I gene which proved to be highly variable within and among Buthus species. Our phylogenetic analysis yielded 12 distinct genetic groups one of which comprised three subgroups mostly in accordance with the orographic structure of the mountain systems. Main clades overlap with each other, while subclades are distributed parapatrically. Geographic structures likely acted as long-term barriers among populations causing restriction of gene flow and allowing for strong genetic differentiation. Thus, genetic structure and geographical distribution of genetic (subclusters follow the classical theory of allopatric differentiation where distinct groups evolve without range overlap until reproductive isolation and ecological differentiation has built up. Philopatry and low dispersal ability of Buthus scorpions are the likely causes for the observed strong genetic differentiation at this small geographic scale.

  18. The ultrastructure of book lung development in the bark scorpion Centruroides gracilis (Scorpiones: Buthidae

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    Farley Roger D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near the end of the nineteenth century the hypothesis was presented for the homology of book lungs in arachnids and book gills in the horseshoe crab. Early studies with the light microscope showed that book gill lamellae are formed by outgrowth and possibly some invagination (infolding of hypodermis (epithelium from the posterior surface of opisthosomal limb buds. Scorpion book lungs are formed near the bilateral sites of earlier limb buds. Hypodermal invaginations in the ventral opisthosoma result in spiracles and sac-like cavities (atria. In early histological sections of embryo book lungs, widening of the atrial entrance of some lamellae (air channels, air sacs, saccules was interpreted as an indication of invagination as hypothesized for book gill lamellae. The hypodermal infolding was thought to produce the many rows of lamellar precursor cells anterior to the atrium. The ultrastructure of scorpion book lung development is compared herein with earlier investigations of book gill formation. Results In scorpion embryos, there is ingression (inward migration of atrial hypodermal cells rather than invagination or infolding of the atrial hypodermal layer. The ingressing cells proliferate and align in rows anterior to the atrium. Their apical-basal polarity results in primordial air channels among double rows of cells. The cuticular walls of the air channels are produced by secretion from the apical surfaces of the aligned cells. Since the precursor cells are in rows, their secreted product is also in rows (i.e., primordial air channels, saccules. For each double row of cells, their opposed basal surfaces are gradually separated by a hemolymph channel of increasing width. Conclusions The results from this and earlier studies show there are differences and similarities in the formation of book lung and book gill lamellae. The homology hypothesis for these respiratory organs is thus supported or not supported depending on which

  19. Incidence and severity of scorpion stings in Algeria

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    Y Laïd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the Maghreb region. In Algeria, epidemiological data were collected over the past twenty years by the Algerian health authorities. This study is an analysis of morbidity and mortality data collected from 2001 to 2010. Annual incidence and mortality due to scorpion envenoming were 152 ± 3.6 stings and 0.236 ± 0.041 deaths per 100,000 people (95% CI, respectively. The risk of being stung by a scorpion was dramatically higher in southern areas and central highlands due to environmental conditions. Incidence of envenoming was especially higher in the adult population, and among young males. In contrast, mortality was significantly higher among children under 15 years, particularly ages 1-4. Upper limbs were more often affected than lower limbs. Most stings occurred at night, indoors and during the summer. Data collected since 2001 showed a reduction of mortality by nearly 50%, suggesting that the medical care defined by the national anti-scorpion project is bearing fruit.

  20. Cysteine-free peptides in scorpion venom: geographical distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-12-29

    Dec 29, 2006 ... In 1993, the first cysteine-free peptide was isolated from scorpion venom. ..... Venom is produced by 2 venom glands in the tail and stored in 2 ... The resistance of a variety of bacterial micro-organisms .... Biopolymers 55: 4-30.

  1. Narmer, Scorpion and the representation of the early Egyptian court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous academic and popular articles have been published on the Narmer Palette, the Narmer Mace-head and the Scorpion Mace-head, arguably three of the most iconic early Egyptian monuments. It is generally recognized that these three objects are the climax of a centuries-old tradition of

  2. Biotechnological Trends in Spider and Scorpion Antivenom Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Solà, Mireia; Jappe, Emma Christine

    2016-01-01

    Spiders and scorpions are notorious for their fearful dispositions and their ability to inject venom into prey and predators, causing symptoms such as necrosis, paralysis, and excruciating pain. Information on venom composition and the toxins present in these species is growing due to an interest...

  3. Risk factors for scorpion stings in the beni mellal province of morocco

    OpenAIRE

    N Charrab; R El Oufir; A Soulaymani; I Semlali; A Mokhtari; R Soulaymani

    2009-01-01

    Scorpion stings comprise a serious problem throughout the globe, especially in regions where they are more frequent. In Morocco, Beni Mellal is one of the provinces most affected by this burden. This study aimed to trace the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings in Beni Mellal in order to improve patient care and prevent both morbidity and mortality. Our work is a retrospective study of scorpion stings based on medical charts of Beni Mellal. From 2002 to 2007, 8,340 cases were registered...

  4. Pediatric epidemiological aspects of scorpionism and report on fatal cases from Tityus stigmurus stings (Scorpiones: Buthidae in State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Cleide Maria Ribeiro de Albuquerque

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Envenomation by scorpion stings is a major public health problem in numerous tropical countries because of its frequent incidence and potential severity. Approximately 1,900 species of scorpions are known in the world, and at least 130 of these have been described in Brazil. Methods This work reports on 3 child deaths caused by Tityus stigmurus stings and characterizes epidemiological and clinical surveys on pediatric cases of scorpionism recorded in the Centro de Assistência Toxicológica de Pernambuco (Ceatox-PE. Results Scorpion stings accounted for more than 60% of all cases recorded for venomous animals. The children were from 37 cities of the Pernambuco state and accounted for 28.8% of the victims treated for scorpion stings, with the highest incidence in the metropolitan area of Recife. Stings occurred throughout the year and slightly increased during the rainy season. Independent of the elapsed time for a prognosis, most cases showed mild symptoms. Three moderate cases that resulted in death featured cardiogenic shock and/or pulmonary edema or severe neurological symptoms. For the first time, death attributed to T. stigmurus was confirmed by the presence of the scorpion. Conclusions These results suggest that scorpionism in Pernambuco is a public health problem that needs to be monitored carefully throughout the year by the government.

  5. ADAMTS-13 deficiency following Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion sting

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    Ehsan Valavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemiscorpius lepturus is a lethal scorpion with potentially cytotoxic venom. Various degrees of local and systemic toxicity have been observed after its envenomation ranging from local erythema to disseminated intravascular coagulation, renal failure and severe pulmonary hemorrhage. In this case report, we report on a seven-year-old patient who developed the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS after being stung by the scorpion H. lepturus. This condition is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase and uremia. We evaluated the causes of HUS and found that the levels of C3, C4, CH50 and H factors were normal, but the activity of Von Willebrand factor cleaving protease was decreased (less than 5% of the normal activity. The patient improved after administering therapy with plasma exchange.

  6. Embryotoxicity following repetitive maternal exposure to scorpion venom

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    BN Hmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is a frequent accident in a few countries, scorpion envenomation during pregnancy remains scarcely studied. In the present study, the effects of repetitive maternal exposure to Buthus occitanus tunetanus venom are investigated and its possible embryotoxic consequences on rats. Primigravid rats received a daily intraperitoneal dose of 1 mL/kg of saline solution or 300 µg/kg of crude scorpion venom, from the 7th to the 13th day of gestation. On the 21st day, the animals were deeply anesthetized using diethyl-ether. Then, blood was collected for chemical parameter analysis. Following euthanasia, morphometric measurements were carried out. The results showed a significant increase in maternal heart and lung absolute weights following venom treatment. However, the mean placental weight per rat was significantly diminished. Furthermore, blood urea concentration was higher in exposed rats (6.97 ± 0.62 mmol/L than in those receiving saline solution (4.94 ± 0.90 mmol/L. Many organs of venom-treated rat fetuses (brain, liver, kidney and spleen were smaller than those of controls. On the contrary, fetal lungs were significantly heavier in fetuses exposed to venom (3.2 ± 0.4 g than in the others (3.0 ± 0.2 g. Subcutaneous blood clots, microphthalmia and total body and tail shortening were also observed in venom-treated fetuses. It is concluded that scorpion envenomation during pregnancy potentially causes intrauterine fetal alterations and growth impairment.

  7. Effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão; Neto, Emidio Beraldo; de Freitas, Lucas Alves; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado

    2018-01-01

    In Brazil, the scorpion species responsible for most severe incidents belong to the Tityus genus and, among this group, T. serrulatus , T. bahiensis , T. stigmurus and T. obscurus are the most dangerous ones. Other species such as T. metuendus , T. silvestres, T. brazilae , T. confluens , T. costatus , T. fasciolatus and T. neglectus are also found in the country, but the incidence and severity of accidents caused by them are lower. The main effects caused by scorpion venoms - such as myocardial damage, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary edema and shock - are mainly due to the release of mediators from the autonomic nervous system. On the other hand, some evidence show the participation of the central nervous system and inflammatory response in the process. The participation of the central nervous system in envenoming has always been questioned. Some authors claim that the central effects would be a consequence of peripheral stimulation and would be the result, not the cause, of the envenoming process. Because, they say, at least in adult individuals, the venom would be unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. In contrast, there is some evidence showing the direct participation of the central nervous system in the envenoming process. This review summarizes the major findings on the effects of Brazilian scorpion venoms on the central nervous system, both clinically and experimentally. Most of the studies have been performed with T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis . Little information is available regarding the other Brazilian Tityus species.

  8. Clinical and cardiovascular alterations produced by scorpion envenomation in dogs

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    F. F. Cordeiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism is a common problem that occurs in tropical and subtropical countries and assumes great medical-sanitary importance due to its fatal effect on sensitive individuals, being able to lead children and aged people to death. The envenomation lethal potential is responsible for the serious cardiopulmonary alterations the scorpion toxin produces in its victims. The present research evaluated the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom on dogs, using two distinct doses: a dose that simulates natural envenomation (0.4 mg/total dose, and an experimental dose (0.25 mg/kg. General clinical signs were observed at different moments after envenomation, and specific data related to the cardiopulmonary system were evaluated by systemic arterial pressure measurement, CK-MB enzymatic activity dosage, and radiographic, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations. Results demonstrated that the scorpion venom, in experimental doses, was able to cause acute and reversible cardiac injury in few days, and, in the dose that simulated natural accident, it produced clinical signs of light envenomation, such as local pain, hyperesthesia, sialorrhea, vomiting, diarrhea, sneeze and prostration.

  9. Confrontation With Scorpions As an Environmental Permanent Risk in Iran: A Review

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    Rouhullah Dehghani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Among the Iranians, scorpion is considered as one of the most important natural hazards and introduced as a dangerous animal. The outcome of this confrontation is to create stories and different beliefs about them .The primary aim of this study is to investigate and deliberate on the validity and fraudulence of these beliefs in how Iranian looked upon scorpions. Materials & Methods: The study is a review of descriptive analysis. In other words, the study was conducted, considering the key terms such as: treatment of scorpion venom, motifs of humans and scorpions in internet and related websites; moreover, the study was carried on by professional journals, articles and researches as well as related published books in this filed. By considering the situation and its requirements, the references were chosen to be analyzed. Results: Owing to the fact that scorpions have poisonous, painful and sometimes mortal venoms, they have attracted more attention compared to other creatures in the history and culture of Iran. Such creatures are regarded as the symbol of power and sentry in several references as they can be found in the works and studies remained from ancients throughout Iran. Conclusions: Due to the medical importance of scorpions and Iranian’s cultural beliefs, scorpion motifs has been regarded as a significant symbol of Iran’s history. Moreover, in creating the scorpion motifs about the dangers of this creature, beliefs, the realities and the analysis of customs have been playing the great roles.

  10. Histology and histochemistry of the venom apparatus of the black scorpion Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807 (Scorpiones: Buthidae

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    BM Jarrar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The venom apparatus of the black scorpion Androctonus crassicauda has been characterized histologically and histochemically in the present study. The results showed that this apparatus consists of paired venom glands, each of which initially presents its own canal and posteriorily both fuse into a single common one. Each gland is covered by a sheath of striated muscle and is lined with extensively folded secretory epithelium (formed of non-secretory and secretory venom-producing cells. The outcomes also revealed that the venom-producing cells of both glands produce neutral mucosubstances, sialomucins, sulfomucins and proteins, but are devoid of glycogen. Cysteine, tyrosine, tryptophan and arginine were also detected along with activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase, aminopeptidase, cholinesterase and non-specific esterases. Structure and secretion of scorpion venom glands are discussed within the context of the present results.

  11. Intraspecific venom variation in southern African scorpion species of the genera Parabuthus, Uroplectes and Opistophthalmus (Scorpiones: Buthidae, Scorpionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffrath, Stephan; Prendini, Lorenzo; Predel, Reinhard

    2018-03-15

    Scorpion venoms comprise cocktails of proteins, peptides, and other molecules used for immobilizing prey and deterring predators. The composition and efficacy of scorpion venoms appears to be taxon-specific due to a coevolutionary arms race with prey and predators that adapt at the molecular level. The taxon-specific components of scorpion venoms can be used as barcodes for species identification if the amount of intraspecific variation is low and the analytical method is fast, inexpensive and reliable. The present study assessed the extent of intraspecific variation in newly regenerated venom collected in the field from geographically separated populations of four southern African scorpion species: three buthids, Parabuthus granulatus (Ehrenberg, 1831), Uroplectes otjimbinguensis (Karsch, 1879), and Uroplectes planimanus (Karsch, 1879), and one scorpionid, Opistophthalmus carinatus (Peters, 1861). Although ion signal patterns were generally similar among venom samples of conspecific individuals from different populations, MALDI-TOF mass spectra in the mass range m/z 700-10,000 revealed only a few ion signals that were identical suggesting that species identification based on simple venom mass fingerprints (MFPs) will be more reliable if databases contain data from multiple populations. In general, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the ion signals in mass spectra was more reliable for species identification than counts of mass-identical substances in MFPs. The statistical approach revealed conclusive information about intraspecific diversity. In combination with a comprehensive database of MALDI-TOF mass spectra in reflectron mode, HCA may offer a method for rapid species identification based on venom MFPs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Male and female meiosis in the mountain scorpion Zabius fuscus (Scorpiones, Buthidae): heterochromatin, rDNA and TTAGG telomeric repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adilardi, Renzo Sebastián; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés Alejandro; Mattoni, Camilo Iván; Mola, Liliana María

    2015-08-01

    All cytogenetically studied scorpions present male achiasmatic meiosis and lack heteromorphic sex chromosomes. In contrast, information about female meiosis in scorpions is scarce due to the difficulty of finding meiotic cells. The genus Zabius includes three described species and no chromosome studies have been performed on it until now. We analyzed the constitutive heterochromatin distribution, NORs and telomeric sequences in mitosis and meiosis of males and females of different populations of Zabius fuscus. All specimens presented 2n = 18 holokinetic chromosomes that gradually decreased in size. Male meiosis presented nine bivalents and a polymorphism for one reciprocal translocation in one population. Telomeric signals were detected at every terminal region, confirming also the presence of a (TTAGG) n motif in Buthidae. Constitutive heterochromatin was found in three chromosome pairs at a terminal region; moreover, NORs were embedded in the heterochromatic region of the largest pair. Chromosome size and landmarks allowed us to propose the chromosomes involved in the rearrangement. In four females, cells at different prophase I stages were analyzed. We describe a diffuse stage and the presence of ring-shaped bivalents. We discuss the possible origin of these bivalents in the framework of chiasmatic or achiasmatic female meiosis. These results contribute to increase the scarce evidence of female meiosis in scorpions and raise new questions about its mechanism.

  13. Maintenance of scorpions of the genus Tityus Koch (Scorpiones, Buthidae for venom obtention at Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Candido

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the experience of the Laboratory of Arthropods at Instituto Butantan, which maintains scorpions in captivity in order to obtain the venom used in the production of anti-arachnid serum. Between 1993 and 2000, the laboratory received 24.781 specimens of Tityus serrulatus in order to obtain poison for the production of anti-scorpion serum. In the first extraction, performed by electrical stimulation, the animals gave an average quantity of 0.4 mg venom per specimen. Animal acquisition and involved professional safety are considered. In addition, the captivity, handling and feeding techniques are described, as well as the method and equipment used for venom extraction. It shows the importance of regular campaigns, offering information to the general population in order to motivate these to catch and send alive scorpions to the Institute to assuring a regular entrance of scorpions.

  14. Update on the Epidemiology of Scorpion Envenomation in the South of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun-Walha, Olfa; Karray, Rim; Jerbi, Mouna; Nasri, Abdennour; Issaoui, Fadhila; Amine, Ben Rebeh; Bahloul, Mabrouk; Bouaziz, Mounir; Ksibi, Hichem; Rekik, Noureddine

    2018-03-01

    Scorpion envenomation is still a frequent occurance in tropical and subtropical regions. In Tunisia, multiple studies on scorpion envenoming have contributed to an improved understanding of cardiac dysfunction and factors predictive of poor prognosis. These previous studies have contributed to the current standardized management of envenomed patients. However, the epidemiology of scorpion envenoming in Tunisia has not been updated for more than 10 years. The aim of this study was to report an update of the epidemiological features of scorpion envenomation in the southern region of Tunisia. This is a retrospective monocentric study including all patients admitted in the emergency room for scorpion envenomation. Cases were collected from emergency medical files during a 3-year period (2013-2015). The diagnosis of scorpion envenomation was made by history of a scorpion sting. All files in which scorpion envenomation was not certain were excluded. Data are presented as mean±SD with range or percentages, as appropriate. We enrolled 282 patients aged 27.4±22.8 years with a 1:1 sex ratio. During surveillance in the emergency room, 39 patients developed cardiac dysfunction. Overall, 42 patients (14.9%) were at stage 3 of severity, and 240 patients (85.1%) had moderate scorpion envenomation (stage 2). Only 1 patient died a few hours after admission. In the remaining cases, the outcome was good. Our results show the improvement in mortality rates even in severe presentations. This study found that the outcome of scorpion-stung patients has clearly improved. This enhancement can be explained by early medical consultation and standardized management of patients with predictive factors for cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex Differences in Defensive Behavior and Venom of The Striped Bark Scorpion Centruroides vittatus (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D W; Jones, A D; Goldston, J S; Rowe, M P; Rowe, A H

    2016-11-01

    Studies of venom variability have advanced from describing the mechanisms of action and relative potency of medically important toxins to understanding the ecological and evolutionary causes of the variability itself. While most studies have focused on differences in venoms among taxa, populations, or age-classes, there may be intersexual effects as well. Striped bark scorpions (Centruroides vittatus) provide a good model for examining sex differences in venom composition and efficacy, as this species exhibits dramatic sexual dimorphism in both size and defensive behavior; when threatened by an enemy, larger, slower females stand and fight while smaller, fleeter males prefer to run. We here add evidence suggesting that male and female C. vittatus indeed have different defensive propensities; when threatened via an electrical stimulus, females were more likely to sting than were males. We reasoned that intersexual differences in defensive phenotypes would select for venoms with different functions in the two sexes; female venoms should be effective at predator deterrence, whereas male venoms, less utilized defensively, might be better suited to capturing prey or courting females. This rationale led to our predictions that females would inject more venom and/or possess more painful venom than males. We were wrong. While females do inject more venom than males in a defensive sting, females are also larger; when adjusted for body size, male and female C. vittatus commit equal masses of venom in a sting to a potential enemy. Additionally, house mice (Mus musculus) find an injection of male venom more irritating than an equal amount of female venom, likely because male venom contains more of the toxins that induce pain. Taken together, our results suggest that identifying the ultimate causes of venom variability will, as we move beyond adaptive storytelling, be hard-won. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and

  16. Is scorpion antivenom cost-effective as marketed in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Edward P; Bakall, Maja; Skrepnek, Grant H; Boyer, Leslie V

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness of scorpion antivenom compared to no antivenom, in the United States, using a decision analysis framework. A decision analytic model was created to assess patient course with and without antivenom. Costs were determined from the perspective of a health care payer. Cost data used in the model were extracted from Arizona Medicaid. The probability of clinical events occurring with and without antivenom was obtained from the published literature, medical claims obtained from Arizona Medicaid, and results of recent clinical trials. Patients that became so ill that mechanical ventilator support was necessary were considered treatment failures. A Monte Carlo simulation was run 1000 times and sampled simultaneously across all variable distributions in the model. The mean success rate was 99.87% (95% CI 99.64%-99.98%) with scorpion antivenom and 94.31% (95% CI 91.10%-96.61%) without scorpion antivenom. The mean cost using scorpion antivenom was $10,708 (95% CI $10,556 - $11,010) and the mean cost without scorpion antivenom was $3178 (95% CI $1627 - $5184). Since the 95% CIs do not overlap for either the success or cost, use of the scorpion antivenom was significantly more effective and significantly more expensive than no antivenom. Cost-effectiveness analysis found that the scorpion antivenom was not cost-effective at its current price as marketed in the United States. The scorpion antivenom marketed in the United States is extremely effective, but too costly to justify its use in most clinical situations. Formulary committees should restrict the use of this antivenom to only the most severe scorpion envenomations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comunidades de escorpiones (Arachnida: Scorpiones del desierto costero transicional de Chile Communities of scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones of the transitional coastal desert of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO AGUSTO

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el orden Scorpiones está representado por 35 especies, distribuidas en las familias Bothriuridae, Iuridae y Buthidae. La mayoría de ellas son elementos endémicos, adaptados a condiciones xéricas. Nosotros estudiamos la estructura taxonómica de la escorpiofauna asociada a las formaciones vegetacionales presentes en el desierto costero transicional de Chile (25-32º S. Las capturas se realizaron con trampas de intercepción y luz UV. La información de terreno se complementó con antecedentes señalados en la literatura y material de referencia. Identificamos la presencia de nueve especies en un total de 226 especímenes capturados, pertenecientes a las familias Bothriuridae y Iuridae. Los géneros más abundantes de Bothriuridae, representada por ocho especies, fueron Brachistosternus y Bothriurus, con el 55,4 % y el 11 % del total de especímenes capturados, respectivamente. En relación a Brachistosternus, Br. (Leptosternus roigalsinai fue la especie más abundante, con el 38,9 % del total de los especímenes capturados. Caraboctonus keyserlingi (Iuridae constituyó el 33,2 % del total. La mayor riqueza de especies de escorpiones, con seis y siete especies, fueron respectivamente, las formaciones vegetacionales del desierto costero de Huasco (27°52' S, 71°05' O; 29°24' S, 71°18' O y del matorral estepario costero (29°24' S, 71°18' O; 30°34' S, 71°42' O. Los desiertos costero de Tal-Tal (23°52' S, 70°30' O; 27°51' S, 71°05' O y costero de Huasco presentaron especies exclusivas. El análisis de correspondencia mostró que, para la escorpiofauna estudiada, el matorral estepario costero representaría una zona de transición distribucional. Finalmente, discutimos en función de preferencias de sustrato mostradas por algunas de las especies presentes, algunos aspectos relacionados a la ocupación del hábitatIn Chile, the order Scorpiones has 35 species, included in the families Bothriuridae, Iuridae, and Buthidae. Most of

  18. [Scorpion stings in an area of Nordeste de Amaralina, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Amorim, Andréa Monteiro; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lira-da-Silva, Rejâne Maria; Brazil, Tania Kobler

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of individuals who referred scorpion sting accidents in a population sample from Areal, a neighborhood northeast of Amaralina, Salvador City, State of Bahia, Brazil. A random, systematic sample of 1,367 individuals was taken, corresponding to 44.4% of the total population. Eighty-two residents referred scorpion sting since they were resident in Areal, giving a prevalence coefficient of 6% (95% CI 4.7 - 7.3). The prevalence of persons stung by scorpions increased according to greater time spent in the domicile and more advanced age. It was remarkable that 92.7% of the scorpions stings occurred within the home. The incidence coefficient estimated for the most recent period of time (January to July, 2000) was 1.15 cases/1,000 inhabitants per month, comparable to the highest ever reported for an epidemic area.

  19. Cerebral edema associated to scorpion sting: a two-case sting report

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    N. O. Romero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism is a public health problem in some places in Mexico. The clinical symptoms of envenomation by scorpion sting are by sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation, developing systemic and local symptoms. The Central Nervous System (CNS is one of the organs that are affected. In some cases, cerebral edema develops. In this report we present two pediatric cases with the association of envenomation by scorpion sting and cerebral edema. The first case developed severe cerebral edema, which progressed to a fatal outcome; and the other case developed mild cerebral edema with a satisfactory evolution. The pathophysiology of this complication is not well known and probably is the consequence of hypoxia, secondary to respiratory failure, laryngospasm and seizures that are manifestations of envenomation by scorpion sting.

  20. Microwhip scorpions (Palpigradi) feed on heterotrophic cyanobacteria in Slovak caves - a curiosity among Arachnida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smrž, J.; Kováč, L.; Mikeš, J.; Lukešová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2013), e75989 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microwhip scorpions * heterotrophic cyanobacteria * Slovak caves Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  1. Scorpion sting: a public health problem in El Kelaa des Sraghna (Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    El Oufir, R.; Semlali, I.; Idrissi, M.; Soulaymani, A.; Benlarabi, S.; Khattabi, A.; Ait Moh, M.; Soulaymani Bencheikh, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed at verifying the impact of a Moroccan strategy against scorpion stings and specifically at identifying the epidemiological features of patients envenomed or just stung by scorpions. It included 11,907 patients from El Kelaa des Sraghna Province, Morocco, who were evaluated over five years (2001-2005). Most stings occurred during the hot period and mainly at night. The average incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 inhabitants; patients

  2. Ecology of the Scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate. PMID:21870972

  3. Faunistic Study and Biodiversity of Scorpions in Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf

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    A Zarei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Scorpions are known as the most widespread poisonous creatures that cause casualties and death to human. They are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. Among the sixteen Iranian Island in the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island is the biggest and is located in the focus of the important internal and international commercial marinelines. Furthermore, thousands of tourists also visit the Island every year for its natural beauties and the siteseeings. The present research study was carried out during 1998-99 throughout Qeshm Island in order to know the species of scorpions, their abundance, the distribution and control strategy in order to reduce the scorpion stings and to safeguard the visitors as well as the local population.Methods: Collections were made randomly during the night. Samples were searched by black light and then collected by forceps. A total of 102 scorpions were captured.Results: The scorpions were identified as Buthotus jayakari numbered 42 specimens (41.17% and B. leptochelys numbering only 7 specimens (6.86% belonging to the family Buthidae. Androctonus crassicauda was collected in the most parts of the Island and considered as the dominant species. The sex ratio was 1:1.53 in favor of females. B. lep­tochelys was rare species and by far restricted in its distribution.Conclusion: Considering the high population of A. crassicauda and its wide distribution, it is regarded to be re­sponsible for the majority of scorpion stings in Qeshm Island.

  4. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF CLINICOEPIDEMIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OUTCOME OF SCORPION STING IN KONASEEMA REGION OF ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Gayatri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Scorpions live in warm, dry regions throughout India. They inhabit commonly the crevices of dwellings, underground burrows, under logs or debris, paddy husk, sugar cane fields, coconut and banana. Scorpion stings are primarily due to accidental contact with scorpion. Konaseema region of Andhra Pradesh is delta of Godavari river. Because of good irrigation there is rich cultivation of banana and paddy and there are plenty of coconut plantations, so that is a good habitat for scorpions. METHOD Present study is a hospital based retrospective study. All the data related to the scorpion sting in Konaseema Institute of Medical Sciences admitted during Jan 2012 to Jan 2016 has been collected. RESULT Total 54 patients of all the age group and both the sexes were included in to the study. Out of 54 patients, 32 were male and 22 were female. Regarding signs of scorpion sting, tachycardia was present in 40 patients, ten patients developed hypertension. Six patients developed arrhythmia. Dyspnoea and convulsion was present in 6 and 2 patients respectively. DISCUSSION Scorpion venom is classified as per its structure, mode of action and binding site. Regarding complications of scorpion sting, four patients developed pulmonary oedema and 3 having convulsion. Out of all 54 patients, 53 were recovered and 1 patient died. CONCLUSION With the availability of potent vasodilators like prazosin and good ICU facilities, the incidence of death and complication due to scorpion bite has reduced.

  5. Escorpionismo por Tityus pusillus Pocock, 1893 (Scorpiones; Buthidae no Estado de Pernambuco Scorpionism caused by Tityus pusillus Pocock, 1893 (Scorpiones; Buthidae in State of Pernambuco

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    Cleide Maria Ribeiro de Albuquerque

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos neste trabalho os primeiros relatos de acidente escorpiônico causado pela espécie Tityus pusillus (Buthidae. Os acidentes ocorreram no ambiente doméstico, na área rural situada nas cidades de Paudalho e São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brasil. Os dois casos descritos, uma criança e uma mulher grávida, foram classificados como leve e moderado, respectivamente. Os sintomas clínicos apresentados foram distúrbios locais (dor e parestesia e distúrbios sistêmicos (calafrios, tontura, cefaléia e vômito. Esses registros permitem incluir Tityus pusillus como uma espécie de importância médica no Brasil.This paper presents the first reports on scorpion accidents caused by Tityus pusillus (Buthidae. The accidents took place within the home environment, in rural areas located in the municipalities of Paudalho and São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil. The two cases described (a child and a pregnant woman were classified as mild and moderate, respectively. The clinical symptoms presented were local disorders (pain and paresthesia and systemic disorders (chills, dizziness, headache and vomiting. These records make it possible to including Tityus pusillus as a species of medical importance in Brazil.

  6. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  7. 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis protein profiles of the scorpion venom from Brotheas amazonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, A.M.; Noronha, M.D.N. [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Rede Proteomica do Amazonas (Proteam). Lab. de Genomica e Proteomica; Rocha-Oliveira, F.; Lopez-Lozano, J.L.L. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Biotecnologia

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Scorpions venoms show specific neurotoxins to insect or mammals. These toxins are very important molecular tools to development of news drugs or bioinsecticides. Brotheas amazonicus scorpion is an endemic specie in Amazonian Rain Forest, but your venom do not show toxicity in humans. Information about biological specific activity on insect of this venom is not known yet. Objectives: Molecular protein toxins profiles of the venom from Brotheas amazonicus scorpion by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis methods to detected toxins with potential biotech applications. Results: Several spots 'families' with {approx} 60, 70 and 80 kDa were detected in gel acidic region with pI {approx} 4,5 - 6 range, in the same region 1-D zimography showed proteolytic activity on gelatin and fibrinogen and proteolytic activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting scorpion serine proteinases. 50 kDa proteins were detected with pI {approx} 6,5 - 7 range. In 23 - 50 kDa gel acid region were observed some proteins. In 23 - 14 kDa gel acidic region were detected proteins with pI 4 - 7 range. 1-D Tris-tricine gel showed proteins with {approx} 7 kDa, suggesting scorpion neurotoxins. In gel basic region only 14 kDa proteins were observed with pI {approx} 9 - 10 range. Conclusion: Molecular profile of the scorpion venom from B. amazonicus showed proteins with high and low molecular masses, mainly with acidic pI. Proteolytic activity suggest serine proteinases with high molecular masses and 7 kDa proteins in B. amazonicus venom suggest scorpion neurotoxins. Purification and molecular characterization of these toxins are in course.

  8. 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis protein profiles of the scorpion venom from Brotheas amazonicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, A.M.; Noronha, M.D.N.; Rocha-Oliveira, F.; Lopez-Lozano, J.L.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Scorpions venoms show specific neurotoxins to insect or mammals. These toxins are very important molecular tools to development of news drugs or bioinsecticides. Brotheas amazonicus scorpion is an endemic specie in Amazonian Rain Forest, but your venom do not show toxicity in humans. Information about biological specific activity on insect of this venom is not known yet. Objectives: Molecular protein toxins profiles of the venom from Brotheas amazonicus scorpion by 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis methods to detected toxins with potential biotech applications. Results: Several spots 'families' with ∼ 60, 70 and 80 kDa were detected in gel acidic region with pI ∼ 4,5 - 6 range, in the same region 1-D zimography showed proteolytic activity on gelatin and fibrinogen and proteolytic activity was inhibited by PMSF, suggesting scorpion serine proteinases. 50 kDa proteins were detected with pI ∼ 6,5 - 7 range. In 23 - 50 kDa gel acid region were observed some proteins. In 23 - 14 kDa gel acidic region were detected proteins with pI 4 - 7 range. 1-D Tris-tricine gel showed proteins with ∼ 7 kDa, suggesting scorpion neurotoxins. In gel basic region only 14 kDa proteins were observed with pI ∼ 9 - 10 range. Conclusion: Molecular profile of the scorpion venom from B. amazonicus showed proteins with high and low molecular masses, mainly with acidic pI. Proteolytic activity suggest serine proteinases with high molecular masses and 7 kDa proteins in B. amazonicus venom suggest scorpion neurotoxins. Purification and molecular characterization of these toxins are in course

  9. Scorpion-related cardiomyopathy and acute pulmonary edema in a child who is stung by Leiurus abdullahbayrami

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    Mehmet Dokur

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Venom of Leiurus abdullahbayrami (Scorpiones: Buthidae is an extremely toxic one and it stimulates voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. In case of a stung by this scorpion; excessive catecholamine release occur and it impairs left ventricle contractility and consequently a heart failure occurs (scorpion sting-related cardiomyopathy. In addition to this cardiac-induced acute pulmonary, edema may occur in severe cases too. An 11-year-old male child who was stung by a scorpion (species: Leiurus abdullahbayrami consulted to the Emergency Room. Even after 7 h of scorpion envenomation he was confused and having hallucinations. Besides he was dyspneic, tachycardic, hypotensive and got worse in overall situation due to cardiogenic pulmonary edema. These clinical findings are concordant with the Level III scorpion envenomation (major systemic manifestations. Positive inotropic agents, diuretics and antiagregant agents used on supportive therapy in his treatment. After 2 weeks he get recovered and discharged from the pediatric intensive care unit. This research is conducted by thinking emergency physicians should learn that Leiurus abdullahbayrami envenomation can cause scorpion-related cardiomyopathy and acute pulmonary edema especially in children. Keywords: Leiurus, Scorpionism, Cardiomyopathy, Pulmonary edema

  10. Spatial distribution of scorpions according to the socioeconomic conditions in Campina Grande,State of Paraíba, Brazil

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    Thassiany Sarmento Oliveira de Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Due to its frequency and morbidity, such as that caused by scorpions have achieved public health importance in certain regions of the world. The present exploratory ecological study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile and spatial distribution of scorpion stings in Campina Grande, State of Paraíba in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Geographical information system techniques were used to record the scorpion stings, and Google Earth software, Track Maker, and ArcGIS 10 Esri were used as geocoding databases. The Moran test was used to evaluate spatial correlation, and the Pearson chi-square test was used to analyze associations between scorpion stings and socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: The study evaluated 1,466 scorpion stings. Envenomations were more frequent among women (n = 908, 61.9%, and most patients were aged 13-28 years (n = 428, 29.2%. The Southern region of the city had the largest number of registered cases (n = 548, 37.4%, followed by the Western region (n = 510, 34.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Spatial analysis of scorpionism revealed an irregular occurrence in Campina Grande. Further, no association was observed between the socioeconomic factors analyzed and the geographic location of the scorpion envenomations. Detection of spatial areas with an increased risk of scorpionism can help prioritize adoption of preventive measures in these regions to reduce the associated incidence and morbidity.

  11. Scorpion envenoming in Morona Santiago, Amazonian Ecuador: Molecular phylogenetics confirms involvement of the Tityus obscurus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Juan P; García, Fernanda; Medina, Doris; Vásquez, Manolo; García, José; Graham, Matthew R; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Pardal, Pedro P de Oliveira; Ishikawa, Edna A Y; Borges, Adolfo

    2018-02-01

    Scorpion envenoming by species in the genus Tityus is hereby reported from rural locations in the Amazonian province of Morona Santiago, southeastern Ecuador. Twenty envenoming cases (18 patients under 15 years of age) including one death (a 4-year-old male) were recorded at the Macas General Hospital, Morona Santiago, between January 2015 and December 2016 from the counties of Taisha (n=17), Huamboyo (n=1), Palora (n=1), and Logroño (n=1). An additional fatality from 2014 (a 3-year-old female from Nayantza, Taisha county) is also reported. Leukocytosis and low serum potassium levels were detected in most patients. We observed a significant negative correlation between leukocytosis and hypokalemia. Scorpions involved in three accidents from Macuma, Taisha County, were identified as genetically related to Tityus obscurus from the Brazilian Amazonian region based on comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences encoding cytochrome oxidase subunit I. These cases, along with previously reported envenoming from northern Manabí, reinforce the notion that scorpionism is a health hazard for children in Ecuador and emphasizes the need to supply effective antivenoms against local species, which are not currently available. The genetic affinity of the Ecuadorian specimens with T. obscurus may underlay toxinological, clinical, and venom antigenic relationships among Amazonian scorpions that deserves further exploration for designing therapeutic strategies to treat scorpionism in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ACCIDENTS FOR SCORPIONS IN CEARÁ, BRAZIL, IN THE PERIOD 2009 TO 2012

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    Thaissa Mara Amorim Sousa da Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Accidents by scorpions or scorpionism is poisoning caused by inoculation of scorpions poison. This research aimed to describe epidemiology of accidents by scorpions in the state of Ceará, with emphasis on the municipality of Sobral, considering that the scorpions stands out in between accidents with poisonous animals. This retrospective and quantitative study occured between the years 2009-2012 and took place from compiled data from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN’, of the Ministério da Saúde of Brazil. For the the state of Ceará and municipality of Sobral were recorded 6,439 and 153 cases, respectively. There was a predominance of cases for females and these were considered mild in the State of Ceará and municipality of Sobral. In 97% of cases in Ceará State and 99% in Sobral, there was healing, but was recorded two deaths in the time interval studied for the Ceará. So the development of new control strategies Acidentes por Escorpiões no Ceará. is needed as well as an improvement in accident prevention programs with these animals.

  13. [National strategy in the battle against scorpion stings and envenomations. Application and evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulaymani Bencheikh, R; Faraj, Z; Semlali, I; Ouammi, L; Badri, M

    2003-11-01

    Scorpion stings represent the first cause of poisoning with an incidence of 30 to 50% of all declared cases in the Centre Anti Poison of Morocco (CAPM). Aware of this increasing problem, the CAPM paid special attention to this pathology. Thanks to its retrospective and prospective studies, the scorpion species mapping has been determined as well as the demographic features of stung patients, the nature and the chronology of clinical events in scorpion envenimation, and the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical factors of severity. On this basis, the CAPM worked out a national strategy to struggle against scorpion stings whose aim was to decrease the morbidity and mortality caused by stings of scorpion as well as to rationalise economic expenses. The components of this strategy were based on the training of the medical and paramedical staff, on information, education, communication involving different sectors, on identification of needs and on follow-up and assessment. A nationwide campaign was implemented to change the population and health-care staff's behaviour regarding this pathology. Its evaluation permitted to improve the compilation of cases with census of 14104 cases, to reduce lethality rate and to rationalise expenses while banishing some medicines and avoiding useless hospitalization.

  14. Consequences of Androctonus mauretanicus and Buthus occitanus scorpion venoms on electrolyte levels in rabbits

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    Khadija Daoudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androctonus mauretanicus (A. mauretanicus and Buthus occitanus (B. occitanus scorpions, which belong to the Buthidae family, are the most venomous scorpions in Morocco. For the first time, we investigated the effects of such scorpion venoms on serum electrolytes in subcutaneously injected rabbits. For this purpose, 3 groups of 6 albinos adult male rabbits (New Zealand were used in this experiment. Two of the groups were given a single subcutaneous injection of either crude Am venom (5 μg/kg or Bo venom (8 μg/kg whereas the third group (control group only received physiological saline solution (NaCl 0.9%. The blood samples were collected from injected rabbits via the marginal vein at time intervals of 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 6 h and 24 h after venom injection. The concentrations of electrolytes in the serum samples were measured. Our study indicates that scorpion envenomation in vivo, rabbit animal model, caused severe and persistent hypomagnesaemia and hypochloremia, which are accompanied of hypernatremia, hyperkalemia and hypercalcaemia. The intensity of electrolytes imbalance was clearly superior in the case of A. mauretanicus scorpion venom (although a lower quantity of venom was injected. This is coherent with the experimental data which indicate that A. mauretanicus venom is more toxic than B. occitanus venom.

  15. Scorpionism in Central America, with special reference to the case of Panama

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    A Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism in the Americas occurs mainly in Mexico, northern South America and southeast Brazil. This article reviews the local scorpion fauna, available health statistics, and the literature to assess scorpionism in Central America. Notwithstanding its high toxicity in Mexico, most scorpion sting cases in Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are produced by species in the genus Centruroides that are only mildly toxic to humans despite the existence of ion channel-active toxins in their venoms. Regional morbidity is low with the exception of Panama, where an incidence of 52 cases per 100,000 inhabitants was recorded for 2007, with 28 deaths from 1998 to 2006. Taxa belonging to the genus Tityus (also present in the Atlantic coast of Costa Rica are responsible for fatalities in Panama, with Tityus pachyurus being the most important species medically. Most Tityus species inhabiting Panama are also found in northern South America from which they probably migrated upon closure of the Panamanian isthmus in the Miocene era. Incorporation of Panama as part of the northern South American endemic area of scorpionism is thereby suggested based on the incidence of these accidents and the geographical distribution of Panamanian Tityus species.

  16. Watch Out for Your Neighbor: Climbing onto Shrubs Is Related to Risk of Cannibalism in the Scorpion Buthus cf. occitanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco; Urbano-Tenorio, Fernando

    The distribution and behavior of foraging animals usually imply a balance between resource availability and predation risk. In some predators such as scorpions, cannibalism constitutes an important mortality factor determining their ecology and behavior. Climbing on vegetation by scorpions has been related both to prey availability and to predation (cannibalism) risk. We tested different hypotheses proposed to explain climbing on vegetation by scorpions. We analyzed shrub climbing in Buthus cf. occitanus with regard to the following: a) better suitability of prey size for scorpions foraging on shrubs than on the ground, b) selection of shrub species with higher prey load, c) seasonal variations in prey availability on shrubs, and d) whether or not cannibalism risk on the ground increases the frequency of shrub climbing. Prey availability on shrubs was compared by estimating prey abundance in sticky traps placed in shrubs. A prey sample from shrubs was measured to compare prey size. Scorpions were sampled in six plots (50 m x 10 m) to estimate the proportion of individuals climbing on shrubs. Size difference and distance between individuals and their closest scorpion neighbor were measured to assess cannibalism risk. The results showed that mean prey size was two-fold larger on the ground. Selection of particular shrub species was not related to prey availability. Seasonal variations in the number of scorpions on shrubs were related to the number of active scorpions, but not with fluctuations in prey availability. Size differences between a scorpion and its nearest neighbor were positively related with a higher probability for a scorpion to climb onto a shrub when at a disadvantage, but distance was not significantly related. These results do not support hypotheses explaining shrub climbing based on resource availability. By contrast, our results provide evidence that shrub climbing is related to cannibalism risk.

  17. Successful Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for the Treatment of Cardiogenic Shock due to Scorpion Envenomation

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    Amine Tarmiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The occurrence of a cardiogenic shock is a rare presentation after scorpion envenomation. The treatment includes classically the use of inotropes and specific vasodilators. Case Presentation. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema after a scorpion sting. Despite adequate management at the emergency department and intensive care unit, the patient’s hemodynamic status worsened rapidly, justifying his transfer to our department for ventricular mechanical assistance by venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The following outcomes were favorable and the boy was discharged home on day 29 without aftereffects. Conclusion. This is the first report of successful use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for the treatment of cardiogenic shock after scorpion envenomation.

  18. 99mTc labeling of the scorpion (Tityus serrulatus) antivenom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, D.S.; Nunan, E.A.; Toledo, V.P.C.P.; Moraes-Santos, T.; Cardoso, V.N.

    2008-01-01

    F(ab') 2 is the fragment involved in the immunotherapy for scorpion stings and it would be convenient to label it with 99m Tc for organ distribution and pharmacokinetics studies. The aim of the present study was to label scorpion antivenom F(ab') 2 with 99m Tc keeping its biological activity, integrity and stability. High labeling yield was obtained using stannous chloride and sodium borohydride. Stability, immunoreactivity and integrity of 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 was preserved. It was not observed any difference between potencies of unlabeled and labeled antivenom. 99m Tc-F(ab') 2 can be a useful tool for use in biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies on the evaluation of the efficacy of the antivenom against scorpion envenomation. (author)

  19. Scorpion sting: a public health problem in El Kelaa des Sraghna (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. El Oufir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at verifying the impact of a Moroccan strategy against scorpion stings and specifically at identifying the epidemiological features of patients envenomed or just stung by scorpions. It included 11,907 patients from El Kelaa des Sraghna Province, Morocco, who were evaluated over five years (2001-2005. Most stings occurred during the hot period and mainly at night. The average incidence was 3.2 per 1,000 inhabitants; patients <15 years accounted for 34%, and the envenomation rate was 12%. Average lethality rate was 0.7%. Our work evaluated the efficacy of the adopted strategy based on indicators of follow-up, morbidity and lethality due to scorpion sting and envenomation.

  20. Ethnomedicinal uses of plants for the treatment of snake and scorpion bite in Northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Maryam Akram; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Fatima, Anam; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Yaseen, Ghulam; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Kayani, Sadaf

    2015-06-20

    Medicinal plants represent one of the most accessible resources available for snake and scorpion bite among the rural communities of Northern Pakistan. This first ethno-botanical study aimed to document the indigenous knowledge and practices of using plants for snake and scorpion bite disorders in Northern Pakistan. Ethno-medicinal data is documented from 187 informants using semi-structured interviews. The data is analyzed using quantitative ethno-botanical indices of frequency citation (FC) and relative Frequency of Citation (RFC). In addition to this, the ethno-medicinal findings of this survey were compared with 10 previous published studies in order to report novel uses of medicinal plants against snake and scorpion bite disorders. In total 62 medicinal plants belonging to 40 families are reported against snake and scorpion bite in this study. Our results showed that Asteraceae is the most used family (10 species), dominant life form is herb (48.38%), leaves were the most used plants part (18 Use-reports) and the paste is most used method of administration (22 reports). The range of RFC was 0.08-0.27 about the use of documented species. Compared to previous published studies, 33.87% similarity index while 66.12% novelty index is reported. About 40 plant species are first time reported with medicinal uses against snake and scorpion bite from Northern Pakistan. This study presents useful traditional knowledge of rural communities for the control of snake and scorpion bite using medicinal plants. The study mainly focused on ethno-medicinal documentation to preserve the valuable traditional knowledge that can be used in future phytochemical and pharmacological studies on medicinal plants of the area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Faunistic Study and Biodiversity of Scorpions in Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarei

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract Background: Scorpions are known as the most widespread poisonous creatures that cause casualties and death to human. They are distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. Among the sixteen Iranian Island in the Persian Gulf, Qeshm Island is the biggest and is located in the focus of the important internal and international commercial marinelines. Furthermore, thousands of tourists also visit the Island every year for its natural beauties and the siteseeings. The present research study was carried out during 1998-99 throughout Qeshm Island in order to know the species of scorpions, their abundance, the distribution and control strategy in order to reduce the scorpion stings and to safeguard the visitors as well as the local population."nMethods: Collections were made randomly during the night. Samples were searched by black light and then collected by forceps. A total of 102 scorpions were captured."nResults: The scorpions were identified as Buthotus jayakari numbered 42 specimens (41.17% and B. leptochelys numbering only 7 specimens (6.86% belonging to the family Buthidae. Androctonus crassicauda was collected in the most parts of the Island and considered as the dominant species. The sex ratio was 1:1.53 in favor of females. B. lep­tochelys was rare species and by far restricted in its distribution."nConclusion: Considering the high population of A. crassicauda and its wide distribution, it is regarded to be re­sponsible for the majority of scorpion stings in Qeshm Island.

  2. Embriotoxic effects of maternal exposure to Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. S. Barão

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tityus serrulatus is the most venomous scorpion in Brazil; however, it is not known whether its venom causes any harm to the offspring whose mothers have received it. This study investigates whether the venom of T. serrulatus may lead to deleterious effects in the offspring, when once administered to pregnant rats at a dose that causes moderate envenomation (3mg/kg. The venom effects were studied on the 5th and on the 10th gestation day (GD5 and GD10. The maternal reproductive parameters of the group that received the venom on GD5 showed no alteration. The group that received the venom on GD10 presented an increase in post-implantation losses. In this group, an increase in the liver weight was also observed and one-third of the fetuses presented incomplete ossification of skull bones. None of the groups that received the venom had any visceral malformation or delay in the fetal development of their offspring. The histopathological analysis revealed not only placentas and lungs but also hearts, livers and kidneys in perfect state. Even having caused little effect on the dams, the venom may act in a more incisive way on the offspring, whether by stress generation or by a direct action.

  3. Kalium: a database of potassium channel toxins from scorpion venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenkov, Alexey I; Krylov, Nikolay A; Chugunov, Anton O; Grishin, Eugene V; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    Kalium (http://kaliumdb.org/) is a manually curated database that accumulates data on potassium channel toxins purified from scorpion venom (KTx). This database is an open-access resource, and provides easy access to pages of other databases of interest, such as UniProt, PDB, NCBI Taxonomy Browser, and PubMed. General achievements of Kalium are a strict and easy regulation of KTx classification based on the unified nomenclature supported by researchers in the field, removal of peptides with partial sequence and entries supported by transcriptomic information only, classification of β-family toxins, and addition of a novel λ-family. Molecules presented in the database can be processed by the Clustal Omega server using a one-click option. Molecular masses of mature peptides are calculated and available activity data are compiled for all KTx. We believe that Kalium is not only of high interest to professional toxinologists, but also of general utility to the scientific community.Database URL:http://kaliumdb.org/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Differential comparison on protein components of the venoms obtained from two species of the Iranian endemic scorpions, Buthidae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Farahmandzad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two Dimensional Electrophoresis (2DE is the most commonly and useful separation technique in proteomics. Each proteome snapshot becomes a protein profile. By means of this technique, several proteins are studied simultaneously. Methods: In this study, by use of (2DE method, the differences of two profiles of Buthidae endemic scorpions, A.Crassicauda known as "black scorpion" and "O. doriae" yellow scorpion", were investigated. Results: For A.Crassicauda scorpion there were about 20 spots (peptides in 6.2 - 8.2 pH ranges and molecular weight was less than 3 to 14 kDa and O. doriae scorpion 30 peptides, in 6.3 - 8.5 pH ranges, 1 to 45 kDa that fractionated and identified. Conclusion: By this method, the field of bioinformative data bank from Iranian endemic scorpions' venom could be prepared. By making change of any effective factors on scorpion venom, considerable results due to influence of the factor on determining kind of venom can be achieved and studied.

  5. New binding site on common molecular scaffold provides HERG channel specificity of scorpion toxin BeKm-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korolkova, Yuliya V; Bocharov, Eduard V; Angelo, Kamilla

    2002-01-01

    The scorpion toxin BeKm-1 is unique among a variety of known short scorpion toxins affecting potassium channels in its selective action on ether-a-go-go-related gene (ERG)-type channels. BeKm-1 shares the common molecular scaffold with other short scorpion toxins. The toxin spatial structure...... resolved by NMR consists of a short alpha-helix and a triple-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. By toxin mutagenesis study we identified the residues that are important for the binding of BeKm-1 to the human ERG K+ (HERG) channel. The most critical residues (Tyr-11, Lys-18, Arg-20, Lys-23) are located...

  6. Epidemiological review of scorpion stings in Qatar. The need for regional management guidelines in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahlout, Baha H; Abid, Muhammad M; Kasim, Mohammad M; Haneef, Shumaila M

    2015-07-01

    To review the epidemiology of scorpion sting in Qatar, to explore both the clinical significance, and the role of the emergency department (ED) in the management of such cases. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the records of all scorpion sting cases presented to the ED of Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar between October 2010 and May 2013. A total of 111 cases of scorpion stings were reviewed, 81 (72.9%) were males and 30 (27.1%) were females, with a mean age of 38 years. Localized pain was the most frequent presenting complaint (89 [80.2%]), whereas localized redness (44 [39.6%]) and swelling (38 [34.2%]) were the most common clinical signs. Abroug's classification was used, and all cases  were found to be class I. All patients received symptomatic treatment and were sent home. Scorpion sting problem in Qatar has a low clinical significance. Data from such studies should be utilized to create more specific (local) management guidelines, which should be more efficient with more rational utilization of ED resources.

  7. Scorpion biodiversity and interslope divergence at "evolution canyon", lower Nahal Oren microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Raz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local natural laboratories, designated by us as the "Evolution Canyon" model, are excellent tools to study regional and global ecological dynamics across life. They present abiotic and biotic contrasts locally, permitting the pursuit of observations and experiments across diverse taxa sharing sharp microecological subdivisions. Higher solar radiation received by the "African savannah-like" south-facing slopes (AS in canyons north of the equator than by the opposite "European maquis-like" north-facing slopes (ES is associated with higher abiotic stress. Scorpions are a suitable taxon to study interslope biodiversity differences, associated with the differences in abiotic factors (climate, drought, due to their ability to adapt to dry environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Scorpions were studied by the turning stone method and by UV light methods. The pattern observed in scorpions was contrasted with similar patterns in several other taxa at the same place. As expected, the AS proved to be significantly more speciose regarding scorpions, paralleling the interslope patterns in taxa such as lizards and snakes, butterflies (Rhopalocera, beetles (families Tenebrionidae, Dermestidae, Chrysomelidae, and grasshoppers (Orthoptera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support an earlier conclusion stating that the homogenizing effects of migration and stochasticity are not able to eliminate the interslope intra- and interspecific differences in biodiversity despite an interslope distance of only 100 m at the "EC" valley bottom. In our opinion, the interslope microclimate selection, driven mainly by differences in insolance, could be the primary factor responsible for the observed interslope pattern.

  8. Scorpion biodiversity and interslope divergence at "evolution canyon", lower Nahal Oren microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Shmuel; Retzkin, Sion; Pavlícek, Tomás; Hoffman, Adam; Kimchi, Hagay; Zehavi, Dan; Beiles, Avigdor; Nevo, Eviatar

    2009-01-01

    Local natural laboratories, designated by us as the "Evolution Canyon" model, are excellent tools to study regional and global ecological dynamics across life. They present abiotic and biotic contrasts locally, permitting the pursuit of observations and experiments across diverse taxa sharing sharp microecological subdivisions. Higher solar radiation received by the "African savannah-like" south-facing slopes (AS) in canyons north of the equator than by the opposite "European maquis-like" north-facing slopes (ES) is associated with higher abiotic stress. Scorpions are a suitable taxon to study interslope biodiversity differences, associated with the differences in abiotic factors (climate, drought), due to their ability to adapt to dry environments. Scorpions were studied by the turning stone method and by UV light methods. The pattern observed in scorpions was contrasted with similar patterns in several other taxa at the same place. As expected, the AS proved to be significantly more speciose regarding scorpions, paralleling the interslope patterns in taxa such as lizards and snakes, butterflies (Rhopalocera), beetles (families Tenebrionidae, Dermestidae, Chrysomelidae), and grasshoppers (Orthoptera). Our results support an earlier conclusion stating that the homogenizing effects of migration and stochasticity are not able to eliminate the interslope intra- and interspecific differences in biodiversity despite an interslope distance of only 100 m at the "EC" valley bottom. In our opinion, the interslope microclimate selection, driven mainly by differences in insolance, could be the primary factor responsible for the observed interslope pattern.

  9. Epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in Al-Jouf province, SaudiArabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrar, Bashir M.; Al-Rowaily, Meshref A.

    2008-01-01

    Information on scorpion stings is available for many parts of SaudiArabia, but not for the Al-Jouf Province. We reviewed and analyzed 1449 casesof scorpion stings that presented to the emergency department of thehospitals and medical centers in Al-Jouf Province during a 2-year period(2005-2006). The majority of patients (92.7%) manifested class I envenomationwith local pain at the sting site as the primary complaint. Systemic toxicitywas noticed in 7.3% of cases but no deaths were reported. Scorpion stingswere recorded throughout the year with the highest seasonal incidence in thesummer (64.3%) and the lowest during the winter (10.6%). The highest monthlyincidence was in June (21.5%) and the lowest in December (1.5%). Most of thepatients were male (77.3%) and the age of 44.2% of victims ranged between 15to 30 years. Diurnal stings exceeded the nocturnal ones with a ratio of 3:2and most of the stings were located mainly on the exposed limbs (88.6%),especially the lower limbs (51.7%). Leiurus quinquestriatus and Androctouscrassicauda were incriminated in most recorded cases. Our findings indicatethat scorpion stings are common in Al-Jouf Province, especially during thesummer. The overall threat to human health was found to be low. (author)

  10. Scorpion envenomation in pygmies from Democratic Republic of Congo, the example of Pelenge Center, Lomela, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Biezakala Mudiandambu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey among the pygmies of central Democratic Republic of Congo, the incidence of scorpion stings seemed very high with a severity greater than expected. Species responsible were not identified. Specific studies are needed to clarify the risk emerging in the equatorial African forest.

  11. Impact of scorpion stings on electrocardiographic changes and relationship with body oxidant and antioxidant status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behcet, A.; Zengin, S.; Yildirim, C.; Ercan, S.; Davutoglu, V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate electrocardiogram changes due to scorpion stings and association between oxidative stress index, body oxidant/antioxidant system and the electrocardiogram changes. Methods: The study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Turkey, between May 2009 and October 2010. It comprised 44 patients admitted to the emergency department for scorpion sting, and a control group of matched age and gender of 20 persons. Electrocardiograms were taken promptly in the most painful phases of the patients. Cardiac parameters were measured. Erythrocyte packages were prepared to detect toxin/antioxidant levels. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 44 patients, 22 (50%) were male. Overall average age of the patients was 45.22+-17.99 years. None of the patients required intensive care and none of them had limb losses. Cardiac parameters of the patients in electrocardiogram were higher (p 0.05). Conclusion: Scorpion stings associated with electrocardiogram changes. The mechanism of this relationship is not related with the status of body oxidative stress index and body oxidant and antioxidant capacity. Some parameters warrant further study in terms of potential serious arrhythmias in scorpionism. (author)

  12. [The epidemiological situation of scorpion stings in the Beni Mellal province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrab, Nezha; Soulaymani, Rachida; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Semlali, Ilham; El Oufir, Rhizlane; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyse and interpret data from patients bitten by scorpions in a province of Morocco in order to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by scorpion venom. A study was conducted of 901 cases of poisoning among 6959 cases of scorpion stings recorded between January 2002 and December 2006 from bites recorded in Beni Mellal. The results show that poisoning strongly coincides with the summer period, especially in July and August. All age groups are affected by this disease with an average age of 17.28 +/- 17.91 years. For the time post injection, 35.2% were able to check in under an hour. On the other hand, 70.9% reach a health facility with symptoms (class II) and 29.1% with signs of distress (Class III). Finally, the evolution of patients is mostly positive in 94.7% of cases, and the case fatality rate from scorpion sting poisoning is 3.88%.

  13. Primary structure of the oligosaccharide moiety of hemocyanin from the scorpion Androctonus australis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Debeire, P.; Montreuil, J.; Goyffon, M.; Kuik, J.A. van; Halbeek, H. van

    1986-01-01

    Hemocyanin, the copper-containing glycoprotein that serves as an oxygen carrier in the hemolymph of some arthropods and molluscs, was obtained from the blood of the scorpion Androctonus australis. Sugar analysis of the glycoprotein revealed that its carbohydrate moiety is of the N-glycosylic type.

  14. Epidemiology of Snake, Spider and Scorpion Envenomation in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi, Iran (2004-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Envenomation is common in Asia including Iran that induces morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the epidemiological characteristics of cases with snake, spider and scorpion bites. Methods: In this cross-sectional design, epidemiologic data of admitted cases to the Toxicology Department of Imam Reza Hospital of Mashhad, Iran were analyzed across a 7-yr period, from 2004 to 2011. SPSS was used for data analysis. Results: This study reports 686 admissions due to animal envenomation with an incidence rate of 2.9 per 100000. Mean (SD, min-max age of admitted patients was 30 (19, 1-90 yr, and 471 (69% were male. Snakebite (n, percentage, annual incidence (299, 44%, 1.3 per 100000 and spider bite (188, 27%, 0.8 per 100000 and scorpion sting (126, 18.4%, 0.5 per 100000 were most frequent cases. Overall, case fatality rate was 0.09 per 100000 which were due to scorpion and unknown bite. No cases of snakebites died in this period. The highest age-specific incidence rate was 4.6 per 100000 and related to 10-20 yr of age. Conclusion: Animal envenomation is frequent in this area and a matter of health concern. While deaths related to snake bite are no longer reported-presumably due to using effective anti-venom - managing unknown and scorpion bites need to be addressed. Envenomation was not overtly an age-specific event in this province.

  15. Cost Minimization Analysis of Different Strategies of Management of Clinically Significant Scorpion Envenomation Among Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Madhumita; Quan, Dan; McDonald, Fred W; Valdez, André

    2016-12-01

    Scorpion antivenom was recently approved for use in patients with clinically significant scorpion envenomation in the United States; no formal economic analysis on its impact on cost of management has been performed. Three different strategies of management of scorpion envenomation with systemic neurotoxic symptoms in children were compared for cost minimization from a societal perspective. In strategy I, patients were managed with supportive care only without antivenom. In strategy II, an aggressive strategy of full-dose antivenom (initial dose of 3 vials with the use of additional vials administered 1 vial at a time) was considered. In strategy III, a single-vial serial antivenom dosing strategy titrated to clinical response was considered. Clinical probabilities for the different strategies were obtained from retrospective review of medical records of patients with scorpion envenomation over a 10-year period at our institution. Baseline cost values were obtained from patient reimbursement data from our institution. In baseline analysis, strategy I of supportive care only with no antivenom was least costly at US $3466.50/patient. Strategy III of single-vial serial dosing was intermediate but less expensive than strategy II of full-dose antivenom, with an incremental cost of US $3171.08 per patient. In a 1-way sensitivity analysis, at a threshold antivenom cost of US $1577.87, strategy III of single-vial serial dosing became the least costly strategy. For children with scorpion envenomation, use of a management strategy based on serial dosing of antivenom titrated to clinical response is less costly than a strategy of initial use of full-dose antivenom.

  16. new caerin-like antibacterial peptide from the venom gland of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scorpion venom consists of different types of peptides and proteins which are encoded by individual genes. A full length cDNA consisting of 238 base pair nucleotides and encoding 74 amino acids peptide was isolated from the venom gland of the Iranian scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus (Buthidae family). This peptide named ...

  17. A new caerin-like antibacterial peptide from the venom gland of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pcnoor1389-4-1

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... Scorpion venom consists of different types of peptides and proteins which are encoded by individual genes. A full length cDNA consisting of 238 base pair nucleotides and encoding 74 amino acids peptide was isolated from the venom gland of the Iranian scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus (Buthidae family).

  18. Envenenamento por Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones; Buthidae no Estado da Bahia, Brasil Envenomation by Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones; Buthidae in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejâne Maria Lira-da-Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A presente investigação é um estudo descritivo dos aspectos clínicos dos acidentes causados pelo escorpião Tityus stigmurus no Estado da Bahia, Brasil. Foram analisados 237 casos confirmados, tratados pelo Centro de Informações Antiveneno da Bahia (CIAVE, no período de 1982-1995. O envenenamento por T. stigmurus caracterizou-se por manifestações locais: dor (94,4%, dormência (30%, edema (17,8%, eritema (17,8% e parestesia (15,6% e gerais: cefaléia (14%, vômitos (4,4% e sudorese (3,3%. A maioria dos envenenamentos (94% foi leve e todos evoluíram para cura. A ausência de letalidade, com o restabelecimento dos pacientes, inclusive casos graves, sugere a eficácia do tratamento com o antiveneno específico, apesar do veneno desta espécie não estar presente no pool de produção nacional do soro. Há necessidade de revisão dos critérios regionais nos esquemas atuais de soroterapia. Os dados apontam para a semelhança da gravidade do envenenamento por T. serrulatus, com exceção da ocorrência de óbitos e complicações sistêmicas.The present investigation is a descriptive study regarding the clinical aspects of accidents caused by the scorpion Tityus stigmurus in Bahia, Brazil. We analyzed 237 confirmed cases treated by the Antivenom Information Centre (CIAVE from 1982 to 1995. Envenomation by T. stigmurus was mainly characterized by local symptoms: pain (94.4%, dormancy (30.0%, edema (17.8%, erythema (17.8, paresthesia (15.6% and general manifestations such as headache (4.4%, vomiting (4.4% and sudoresis (3.3%. Most of the envenomation cases were mild (94% and all were successfully cured. Although T. stigmurus venom is not in the pool of anti-venom serum (SAE, the absence of lethality and benign nature of the cases suggest the efficiency of SAE. With the exception of deaths and systemic complications, envenoming gravity was similar to those of Tityus serrulatus.

  19. Loop Replacement Enhances the Ancestral Antibacterial Function of a Bifunctional Scorpion Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangfei Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the evolutionary relationship between scorpion toxins targeting K+ channels (KTxs and antibacterial defensins (Zhu S., Peigneur S., Gao B., Umetsu Y., Ohki S., Tytgat J. Experimental conversion of a defensin into a neurotoxin: Implications for origin of toxic function. Mol. Biol. Evol. 2014, 31, 546–559, we performed protein engineering experiments to modify a bifunctional KTx (i.e., weak inhibitory activities on both K+ channels and bacteria via substituting its carboxyl loop with the structurally equivalent loop of contemporary defensins. As expected, the engineered peptide (named MeuTXKα3-KFGGI remarkably improved the antibacterial activity, particularly on some Gram-positive bacteria, including several antibiotic-resistant opportunistic pathogens. Compared with the unmodified toxin, its antibacterial spectrum also enlarged. Our work provides a new method to enhance the antibacterial activity of bifunctional scorpion venom peptides, which might be useful in engineering other proteins with an ancestral activity.

  20. Bothriurus pichicuy, nuevo escorpión chileno del grupo vittatus (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mattoni, Camilo I.

    2002-01-01

    Bothriurus pichicuy, a new scorpion species from the center coast of Chile, is described. It belongs to the vittatus species-group, and differs from the others species in the group by the pigmentation patterns of the prosoma, mesosoma and venter of metasoma, by the development and arrangement of the ventral keels of caudal segment V, and for its small size. The species is the only representative of the vittatus species-group that lives in sympatry with another Bothriurus species: B. coriaceus...

  1. Acute kidney injury in Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion stung children: Risk factors and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Valavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is frequently seen in Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion stung children. We have previously reported several victims with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 deficiency. Hence, we conducted this study to identify predictive factors and clinical features of AKI in H. lepturus scorpion stung patients. We included all 215 H. lepturus scorpion stung children with no previous renal diseases in two groups (with and without AKI and compared them based on their clinical and laboratory findings. AKI was found in 27.4% of patients, they were significantly younger and with lower body weight (P = 0.006, P = 0.011, respectively. There was a significant difference between groups with and without AKI in findings such as fever (P = 0.003, hypertension (P <0.001, hemolytic anemia (P <0.001, thrombocytopenia (P <0.001, massive proteinuria (P <0.001, hemoglobinuria (P <0.001, pyuria (P <0.001, and hematuria (P = 0.004. HUS was in 5.5% and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14.6% which had a significant association with AKI (P <0.001.There were several independent predictors for AKI in a multivariate regression model including thrombocytopenia (P = 0.002, pyuria (P = 0.01, proteinuria (P =0.01, and fever (P = 0.02. Hemodialysis was performed in four patients but kidney function improved in all patients and there was no findings of renal impairment after three months follow-up. We found several predictors for AKI in children following H. lepturus scorpion sting including younger age, delay in receiving medical care, pigmenturia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, proteinuria, and pyuria.

  2. Inhibition of gastric emptying and intestinal transit in anesthetized rats by a Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E.A. Troncon

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a fraction (T1 of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom prepared by gel filtration on gastric emptying and small intestinal transit were investigated in male Wistar rats. Fasted animals were anesthetized with urethane, submitted to tracheal intubation and right jugular vein cannulation. Scorpion toxin (250 µg/kg or saline was injected iv and 1 h later a bolus of saline (1.0 ml/100 g labeled with 99m technetium-phytate (10 MBq was administered by gavage. After 15 min, animals were sacrificed and the radioactivity remaining in the stomach was determined. Intestinal transit was evaluated by instillation of a technetium-labeled saline bolus (1.0 ml through a cannula previously implanted in the duodenum. After 60 min, the progression of the marker throughout 7 consecutive gut segments was estimated by the geometric center method. Gastric retention of the liquid test meal in rats injected with scorpion toxin (median: 88%; range: 52-95% was significantly higher (P<0.02 than in controls (54%; 21-76%, an effect which was not modified by gastric secretion blockade with ranitidine. The progression of the isotope marker throughout the small intestine was significantly slower (P<0.05 in rats treated with toxin (1.2; 1.0-2.5 than in control animals (2.3; 1.0-3.2. Inhibition of both gastric emptying and intestinal transit in rats injected with scorpion toxin suggests an increased resistance to aboral flow, which might be caused by abnormal neurotransmitter release or by the local effects of venom on smooth muscle cells.

  3. Technetium-99m labeling of tityustoxin and venom from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunan, E.A.; Cardoso, V.N.; Moraes-Santos, T.

    2002-01-01

    The tityustoxin, the most toxic fraction from scorpion Tityus serrulatus venom, has been used as a tool in several neurochemical and neuropharmacological studies. Biological activities of labeled and unlabeled tityustoxin and venom were compared. The samples were labeled in the presence of stannous chloride and sodium borohydride with a yield of 60-70% for the venom and 75-85% for tityustoxin and then chromatographed in Sephadex G-10. Biological activities of tityustoxin and venom were preserved after labeling

  4. Species delimitation and morphological divergence in the scorpion Centruroides vittatus (Say, 1821: insights from phylogeography.

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    Tsunemi Yamashita

    Full Text Available Scorpion systematics and taxonomy have recently shown a need for revision, partially due to insights from molecular techniques. Scorpion taxonomy has been difficult with morphological characters as disagreement exists among researchers with character choice for adequate species delimitation in taxonomic studies. Within the family Buthidae, species identification and delimitation is particularly difficult due to the morphological similarity among species and extensive intraspecific morphological diversity. The genus Centruroides in the western hemisphere is a prime example of the difficulty in untangling the taxonomic complexity within buthid scorpions. In this paper, we present phylogeographic, Ecological Niche Modeling, and morphometric analyses to further understand how population diversification may have produced morphological diversity in Centruroides vittatus (Say, 1821. We show that C. vittatus populations in the Big Bend and Trans-Pecos region of Texas, USA are phylogeographically distinct and may predate the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. In addition, we suggest the extended isolation of Big Bend region populations may have created the C. vittatus variant once known as C. pantheriensis.

  5. Scorpion envenoming in two regions of Colombia: clinical, epidemiological and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, R; Navío, E; Céspedes, F A; Núñez, M J; Lozano, L; Moscoso, E R; Matallana, C; Arsuza, N B; García, J; Fernández, D; Rodas, J H; Rodríguez, O J; Zuleta, J E; Gómez, J P; Saldarriaga, M; Quintana, J C; Núñez, V; Cárdenas, S; Barona, J; Valderrama, R; Paz, N; Díaz, A; Rodríguez, O L; Martínez, M D; Maturana, R; Beltrán, L E; Mesa, M B; Paniagua, J; Flórez, E; Lourenço, W R

    2004-12-01

    To determine clinical and epidemiological features of scorpion stings in two departments of Colombia, a descriptive study was performed in the hospitals of 10 towns from Antioquia (2 256 071 inhabitants) and five from Tolima (630 424 inhabitants). One hundred and twenty-nine cases were admitted during one year, 51 in Antioquia, 78 in Tolima and 41 were children less than 15 years old. Most stings (70.5%) occurred inside the house; 27.9% were on the hands and 26.4% on the feet. The scorpion species involved were Tityus pachyurus (51), Centruroides gracilis (31), T. fuehrmanni (29), T. asthenes (7) and Chactas spp. (1). In 10 cases the scorpion involved was not identified. Systemic envenoming signs (e.g. vomiting, tachypnea) were significantly more frequent in children than in adults (P < 0.05). Four children had hypertension, but none developed pulmonary oedema. One 3-year-old girl, stung by T. asthenes, had acute oedematous pancreatitis. Ninety-eight patients had mild envenoming. Moderate (27 patients) and severe (four patients) envenoming was significantly more frequent in children than in adults (P = 0.003; relative risk = 2.97). A pepsin-digested anti-Centruroides spp. antivenom was administered to 19 of 31 patients presenting systemic envenoming signs. No adverse reactions to antivenom were observed.

  6. Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and Its Bacterial Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramirez, Karen; Skaljac, Marisa; Grotmann, Jens; Kirfel, Phillipp; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2017-08-24

    Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites. The evolution of aphids has been accompanied by the loss of many immunity-related genes, such as those encoding antibacterial peptides, which are prevalent in other insects, probably because any harm to the bacterial symbionts would inevitably affect the aphids themselves. This suggests that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could replace or at least complement conventional insecticides for aphid control. We fed the pea aphids ( Acyrthosiphon pisum ) with AMPs from the venom glands of scorpions. The AMPs reduced aphid survival, delayed their reproduction, displayed in vitro activity against aphid bacterial symbionts, and reduced the number of symbionts in vivo. Remarkably, we found that some of the scorpion AMPs compromised the aphid bacteriome, a specialized organ that harbours bacterial symbionts. Our data suggest that scorpion AMPs holds the potential to be developed as bio-insecticides, and are promising candidates for the engineering of aphid-resistant crops.

  7. Orally Delivered Scorpion Antimicrobial Peptides Exhibit Activity against Pea Aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum and Its Bacterial Symbionts

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    Karen Luna-Ramirez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are severe agricultural pests that damage crops by feeding on phloem sap and vectoring plant pathogens. Chemical insecticides provide an important aphid control strategy, but alternative and sustainable control measures are required to avoid rapidly emerging resistance, environmental contamination, and the risk to humans and beneficial organisms. Aphids are dependent on bacterial symbionts, which enable them to survive on phloem sap lacking essential nutrients, as well as conferring environmental stress tolerance and resistance to parasites. The evolution of aphids has been accompanied by the loss of many immunity-related genes, such as those encoding antibacterial peptides, which are prevalent in other insects, probably because any harm to the bacterial symbionts would inevitably affect the aphids themselves. This suggests that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs could replace or at least complement conventional insecticides for aphid control. We fed the pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum with AMPs from the venom glands of scorpions. The AMPs reduced aphid survival, delayed their reproduction, displayed in vitro activity against aphid bacterial symbionts, and reduced the number of symbionts in vivo. Remarkably, we found that some of the scorpion AMPs compromised the aphid bacteriome, a specialized organ that harbours bacterial symbionts. Our data suggest that scorpion AMPs holds the potential to be developed as bio-insecticides, and are promising candidates for the engineering of aphid-resistant crops.

  8. Epidemiological study of scorpion stings in Saudi Arabia between 1993 and 1997

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    M. K. Al-Sadoon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%, the lowest in February (2.52%. Most patients were male (61.8%; the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%. Nocturnal envenomation (47.74% was more common than diurnal (43.91%; most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%, mainly in the lower limbs (63%. Most envenomings were mild (74.48% and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807, and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807 were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.

  9. Risk factors for scorpion stings in the beni mellal province of morocco

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    N Charrab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings comprise a serious problem throughout the globe, especially in regions where they are more frequent. In Morocco, Beni Mellal is one of the provinces most affected by this burden. This study aimed to trace the epidemiological profile of scorpion stings in Beni Mellal in order to improve patient care and prevent both morbidity and mortality. Our work is a retrospective study of scorpion stings based on medical charts of Beni Mellal. From 2002 to 2007, 8,340 cases were registered in this province with an average incidence of 1.36‰. The stings were more frequent in summer months, particularly July and August, and between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. (59.8%. The average age of victims was 26.54 ± 18.42 years. Children were affected in 30.3% of the cases. Of all registered cases, 67.3% of the patients received medical aid in less than an hour after the sting. The envenomation rate (Class II and Class III was 12.4% and the overall case-fatality rate was 0.42% with a mortality rate of 0.005‰. Statistical analysis of the various studied factors revealed a significant connection among the envenomation class, patient age and evolution.

  10. Covalent structure of the insect toxin of the North African scorpion Androctonus australis Hector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darbon, H.; Kopeyan, C.; Rietschoten, J. van; Rochat, H.; Zlotkin, E.

    1982-01-01

    The complete covalent structure of the insect toxin purified from the venom of the North-African scorpion Androctonus australis Hector was described. Its amino acid sequence was established by phenylisothiocyanate degradation of several protein derivatives and proteolytic fragments in a liquid protein sequencer using either a ''protein'' or a ''peptide'' program. The position of the four disulfide bridges were deduced by analysis of proteolytic peptides before and after performic oxidation, and by partial labeling of the half cystine residues with [ 14 C]-iodoacetic acid and determining the specific radioactivities of the S-[ 14 C]-carboxymethylated phenylthiohydantoin cysteines. The sequences of the insect and mammal toxins from scorpions can be aligned with homology with the positions of seven half-cystine residues as registers. The mammal and insect toxins have three disulfide bridges at homologous positions. The fourth bridge is different in that Cys 12 in mammal toxin II is replaced by Cys 38 in the insect toxin. It is likely that the position of the disulfide bridges is the same for all scorpion neurotoxins active on mammals. We believe that the shift of one half-cystine residue in the insect toxin may induce a conformational change in the structure of the protein, which, in turn, may partially account for the total specificity of this toxin for insect nervous system. (author)

  11. Scorpionism in Ecuador: First report of severe and fatal envenoming cases from northern Manabí by Tityus asthenes Pocock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Adolfo; Morales, Melva; Loor, Wilmer; Delgado, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    The presence in rural areas of western Ecuador of scorpions in the genus Tityus capable of producing pediatric mortality is hereby evidenced. The medical significance of scorpions in Ecuador has been underestimated partly because of the clinically unimportant stings delivered by Centruroides margaritatus and Teuthraustes atramentarius, which have venom with low toxicity to vertebrates. Five intra-domiciliary cases of scorpion envenoming in victims aged between 1.9 and 16 years old, including one fatality, are reported from rural settings in forest areas of Chone (n = 2) and Flavio Alfaro (n = 3) counties, northern Manabí province, western Ecuador. Three cases were graded as Class II (moderate) and two in Class III (severe) envenoming. Manifestations showed characteristic autonomic nervous system hyper-stimulation and the fatality (a 1.9-year-old boy from Flavio Alfaro) was due to cardio-respiratory failure. Marked leukocytosis in four of the cases (21,800-31,800 cells/mm(3)), with notable neutrophilia (58-82%), suggests induction of a venom-mediated systemic inflammatory response-like syndrome. Specimens responsible for cases in Flavio Alfaro County, including the fatality, were classified as Tityus asthenes Pocock, accountable for severe scorpionism in Colombia. These findings demand implementation of control and therapeutic measures in affected areas in Ecuador, including evaluation of available scorpion antivenoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae from Xizang province, China

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    GB Jiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current work, the courtship and mating of Scorpiops luridus Zhu Lourenço & Qi, 2005 (Euscorpiidae from Xizang province (Tibet, China, were studied for the first time in the laboratory. Most of the mating behaviors in Scorpiops luridus are not remarkably different from those exhibited by other scorpions. However, for the first time a male pulling a female with its chelicerae to rapidly accomplish the sperm uptake was observed. Additionally, the sexual stinging behavior displayed by the male occurred in the initial stage, not during the promenade stage as previously described in several scorpion species. Through observation and analysis, we speculate that venom injection during sexual stinging is selective, possibly relying on the status shown by the stung scorpion (passive or aggressive. In order to clearly describe the process of courtship and mating, both sequences are represented in a flow chart, while the main behavior components of these processes were identified, analyzed and discussed.

  13. Circumstantial evidences for mimicry of scorpions by the neotropical gecko Coleodactylus brachystoma (Squamata, Gekkonidae in the Cerrados of central Brazil

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    Reuber Albuquerque Brandão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few records of invertebrates mimicry by reptiles. In the Cerrados of central Brazil, the small Coleodactylus brachystoma is an endemic species common in the islands and margins of the Serra da Mesa hydroelectric dam reservoir. When cornered, this lizard folds the tail over the body exposing the pale-orange ventral surface. Lizard behavior, tail length and color pattern confer to this lizard a strong resemblance with syntopic buthid scorpions Rhopalurus agamenon, Tytius matogrossensis, and Anantheris balzani. Lizards and scorpions share the same tail color, size, and shape. Ecologically, they use the same microhabitats, are exposed to the same potential predators, and present similar behaviors when threatened.

  14. Accident caused by Centruroides testaceus (DeGeer, 1778 (Scorpiones, Buthidae, native to the Caribbean, in Brazilian airport

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    Ricardo Antônio Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Describes the case of a 6-year-old girl who was stung by a Centruroides testaceus, a scorpion native to the Lesser Antilles, in the Guarulhos International Airport, São Paulo, Brazil, as she disembarked from a flight coming from the Caribbean. The patient presented only local symptoms (a small area of erythema and pain at the sting site, which were resolved after a few hours with analgesics, without the need for antivenom. Physicians who treat patients stung by scorpions should be alert to the possibility of such accidents being caused by non native species, especially those cases that occur near airports or ports.

  15. First divergence time estimate of spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks (subphylum: Chelicerata) inferred from mitochondrial phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaprakash, Ayyamperumal; Hoy, Marjorie A

    2009-01-01

    Spiders, scorpions, mites and ticks (chelicerates) form one of the most diverse groups of arthropods on land, but their origin and times of diversification are not yet established. We estimated, for the first time, the molecular divergence times for these chelicerates using complete mitochondrial sequences from 25 taxa. All mitochondrial genes were evaluated individually or after concatenation. Sequences belonging to three missing genes (ND3, 6, and tRNA-Asp) from three taxa, as well as the faster-evolving ribosomal RNAs (12S and 16S), tRNAs, and the third base of each codon from 11 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (COI-III, CYTB, ATP8, 6, ND1-2, 4L, and 4-5), were identified and removed. The remaining concatenated sequences from 11 PCGs produced a completely resolved phylogenetic tree and confirmed that all chelicerates are monophyletic. Removing the third base from each codon was essential to resolve the phylogeny, which allowed deep divergence times to be calculated using three nodes calibrated with upper and lower priors. Our estimates indicate that the orders and classes of spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks diversified in the late Paleozoic, much earlier than previously reported from fossil date estimates. The divergence time estimated for ticks suggests that their first land hosts could have been amphibians rather than reptiles. Using molecular data, we separated the spider-scorpion clades and estimated their divergence times at 397 +/- 23 million years ago. Algae, fungi, plants, and animals, including insects, were well established on land when these chelicerates diversified. Future analyses, involving mitochondrial sequences from additional chelicerate taxa and the inclusion of nuclear genes (or entire genomes) will provide a more complete picture of the evolution of the Chelicerata, the second most abundant group of animals on earth.

  16. A Scorpion Defensin BmKDfsin4 Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Replication in Vitro

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    Zhengyang Zeng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major worldwide health problem which can cause acute and chronic hepatitis and can significantly increase the risk of liver cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Nowadays, clinical therapies of HBV infection still mainly rely on nucleotide analogs and interferons, the usage of which is limited by drug-resistant mutation or side effects. Defensins had been reported to effectively inhibit the proliferation of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. Here, we screened the anti-HBV activity of 25 scorpion-derived peptides most recently characterized by our group. Through evaluating anti-HBV activity and cytotoxicity, we found that BmKDfsin4, a scorpion defensin with antibacterial and Kv1.3-blocking activities, has a comparable high inhibitory rate of both HBeAg and HBsAg in HepG2.2.15 culture medium and low cytotoxicity to HepG2.2.15. Then, our experimental results further showed that BmKDfsin4 can dose-dependently decrease the production of HBV DNA and HBV viral proteins in both culture medium and cell lysate. Interestingly, BmKDfsin4 exerted high serum stability. Together, this study indicates that the scorpion defensin BmKDfsin4 also has inhibitory activity against HBV replication along with its antibacterial and potassium ion channel Kv1.3-blocking activities, which shows that BmKDfsin4 is a uniquely multifunctional defensin molecule. Our work also provides a good molecule material which will be used to investigate the link or relationship of its antiviral, antibacterial and ion channel–modulating activities in the future.

  17. Bothriurus pichicuy, nuevo escorpión chileno del grupo vittatus (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae

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    Mattoni Camilo I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bothriurus pichicuy, a new scorpion species from the center coast of Chile, is described. It belongs to the vittatus species-group, and differs from the others species in the group by the pigmentation patterns of the prosoma, mesosoma and venter of metasoma, by the development and arrangement of the ventral keels of caudal segment V, and for its small size. The species is the only representative of the vittatus species-group that lives in sympatry with another Bothriurus species: B. coriaceus Pocock, 1893, from the coastal desert of Chile. Records of B. pichicuy came from the provinces of Petorca and Choapa.

  18. First record of a cave species of Euscorpiops Vachon from Viet Nam (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae, Scorpiopinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Pham, Dinh-Sac

    2013-07-01

    Euscorpiops cavernicola sp. n., belonging to the family Euscorpiidae Laurie, is described on the basis of two male and two female specimens collected in the Hua Ma cave located in the Quang Khe commune, Ba Be district of Bac Kan province in Viet Nam. The new species presents most features exhibited by scorpions within the genus Euscorpiops, however it may represent the first discovered Scorpiopinae species exhibiting certain adaptations to cave life. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

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    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  20. [Partial purification of peptides present in the Tityus macrochirus (Buthidae) scorpion venom and preliminary assessment of their cytotoxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cortés, Clara Andrea; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar Antonio; Vega-Castro, Nohora Angélica

    2017-06-01

    Scorpion venom contains peptides with neurotoxic action primarily active on ion channels in the nervous system of insects and mammals. They are also characterized as cytolytic and anticancer, biological characteristics that have not yet been reported for the Tityus macrochirus venom. To assess if the total T. macrochirus venom and the fraction of partially purified peptides decrease the viability of various tumor-derived cell lines. The scorpion venom was collected by electrical stimulation and, subsequently, subjected to chromatography, electrophoresis, and ultrafiltration with Amicon Ultra 0.5® membranes for the partial identification and purification of its peptides. The cytotoxic activity of the venom and the peptides fraction trials on tumor-derived cell lines were carried out by the MTT method. The T. macrochirus scorpion venom has peptides with molecular weights ranging between 3 and 10 kDa. They were partially purified using the ultrafiltration technique, and assessed by the RP-HPLC method. Cytotoxicity trials with the whole T. macrochirus venom showed a higher viability decrease on the PC3 cell line compared to the other cell lines assessed, while the partially purified peptides decreased the HeLa cell line viability. Peptides in the T. macrochirus scorpion venom showed cytotoxic activity on some tumorderived cell lines. We observed some degree of selectivity against other cell lines assessed.

  1. A Comparison of the Scorpion Load Carriage System (SLCS) to the Modular Lightweight Load Carrying Equipment (MOLLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    volunteer was asked to report wearing Battle Dress Uniform or Under Armor Undergarment) because the reflective markers used for motion capture needed to be...data collection sessions wearing Under Armor Undergarment, combat boots, integrated body armor and Scorpion helmet. Subjects were given time to

  2. Neutralizing Effects of Mimosa tenuiflora Extracts against Inflammation Caused by Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom

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    Mariana Angélica Oliveira Bitencourt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion bite represents a significant and serious public health problem in certain regions of Brazil, as well as in other parts of the world. Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora on model envenomation. In mice, the envenomation model is induced by Tityus serrulatus venom. Previous treatment of mice with fractions from M. tenuiflora was able to suppress the cell migration to the peritoneal cavity. The treatment of mice with M. tenuiflora extracts also decreased the levels of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-1β. We concluded that the administration of the extract and fractions resulted in a reduction in cell migration and showed a reduction in the level of proinflammatory cytokines. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extract from the Mimosa tenuiflora plant on T. serrulatus venom.

  3. Partitioning of transpiratory water loss of the desert scorpion, Hadrurus arizonensis (Iuridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefen, Eran; Ung, Cuong; Gibbs, Allen G

    2009-06-01

    Terrestrial arthropods lose body water to the environment mainly through transpiration. The aim of this study was to determine the fraction of respiratory losses from total transpiratory water loss in scorpions, as relatively high respiratory losses would indicate a fitness benefit from regulation of gas-exchange rate under stressful desiccating conditions. We measured metabolic rates and water-loss rates of Hadrurus arizonensis (Iuridae) at a range of ecologically-relevant temperatures. Calculation of respiratory water losses was based on increased metabolic and water-loss rates during nocturnal activity (assuming no change in cuticular resistance at a given constant experimental temperature). Respiratory losses accounted for 9.0+/-1.7% of total transpiratory losses at 25 degrees C, doubled to 17.9+/-1.8% at 30 degrees C and increased to 31.0+/-2.0% at 35 degrees C (n=5, 15 and 15, respectively). Furthermore, the relative importance of respiratory transpiration is likely to be higher at temperatures above 35 degrees C, which have been recorded even within the burrows of H. arizonensis. Measurements of cuticular lipid melting points do not provide evidence for increased cuticular resistance to water loss at higher temperatures. However, the relatively high fraction of respiratory water losses reported here for H. arizonensis supports the notion of respiratory regulation as an evolved mechanism for conserving scorpion body water stores under stressful conditions.

  4. BmK-YA, an enkephalin-like peptide in scorpion venom.

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    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available By screening extracts of venom from the Asian scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK for their abilities to activate opioid receptors, we have identified BmK-YA, an amidated peptide containing an enkephalin-like sequence. BmK-YA is encoded by a precursor that displays a signal sequence and contains four copies of BmK-YA sequences and four of His(4-BmK-YA, all flanked by single amino acid residues. BmK-YA and His(4-BmK-YA are amidated and thus fulfill the characteristics expected of bioactive peptides. BmK-YA can activate mammalian opioid receptors with selectivity for the δ subtype while His(4-BmK-YA is inactive at opioid receptors. The discovery of BmK-YA suggests that scorpion venom may represent a novel source of bioactive molecules targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and reveal additional insights on the evolution of the opioid precursors.

  5. Differences in mating behavior between two allopatric populations of a Neotropical scorpion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Paola A; Mattoni, Camilo I; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2017-08-01

    Courtship and mating behavior generally evolve rapidly in diverging populations and species. The adaptation to different environments may cause behavioral divergence in characteristics involved in mate choice. Our objective in this study was to compare the sexual behavior of two distant populations of the scorpion Bothriurus bonariensis. This species has a broad distribution in South America, inhabiting Central Argentina, Uruguay and south-eastern Brazil. It is known that in this species there is a divergence in morphological patterns (body size, coloration, allometry and fluctuating asymmetry indexes) among distant populations. Considering the differences in environmental conditions between localities, we compare the sexual behavior in intra-population and inter-population matings from Central Argentina and southern Uruguay populations. We found significant differences in mating patterns, including differences in the frequency and duration of important stimulatory courtship behaviors. In addition, most inter-population matings were unsuccessful. In this framework, the differences in reproductive behavior could indicate reproductive isolation between these populations, which coincides with their already known morphological differences. This is the first study comparing the sexual behavior of allopatric populations of scorpions; it provides new data about the degree of intraspecific geographical divergence in the sexual behavior of B. bonariensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Scorpion Toxins Specific for Potassium (K+ Channels: A Historical Overview of Peptide Bioengineering

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    Zachary L. Bergeron

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion toxins have been central to the investigation and understanding of the physiological role of potassium (K+ channels and their expansive function in membrane biophysics. As highly specific probes, toxins have revealed a great deal about channel structure and the correlation between mutations, altered regulation and a number of human pathologies. Radio- and fluorescently-labeled toxin isoforms have contributed to localization studies of channel subtypes in expressing cells, and have been further used in competitive displacement assays for the identification of additional novel ligands for use in research and medicine. Chimeric toxins have been designed from multiple peptide scaffolds to probe channel isoform specificity, while advanced epitope chimerization has aided in the development of novel molecular therapeutics. Peptide backbone cyclization has been utilized to enhance therapeutic efficiency by augmenting serum stability and toxin half-life in vivo as a number of K+-channel isoforms have been identified with essential roles in disease states ranging from HIV, T-cell mediated autoimmune disease and hypertension to various cardiac arrhythmias and Malaria. Bioengineered scorpion toxins have been monumental to the evolution of channel science, and are now serving as templates for the development of invaluable experimental molecular therapeutics.

  7. Genome-wide SNP data and morphology support the distinction of two new species of Kovarikia Soleglad, Fet & Graham, 2014 endemic to California (Scorpiones, Vaejovidae

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    Robert W. Bryson Jr.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically conserved taxa such as scorpions represent a challenge to delimit. We recently discovered populations of scorpions in the genus Kovarikia Soleglad, Fet & Graham, 2014 on two isolated mountain ranges in southern California. We generated genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data and used Bayes factors species delimitation to compare alternative species delimitation scenarios which variously placed scorpions from the two localities with geographically adjacent species or into separate lineages. We also estimated a time-calibrated phylogeny of Kovarikia and examined and compared the morphology of preserved specimens from across its distribution. Genetic results strongly support the distinction of two new lineages, which we describe and name here. Morphology among the species of Kovarikia was relatively conserved, despite deep genetic divergences, consistent with recent studies of stenotopic scorpions with limited vagility. Phylogeographic structure discovered in several previously described species also suggests additional cryptic species are probably present in the genus.

  8. Genome-wide SNP data and morphology support the distinction of two new species of Kovarikia Soleglad, Fet & Graham, 2014 endemic to California (Scorpiones, Vaejovidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Robert W.; Wood, Dustin A.; Graham, Matthew R.; Soleglad, Michael E.; McCormack, John E.

    2018-01-01

    Morphologically conserved taxa such as scorpions represent a challenge to delimit. We recently discovered populations of scorpions in the genus Kovarikia Soleglad, Fet & Graham, 2014 on two isolated mountain ranges in southern California. We generated genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data and used Bayes factors species delimitation to compare alternative species delimitation scenarios which variously placed scorpions from the two localities with geographically adjacent species or into separate lineages. We also estimated a time-calibrated phylogeny of Kovarikia and examined and compared the morphology of preserved specimens from across its distribution. Genetic results strongly support the distinction of two new lineages, which we describe and name here. Morphology among the species of Kovarikia was relatively conserved, despite deep genetic divergences, consistent with recent studies of stenotopic scorpions with limited vagility. Phylogeographic structure discovered in several previously described species also suggests additional cryptic species are probably present in the genus.

  9. Epidemiological and spatial analysis of scorpion stings in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-Massa-Draa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and compare the epidemiological features of scorpionism during six years (2005–2010 in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-MassaDraa. Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from medical records of the Moroccan Poison Control Center during 2005–2010. The data comprised demographics, sting characteristics and clinical severity classes. Digital maps were produced for envenomation and death incidence with the distribution of all scorpion species present on the studied area. Results: A total of 75313 scorpion sting cases were notified. The incidence of scorpion stings was 244 cases/100000 population/year and was significantly higher at Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz than Souss-Massa-Draa. The general lethality rate was on an average of 0.28% with a higher rate in Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz compared to Souss-Massa-Draa. There was a different distribution of cases between genders in the two studied regions. With respect to age groups, adults (more than 15 years were affected most compared to children. When analyzed according to the incidence in each province, the highest envenomation incidence was observed in Chichaoua. Concerning lethality, the highest lethality incidence was observed in the Kelaa. Based on this study, we could distinguish three zones: low scorpion stings occurrence without death, high incidence with low lethality and high scorpion stings rate with high lethality. Conclusions: Our data clearly demonstrate the correlation between scorpion stings incidence and the percentage of rural population in the different provinces. Additionally, the lethality incidence could be linked to the scorpion species of the studied area.

  10. THE MOUSE AS AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FOR TITYUS SERRULATUS SCORPION ENVENOMING

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    Mônica de Mônico Magalhães

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The scorpion toxin induces a number of physiological parameters alterations, as disturbance of cardiac rhythm, heart failure, shock, pancreatic hypersecretion, abortion, respiratory arrhytmias and pulmonary edema. As the purification of the venom fractions is a laborious process, one alternative for this would be the utilization of small animals. We utilized in the present study thity-six mice that received progressive doses of scorpion toxin TsTX, i.p. or i.v., and were observed for three hours or sacrificed, and the pulmonary alterations were determined by the lung-body index and by histological analysis of the lungs in order to determine if the mouse can be an esperimental model for scorpion envenomation. The data were analyzed by One Way analysis of variance with pA toxina do escorpião induz a várias alterações fisiológicas, como disturbio do ritmo cardíaco, insuficiência cardíaca, choque, hipersecreção pancreática, aborto, arritmias respiratórias e edema pulmonar. A purificação de frações do veneno é um processo trabalhoso. Como alternativa utilizam-se animais pequenos. No presente estudo utilizou-se 36 camundongos que receberam doses progressivas de toxinas do escorpião (TsTX, intraperitoneal ou intravenosa e foram observados por tres horas ou sacrificados. As alteraçòes pulmonares foram determinadas pela fórmula peso do pulmão x 100/ peso corporal e pela análise hitológica dos pulmões a fim de determinar que o camundongo pode ser um modelo experimental do envenenamento pelo escorpião. Os dados foram analizados pela análise de variância considerando-se p<0,05 indicando significancia. Os experimentos não mostraram diferença nos sinais clínicos do envenenamento comparando-se o camundongo com outros mamíferos. Os efeitos foram dose-dependente e que pela via venosa necessita-se menos quantidade para produzir as mesmas alterações. Nos aspectos histológicos pulmonares observou-se edema septal e não alveolar

  11. Antivenom reversal of biochemical alterations induced by black scorpion Heterometrus fastigiousus Couzijn venom in mice

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    MK Chaubey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Heterometrus fastigiousus venom (HFV was employed as antigen to produce species-specific scorpion antivenom (SAV in albino mice (NIH strain. To determine SAV efficacy, it was pre-incubated with 10 LD50 of HFV and then injected subcutaneously into mice. Subsequently, mortality was observed after 24 hours. Minimum effective dose (MED was 12.5 LD50 of HFV/mL of SAV. SAV effectiveness to reverse HFV-induced biochemical alterations in mice was analyzed by challenge method. Simultaneously, mice received subcutaneously 40% of 24-hour-LD50 of HFV and intravenously SAV. After four hours, changes in serum glucose, free amino acids, uric acids, pyruvic acid, cholesterol, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase enzyme level were determined. Treatment with species-specific SAV resulted in the reversal of HFV-induced biochemical alterations.

  12. Labeling of scorpion venom with 99mTc and its biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Labeling of scorpion venom (SV) was successfully achieved with 99m Tc using direct chelating method. Venom was labeled with 99m Tc using stannous chloride as reducing agent. Preliminary studies were done to establish the optimum conditions for obtaining the highest yield of the labeled venom. The labeling technique is effective, as a maximum labeling yield (97 %) was obtained after 30-min reaction time by using 80 μg SV in phosphate buffer of pH 7 and 25 μg Sncl 2 ·2H 2 O at room temperature. Venom was injected into normal mice to determine the excretion pathway. Biodistribution studies in normal mice with SV shows rapid clearance of the venom from blood and tissue except for kidneys. The improvement of the immunotherapeutic treatment of envenomation requires a better knowledge of the biological actions of the SV since tissue distribution studies are very important for clinical purpose. (author)

  13. Binding modes and functional surface of anti-mammalian scorpion α-toxins to sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2012-10-02

    Scorpion α-toxins bind to the voltage-sensing domains of voltage-gated sodium (Na(V)) channels and interfere with the inactivation mechanisms. The functional surface of α-toxins has been shown to contain an NC-domain consisting of the five-residue turn (positions 8-12) and the C-terminus (positions 56-64) and a core-domain centered on the residue 18. The NC- and core-domains are interconnected by the linker-domain (positions 8-18). Here with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, we examine the binding modes between two α-toxins, the anti-mammalian AahII and the anti-insect LqhαIT, and the voltage-sensing domain of rat Na(V)1.2, a subtype of Na(V) channels expressed in nerve cells. Both toxins are docked to the extracellular side of the voltage-sensing domain of Na(V)1.2 using molecular dynamics simulations, with the linker-domain assumed to wedge into the binding pocket. Several salt bridges and hydrophobic clusters are observed to form between the NC- and core-domains of the toxins and Na(V)1.2 and stabilize the toxin-channel complexes. The binding modes predicted are consistent with available mutagenesis data and can readily explain the relative affinities of AahII and LqhαIT for Na(V)1.2. The dissociation constants for the two toxin-channel complexes are derived, which compare favorably with experiment. Our models demonstrate that the functional surface of anti-mammalian scorpion α-toxins is centered on the linker-domain, similar to that of β-toxins.

  14. Active Sites of Spinoxin, a Potassium Channel Scorpion Toxin, Elucidated by Systematic Alanine Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigneur, Steve; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Kawano, Chihiro; Nose, Takeru; Nirthanan, Selvanayagam; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Tytgat, Jan; Sato, Kazuki

    2016-05-31

    Peptide toxins from scorpion venoms constitute the largest group of toxins that target the voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv). Spinoxin (SPX) isolated from the venom of scorpion Heterometrus spinifer is a 34-residue peptide neurotoxin cross-linked by four disulfide bridges. SPX is a potent inhibitor of Kv1.3 potassium channels (IC50 = 63 nM), which are considered to be valid molecular targets in the diagnostics and therapy of various autoimmune disorders and cancers. Here we synthesized 25 analogues of SPX and analyzed the role of each amino acid in SPX using alanine scanning to study its structure-function relationships. All synthetic analogues showed similar disulfide bond pairings and secondary structures as native SPX. Alanine replacements at Lys(23), Asn(26), and Lys(30) resulted in loss of activity against Kv1.3 potassium channels, whereas replacements at Arg(7), Met(14), Lys(27), and Tyr(32) also largely reduced inhibitory activity. These results suggest that the side chains of these amino acids in SPX play an important role in its interaction with Kv1.3 channels. In particular, Lys(23) appears to be a key residue that underpins Kv1.3 channel inhibition. Of these seven amino acid residues, four are basic amino acids, suggesting that the positive electrostatic potential on the surface of SPX is likely required for high affinity interaction with Kv1.3 channels. This study provides insight into the structure-function relationships of SPX with implications for the rational design of new lead compounds targeting potassium channels with high potency.

  15. Experimental Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation: age- and sex-related differences in symptoms and mortality in mice

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    Pucca MB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various methods for evaluating animal venom toxicity, the calculation of the median lethal dose (LD50 is the most widely used. Although different protocols can be used to calculate the LD50, the source of the venom and the method of extraction, as well as the strain, age, and sex of the animal model employed, should be taken into consideration. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of sex and age on the toxicity of Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom in Swiss mice. Although the symptoms of envenomation were similar in male and female animals, female mice proved to be more resistant to the venom. In females, age had no impact on the susceptibility to scorpion envenomation. Male mice were more sensitive to T. serrulatus venom. Moreover, in males, age was an important parameter since sensitivity to the venom increased with age.

  16. Scorpion Biodiversity and Interslope Divergence at “Evolution Canyon”, Lower Nahal Oren Microsite, Mt. Carmel, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Shmuel; Retzkin, Sion; Pavlíček, Tomáš; Hoffman, Adam; Kimchi, Hagay; Beiles, Avigdor; Nevo, Eviatar

    2009-01-01

    Background Local natural laboratories, designated by us as the “Evolution Canyon” model, are excellent tools to study regional and global ecological dynamics across life. They present abiotic and biotic contrasts locally, permitting the pursuit of observations and experiments across diverse taxa sharing sharp microecological subdivisions. Higher solar radiation received by the “African savannah-like” south-facing slopes (AS) in canyons north of the equator than by the opposite “European maquis-like” north-facing slopes (ES) is associated with higher abiotic stress. Scorpions are a suitable taxon to study interslope biodiversity differences, associated with the differences in abiotic factors (climate, drought), due to their ability to adapt to dry environments. Methodology/Principal Findings Scorpions were studied by the turning stone method and by UV light methods. The pattern observed in scorpions was contrasted with similar patterns in several other taxa at the same place. As expected, the AS proved to be significantly more speciose regarding scorpions, paralleling the interslope patterns in taxa such as lizards and snakes, butterflies (Rhopalocera), beetles (families Tenebrionidae, Dermestidae, Chrysomelidae), and grasshoppers (Orthoptera). Conclusions/Significance Our results support an earlier conclusion stating that the homogenizing effects of migration and stochasticity are not able to eliminate the interslope intra- and interspecific differences in biodiversity despite an interslope distance of only 100 m at the “EC” valley bottom. In our opinion, the interslope microclimate selection, driven mainly by differences in insolance, could be the primary factor responsible for the observed interslope pattern. PMID:19357787

  17. A Scorpion¡¯s Poison Antivenin R&D+i Project Case from a Mexican Public University.

    OpenAIRE

    Vega-Gonz¨¢lez Luis Roberto

    2012-01-01

    All over the world there is a huge complex problem caused by the sting of poisonous animals. In many countries all around the orb there are some animal species hazardous for human beings. A case from a Mexican University R&D institute- Private firm innovation project about scorpion¡¯s antivenins health area is presented. The scientific-technological allied participant organizations performed a long life cycle innovation project, which includes research and development, knowledge transference,...

  18. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of Tityus pachyurus and Tityus obscurus novel putative Na+-channel scorpion toxins.

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    Jimmy A Guerrero-Vargas

    Full Text Available Colombia and Brazil are affected by severe cases of scorpionism. In Colombia the most dangerous accidents are caused by Tityus pachyurus that is widely distributed around this country. In the Brazilian Amazonian region scorpion stings are a common event caused by Tityus obscurus. The main objective of this work was to perform the molecular cloning of the putative Na(+-channel scorpion toxins (NaScTxs from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus venom glands and to analyze their phylogenetic relationship with other known NaScTxs from Tityus species.cDNA libraries from venom glands of these two species were constructed and five nucleotide sequences from T. pachyurus were identified as putative modulators of Na(+-channels, and were named Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, Tpa7 and Tpa8; the latter being the first anti-insect excitatory β-class NaScTx in Tityus scorpion venom to be described. Fifteen sequences from T. obscurus were identified as putative NaScTxs, among which three had been previously described, and the others were named To4 to To15. The peptides Tpa4, Tpa5, Tpa6, To6, To7, To9, To10 and To14 are closely related to the α-class NaScTxs, whereas Tpa7, Tpa8, To4, To8, To12 and To15 sequences are more related to the β-class NaScTxs. To5 is possibly an arthropod specific toxin. To11 and To13 share sequence similarities with both α and β NaScTxs. By means of phylogenetic analysis using the Maximum Parsimony method and the known NaScTxs from Tityus species, these toxins were clustered into 14 distinct groups.This communication describes new putative NaScTxs from T. pachyurus and T. obscurus and their phylogenetic analysis. The results indicate clear geographic separation between scorpions of Tityus genus inhabiting the Amazonian and Mountain Andes regions and those distributed over the Southern of the Amazonian rainforest. Based on the consensus sequences for the different clusters, a new nomenclature for the NaScTxs is proposed.

  19. Scorpiones, Ischnuridae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-07-07

    Jul 7, 1997 ... This is the only species of Hadogenes Kraepelin 1894 in which the .... Figures 1- 2 Lectotype male of Hadogenes zumpl; Newlands & Cantrell 1985 (SAM 88945). ... be most closely related to H phy/lodes on the basis of chro-.

  20. (Scorpion) venom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    3Razi Serum and Vaccine Research Institute, Ahwaz Branch, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization. (AREEO), 4Research Center for Prevention of Oral and Dental Disease, ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and ... clinical consequences, morbidity and mortality.

  1. Scorpion Stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you're camping or staying in rustic accommodations — shake out your clothing, bedding and packages often. ... a not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does ...

  2. Is severity of clinical manifestations following _H. lepturus_ envenomation related to serum TNF-α level?

    OpenAIRE

    Amir A. Jalali; Mohammad H. Pipelzadeh; Mohammad M. Taraz; Ali A. Khodadadi; Manoochr M. Makvandi

    2010-01-01

    Thirty six patients, with varying degrees of severity of envenomation, because of envenomation by _Hemiscorpius lepturus_ scorpion, were systematically investigated. The serum levels (by double-ligand ELIZA kit) of interlukin-1 (IL-1), interlukin-6 (IL-6), interlukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) were compared with 30 healthy controls and 10 age-matched patients envenomed by _Mesobuthus eupeus_ scorpion. Blood samples from _M. eupeus_ and _H. lepturus_ victims were...

  3. Tityus serrulatus Scorpion Venom: In Vitro Tests and Their Correlation with In Vivo Lethal Dose Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cajado-Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are the main cause of human envenomation in Brazil and, for the treatment of victims, the World Health Organization (WHO recommends the use of antivenoms. The first step to achieve effective antivenom is to use a good quality venom pool and to evaluate it, with LD50 determination as the most accepted procedure. It is, however, time-consuming and requires advanced technical training. Further, there are significant ethical concerns regarding the number of animals required for testing. Hence, we investigated the correspondence between LD50 results, in vitro assays, and a strong correlation with proteolytic activity levels was observed, showing, remarkably, that proteases are potential toxicity markers for Tityus serrulatus venom. The comparison of reversed-phase chromatographic profiles also has a potential application in venoms’ quality control, as there were fewer neurotoxins detected in the venom with high LD50 value. These results were confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Therefore, these methods could precede the LD50 assay to evaluate the venom excellence by discriminating—and discarding—poor-quality batches, and, consequently, with a positive impact on the number of animals used. Notably, proposed assays are fast and inexpensive, being technically and economically feasible in Tityus serrulatus venom quality control to produce effective antivenoms.

  4. Membrane interactions and biological activity of antimicrobial peptides from Australian scorpion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Ramírez, Karen; Sani, Marc-Antoine; Silva-Sanchez, Jesus; Jiménez-Vargas, Juana María; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Winkel, Kenneth D; Wright, Christine E; Possani, Lourival D; Separovic, Frances

    2014-09-01

    UyCT peptides are antimicrobial peptides isolated from the venom of the Australian scorpion. The activity of the UyCT peptides against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and red blood cells was determined. The membrane interactions of these peptides were evaluated by dye release (DR) of the fluorophore calcein from liposomes and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC); and their secondary structure was determined by circular dichroism (CD). Three different lipid systems were used to mimic red blood cells, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus membranes. UyCT peptides exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity with low MIC for S. aureus and multi-drug resistant Gram negative strains. Peptide combinations showed some synergy enhancing their potency but not hemolytic activity. The UyCT peptides adopted a helical structure in lipid environments and DR results confirmed that the mechanism of action is by disrupting the membrane. ITC data indicated that UyCT peptides preferred prokaryotic rather than eukaryotic membranes. The overall results suggest that UyCT peptides could be pharmaceutical leads for the treatment of Gram negative multiresistant bacterial infections, especially against Acinetobacter baumanni, and candidates for peptidomimetics to enhance their potency and minimize hemolysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. © 2013.

  5. Venom from Cuban Blue Scorpion has tumor activating effect in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Catia; Baglioni, Michele; Baron Toaldo, Marco; Cescon, Matteo; Bolondi, Luigi; Gramantieri, Laura

    2017-03-21

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term used to describe many kinds of products, practices, and systems that are not part of conventional medicine. Cancer patients usually do everything they can to combat the disease, manage its symptoms, and cope with the side effects of treatment. Unfortunately, patients who use CAM underestimate the risk of interaction with cancer therapy or worse they omit conventional therapy thus reducing the possibility of cancer remission. Herein we analyzed the effects of Vidatox 30 CH (venom extracted from the Junceus Rhopalurus scorpion) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. We found out that Vidatox increases HCC proliferation and invasion whereas it does not seem to interact with sorafenib, the orally active multikinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results suggest that the concentration of Vidatox used in the present study has not anti-neoplastic effects and care must be taken in hiring Vidatox in patients with HCC.

  6. Effects of Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807 (Scorpiones: Buthidae venom on rat metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ozkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpions are venomous arthropods of the Arachnida class and are considered relatives of spiders, ticks and mites. There is not any study about the biochemical effects of Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807 venom. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed at evaluating the toxicity of the venom from A. crassicauda, which is responsible for a number of deaths of infants, children and adults in tropical and subtropical countries. For this purpose, rats (n=35 were divided into seven groups of five animals each; venom solutions (250µg/kg were subcutaneously injected into rats; blood samples were taken from each animal at various times; and serum biochemical parameters were measured (levels of total proteins, total bilirubin, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine, uric acid, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, sodium, chlorine, potassium and calcium, and the activity of the enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase. Serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and uric acid increased in envenomed animals, compared to controls. There was a statistically positive correlation between Na+ and Cl- ions.

  7. Preparing and Characterizing Chitosan Nanoparticles Containing Hemiscorpius lepturus Scorpion Venom as an Antigen Delivery System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadpour Dounighi, N.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, chitosan nanoparticles have been studied widely for protein delivery. In this study, Hemiscorpius lepturus (HL venom was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. The aim of the present work was to carry out a systematic study for preparing biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles for loading HL scorpion venom and to evaluate their potential as an antigen delivery system. In this study, HL venom loaded chitosan nanoparticles fabricated by ionic gelation of chitosan and tripolyphosphate and the factors which may be influenced in the preparation of nanoparticles were analyzed. Also, their physicochemical properties and in vitro release behavior were studied. The optimum encapsulation efficiency and capacity were observed when the chitosan concentration and HL venom were 2mg/ml and 500µg/ml, respectively. The HL venom loaded nanoparticles were in the size range of 130-160nm (polydispersity index values of 0.423 and exhibited the positive zeta potential. Transmission electron microscope imaging showed spherical and smooth surface of nanoparticles. The profiles of the release exhibited a burst releases about 50% in the first 4 hr and then slowed down at a constant rate. The obtained results suggested that the chitosan nanoparticles prepared in this work had the potential for antigen delivery.

  8. Modeling of spatial distribution for scorpions of medical importance in the São Paulo State, Brazil

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    José Brites-Neto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this work, we aimed to develop maps of modeling geographic distribution correlating to environmental suitability for the two species of scorpions of medical importance at São Paulo State and to develop spatial configuration parameters for epidemiological surveillance of these species of venomous animals. Materials and Methods: In this study, 54 georeferenced points for Tityus serrulatus and 86 points for Tityus bahiensis and eight environmental indicators, were used to generate species distribution models in Maxent (maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions version 3.3.3k using 70% of data for training (n=38 to T. serrulatus and n=60 to T. bahiensis and 30% to test the models (n=16 for T. serrulatus and n=26 for T. bahiensis. The logistic threshold used to cut models in converting the continuous probability model into a binary model was the “maximum test sensitivity plus specificity,” provided by Maxent, with results of 0.4143 to T. serrulatus and of 0.3401 to T. bahiensis. The models were evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC, using the omission error and the binomial probability. With the data generated by Maxent, distribution maps were produced using the “ESRI® ArcGIS 10.2.2 for Desktop” software. Results: The models had high predictive success (AUC=0.7698±0.0533, omission error=0.2467 and p<0.001 for T. serrulatus and AUC=0.8205±0.0390, omission error=0.1917 and p<0.001 for T. bahiensis and the resultant maps showed a high environmental suitability in the north, central, and southeast of the state, confirming the increasing spread of these species. The environmental variables that mostly contributed to the scorpions species distribution model were rain precipitation (28.9% and tree cover (28.2% for the T. serrulatus and temperature (45.8% and thermal amplitude (12.6% for the T. bahiensis. Conclusion: The distribution model of these species of medical importance scorpions in São Paulo State

  9. Sound Source Localization through 8 MEMS Microphones Array Using a Sand-Scorpion-Inspired Spiking Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Garreau, Guillaume; Georgiou, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Sand-scorpions and many other arachnids perceive their environment by using their feet to sense ground waves. They are able to determine amplitudes the size of an atom and locate the acoustic stimuli with an accuracy of within 13° based on their neuronal anatomy. We present here a prototype sound source localization system, inspired from this impressive performance. The system presented utilizes custom-built hardware with eight MEMS microphones, one for each foot, to acquire the acoustic scene, and a spiking neural model to localize the sound source. The current implementation shows smaller localization error than those observed in nature.

  10. Sound Source Localization Through 8 MEMS Microphones Array Using a Sand-Scorpion-Inspired Spiking Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Beck

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sand-scorpions and many other arachnids perceive their environment by using their feet to sense ground waves. They are able to determine amplitudes the size of an atom and locate the acoustic stimuli with an accuracy of within 13° based on their neuronal anatomy. We present here a prototype sound source localization system, inspired from this impressive performance. The system presented utilizes custom-built hardware with eight MEMS microphones, one for each foot, to acquire the acoustic scene, and a spiking neural model to localize the sound source. The current implementation shows smaller localization error than those observed in nature.

  11. Acute cerebellar dysfunction with neuromuscular manifestations after scorpionism presumably caused by Tityus obscurus in Santarém, Pará / Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrez, Pasesa P Q; Quiroga, Mariana M M; Abati, Paulo A M; Mascheretti, Melissa; Costa, Walter Silva; Campos, Luciana P; França, Francisco O S

    2015-03-01

    Scorpionism is a public health problem in many tropical countries, especially in North Africa, South India, Latin America and the Middle East. In Brazil, patients with severe scorpion envenoming have mainly cardiovascular events, including acute heart failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome and shock, death is rare. We described 58 accidents presumably caused by Tityus obscurus in Brazilian Amazonia. Patients reported a sensation of "electric shocks" which could last hours. The vast majority of patients presented a clinical picture compatible with acute cerebellar dysfunction, beginning minutes and lasting up to 2 days after the accident. They presented cerebellar ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, dysmetry, dysarthria, dyslalia, nausea and vomiting. Besides, some patients presented myoclonus and fasciculation which can also be attributed to cerebellar dysfunction or maybe the result of direct action on skeletal muscle. Two patients had evidence of intense rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury. The clinical picture in this scorpion envenoming is mainly characterized by an acute dysfunction of cerebellar activities and abnormal neuromuscular manifestations and in some cases muscle injury which are not described in any other region of the world. This work presents clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory and treatment aspects of this unmatched scorpion envenoming in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical engineering and structural and pharmacological characterization of the α-scorpion toxin OD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durek, Thomas; Vetter, Irina; Wang, Ching-I Anderson; Motin, Leonid; Knapp, Oliver; Adams, David J; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    Scorpion α-toxins are invaluable pharmacological tools for studying voltage-gated sodium channels, but few structure-function studies have been undertaken due to their challenging synthesis. To address this deficiency, we report a chemical engineering strategy based upon native chemical ligation. The chemical synthesis of α-toxin OD1 was achieved by chemical ligation of three unprotected peptide segments. A high resolution X-ray structure (1.8 Å) of synthetic OD1 showed the typical βαββ α-toxin fold and revealed important conformational differences in the pharmacophore region when compared with other α-toxin structures. Pharmacological analysis of synthetic OD1 revealed potent α-toxin activity (inhibition of fast inactivation) at Nav1.7, as well as Nav1.4 and Nav1.6. In addition, OD1 also produced potent β-toxin activity at Nav1.4 and Nav1.6 (shift of channel activation in the hyperpolarizing direction), indicating that OD1 might interact at more than one site with Nav1.4 and Nav1.6. Investigation of nine OD1 mutants revealed that three residues in the reverse turn contributed significantly to selectivity, with the triple OD1 mutant (D9K, D10P, K11H) being 40-fold more selective for Nav1.7 over Nav1.6, while OD1 K11V was 5-fold more selective for Nav1.6 than Nav1.7. This switch in selectivity highlights the importance of the reverse turn for engineering α-toxins with altered selectivity at Nav subtypes.

  13. Scorpion neurotoxin AaIT-expressing Beauveria bassiana enhances the virulence against Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sheng-Qun; Cai, Qun-Di; Deng, Ming-Zhi; Huang, Qiang; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2017-12-01

    To improve the insecticidal efficacy of this entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana, the fungus was genetically modified to express an insect-specific scorpion neurotoxin AaIT. The virulence of the recombinant B. bassiana strain (Bb-AaIT) against Aedes albopictus adults (which occurs via penetration through the cuticle during spore germination or by conidia ingestion), and the larvae (by conidia ingestion) was measured with bioassays. The median lethal concentration (LC 50 ) of Bb-AaIT against A. albopictus larvae was 313.3-fold lower on day 4 and 11.3-fold lower on day 10 than that of the wild type (WT). Through conidia feeding or body contact, Bb-AaIT killed 50% of adult female mosquitoes at 3.9- or 1.9-fold reduced concentrations on day 4 and at 2.1- or 2.4-fold reduced concentrations on day 10. Compared with the results for the WT, the median lethal time (LT 50 ) of Bb-AaIT was reduced by 28.6% at 1 × 10 7 conidia ml -1 and 34.3% at 1 × 10 6 conidia ml -1 in the larvae bioassay by conidia ingestion, while it decreased 32.3% at 1 × 10 7 conidia ml -1 by conidia ingestion and 24.2% at 1 × 10 8 conidia ml -1 by penetrating through the cuticle in the adult bioassay. All the differences were significant. Our findings indicated that Bb-AaIT had higher virulence and faster action than the WT in killing the larval and adult mosquitoes, and therefore, it is valuable for development as a commercial mosquito pesticide.

  14. Histopathological changes and inflammatory response induced by Tityus discrepans scorpion venom in rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Suze, G; Salazar, V; Díaz, P; Sevcik, C; Azpurua, H; Bracho, N

    2004-12-15

    Anesthetized rams envenomed s.c. with 40 microg/kg Tityus discrepans scorpion venom developed fasciculation, hypothermia, polyuria, pulmonary wet rales, tachypnea, respiratory distress and arrhythmia. Rams developed a cascade of inflammation reactions, characterized by activation of macrophages, fibroblasts and neutrophils, neutrophil infiltration and aggregation, vasculitis, arteritis and abundant fibrin deposition. At the inoculation site, venom was detected by immunohistochemistry in the extra cellular matrix, lymphatic vessels' and venules' lumen, inside macrophages and surrounding nerves. Extra cellular matrix was degraded at the inoculation site perhaps by activated neutrophils. Envenoming produced hepatocytes with Mallory body-like vacuoles which may be due to the increased plasmatic levels of TNF-alpha and IL6. Venom produced degranulation and vacuolization of acinary cells as well as interstitial swelling and necrosis. Necrosis of the Langerhan's islets occurred occasionally. Lungs showed the most deleterious effects developing wall collapse and necrosis, diffuse injury of the alveolar capillary barrier, interstitial and alveolar fibrin deposits with strong neutrophil infiltration. Massive infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophage occurred in the intestinal submucose, to the point that it modified villi and intestinal folding morphology. Envenomation developed a marked leukocyte aggregation surrounding nerves at the inoculation site. This study reveals that beyond its neurotoxicity, Tityus venom produces a severe and widespread inflammatory syndrome, expressed as histopathological changes at the site of inoculation, as well as in remote organs such as pancreas, lungs, intestine and liver. Our results suggest that not all remote targets are directly affected by the venom but that, as proposed earlier, are modified by inflammation by products produced elsewhere.

  15. Effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on gastric emptying in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bucaretchi

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of toxin-g from Tityus serrulatus scorpion venom on the gastric emptying of liquids was studied in 176 young adult male Wistar rats (2-3 months of age divided into subgroups of 8 animals each. Toxin-g was injected iv at doses of 25, 37.5, 50 or 100 µg/kg and the effect on gastric emptying was assessed 30 min and 8 h later. A time-course study was also performed by injecting 50 µg of toxin-g /kg and measuring the effect on gastric emptying at times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h post-venom. Each envenomed animal was paired with its saline control and all received a saline test meal solution containing phenol red (60 µg/ml as a marker. Ten minutes after administering the test meal by gavage the animals were sacrificed and gastric retention was determined by measuring the residual marker concentration of the test meal. A significant delay in gastric emptying, at 30 min and 8 h post-venom, was observed only after 50 and 100 µg of toxin-g /kg compared to control values. The responses to these two doses were significantly different after 8 h post-venom. Toxin-g (50 µg/kg significantly delayed the gastric emptying of liquids at all times studied, with a peak response at 4 h after toxin administration compared to control values. These results indicate that the iv injection of toxin-g may induce a rapid, intense and sustained inhibition of gastric emptying 0.25 to 48 h after envenomation.

  16. Ab initio structure determination and refinement of a scorpion protein toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G D; Blessing, R H; Ealick, S E; Fontecilla-Camps, J C; Hauptman, H A; Housset, D; Langs, D A; Miller, R

    1997-09-01

    The structure of toxin II from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector has been determined ab initio by direct methods using SnB at 0.96 A resolution. For the purpose of this structure redetermination, undertaken as a test of the minimal function and the SnB program, the identity and sequence of the protein was withheld from part of the research team. A single solution obtained from 1 619 random atom trials was clearly revealed by the bimodal distribution of the final value of the minimal function associated with each individual trial. Five peptide fragments were identified from a conservative analysis of the initial E-map, and following several refinement cycles with X-PLOR, a model was built of the complete structure. At the end of the X-PLOR refinement, the sequence was compared with the published sequence and 57 of the 64 residues had been correctly identified. Two errors in sequence resulted from side chains with similar size while the rest of the errors were a result of severe disorder or high thermal motion in the side chains. Given the amino-acid sequence, it is estimated that the initial E-map could have produced a model containing 99% of all main-chain and 81% of side-chain atoms. The structure refinement was completed with PROFFT, including the contributions of protein H atoms, and converged at a residual of 0.158 for 30 609 data with F >or= 2sigma(F) in the resolution range 8.0-0.964 A. The final model consisted of 518 non-H protein atoms (36 disordered), 407 H atoms, and 129 water molecules (43 with occupancies less than unity). This total of 647 non-H atoms represents the largest light-atom structure solved to date.

  17. Pre-clinical studies of toxin-specific Nanobodies: Evidence of in vivo efficacy to prevent fatal disturbances provoked by scorpion envenoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmila, Issam; Cosyns, Bernard; Tounsi, Hayfa; Roosens, Bram; Caveliers, Vicky; Abderrazek, Rahma Ben; Boubaker, Samir; Muyldermans, Serge; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Lahoutte, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Scorpions represent a significant threat to humans and animals in various countries throughout the world. Recently, we introduced Nanobodies (Nbs) to combat more efficiently scorpion envenoming and demonstrated the performance of NbAahIF12 and NbAahII10 to neutralize scorpion toxins of Androctonus australis hector venom. A bispecific Nb construct (NbF12-10) comprising these two Nbs is far more protective than the classic Fab′ 2 based therapy and is the most efficient antivenom therapy against scorpion sting in preclinical studies. Now we investigate the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of 99m Tc labeled Nbs by in vivo imaging in rodents and compared these data with those of the Fab′ 2 product (PAS). The pharmacodynamics of the Nbs was investigated in rats by in vivo echocardiography and it is shown that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose of venom. Moreover, even a late injection of NbF12-10 restores the heart rate and brings the blood pressure to baseline values. Histology confirms that NbF12-10 prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. In conjunction, in this preclinical study, we provide proof of concept that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the fatal disturbances induced by Androctonus venom, and that the Nanobody based therapeutic has a potential to substitute the classic Fab′ 2 based product as immunotherapeutic in scorpion envenoming. Further clinical study using larger cohorts of animals should be considered to confirm the full protecting potential of our NbF12-10. -- Highlights: ► Nanobody therapy prevents the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose. ► Late injection of Nanobody restores hemodynamic parameters to baseline values. ► Nanobody therapy prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. ► Labeled Nanobody and Fab’2 pharmacokinetics curves reach plateau in favour of Nanobody.

  18. Biochemical, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of digestion in the scorpion Tityus serrulatus: insights into function and evolution of digestion in an ancient arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzita, Felipe J; Pinkse, Martijn W H; Patane, José S L; Juliano, Maria A; Verhaert, Peter D E M; Lopes, Adriana R

    2015-01-01

    Scorpions are among the oldest terrestrial arthropods and they have passed through small morphological changes during their evolutionary history on land. They are efficient predators capable of capturing and consuming large preys and due to envenomation these animals can become a human health challenge. Understanding the physiology of scorpions can not only lead to evolutionary insights but also is a crucial step in the development of control strategies. However, the digestive process in scorpions has been scarcely studied. In this work, we describe the combinatory use of next generation sequencing, proteomic analysis and biochemical assays in order to investigate the digestive process in the yellow scorpion Tityus serrulatus, mainly focusing in the initial protein digestion. The transcriptome generated database allowed the quantitative identification by mass spectrometry of different enzymes and proteins involved in digestion. All the results suggested that cysteine cathepsins play an important role in protein digestion. Two digestive cysteine cathepsins were isolated and characterized presenting acidic characteristics (pH optima and stability), zymogen conversion to the mature form after acidic activation and a cross-class inhibition by pepstatin. A more elucidative picture of the molecular mechanism of digestion in a scorpion was proposed based on our results from Tityus serrulatus. The midgut and midgut glands (MMG) are composed by secretory and digestive cells. In fasting animals, the secretory granules are ready for the next predation event, containing enzymes needed for alkaline extra-oral digestion which will compose the digestive fluid, such as trypsins, astacins and chitinase. The digestive vacuoles are filled with an acidic proteolytic cocktail to the intracellular digestion composed by cathepsins L, B, F, D and legumain. Other proteins as lipases, carbohydrases, ctenitoxins and a chitolectin with a perithrophin domain were also detected. Evolutionarily

  19. Scorpion β-toxin interference with NaV channel voltage sensor gives rise to excitatory and depressant modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipold, Enrico; Borges, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion β toxins, peptides of ∼70 residues, specifically target voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels to cause use-dependent subthreshold channel openings via a voltage–sensor trapping mechanism. This excitatory action is often overlaid by a not yet understood depressant mode in which NaV channel activity is inhibited. Here, we analyzed these two modes of gating modification by β-toxin Tz1 from Tityus zulianus on heterologously expressed NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 channels using the whole cell patch-clamp method. Tz1 facilitated the opening of NaV1.4 in a use-dependent manner and inhibited channel opening with a reversed use dependence. In contrast, the opening of NaV1.5 was exclusively inhibited without noticeable use dependence. Using chimeras of NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 channels, we demonstrated that gating modification by Tz1 depends on the specific structure of the voltage sensor in domain 2. Although residue G658 in NaV1.4 promotes the use-dependent transitions between Tz1 modification phenotypes, the equivalent residue in NaV1.5, N803, abolishes them. Gating charge neutralizations in the NaV1.4 domain 2 voltage sensor identified arginine residues at positions 663 and 669 as crucial for the outward and inward movement of this sensor, respectively. Our data support a model in which Tz1 can stabilize two conformations of the domain 2 voltage sensor: a preactivated outward position leading to NaV channels that open at subthreshold potentials, and a deactivated inward position preventing channels from opening. The results are best explained by a two-state voltage–sensor trapping model in that bound scorpion β toxin slows the activation as well as the deactivation kinetics of the voltage sensor in domain 2. PMID:22450487

  20. Further Identification of the Effect of Bradykinin Potentiating Factor Isolated From Scorpion Venom on Irradiated White Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, H.F.

    2011-01-01

    Scorpion venom of Androctonus amoreuxi contains a strong bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) that augments bradykinin effect through enhancing its release and acts as an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI). Both irradiation and stimulation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) induce oxidative stress. Possible interruption of the RAS with an ACEI induced by BPF isolated from the scorpion, Androctonus amoreuxi venom or the presence of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) losartan and/or γ- radiation were evaluated. The examined parameters included blood erythrocytes count (RBC), total leucocytic count (WBC), haemoglobin content (Hb) and hematocrit value (Hct) as well as, glutathione content (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP) of kidney homogenate besides aldosterone, sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, urea, creatinine and uric acid levels of serum. A group of rats (70 - 80 gm each) were received i.p. injection of BPIF (1μg / g body wt) twice per week for three weeks, while the other group received i.p. injection of losartan (5μg / g body wt) twice per week for three weeks. γ-Irradiation was performed at a dose level of 4Gy. All animals were examined after an investigation period of 21 days from γ- irradiation. Either BPF or losartan was performed together with irradiation. The results pointed out that irradiation discerned a significant elevation in the level of MDA, AOPP, aldosterone, sodium, urea and creatinine, and a significant drop in the haematological values (RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct), GSH, calcium and uric acid. Repeated injections of BPF or losartan had a beneficial result against the deleterious effect of γ- irradiation. The present investigation clarifies comparable effects for treatment of radiation damage to the kidney through RAS by BPF as (ACEI) and losartan as (ARB). The present work adds further identification to the properties of BPF in controlling of radiation damage. Therapeutic agents from

  1. Modular organization of α-toxins from scorpion venom mirrors domain structure of their targets, sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugunov, Anton O; Koromyslova, Anna D; Berkut, Antonina A; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Polyansky, Anton A; Pentkovsky, Vladimir M; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Grishin, Eugene V; Efremov, Roman G

    2013-06-28

    To gain success in the evolutionary "arms race," venomous animals such as scorpions produce diverse neurotoxins selected to hit targets in the nervous system of prey. Scorpion α-toxins affect insect and/or mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(v)s) and thereby modify the excitability of muscle and nerve cells. Although more than 100 α-toxins are known and a number of them have been studied into detail, the molecular mechanism of their interaction with Na(v)s is still poorly understood. Here, we employ extensive molecular dynamics simulations and spatial mapping of hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties distributed over the molecular surface of α-toxins. It is revealed that despite the small size and relatively rigid structure, these toxins possess modular organization from structural, functional, and evolutionary perspectives. The more conserved and rigid "core module" is supplemented with the "specificity module" (SM) that is comparatively flexible and variable and determines the taxon (mammal versus insect) specificity of α-toxin activity. We further show that SMs in mammal toxins are more flexible and hydrophilic than in insect toxins. Concomitant sequence-based analysis of the extracellular loops of Na(v)s suggests that α-toxins recognize the channels using both modules. We propose that the core module binds to the voltage-sensing domain IV, whereas the more versatile SM interacts with the pore domain in repeat I of Na(v)s. These findings corroborate and expand the hypothesis on different functional epitopes of toxins that has been reported previously. In effect, we propose that the modular structure in toxins evolved to match the domain architecture of Na(v)s.

  2. Una especie nueva de alacrán del género Centruroides de importancia médica (Scorpiones: Buthidae del estado de Guerrero, México A new scorpion species of medical importance of the genus Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae from the state of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Baldazo-Monsivaiz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Centruroides villegasi sp. nov. del municipio de Chilapa de Álvarez, Guerrero, que es la novena especie de Centruroides registrada para el estado. Se compara con C. limpidus (Karsch, 1879 por su parecido morfológico y por habitar la misma zona geográfica. Se compara también con C. balsasensis Ponce y Francke, 2004, C. meisei Hoffmann, 1938 y C. tecomanus Hoffmann, 1932, por pertenecer al grupo "alacranes rayados" (sensu Hoffmann, 1932, por su parecido morfológico y por su registro en Guerrero. Es una especie de importancia médica que no se había recolectado o reconocido previamente. Se incluye una lista de las especies de alacranes reconocidas para Guerrero, después de actualizar datos y hacer las correcciones necesarias a los registros históricos para el estado.Centruroides villegasi sp. nov. from the municipality of Chilapa de Álvarez, Guerrero, Mexico is described. It is the nineth species of Centruroides reported for this state. The new species is compared with C. limpidus (Karsch, 1879 which is morphologically similar and inhabits the same geographic zone. The species C. balsasensis Ponce and Francke, 2004, C. meisei Hoffmann, 1938, and C. tecomanus Hoffmann, 1932 are also compared because they are found in Guerrero and belong to the "striped scorpions" group (sensu Hoffmann, 1932, and therefore they are morphologically similar to the new species. It is a species of medical importance that had not been collected or recognized previously. A list of species of scorpions recorded for the state of Guerrero is included after the revision and correction of historical records.

  3. Activation of sodium channels by α-scorpion toxin, BmK NT1, produced neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cells: an association with intracellular Ca2+ overloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuwei; Zou, Xiaohan; Li, Xichun; Chen, Juan; Jin, Liang; Zhang, Fan; Yu, Boyang; Cao, Zhengyu

    2017-02-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are responsible for the action potential generation in excitable cells including neurons and involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Scorpion toxins are invaluable tools to explore the structure and function of ion channels. BmK NT1, a scorpion toxin from Buthus martensii Karsch, stimulates sodium influx in cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). In this study, we characterized the mode of action of BmK NT1 on the VGSCs and explored the cellular response in CGC cultures. BmK NT1 delayed the fast inactivation of VGSCs, increased the Na + currents, and shifted the steady-state activation and inactivation to more hyperpolarized membrane potential, which was similar to the mode of action of α-scorpion toxins. BmK NT1 stimulated neuron death (EC 50  = 0.68 µM) and produced massive intracellular Ca 2+ overloading (EC 50  = 0.98 µM). TTX abrogated these responses, suggesting that both responses were subsequent to the activation of VGSCs. The Ca 2+ response of BmK NT1 was primary through extracellular Ca 2+ influx since reducing the extracellular Ca 2+ concentration suppressed the Ca 2+ response. Further pharmacological evaluation demonstrated that BmK NT1-induced Ca 2+ influx and neurotoxicity were partially blocked either by MK-801, an NMDA receptor blocker, or by KB-R7943, an inhibitor of Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers. Nifedipine, an L-type Ca 2+ channel inhibitor, slightly suppressed both Ca 2+ response and neurotoxicity. A combination of these three inhibitors abrogated both responses. Considered together, these data ambiguously demonstrated that activation of VGSCs by an α-scorpion toxin was sufficient to produce neurotoxicity which was associated with intracellular Ca 2+ overloading through both NMDA receptor- and Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger-mediated Ca 2+ influx.

  4. Substitutions in the domain III voltage-sensing module enhance the sensitivity of an insect sodium channel to a scorpion beta-toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weizhong; Du, Yuzhe; Liu, Zhiqi; Luo, Ningguang; Turkov, Michael; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael; Goldin, Alan L; Dong, Ke

    2011-05-06

    Scorpion β-toxins bind to the extracellular regions of the voltage-sensing module of domain II and to the pore module of domain III in voltage-gated sodium channels and enhance channel activation by trapping and stabilizing the voltage sensor of domain II in its activated state. We investigated the interaction of a highly potent insect-selective scorpion depressant β-toxin, Lqh-dprIT(3), from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus with insect sodium channels from Blattella germanica (BgNa(v)). Like other scorpion β-toxins, Lqh-dprIT(3) shifts the voltage dependence of activation of BgNa(v) channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes to more negative membrane potentials but only after strong depolarizing prepulses. Notably, among 10 BgNa(v) splice variants tested for their sensitivity to the toxin, only BgNa(v)1-1 was hypersensitive due to an L1285P substitution in IIIS1 resulting from a U-to-C RNA-editing event. Furthermore, charge reversal of a negatively charged residue (E1290K) at the extracellular end of IIIS1 and the two innermost positively charged residues (R4E and R5E) in IIIS4 also increased the channel sensitivity to Lqh-dprIT(3). Besides enhancement of toxin sensitivity, the R4E substitution caused an additional 20-mV negative shift in the voltage dependence of activation of toxin-modified channels, inducing a unique toxin-modified state. Our findings provide the first direct evidence for the involvement of the domain III voltage-sensing module in the action of scorpion β-toxins. This hypersensitivity most likely reflects an increase in IIS4 trapping via allosteric mechanisms, suggesting coupling between the voltage sensors in neighboring domains during channel activation.

  5. Epidemiological and spatial analysis of scorpion stings in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-Massa-Draa

    OpenAIRE

    Moulay Abdelmonaim El Hidan; Oulaid Touloun; Rhizlane El Oufir; Ali Boumezzough

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe and compare the epidemiological features of scorpionism during six years (2005–2010) in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-Tensift-Al Haouz and Souss-MassaDraa. Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from medical records of the Moroccan Poison Control Center during 2005–2010. The data comprised demographics, sting characteristics and clinical severity classes. Digital maps were produced for envenomation and death incidence with the distri...

  6. Pre-clinical studies of toxin-specific Nanobodies: Evidence of in vivo efficacy to prevent fatal disturbances provoked by scorpion envenoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hmila, Issam [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Cosyns, Bernard [Laboratory of In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium); Tounsi, Hayfa [Service d' Anatomo-Pathologie, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Roosens, Bram; Caveliers, Vicky [Laboratory of In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium); Abderrazek, Rahma Ben [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Boubaker, Samir [Service d' Anatomo-Pathologie, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Muyldermans, Serge [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Department of Structural Biology, VIB, Brussels (Belgium); El Ayeb, Mohamed [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss, E-mail: balkiss.bouhaouala@pasteur.rns.tn [Laboratoire des Venins et Toxines, Institut Pasteur de Tunis, 13 Place Pasteur, BP-74, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Faculté de Médecine de Tunis, Université de Tunis-El Manar (Tunisia); Lahoutte, Tony [Laboratory of In Vivo Cellular and Molecular Imaging, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    Scorpions represent a significant threat to humans and animals in various countries throughout the world. Recently, we introduced Nanobodies (Nbs) to combat more efficiently scorpion envenoming and demonstrated the performance of NbAahIF12 and NbAahII10 to neutralize scorpion toxins of Androctonus australis hector venom. A bispecific Nb construct (NbF12-10) comprising these two Nbs is far more protective than the classic Fab′{sub 2} based therapy and is the most efficient antivenom therapy against scorpion sting in preclinical studies. Now we investigate the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc labeled Nbs by in vivo imaging in rodents and compared these data with those of the Fab′{sub 2} product (PAS). The pharmacodynamics of the Nbs was investigated in rats by in vivo echocardiography and it is shown that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose of venom. Moreover, even a late injection of NbF12-10 restores the heart rate and brings the blood pressure to baseline values. Histology confirms that NbF12-10 prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. In conjunction, in this preclinical study, we provide proof of concept that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the fatal disturbances induced by Androctonus venom, and that the Nanobody based therapeutic has a potential to substitute the classic Fab′{sub 2} based product as immunotherapeutic in scorpion envenoming. Further clinical study using larger cohorts of animals should be considered to confirm the full protecting potential of our NbF12-10. -- Highlights: ► Nanobody therapy prevents the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose. ► Late injection of Nanobody restores hemodynamic parameters to baseline values. ► Nanobody therapy prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. ► Labeled Nanobody and Fab’2 pharmacokinetics curves reach plateau in favour of Nanobody.

  7. Mast cell chymase reduces the toxicity of Gila monster venom, scorpion venom, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Song, Chang Ho; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Metz, Martin; Guzzetta, Andrew; Åbrink, Magnus; Schlenner, Susan M.; Feyerabend, Thorsten B.; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Mast cell degranulation is important in the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders. Many animal venoms contain components that can induce mast cell degranulation, and this has been thought to contribute to the pathology and mortality caused by envenomation. However, we recently reported evidence that mast cells can enhance the resistance of mice to the venoms of certain snakes and that mouse mast cell–derived carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3) can contribute to this effect. Here, we investigated whether mast cells can enhance resistance to the venom of the Gila monster, a toxic component of that venom (helodermin), and the structurally similar mammalian peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Using 2 types of mast cell–deficient mice, as well as mice selectively lacking CPA3 activity or the chymase mouse mast cell protease-4 (MCPT4), we found that mast cells and MCPT4, which can degrade helodermin, can enhance host resistance to the toxicity of Gila monster venom. Mast cells and MCPT4 also can limit the toxicity associated with high concentrations of VIP and can reduce the morbidity and mortality induced by venoms from 2 species of scorpions. Our findings support the notion that mast cells can enhance innate defense by degradation of diverse animal toxins and that release of MCPT4, in addition to CPA3, can contribute to this mast cell function. PMID:21926462

  8. Involvement of Cholinergic and Adrenergic Receptors in Pathogenesis and Inflammatory Response Induced by Alpha-Neurotoxin Bot III of Scorpion Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakib, Imene; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2016-10-01

    Bot III neurotoxin is the most lethal α neurotoxin purified from Buthus occitanus tunetanus scorpion venom. This toxin binds to the voltage-gated sodium channel of excitable cells and blocks its inactivation, inducing an increased release of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and catecholamines). This study aims to elucidate the involvement of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors in pathogenesis and inflammatory response triggered by this toxin. Injection of Bot III to animals induces an increase of peroxidase activities, an imbalance of oxidative status, tissue damages in lung parenchyma, and myocardium correlated with metabolic disorders. The pretreatment with nicotine (nicotinic receptor agonist) or atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist) protected the animals from almost all disorders caused by Bot III toxin, especially the immunological alterations. Bisoprolol administration (selective β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist) was also efficient in the protection of animals, mainly on tissue damage. Propranolol (non-selective adrenergic receptor antagonist) showed less effect. These results suggest that both cholinergic and adrenergic receptors are activated in the cardiopulmonary manifestations induced by Bot III. Indeed, the muscarinic receptor appears to be more involved than the nicotinic one, and the β1 adrenergic receptor seems to dominate the β2 receptor. These results showed also that the activation of nicotinic receptor leads to a significant protection of animals against Bot III toxin effect. These findings supply a supplementary data leading to better understanding of the mechanism triggered by scorpionic neurotoxins and suggest the use of drugs targeting these receptors, especially the nicotinic one in order to counteract the inflammatory response observed in scorpion envenomation.

  9. The natural scorpion peptide, BmK NT1 activates voltage-gated sodium channels and produces neurotoxicity in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaohan; He, Yuwei; Qiao, Jinping; Zhang, Chunlei; Cao, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    The scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat neuronal diseases such as neuropathic pain, paralysis and epilepsy for thousands of years. Studies have demonstrated that scorpion venom is the primary active component. Although scorpion venom can effectively attenuate pain in the clinic, it also produces neurotoxic response. In this study, toxicity guided purification led to identify a mammalian toxin termed BmK NT1 comprising of 65 amino acid residues and an amidated C-terminus, a mature peptide encoded by the nucleotide sequence (GenBank No. AF464898). In contract to the recombinant product of the same nucleotide sequence, BmK AGAP, which displayed analgesic and anti-tumor effect, intravenous injection (i.v.) of BmK NT1 produced acute toxicity in mice with an LD50 value of 1.36 mg/kg. In primary cultured cerebellar granule cells, BmK NT1 produced a concentration-dependent cell death with an IC50 value of 0.65 μM (0.41-1.03 μM, 95% Confidence Intervals, 95% CI) which was abolished by TTX, a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker. We also demonstrated that BmK NT1 produced modest sodium influx in cerebellar granule cell cultures with an EC50 value of 2.19 μM (0.76-6.40 μM, 95% CI), an effect similar to VGSC agonist, veratridine. The sodium influx response was abolished by TTX suggesting that BmK NT1-induced sodium influx is solely through activation of VGSC. Considered these data together, we demonstrated that BmK NT1 activated VGSC and produced neurotoxicity in cerebellar granule cell cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Severe scorpion envenomation in Brazil: clinical, laboratory and anatomopathological aspects Escorpionismo grave no Brasil: aspectos clínicos, laboratoriais e anatomopatológicos

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    Palmira Cupo

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings in Brazil are important not only because of their incidence but also for their potential ability to induce severe, and often fatal, clinical situations, especially among children. In this report we present the clinical and laboratory data of 4 patients victims of scorpion stings by T. serrulatus, who developed heart failure and pulmonary edema, with 3 of them dying within 24 hours of the sting. Anatomopathologic study of these patients revealed diffuse areas of myocardiocytolysis in addition to pulmonary edema. The surviving child presented enzymatic, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes compatible with severe cardiac involvement, which were reversed within 5 days. These findings reinforce the need for continuous monitoring of patients with severe scorpion envenoming during the hours immediately following the sting.Os acidentes escorpiônicos no Brasil, assumem grande importancia não só pela sua incidência como pela sua potencialidade em induzir quadros clínicos graves, muitas vezes fatais, principalmente em crianças. Apresentamos neste relato os dados clínicos e laboratoriais de 4 pacientes vítimas de escorpionismo, causado pelo T. serrulatus, que evoluíram com falência cardíaca e edema pulmonar, sendo que 3 foram a óbito dentro das primeiras 24 horas após acidente. O estudo anátomopatológico desses pacientes revelou áreas de miocardiocitólise, além do edema pulmonar. Na criança que sobreviveu foram detectadas alterações enzimáticas, eletro e ecocardiográficas compatíveis com grave comprometimento cardíaco, reversíveis dentro de 5 dias. Tais achados reafirmam a necessidade de monitorização contínua no paciente com escorpionismo grave, nas horas subsequentes ao envenenamento.

  11. BmTx3, a scorpion toxin with two putative functional faces separately active on A-type K+ and HERG currents.

    OpenAIRE

    Huys, Isabelle; Xu, Chen-Qi; Wang, Cheng-Zhong; Vacher, Hélène; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Chi, Cheng-Wu; Tytgat, Jan

    2004-01-01

    A novel HERG channel blocker was isolated from the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, sequenced and characterized at the pharmacological level after chemical synthesis. According to the determined amino acid sequence, the cDNA and genomic genes were then cloned. The genomic gene consists of two exons interrupted by an intron of 65 bp at position -6 upstream from the mature toxin. The protein sequence of this toxin was completely identical with that of a known A-type K+ current bloc...

  12. Investigation of in vivo potential of scorpion venom against skin tumorigenesis in mice via targeting markers associated with cancer development

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    Al Asmari AK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdulrahman K Al Asmari, Abdul Quaiyoom Khan Research Centre, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world in spite of the advances made in its management. In this study, we investigated the in vivo antitumorigenic potential of the venom obtained from a medically important scorpion species Leiurus quinquestriatus on chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Animals were divided into five groups, with 13 animals in each group. All the treatments were given topically on the shaved dorsal surface of the skin. Animals in Group 1 received vehicle only (0.2 mL acetone. Moreover, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 400 nmol per mouse was applied to all the animals in the remaining four groups. After 1 week, different concentrations of venom (17.5 µg, 35 µg, and 52.5 µg per animal were applied to each animal in the Groups III–V. Thirty minutes after the application of venom, croton oil was applied on the same position where venom was administered to the animals of Groups III–V. Animals in Group II were treated as the positive control (without venom and received croton oil as in Groups III–V. The findings of this study revealed that venom extract of L. quinquestriatus inhibits DMBA + croton oil-induced mouse skin tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity. Venom treatment also decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Immunohistochemistry results showed a downregulation of the expression of molecular markers such as Ki-67, nuclear factor kappa-B, cyclooxygenase-2, B-cell lymphoma-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in venom-treated animals. Our findings suggest that the venom of L. quinquestriatus possesses in vivo anticancer potential and may be used in the development of anticancer molecules. Keywords: Leiurus quinquestriatus, skin cancer, apoptosis, immunosuppression

  13. Complementary microanalysis of Zn, Mn and Fe in the chelicera of spiders and scorpions using scanning MeV-ion and electron microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, R.; Lefevre, H.; Shaffer, M.

    1989-01-01

    Energy-loss scanning transmission ion microscopy (ELSTIM or just STIM), PIXE and electron microprobe techniques are used to investigate certain minor element accumulations in a few spiders and scorpions. STIM and PIXE are used to survey the unsectioned specimens, while electron microprobe techniques are used for higher resolution investigations of several sections of the specimens. Concentration values measured using STIM and PIXE are found to be in satisfactory agreement with those measured using electron probe microanalysis. A garden spider Araneous diadematus is found to contain high concentrations of zinc in a thin layer near the surface of its fangs (reaching 23% of dry weight), and manganese in its marginal teeth (about 5% of dry weight). A wolf spider Alopecosa kochi is found to have similar concentrations of zinc in a layer near the surface of it's fang, and concentrations of manganese reaching 1.5% in a layer beneath the zinc containing layer. A scorpion Centruroides sp. is found to contain high concentrations of iron (reaching 8%) and zinc (reaching 24%) in the tips of teeth on the cheliceral fingers, and manganese (about 5%) in the stinger. The hypothesis that these elements simply harden the cuticle does not appear to explain their segregation patterns. (orig.)

  14. Development and characterization of a new carrier for vaccine delivery based on calcium-alginate nanoparticles: Safe immunoprotective approach against scorpion envenoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Mohamed, Faez Amokrane; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2016-05-23

    To enhance humoral defense against diseases, vaccine formulation is routinely prepared to improve immune response. Studies in nanomaterials as a carrier of vaccine delivery are promising and interesting. In this study, attenuated Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom and its toxic fraction were encapsulated into different formulations inside calcium-alginate nanoparticles (Ca-Alg Nps), and used as a vaccine delivery system against scorpion envenomation. Ca-Alg Nps were prepared by ionic gelation and characterized. An immunization schedule was undertaken in rabbits in order to study how Aah venom entrapped in Ca-Alg Nps might induce protective immunity. Results showed the influence of different parameters on the suitable nanoparticle formation. They also showed no toxicity of free Ca-Alg Nps and a different inflammatory profile depending on the nanovaccine formulations. More interestingly, evaluation of specific IgG titer and IgG1/IgG2a isotype balance revealed a protective effect with the nanoparticles encapsulating the attenuated antigens. Challenge up to 6 LD 50 of native venom, allowed to an important immunoprotection of all immunized rabbits, with no recorded death. Taken together and with respect to the properties of nanoparticles and high immunogenicity, calcium-alginate nanoparticles could be considered as a new promising adjuvant system and a vaccine delivery against scorpion envenomation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Programa de controle de surto de escorpião Tityus serrulatus, Lutz e Mello 1922, no município de Aparecida, SP (Scorpiones, Buthidae

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    Elieth Floret Spirandeli Cruz

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores propuseram para o município de Aparecida, vale do Rio Paraíba, SP, região endêmica do Tityus serrulatus, um programa de controle do escorpionismo. Foram estudados a presença de focos do escorpião no campo e na cidade, as alterações ambientais periféricas à zona urbana e os novos ambientes de procriação e dispersão destes artrópodes. Além disso, foram avaliados os problemas básicos de infra-estrutura, tais como o acondicionamento e a coleta do lixo urbano público e domiciliar, o saneamento básico (esgotos e galerias pluviais e a situação dos terrenos baldios e as construções da zona urbana. Após estudo epidemiológico, foram propostas medidas educativas, que constaram da confecção e distribuição de folhetos, de mutirões de limpeza, de visitas domiciliares e do engajamento de professores e alunos da rede de ensino pública e privada na campanha. Nos locais onde existiam focos de alto risco, em especial nas pré-escolas, foi proposto o emprego do controle químico. Dentro das normas sanitárias vigentes para a zona urbana, foi proposto ainda, o uso de predadores naturais no combate. Os autores concluem que as ações devem ser integradas e continuadas de forma ininterrupta por vários anos e propõem ação conjunta com a campanha da dengue. A instituição de uma semana por ano dedicada ao estudo do escorpionismo nas escolas dos municípios onde ocorre o problema seria uma medida educativa que viria contribuir sobremaneira para a prevenção dos acidentes e controle do escorpionismo.A scorpion control program was proposed for the town of Aparecida (SP, an endemic region of Tityus serrulatus. Clusters of scorpions in urban and rural areas, environmental degradation of the town's outskirts and new scorpion procreation and dispersal habitats were studied. In addition, infrastructure problems such as the disposal and collection of residential and municipal refuse, sanitation (sewage and storm sewer, condition of

  16. Safety of intravenous equine F(ab')2: insights following clinical trials involving 1534 recipients of scorpion antivenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Leslie; Degan, Janice; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; Mallie, Joanne; Mangin, Emmanuelle; Alagón, Alejandro

    2013-12-15

    The technology of antivenom production has gradually changed since the earliest production of antisera around the turn of the 20th century. Use of early antisera was associated with frequent acute adverse reactions and serum sickness. New F(ab')2 products, manufactured using pepsin degradation of immunoglobulin together with precipitation of unwanted protein and albumin serum fractions, should in concept cause fewer immune reactions in clinical use. A linked set of five prospective clinical trials of an equine F(ab')2 antivenom, together with one historical control study, were completed during development of the product for a Biological License Application through the US FDA. Adverse events were recorded and categorized, with particular attention to the frequency of immune reactions. A total of 1534 patients ages 0.1-90.5 years received antivenom, in Arizona and in Mexico, for treatment of scorpion envenomation. Total dosing ranged from 1 to 5 vials except for one outlier who received 10 vials. Estimated protein exposure was 12-275 mg per patient (outlier, up to 550 mg). Three patients (0.2%) had acute reactions to antivenom infusion (one urticaria, one urticaria and dyspnea, and one panic attack). Eight (0.5%) had rashes suggestive of Type 3 immune reactions, although none had the full syndrome of serum sickness. Two women were treated for envenomation during the first trimester of pregnancy, one of whom subsequently experienced a spontaneous abortion. Rates of immune reaction to this product were two orders of magnitude lower than the range (up to 75% for early and 81% for late reactions) historically reported with use of minimally refined whole immunoglobulin products against a variety of infections and envenomations. Lower protein dose, greater purity of the active component, lack of the immunogenic Fc portion of the immunoglobulin molecule, and slow intravenous infusion are likely to be the reason for this. Clinical implications of a safer product include that

  17. Direct evidence that scorpion α-toxins (site-3 modulate sodium channel inactivation by hindrance of voltage-sensor movements.

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    Zhongming Ma

    Full Text Available The position of the voltage-sensing transmembrane segment, S4, in voltage-gated ion channels as a function of voltage remains incompletely elucidated. Site-3 toxins bind primarily to the extracellular loops connecting transmembrane helical segments S1-S2 and S3-S4 in Domain 4 (D4 and S5-S6 in Domain 1 (D1 and slow fast-inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels. As S4 of the human skeletal muscle voltage-gated sodium channel, hNav1.4, moves in response to depolarization from the resting to the inactivated state, two D4S4 reporters (R2C and R3C, Arg1451Cys and Arg1454Cys, respectively move from internal to external positions as deduced by reactivity to internally or externally applied sulfhydryl group reagents, methane thiosulfonates (MTS. The changes in reporter reactivity, when cycling rapidly between hyperpolarized and depolarized voltages, enabled determination of the positions of the D4 voltage-sensor and of its rate of movement. Scorpion α-toxin binding impedes D4S4 segment movement during inactivation since the modification rates of R3C in hNav1.4 with methanethiosulfonate (CH3SO2SCH2CH2R, where R = -N(CH33 (+ trimethylammonium, MTSET and benzophenone-4-carboxamidocysteine methanethiosulfonate (BPMTS were slowed ~10-fold in toxin-modified channels. Based upon the different size, hydrophobicity and charge of the two reagents it is unlikely that the change in reactivity is due to direct or indirect blockage of access of this site to reagent in the presence of toxin (Tx, but rather is the result of inability of this segment to move outward to the normal extent and at the normal rate in the toxin-modified channel. Measurements of availability of R3C to internally applied reagent show decreased access (slower rates of thiol reaction providing further evidence for encumbered D4S4 movement in the presence of toxins consistent with the assignment of at least part of the toxin binding site to the region of D4S4 region of the voltage

  18. The scorpion toxin Bot IX is a potent member of the α-like family and has a unique N-terminal sequence extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Salvatierra, Juan; Bosmans, Frank; Bougis, Pierre E

    2016-09-01

    We report the detailed chemical, immunological and pharmacological characterization of the α-toxin Bot IX from the Moroccan scorpion Buthus occitanus tunetanus venom. Bot IX, which consists of 70 amino acids, is a highly atypical toxin. It carries a unique N-terminal sequence extension and is highly lethal in mice. Voltage clamp recordings on oocytes expressing rat Nav1.2 or insect BgNav1 reveal that, similar to other α-like toxins, Bot IX inhibits fast inactivation of both variants. Moreover, Bot IX belongs to the same structural/immunological group as the α-like toxin Bot I. Remarkably, radioiodinated Bot IX competes efficiently with the classical α-toxin AaH II from Androctonus australis, and displays one of the highest affinities for Nav channels. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Isolation, chemical and functional characterization of several new K(+)-channel blocking peptides from the venom of the scorpion Centruroides tecomanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olamendi-Portugal, Timoteo; Bartok, Adam; Zamudio-Zuñiga, Fernando; Balajthy, Andras; Becerril, Baltazar; Panyi, Gyorgy; Possani, Lourival D

    2016-06-01

    Six new peptides were isolated from the venom of the Mexican scorpion Centruroides tecomanus; their primary structures were determined and the effects on ion channels were verified by patch-clamp experiments. Four are K(+)-channel blockers of the α-KTx family, containing 32 to 39 amino acid residues, cross-linked by three disulfide bonds. They all block Kv1.2 in nanomolar concentrations and show various degree of selectivity over Kv1.1, Kv1.3, Shaker and KCa3.1 channels. One peptide has 42 amino acids cross-linked by four disulfides; it blocks ERG-channels and belongs to the γ-KTx family. The sixth peptide has only 32 amino acid residues, three disulfide bonds and has no effect on the ion-channels assayed. It also does not have antimicrobial activity. Systematic numbers were assigned (time of elution on HPLC): α-KTx 10.4 (time 24.1); α-KTx 2.15 (time 26.2); α-KTx 2.16 (time 23.8); α-KTx 2.17 (time 26.7) and γ-KTx 1.9 (elution time 29.6). A partial proteomic analysis of the short chain basic peptides of this venom, which elutes on carboxy-methyl-cellulose column fractionation, is included. The pharmacological properties of the peptides described in this study may provide valuable tools for understanding the structure-function relationship of K(+) channel blocking scorpion toxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Morfometría geométrica en cinco especies de Buthidae y Scorpionidae (Arachnida: Scorpiones de Venezuela Geometric morphometrics in five species of Buthidae and Scorpionidae (Arachnida: Scorpiones from Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Y. Bechara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En Venezuela, la escorpiofauna consta de 17 géneros y 202 especies. En algunos grupos la taxonomía no ha sido aclarada; por lo tanto, son necesarias investigaciones adicionales que contribuyan a mejorar el conocimiento sobre la identidad taxonómica y relaciones entre sus componentes. La morfometría geométrica es una herramienta que ha sido utilizada como apoyo a la sistemática en distintos organismos. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la conformación y tamaño isométrico en 5 especies de escorpiones. Se fotografiaron 266 individuos de 4 especies de Buthidae: Centruroides testaceus, Rhopalurus laticauda, Tityus clathratus y T. discrepans, y una de Scorpionidae: Tarsoporosus yustizi. Se registraron configuraciones de coordenadas (x,y en 5 estructuras a partir de puntos anatómicos de referencia (PAR y PAR deslizantes. Los resultados mostraron separación completa de las especies de Buthidae por medio de tricobotrias dorsales en la patela del pedipalpo, y una consistente separación en el nivel familiar en las estructuras restantes. Las placas delgadas permitieron la visualización de compresión horizontal del esternón en las especies de Buthidae y compresión vertical en la de Scorpionidae. Se determinó la similitud de coxas, quela y caparazón entre R. laticauda y C. testaceus. La disposición de tricobotrias y la conformación del esternón permitió la diferenciación entre T. discrepans y T. clathratus.The Venezuelan scorpionfauna comprises 17 genera and 202 species. In some taxa the taxonomy is unclear, and additional studies that contribute to the knowledge about taxonomic identity and relationships are necessary. Geometric morphometrics is a tool that has been used as support to the systematics in different organisms. The goal was to analize the isometric size and conformation in five scorpions species. We photographed 266 individuals of four speceis of Buthidae: Centruroides testaceus, Rhopalurus laticauda, Tityus

  1. Enhanced specificity of TPMT*2 genotyping using unidirectional wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single tube.

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    Dong Chen

    Full Text Available Genotyping of thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT is recommended for predicting the adverse drug response of thiopurines. In the current study, a novel version of allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR, termed competitive real-time fluorescent AS-PCR (CRAS-PCR was developed to analyze the TPMT*2 genotype in ethnic Chinese. This technique simultaneously uses wild-type and mutant allele-specific scorpion primers in a single reaction. To determine the optimal conditions for both traditional AS-PCR and CRAS-PCR, we used the Taguchi method, an engineering optimization process that balances the concentrations of all components using an orthogonal array rather than a factorial array. Instead of running up to 264 experiments with the conventional factorial method, the Taguchi method achieved the same optimization using only 16 experiments. The optimized CRAS-PCR system completely avoided non-specific amplification occurring in traditional AS-PCR and could be performed at much more relaxed reaction conditions at 1% sensitivity, similar to traditional AS-PCR. TPMT*2 genotyping of 240 clinical samples was consistent with published data. In conclusion, CRAS-PCR is a novel and robust genotyping method, and the Taguchi method is an effective tool for the optimization of molecular analysis techniques.

  2. A P,O,P′-tridentate mixed-donor scorpionate ligand: 6-[4,6-bis(diphenylphosphino-10H-phenoxazin-10-yl]hexan-1-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger B. Friedrich

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C42H39NO2P2, is a P,O,P′-tridentate scorpionate-type ligand and has one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The angles involving the P atoms range from 100.21 (7 to 104.89 (7°. The N-hexanol group was found to be disordered and was refined over two positions with final occupancies of 0.683 (3 and 0.317 (3 which affected the C—O and C—N bond lengths. The bond lengths for C—O range from 1.402 (2 to 1.415 (2 Å and for C—N from 1.410 (2 to 1.448 (3 Å for the major disorder component; the corresponding ranges for the minor disorder component are 1.429 (3–1.408 (3 and 1.474 (3–1.474 (4 Å.

  3. Modelling Tityus scorpion venom and antivenom pharmacokinetics. Evidence of active immunoglobulin G's F(ab')2 extrusion mechanism from blood to tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, C; D'Suze, G; Díaz, P; Salazar, V; Hidalgo, C; Azpúrua, H; Bracho, N

    2004-12-01

    Modelling Tityus scorpion venom and antivenom pharmacokinetics. Evidence of active immunoglobulin G's F(ab')(2) extrusion mechanism from blood to tissues. We measured pharmacokinetic parameters for T. discrepans venom in rams. Forty, 75 or 100 microg/kg venom were injected subcutaneously in the inner side of the thigh. Plasma venom content (venenemia) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from 0 to 300 min after injecting venom. Venenemia was fit to a three-compartment model (inoculation site, plasma and extra vascular extracellular space), it was assumed that the venom may also be irreversibly removed from plasma. Calculated time course of venom content shows that at any time no more that 30% of the venom is present in plasma. Venenemia peaks at 1h and decays afterwards. Fluorescently labelled antivenom [horse anti-TityusF(ab')(2) or fraction antigen binding, immuglobulin without Fc chain covalently bound to fluorescine or fluorescamine] pharmacokinetics was determined. Although F(ab')(2) molecular weight is >/=10 times bigger that toxin's, the rate of outflow of F(ab')(2) from blood to tissues was approximately 4 times faster than the venom's outflow. Venom content in the injection site decays exponentially for >6h, this prediction was confirmed immunohistochemically. Only approximately 5% of the venom is eliminated in 10h; approximately 80% of the venom is in the tissues after 2h and remains there for >10h.

  4. Tendencia de la mortalidad por picaduras de alacrán en México, 1979-2003 Trends in mortality from scorpion stings in Mexico, 1979-2003

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    Alfredo Celis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la tendencia de la mortalidad por picaduras de alacrán en México y sus estados federativos en el período de 1979 a 2003. MÉTODOS: Se estimaron las tasas crudas y estandarizadas de mortalidad por picaduras de alacrán y las tendencias durante el período estudiado a partir de los datos oficiales de mortalidad en México, según la 9.ª y la 10.ª revisiones de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (códigos E905.2 y X22, respectivamente. Los resultados se estratificaron por grupos de edad. Las frecuencias de muertes por picaduras de alacrán se compararon mediante el riesgo relativo (RR y sus intervalos de confianza de 95% (IC95%. RESULTADOS: Entre 1979 y 2003, en México se registraron 6 077 muertes por picaduras de alacrán. Se observó una tendencia descendente estadísticamente significativa en la mortalidad estandarizada (beta = -0,195; P OBJECTIVE: To describe the trends in mortality from scorpion stings in Mexico as a whole and in each of its states for the period of 1979 to 2003. METHODS: We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates due to scorpion stings and the trends during the period studied based on official mortality data for Mexico, using the codes (E905.2 and X22, respectively from the 9th and 10th editions of the International Classification of Diseases. The results were stratified by age group. The frequencies of deaths from scorpion stings were compared using relative risk (RR, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: Between 1979 and 2003 in Mexico, 6 077 deaths from scorpion stings were registered. A statistically significant downward trend was found in standardized mortality rates (beta = -0.195; P < 0.001, with a total reduction of 86.5% for the period of 2001-2003 versus 1979-1982. For the 2001-2003 period, the highest mortality rates were in children under 1 year of age (7.07 per 1 000 000, children 1 to 4 years old (3.78 per 1 000 000, persons 60 and older (0.84 per 1 000

  5. Homology modeling and docking of AahII-Nanobody complexes reveal the epitope binding site on AahII scorpion toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Ayoub; Ghedira, Kais; Ben Abderrazek, Rahma; Shankar, B A Gowri; Benkahla, Alia; Bishop, Ozlem Tastan; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss

    2018-02-19

    Scorpion envenoming and its treatment is a public health problem in many parts of the world due to highly toxic venom polypeptides diffusing rapidly within the body of severely envenomed victims. Recently, 38 AahII-specific Nanobody sequences (Nbs) were retrieved from which the performance of NbAahII10 nanobody candidate, to neutralize the most poisonous venom compound namely AahII acting on sodium channels, was established. Herein, structural computational approach is conducted to elucidate the Nb-AahII interactions that support the biological characteristics, using Nb multiple sequence alignment (MSA) followed by modeling and molecular docking investigations (RosettaAntibody, ZDOCK software tools). Sequence and structural analysis showed two dissimilar residues of NbAahII10 CDR1 (Tyr27 and Tyr29) and an inserted polar residue Ser30 that appear to play an important role. Indeed, CDR3 region of NbAahII10 is characterized by a specific Met104 and two negatively charged residues Asp115 and Asp117. Complex dockings reveal that NbAahII17 and NbAahII38 share one common binding site on the surface of the AahII toxin divergent from the NbAahII10 one's. At least, a couple of NbAahII10 - AahII residue interactions (Gln38 - Asn44 and Arg62, His64, respectively) are mainly involved in the toxic AahII binding site. Altogether, this study gives valuable insights in the design and development of next generation of antivenom. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential effects of climate change on the risk of accidents with poisonous species of the genus Tityus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Pablo Ariel; Andrade, Mayane Alves; Bidau, Claudio Juan

    2018-06-01

    The temporal pattern of co-occurrence of human beings and venomous species (scorpions, spiders, snakes) is changing. Thus, the temporal pattern of areas with risk of accidents with such species tends to become dynamic in time. We analyze the areas of occurrence of species of Tityus in Argentina and assess the impact of global climate change on their area of distribution by the construction of risk maps. Using data of occurrence of the species and climatic variables, we constructed models of species distribution (SMDs) under current and future climatic conditions. We also created maps that allow the detection of temporal shifts in the distribution patterns of each Tityus species. Finally, we developed risk maps for the analyzed species. Our results predict that climate change will have an impact on the distribution of Tityus species which will clearly expand to more southern latitudes, with the exception of T. argentinus. T. bahiensis, widely distributed in Brazil, showed a considerable increase of its potential area (ca. 37%) with future climate change. The species T. confluens and T. trivittatus that cause the highest number of accidents in Argentina are expected to show significant changes of their distributions in future scenarios. The former fact is worrying because Buenos Aires province is the more densely populated district in Argentina thus iable to become the most affected by T. trivittatus. These alterations of distributional patterns can lead to amplify the accident risk zones of venomous species, becoming an important subject of concern for public health policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. El uso de guantes como factor protector contra picaduras de alacrán durante la pizca de maíz en el estado de Guerrero, México The use of gloves as protector factor against scorpion stings during corn picking in the state of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascencio Villegas-Arrizón

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados a la picadura de alacrán durante la recolección de maíz, entre campesinos del estado de Guerrero. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal hecho en 2004, sobre picaduras de alacrán durante el ciclo agrícola 2003, con encuesta a hogares en 14 comunidades del estado de Guerrero, seleccionadas de forma aleatoria. Se obtuvieron frecuencias simples y análisis bivariado para identificar los factores asociados a la picadura de alacrán durante la pizca de maíz. Se estimó razón de momios para valorar la magnitud del efecto. RESULTADOS: La incidencia de picadura de alacrán fue de 15% (500/3 294 en 2003. El empleo de guantes se acompañó de menor riesgo de picaduras de alacrán en la mano (RM = 0.11; IC 95% 0.06-0.18. Usar sólo un guante podría evitar 133 picaduras por cada 1 000 campesinos que ahora no los utilizan. Los costos implicados por la picadura de alacrán sumaron 505.90 pesos (46 dólares estadounidenses. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario promover el uso de guantes entre campesinos que viven en zonas con alta endemicidad de alacranes. Asimismo, extender la red de suministro de suero antialacrán a toda el área rural donde predominan especies muy tóxicas y orientar a los campesinos sobre la importancia de buscar atención oportuna en las unidades de salud.OBJECTIVE: Identify factors associated with scorpion stings among farm workers who pick corn in the Mexican state of Guerrero. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in 14 randomly selected communities in the state of Guerrero.Simple frequencies were obtained and bivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with scorpion stings while picking corn. Odds ratio was estimated to evaluate the magnitude of the effect. RESULTS: The incidence of scorpion stings was 15% (500/3 294 in 2003. Use of gloves was associated with a dramatic reduction in risk of scorpion stings to the hands (OR = 0.11; IC95% 0.06-0.18. Scorpion stings are a

  8. Scorpionism in South Africa: A report of 42 serious scorpion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parabuthus granulatus (Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1828) has been identified as the most important venomous species in the western Cape. The antivenom is produced from the venom of the medically less important P. transvaalicus Purcell, 1899. A strong case can therefore be made for the inclusion of P. granulatus venom in ...

  9. Scorpion toxins prefer salt solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nikouee, A.; Khabiri, Morteza; Cwiklik, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2015), 287/1-287/14 ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06181S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : ionic solutions * molecular dynamics * nonaqueous media * secondary structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.438, year: 2015

  10. Hey! A Scorpion Stung Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cool, damp places like basements, woodpiles, and junk piles. Usually, they're nocturnal (they sleep during the ... to spend time. Don't play in junk piles or woodpiles, and if you are working outside ...

  11. Cobalt(II Complexes with N,N,N-Scorpionates and Bidentate Ligands: Comparison of Hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-ylborate Tp* vs. Phenyltris(4,4-dimethyloxazolin-2-ylborate ToM to Control the Structural Properties and Reactivities of Cobalt Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Nishiura

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionate ligands Tp* (hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-ylborate and ToM (tris(4,4-dimethyloxazolin-2-ylphenylborate complexes of cobalt(II with bidentate ligands were synthesized. Both Tp* and ToM coordinate to cobalt(II in a tridentate fashion when the bidentate ligand is the less hindered acetylacetonate. In crystal structures, the geometry of cobalt(II supported by the N3O2 donor set in the Tp* complex is a square-pyramid, whereas that in the ToM complex is close to a trigonal-bipyramid. Both Tp*- and ToM-acac complexes exhibit solvatochromic behavior, although the changing structural equilibria of these complexes in MeCN are quite different. In the bis(1-methylimidazol-2-ylmethylphenylborate (LPh complexes, Tp* retains the tridentate (к3 mode, whereas ToM functions as the bidentate (к2 ligand, giving the tetrahedral cobalt(II complex. The bowl-shaped cavity derived from the six methyl groups on ToM lead to susceptibility to the bulkiness of the opposite bidentate ligand. The entitled scorpionate compounds mediate hydrocarbon oxidation with organic peroxides. Allylic oxidation of cyclohexene occurs mainly on the reaction with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP, although the catalytic efficiency of the scorpionate ligand complexes is lower than that of Co(OAc2 and Co(acac2. On cyclohexane oxidation with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (mCPBA, both ToM and Tp* complexes function as catalysts for hydroxylation. The higher electron-donating ToM complexes show faster initial reaction rates compared to the corresponding Tp* complexes.

  12. Ligation of the abdominal esophagus decreases scorpion toxin-induced gastric secretion in rats Ligadura do esôfago abdominal diminui a secreção gástrica induzida por toxina de escorpião em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Vidal

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Scorpion toxin purified from Tityus serrulatus venom (Tx induces an increase in volume, acidity and pepsin secretion in the gastric juice of rats. Ligation of oesophagus has been shown to reduce the acid gastric secretion in rats. The aim of this paper was to determine the influence of the esophageal ligation on gastric secretion induced by Tx in rats METHODS: Forty-four male albino rats were given water ad libitum, but no food for 20 to 24 hours, anesthetized with urethane and the trachea and jugular vein cannulated. Cervical or abdominal esophageal ligation or sham-operations were performed before and after the injection of 0.25 mg/kg of scorpion toxin (fraction T1 into the jugular vein. One hour later, the volume, acidity, pH and peptic activity of gastric juice were determined. RESULTS: The scorpion toxin induced an increase in gastric juice volume, acidity and pepsin output and a decrease in pH when injected into the vein of intact animals or in sham-operated animals. Cervical esophagus ligation did not interfere with the effects of toxin, however, ligation of the abdominal esophageal decreased the toxin effect on the rat stomach. CONCLUSION: Ligation of the abdominal esophagus decreases the gastric secretion induced by scorpion toxin.OBJETIVO: A toxina de escorpião purificada do veneno do escorpião Tityus serrulatus (Tx induz um aumento no volume, acidez e secreção de pepsina no suco gástrico de ratos. A ligadura do esôfago diminui a secreção ácida do estômago em ratos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a influência da ligadura do esôfago sobre a secreção gástrica induzida pela Tx em ratos. MÉTODOS: 44 ratos machos, brancos foram administrados água ad libitum, mas não alimentados por 20 a 24 horas, anestesiados com uretana e canulados a traquéia e a veia jugular. Foram realizadas as ligaduras do esôfago cervical ou abdominal ou operações simuladas antes e após a administração na veia jugular de 0

  13. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: novel antimicrobial peptides from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: structural characterisation, molecular cloning of biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs and engineering of analogues with enhanced antimicrobial and anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yingqi; Xi, Xinping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Mei; Duan, Jinao; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-01-23

    The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation.

  14. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: Structural Characterisation, Molecular Cloning of Biosynthetic Precursor-Encoding cDNAs and Engineering of Analogues with Enhanced Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation.

  15. Kinetic catalytic studies of scorpion's hemocyanin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queinnec, E.; Vuillaume, M.; Gardes-Albert, M.; Ferradini, C.; Ducancel, F.

    1991-01-01

    Hemocyanins are copper proteins which function as oxygen carriers in the haemolymph of Molluscs and Arthropods. They possess enzymatic properties: peroxidatic and catalatic activities, although they have neither iron nor porphyrin ring at the active site. The kinetics of the catalytic reaction is described. The reaction of superoxide anion with hemocyanin has been studied using pulse radiolysis at pH 9. The catalytic rate constant is 3.5 X 10 7 mol -1 .l.s -1 [fr

  16. Scorpion sting pain: Which way to treat?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... This results in pain sensation and stimulates various physiological reactions such as a rise in pulse and blood pressure. Pain, which is left untreated, results in varying responses including aggression, depression, insomnia, increased cardiac work and oxygen consumption as well as behavioral changes.

  17. History of scorpion antivenom: one Arizonan's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Leslie

    2013-07-01

    This paper was originally presented as the Elsevier Lecture in July, 2012 at the International Society on Toxinology/Venom Week combined meeting in Honolulu, Hawaii. In it, the author addresses the ancient history of venom and immunity, from the Silurian Era to the 1890s; the development of the first antivenoms; the impact of shifting political and economic pressures; the special case of Arizona; the relative stability of the 1960s through 1990s; the transition to regulatory compliance that took place at the time of the author's own research; and concluding thoughts regarding the instability of apparent success. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bug City: Spiders and Scorpions [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    "Bug City" is a video series created to help children learn about insects and other small critters. All aspects of bug life are touched upon including body structure, food, habitat, life cycle, mating habits, camouflage, mutualism (symbiosis), adaptations, social behavior, and more. Each program features dramatic microscopic photography,…

  19. Imobilização de proteínas do veneno do escorpião Tytius Serrulatus em blenda condutora de Polianilina-Poli(Metacrilato de Hidroxietila Proteins associated with the venom of the tytius serrulatus scorpion immobilized within polyaniline-poly(Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate conducting blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio Bruno

    2004-09-01

    the presence of a given molecule in a specific environment. Biosensors always have a biological recognition system that distinguishes them from any other kind of sensor. The goals of this work were to develop conductive hydrogels from the combination of polyaniline and poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate and to evaluate some important aspects related to the possibility of using these materials as matrices in biosensors that would detect toxic fractions of antigens associated with the venom of the Tytius Serrulatus scorpion. Different conductive blends from poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate and polyaniline were produced by dissolving the polymers in a common solvent. The electrical conductivity, morphology and swelling ability were measured the four-probe measuring system, scanning electron microscopy and weight gain in water, respectively. Immobilization and bioactivity of molecules associated with the venom of the Tytius Serrulatus scorpion were evaluated by combining the ELISA immunoassay method and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results showed that even low concentrations of polyaniline led to high values of electrical conductivity and swelling. The biological tests indicated that the immobilization and bioactivity of the biomacromolecules associated with the venom of the Tytius Serrulatus scorpion were successfully achieved within the conductive hydrogel.

  20. Avaliação da perfusão e função miocárdicas em vítimas de escorpionismo utilizando o Gated-SPECT Evaluación de la perfusión y función miocárdicas en víctimas de escorpionismo utilizando el Gated-SPECT Assessment of myocardial perfusion and function in victims of scorpion envenomation using Gated-SPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Baldini de Figueiredo

    2010-04-01

    are the major causes of death of patients with scorpion envenomation, whose pathophysiological mechanism remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation between myocardial perfusion abnormalities and left ventricular contractile function in victims of scorpion envenomation. METHODS: Fifteen patients underwent ECG-gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (gated SPECT within 72 hours of, and 15 days after scorpion envenomation. Images were analyzed by means of a semi-quantitative visual perfusion score (0 = normal, 4 = absent and motion score (0 = normal, 4 = akinesia, using the 17-segment model. Summed perfusion (SPS and summed motion (SMS scores were calculated for each patient. Ejection fraction (LVEF was calculated by a commercially available software. RESULTS: At baseline, 12 out of the 15 patients presented abnormal myocardial perfusion and contractility. Mean values of SPS, SMS and LVEF were 12.5 ± 7.3, 17.0 ± 12.8, and 44.6 ± 16.0%, respectively. A positive correlation between SPS and SMS (r = 0.68; p = 0.005 and negative correlation between SPS and LVEF (r = -0.75; p = 0.0021 were found. The follow-up studies showed recovery of global contractility (LVEF of 68.9 ± 9.5, p = 0.0002, segmental contractility (SMS of 2.6 ± 3.1, p = 0.0009 and perfusion (SPS of 3.7 ± 3.3, p = 0.0003. Improvement of LVEF correlated positively with improvement of SPS (r = 0.72; p = 0.0035. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial perfusion abnormalities are common in scorpion envenomation and correlate topographically with the contractile dysfunction. Recovery of contractility correlates with reversibility of perfusion defects. These findings suggest the participation of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in the pathophysiology of this form of acute ventricular failure. (Arq Bras Cardiol 2010;94(4: 418-425

  1. Venomous spiders, snakes, and scorpions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holve, Steve

    2009-04-01

    Venomous bites and stings are complex poisonings that have local and systemic effects. Mild envenomations can be treated with supportive care. Severe envenomations can be treated definitively with species-specific antivenom, although the use of these products has potential risk of immediate and a more delayed onset form of hypersensitivity reactions. Consultation with a toxicologist is recommended to help guide therapy. Field treatments such as tourniquets and incision likely cause more harm than benefit and should be avoided.

  2. An ERG channel inhibitor from the scorpion Buthus eupeus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korolkova, Y.V.; Kozlov, S.A.; Lipkin, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    and the three mutants partly inhibited the native M-like current in NG108-15 at 100 nm. The effect of the recombinant BeKm-1 on different K(+) channels was also studied. BeKm-1 inhibited hERG1 channels with an IC(50) of 3.3 nm, but had no effect at 100 nm on hEAG, hSK1, rSK2, hIK, hBK, KCNQ1/KCNE1, KCNQ2/KCNQ3......, KCNQ4 channels, and minimal effect on rELK1. Thus, BeKm-1 was shown to be a novel specific blocker of hERG1 potassium channels....

  3. Three new species of Grosphus Simon 1880, (Scorpiones: Buthidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tooth, whereas in G. ankarafantiska the basal lamellae covers 2-3 teeth. Moreover, both species present a totally allopatric distribu- tion. Description based on female holotype (male unknown). Mor- phometric values following the description. Coloration. Ove- rall yellow to pale yellow with dark zones on the body and appen-.

  4. A new scorpion species of genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae) endemic to Islas de la Bahia, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume-Espinoza, Kevin O; Longhorn, Stuart J; Santibáñez-López, Carlos E

    2015-07-01

    Three species of genus Diplocentrus are found in north-northwestern Honduras. These species represent the southern east limits of Diplocentrus' distribution. In recent years, a broad survey of arachnids in Honduras has yielded a collection of several specimens of an undescribed species from two islands in northern Honduras. This new species represents the second species of the genus inhabiting an island. The present contribution describes this new species, and compares it against its most similar relatives. A dichotomous key for the identification of the species of Diplocentrus in Honduras is also included. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Terapia de resgate com amiodarona em crianças com grave disfunção ventricular esquerda causada por veneno de escorpião Terapia de rescate con amiodarona en niños con severa disfunción ventricular izquierda ocasionada por veneno de escorpión Antiadrenergic rescue therapy with amiodarone in children with severe left ventricular dysfunction secondary to scorpion envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo J. Santiago

    2010-01-01

    ón endotraqueal y soporte respiratorio, electrocardiograma, radiografía de tórax, ecocardiograma y determinación sérica de la norepinefrina y troponina I. Los análisis se repitieron tras 12, 24 y 48 horas. Las siguientes medicaciones intravenosas se administraron: dobutamina 4-6 mcg/kg/min; amiodarona 3 mg/kg durante dos horas, con dosis de mantenimiento de 5 mg/kg/día; y furosemida 0.5 mg/kg. Amiodarona, dobutamina y furosemida se administraron durante las primeras 48 horas. Bloqueante betaadrenergicos e inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina se administraron hasta 48 tras la internación, una vez que el estado clínico había mejorado y la fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda se hallaba superior a un 0,35%. RESULTADOS: Al ingreso, la dosificación de la norepinefrina fue 1727,50± 794,96 pg/ml, la de troponina I 24,53 ± 14,09 ng/ml y la fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo fue 0,20 ± 0,056. Tras 12 horas, los niveles séricos de norepinefrina y de troponina I disminuyeron para la mitad de los valores iniciales y la fracción de eyección aumentó para 0,32 ± 0,059. Durante las 24 y 48 horas subsiguientes, la fracción de eyección se elevó para 0,46 ± 0,045 (pBACKGROUND: Children with scorpion envenomation have massive sympathetic activation and variable degrees of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a rescue protocol for children with severe left ventricular dysfunction secondary to scorpion envenomation. METHODS: Four children, after scorpion envenomation, were subjected to a rescue protocol for acute left ventricular dysfunction: Endotracheal intubation and respiratory assistance, electrocardiograms, chest x-Ray, echocardiograms and blood samples for norepinephrine and troponin I serum levels. Samples and echocardiograms were repeated at 12, 24 and 48 hours. Intravenous medications: Dobutamine: 4-6 μg/kg/min. Amiodarone: 3 mg/kg during a 2 hour period. Maintenance: 5 mg/kg/day. Furosemide: 0.5 mg

  6. Nueva especie de alacrán del género Centruroides (Scorpiones, Buthidae del estado de Jalisco, México A new scorpion species of the genus Centruroides (Scorpiones, Buthidae from the state of Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ponce Saavedra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Centruroides mascota sp. nov. de Mascota, Estado de Jalisco, México. Se hace una comparación con las especies morfológica y geográficamente más cercanas: C. elegans Thorell, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce y Francke, C. infamatus (Koch., C. ornatus Pocock y C. tecomanus Hoffmann. Es una especie de importancia médica que no se había recolectado o reconocido previamente.Centruroides mascota sp. nov. from Mascota, Jalisco, Mexico is described. The new species is compared with C. elegans Thorell, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce y Francke, C. infamatus (Koch., C. ornatus Pocock and C. tecomanus Hoffmann, which are morphologically and geographically nearest to it. This medically important species had not been collected or recognized previously

  7. A new species of Diplocentrus (Arachnida: Scorpiones from Michoacan, Mexico Especie nueva de Diplocentrus (Arachnida: Scorpiones de Michoacán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar F. Francke B.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diplocentrus churumuco sp. nov., from the Balsas River Basin in Michoacan, Mexico is described and clearly differentiated from its nearest relatives. The tarsomere II spine formula is 4/4:4/4:5/5:5/5. Pectinal tooth counts are 9- 10 in males, and 7- 8 in females.Se describe Diplocentrus churumuco sp. nov., de la Depresión del Balsas en Michoacán, y se dan las diferencias diagnósticas con especies afines del género. La fórmula de espinas tarsales es 4/4:4/4:5/5:5/5; los machos tienen 9-10 dientes pectíneos y las hembras 7-8.

  8. Scorpion Hybrid Optical-based Inertial Tracker (HObIT) test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atac, Robert; Spink, Scott; Calloway, Tom; Foxlin, Eric

    2014-06-01

    High fidelity night-vision training has become important for many of the simulation systems being procured today. The end-users of these simulation-training systems prefer using their actual night-vision goggle (NVG) headsets. This requires that the visual display system stimulate the NVGs in a realistic way. Historically NVG stimulation was done with cathode-ray tube (CRT) projectors. However, this technology became obsolete and in recent years training simulators do NVG stimulation with laser, LCoS and DLP projectors. The LCoS and DLP projection technologies have emerged as the preferred approach for the stimulation of NVGs. Both LCoS and DLP technologies have advantages and disadvantages for stimulating NVGs. LCoS projectors can have more than 5-10 times the contrast capability of DLP projectors. The larger the difference between the projected black level and the brightest object in a scene, the better the NVG stimulation effects can be. This is an advantage of LCoS technology, especially when the proper NVG wavelengths are used. Single-chip DLP projectors, even though they have much reduced contrast compared to LCoS projectors, can use LED illuminators in a sequential red-green-blue fashion to create a projected image. It is straightforward to add an extra infrared (NVG wavelength) LED into this sequential chain of LED illumination. The content of this NVG channel can be independent of the visible scene, which allows effects to be added that can compensate for the lack of contrast inherent in a DLP device. This paper will expand on the differences between LCoS and DLP projectors for stimulating NVGs and summarize the benefits of both in night-vision simulation training systems.

  9. Enzymatic analysis of Hemiscorpius lepturus scorpion venom using zymography and venom-specific antivenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedian, Ramin; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Hassan; Jalali, Amir; Kim, Euikyung; Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kang, Changkeun; Cha, Mijin; Sohn, Eun-Tae; Jung, Eun-Sun; Rahmani, Ali Hassan; Mirakabady, Abbas Zare

    2010-09-15

    Hemiscorpius lepturus envenomation exhibits various pathological changes in the affected tissues, including skin, blood cells, cardiovascular and central nervous systems. The enzymatic activity and protein component of the venom have not been described previously. In the present study, the electrophoretic profile of H. lepturus venom was determined by SDS-PAGE (12 and 15%), resulting in major protein bands at 3.5-5, 30-35 and 50-60 kDa. The enzymatic activities of the venom was, for the first time, investigated using various zymography techniques, which showed the gelatinolytic, caseinolytic, and hyaluronidase activities mainly at around 50-60 kDa, 30-40 kDa, and 40-50 kDa, respectively. Among these, the proteolytic activities was almost completely disappeared in the presence of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, 1, 10-phenanthroline. Antigen-antibody interactions between the venom and its Iranian antivenin was observed by Western blotting, and it showed several antigenic proteins in the range of 30-160 kDa. This strong antigen-antibody reaction was also demonstrated through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The gelatinase activity of the venom was suppressed by Razi institute polyvalent antivenin, suggesting the inhibitory effect of the antivenin against H. lepturus venom protease activities. Prudently, more extensive clinical studies are necessary for validation of its use in envenomed patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional Morphology of Venom Apparatus of Euscorpius mingrelicus(Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    YİĞİT, Nazife; BAYRAM, Abdullah; DANIŞMAN, Tarık

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to describe the functional morphology of venom apparatus of Euscorpius mingrelicus (Kessler, 1874) by using light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The venom apparatus, situates in the last segment of metasoma (telson), is composed of a pair of venom glands and sting. Telson is covered by cuticular exoskeleton as well as all body, and there are cuticular setae and pits on it as serve sensory organ. The general organization of the venom ap...

  11. Scorpion sting in the right ear of a young adult: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He had made attempts to remove the insect with the cotton bud but all proved abortive. Two drops of 2% plain xylocaine and 5 drops of cerumol were applied on the affected ear. He was managed with analgesics, anxiolytic, antihistamine and ear syringing. The family physician; a frontline doctor and first point of contact for ...

  12. Post-embryonic development stages of Tityus columbianus (Thorell, 1846, (Scorpiones, Buthidae: morphometric estimation approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Gómez C.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Poca información existe sobre el ciclo de vida y número de mudas por los cuales pasa Tityus columbianus (Thorell, 1846 para alcanzar la madurez. En este studio, el número de estados de desarrollo posembriónico fue determimnado usando herramientas de morfometría geométrica y a través de las ecuaciones clàsicas de Pzibram & Megusâr (1984. Los análisis incluyeron digitalización de imagenes, definición de puntos de referencia homólogos (o “landmarks” y derivación de matrices basadas en distancias Euclidianas. Los análisis permiten esatablecer que T. columbianus pasa por seis a siete estados (mudas en su desarrollo post-embrionario.

  13. Venom from Cuban Blue Scorpion has tumor activating effect in hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannini, Catia; Baglioni, Michele; Baron Toaldo, Marco; Cescon, Matteo; Bolondi, Luigi; Gramantieri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term used to describe many kinds of products, practices, and systems that are not part of conventional medicine. Cancer patients usually do everything they can to combat the disease, manage its symptoms, and cope with the side effects of treatment. Unfortunately, patients who use CAM underestimate the risk of interaction with cancer therapy or worse they omit conventional therapy thus reducing the possibility of cancer remission. Herein we a...

  14. A crusade against scorpion sting: Life and works of Dr. Himmatrao Bawaskar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajinkya A Kale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the times of rapid advancement of science and technology, advance medical equipment and hi tech hospitals represent the face of medical science. The aspirations and ambitions of medical professionals are also shifting, with growing concerns of deterioration of doctor patient relationship as well as disconnect between services and the community needs. The life of Dr Himmatrao Bawaskar defies several conventions of today′s medical practice. His outstanding dedication towards patients and commitment to provide high quality care in resource poor setting makes him an ideal role model for younger generation of physicians in India.

  15. Team Oriented Robotic Exploration Task on Scorpion and K9 Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Frank

    2003-01-01

    This final report describes the achievements that have been made in the project over the complete period of performance. The technical progress highlights the different areas of work in terms of Progress in Mechatronics, Sensor integration, Software Development. User Interfaces, Behavior Development and Experimental Results and System Testing. The different areas are: Mechatronics, Sensor integration, Software development, Experimental results and Basic System Testing, Behaviors Development and Advanced System Testing, User Interface and Wireless Communication.

  16. Una especie nueva de Diplocentrus (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae del estado de Michoacán, México A new species of Diplocentrus (Scorpiones: Diplocentridae from the state of Michoacán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar F. Francke

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Diplocentrus poncei sp. nov. del estado de Michoacán, México. Es la primera especie del género y de la familia con neobotriotaxia incremental en la patela y quela de los pedipalpos. Se da a conocer por primera vez que Diplocentrus magnus también tiene neobotriotaxia incremental en la patela, pero no en la quela de los pedipalpos.Diplocentrus poncei, sp. nov. from the state of Michoacán, Mexico is described. This is the first species in the genus and family with increasing neobothriotaxy on the patella and chela of the pedipalps. Diplocentrus magnus has been found to have increasing neobothriotaxy on the patella but not on the chela of the pedipalps.

  17. Aislamiento y algunas propiedades de la toxina Be1 del veneno de Brachistosternus ehrenbergii (Gervais, 1841 (Scorpiones:Bothriuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherina Ramos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mediante cromatografía de intercambio catiónico en CM-Sephadex C-25 (16 x 1,1 cm con buffer acetato de amonio 0,05 M a pH 7, del veneno del escorpión Brachistosternus ehrenbergii fue aislada una proteína con acción tóxica sobre ratones albinos. En este sistema la toxina interactúa con el gel y es eluida al final luego de usar el mismo buffer conteniendo NaCl 0,6M. La toxina fue denominada Be1 y es una proteína básica que constituye el 8,1% de la proteína total del veneno. La pureza de la toxina fue evaluada por electroforesis en condiciones nativas, de acuerdo al método de Reisfeld, y en condiciones denaturantes por el método de Schägger y von Jagow, determinándose que la toxina es una sola cadena polipeptídica de 6,3 kDa. La inoculación de 60 μg de toxina en ratones albinos, vía intraperitoneal, genera la aparición de algunos signos locales como hipersecreción salival, seguido por afección respiratoria, arrastre de las patas posteriores, hasta finalmente al cabo de 2 horas, producir la muerte. Vía intramuscular (7,6 μg, Be1 produce parálisis temporal de la extremidad inoculada. La toxina no tiene actividades de fosfolipasa, proteasa, acetilcolinesterasa ni actividad inhibidora de acetilcolinesterasa.

  18. Opposing roles of LTB4 and PGE2 in regulating the inflammasome-dependent scorpion venom-induced mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Zoccal, Karina F.; Sorgi, Carlos A.; Hori, Juliana I.; Paula-Silva, Francisco W. G.; Arantes, Eliane C.; Serezani, Carlos H.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Faccioli, L?cia H.

    2016-01-01

    Tityus serrulatus sting causes thousands of deaths annually worldwide. T. serrulatus-envenomed victims exhibit local or systemic reaction that culminates in pulmonary oedema, potentially leading to death. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying T. serrulatus venom (TsV) activity remain unknown. Here we show that TsV triggers NLRP3 inflammasome activation via K+ efflux. Mechanistically, TsV triggers lung-resident cells to release PGE2, which induces IL-1? production via E prostanoid recep...

  19. Effect of hypoxia on the activity and binding of glycolytic and associated enzymes in sea scorpion tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushchak V.I.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hypoxia on the levels of glycogen, glucose and lactate as well as the activities and binding of glycolytic and associated enzymes to subcellular structures was studied in brain, liver and white muscle of the teleost fish, Scorpaena porcus. Hypoxia exposure decreased glucose levels in liver from 2.53 to 1.70 µmol/g wet weight and in muscle led to its increase from 3.64 to 25.1 µmol/g wet weight. Maximal activities of several enzymes in brain were increased by hypoxia: hexokinase by 23%, phosphoglucoisomerase by 47% and phosphofructokinase (PFK by 56%. However, activities of other enzymes in brain as well as enzymes in liver and white muscle were largely unchanged or decreased during experimental hypoxia. Glycolytic enzymes in all three tissues were partitioned between soluble and particulate-bound forms. In several cases, the percentage of bound enzymes was reduced during hypoxia; bound aldolase in brain was reduced from 36.4 to 30.3% whereas glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase fell from 55.7 to 28.7% bound. In muscle PFK was reduced from 57.4 to 41.7% bound. Oppositely, the proportion of bound aldolase and triosephosphate isomerase increased in hypoxic muscle. Phosphoglucomutase did not appear to occur in a bound form in liver and bound phosphoglucomutase disappeared in muscle during hypoxia exposure. Anoxia exposure also led to the disappearance of bound fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in liver, whereas a bound fraction of this enzyme appeared in white muscle of anoxic animals. The possible function of reversible binding of glycolytic enzymes to subcellular structures as a regulatory mechanism of carbohydrate metabolism is discussed.

  20. GammaScorpion: mobile gamma-ray tomography system for early detection of basal stem rot in oil palm plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Jaafar; Hassan, Hearie; Shari, Mohamad Rabaie; Mohd, Salzali; Mustapha, Mahadi; Mahmood, Airwan Affendi; Jamaludin, Shahrizan; Ngah, Mohd Rosdi; Hamid, Noor Hisham

    2013-03-01

    Detection of the oil palm stem rot disease Ganoderma is a major issue in estate management and production in Malaysia. Conventional diagnostic techniques are difficult and time consuming when using visual inspection, and destructive and expensive when based on the chemical analysis of root or stem tissue. As an alternative, a transportable gamma-ray computed tomography system for the early detection of basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palms due to Ganoderma was developed locally at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Kajang, Malaysia. This system produces high quality tomographic images that clearly differentiate between healthy and Ganoderma infected oil palm stems. It has been successfully tested and used to detect the extent of BSR damage in oil palm plantations in Malaysia without the need to cut down the trees. This method offers promise for in situ inspection of oil palm stem diseases compared to the more conventional methods.

  1. Molecular cytogenetics of the Androctonus scorpions: an oasis of calm in turbulent karyotype evolution of the diverse family Buthidae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sadílek, D.; Nguyen, Petr; Koç, H.; Kovařík, F.; Yağmur, E. A.; Šťáhlavský, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2015), s. 69-76 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-35819P Grant - others:Mšk ČR(CZ) SVV 260 087/2014 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : 18S rDNA * FISH * holocentric chromosomes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.984, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12488/epdf

  2. Descripción de una especie nueva de alacrán con importancia médica del género Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae del estado de Colima, México Description of a new species of scorpion of medical importance of the genus Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae from the state of Colima, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ponce-Saavedra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Centruroides hirsutipalpus sp. nov. de la región de Minatitlán, Colima. Se compara con las especies morfológica y geográficamente más cercanas, C. elegans Thorell y C. tecomanus Hoffmann y con otras especies "rayadas" de Centruroides del centro-occidente de México. Es ésta una especie con importancia médica que no se había recolectado previamente.Centruroides hirsutipalpus sp. nov. from the region of Minatitlán, Colima, Mexico is described. The new species is compared with C. elegans Thorell and C. tecomanus Hoffmann, which are morphologically and geographically closely related. Comparisons with other species of "striped" Centruroides from central and western Mexico are included. This medically important species had not been collected previously.

  3. Especie nueva de alacrán del género Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae de la costa del estado de Jalisco, México A new scorpion species of the genus Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae from the coast of the state of Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ponce-Saavedra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe Centruroides chamela sp. nov. de Chamela en el estado de Jalisco, México. Se compara con C. elegans (Thorell, especie con la que es simpátrida. También se compara con las especies morfológica y geográficamente más cercanas: C. mascota Ponce-Saavedra y Francke, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce-Saavedra y Francke y C. tecomanus Hoffmann. Además, con C. meisei Hoffmann, que habita en las costas de Guerrero, porque este taxón se había considerado como subespecie de C. elegans. En la comparación se incluyen C. infamatus (C.L. Koch y C. ornatus (Pocock, por ser especies "rayadas" registradas para el estado de Jalisco.Centruroides chamela sp. nov. from Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico is described. The new species is compared primarily with C. elegans Thorell, because both species are sympatric. It is also compared with C. mascota Ponce-Saavedra et Francke, C. hirsutipalpus Ponce-Saavedra et Francke and C. tecomanus Hoffmann which are morphologically and geographically nearest to the new species. Centruroides meisei Hoffmann, which inhabits the coast of Guerrero is compared because this species was previously classified as a subspecies of C. elegans. Finally, C. infamatus (C.L. Koch and C. ornatus (Pocock are included in the comparisons because they are also present in the state of Jalisco, and belong to the "striped" section of the genus.

  4. Separación e identificación de algunas toxinas del veneno de Centruroides margaritatus (Gervais,1841 (Scorpiones : Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Escobar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las proteínas del veneno del escorpión Centruroides margaritatus, fueron separadas mediante cromatografía de intercambio catiónico en CM-Sephadex C-25 con buffer acetato de amonio 0,05M a pH 7, a partir de 28,3 mg de veneno obtenidos de 52 ejemplares adultos capturados en la provincia de Zarumilla, Tumbes, norte del Perú. El perfil cromatográfico mostró la presencia de 9 picos de proteína y los ensayos de toxicidad han permitido identificar tres tipos de toxinas, cada una específica para crustáceos, insectos y roedores, respectivamente. Tanto en el veneno crudo como en las fracciones colectadas, no se encontró actividad de fosfolipasa ni actividad proteolítica. La PAGE-SDS del veneno crudo, muestra la presencia de una banda bastante notoria de aproximadamente 14 KDa, y otras dos muy tenues, de aproximadamente 45KDa, lo cual significa que la mayoría de proteínas de este veneno son de peso molecular igual o menor a 14KDa.

  5. Purificación y caracterización parcial de una toxina (Hm3 del veneno de Hadruroides mauryi (Francke y Soleglad, 1980 (Scorpiones, Iuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Velásquez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha purificado una toxina (Hm3 del veneno del escorpión Hadruroides mauryi, por cromatografía de intercambio iónico en CM-Sephadex C-25 con buffer acetato de amonio 0,05M, pH 7. La toxina produce contracción y parálisis en la extremidad inoculada de ratones albinos y se caracteriza por ser de naturaleza básica y tener un peso molecular de 4,5 kDa. Después de 45 minutos de ser inoculada en el músculo gastrocnemius de ratones albinos, Hm3 (30,4 µg aumenta los niveles plasmáticos de creatina kinasa desde 252,6 UI/L hasta 3779,3 UI/L y de lactato deshidrogenasa, desde 142,7 UI/L hasta 248,2 UI/L; igualmente incrementa los niveles de calcio intramuscular desde 34,1 nmoles hasta 69,3 nmoles. Esta toxina carece de actividad proteolítica y fosfolipásica.

  6. Miłosz’s Response to Brzozowski. On Człowiek wśród skorpionów... [Man among Scorpions...] and More

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Panek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the author of the article is to investigate Miłosz’s relation to Stanisław Brzozowski. Proceeding from the interpretation of Miłosz’s Człowiek wśród skorpionów..., and diagnosing his personal motivation for turning to Brzozowski’s works in 1963, the author investigates the avenues of dialogue between Miłosz and Brzozowski, and their unsys­tematically expresses common points. The article, thus, presents various stages of influence of Brzozowski’s work and ideas on Miłosz: from the 1930s, when Miłosz was inspired by Brzozowski’s left-wing fanaticism, through the common opposition against anti-intellectualism and the Polish identity understood as a set of Romantic symbols and gestures, up to the fascination with Russian culture and Marxism. The deepest affinity of both authors seems to be the attitude of anthropocentrism, identified and exposed by Miłosz himself, and understood as hostility towards nature and belief in nature’s determinism, but also as a formula that gives coherence to the philosophical themes, found in both authors’ work, which are thought to be polarised and incompatible. In the conclusion, the author of the article states that positioning himself with reference to Brzozowski was, for Miłosz, a tool of self-creation, an attempt to control the reception and interpretation of his own work, and to place Miłosz in a separate and exceptional position, akin to the position of Brzozowski, the extraordinary and unrecognized philosopher and critic of Polish early modernism.

  7. Abundância e sazonalidade de Bothriurus signatus (Arachnida, Scorpiones em diferentes formações vegetais em São Francisco de Paula, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ott

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado levantamento de escorpiões em serrapilheira de três tipos de formações vegetais (florestas primárias, florestas secundárias e silviculturas em área de Floresta com Araucária no Sul do Brasil. Para a coleta foram utilizadas armadilhas de queda ao longo de 20 meses. No total foram amostrados 165 escorpiões de apenas uma espécie identificada como Bothriurus signatus Pocock, 1893. Machos foram mais abundantes que fêmeas e jovens. A espécie foi mais abundante em áreas de floresta primária e silvicultura do que na floresta secundária. A maior atividade dos escorpiões foi registrada durante a primavera. O comprimento total dos escorpiões adultos coletados variou de 3,05 a 4,52 cm sendo que machos foram significativamente maiores que fêmeas. Nenhuma fêmea grávida foi registrada entre os indivíduos coletados.

  8. Low-temperature neutron structure determinations of a series of scorpionate complexes of molybdenum containing B sbnd H sbnd Mo agostic bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Paula M. B.; Cowan, John A.; Schultz, Arthur J.; Koetzle, Thomas F.; Yap, Glenn P. A.; Trofimenko, Swiatoslaw

    2008-11-01

    The structures of four dihydrobis(pyrazol-1-yl)borate (Bp) complexes of molybdenum have been determined at low temperature by single crystal neutron diffraction in order to accurately characterize the three-center B sbnd H sbnd Mo agostic bonding. The B sbnd H1A (agostic) distance is found to be elongated by about 0.05-0.08 Å compared to the B sbnd H1B distance (not agostically bound to the metal center). This systematic study of a series of molecules with different substituents on the Bp ligand permits us to examine the effects of electronic and steric factors on the overall structure and bonding, and particularly on the agostic bond. It is observed that a closer approach of H1A to Mo leads to a longer trans-Mo sbnd CO bond distance, analogous to the trans hydride structural effect in hydride complexes. In addition Fenske-Hall calculations were performed on these complexes, and the results are reported herein.

  9. Synthesis and Reactivity of a Cerium(III Scorpionate Complex Containing a Redox Non-Innocent 2,2′-Bipyridine Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Ortu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ce(III hydrotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolylborate complex [Ce(TpMe22(κ2-dmpz] (1 (TpMe2 = {HB(dmpz3}−; dmpz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazolide was isolated in fair yield from the reaction of [Ce(I3(THF4] with two equivalents of [K(TpMe2] via the facile decomposition of TpMe2. [Ce(TpMe22(bipy] (2 was synthesized in poor yield by the “one-pot” reaction of [Ce(I3(THF4], bipy (bipy = 2,2′-bipyridine, KC8 and two equivalents of [K(TpMe2] in tetrahydrofuran (THF. The reaction of 2 with N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide produced the known decomposition product [Ce(TpMe2(μ-BOpMe2]2 (3 (BOpMe2 = {HBO(dmpz2}2− in poor yield, presumably by N–O and B–N bond cleavage of a reactive intermediate. The reaction of 2 with trimethylsilylazide gave [Ce(TpMe22(N3] (4 in poor yield; the fate of bipy and the trimethylsilyl group is unknown. Complexes 1–4 were characterized by single crystal XRD, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Complex 2 was additionally probed by UV/Vis/NIR and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR spectroscopies, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV and magnetometry, which together indicate a formal 4f1 Ce(III center coordinated by a bipy·− radical anion in this system.

  10. Heteroleptic Copper(I) Complexes of "Scorpionate" Bis-pyrazolyl Carboxylate Ligand with Auxiliary Phosphine as Potential Anticancer Agents: An Insight into Cytotoxic Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rais Ahmad; Usman, Mohammad; Dhivya, Rajakumar; Balaji, Perumalsamy; Alsalme, Ali; AlLohedan, Hamad; Arjmand, Farukh; AlFarhan, Khalid; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Tabassum, Sartaj

    2017-03-24

    New copper(I) complexes [CuCl(PPh 3 )(L)] (1: L = L A  = 4-carboxyphenyl)bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)methane; (2: L = L B  = 3-carboxyphenyl)bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)methane) were prepared and characterised by elemental analysis and various spectroscopic techniques such as FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis, and ESI-MS. The molecular structures of complexes 1 and 2 were analyzed by theoretical B3LYP/DFT method. Furthermore, in vitro DNA binding studies were carried out to check the ability of complexes 1 and 2 to interact with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) using absorption titration, fluorescence quenching and circular dichroism, which is indicative of more avid binding of the complex 1. Moreover, DNA mobility assay was also conducted to study the concentration-dependent cleavage pattern of pBR322 DNA by complex 1, and the role of ROS species to have a mechanistic insight on the cleavage pattern, which ascertained substantial roles by both hydrolytic and oxidative pathways. Additionally, we analyzed the potential of the interaction of complex 1 with DNA and enzyme (Topo I and II) with the aid of molecular modeling. Furthermore, cytotoxic activity of complex 1 was tested against HepG2 cancer cell lines. Thus, the potential of the complex 1 is promising though further in vivo investigations may be required before subjecting it to clinical trials.

  11. Water scorpions (Heteroptera, Nepidae) and giant water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae): Sources of new members of the adipokinetic hormone/red pigment-concentrating hormone family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Šimek, Petr; Marco, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 7 (2007), s. 1359-1367 ISSN 0196-9781 Grant - others:Natioanl Research Foundation(ZA) 2053396 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Insects * Heteroptera * Water bugs Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.368, year: 2007

  12. Invertebrate medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewbart, G.A

    2012-01-01

    .... Coverage includes sponges, jellyfish, anemones, corals, mollusks, starfish, sea urchins, crabs, crayfish, lobsters, shrimp, hermit crabs, spiders, scorpions, and many more, with chapters organized by taxonomy...

  13. Charge movement and depolarization-contraction coupling in arthropod vs. vertebrate skeletal muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Scheuer, T; Gilly, W F

    1986-01-01

    Voltage-dependent charge movement has been characterized in arthropod skeletal muscle. Charge movement in scorpion (Centuroides sculpturatus) muscle is distinguishable from that in vertebrate skeletal muscle by criteria of kinetics, voltage dependence, and pharmacology. The function of scorpion charge movement is gating of calcium channels in the sarcolemma, and depolarization-contraction coupling relies on calcium influx through these channels.

  14. Critical C Course 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most southern African scorpions are relatively harmless to humans, and although they can inflict quite a painful sting, no other toxic effects are expected to develop. However, a small number of scorpion species can cause life-threatening systemic envenoming. Children are especially vulnerable, with a mortality rate of close ...

  15. Registro nuevo del escorpión mexicano Heloderma horridum (Reptilia: Helodermidae en Durango, México New report of Mexican scorpion Heloderma horridum (Reptilia: Helodermidae in Durango State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Muñiz-Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El escorpión mexicano Heloderma horridum es una de las 2 especies de lagartijas venenosas que se conocen en el mundo; hay 3 subespecies, todas en una distribución muy localizada, a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico. En la parte suroeste de Durango, en el río Presidio, un grupo de técnicos topógrafos observaron un ejemplar de Heloderma horridum y tomaron fotografías, las cuales aportaron al autor de esta nota, quien por medio de claves determinó la especie. Se trata de una especie que se considera amenazada dentro de la NOM-ECOL-059-2001, razón por la cual no se recolectó. Este registro amplía la distribución de la especie hacia el suroeste de la sierra Madre Occidental y confirma su presencia en el estado de Durango, México.The Beaded Mexican Reptile is one of the 2 species recognized as venomous reptiles in the world. There are known 3 subspecies of Heloderma horridum, all show a very localized distribution, along the Pacific Coast. At the Southwestern part of Durango, this species was seen at the river Presidio. One specimen of Heloderma horridum, was observed and photographed, by a group of topography technical, who donated the pictures. By using taxonomic keys, the specimen was determined as Heloderma horridum. This species is registered in NOM-ECOL-059-2001, and is considered Amazing species, so the specimen was not collected. This is new registration, broads the geographical distribution of this taxon towards the southwestern of the Sierra Madre Occidental and its presence in Durango state, Mexico.

  16. Registro nuevo del escorpión mexicano Heloderma horridum (Reptilia: Helodermidae) en Durango, México New report of Mexican scorpion Heloderma horridum (Reptilia: Helodermidae) in Durango State, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Muñiz-Martínez; Manuel Antonio Rojas-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    El escorpión mexicano Heloderma horridum es una de las 2 especies de lagartijas venenosas que se conocen en el mundo; hay 3 subespecies, todas en una distribución muy localizada, a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico. En la parte suroeste de Durango, en el río Presidio, un grupo de técnicos topógrafos observaron un ejemplar de Heloderma horridum y tomaron fotografías, las cuales aportaron al autor de esta nota, quien por medio de claves determinó la especie. Se trata de una especie que se consi...

  17. Estudio bioquímico del veneno de Tityus kaderkai(Scorpiones: Buthidae con notas sobre su distribución y hábitat en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Escobar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se ha estudiado bioquímicamente el veneno del escorpión Tityus kaderkai Kovařik, 2005 del departamento de Madre de Dios. El veneno soluble contiene 47.6% de proteína y por PAGESDS muestra cinco bandas proteicas. Las proteínas del veneno fueron separadas, a partir de 12.9 mg de veneno, mediante cromatografía de intercambio catiónico en CM Sephadex C-25 con buffer acetato de amonio 0.05 M pH 7, obteniéndose 7 picos proteicos (I – VII. Los ensayos de toxicidad han permitido identificar tres toxinas que afectan a Mus musculus y que se encuentran asociadas a los picos IV, V y VII; asimismo, se ha detectado toxicidad sobre Gryllus sp. en los picos IV, V, VI y VII. Entre las actividades enzimáticas ensayadas, se ha encontrado actividad proteolítica sobre caseína en el pico I y actividad de hialuronidasa en el pico IV con una actividad específica de 205.6 μg/min/mg. Tanto en el veneno soluble como en las fracciones colectadas no se encontró actividad de fosfolipasa, anticoagulante ni hemolítica. El trabajo incluye notas sobre la distribución y el hábitat de la especie.

  18. Morfologia dos órgãos genitais masculinos do Jurará Kinosternon scorpioides (Chelonia: Kinosternidae Morphology of the male genital organs of the Scorpion Mud Turtle Kinosternon scorpioides (Chelonia: Kinosternidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cardoso Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinosternon scorpioides é uma pequena tartaruga semi-aquática, típica de água doce, de distribuição geográfica bastante diversificada, encontrada no estado do Maranhão, onde é denominada de jurará ou muçuã. Sua carne é uma excelente fonte de proteína e a despeito da legislação vigente, é comercializado nas praias e feiras da cidade de São Luís e consumido nos restaurantes sob a forma de farofa servida em casquinha. Os órgãos genitais do macho foram estudados visando fornecer dados morfológicos da própria espécie, que poderão ser utilizados na biologia reprodutiva voltada para ações de preservação em cativeiro. Compõe-se a amostra de 10 machos adultos, obtidos mediante apreensões do IBAMA-MA (Proc. nº 020.12.002400/99-31, licença nº 002/01, os quais foram eutanaziados conforme normas do Comitê de Ética do Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão. A cavidade celomática foi aberta e os órgãos fixados em solução aquosa de formaldeído 10%, e posteriormente dissecados. Os testículos possuem formato ovóide e coloração amarelo-ouro. Os epidídimos convolutos estavam aderidos dorsalmente à superfície medial dos testículos, terminando em um pequeno ducto deferente. Os ductos deferentes não forma-ram nenhuma ampola distinta, abrindo-se na cloaca. O pênis sulcado, localizado no assoalho da cloaca, estendeu-se até a cauda, composto de raíz, corpo e glande. A morfologia dos órgãos reprodutivos destes animais assemelha-se aos de outras tartarugas, sugerindo uma morfologia conservada entre as tartarugas.Kinosternon scorpioides is a small semi-aquatic turtle, typical of fresh-water, with wide geographic distribution. It is found in the state of Maranhão, where is called jurará or muçuã. Its meat is an excellent protein source and despite current legislation, it is commercialized at beaches and markets in the city of São Luis, consumed in restaurants as an appetizer in its own shell. The constitutive elements of the male genital organs were studied, aiming to provide morphological data of the species which could be used in reproductive biology aimed at actions towards its preservation in captivity. The sample was composed of 10 adult males, captured by IBAMA-MA (Proc. nº 020.12.002400/99-31, license nº 002/01, euthanized, following rules from the Ethics Committee of UEMA's Veterinary Medicine School. The choelomic cavity was opened and the organs were fixed in formaldehyde 10% and subsequently dissected. The testis of K. scorpioides had ovoid shape and golden yellow coloration. The cylindrical epididymidis adhered dorsal-wise to the medial surface of the testis, ending in a small deferent duct. The deferent ducts did not form distinct blister and opened inside cloaca. The furrowed penis, located in the base of the cloaca, extending itself until the tail and it was composed by root, body and free part. The morphology data of the reproductive organs of these animals was similar to other turtles such as the sea turtle, suggesting a conservative morphological presentation among turtles.

  19. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Student research committee, Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran. Published online: .... All data was analyzed using SPSS software ..... and clinical characteristics of scorpionism in Colima, Mexico (2000-2001).

  20. Common plants of medicinal values in kolams of Adilabad district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    the Utnoor division of Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Aim: This paper ... prepared from stem, root, and leaves to treat diseases by the tribal people. Key words: .... Bheemrao (Scorpion bite), Atram Bheemu (Snake bite) belonging to ...

  1. 50 CFR 660.383 - Open access fishery management measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... south to the U.S./Mexico border) is permitted within the non-trawl RCA with fixed gear only under the..., President Jackson Seamount, Cordell Bank (50-fm (91-m) isobath), Harris Point, Richardson Rock, Scorpion...

  2. PER 2008(3)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    communication tools. Environmental social sustainability and cultural impact ..... affairs and tourism [sic], which houses the Green Scorpions, said it was .... make an informed decision, making the decision, and enforcing post-decision.

  3. Vth Pan American Symposium on Animal, Plant and Microbial Toxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ownby, Charlotte

    1996-01-01

    .... Presentations on arthropod toxins included work on scorpion neurotoxins, K+ channel-blocking peptides, lice and wasp proteins, stinging insect venom allergens and Australian funnel-web spider toxins...

  4. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  5. Scorpius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Scorpion; abbrev. Sco., gen. Scorpii; area 497 sq. deg.) A southern zodiacal constellation which lies between Ophiuchus and Ara, and culminates at midnight in early June. Its origin dates back to Sumerian times, when it was called Girtab, `the stinger', but today it is associated with the scorpion that, in Greek mythology, killed Orion the hunter—and the two constellations lie on opposite sid...

  6. [Human mortality due to invertebrate and vertebrate envenomation in Monagas State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Leonardo; Vásquez, Dioniris; Salazar, Doyra; Valecillos, Rigoberto; Vásquez, Dionisio; Rojas, María; Parrila-Alvarez, Pedro; Quiroga, Mercedes

    2005-09-01

    Human mortality due to envenomation by animals in Monagas state, Venezuela was evaluated. In this state 47 deaths due to envenomations produced by vertebrates and invertebrates (scorpions = 21, snakes = 20, bees = 6) during the period 1980-2000 were registered. The mountainous area, at the north of the state (Turimiquire sub-region) and its piedmonts reported most of the mortality by scorpionism (57.2%) and ophidism (70.0%). The age group of the patients was related with the sort of envenomation causing the death. During the period of dry season the highest percentage of deaths by scorpions and bees occurred; and the deaths produced by snakes were more frequent in the median raining season. The most frequent causes of death (61.9%) by scorpionism were the acute lung edema and congestive heart failure. In 40% of the deaths caused by snakes, alterations of the blood coagulability were observed. Bee envenomation was responsible of 50% of the deaths produced by anaphylactic shock. In none of the deaths, the species responsible of the accident was identified. The annual mean mortality rate/100,000 inhabitants, in the 21 years registered was 0.20 for the scorpion envenomation, 0.19 for ophidism and 0.06 for bee envenomation. The data suggest the importance of the mortality produced by scorpions and snakes, particularly at the north of the state.

  7. Some of the Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Cnidoscolous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment for numerous ailments ranging from its ability to strengthen fingernails and darken gray hair to curing alcoholism, insomnia, gout, and scorpion stings. This study was to elucidate the effect of aqueous leaf extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius commonly used as food supplement on the kidney and liver of Sprague ...

  8. A Velocity Structure Analysis of Giant Molecular Cloud Associated with HII Region S152

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yeol Choi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available S152 is a small bright emission nebula located in the Perseus arm. Its optical diameter corresponds to 1.5 pc for an adopted distance 3.5 kpc. However, S152 is a part of a giant molecular cloud complex, which consists of several dense cores, containing active star-forming sites, and well aligned arm-like features. We analyzed the FCRAO 12CO (J = 1→0 Outer Galaxy Survey data in this region to study the kinematical structure of this region, which resembles a big ``scorpion". We found that there exist three different velocity components, about --54.5, --50.4, --48.8 km s-1, depending on the position of the ``scorpion". There also exist velocity gradients of 0.21 km s-1 pc-1 and 0.16 km s-1 pc-1 through the whole extent of the ``scorpion". Interestingly, these two velocity gradients show an opposite direction with each other. It is likely that the velocity structure of this region may result from the mergence of different gas clouds, and the interaction with the SNR 109.1-1.0 occurred later, mostly at the region around the ``head of the scorpion" only.

  9. African Zoology - Vol 48, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogeography of Buthus Leach, 1815 (Scorpiones: Buthidae): a multigene molecular approach reveals a further complex evolutionary history in the Maghreb · EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Interference competition between sunbirds and carpenter bees for the nectar of Hypoestes aristata · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. Antigenic Cross-Reactivity Anti-Birtoxin Antibody against Androctonus crassicauda Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuhandanAdigüzel Van-Zoelen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antivenom is still widely used in the treatment of envenomation as there are no vaccines or other effective agents available against animal venoms. Recently, neurotoxins named birtoxin family have been described from Parabuthus transvaalicus and Androctonus crassicauda. The aim of the present study was to test the antibirtoxinantibodies for their ability to neutralize the lethal effects of A. crassicauda scorpion venom.Methods: SDS-PAGE and Western blotting used the presence of components from A. crassicauda and P.transvaalicus scorpion venoms and to determine the degree of cross-reactivity. The Minimum Lethal Dose (MLD of venom was assessed by subcutaneously (sc injections in mice.Results: The MLD of the A. crassicauda venom was 35 μg/ 20g mouse by sc injection route. Western blotting showed the presence of components from A. crassicauda and P. transvaalicus scorpion venoms strongly cross react with the A. crassicauda antivenom. However, Western blotting of the A. crassicauda scorpion venom using the Refik Saydam Public Health Agency (RSPHA generated antibody showed that not all the venom components cross reacted with the anti-birtoxin antibody. The antibodies only cross reacted with components falling under the 19 kDa protein size of A. crassicauda venom.Conclusion: The bioassays and Western blotting of A. crassicauda venom with the anti-birtoxin antibodies produced against a synthetic peptide showed that these antibodies cross reacted but did not neutralize the venom of A. crassicauda.

  11. A new fish of the family Scorpaenidae from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1964-01-01

    The ichthyological collections brought together in various parts of New Guinea by staff members of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in 1954 and 1955 (cf. Boeseman, 1963), contain a series of scorpion-fishes which are here described as a new species, representing a new genus. Cheroscorpaena

  12. Envenenamiento de Chelydra serpentina (Reptilia: Testudines por Tityus trivittatus (Scorpionida: Buthidae Envenomation of Chelydra serpentina (Reptilia: Testudines by Tityus trivittatus (Scorpionida: Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo R de Roodt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el caso de un ejemplar de tortuga mordedora (Chelydra serpentina que fue hallada con los miembros tetanizados en extensión, midriasis y poca respuesta a estímulos externos, en cuyo recinto se encontró un ejemplar de escorpión Tityus trivittatus. Ante el claro cuadro de envenenamiento, se trató al quelonio con antiveneno escorpiónico específico retornando a un estado de relajación muscular a las seis horas y encontrándoselo totalmente normal a las 24 horas sin mostrar secuelas posteriores. Este es el primer comunicado sobre el envenenamiento de quelonios por escorpiones. Se discuten algunos aspectos de este envenenamiento escorpiónico y su tratamiento con antiveneno específico.We report the case of a snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina found tetanized, with the limbs in extension, mydriasis and poor response to external stimuli, in whose terrarium was found a Tityus trivittatus scorpion. Based on the clear clinical picture of envenoming, the turtle was treated with a specific scorpion antivenin, returning to a state of muscle relaxation after six hours of treatment and it was found totally normal at 24 hours, without envenoming sequelae. This is the first report on turtle envenomation by scorpion. The scorpion envenomation in reptiles and the treatment with specific antivenom is discussed.

  13. [Study on artificial compound feed for Buthus martensii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Cai; Shen, Xue-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Han, Xiu-Kun

    2014-03-01

    To solve the problem that the single feed causing malnutrition, extension of the life cycle and low survival rates of Buthus martensii. By using Minitab (R) 15.1.1.0.0., 7 different kinds of compound feed were designed, including minced meat mud (pork,chicken and rabbit), bran (fried yellow), sugar, milk, vegetable paste and multivitamin as raw material. Different proportions of compound feed that taking the yellow mealworm as main component had a significant effect on the growth, mortality and birth number of Buthus martensii. Compound feed 5 significantly reduced mortality of youth scorpion. The compound feed 4 was the best in improving the weight of scorpion larvae and youth scorpion, and the farrowing number of mother scorpion. Other indicators were also good. Proportions in meatmud (pork, chicken and rabbit), bran (fried yellow), sugar, milk, vegetable paste and multivitamin was 30.00%, 25.00%, 20.08%, 15.58%, 8.08% and 1.25%, respectively. The growth of Buthus martensii is significantly influenced by the type of feed. In the production of compound feed, the yellow mealworm with compound feed 4 can be popularized.

  14. Neurotoxic and Cytotoxic Effects of Venom from Different Populations of the Egyptian Scorpio Maurus Palmatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurotoxic and cytotoxic effects of venoms from Scorpio maurus palmatus taken from different populations were assessed for geographic based variability in toxicity and to evaluate their insecticidal potency. Scorpions were collected from four regions. Three locations were mutually isolated pockets i...

  15. Pitfalls to avoid when using phage display for snake toxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Andreas Hougaard; Lauridsen, Line Præst; Lomonte, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Antivenoms against bites and stings from snakes, spiders, and scorpions are associated with immunological side effects and high cost of production, since these therapies are still derived from the serum of hyper-immunized production animals. Biotechnological innovations within envenoming therapies...

  16. Morro do Ferro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, T.L.; Paschoa, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    Concentration of Ra 224 e Rn 220 was measured in 'Morro do Ferro', a region of high natural radioactivity in Brazil. Plants, soils and animals (rodents, scorpions) were taken as samples and radioactive concentrations were found up to 500.000 times the levels of natural occurrences. Histological examinations in rats revealed no abnormalities

  17. Real-Time PCR Detection and QUantification of Soilborne Fungal Pathogens : the Case of Rosellinia necatrix, Phytophthora nicotianae, P. citrophthora and Verticillium dahliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Schena

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and Scorpion primers were designed from the ITS regions to identify Rosellinia necatrix, Phytophthora nicotianae, and P. citrophthora and from the IGS regions to identify Verticillium dahliae and V. alboatrum. Specificity of primers and probes was assessed using genomic DNA from a large number of fungi from several hosts and by means of BLAST analyses, to exclude the presence of similar sequences in other micro-organisms among available DNA databases (GenBank. Simple and rapid procedures for DNA extraction from naturally infected matrices (soils, roots, bark, and/or woody tissues were utilised to yield DNA of a purity and quality suitable for PCR assays. Combining these protocols with a double amplification (nested Scorpion-PCR, the real-time detection of these pathogens was possible from naturally infested soils and from infected citrus roots (P. nicotianae and P. citrophthora, from the roots and bark of stone fruits and olive (R. necatrix and from olive branches (V. dahliae. For target pathogens, the limit of detection was 1 pg µl-1 in Scorpion-PCR and 1 fg µl-1 in nested Scorpion-PCR. High and significant correlations between pathogen propagule concentrations and real-time PCR cycle thresholds (Ct were obtained. Moreover, specific tests with R. necatrix seem to indicate that its DNA is quite rapidly degraded in the soil, excluding the risk of false positives due to the presence of dead cells.

  18. Antimicrobial and toxicological studies of Epa-ijebu. a “wonder – cure”

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Epa-ijebu' is regarded as a “wonder cure” concoction used in curing many diseases and as an antidote to scorpion and snake bites among the Yoruba's in South West, Nigeria. Initial report had indicated antibacterial activity of the concoction against some common bacterial pathogens. This present study screened for ...

  19. Moving pieces in a venomic puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verano-Braga, Thiago; Dutra, Alexandre A A; León, Ileana R

    2013-01-01

    Besides being a public health problem, scorpion venoms have a potential biotechnological application since they contain peptides that may be used as drug leads and/or to reveal novel pharmacological targets. A comprehensive Tityus serrulatus venom proteome study with emphasis on the phosphoproteo...

  20. Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and “wonder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... 1/7 of all deaths in Europe and 1/3 of deaths among productive ... death worldwide killing 2 million people each year. (Frieden et al. ... powder), whole scorpion (powdered) and poisonous rat. (powdered). ... weeks before use.

  1. Charybdotoxin and Margatoxin Acting on the Human Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel hKv1.3 and Its H399N Mutant. An Experimental and Computational Comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nikouee, A.; Khabiri, Morteza; Grissmer, S.; Ettrich, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 17 (2012), s. 5132-5140 ISSN 1520-6106 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Charbydotoxin * dependent k + channel * constant-pressure * molecular dynamics simulations * scorpion toxin * force-field Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.607, year: 2012

  2. The Image of the West on the Soviet Screen in the Era of the “Cold War”: Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Fedorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Soviet films of the "cold war" period about Western world and western characters – in terms of their ideology, social and cultural context. As examples from movies and detective fiction genre – "The Mystery of Two Oceans", "Amphibian Man", "The Case of Corporal Kochetkov", "Gardens of the Scorpion."

  3. Biological explorations of Sinai: flora and fauna of Wadi Isla and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comprehensive survey was accomplished for two of the most important and beautiful wadis in the Sinai, Wadi Isla & Hebran. The biodiversity of the two wadis are surveyed including plant species and their associated insects, spiders and scorpions. The list includes 20 plant families with 51 species, 8 insect orders with 54 ...

  4. The identification and syndromic management of snakebite in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of snakebite injury is uncertain, especially in the 40% of patients who do not see the offending snake, unless there are paired fang marks or typical findings of an envenomation syndrome. The differential diagnosis would include a thorn prick, spider bite or scorpion sting. Thorn pricks are not associated with ...

  5. Molecule of the Month

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structures of various substances and to relate them to their properties. From a chemical point of view, even poisonous compounds are interesting. The most venomous substances associated with snakes, scorpions, and even some bacteria and plants have a common structural feature. These compounds are in fact proteins.

  6. Li et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(5):105-110 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    cell cycle-related protein Cyclin D1 level after drug intervention compared with the negative control group. Conclusions: These results showed that .... venom, MCF-7 cells were more sensitive to BmK scorpion venom compared to SMMC7721 cells with the same time point and the same concentration of the drug. The results ...

  7. Searching Algorithm Using Bayesian Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    In late October 1967, the USS Scorpion was lost at sea, somewhere between the Azores and Norfolk Virginia. Dr. Craven of the U.S. Navy's Special Projects Division is credited with using Bayesian Search Theory to locate the submarine. Bayesian Search Theory is a straightforward and interesting application of Bayes' theorem which involves searching…

  8. Prediction of antigenic epitopes and MHC binders of neurotoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... scorpion chlorotoxin-like short-chain neurotoxins (SCNs). *Corresponding ... Protein sequence analysis. Here we ... MHC/peptide binding is a log-transformed value related to the IC50 values in nM ..... porter. Adducts of MHC and peptide complexes are the ligands for T cell receptors (TCR) (Table-1). MHC.

  9. Notes on food and foraging of the Honey Badger Mellivora capensis in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kruuk

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Contents of faeces indicated that honey badgers in the Kalahari eat mostly rodents, followed by lizards and scorpions, all of which are caught by digging. Larger mammals (aardwolf, bat-eared fox, springhare and large snakes are also eaten. Foraging behaviour is described and individual differences in foraging strategies are discussed.

  10. Diagnostic PCR: Comparative sensitivity of four probe chemistries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    2009-01-01

    Three probe chemistries: locked nucleic acid (LNA), minor groove binder (MGB) and Scorpion were compared with a TaqMan probe in a validated real-time PCR assay for detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacter. The LNA probe produced significantly lower Ct-values and a higher proportion of...

  11. Molecular diagnosis of Wolbachia endosymbiont from Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Wolbachia 16S rDNA gene. PCR product was directly sequenced and the alignment of the sequence with similar sequences in GenBank showed high similarity with 16S rDNA gene of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster. Key words: Wolbachia, Iranian scorpion, 16S rDNA gene, Hemiscorpius lepturus.

  12. Transmission of Microsporidian Parasites of Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    spiders, beetle larvae, and phantom midges. 2) Feeding spores to crayfish, dragonfly larvae, damselfly larvae, water scorpions, beetles , Anopheles...use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect baculovirus in larvae and adults of Oryctes rhinoceros from Tonga J. Gen. Virol., 47

  13. Effects of reconstruction of a pre-European vertebrate assemblage on ground-dwelling arachnids in arid Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Colin J; Hayward, Matthew W; Gibb, Heloise

    2015-06-01

    Species loss can result in changes in assemblage structure and ecosystem function through ecological cascades. Australian vertebrate assemblages changed significantly following European colonisation, which resulted in the establishment of invasive vertebrates and the loss of native marsupials, many of which consume invertebrates. Conservation focusses on the removal of invasive carnivores and the reintroduction of regionally extinct species to fenced sites, resulting in what could be considered a reconstruction of pre-European vertebrate assemblages. In semi-arid Australian spinifex mallee ecosystems, we asked: (1) what is the effect of reconstructed pre-European vertebrate assemblages on native arachnid assemblages? and (2) what direct or indirect mechanisms (predation, disturbance and/or competition) could plausibly be responsible for these effects? We compared sites with reconstructed vertebrate assemblages with paired control sites. Arachnids were sampled using pitfall trapping and direct searching. Hypotheses regarding mechanisms were tested using scat analysis (predation) and by comparing burrow depth (disturbance) and scorpion mass (competition) between control and reconstructed sites. The dominant dune scorpion, Urodacus yaschenkoi, was less abundant and a wolf spider (Lycosa gibsoni species group) more abundant in reconstructed sites. Differences in spider assemblage composition were marginally non-significant. Scat analysis confirmed native vertebrate predation on scorpions and we found no evidence that competition or disturbance affected scorpions. We, thus, suggest that changes in spider assemblages may have resulted from ecological cascades via decreases in dune scorpions. The loss of omnivorous mammals and other changes associated with the invasion of carnivores may, therefore, have had broad-reaching consequences for native arachnid assemblages in Australian ecosystems.

  14. Distribution and chemical form of mercury in commercial fish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoko; Tayama, Misato; Inouye, Minoru; Yasutake, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed total Hg concentrations in various tissue samples obtained from 7 commercially available fish species. MeHg contents were also estimated for muscle and liver samples by a selective analysis of inorganic Hg. Among the tissues, high Hg accumulations were shown in liver, muscle, heart and spleen throughout all fish species. Carnivorous fish, such as scorpion fish, sea bream and Japanese whiting, tended to show higher Hg accumulations in the muscle, with the highest Hg levels being shown by scorpion fish. Although the liver was expected to show the highest Hg accumulations among tissues throughout all fish species, the highest accumulation in the liver was observed only in scorpion fish. In contrast, the muscle level was significantly higher than the liver in Pacific saury and Japanese whiting. MeHg accumulated in fish is considered to show a sustained increase throughout the life of the fish, due to its long biological half-life. In fact, in the present study, muscle Hg levels in Japanese whiting, Japanese flying fish, and halfbeak showed good correlations with body weights. However, such correlations were not clear in scorpion fish, sea bream, Jack mackerel and Pacific saury. Selective analyses of inorganic Hg levels revealed that most of the Hg (> 95%) in fish muscle existed as MeHg, while the rates of MeHg contents in the liver varied from 56% in scorpion fish to 84% in Jack mackerel. As a result, fish muscle showed the highest MeHg accumulations in all fish species examined. These results suggest that reliable information on total Hg contents in fish muscle might be sufficient to avoid the risk of MeHg exposure caused by eating fish, even when one consumes other tissues such as fish liver.

  15. Dangerous arachnids-Fake news or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Tobias J; Herzig, Volker

    2017-11-01

    The public perception of spiders and scorpions is skewed towards the potential harm they can inflict in humans, despite recent scientific evidence that arachnid venom components might be useful as bioinsecticides or even human therapeutics. Nevertheless, arachnids are becoming more popular as pets in Europe, America and Asia, raising the question for regulatory agencies in these regions as to whether they need to take measurements to protect their citizens. In order to decide upon the necessary regulatory steps, they first need to determine which arachnids are actually dangerous to humans. This review therefore provides an overview of the current literature on verified bites and stings from spiders and scorpions with the aim of assessing their potential danger for human health. As a guideline, we also provide a list of those arachnid genera that we consider as potentially dangerous, which includes 10 spider and 11 scorpion genera. The arachnid genera classified as dangerous comprise less than a quarter of all extant scorpion species and only 0.5% of all spiders species, with the actual number most likely being much lower than that, as not all species in those genera might turn out to pose an actual threat for humans. In conclusion, we found that only a small percentage of scorpions and a minute percentage of all spiders can be considered as potentially dangerous to humans. While in some countries of origin the high incidence of envenomations by dangerous arachnids can result in a serious problem to the health system, we assessed the risk that the same species pose when kept as pets under controlled maintenance conditions as significantly lower. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Escorpionismo: presentación de un posible caso grave ocurrido en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C Docampo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El escorpionismo, en su aspecto clínico es un envenenamiento de causa accidental producido por la inoculación del veneno de un alacrán o escorpión, que en Argentina ocurre predominantemente en áreas urbanas, en el ámbito domiciliario o peridomiciliario. En nuestro país son tres las especies de escorpiones de interés médico-sanitario: Tityus (T. trivittatus, T. confluens y T. bahiensis. El cuadro clínico se caracteriza por presentar dolor agudo con escaso compromiso cutáneo y manifestaciones sistémicas que, sin tratamiento pueden provocar la muerte, principalmente en niños. El objetivo de esta comunicación es dar a conocer el primer caso de escorpionismo grave, ocurrido en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, en una niña de 4 años de edad y describir el cuadro clínico característico y la necesidad del tratamiento precoz en los casos moderados y severos.Scorpionism in its clinical aspect is an envenoming caused by accidental sting and inoculation of venom from a scorpion, which in Argentina occurs predominantly in urban areas, in the home environment or peridomiciliary. In our country there are three species of scorpions of medical-health concern: Tityus (T. trivittatus, T. confluens and T. bahiensis. The clinical picture is characterized by severe pain with limited cutaneous and systemic manifestations, that without treatment can cause death, especially in children. The aim of this communication is to present the first case of severe scorpionism occurred in the City of Buenos Aires, in a 4 years old girl, and to describe the characteristic clinical picture and the need for early treatment in moderate and severe cases of scorpionism.

  17. MIT modular x-ray source systems for the study of plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J. W.; Wenzel, K. W.; Petrasso, R. D.; Lo, D. H.; Li, C. K.; Lierzer, J. R.; Wei, T.

    1992-10-01

    Two new x-ray source systems are now on line at our facility. Each provides an e-beam to 25 kV. Targets are interchangeable between machines, and four x-ray detectors may be used simultaneously with a target. The gridded e-gun of the RACEHORSE system gives a 0.5-1.0-cm pulsable spot on target. The nongridded e-gun of the SCORPION system provides a 0.3-mm or smaller dc microspot on target. RACEHORSE is being used to study and characterize type-II diamond photoconductors for use in diagnosing plasmas, while SCORPION is being used to develop a slitless spectrograph using photographic film. Source design details and some RACEHORSE results are presented.

  18. Radiations, human cancerization and radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillaume, M.

    1991-01-01

    Active oxygen species have been implicated in inflammatory diseases, cellular transformation and carcinogenesis. Experiments studying their direct (for instance, by ionizing radiation) or indirect influence (for instance, by the decrease(s) in activity of cellular defence enzymes), in vivo, and/or, in cell cultures (fibroblasts, keratinocytes, hepatocytes,...) have been positive. To the contrary, reactions or products, which decrease level(s) of free radicals/H 2 O 2 (i) directly, (ii) indirectly by an increase of SOD, catalase, and peroxydase activites suppress the above-described phenomena. This is the case for the domain number 2 (that contains copper, MW 53KDa) of the Scorpion's blood pigment (hemocyanin), which possesses SOD-, catalase-, and peroxydase-like properties, resistant to, at least, 4000 Gy, and thus may explain the especially high radioresistance of scorpions. Enzymatic decrease(s) and the domain number 2 of hemocyanin are under current investigation in several laboratories [fr

  19. Professor José Roberto Giglio and toxinnology in Brazil: 48 years in research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Soares

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work succinctly describes the professional and scientific life of Dr. José R. Giglio, one of the most outstanding Brazilian researchers in the field of Toxinology. During his long and successful career, he has made major contributions, especially in elucidating the function, structure, and mechanisms of action of animal venom proteins (from snakes, scorpions and spiders as well as the characterization of antibodies and several inhibitors of venoms and toxins. We present here a brief history of Dr. Giglio’s personal and professional life, also reporting some of his numerous published scientific articles on venoms from snakes (Bothrops, Crotalus, and other genera, scorpions (Tityus sp, spiders (Phoneutria sp, their isolated toxins and natural inhibitors. Thus, this work is a tribute to Dr. Giglio in his 73rd birthday, having devoted 48 years of his life studying animal venoms, an effort that has continued even after his formal retirement from university duties.

  20. Prise en charge des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les signes cliniques étaient dominés par les douleurs (98%) suivies des hémorragies (73,80%) pour les morsures de serpent, la douleur pour les piqures de scorpion (100%) et les oedèmes pour les piqures d'abeilles (100%). Les cas de morsure de serpent ont été traités par le sérum antivenimeux polyvalent. Conclusion: ...

  1. Composite Beings in Neo-Babylonian Art

    OpenAIRE

    Gane, Constance E.

    2012-01-01

    An examination of all the extant, provenanced depictions of composite beings, Mischwesen, in Neo-Babylonian iconography sheds important new light on the worldview of the last great Mesopotamian civilization. The types of hybrids that are portrayed include such disparate forms as the apkallu and the genius in human form, as well as creatures based on bulls, lions, canines, winged quadrupeds, fish, birds, scorpions, and snakes. Each composite being is analyzed in terms of its physical component...

  2. Optical, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization of New Bioluminescence Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-09

    maturity in relation to the spawning period. In this study all tested females had mature ovaries whereas the state of maturity could not be ascertained...Scorpion (species to be identified) Warty corallimorph, Discosoma sanctithomae Caterpillar larvae (species to be identified) Bearded fireworm, He_ Eggs ...cunburso anemone). (brown) + (yeliow) + Oral disk -63110-6707 Translucent uelatinous pheres ( eggs ?) op. P ? + 467 610-676-72M Pcdtera -Oamosponuiae

  3. Hospital Corpsman 3 + 2. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    scorpion of ) medical importance is the type called Cen-- truroides sculpturatus found in Mexico and cer- BRW-ELS tain areas of the American Southwest...Endemic centers medical officer’s supervision, exist in mountainous regions of Mexico , Central N and South America, th Bakn,.atr 1. Preventive measures...34’ CHICKENPOX-HERPES ZOSTER ( VARICELLA -SHINGLES) TREATMENT. Symptomatic treatment is normally all that is necessary. Wet compresses M. Chickenpox is an

  4. [Quod medicina aliis, aliis est acre venenum**--venoms as a source of anticancer agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucińska, Małgorzata; Ruciński, Piotr; Murias, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Natural product derived from plants and animals were used in folk medicine for centuries. The venoms produced by animals for hunting of self-defence are rich in bioactive compounds with broad spectrum of biological activity. The papers presents the most promising compounds isolated from venoms of snakes, scorpions and toads. For these compounds both: mechanism of anticancer activity as well as possibilities of clinical use are presented.

  5. OPERCULINA TURPETHUM AS A PANORAMIC HERBAL MEDICINE: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Veena Sharma

    2012-01-01

    O. turpethum is the source of the drug known as Turpeth or Indian Jalap and it is widely grown throughout India and it is occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornament. It has been used as a traditional medicine in many countries. The root is prescribed in scorpion sting and snake bite. The roots are bitter,acrid, sweet, thermogenic, purgative, carminative, antihelmintic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatic, stimulant and hydragogue. They are useful in colic constipation, dropsy, vitiated c...

  6. Radioprotective effectiveness of some zootoxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernigorova, L.A.; Lebedev, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the effectiveness of a new class of radioprotective agents, polypeptides, obtained from zootoxins of scorpion, tarantula, Lathrodectes tredecimguttatus, and bee under conditions of a short-term and long-term irradiation. The peptide fraction of the sorption venom, butoxin, was most radioprotective: it provided 65% survival after LD 98/30 . Butoxin exerted a stimulatory effect on the hypophysis-adrenal system and haemopoiesis of intact and irradiated animals

  7. Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides (Testudines: Kinosternidae: A New Record from Northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Herney Cáceres-Martínez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a new record of the Scorpion Turtle Kinosternon scorpioides scorpioides for the Norte de Santander department, Colombia. This specimen was collected in the tropical dry forest of the department, which is one of the most threatened and least protected ecosystems in the country; this exacerbated by local problems related with pollution and land-use transformation, threatening the presence and conservation of K. s. scorpioides.

  8. Envenimation scorpionique compliqué d'un accident vasculaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les piqûres de scorpion sont dans un certain nombre de pays, un accident fréquemment rencontré, et un risque grave. Au Maroc, les données épidémiologiques établies par le centre anti-poison (CAPM) montrent que les piqûres scorpioniques se placent en tête de toutes les intoxications relevées par le centre (60%).

  9. Estudo do mecanismo da hiperglicemia e da hipertensão arterial, produzidas pelo veneno de escorpião, no cão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Freire-Maia

    1961-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we studied the mechanism of the hyperglycemia and hypertension evoked by the intravenous injection of scorpion venom (Tityus bahiensis in the dog. We used 34 dogs, of both sex, weighing between 4.3 to 22 kg. These animals were divided in 3 groups and the following experiments were performed: in the first group (8 dogs the animals were adrenalectomized after the intravenous injection of chlorpromazine; in the second group (16 dogs the animals were injected with ganglionic blocking drugs (9.295 Ciba and hexamethonium; in the third group (10 dogs the naimals were injected with dibenamine, and in 3 of them the adrenal glands were removed. The dogs of each group were injected intravenously with aqueous extract of 2 telsons of scorpion/kg; the average weight of each telson was 6,5 mg. The following results were obtained: 1 The hyperglycemia evoked by scorpion venom, in adrenalectomized dogs, was inhibited by chlorpromazine; 2 Ganglionic blocking drugs (9.295 Ciba and hexamthonium were inefective as far as the hyperglycemic and pressor effects of venom are concerned; 3 In the animals treated with dibenamine, the venom produced a fall in blood pressure, both in the controle and in the adrenalectomized. The present experiments suggest that the scorpion venom has, besides the central action already described by other investigators, an adrenergic action, very similar to the adrenaline. On basis of our experiments we think that the adrenergic action is responsible, in part, by the productrion of hyperglycemia and hypertension.

  10. MORTALIDAD CAUSADA POR ANIMALES VENENOSOS EN VENEZUELA: 1980-1999 I MORTALITY CAUSED BY VENOMOUS ANIMALS IN VENEZUELA: 1980-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sousa Leonardo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chronology and epidemiological pattern of human mortal accidents inflicted by venomous animals in Venezuela for the period 1980 to 1999. National mortality data were obtained by passive epidemiological surveillance through inspection of series E905 and X20 to X29, registered in the mortality and vital statistics yearly records, produced by the Venezuelan National Health System. The mortality rates per year and the average rate for the 20-year period per 100.000 inhabitants were assessed from the 1,494 deaths recorded in this period. The main cause of death was snakebite (n = 921; 61.6%, followed by envenoming by hymenoptera (n = 310; 20.7% and scorpion stings (n = 185; 12.4%. The higher frequency of deaths due to snakebites corresponded to 1987 (62 cases, whereas for hymenoptera were in 1980 and 1991 (21 cases each and 1995 for scorpions (18 cases. For any of these etiological factors mortality was higher for males (80.4%. The average annual mortality rate for the studied period (deaths per 100,000 inhabitants per etiological agent was 0.24 (snakes, 0.08 (hymenoptera and 0.05 (scorpions. These epidemiological data indicated that the accidents caused by venomous animals represent a collective health problem in Venezuel

  11. CERN’s Summer of Rock

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    When a rock star visits CERN, they don’t just bring their entourage with them. Along for the ride are legions of fans across the world – many of whom may not be the typical CERN audience. In July alone, four big acts paid CERN a visit, sharing their experience with the world: Scorpions, The Script, Kings of Leon and Patti Smith.   @TheScript tweeted: #paleofestival we had the best time! Big love. #CERN (Image: Twitter).   It all started with the Scorpions, the classic rock band whose “Wind of Change” became an anthem in the early 1990s. On 19 July, the band braved the 35-degree heat to tour the CERN site on foot – visiting the Synchrocyclotron and the new Microcosm exhibition. The rockers were very enthusiastic about the research carried out at CERN, and talked about returning in the autumn during their next tour stop. The Scorpions visit Microcosm. Two days later, The Script rolled in. This Irish pop-rock band has been hittin...

  12. Comparison of Internal Fixations for Distal Clavicular Fractures Based on Loading Tests and Finite Element Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Sakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to apply strong and stable internal fixation to a fracture of the distal end of the clavicle because it is unstable, the distal clavicle fragment is small, and the fractured region is near the acromioclavicular joint. In this study, to identify a superior internal fixation method for unstable distal clavicular fracture, we compared three types of internal fixation (tension band wiring, scorpion, and LCP clavicle hook plate. Firstly, loading tests were performed, in which fixations were evaluated using bending stiffness and torsional stiffness as indices, followed by finite element analysis to evaluate fixability using the stress and strain as indices. The bending and torsional stiffness were significantly higher in the artificial clavicles fixed with the two types of plate than in that fixed by tension band wiring (P<0.05. No marked stress concentration on the clavicle was noted in the scorpion because the arm plate did not interfere with the acromioclavicular joint, suggesting that favorable shoulder joint function can be achieved. The stability of fixation with the LCP clavicle hook plate and the scorpion was similar, and plate fixations were stronger than fixation by tension band wiring.

  13. Biochemical changes and manifestations of envenomation produced by Odonthobuthus doriae venom in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Mirakabadi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many toxins from scorpion venoms cause neurotransmitters release by activating the autonomic system. The aim of the present work was to determine osmotic fragility of red blood cells (RBCs and serum biochemical changes produced by the venom of Odonthobuthus doriae (O. doriae, a dangerous species of scorpion in Iran. For this study we selected 2 groups, each one containing 10 New Zealand white rabbits weighing 2 ± 0.2 kg. In vivo and in vitro osmotic fragilities as well as packed cell volume (PCV were determined. Serum was separated and used for determination of glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, uric acid (UA, triglycerides, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, EC 2.6.1.1, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, EC 2.6.1.2. Results indicate that Odonthobuthus doriae venom (0.5 mg/kg, IV causes a significant increase (p<0.05 of serum glucose, UA, PCV, ALT, and AST. Increase was also observed in BUN, but it was not statistically significant. On the other hand a significant decrease (p<0.05 was observed in triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Increased in vivo osmotic fragility of RBCs was significant too, but in vitro osmotic fragility did not show a significant change. These results support the hypothesis that the biochemical variation caused by scorpion venom can be due to an autonomic storm and release of catecholamines.

  14. The house spider genome reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication during arachnid evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Evelyn E; Sharma, Prashant P; Clarke, Thomas; Leite, Daniel J; Wierschin, Torsten; Pechmann, Matthias; Akiyama-Oda, Yasuko; Esposito, Lauren; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Bilde, Trine; Buffry, Alexandra D; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Dugan, Shannon; Eibner, Cornelius; Extavour, Cassandra G; Funch, Peter; Garb, Jessica; Gonzalez, Luis B; Gonzalez, Vanessa L; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Han, Yi; Hayashi, Cheryl; Hilbrant, Maarten; Hughes, Daniel S T; Janssen, Ralf; Lee, Sandra L; Maeso, Ignacio; Murali, Shwetha C; Muzny, Donna M; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Paese, Christian L B; Qu, Jiaxin; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Schomburg, Christoph; Schönauer, Anna; Stollewerk, Angelika; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Turetzek, Natascha; Vanthournout, Bram; Werren, John H; Wolff, Carsten; Worley, Kim C; Bucher, Gregor; Gibbs, Richard A; Coddington, Jonathan; Oda, Hiroki; Stanke, Mario; Ayoub, Nadia A; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Flot, Jean-François; Posnien, Nico; Richards, Stephen; McGregor, Alistair P

    2017-07-31

    The duplication of genes can occur through various mechanisms and is thought to make a major contribution to the evolutionary diversification of organisms. There is increasing evidence for a large-scale duplication of genes in some chelicerate lineages including two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in horseshoe crabs. To investigate this further, we sequenced and analyzed the genome of the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum. We found pervasive duplication of both coding and non-coding genes in this spider, including two clusters of Hox genes. Analysis of synteny conservation across the P. tepidariorum genome suggests that there has been an ancient WGD in spiders. Comparison with the genomes of other chelicerates, including that of the newly sequenced bark scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus, suggests that this event occurred in the common ancestor of spiders and scorpions, and is probably independent of the WGDs in horseshoe crabs. Furthermore, characterization of the sequence and expression of the Hox paralogs in P. tepidariorum suggests that many have been subject to neo-functionalization and/or sub-functionalization since their duplication. Our results reveal that spiders and scorpions are likely the descendants of a polyploid ancestor that lived more than 450 MYA. Given the extensive morphological diversity and ecological adaptations found among these animals, rivaling those of vertebrates, our study of the ancient WGD event in Arachnopulmonata provides a new comparative platform to explore common and divergent evolutionary outcomes of polyploidization events across eukaryotes.

  15. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  16. Marine subsidies of island communities in the Gulf of California: evidence from stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, W.B.; Polis, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Coastal sites support larger (2 to > 100 x) populations of many consumers than inland sites on islands in the Gulf of California. Previous data suggested that subsidies of energy and nutrients from the ocean allowed large coastal populations. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes are frequently used to analyse diet composition of organisms: they are particularly useful to distinguish between diet sources with distinct isotopic signatures, such as marine and terrestrial diets. We analyzed the 13 C and 15 N concentrations of coastal versus inland spiders and scorpions to test the hypothesis that coastal individuals exhibited more strongly marine-based diets than inland individuals. Coastal spiders and scorpions were significantly more enriched in 13 C and 15 N than inland spiders and scorpions, suggesting that the coastal individuals consumed more marine-based foods than their inland counterparts. These patterns existed in both drought years and wet El Nino years. However, the marine influence was stronger in drought years when terrestrial productivity was nearly non-existent, than in wet years when terrestrial productivity increased by an order of magnitude. (au)

  17. A four-disulphide-bridged toxin, with high affinity towards voltage-gated K+ channels, isolated from Heterometrus spinnifer (Scorpionidae) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, B; Romi-Lebrun, R; Martin-Eauclaire, M F; Yasuda, A; Ishiguro, M; Oyama, Y; Pongs, O; Nakajima, T

    1997-11-15

    A new toxin, named HsTX1, has been identified in the venom of Heterometrus spinnifer (Scorpionidae), on the basis of its ability to block the rat Kv1.3 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. HsTX1 has been purified and characterized as a 34-residue peptide reticulated by four disulphide bridges. HsTX1 shares 53% and 59% sequence identity with Pandinus imperator toxin1 (Pi1) and maurotoxin, two recently isolated four-disulphide-bridged toxins, whereas it is only 32-47% identical with the other scorpion K+ channel toxins, reticulated by three disulphide bridges. The amidated and carboxylated forms of HsTX1 were synthesized chemically, and identity between the natural and the synthetic amidated peptides was proved by mass spectrometry, co-elution on C18 HPLC and blocking activity on the rat Kv1.3 channels. The disulphide bridge pattern was studied by (1) limited reduction-alkylation at acidic pH and (2) enzymic cleavage on an immobilized trypsin cartridge, both followed by mass and sequence analyses. Three of the disulphide bonds are connected as in the three-disulphide-bridged scorpion toxins, and the two extra half-cystine residues of HsTX1 are cross-linked, as in Pi1. These results, together with those of CD analysis, suggest that HsTX1 probably adopts the same general folding as all scorpion K+ channel toxins. HsTX1 is a potent inhibitor of the rat Kv1.3 channels (IC50 approx. 12 pM). HsTX1 does not compete with 125I-apamin for binding to its receptor site on rat brain synaptosomal membranes, but competes efficiently with 125I-kaliotoxin for binding to the voltage-gated K+ channels on the same preparation (IC50 approx. 1 pM).

  18. Molecular analysis of the sea anemone toxin Av3 reveals selectivity to insects and demonstrates the heterogeneity of receptor site-3 on voltage-gated Na+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Yehu; Kahn, Roy; Cohen, Lior; Gur, Maya; Karbat, Izhar; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2007-08-15

    Av3 is a short peptide toxin from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis shown to be active on crustaceans and inactive on mammals. It inhibits inactivation of Na(v)s (voltage-gated Na+ channels) like the structurally dissimilar scorpion alpha-toxins and type I sea anemone toxins that bind to receptor site-3. To examine the potency and mode of interaction of Av3 with insect Na(v)s, we established a system for its expression, mutagenized it throughout, and analysed it in toxicity, binding and electrophysiological assays. The recombinant Av3 was found to be highly toxic to blowfly larvae (ED50=2.65+/-0.46 pmol/100 mg), to compete well with the site-3 toxin LqhalphaIT (from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus) on binding to cockroach neuronal membranes (K(i)=21.4+/-7.1 nM), and to inhibit the inactivation of Drosophila melanogaster channel, DmNa(v)1, but not that of mammalian Na(v)s expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Moreover, like other site-3 toxins, the activity of Av3 was synergically enhanced by ligands of receptor site-4 (e.g. scorpion beta-toxins). The bioactive surface of Av3 was found to consist mainly of aromatic residues and did not resemble any of the bioactive surfaces of other site-3 toxins. These analyses have portrayed a toxin that might interact with receptor site-3 in a different fashion compared with other ligands of this site. This assumption was corroborated by a D1701R mutation in DmNa(v)1, which has been shown to abolish the activity of all other site-3 ligands, except Av3. All in all, the present study provides further evidence for the heterogeneity of receptor site-3, and raises Av3 as a unique model for design of selective anti-insect compounds.

  19. Biomimicry in Product Design through Materials Selection and Computer Aided Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, G.; Tzetzis, D.; Kyratsis, P.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate a 7-step methodology that describes the way nature can act as a source of inspiration for the design and the development of a product. Furthermore, it suggests special computerized tools and methods for the product optimization regarding its environmental impact i.e. material selection, production methods. For validation purposes, a garden chaise lounge that imitates the form of a scorpion was developed as a result for the case study and the presentation of the current methodology.

  20. Precision Strike 2009 Summer Forum: Affordable Precision Munitions-The Reliable Choice for Modern Battle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-10

    that parts of President Hugo Chavez’s massive weapons buildup could wind up in the hands of terrorists or guerrillas in neighboring Colombia ...M829A3 120mm APFSDS T • n an ry  • Log (1) • Mil Police (13) XM26E  Taser   ‐ Additionally, ARDEC has provided numerous materiel  • SF (4) M982 Excalibur...M212 CM Flares AT4/AT4 CS Scorpion ASTAMIDS GSTAMIDS IED Defeat SPARK - M18 Smoke Grenade Bangalore IAM Protect Force VLAD TASER TorpedoShoulder

  1. Venomous and poisonous arthropods: identification, clinical manifestations of envenomation, and treatments used in human injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review presents the main species of venomous and poisonous arthropods, with commentary on the clinical manifestations provoked by the toxins and therapeutic measures used to treat human envenomations. The groups of arthopods discussed include the class Arachnida (spiders and scorpions, which are responsible for many injuries reported worldwide, including Brazil; the subphylum Myriapoda, with the classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda (centipedes and millipedes; and the subphylum Hexapoda, with the class Insecta and the orders Coleoptera (beetles, Hemiptera (stink bugs, giant water bugs, and cicadas, Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, and bees, and Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths.

  2. Hábito alimentar do tatu-canastra (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae em uma área de cerrado do Brasil Central Food habits of the giant armadillo (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae in an area of grassland of central Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina S. Anacleto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The diel of the giant armadillo - Priodontes maximus (Kerr,1792 - was studied in the field at Fazenda São Miguel, Unaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, through 82 samples collected at foraging excavations and 25 fecal samples. In both types of sample the most common item was insects (Isoptera e Hymenoptera and, in less quantity, plant fragments and orhers invertebrates (Aranae, Blattaria, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Scorpiones. These data suggest the giant armadillo is a specialist on insects with an opportunistic foraging strategy.

  3. NATO’s Deterrence and Defense Posture After the Chicago Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    were NATO, how would 28 nations manage the message when the stakes are so very high indeed? . . . What can we do now to prevent us from finding...miscalculation” and vulnerability to “a bear, a snake, a scorpion ,” or some other threat. “If NATO cannot use the words used by the IAEA and the UN...most of NATO’s strategic missile defense capability via its European Phased Adaptive Approach, this British participant asked, “ What does the U.S

  4. Overcoming KC-10 Formal Training Unit Pilot Production Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Additionally, KC-10s were used to support multiple Operation PHOENIX SCORPION contingencies beginning in November 1997 and through 1998 as well. KC-10s...and ACIQ syllabi recommend for training purposes. As part of determining sources of delay, qualitative data will be used to explain what is...bare hands in that arena, because we can’t teach you to learn how to use a spear. If we do, you might cut your finger while you’re learning." And

  5. Infrared thermography to diagnose and manage venomous animal bites and stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto de Medeiros

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION Infrared imaging (IR is a noninvasive technique that quantifies body surface temperature, producing a digital color image. IR has been used to study diseases in which skin temperature can reflect the presence of inflammation. METHODS This was an observational pilot study of eight patients envenomed by snakes, spiders, and scorpions. All patients were examined using a thermal camera. RESULTS In all cases, we obtained infrared images that corroborated clinical findings indicating localized effects of venom, specifically inflammation. CONCLUSIONS IR has potential for use as a research, diagnostic, and monitoring tool for localized effects of animal venoms.

  6. Pain-Causing Venom Peptides: Insights into Sensory Neuron Pharmacology

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    Sina Jami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Venoms are produced by a wide variety of species including spiders, scorpions, reptiles, cnidarians, and fish for the purpose of harming or incapacitating predators or prey. While some venoms are of relatively simple composition, many contain hundreds to thousands of individual components with distinct pharmacological activity. Pain-inducing or “algesic” venom compounds have proven invaluable to our understanding of how physiological nociceptive neural networks operate. In this review, we present an overview of some of the diverse nociceptive pathways that can be modulated by specific venom components to evoke pain.

  7. Zur Kenntnis der Pseudoskorpion-Fauna von Ostdeutschland (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones

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    Drogla, Reiner

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the examination of over 23,000 specimens, distribution, frequency/dominance, morphometric data and ecology of the East German false scorpions are presented. Most samples were collected by the authors, the rest are from Museums and other persons. 38 species were recorded. The preferred habitats and strata of the most species are described. Phoresy was observed for Allochernes peregrinus, Lamprochernes chyzeri, L. nodosus and Pselaphochernes scorpioides. Nine species live in ant nests. Zoogeographic aspects of the species assemblage are discussed in the world wide context. Distribution limits of four species run across the area of investigation.

  8. Zur Bedeutung von Totholz aus arachnologischer Sicht. Auswertung von Eklektorfängen aus einem niedersächsischen Naturwald

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    Muster, Christoph

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The communities of bark-dwelling spiders and false scorpions on standing trunks of living and dead oaks (Quercus robur of various stages were studied in an ancient woodland in the lowland of NW-Germany. The investigations were carried out from march to october 1996 by use of 28 emergencs traps. For comparative purpose one stem-eclector was used. All traps were installed at a height of 2 meters. The appropriateness of these methods for collecting spiders is discussed. A total of 1828 spiders (41 species and 57 false scorpions (1 species were encountered. Abundance gradients are analysed with regard to bark-structure, insolation and age of dead wood. Three species are first recorded in the NW-German Plan: Dipoena torva, Haplodrassus cognatus and Synema globosum. Hitherto the predominant spieders Thyreosthenius parasiticus and Haplodrassus cognatus have not been found on bark abundantly. Thus, the structure of the bark-dwelling fauna varies considerably with region, biotope structure and historical aspects. The occurence of Dendrochernes cymeus, which in Britain is associtated with ancient woodlands, indicates that this species could be restricted to such woodlands in Northern Germany, too.

  9. Animal venoms as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Stiles, Bradley G; Franco, Octavio L; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina H K

    2017-06-15

    Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens. Interestingly, snake venom-derived synthetic peptide/snake cathelicidin not only has potent antimicrobial and wound-repair activity but is highly stable and safe. Such molecules are promising candidates for novel venom-based drugs against S. aureus infections. The structure of animal venom proteins/peptides (cysteine rich) consists of hydrophobic α-helices or β-sheets that produce lethal pores and membrane-damaging effects on bacteria. All these antimicrobial peptides are under early experimental or pre-clinical stages of development. It is therefore important to employ novel tools for the design and the development of new antibiotics from the untapped animal venoms of snake, scorpion, and spider for treating resistant pathogens. To date, snail venom toxins have shown little antibiotic potency against human pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The first venomous crustacean revealed by transcriptomics and functional morphology: remipede venom glands express a unique toxin cocktail dominated by enzymes and a neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Björn M; Blanke, Alexander; Richter, Sandy; Alvarez, Fernando; Bleidorn, Christoph; Jenner, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    Animal venoms have evolved many times. Venomous species are especially common in three of the four main groups of arthropods (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda), which together represent tens of thousands of species of venomous spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and hymenopterans. Surprisingly, despite their great diversity of body plans, there is no unambiguous evidence that any crustacean is venomous. We provide the first conclusive evidence that the aquatic, blind, and cave-dwelling remipede crustaceans are venomous and that venoms evolved in all four major arthropod groups. We produced a three-dimensional reconstruction of the venom delivery apparatus of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis, showing that remipedes can inject venom in a controlled manner. A transcriptomic profile of its venom glands shows that they express a unique cocktail of transcripts coding for known venom toxins, including a diversity of enzymes and a probable paralytic neurotoxin very similar to one described from spider venom. We screened a transcriptomic library obtained from whole animals and identified a nontoxin paralog of the remipede neurotoxin that is not expressed in the venom glands. This allowed us to reconstruct its probable evolutionary origin and underlines the importance of incorporating data derived from nonvenom gland tissue to elucidate the evolution of candidate venom proteins. This first glimpse into the venom of a crustacean and primitively aquatic arthropod reveals conspicuous differences from the venoms of other predatory arthropods such as centipedes, scorpions, and spiders and contributes valuable information for ultimately disentangling the many factors shaping the biology and evolution of venoms and venomous species.

  11. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Joseph R

    2011-05-26

    The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility.

  12. To4, the first Tityus obscurus β-toxin fully electrophysiologically characterized on human sodium channel isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Harry Morales; Mourão, Caroline Barbosa Farias; Tibery, Diogo Vieira; Barbosa, Eder Alves; Campos, Leandro Ambrósio; Schwartz, Elisabeth Ferroni

    2017-09-01

    Many scorpion toxins that act on sodium channels (NaScTxs) have been characterized till date. These toxins may act modulating the inactivation or the activation of sodium channels and are named α- or β-types, respectively. Some venom toxins from Tityus obscurus (Buthidae), a scorpion widely distributed in the Brazilian Amazon, have been partially characterized in previous studies; however, little information about their electrophysiological role on sodium ion channels has been published. In the present study, we describe the purification, identification and electrophysiological characterization of a NaScTx, which was first described as Tc54 and further fully sequenced and renamed To4. This toxin shows a marked β-type effect on different sodium channel subtypes (hNa v 1.1-hNa v 1.7) at low concentrations, and has more pronounced activity on hNa v 1.1, hNa v 1.2 and hNa v 1.4. By comparing To4 primary structure with other Tityus β-toxins which have already been electrophysiologically tested, it is possible to establish some key amino acid residues for the sodium channel activity. Thus, To4 is the first toxin from T. obscurus fully electrophysiologically characterized on different human sodium channel isoforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Injuries caused by venomous animals and folk medicine in farmers from Cuité, State of Paraiba, Northeast of Brazil

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    Hellyson Fidel Araújo de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Injuries caused by venomous animals reported by the agricultural workers from the municipality of Cuité, Curimataú region of Paraiba State, Northeast of Brazil, and the practices of folk medicine which they use to treat these cases were studied in this work from June to August 2010. The farmers studied aged from 11 to 90 years. The number of people who reported cases of injury by these animals in their families was high (89.3%. Scorpions, wasps, bees and snakes were the most cited and the extremities of the body (hands, feet, legs and head were the most affected. The practice of folk medicine to treat these injuries includes various procedures ranging from ritualistic treatments, use of animals or parts of them, and some herbal preparations. The folk treatment was reported as effective by most of the workers injured (63.9%. Body parts of dead snakes are used in various zootherapic treatments. In the imaginary of the agricultural workers the venomous animals are considered hazardous (48.7% or disgusting (11.3%, and several parts of such animals as the rattle, bee sting or snake leather are used as amulet. Several legends have also been reported about snakes, scorpions and bees. The need for educational activities that aim to clarify these workers about the dangers of such practices is urgent.

  14. Noninsect Arthropods in Popular Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Coelho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility.

  15. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

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    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  16. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients.

  17. Antiplasmodial activity is an ancient and conserved feature of tick defensins

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    Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ancestral sequence reconstruction has been widely used to test evolution-based hypotheses. The genome of the European tick vector, Ixodes ricinus, encodes for defensin peptides with diverse antimicrobial activities against distantly related pathogens. These pathogens include fungi, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, i.e., a wide antimicrobial spectrum. Ticks do not transmit these pathogens, suggesting that these defensins may act against a wide range of microbes encountered by ticks during blood feeding or off-host periods. As demonstrated here, these I. ricinus defensins are also effective against the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. To study the general evolution of antimicrobial activity in tick defensins, the ancestral amino acid sequence of chelicerate defensins, which existed approximately 444 million years ago, was reconstructed using publicly available scorpion and tick defensin sequences (named Scorpions-Ticks Defensins Ancestor, STiDA. The activity of STiDA was tested against P. falciparum and the same Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria that were used for the I. ricinus defensins. While some extant tick defensins exhibit a wide antimicrobial spectrum, the ancestral defensin showed moderate activity against one of the tested microbes, P. falciparum. This study suggests that amino acid variability and defensin family expansion increased the antimicrobial spectrum of ancestral tick defensins.

  18. Euphorbia neriifolia L.: Review on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Prashant Y; Panchal, Shital S

    2017-05-01

    The present review is intended to provide information on botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of various parts of Euphorbia neriifolia (E. neriifolia). E. neriifolia has several ethnomedicinal uses. The latex of E. neriifolia is used as laxative, purgative, rubefacient, carminative and expectorant as well as in treatment of whooping cough, gonorrhoea, leprosy, asthma, dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen, tumours, stone in the bladder, abdominal troubles and leucoderma. Leaves are brittle, heating, carminative, and good for improving the appetite and treatment of tumours, pains, inflammations, abdominal swellings and bronchial infections. Roots are used as symptomatic treatment of snake bite, scorpion sting and antispasmodic. Various plant parts or whole E. neriifolia extract and its isolates have been reported scientifically using various in-vivo and in-vitro experimental methods for anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant, anti-psychotic, anti-arthritis, anti-carcinogenic, antidiabetic, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, cytotoxic, death-receptor expression enhancing, dermal irritation, diuretic, haemolytic, immunomodulatory, radioprotective, scorpion venom and wound healing properties. It is reported to have chemical constituents like, neriifolin-S, neriifolin, neriifoliene, euphol, neriifolione, cycloartenol, nerifoliol, lectin, euphonerins A-G, 3-O-acetyl-8-O-tigloylingol, taraxerol, antiquorin, etc. Identified chemical constituents are still required to be explored for their advanced isolation techniques and biological activities. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  20. Ultrastructure of book gill development in embryos and first instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura

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    Farley Roger D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transmission electron microscope (TEM is used for the first time to study the development of book gills in the horseshoe crab. Near the end of the nineteenth century the hypothesis was presented for homology and a common ancestry for horseshoe crab book gills and arachnid book lungs. The present developmental study and the author's recent ones of book gills (SEM and scorpion book lungs (TEM are intended to clarify early histological work and provide new ultrastructural details for further research and for hypotheses about evolutionary history and relationships. Results The observations herein are in agreement with earlier reports that the book gill lamellae are formed by proliferation and evagination of epithelial cells posterior to opisthosomal branchial appendages. A cartilage-like endoskeleton is produced in the base of the opisthosomal appendages. The lamellar precursor cells in the appendage base proliferate, migrate outward and secrete the lamellar cuticle from their apical surface. A series of external, posteriorly-directed lamellae is formed, with each lamella having a central channel for hemolymph and pillar-type space holders formed from cells of the opposed walls. This repeated, page-like pattern results also in water channels (without space holders between the sac-like hemolymph lamellae. Conclusions The developmental observations herein and in an earlier study (TEM of scorpion book lungs show that the lamellae in book gills and book lungs result from some similar activities and features of the precursor epithelial cells: proliferation, migration, alignment and apical/basal polarity with secretion of cuticle from the apical surface and the basal surface in contact with hemolymph. These cellular similarities and the resulting book-like structure suggest a common ancestry, but there are also substantial developmental differences in producing these organs for gas exchange in the different environments, aqueous

  1. The diversity and evolution of chelicerate hemocyanins

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    Rehm Peter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxygen transport in the hemolymph of many arthropod species is facilitated by large copper-proteins referred to as hemocyanins. Arthropod hemocyanins are hexamers or oligomers of hexamers, which are characterized by a high O2 transport capacity and a high cooperativity, thereby enhancing O2 supply. Hemocyanin subunit sequences had been available from horseshoe crabs (Xiphosura and various spiders (Araneae, but not from any other chelicerate taxon. To trace the evolution of hemocyanins and the emergence of the large hemocyanin oligomers, hemocyanin cDNA sequences were obtained from representatives of selected chelicerate classes. Results Hemocyanin subunits from a sea spider, a scorpion, a whip scorpion and a whip spider were sequenced. Hemocyanin has been lost in Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Solifugae and Acari, which may be explained by the evolution of trachea (i.e., taxon Apulmonata. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was used to reconstruct the evolution of hemocyanin subunits and a relaxed molecular clock approach was applied to date the major events. While the sea spider has a simple hexameric hemocyanin, four distinct subunit types evolved before Xiphosura and Arachnida diverged around 470 Ma ago, suggesting the existence of a 4 × 6mer at that time. Subsequently, independent gene duplication events gave rise to the other distinct subunits in each of the 8 × 6mer hemocyanin of Xiphosura and the 4 × 6mer of Arachnida. The hemocyanin sequences were used to infer the evolutionary history of chelicerates. The phylogenetic trees support a basal position of Pycnogonida, a sister group relationship of Xiphosura and Arachnida, and a sister group relationship of the whip scorpions and the whip spiders. Conclusion Formation of a complex hemocyanin oligomer commenced early in the evolution of euchelicerates. A 4 × 6mer hemocyanin consisting of seven subunit types is conserved in most arachnids since more than 400 Ma, although some

  2. Alacranismo en León, Gto., Perspectivas por Áreas Geostadísticas Básicas Urbanas Alacranismo en León, Gto., Perspectivas por Áreas Geostadísticas Básicas Urbanas

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    Alfredo Chávez Haro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Scorpionism in León, Guanajuato are a public health problem, with a scorpion sting incidence rate of 109/10,000 inhabitants. The basic epidemiological aspects about the distribution of the problem in the city are unknown, which would allow a reduction in the incidence. A retrolective survey of the people stung from January to December 1996 was performed. Variables of stung patients were analyzed, and the distribution per basic urban geostatistics area (BUGA was located. 9,485 patients that met the inclusion criteria were studied. Epidemiological maps both by incidence rate and absolute frequencies were performed, and a heterogeneous distribution was found. 5 BUGAs had a higher than 200/10,000 inhabitants incidence, and a frequency of stung people in the range of 200 to 500 (high risk. Distribution and location of the greater incidence areas of accidents by scorpion sting in León City have been established, in which it is necessary to establish primary attention measures to avoid the sting.El alacranismo en León, Gto. es un problema de salud pública, con una tasa de incidencia de picadura de alacrán de 109/10,000 habitantes. Se desconocen los aspectos epidemiológicos básicos de la distribución del problema, para modificar su incidencia. Se realizó una encuesta retrolectiva de los sujetos picados de enero a diciembre de 1996 y se ubicó su distribución por área geostadística básica urbana (AGEB. 9,485 pacientes cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se realizaron los mapas epidemiológicos por tasa de incidencia y por frecuencia absoluta, encontrándose una distribución heterogénea. 5AGEB tuvieron una incidencia superior a 200/10,000 habitantes y una frecuencia de picados en el rango de 200 a 500 (altoriesgo. Se estableció la distribución y localización de las áreas de mayor incidencia de accidentes por picadura de alacrán en la ciudad, en las cuales es necesario establecer medidas de atención primaria para evitar la picadura.

  3. Los escorpiones (Chelicerata de Colombia. I. La fauna de la Isla Gorgona. Aproximación biogeográfica Los escorpiones (Chelicerata de Colombia. I. La fauna de la Isla Gorgona. Aproximación biogeográfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenco Wilson R.

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of the study of the scorpions collected in Gorgona Island, Colombia. Two species belonging to the buthidae family were collected; one already known to science: Tityus asthenes Pocock, 1893. The second one, a new species is described in this paper, Ananteris gorgonae. Some comments on the biogeography are also added. Este artículo es el resultado del estudio de los escorpiones de la Isla Gorgona, Colombia. Se encontraron dos especies pertenecientes a la familia Buthidae: Tityus asthenes Pocock, 1893, ya conocida para la ciencia, y Ananteris Gorgona,. una especie nueva que se describe aquí. Se adicionan también algunos comentarios biogeográficos.

  4. Purification of charybdotoxine, a specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.; Phillips, M.; Miller, C.

    1986-01-01

    Charybdotoxim is a high-affinity specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channel found in the plasma membranes of many vertebrate cell types. Using Ca 2+ -activated K + channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer membranes as an assay, the authors have purified the toxin from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus by a two-step procedure involving chromatofocusing on SP-Sephadex, followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Charybdotoxin is shown to be a highly basic protein with a mass of 10 kDa. Under the standard assay conditions, the purified toxin inhibits the Ca 2+ -activated K + channel with an apparent dissociation constant of 3.5 nM. The protein is unusually stable, with inhibitory potency being insensitive to boiling or exposure to organic solvents. The toxin's activity is sensitive to chymotrypsin treatment and to acylation of lysine groups. The protein may be radioiodinated without loss of activity

  5. Acute kidney injury due to tropical infectious diseases and animal venoms: a tale of 2 continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdmann, Emmanuel A; Jha, Vivekanand

    2017-05-01

    South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical picture, prevention, risk factors, and pathophysiology of acute kidney injury associated with tropical diseases (malaria, dengue, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, and yellow fever) and animal venom (snakes, bees, caterpillars, spiders, and scorpions) in tropical regions of Asia and Latin America, and discusses the potential future challenges due to emerging issues. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of Disulfide Bond Connectivity of Cysteine-rich Peptide IpTx{sub a}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Won; Kim, Jim Il [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Sato, Kazuki [Fukuoka Women' s Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Cysteine-rich peptides stabilized by intramolecular disulfide bonds have often been isolated from venoms of microbes, animals and plants. These peptides typically have much higher stability and improved biopharmaceutical properties compared to their linear counterparts. Therefore the correct disulfide bond formation of small proteins and peptides has been extensively studied for a better understanding of their folding mechanism and achieving efficient generation of the naturally occurring biologically active product. Imperatoxin A (IpTx{sub a}), a peptide toxin containing 6 cysteine residues, was isolated from the venom of scorpion Pandinus imperator, selectively binds the ryanodine receptors and activates Ca{sup 2+} release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). IpTx{sub a} increases the binding of ryanodine to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and encourages reconstituted single channel to induce subconductance states.

  7. Leiurus quinquestriatus venom inhibits BRL 34915-induced 86Rb+ efflux from the rat portal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quast, U.; Cook, N.S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the crude venom of the Israeli scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus on the 86 Rb + efflux stimulated by the K + channel opener BRL 34915 in the rat portal vein was examined. Applied alone, the venom greatly increased the spontaneous mechanical activity of and the concomitant 86 Rb + efflux from the vessel. When the excitability of the vein was suppressed by the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, PN 200-110, the 86 Rb + efflux stimulated by BRL 34915 could be shown to be inhibited by the venom. From the concentration dependence of this inhibition an IC 50 value of 0.17 +/- 0.01 mg/ml was estimated. This venom is thus the most potent blocker of BRL 34915-evoked 86 Rb + efflux reported so far. 17 references, 2 figures

  8. NMR and rotational angles in solution conformation of polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrov, V. F.

    1985-01-01

    Professor San-Ichiro Mizushima and Professor Yonezo Morino's classical contributions provided unique means and firm basis for understanding of conformational states and internal rotation in polypeptide molecules. Now the NMR spectroscopy is the best choice to study molecular conformation, mechanism of action and structure-functional relationships of peptide and proteins in solution under conditions approaching those of their physiological environments. Crucial details of spatial structure and interactions of these molecules in solution are revealed by using proton-proton and carbon-proton vicinal coupling constants, proton nuclear Overhauser effect and spectral perturbation techniques. The results of NMR conformational analysis are presented for valinomycin "bracelet", gramicidin A double helices, honey-bee neurotoxin apamin, scorpion insectotoxins and snake neurotoxins of long and short types.

  9. Envenimation scorpionique compliqué d'un accident vasculaire cérébral ischemique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiche, Youssef; Berdai, Adnan; Labib, Smael; Harandou, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Les piqûres de scorpion sont dans un certain nombre de pays, un accident fréquemment rencontré, et un risque grave. Au Maroc, les données épidémiologiques établies par le centre anti-poison (CAPM) montrent que les piqûres scorpioniques se placent en tête de toutes les intoxications relevées par le centre (60%). Les envenimations scorpioniques posent un grand problème de santé publique. L'apparition de signes neurologiques lors d'une envenimation scorpionique témoigne d'une envenimation grave et correspond au stade III de l’échelle de sévérité. Nous rapportons le cas d'une envenimation scorpionique compliqué d'un Accident vasculaire cérébral ischémique (AVCI) chez un enfant. PMID:26175806

  10. Chemical constituents and antiedematogenic activity of Peltodon radicans (Lamiaceae); Constituintes quimicos e atividade antiedematogenica de Peltodon radicans (Lamiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Habdel Nasser Rocha da [Universidade Federal de Roraima, Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia. Dept. de Quimica; Santos, Maria Cristina dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Parasitologia; Alcantara, Antonio Flavio de Carvalho; Silva, Marilda Conceicao; Franca, Roberta Cabral; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: aalcantara@zeus.qui.ufmg.br

    2008-07-01

    Most of the snakebite incidents in the Amazon region involve Bothrops atrox, whose venom presents the most potent edematogenic and necrotic activities in the genus. This work describes the studies of isolation of the chemical constituents and antiedematogenic activity of the species Peltodon radicans (Lamiaceae), which is used in the treatment of snakebites and scorpion stings in the region. The extracts presented aliphatic hydrocarbons, 3{beta}-OH,{beta}-amirin (1), 3{beta}-OH,a-amirin (2), {beta}-sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4), ursolic acid (5), 2{alpha},3{beta},19{alpha}- trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (tormentic acid, 6), methyl 3{beta}-hydroxy,28-methyl-ursolate (7), sitosterol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (8), and stigmasterol-3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside (9). The flower extracts presented the higher antiedematogenic activity. This is the first report on the study of the flowers, stem, and roots of this plant. (author)

  11. Validation of a method to the addition the multiple standard in the analysis of Pb in reservoir waters for atomic absorption spectrometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayari, R.; Espinosa, M.C.; Vazques, J.

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of a method is presented for the analysis of Pb in reservoir waters for atomic spectrometric with direct aspiration. For the validation of the analytic method a level of concentration of 0.05 mg/L was evaluated. The precision of the method was of 9.97% and the bias was 0.6% 8 samples of surface waters they were collected and of bottom of the tributaries of the reservoir Scorpions and the stocking of the concentrations in the tributaries was from 0,052 + - 0.026 inferior mg/L to the established one in the Cuban norm of evaluation of the hydirc objects of fishing use

  12. Disulfide-stabilized Helical Hairpin Structure and Activity of a Novel Antifungal Peptide EcAMP1 from Seeds of Barnyard Grass (Echinochloa crus-galli)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Svetlana B.; Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Rogozhin, Eugene A.; Barinov, Nikolay A.; Balashova, Tamara A.; Samsonova, Olga V.; Baranov, Yuri V.; Feofanov, Alexey V.; Egorov, Tsezi A.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents purification, activity characterization, and 1H NMR study of the novel antifungal peptide EcAMP1 from kernels of barnyard grass Echinochloa crus-galli. The peptide adopts a disulfide-stabilized α-helical hairpin structure in aqueous solution and thus represents a novel fold among naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. Micromolar concentrations of EcAMP1 were shown to inhibit growth of several fungal phytopathogens. Confocal microscopy revealed intensive EcAMP1 binding to the surface of fungal conidia followed by internalization and accumulation in the cytoplasm without disturbance of membrane integrity. Close spatial structure similarity between EcAMP1, the trypsin inhibitor VhTI from seeds of Veronica hederifolia, and some scorpion and cone snail toxins suggests natural elaboration of different functions on a common fold. PMID:21561864

  13. Disulfide-stabilized helical hairpin structure and activity of a novel antifungal peptide EcAMP1 from seeds of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Svetlana B; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Barinov, Nikolay A; Balashova, Tamara A; Samsonova, Olga V; Baranov, Yuri V; Feofanov, Alexey V; Egorov, Tsezi A; Arseniev, Alexander S; Grishin, Eugene V

    2011-07-15

    This study presents purification, activity characterization, and (1)H NMR study of the novel antifungal peptide EcAMP1 from kernels of barnyard grass Echinochloa crus-galli. The peptide adopts a disulfide-stabilized α-helical hairpin structure in aqueous solution and thus represents a novel fold among naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. Micromolar concentrations of EcAMP1 were shown to inhibit growth of several fungal phytopathogens. Confocal microscopy revealed intensive EcAMP1 binding to the surface of fungal conidia followed by internalization and accumulation in the cytoplasm without disturbance of membrane integrity. Close spatial structure similarity between EcAMP1, the trypsin inhibitor VhTI from seeds of Veronica hederifolia, and some scorpion and cone snail toxins suggests natural elaboration of different functions on a common fold.

  14. United abominations: Density functional studies of heavy metal chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoendorff, George [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Carbonyl and nitrile addition to uranyl (UO22+) are studied. The competition between nitrile and water ligands in the formation of uranyl complexes is investigated. The possibility of hypercoordinated uranyl with acetone ligands is examined. Uranyl is studied with diactone alcohol ligands as a means to explain the apparent hypercoordinated uranyl. A discussion of the formation of mesityl oxide ligands is also included. A joint theory/experimental study of reactions of zwitterionic boratoiridium(I) complexes with oxazoline-based scorpionate ligands is reported. A computational study was done of the catalytic hydroamination/cyclization of aminoalkenes with zirconium-based catalysts. Techniques are surveyed for programming for graphical processing units (GPUs) using Fortran.

  15. Arthropod Envenomation in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Timothy B; Cheema, Navneet

    2017-05-01

    Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive. An individual stung by an insect or bitten by an arachnid may experience pain and local swelling, an anaphylactic reaction, or life-threatening toxicity. This review discusses the clinical presentation and latest treatment recommendations for bites and stings from spiders, scorpions, bees, ants, ticks and centipedes of North America. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Quality of Alcohol Products in Vietnam and Its Implications for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed constituents of the samples (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, esters, metals, anions were found in concentrations that did not pose a threat to public health. A peculiarity was a homemade sample of alcohol with pickled snakes and scorpions that contained 77% vol of alcohol, allegedly used as traditional Chinese medicine. Based on this small sample, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that alcohol quality, beyond the effects of ethanol, has an influence on health in Vietnam. However, future research with larger samples is needed.

  17. The quality of alcohol products in Vietnam and its implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Anh, Pham Thi Hoang; Popova, Svetlana; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-08-01

    Four homemade (artisanally manufactured and unrecorded) and seven commercial (industrially manufactured and taxed) alcohol products from Vietnam were collected and chemically analyzed for toxicologically relevant substances. The majority of both types had alcohol contents between 30 and 40% vol. Two homemade samples contained significantly higher concentrations of 45 and 50% vol. In one of these homemade samples the labeled alcoholic strength was exceeded by nearly 20% vol. All other analyzed constituents of the samples (e.g., methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, esters, metals, anions) were found in concentrations that did not pose a threat to public health. A peculiarity was a homemade sample of alcohol with pickled snakes and scorpions that contained 77% vol of alcohol, allegedly used as traditional Chinese medicine. Based on this small sample, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that alcohol quality, beyond the effects of ethanol, has an influence on health in Vietnam. However, future research with larger samples is needed.

  18. Arthropods and their products as aphrodisiacs--review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajovic, B; Radosavljevic, M; Radunovic, M; Radojevic, N; Bjelogrlic, B

    2012-04-01

    After a short review of impotence, the definitions of erectants and aphrodisiacs are presented. The Authors propose division of arthropods according to the places of effect. The description of particular arthropods with their pictures and nomenclature, is followed by certain or probable mechanisms of achieving the aphrodisiac and sometimes toxic effect, that were available in the literature since 1929 till nowadays. We mention the most usual locations, mainly in Asia, where they are found and consumed, but also, we describe the manner of preparing and intake. The review includes the following arthropods: lobster, Arizona bark scorpion, deathstalker, banana spider, Mediterranean black widow, Burmeister's triatoma, giant water bug, diving-beetle, Korean bug, diaclina, flannel moth, Spanish fly, migratory locust, red wood ant and honeybee.

  19. Distribution of Centruroides edwardsii CENTRUROIDES EDWARDSII (GERVAIS, 1843 in the Aantioquia Province, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIAN ESTRADA GÓMEZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the distribution of the Centruroides edwardsii (Gervais, 1843 in the Antioquia province, and the urban area of the capital, Medellín, Colombia, based in the material examined in the collection of the Universidad de Antioquia Serpentarium (SUA. A sexual dimporphism were established in C. edwardsii when a multidimensional analysis and using for the statistical significance the ANOSIM model were performed founding higher measurments in males. An important colony of this scorpion is reported in the central and nor-oriental zone of Medellín, aspect that is very relevant since this scorpion is clinically importance. The species distribution rank is also expanded from the sea level, up to 2200 m. a. s. l. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE Ccentruroides edwardsii (GERVAIS, 1843 EN EL DEPARTAMENTO EN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA. Se reporta la distribución de Centruroides edwardsii (Gervais, 1843 para el departamento de Antioquia, y el área urbana de su capital político-administrativa, la ciudad de Medellín, Colombia, con base a material depositado en la colección del Serpentario de la Universidad de Antioquia (SUA. Se estableció dimorfismo sexual en C. edwardsii, mediante análisis de escalamiento multidimensional y el modelo ANOSIM, encontrando que los machos son más grandes que las hembras. Se reporta para el área zona centro y nor-oriental de Medellín una importante colonia de este escorpión, hecho de gran relecvanciarelevancia debido a la importancia clínica de este escorpión. Se amplía además el rango de distribución desde el nivel del mar hasta los 2200 m.s.n.m.

  20. Acidentes por animais peçonhentos no Estado do Tocantins: aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernandes Leobas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Accidents by venomous animals are the second cause of human poisoning in Brazil, second only to drug intoxication. Nationally the scorpions are most responsible for this event, but there is regional variation according to different degrees of human occupation and habitat of the animals involved. This study examined the envenomations in Tocantins State in the years 2010 and 2011, with the aim of identifying clinical and epidemiological aspects related to this condition. The data were collected from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN and related to rainfall characteristics of the region. It was used the BioEstat 5.0® software to check the statistical validity of the data by the chi-square test, defined an α = 5%. Of all the victims, 69.0% were male and 50.0% were aged between 20 and 49 years. Most accidents occurred during the rainy season and in the countryside (58.9%, environment where men were three times more affected than women. The bite was most frequent in the foot (40.5%, hand (15.7% and leg (12.2%, demonstrating that the use of proper footwear, gloves and leggings may represent important protective measure. Snakes caused the most injuries (50.9%, followed by scorpions (19.7%. Pain and swelling were the main local clinical manifestations reported, and secondary infection the most frequent local complication. Ten deaths were recorded in the period, all by the bite of serpents. These data show that the main victims of such accidents in the State are young men coming from rural areas, hit in the body’s extremities, especially during the rainy season.

  1. Theoretical investigation, biological evaluation and VEGFR2 kinase studies of metal(II) complexes derived from hydrotris(methimazolyl)borate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Mahendiran, D; Srinivasan, T; Mohanraj, G; Kalilur Rahiman, A

    2016-02-01

    The reaction of soft tripodal scorpionate ligand, sodium hydrotris(methimazolyl)borate with M(ClO4)2·6H2O [MMn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) or Zn(II)] in methanol leads to the cleavage of B-N bond followed by the formation of complexes of the type [M(MeimzH)4](ClO4)2·H2O (1-4), where MeimzH=methimazole. All the complexes were fully characterized by spectro-analytical techniques. The molecular structure of the zinc(II) complex (4) was determined by X-ray crystallography, which supports the observed deboronation reaction in the scorpionate ligand with tetrahedral geometry around zinc(II) ion. The electronic spectra of complexes suggested tetrahedral geometry for manganese(II) and nickel(II) complexes, and square-planar geometry for copper(II) complex. Frontier molecular orbital analysis (HOMO-LUMO) was carried out by B3LYP/6-31G(d) to understand the charge transfer occurring in the molecules. All the complexes exhibit significant antimicrobial activity against Gram (-ve) and Gram (+ve) bacterial as well as fungal strains, which are quite comparable to standard drugs streptomycin and clotrimazole. The copper(II) complex (3) showed excellent free radical scavenging activity against DPPH in all concentration with IC50 value of 30μg/mL, when compared to the other complexes. In the molecular docking studies, all the complexes showed hydrophobic, π-π and hydrogen bonding interactions with BSA. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells was assessed by MTT assay, which showed exponential responses toward increasing concentration of complexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression and mutagenesis of the sea anemone toxin Av2 reveals key amino acid residues important for activity on voltage-gated sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Yehu; Cohen, Lior; Kahn, Roy; Karbat, Izhar; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2006-07-25

    Type I sea anemone toxins are highly potent modulators of voltage-gated Na-channels (Na(v)s) and compete with the structurally dissimilar scorpion alpha-toxins on binding to receptor site-3. Although these features provide two structurally different probes for studying receptor site-3 and channel fast inactivation, the bioactive surface of sea anemone toxins has not been fully resolved. We established an efficient expression system for Av2 (known as ATX II), a highly insecticidal sea anemone toxin from Anemonia viridis (previously named A. sulcata), and mutagenized it throughout. Each toxin mutant was analyzed in toxicity and binding assays as well as by circular dichroism spectroscopy to discern the effects derived from structural perturbation from those related to bioactivity. Six residues were found to constitute the anti-insect bioactive surface of Av2 (Val-2, Leu-5, Asn-16, Leu-18, and Ile-41). Further analysis of nine Av2 mutants on the human heart channel Na(v)1.5 expressed in Xenopus oocytes indicated that the bioactive surfaces toward insects and mammals practically coincide but differ from the bioactive surface of a structurally similar sea anemone toxin, Anthopleurin B, from Anthopleura xanthogrammica. Hence, our results not only demonstrate clear differences in the bioactive surfaces of Av2 and scorpion alpha-toxins but also indicate that despite the general conservation in structure and importance of the Arg-14 loop and its flanking residues Gly-10 and Gly-20 for function, the surface of interaction between different sea anemone toxins and Na(v)s varies.

  3. The specificity of Av3 sea anemone toxin for arthropods is determined at linker DI/SS2-S6 in the pore module of target sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur Barzilai, Maya; Kahn, Roy; Regev, Noa; Gordon, Dalia; Moran, Yehu; Gurevitz, Michael

    2014-10-15

    Av3 is a peptide neurotoxin from the sea anemone Anemonia viridis that shows specificity for arthropod voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs). Interestingly, Av3 competes with a scorpion α-toxin on binding to insect Navs and similarly inhibits the inactivation process, and thus has been classified as 'receptor site-3 toxin', although the two peptides are structurally unrelated. This raises questions as to commonalities and differences in the way both toxins interact with Navs. Recently, site-3 was partly resolved for scorpion α-toxins highlighting S1-S2 and S3-S4 external linkers at the DIV voltage-sensor module and the juxtaposed external linkers at the DI pore module. To uncover channel determinants involved in Av3 specificity for arthropods, the toxin was examined on channel chimaeras constructed with the external linkers of the mammalian brain Nav1.2a, which is insensitive to Av3, in the background of the Drosophila DmNav1. This approach highlighted the role of linker DI/SS2-S6, adjacent to the channel pore, in determining Av3 specificity. Point mutagenesis at DI/SS2-S6 accompanied by functional assays highlighted Trp404 and His405 as a putative point of Av3 interaction with DmNav1. His405 conservation in arthropod Navs compared with tyrosine in vertebrate Navs may represent an ancient substitution that explains the contemporary selectivity of Av3. Trp404 and His405 localization near the membrane surface and the hydrophobic bioactive surface of Av3 suggest that the toxin possibly binds at a cleft by DI/S6. A partial overlap in receptor site-3 of both toxins nearby DI/S6 may explain their binding competition capabilities.

  4. Down-regulation of voltage-dependent sodium channels initiated by sodium influx in developing neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargent, B.; Couraud, F.

    1990-01-01

    To address the issue of whether regulatory feedback exists between the electrical activity of a neuron and ion-channel density, the authors investigated the effect of Na + -channel activators (scorpion α toxin, batrachotoxin, and veratridine) on the density of Na + channels in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro. A partial but rapid (t 1/2 , 15 min) disappearance of surface Na + channels was observed as measured by a decrease in the specific binding of [ 3 H]saxitoxin and 125 I-labeled scorpion β toxin and a decrease in specific 22 Na + uptake. Moreover, the increase in the number of Na + channels that normally occurs during neuronal maturation in vitro was inhibited by chronic channel activator treatment. The induced disappearance of Na + channels was abolished by tetrodotoxin, was found to be dependent on the external Na + concentration, and was prevented when either choline (a nonpermeant ion) or Li + (a permeant ion) was substituted for Na + . Amphotericin B, a Na + ionophore, and monensin were able to mimick the effect of Na + -channel activators, while a KCl depolarization failed to do this. This feedback regulation seems to be a neuronal property since Na + -channel density in cultured astrocytes was not affected by channel activator treatment or by amphotericin B. The present evidence suggests that an increase in intracellular Na + concentration, whether elicited by Na + -channel activators or mediated by a Na + ionophore, can induce a decrease in surface Na + channels and therefore is involved in down-regulation of Na + -channel density in fetal rat brain neurons in vitro

  5. Cardiorespiratory evaluation of juvenile rats experimentally envenomed with Tityus serrulatus venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCL Pinto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental envenomation caused by Tityus serrulatus scorpions is very common in Brazil and may result in serious cardiorespiratory alterations that are frequently fatal to children. In the present study, the effects of T. serrulatus venom on the cardiorespiratory system of recently weaned male Wistar rats were evaluated. Fifteen animals were distributed into three groups (n = 5. The control group A received 400 μL ultrapure water by subcutaneous injection, while the experimental groups B and C were injected with scorpion venom (100 and 450 μg, respectively, in 400 μL water. Electrocardiogram (ECG traces were obtained prior to the experiment, at five-minute intervals up to 30 minutes after treatment. At 40 minutes after envenomation, the animals had severe acute symptoms and were subsequently anesthetized for blood collection by means of intracardiac puncture. Biochemical profiles for the cardiac muscle were established by colorimetric analysis of creatine kinase (CK and CK-MB isoenzyme. Semiquantitative analysis of troponin was performed using the immunochromatographic assay. Following euthanasia, the lungs and hearts were removed and subjected to histopathological examination. All experimental animals had ECG alterations compatible with electrolytic imbalance, myocarditis and alterations of the cardiac conduction system. Envenomed animals had accentuated bradycardia at 25 and 30 minutes after venom inoculation. All experimental animals had myocardial lesions, which were confirmed by increased serum levels of CK and CK-MB, although there were no alterations in the serum concentration of troponin. Pulmonary hemorrhage was detected in whole lungs and microscopically confirmed by the presence of congested capillaries and erythrocytes in the alveolar parenchyma. In conclusion, T. serrulatus venom caused great cardiorespiratory damage to weaned rats.

  6. An Epidemiological Study of Animal Bites and Envenomings in a Rural District of Tamilnadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To find out the period prevalence of animal bites and envenomings, its epidemiological risk factors and treatment seeking behaviour. Materials and methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted in the 34 villages of the field practising areas of the Rural Health Training Centre, Thiruvenainallur. Considering the prevalence of bites as 7.4%, and taking 5 members in each household with a non response of 10% the number households studied were 4150 covering a population of 18865 which was calculated using an Open EPI version (2.3 software package. Sampling frame of households was prepared and systemic random sampling method was used to select households from each village. Trained medical interns and social workers collected information on bites in the preceding one year. Data was entered and analyzed in Epi_info (3.4.3 software. Results: In this study, information of 12947 adults was included and the overall period prevalence of bites was 81.8/1000 population. The most common bite is dog bite (22.3 followed by scorpion (22.1 and centipede (17.8 per 1000 population. The dog bites are significantly higher among males, people below the poverty line, farmers and laborers. There is significantly increased risk of snake bites among people working in agriculture fields. Only 35% of the dog bite victims washed their wound with soap and water and 28% applied irritants such as ash, ink, calotropis milk etc. over the wounds. Anti-rabies vaccination was given in 60% of the dog bite victims and life saving measure of Rabies Immunoglobulins (RIGS was given in only in 6.2%. Almost half of the bitten victims of scorpion and centipede follow traditional methods of treatment. Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of different bites and treatment seeking behavior indicates there is a lack of awareness regarding all forms of bites in the rural community. The existing program of rabies control has to be strengthened and community awareness about

  7. Hemograma de cães submetidos ao envenenamento experimental por Tityus serrulatus Canine blood profile after experimental envenomation by Tityus serrulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Ribeiro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o hemograma de 12 cães adultos, saudáveis (14,2±5,4kg após a inoculação de veneno do escorpião amarelo (Tityus serrulatus. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois grupos (G, com seis em cada: os do GI foram usados como controle e receberam 0,5mL de salina tamponada com fosfato (PBS por via subcutânea (SC na face medial da coxa esquerda (FMCE, e os do GII receberam veneno liofilizado do T. serrulatus (250µg/kg diluído em PBS por via SC na FMCE. Foram realizadas colheitas de sangue com anticoagulante EDTA a 10% antes da inoculação do veneno (T0 e após 2h, (T1, 6h (T2, 12h (T3, 24h (T4, 48h (T5 e 72h (T6, para contagem de eritrócitos, leucócitos e plaquetas em aparelho contador eletrônico e esfregaços sanguíneos para contagem diferencial de leucócitos. Houve aumento significativo (PThe canine blood profile after scorpion envenomation was evaluated using 12 healthy mongrel male dogs (14.2±5.4kg distributed in two groups, with six animals in each: group I (control group and group II (venom group. The lyophilized yellow scorpion (Tityus serrulatus venom (250µg/kg diluted in 0.5mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS was given to group II animals by subcutaneous injection, in the medial face of the left thigh. Group I animals received only 0.5mL of PBS, by subcutaneous injection, in the medial face of the left thigh. Blood samples were collected with EDTA before (T0 and 2 (T1, 6 (T2, 12 (T3, 24 (T4, 48 (T5, and 72h (T6 after envenomation. Significant increases (P<0.05 in erythrocytes counting, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration, 2 and 6h after envenomation were observed. Leukocytosis with significant increases (P<0.05 of neutrophils and lymphocytes 2 and 6h after envenomation was found. Then, T. serrulatus venom may induce alterations in blood profile in dogs, probably due to spleen contraction evoked by pain and catecholamines releasing.

  8. SjAPI, the first functionally characterized Ascaris-type protease inhibitor from animal venoms.

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    Zongyun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI, Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2, Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI, and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI. The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues "AAV" and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the

  9. The fossil history of pseudoscorpions (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Harms

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoscorpions, given their resemblance to scorpions, have attracted human attention since the time of Aristotle, although they are much smaller and lack the sting and elongated tail. These arachnids have a long evolutionary history but their origins and phylogenetic affinities are still being debated. Here, we summarise their fossil record based on a comprehensive review of the literature and data contained in other sources. Pseudoscorpions are one of the oldest colonisers of the land, with fossils known since the Middle Devonian (ca. 390 Ma. The only arachnid orders with an older fossil record are scorpions, harvestmen and acariform mites, plus two extinct groups. Pseudoscorpions do not fossilise easily, and records from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic consist almost exclusively of amber inclusions. Most Mesozoic fossils come from Archingeay and Burmese ambers (Late Cretaceous and those from the Cenozoic are primarily from Eocene Baltic amber, although additional fossils from, for example, Miocene Dominican and Mexican ambers, are known. Overall, 16 of the 26 families of living pseudoscorpions have been documented from fossils and 49 currently valid species are recognised in the literature. Pseudoscorpions represent a case of morphological stasis and even the Devonian fossils look rather modern. Indeed, most amber fossils are comparable to Recent groups despite a major gap in the fossil record of almost 250 Myr. Baltic amber inclusions indicate palaeofauna inhabiting much warmer climates than today and point to climatic shifts in central Europe since the Eocene. They also indicate that some groups (e.g. Feaellidae and Pseudogarypidae had much wider Eocene distributions. Their present-day occurrence is relictual and highlights past extinction events. Faunas from younger tropical amber deposits (e.g. Dominican and Mexican amber are comparable to Recent ones. Generally, there is a strong bias in the amber record towards groups that live under tree

  10. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Karla

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Results Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID. Conclusion Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  11. The pMSSM10 after LHC Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    de Vries, K.J.; Buchmueller, O.; Cavanaugh, R.; Citron, M.; De Roeck, A.; Dolan, M.J.; Ellis, J.R.; Flächer, H.; Heinemeyer, S.; Isidori, G.; Malik, S.; Marrouche, J.; Martinez Santos, D.; Olive, K.A.; Sakurai, K.; Weiglein, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a frequentist analysis of the parameter space of the pMSSM10, in which the following 10 soft SUSY-breaking parameters are specified independently at the mean scalar top mass scale Msusy = Sqrt[M_stop1 M_stop2]: the gaugino masses M_{1,2,3}, the 1st-and 2nd-generation squark masses M_squ1 = M_squ2, the third-generation squark mass M_squ3, a common slepton mass M_slep and a common trilinear mixing parameter A, the Higgs mixing parameter mu, the pseudoscalar Higgs mass M_A and tan beta. We use the MultiNest sampling algorithm with 1.2 x 10^9 points to sample the pMSSM10 parameter space. A dedicated study shows that the sensitivities to strongly-interacting SUSY masses of ATLAS and CMS searches for jets, leptons + MET signals depend only weakly on many of the other pMSSM10 parameters. With the aid of the Atom and Scorpion codes, we also implement the LHC searches for EW-interacting sparticles and light stops, so as to confront the pMSSM10 parameter space with all relevant SUSY searches. In addition, ou...

  12. Epidemiology of Pediatric Bite/Sting Injuries. One-Year Study of a Pediatric Emergency Department in Israel

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    Michal Hemmo-Lotem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal bite/sting injuries are a known source of morbidity with a significantly higher incidence among children who are most often bitten in the face, head, and neck. The objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of bite/sting injuries treated at the pediatric emergency department in order to guide preventive efforts.The sociodemographic, epidemiological, and clinical data on all bite/sting injuries treated in one representative pediatric emergency department in Israel over a 1-year period were retrieved and analyzed. Two hundred of the 9,309 pediatric trauma cases treated in the emergency department were bite/sting injuries (2.1%. Non-Jewish patients were under-represented in this subgroup. The majority of patients were males (61.5%. Age distribution from 0–12 years was fairly even, except for an unexplained peak at 8 years. Dogs inflicted 56%, cats 11%, and hornets 9.5% of the injuries. Limbs were affected in 64% and the head and neck in 27%. Specialists, mostly plastic surgeons, were consulted in 42 cases (21%. The incidence rate for hospitalization (7% was similar to that seen in other types of injuries. Children with scorpion or hornet stings and young age were more likely to be hospitalized. Preventive and educational aspects are discussed.

  13. TOXICOLOGY AND TREATMENT: MEDICAL AUTHORITIES AND SNAKE-BITE IN THE MIDDLE AGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Meikle, Kathleen

    2014-12-01

    By end of the thirteenth century, surgeons and university-trained physicians in Western Europe had a plethora of authorities from the Greco-Roman and Arabic tradition from which to consult for the treatment of snake-bites. Venomous animals receive the largest share of attention in the literature on biting animals. Nearly all of the sources focus on the idea of the animal biting or puncturing the skin's surface with their mouths and few poisonous animals where the venom is passed on through the skin or hairs are mentioned. Venomous animals frequently appear in discussions on poisons in general, with poisons of animal, mineral or vegetable origin. The bulk of the discourse dealt with venomous snakes and rabid dogs, the latter considered venomous due to its 'poisonous' saliva, and to a lesser extent, scorpions and spiders. In general the bites of non-venomous animals received scant attention. Unlike modern taxonomical categories, medieval categories for animals were usually connected to the movement or the locale of the animal: flying animals, animals in water, land animals (which mainly covered quadrupeds), and crawling animals. It is in the latter category that snakes were located, along with lizards.

  14. Novel piroplasmid and Hepatozoon organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert S. Soares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During 2009–2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer (Mazama americana, Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus, one agouti (Dasyprocta sp., and four lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca, Babesia spp. in one common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis and one white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari. The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani in three spectacled caimans (Caiman crocodilus, Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides and one lowland paca (Cuniculus paca. Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

  15. Novel piroplasmid and Hepatozoon organisms infecting the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Barbieri, Amália R M; Minervino, Antonio H H; Moreira, Thiago Rocha; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2017-08-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues and blood were molecularly tested for the presence of Piroplasmida (genera Babesia, Theileria, Cytauxzoon ) or Hepatozoon DNA. Overall, 181 wild animals comprising 36 different species (2 reptiles, 5 birds, and 29 mammals) were sampled. The following Piroplasmida agents were detected: Cytauxzoon felis in one ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis ), Theileria cervi in two red brocket deer ( Mazama americana ), Theileria spp. in three nine-banded-armadillos ( Dasypus novemcinctus ), one agouti ( Dasyprocta sp.), and four lowland pacas ( Cuniculus paca ), Babesia spp. in one common opossum ( Didelphis marsupialis ) and one white-lipped peccary ( Tayassu pecari ). The following Hepatozoon agents were detected: Hepatozoon sp. (possibly Hepatozoon caimani ) in three spectacled caimans ( Caiman crocodilus ), Hepatozoon felis in an ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis ), and Hepatozoon spp. in one scorpion mud turtle ( Kinosternon scorpioides ) and one lowland paca ( Cuniculus paca ). Phylogenetic analyses inferred by the 18S rRNA gene partial sequences supported these results, highlighting at least five novel Piroplasmida agents, and two novel Hepatozoon agents. This study screened the presence of tick-borne protozoa in a number of wildlife species from the Amazon for the first time. Our results indicate that a variety of genetically distinct Piroplasmida and Hepatozoon organisms circulate under natural conditions in the Amazonian wildlife.

  16. A TALE of shrimps: Genome-wide survey of homeobox genes in 120 species from diverse crustacean taxa [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Hoong Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The homeodomain-containing proteins are an important group of transcription factors found in most eukaryotes including animals, plants and fungi. Homeobox genes are responsible for a wide range of critical developmental and physiological processes, ranging from embryonic development, innate immune homeostasis to whole-body regeneration. With continued fascination on this key class of proteins by developmental and evolutionary biologists, multiple efforts have thus far focused on the identification and characterization of homeobox orthologs from key model organisms in attempts to infer their evolutionary origin and how this underpins the evolution of complex body plans. Despite their importance, the genetic complement of homeobox genes has yet been described in one of the most valuable groups of animals representing economically important food crops. With crustacean aquaculture being a growing industry worldwide, it is clear that systematic and cross-species identification of crustacean homeobox orthologs is necessary in order to harness this genetic circuitry for the improvement of aquaculture sustainability. Using publicly available transcriptome data sets, we identified a total of 4183 putative homeobox genes from 120 crustacean species that include food crop species, such as lobsters, shrimps, crayfish and crabs. Additionally, we identified 717 homeobox orthologs from 6 other non-crustacean arthropods, which include the scorpion, deer tick, mosquitoes and centipede. This high confidence set of homeobox genes will now serve as a key resource to the broader community for future functional and comparative genomics studies.

  17. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  18. Treating autoimmune disorders with venom-derived peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bingzheng; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Wu, Yingliang

    2017-09-01

    The effective treatment of autoimmune diseases remains a challenge. Voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channels, which are expressed in lymphocytes, are a new therapeutic target for treating autoimmune disease. Consequently, Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides are a prospective resource for new drug discovery and clinical application. Area covered: Preclinical and clinical studies have produced a wealth of information on Kv1.3 channel-inhibiting venom-derived peptides, especially from venomous scorpions and sea anemones. This review highlights the advances in screening and design of these peptides with diverse structures and potencies. It focuses on representative strategies for improving peptide selectivity and discusses the preclinical research on those venom-derived peptides as well as their clinical developmental status. Expert opinion: Encouraging results indicate that peptides isolated from the venom of venomous animals are a large resource for discovering immunomodulators that act on Kv1.3 channels. Since the structural diversity of venom-derived peptides determines the variety of their pharmacological activities, the design and optimization of venom-peptides for improved Kv1.3 channel-specificity has been advanced through some representative strategies, such as peptide chemical modification, amino acid residue truncation and binding interface modulation. These advances should further accelerate research, development and the future clinical application of venom-derived peptides selectively targeting Kv1.3 channels.

  19. In vivo pharmacological study on the effectiveness of available polyclonal antivenom against Hemiscorpius lepturus venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jalali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The available Razi Institute antivenom is still, empirically, used by intramuscular (IM administration for the treatment of scorpion stings in humans by six medically dangerous species including Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus. The aim of this study was to assess the neutralizing ability and effectiveness of the antivenom in inhibiting hemoglobinuria, biochemical changes, increased microalbuminuria and urinary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH following H. lepturus sting. Simultaneous intramuscular administration of 10 μL and 100 μL of antivenom, after 24 hours, had no significant preventive effect on the extent and degree of hemoglobinuria or proteinuria produced in venom-treated rats. After IM administration of antivenom, no significant changes in decreased red blood cell (RBC count and hemoglobin were observed. Immediate intramuscular administration of 10 μL of antivenom had no significant effects on both LDH and microalbuminuria. The present findings did not present correlation with clinical signs. Therefore, to fully assess the efficacy of the available antivenom and make appropriate recommendations, more in vivo or in vitro investigations including antigen-antibody interaction, enzymatic analysis and route-dependent administration are required.

  20. Modern Weapons and Military Equipment for Issue 1/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen R. Tišma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Czech Aero star development of L-169 trainer; Scorpion light attack jet performs maiden flight; New M-345 HET trainer revealed; Turkish attack helicopter again in delay; India’s LCA Tejas reaches IOC; Iran reveals UCAV Fotros; Integration of Meteor missile onto Gripen E agreed; French MoD and MBDA signed development and production contract for antitank system Moyenne Portee; UK invests 79 million Pounds into development of new generation submarines; German Iris-T SL surface-to-air missile successful trails; Alexander Nevsky submarine enters into operation with the Russian Navy; Maiden flight of Chinese Z-20 helicopter; F-35’s first live AMRAAM firing; KAI reveals model of the new version of its KFX fighter; Lockheed’s Skunk Works reveals SR-72; India’s DRDO presents tactical ballistic missile Pragati; Sikorsky Innovations wins contract for VTOL experimental aircraft; Jordanian gunship CN235 performs maiden flight; General Atomics shows its EMRG railgun; Aurora too wins contract for Phase I of VTOL X-Plane program; Airbus Military reveals more details on new Fire-fighter; US proposal of weapons and equipment for Romanian F-16A/B; Russia to develop light-weight front-line fighter; Start of Eurofighter cruise missile integration trails.

  1. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Dynamics of QoI Sensitivity in Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Costa Rica During 2000 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil, A F; Heaney, S P; Stanger, C; Shaw, M W

    2007-11-01

    ABSTRACT From 1997 onward, the strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin was widely used in the main banana-production zone in Costa Rica against Mycosphaerella fijiensis var. difformis causing black Sigatoka of banana. By 2000, isolates of M. fijiensis with resistance to the quinolene oxidase inhibitor fungicides were common on some farms in the area. The cause was a single point mutation from glycine to alanine in the fungal target protein, cytochrome b gene. An amplification refractory mutation system Scorpion quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was developed and used to determine the frequency of G143A allele in samples of M. fijiensis. Two hierarchical surveys of spatial variability, in 2001 and 2002, found no significant variation in frequency on spatial scales <10 m. This allowed the frequency of G143A alleles on a farm to be estimated efficiently by averaging single samples taken at two fixed locations. The frequency of G143A allele in bulk samples from 11 farms throughout Costa Rica was determined at 2-month intervals. There was no direct relationship between the number of spray applications and the frequency of G143A on individual farms. Instead, the frequency converged toward regional averages, presumably due to the large-scale mixing of ascospores dispersed by wind. Using trap plants in an area remote from the main producing area, immigration of resistant ascospores was detected as far as 6 km away both with and against the prevailing wind.

  3. Sample limited characterization of a novel disulfide-rich venom peptide toxin from terebrid marine snail Terebra variegata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Anand

    Full Text Available Disulfide-rich peptide toxins found in the secretions of venomous organisms such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, leeches, and marine snails are highly efficient and effective tools for novel therapeutic drug development. Venom peptide toxins have been used extensively to characterize ion channels in the nervous system and platelet aggregation in haemostatic systems. A significant hurdle in characterizing disulfide-rich peptide toxins from venomous animals is obtaining significant quantities needed for sequence and structural analyses. Presented here is a strategy for the structural characterization of venom peptide toxins from sample limited (4 ng specimens via direct mass spectrometry sequencing, chemical synthesis and NMR structure elucidation. Using this integrated approach, venom peptide Tv1 from Terebra variegata was discovered. Tv1 displays a unique fold not witnessed in prior snail neuropeptides. The novel structural features found for Tv1 suggest that the terebrid pool of peptide toxins may target different neuronal agents with varying specificities compared to previously characterized snail neuropeptides.

  4. Aspidosperma pyrifolium Has Anti-Inflammatory Properties: An Experimental Study in Mice with Peritonitis Induced by Tityus serrulatus Venom or Carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Lima, Maíra Conceição Jerônimo de; Oliveira Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica; Furtado, Allanny Alves; Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Siqueira, Emerson Michell da Silva; Oliveira, Ruth Medeiros; Oliveira Rocha, Hugo Alexandre; Ferreira Rocha, Keyla Borges; Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio da; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2017-11-11

    Scorpions of the genus Tityus are responsible for the majority of envenomation in Brazil, the Tityus serrulatus species being the most common and dangerous in South America. In this approach, we have investigated the ability of the aqueous extract from the leaves of Aspidosperma pyrifolium in reducing carrageenan-induced inflammation and the inflammation induced by T. serrulatus envenomation in mice. We also evaluated the cytotoxic effects of this extract, using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT) assay and the results revealed that the extract is safe. Analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry with Diode Array Detection (LC-DAD-MS) showed one major chemical component, the flavonoid rutin and phenolics compounds. For in vivo studies in carrageenan-induced peritonitis model, mice received extracts, dexamethasone, rutin or saline, before administration of carrageenan. For venom-induced inflammation model, animals received T. serrulatus venom and were, simultaneously, treated with extracts, antivenom, rutin or saline. The extract and rutin showed a reduction in the cell migration into the peritoneal cavity, and in the same way the envenomated animals also showed reduction of edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and vasodilation in lungs. This is an original study revealing the potential action of A. pyrifolium against inflammation caused by Tityus serrulatus venom and carrageenan, revealing that this extract and its bioactive molecules, specifically rutin, may present potential anti-inflammatory application.

  5. A radiolabeled peptide ligand of the hERG channel, [125I]-BeKm-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelo, Kamilla; Korolkova, Yuliya V; Grunnet, Morten

    2003-01-01

    The wild-type scorpion toxin BeKm-1, which selectively blocks human ether-a-go-go related (hERG) channels, was radiolabeled with iodine at tyrosine 11. Both the mono- and di-iodinated derivatives were found to be biologically active. In electrophysiological patch-clamp recordings mono-[127I]-BeKm-1...... had a concentration of half-maximal inhibition (IC50 value) of 27 nM, while wild-type BeKm-1 inhibited hERG channels with an IC50 value of 7 nM. Mono-[125I]-BeKm-1 was found to bind in a concentration-dependent manner and with picomolar affinity to hERG channel protein in purified membrane vesicles...... of [125I]-BeKm-1 to the hERG channel to an IC50 of 7 nM. In autoradiographic studies on rat hearts, binding of [125I]-BeKm-1 was dose-dependent and could partially be displaced by the addition of excess amounts of non-radioactive BeKm-1. The density of the radioactive signal was equally distributed...

  6. Savremeno naoružanje i vojna oprema za broj 2-2007 / Modern weapons and military equipment for issue 2-2007 / Современное вооружение и военное оборудование за но. 2-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Krbavac

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Poboljšani karabin HK 417; Laki automatski lanseri granata L134A1; Bacač granata M100 GREM; Automatski minobacački sistem za upravljanje vatrom Scorpion; Laki PA raketni lanseri MST; Novi kineski prenosni PA raketni sistemi; Troslojni protivraketni odbrambeni sistem; Brodski PA raketni sistem Štilj-1; Izvozni helikopteri kompanije Kamov; Bespilotna letelica za lociranje radarskih signala; Nove varijante bespilotnih letelica Predator; Oklopni transporteri BTR-80UP za iračku armiju; Poboljšana varijanta oklopnog transportera Iguana; Novi inžinjerijski tenkovski sistem Velike Britanije; Inžinjerijsko borbeno vozilo Terrier; Kamioni i tegljači KAMAZ; Osmatračka vozila Fennek za holandsku armiju; Dansko sanitetsko vozilo DURO III P 6×6; Podvodne mine M2004; Radio-uređaj jurišne pešadije Eagle; Uređaj za noćno osmatranje Pathfinder; Sredstva za zaštitu vazduhoplova i zemaljskih borbenih sistema; Provera sintetičkih goriva na bombarderu B-52 H.

  7. Centipede Venoms and Their Components: Resources for Potential Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abdul Hakim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Venomous animals have evolved with sophisticated bio-chemical strategies to arrest prey and defend themselves from natural predators. In recent years, peptide toxins from venomous animals have drawn considerable attention from researchers due to their surprising chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological diversity. Similar to other venomous animals, centipedes are one of the crucial venomous arthropods that have been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years in China. Despite signifying pharmacological importance, very little is known about the active components of centipede venoms. More than 500 peptide sequences have been reported in centipede venomous glands by transcriptome analysis, but only a small number of peptide toxins from centipede has been functionally described. Like other venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders, the venom of centipedes could be an excellent source of peptides for developing drugs for treatments as well as bio-insecticides for agrochemical applications. Although centipede venoms are yet to be adequately studied, the venom of centipedes as well as their components described to date, should be compiled to help further research. Therefore, based on previous reports, this review focusses on findings and possible therapeutic applications of centipede venoms as well as their components.

  8. Venus - 3D Perspective View of Latona Corona and Dali Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This computer-generated perspective view of Latona Corona and Dali Chasma on Venus shows Magellan radar data superimposed on topography. The view is from the northeast and vertical exaggeration is 10 times. Exaggeration of relief is a common tool scientists use to detect relationships between structure (i.e. faults and fractures) and topography. Latona Corona, a circular feature approximately 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) in diameter whose eastern half is shown at the left of the image, has a relatively smooth, radar-bright raised rim. Bright lines or fractures within the corona appear to radiate away from its center toward the rim. The rest of the bright fractures in the area are associated with the relatively deep (approximately 3 kilometers or 1.9 miles) troughs of Dali Chasma. The Dali and Diana Chasma system consist of deep troughs that extend for 7,400 kilometers (4,588 miles) and are very distinct features on Venus. Those chasma connect the Ovda and Thetis highlands with the large volcanoes at Atla Regio and thus are considered to be the 'Scorpion Tail' of Aphrodite Terra. The broad, curving scarp resembles some of Earth's subduction zones where crustal plates are pushed over each other. The radar-bright surface at the highest elevation along the scarp is similar to surfaces in other elevated regions where some metallic mineral such as pyrite (fool's gold) may occur on the surface.

  9. Site of anticonvulsant action on sodium channels: autoradiographic and electrophysiological studies in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, P.F.; Baraban, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine interact allosterically with the batrachotoxin binding site of sodium channels. In the present study, we demonstrate an autoradiographic technique to localize the batrachotoxin binding site on sodium channels in rat brain using [ 3 H]batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate (BTX-B). Binding of [ 3 H]BTX-B to brain sections is dependent on potentiating allosteric interactions with scorpion venom and is displaced by BTX-B (Kd approximately 200 nM), aconitine, veratridine, and phenytoin with the same rank order of potencies as described in brain synaptosomes. The maximum number of [ 3 H]BTX-B binding sites in forebrain sections also agrees with biochemical determinations. Autoradiographic localizations indicate that [ 3 H]BTX-B binding sites are not restricted to cell bodies and axons but are present in synaptic zones throughout the brain. For example, a particularly dense concentration of these sites in the substantia nigra is associated with afferent terminals of the striatonigral projection. By contrast, myelinated structures possess much lower densities of binding sites. In addition, we present electrophysiological evidence that synaptic transmission, as opposed to axonal conduction, is preferentially sensitive to the action of aconitine and veratridine. Finally, the synaptic block produced by these sodium channel activators is inhibited by phenytoin and carbamazepine at therapeutic anticonvulsant concentrations

  10. A TALE of shrimps: Genome-wide survey of homeobox genes in 120 species from diverse crustacean taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wai Hoong; Lai, Alvina G

    2018-01-01

    The homeodomain-containing proteins are an important group of transcription factors found in most eukaryotes including animals, plants and fungi. Homeobox genes are responsible for a wide range of critical developmental and physiological processes, ranging from embryonic development, innate immune homeostasis to whole-body regeneration. With continued fascination on this key class of proteins by developmental and evolutionary biologists, multiple efforts have thus far focused on the identification and characterization of homeobox orthologs from key model organisms in attempts to infer their evolutionary origin and how this underpins the evolution of complex body plans. Despite their importance, the genetic complement of homeobox genes has yet been described in one of the most valuable groups of animals representing economically important food crops. With crustacean aquaculture being a growing industry worldwide, it is clear that systematic and cross-species identification of crustacean homeobox orthologs is necessary in order to harness this genetic circuitry for the improvement of aquaculture sustainability. Using publicly available transcriptome data sets, we identified a total of 4183 putative homeobox genes from 120 crustacean species that include food crop species, such as lobsters, shrimps, crayfish and crabs. Additionally, we identified 717 homeobox orthologs from 6 other non-crustacean arthropods, which include the scorpion, deer tick, mosquitoes and centipede. This high confidence set of homeobox genes will now serve as a key resource to the broader community for future functional and comparative genomics studies.

  11. Diet of Procyon cancrivorus (Carnivora, Procyonidae in restinga and estuarine environments of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando M. Quintela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite its wide range and abundance on certain habitats, the crab-eating raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (G. Cuvier, 1798 is considered one of the less known Neotropical carnivore species. In the present study we analyzed the diet of P. cancrivorus in a peat forest and in an estuarine island in southernmost Brazil. Fruits of the gerivá palm tree Syagrus romanzoffiana were the most consumed item in the peat forest, followed by insects and mollusks. Small mammals, followed by Bromelia antiacantha (Bromeliaceae fruits and brachyuran crustaceans were the most frequent items in the estuarine island. Other items found in lower frequencies were Solanum sp., Psidium sp., Smilax sp. and Dyospiros sp. fruits, diplopods, scorpions, fishes, anuran amphibians, reptiles (black tegu lizard and snakes, birds and medium-sized mammals (white-eared opossum, armadillo and coypu. Levin’s index values (peat forest: 0.38; estuarine island: 0.45 indicate an approximation to a median position between a specialist and a well distributed diet. Pianka’s index (0.80 showed a considerable diet similarity between the two systems. Procyon cancrivorus presented a varied diet in the studied areas and may play an important role as seed disperser on coastal environments in southernmost Brazil.

  12. The sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum toxin BcIII modulates the sodium current kinetics of rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and is displaced in a voltage-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda, Emilio; López, Omar; Zaharenko, André J; Garateix, Anoland; Soto, Enrique

    2010-03-01

    Sea anemone toxins bind to site 3 of the sodium channels, which is partially formed by the extracellular linker connecting S3 and S4 segments of domain IV, slowing down the inactivation process. In this work we have characterized the actions of BcIII, a sea anemone polypeptide toxin isolated from Bunodosoma caissarum, on neuronal sodium currents using the patch clamp technique. Neurons of the dorsal root ganglia of Wistar rats (P5-9) in primary culture were used for this study (n=65). The main effects of BcIII were a concentration-dependent increase in the sodium current inactivation time course (IC(50)=2.8 microM) as well as an increase in the current peak amplitude. BcIII did not modify the voltage at which 50% of the channels are activated or inactivated, nor the reversal potential of sodium current. BcIII shows a voltage-dependent action. A progressive acceleration of sodium current fast inactivation with longer conditioning pulses was observed, which was steeper as more depolarizing were the prepulses. The same was observed for other two anemone toxins (CgNa, from Condylactis gigantea and ATX-II, from Anemonia viridis). These results suggest that the binding affinity of sea anemone toxins may be reduced in a voltage-dependent manner, as has been described for alpha-scorpion toxins. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Chlorotoxin Fused to IgG-Fc Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Motility via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

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    Tomonari Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotoxin is a 36-amino acid peptide derived from Leiurus quinquestriatus (scorpion venom, which has been shown to inhibit low-conductance chloride channels in colonic epithelial cells. Chlorotoxin also binds to matrix metalloproteinase-2 and other proteins on glioma cell surfaces. Glioma cells are considered to require the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 during invasion and migration. In this study, for targeting glioma, we designed two types of recombinant chlorotoxin fused to human IgG-Fcs with/without a hinge region. Chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs was designed as a dimer of 60 kDa with a hinge region and a monomer of 30 kDa without a hinge region. The monomeric and dimeric forms of chlorotoxin inhibited cell proliferation at 300 nM and induced internalization in human glioma A172 cells. The monomer had a greater inhibitory effect than the dimer; therefore, monomeric chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fc was multivalently displayed on the surface of bionanocapsules to develop a drug delivery system that targeted matrix metalloproteinase-2. The target-dependent internalization of bionanocapsules in A172 cells was observed when chlorotoxin was displayed on the bionanocapsules. This study indicates that chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs could be useful for the active targeting of glioblastoma cells.

  14. The toxicogenomic multiverse: convergent recruitment of proteins into animal venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Bryan G; Roelants, Kim; Champagne, Donald E; Scheib, Holger; Tyndall, Joel D A; King, Glenn F; Nevalainen, Timo J; Norman, Janette A; Lewis, Richard J; Norton, Raymond S; Renjifo, Camila; de la Vega, Ricardo C Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Throughout evolution, numerous proteins have been convergently recruited into the venoms of various animals, including centipedes, cephalopods, cone snails, fish, insects (several independent venom systems), platypus, scorpions, shrews, spiders, toxicoferan reptiles (lizards and snakes), and sea anemones. The protein scaffolds utilized convergently have included AVIT/colipase/prokineticin, CAP, chitinase, cystatin, defensins, hyaluronidase, Kunitz, lectin, lipocalin, natriuretic peptide, peptidase S1, phospholipase A(2), sphingomyelinase D, and SPRY. Many of these same venom protein types have also been convergently recruited for use in the hematophagous gland secretions of invertebrates (e.g., fleas, leeches, kissing bugs, mosquitoes, and ticks) and vertebrates (e.g., vampire bats). Here, we discuss a number of overarching structural, functional, and evolutionary generalities of the protein families from which these toxins have been frequently recruited and propose a revised and expanded working definition for venom. Given the large number of striking similarities between the protein compositions of conventional venoms and hematophagous secretions, we argue that the latter should also fall under the same definition.

  15. Strain improvement of fungal insecticides for controlling insect pests and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Weiguo; Azimzadeh, Philippe; St Leger, Raymond J

    2012-06-01

    Insect pathogenic fungi play an important natural role in controlling insect pests. However, few have been successfully commercialized due to low virulence and sensitivity to abiotic stresses that produce inconsistent results in field applications. These limitations are inherent in most naturally occurring biological control agents but development of recombinant DNA techniques has made it possible to significantly improve the insecticidal efficacy of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions, including UV. These advances have been achieved by combining new knowledge derived from basic studies of the molecular biology of these pathogens, technical developments that enable very precise regulation of gene expression, and genes encoding insecticidal proteins from other organisms, particularly spiders and scorpions. Recent coverage of genomes is helping determine the identity, origin, and evolution of traits needed for diverse lifestyles and host switching. In future, such knowledge combined with the precision and malleability of molecular techniques will allow design of multiple pathogens with different strategies and host ranges to be used for different ecosystems, and that will avoid the possibility of the host developing resistance. With increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides, these new types of biological insecticides offer a range of environmental-friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Inactivation of complement by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, H M; Finke, J H; Elgert, K D; Cambell, B J; Barrett, J T

    1979-07-01

    Zymosan depletion of serum complement in guinea pigs rendered them highly resistant to lesion by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom. Guinea pigs deficient in C4 of the complement system are as sensitive to the venom as normal guinea pigs. The injection of 35 micrograms of whole recluse venom intradermally into guinea pigs lowered their complement level by 35.7%. Brown recluse spider venom in concentrations as slight as 0.02 micrograms protein/ml can totally inactivate one CH50 of guinea pig complement in vitro. Bee, scorpion, and other spider venoms had no influence on the hemolytic titer of complement. Fractionation of recluse spider venom by Sephadex G-200 filtration separated the complement-inactivating property of the venom into three major regions which could be distinguished on the basis of heat stability as well as size. None was neutralized by antivenom. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of venom resolved the complement inactivators into five fractions. Complement inactivated by whole venom or the Sephadex fractions could be restored to hemolytic activity by supplements of fresh serum but not by heat-inactivated serum, pure C3, pure C5, or C3 and C5 in combination.

  17. [Peculiarities of the phospholipid and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte plasma membranes of the Black Sea fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkin, Iu A; Silkina, E N; Zabelinskiĭ, S A

    2012-01-01

    The phospholipid and the fatty acid composition of the main phospholipids families of erythrocyte plasma membranes was studied in two species of cartilaginous fish: the common thrasher (Raja clavata L.) and the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca) and three bony fish species: the scorpion fish (Scorpaena porcus L.), the smarida (Spicara flexuosa Raf.), and the horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus Aleev). It was shown that in the studied fish, 70.0-80.0 % of all membrane phospholipids were composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phosphatidylserine, monophosphoinositide, and sphingomyelin were minor components whose content in the erythrocyte membrane fluctuated from 3.0 % to 13.0 %. The fatty acid phospholipids composition was represented by a large specter of acids. From saturated acids, basic for plasma membranes are palmitic (C16: 0) and stearic (C18: 0) acids. From unsaturated acids, the larger part belong to mono-, tetra-, penta-, and hexaenoic acids in fish phospholipids. The calculation of the double bond index and of the unsaturation coefficient showed difference in the deformation ability of erythrocyte membranes of the studied fish.

  18. High-incidence of PTEN mutations in Chinese patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Wang, Ge; Xiao, Hualiang; Xie, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Chuan; Xiao, He; Yang, Zhenzhou; Wang, Dong; Li, Zengpeng

    2014-01-01

    Primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus (PSCCE) is a rare and aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA and PTEN mutations in PSCCE. Clinical–pathological data and paraffin-embedded specimens were collected from 38 patients. Exons 18 to 21 of EGFR, KRAS and PIK3CA status were analyzed by real-time PCR based on ARMS and Scorpion technology in all patients, and the PTEN gene was also screened using real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMA). Only 1 (2.63%) out of 38 patients had EGFR mutations in L858R missense, and KRAS and PIK3CA were not found in the mutational spot in all patients. However, PTEN mutations presented in 14 (36.84%) out of 38 patients, including exon 5 coding for PTEN missense mutation (n =4, 10.53%), exon 6 (n =7, 18.42%), concurrent exon 5 and exon 6 (n =2, 5.26%), and exon 8 (n =1, 2.63%). Concurrent mutations of these genes were not detected in all samples. No statistically significant associations were found between the clinicopathological features and the mutation status of PTEN. The incidence of PTEN mutations in Chinese patients with PSCCE was higher than that of previous reports in other histological subtypes of esophageal cancer

  19. Outcome of Venom Bradykinin Potentiating Factor on Renin Angiotensin System in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, O.; Farouk, H.; Moustafa, M.; Abu Sinn, G.; Abd ElBaset, A.

    2011-01-01

    Scorpion Venom contains a strong bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) exhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI). Irradiation and stimulation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) induce oxidative stress. Interruption of the RAS by an ACEI or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) losartan (LOS) and/or gamma-rays (4 Gy) were evaluated. Rats received 6 doses of BPF (1μg/g body wt) or of LOS (5 μg/g body wt). Treatment with BPF induced significant elevation in the level of potassium (K) and significant drop in the level of sodium (Na) and uric acid. Treatment with LOS significantly depressed the level of Na and uric acid compared to control. Irradiation discerned a significant elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), aldosterone, Na, urea and creatinine, and a significant drop in the haematological values, glutathione (GSH), calcium (Ca) and uric acid. A significant decrease in MDA, aldosterone, urea, creatinine and uric acid compared to irradiated group was observed in irradiated treated groups. Irradiated animals treated with LOS showed a significant decrease in Na and chloride (Cl) compared to the irradiated group. Considerable amelioration of radiation-induced depression in haematopoiesis, improvement of oxidative stress and kidney function by BPF as ACEI or LOS as ARB are detected. Results add further identification to the properties of BPF

  20. The story of the condom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Condoms have been a subject of curiosity throughout history. The idea of safer sex has been explored in ancient and modern history, and has been used to prevent venereal diseases. We conducted a historical and medical review of condoms using primary and secondary sources as well as using the RSM library and the internet. These resources show that the first use of a condom was that of King Minos of Crete. Pasiphae, his wife, employed a goat′s bladder in the vagina so that King Minos would not be able to harm her as his semen was said to contain "scorpions and serpents" that killed his mistresses. To Egyptians, condom-like glans caps were dyed in different colours to distinguish between different classes of people and to protect themselves against bilharzia. The Ancient Romans used the bladders of animals to protect the woman; they were worn not to prevent pregnancy but to prevent contraction of venereal diseases. Charles Goodyear, the inventor, utilized vulcanization, the process of transforming rubber into malleable structures, to produce latex condoms. The greater use of condoms all over the world in the 20 th and 21 st centuries has been related to HIV. This account of the use of condoms demonstrates how a primitive idea turned into an object that is used globally with a forecast estimated at 18 billion condoms to be used in 2015 alone.

  1. Effects of Animal Venoms and Toxins on Hallmarks of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisakul, Janeyuth; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Prasongsook, Naiyarat

    2016-01-01

    Animal venoms are a cocktail of proteins and peptides, targeting vital physiological processes. Venoms have evolved to assist in the capture and digestion of prey. Key venom components often include neurotoxins, myotoxins, cardiotoxins, hematoxins and catalytic enzymes. The pharmacological activities of venom components have been investigated as a source of potential therapeutic agents. Interestingly, a number of animal toxins display profound anticancer effects. These include toxins purified from snake, bee and scorpion venoms effecting cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptotic activity and neovascularization. Indeed, the mechanism behind the anticancer effect of certain toxins is similar to that of agents currently used in chemotherapy. For example, Lebein is a snake venom disintegrin which generates anti-angiogenic effects by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF). In this review article, we highlight the biological activities of animal toxins on the multiple steps of tumour formation or hallmarks of cancer. We also discuss recent progress in the discovery of lead compounds for anticancer drug development from venom components. PMID:27471574

  2. Insects, arachnids and centipedes venom: A powerful weapon against bacteria. A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratini, Filippo; Cilia, Giovanni; Turchi, Barbara; Felicioli, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Currently, new antimicrobial molecules extracted or obtained by natural sources, could be a valide alternative to traditional antibiotics. Most of these molecules are represented by antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are essential compounds of insect, arachnids and centipedes venom. AMPs, due to their strong effectiveness, low resistance rates and peculiar mode of action, seem to have all the suitable features to be a powerful weapon against several bacteria, especially considering the increasing antibiotic-resistance phenomena. The present literature review focuses on the antibacterial activity of bee, wasp, ant, scorpion, spider and scolopendra crude venom and of their main biological active compounds. After a brief overview of each animal and venom use in folkloristic medicine, this review reports, in a comprehensive table, the results obtained by the most relevant and recent researches carried out on the antibacterial activity of different venom and their AMPs. For each considered study, the table summarizes data concerning minimal inhibitory concentration values, minimal bactericidal concentration values, the methods employed, scientific name and common names and provenience of animal species from which the crude venom and its respective compounds were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Signs of the zodiac and personality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, J; Scheidegger, P

    1976-01-01

    3074 young men resident in the canton of Zurich, representing 50% of the 19 year old male population, form the fully representative sample of our large scale investigation. We investigated whether personality traits measured by means of the differentiated "Freiburger personality inventory" (FPI) could in any way be correlated to the signs of the zodiac under which the young men were born. The statistical analysis did not reveal any correlation between signs of the zodiac and personality. The claim made by astrologers that people can be characterized according to their sign of the zodiac (sagitarius, taurus, cancer, scorpion) must be refuted. Of course the astrologically founded description of human personality does not base itself on the position of the sun only, however the latter does form a very essential part of the astrological evaluation of people. This, at any rate has been shown to be without any scientific basis. The fact that astrological evaluation of human personality is so popular nowadays can be explained by the fact that even modern people are inclined towards magical thinking.

  4. Enhancement of the glass corrosion in the presence of clay minerals: testing experimental results with an integrated glass dissolution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, N.; Vernaz, E.Y.

    1992-01-01

    Recent glass dissolution experiments, conducted at 90 deg C in the presence of potential backfill materials, indicate remarkably faster glass corrosion in the presence of clay, compared to tests where the glass is leached either alone or with alternative backfill materials. This effect correlates with the clay content in the backfill, and may be attributed to the removal of silica from solution. Scorpion, or dissolution with reprecipitation of a silica-rich clay, have been proposed as possible mechanisms for the silica consumption. The results of some experiments have been tested against a glass dissolution model, in which a widely used kinetic equation for glass corrosion is coupled with diffusive silica transport through a single porosity, linearly sorbing medium, which represents the backfilling. Because the glass corrosion rates imposed by the kinetic equation are inversely proportional to the silicic acid concentration of the leachant contacting the glass, the model predicts enhanced glass dissolution if silica is sorbed by the porous medium. The experimental data proved to be consistent with the predicted enhancement of the glass dissolution. Moreover, the model-estimated distribution coefficients for silica sorption (K d ) fall within the range of values extracted from available literature data, thus supporting the hypothesis that the observed high corrosion rates are due to sorption of silica on the clay mineral surfaces. (author)

  5. Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In situ Oxidation Study of Pt (110) and Its Interaction with CO Chinese Scientists Published a Paper on Prevention of Drug Craving and Relapse by Memory Retrieval-extinction Procedure in Science Series Papers Published in Energy Policy: Modeling Energy Use of China's Road Transport and Policy Evaluation Breakthrough in the Ambient Catalytic Destruction of Formaldehyde Novel Findings for High Altitude Adaptation from the Yak Genome Binary Colloidal Structures Assembled through Ising Interactions Reemergence of superconductivity at 48K in Compressed Iron Selenide Based Superconductors Nucleosomes Suppress Spontaneous Mutations Base-Specifically in Eukaryotes Single-Chain Fragmented Antibodies Guided SiRNA Delivery in Breast Cancer Does Yeast Suicide? China Scientists Developed Important Methodologies for Spatiotemporal Detecting and Manipulating of Cellular Activities Scorpions Inspire Chinese Scientists in Making Bionic Non-eroding Surfaces for Machinery Research on Phylogenetic Placement of Borthwickia and Description of a New Family of Angiosperms, Borthwickiaceae Plasmoid Ejection and Secondary Current Sheet Generation from Magnetic Reconnection in Laser-plasma Interaction Cotton Bollworm Adapts to Bt Cotton via Diverse Mutations A Histone Acetyltransferase Regulates Active DNA Demethylation in Arabidopsis

  6. Search after new agents for hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels; Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffen fuer Hyperpolarisationsaktivierte und zyklisch Nukleotid-gesteuerte Ionenkanaele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struenker, T.

    2005-12-01

    Rhythmic activity of single cells or cellular networks is a common feature of most organisms. Cellular rhythms govern the beating of the heart, cycles of sleep and wakefulness, breathing, and the release of hormones. The endogenous rhythmic activity of many neurons and cardiac relies on a complex interplay between several distinct ion channels. In particular, one type of ion channel plays a prominent role in the control of rhythmic electrical activity because it determines the frequency of the oscillations. The activity of the channels is thus setting the ''pace'' of the activity; therefore, these channels are often referred to as ''pacemaker'' channels. Despite their obvious physiological importance it hasn't been until a few years ago that the genes encoding pacemaker channels have been identified. Because both hyperpolarization and cyclic nucleotides are key elements that control their activity, pacemaker channels have now been designated hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. From a scientific as well as medical point of view, HCN channels are interesting drug targets. Only a few substances are known that specifically affect HCN channels. In the present study, a microtiter plate-based high throughput screening assay for HCN1 and HCN4 channels was developed. With this assay, known drugs for HCN channels were characterized. Subsequently, venoms of snails, spiders, scorpions, and snakes were screened for toxins affecting HCN channel activity. A few venoms were identified that possibly contain drugs that act on HCN channels. (orig.)

  7. Getting insight into the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in specimens of marketed edible insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Vesna; Osimani, Andrea; Pasquini, Marina; Aquilanti, Lucia; Garofalo, Cristiana; Taccari, Manuela; Cardinali, Federica; Riolo, Paola; Clementi, Francesca

    2016-06-16

    This study was aimed at investigating the occurrence of 11 transferable antibiotic resistance (AR) genes [erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), vanA, vanB, tet(M), tet(O), tet(S), tet(K), mecA, blaZ] in 11 species of marketed edible insects (small crickets powder, small crickets, locusts, mealworm larvae, giant waterbugs, black ants, winged termite alates, rhino beetles, mole crickets, silkworm pupae, and black scorpions) in order to provide a first baseline for risk assessment. Among the AR genes under study, tet(K) occurred with the highest frequency, followed by erm(B), tet(S) and blaZ. A high variability was seen among the samples, in terms of occurrence of different AR determinants. Cluster Analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis allowed the 11 samples to be grouped in two main clusters, one including all but one samples produced in Thailand and the other including those produced in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sodium channels in axons and glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C M; Strichartz, G R; Orkand, R K

    1979-11-01

    Experiments investigating both the binding of radioactively labelled saxitoxin (STX) and the electrophysiological response to drugs that increase the sodium permeability of excitable membranes were conducted in an effort to detect sodium channels in glial cells of the optic nerve of Necturus maculosa, the mudpuppy. Glial cells in nerves from chronically enucleated animals, which lack optic nerve axons, show no saturable uptake of STX whereas a saturable uptake is clearly present in normal optic nerves. The normal nerve is depolarized by aconitine, batrachotoxin, and veratridine (10(-6)-10(-5) M), whereas the all-glial preparation is only depolarized by veratridine and at concentrations greater than 10(-3) M. Unlike the depolarization caused by veratridine in normal nerves, the response in the all-glial tissue is not blocked by tetrodotoxin nor enhanced by scorpion venom (Leiurus quinquestriatus). In glial cells of the normal nerve, where axons are also present, the addition of 10(-5) M veratridine does lead to a transient depolarization; however, it is much briefer than the axonal response to veratridine in this same tissue. This glial response to veratridine could be caused by the efflux of K+ from the drug-depolarized axons, and is similar to the glial response to extracellular K+ accumulation resulting from action potentials in the axon.

  9. Mutation Scanning in a Single and a Stacked Genetically Modified (GM) Event by Real-Time PCR and High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali, Sina-Elisabeth; Madi, Zita Erika; Hochegger, Rupert; Quist, David; Prewein, Bernhard; Haslberger, Alexander G.; Brandes, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations must be avoided during the production and use of seeds. In the European Union (EU), Directive 2001/18/EC requires any DNA construct introduced via transformation to be stable. Establishing genetic stability is critical for the approval of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, genetic stability of two GMOs was examined using high resolution melting (HRM) analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) employing Scorpion primers for amplification. The genetic variability of the transgenic insert and that of the flanking regions in a single oilseed rape variety (GT73) and a stacked maize (MON88017 × MON810) was studied. The GT73 and the 5' region of MON810 showed no instabilities in the examined regions. However; two out of 100 analyzed samples carried a heterozygous point mutation in the 3' region of MON810 in the stacked variety. These results were verified by direct sequencing of the amplified PCR products as well as by sequencing of cloned PCR fragments. The occurrence of the mutation suggests that the 5' region is more suitable than the 3' region for the quantification of MON810. The identification of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a stacked event is in contrast to the results of earlier studies of the same MON810 region in a single event where no DNA polymorphism was found. PMID:25365178

  10. Proteínas do soro sanguíneo de cães inoculados com veneno de Tityus serrulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L. Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein profile of twelve healthy adult dogs averaging 14.2±5.4kg was evaluated after the inoculation of yellow scorpion venom (Tityus serrulatus. The animals were randomly divided in two experimental groups (G (n= 6: GI control, which received 0.5mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS subcutaneously in the medial side of the left thigh (MSLT, and GII which received T. serrulatus venom (250μg/kg, diluted in 0.5mL of PBS subcutaneously in the MSLT. Blood samples were collected before the venom inoculation (time zero and after 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72h to obtain serum for measurement of total proteins. The fractionated protein profile was done by electrophoresis on agarose films using Tris and Amido Black staining and quantification of albumin and globulin fractions by software. The results showed no changes in the levels of total proteins, albumin and α, β and γ globulin or reversal of the albumin:globulin ratio between the groups, concluding that the dose of 250μg/kg of Tityus serrulatus venom did not induce acute phase proteins in dogs.

  11. Discordance of Mutation Statuses of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and K-ras between Primary Adenocarcinoma of Lung and Brain Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ming Rau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR of adenocarcinomas of lung have been found to be associated with increased sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and K-ras mutations may correlate with primary resistance. We aimed to explore the discordant mutation statuses of EGFR and K-ras between primary tumors and matched brain metastases in adenocarcinomas of lung. We used a sensitive Scorpion ARMS method to analyze EGFR mutation, and Sanger sequencing followed by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction to analyze K-ras mutation. Forty-nine paired tissues with both primary adenocarcinoma of lung and matched brain metastasis were collected. Thirteen patients (26.5% were discordant for the status of EGFR between primary and metastatic sites. K-ras gene could be checked in paired specimens from 33 patients, thirteen patients (39.6% were discordant for the status of K-ras. In primary lung adenocarcinoma, there were 14 patients of mutant EGFR had mutant K-ras synchronously. This study revealed that the status of EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinomas is relatively consistent between primary and metastatic sites compared to K-ras mutation. However, there are still a few cases of adenocarcinoma of lung showing discordance for the status of EGFR mutation. Repeated analysis of EGFR mutation is highly recommended if tissue from metastatic or recurrent site is available for the evaluation of target therapy.

  12. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern Marcus von Reumont

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms.

  13. An in vitro Comparative study upon the Hemolytic, Thrombogenic, Coagulation parameters and Stability properties of the Hemiscorpiuslepturus Venom

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    Seyedian, R.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hemiscorpius lepturus belonging to Hemiscorpiidae family is the most venomous of all types of scorpion existing in south west of Iran causing hemoglobinuria and dermal lesions by envenomation. We compare the hemolytic pattern upon time in different domestic animals upon time according to their different sphingomyelin contents. In addition other in vitro hematologic parameters, platelet lysis, coagulation changes and finally preservative factors (temperature, pH, protases are discussed. The hemolytic activity was inhibited significantly by heating at 100 °C for 60 minutes (26% and reached 38% via incubation with papain (10U/ml while retained over a pH range of 4-11. Horses and sheep have the lower (61% and upper (100% rate of hemolysis. Calcium and magnesium ions could increase rate of hemolysis and EDTA solution had significantly decresing effect. The venom significantly changed in vitro coagulation factors (PT and APTT from base line levels and had no effect on platelet lysis. It seems that our venom belongs to metalloproteinases due to potentiation effects of bivalent cations (calcium and magnesium and ghost cell formation in our study indicatiing hemoglobin efflux.

  14. Babesial vector tick defensin against Babesia sp. parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Naotoshi; Battsetseg, Badgar; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Xuan, Xuenan; Oliver, James H; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2007-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are major components of host innate immunity, a well-conserved, evolutionarily ancient defensive mechanism. Infectious disease-bearing vector ticks are thought to possess specific defense molecules against the transmitted pathogens that have been acquired during their evolution. We found in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis a novel parasiticidal peptide named longicin that may have evolved from a common ancestral peptide resembling spider and scorpion toxins. H. longicornis is the primary vector for Babesia sp. parasites in Japan. Longicin also displayed bactericidal and fungicidal properties that resemble those of defensin homologues from invertebrates and vertebrates. Longicin showed a remarkable ability to inhibit the proliferation of merozoites, an erythrocyte blood stage of equine Babesia equi, by killing the parasites. Longicin was localized at the surface of the Babesia sp. parasites, as demonstrated by confocal microscopic analysis. In an in vivo experiment, longicin induced significant reduction of parasitemia in animals infected with the zoonotic and murine B. microti. Moreover, RNA interference data demonstrated that endogenous longicin is able to directly kill the canine B. gibsoni, thus indicating that it may play a role in regulating the vectorial capacity in the vector tick H. longicornis. Theoretically, longicin may serve as a model for the development of chemotherapeutic compounds against tick-borne disease organisms.

  15. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2001-01-01

    Ethnomedicines are used by hunters for themselves and their hunting dogs in Trinidad. Plants are used for snakebites, scorpion stings, for injuries and mange of dogs and to facilitate hunting success. Plants used include Piper hispidum, Pithecelobium unguis-cati, Bauhinia excisa, Bauhinia cumanensis, Cecropia peltata, Aframomum melegueta, Aristolochia rugosa, Aristolochia trilobata, Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia, Nicotiana tabacum, Vernonia scorpioides, Petiveria alliacea, Renealmia alpinia, Justicia secunda, Phyllanthus urinaria,Phyllanthus niruri,Momordica charantia, Xiphidium caeruleum, Ottonia ovata, Lepianthes peltata, Capsicum frutescens, Costus scaber, Dendropanax arboreus, Siparuma guianensis, Syngonium podophyllum, Monstera dubia, Solanum species, Eclipta prostrata, Spiranthes acaulis, Croton gossypifolius, Barleria lupulina, Cola nitida, Acrocomia ierensis (tentative ID). Plant use is based on odour, and plant morphological characteristics and is embedded in a complex cultural context based on indigenous Amerindian beliefs. It is suggested that the medicinal plants exerted a physiological action on the hunter or his dog. Some of the plants mentioned contain chemicals that may explain the ethnomedicinal and ethnoveterinary use. For instance some of the plants influence the immune system or are effective against internal and external parasites. Plant baths may contribute to the health and well being of the hunting dogs.

  16. [Studies on the development of the medical occupational image in Egypt's early times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Heinz; Hallof, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    Shamanism in pre-dynastic Egypt, practise by Sem-priests, combines social, psycho-hygienic and para-medical elements of both Near-Eastern and African provenance. These activities, which included health care and medical prophylaxes, were organised by highly qualified advisors of the Pharaoh with the establishment of Egyptian state religion. Their aim was to protect the rulers against his "enemies". These enemies included illnesses of all kinds, as well as injuries to health caused by impure food. The importance of this task is emphasised by the fact that it was usually the eldest son of the Pharoah who was responsible for the correct performance of the royal rituals, which included these medical aspects. Changes in religious concepts made these special advisors and priests superfluous. They took over other tasks in the funeral service of the Pharaoh or were included in the professional group of physicians, known from the time of the pyramids as "Sahkmet-priests", i.e. medical specialists. They were particularly responsible for precautionary measures against epidemics and for curing snake and scorpion bites. They created the first medical papyri and established the legal foundation for the medical care of the inhabitants of Egypt by royal order.

  17. Real-time PCR (qPCR) primer design using free online software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2011-01-01

    Real-time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR) has become the preferred method for validating results obtained from assays which measure gene expression profiles. The process uses reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with fluorescent chemistry, to measure variations in transcriptome levels between samples. The four most commonly used fluorescent chemistries are SYBR® Green dyes and TaqMan®, Molecular Beacon or Scorpion probes. SYBR® Green is very simple to use and cost efficient. As SYBR® Green dye binds to any double-stranded DNA product, its success depends greatly on proper primer design. Many types of online primer design software are available, which can be used free of charge to design desirable SYBR® Green-based qPCR primers. This laboratory exercise is intended for those who have a fundamental background in PCR. It addresses the basic fluorescent chemistries of real-time PCR, the basic rules and pitfalls of primer design, and provides a step-by-step protocol for designing SYBR® Green-based primers with free, online software. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A checklist of the non-acarine arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida of the Ndumo Game Reserve, Maputaland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Haddad

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnids (Chelicerata: Arachnida were collected in the Ndumo Game Reserve (Maputaland, South Africa during 11 collecting trips in the period 2000–2006. Sampling was undertaken by various methods in eight broad habitat types: Acacia tortilis savanna; Acacia xanthophloea (fever tree forests; deciduous broadleaf woodland; Ficus (wild fig tree forests; floodplain vegetation; riparian forest; sand forest; and subtropical bush. In total, 457 species of arachnids were collected, representing six orders, 59 families and 240 determined genera. The most diverse order was the Araneae (46 families, 431 spp., followed by the Pseudoscorpiones (6 families, 12 spp., Scorpiones (3 families, 8 spp., Opiliones (2 families, 3 spp., Solifugae (1 family, 2 spp. and Amblypygi (a single species. The most diverse families all belonged to the Araneae: Salticidae (82 spp., Thomisidae (56 spp. and Araneidae (38 spp.. The spider diversity is the highest recorded from any protected area in South Africa so far, and represents approximately 22 % of the country’s spider fauna. The habitat and guild associations of each species are provided.

  19. Spider Transcriptomes Identify Ancient Large-Scale Gene Duplication Event Potentially Important in Silk Gland Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Thomas H; Garb, Jessica E; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Arensburger, Peter; Ayoub, Nadia A

    2015-06-08

    The evolution of specialized tissues with novel functions, such as the silk synthesizing glands in spiders, is likely an influential driver of adaptive success. Large-scale gene duplication events and subsequent paralog divergence are thought to be required for generating evolutionary novelty. Such an event has been proposed for spiders, but not tested. We de novo assembled transcriptomes from three cobweb weaving spider species. Based on phylogenetic analyses of gene families with representatives from each of the three species, we found numerous duplication events indicative of a whole genome or segmental duplication. We estimated the age of the gene duplications relative to several speciation events within spiders and arachnids and found that the duplications likely occurred after the divergence of scorpions (order Scorpionida) and spiders (order Araneae), but before the divergence of the spider suborders Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae, near the evolutionary origin of spider silk glands. Transcripts that are expressed exclusively or primarily within black widow silk glands are more likely to have a paralog descended from the ancient duplication event and have elevated amino acid replacement rates compared with other transcripts. Thus, an ancient large-scale gene duplication event within the spider lineage was likely an important source of molecular novelty during the evolution of silk gland-specific expression. This duplication event may have provided genetic material for subsequent silk gland diversification in the true spiders (Araneomorphae). © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Action of insecticidal N-alkylamides at site 2 of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottea, J.A.; Payne, G.T.; Soderlund, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Nine synthetic N-alkylamides were examined as inhibitors of the specific binding of [ 3 H]batrachotoxinin A 20α-benzoate ([ 3 H]BTX-B) to sodium channels and as activators of sodium uptake in mouse brain synaptoneurosomes. In the presence of scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) venom, the six insecticidal analogues were active as both inhibitors of [ 3 H]BTX-B binding and stimulators of sodium uptake. These findings are consistent with an action of these compounds at the alkaloid activator recognition site (site 2) of the voltage-sensitive sodium channel. The three noninsecticidal N-alkylamides also inhibited [ 3 H]BTX-B binding but were ineffective as activators of sodium uptake. Concentration-response studies revealed that some of the insecticidal amides also enhanced sodium uptake through a second, high-affinity interaction that does not involve site 2, but this secondary effect does not appear to be correlated with insecticidal activity. The activities of N-alkylamides as sodium channel activators were influenced by the length of the alkenyl chain and the location of unsaturation within the molecule. These results further define the actions of N-alkylamides on sodium channels and illustrate the significance of the multiple binding domains of the sodium channel as target sites for insect control agents

  1. SILK FIBRE DEGRADATION AND ANALYSIS BY PROTEOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUKSELOGLU S.Muge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Silk is one of the promising natural fibres and has a long established history in textile production throughout the centuries. Silk is produced by cultured silk worms, spiders, scorpions, mites and flies. It is extracellular proteinaceous fibres which consist of highly crystalline and insoluble proteins, the fibroins glued with sericin and an amourphous protein. On the other hand, understanding and controlling the degradation of protein materials are important for determining quality and the value of appearance retention in textiles. Hence, for silk textiles, appearance retention is critical value for the quality. And this is one of the key properties directly related to the degree and nature of protein degradation. It is therefore necessary to understand the silk composition and damage to obtain good conservation treatments and long-term preservation especially for the historical silk fabrics. In this study, silk fibre and its properties are briefly introduced along with images on their fibre damages. Additionally, proteomics method which helps to understand the degradation at the molecular level in textiles is introduced. Finally, proteomic evaluation of silk is summarized according to the researchers carried out in the literature.

  2. The Mythology of the Night Sky An Amateur Astronomer's Guide to the Ancient Greek and Roman Legends

    CERN Document Server

    Falkner, David E

    2011-01-01

    Every amateur astronomer can easily recognize most of the constellations, but how many of us know the story behind them? What myths did the Ancient Greeks weave around the mighty hunter Orion that places him so prominently in the sky? Did you know that this mythical being was said to have been killed by Diana, herself a hunter, while he was exhausted by his fight with Scorpius? The constellation of Scorpius, the giant scorpion, is dominated by the red supergiant Antares and hangs in the sky opposite Orion. Yet there is no constellation of Diana to be found! The Mythology of the Night Sky strikes a balance between backyard astronomy and ancient mythology. Organized by seasons, this book describes Ptolemy's 48 constellations with location and description in detail, while also telling the mythological tales in full. Along with the named constellations, this title also incorporates the lore behind the christening of the planets and their satellites. Readers discover the importance of the ancient characters, why...

  3. Spiral tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Asadiyan, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    after one revolution of Mecca-Spiral. Position of Mecca as a geodynamic pole (as well as contribution of lands and waters) satisfies golden ratio with respect to North/South-Pole and Hawaii-Meridian. Mecca with minimum magnetic inclination is a nucleus of global sigmoid (GS). Scorpion-like GS which bended around geomagnetic axis is mature form of primordial Mecca-spiral. Himalaya in the head-center, Rocky/Ands in the tail-bends and Pacific spread between inverse rotations of head-tail. East and West part of GS represent D and T arm respectively. Extended D-arms after one revolution meet each other around Iceland and make constructive interferences therefore highest gravity anomaly formed in the north Atlantic but T-arms after one revolution meet each other in the Indian Ocean and make destructive interferences so lowest gravity anomaly occurred. Earth's face partitionized via tectonic domains each domain has local east and local west and all of them related fractaly to GS. Also we could dissolve earth face via basic topological shape such as sigmoid, Mobius, cup-like, scorpion-like , etc. all of them originated from cycloids.

  4. Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic analyses of Androctonus australis hector venom in rats: Optimization of antivenom therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoudi-Triki, D.; Lefort, J.; Rougeot, C.; Robbe-Vincent, A.; Bon, C.; Laraba-Djebari, F.; Choumet, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the simultaneous determination of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic properties of Androctonus australis hector venom, in the absence and presence of antivenom (F(ab') 2 and Fab), in envenomed rats. After subcutaneous injection of the venom, toxins showed a complete absorption phase from the site of injection associated with a distribution into a large extravascular compartment. The injection of Fab and F(ab') 2 induced the neutralization of venom antigens in the blood compartment, as well as the redistribution of venom components from the extravascular compartment to the blood compartment. Interestingly, F(ab') 2 and Fab showed distinct efficiencies depending on their route of injection. F(ab') 2 induced a faster venom neutralization and redistribution than Fab when injected intravenously. Fab was more effective than F(ab') 2 by the intramuscular route. The hemodynamic effects of Aah venom were further investigated. Changes in mean arterial pressure and heart rate were observed in parallel with an upper airway obstruction. Fab was more effective than F(ab') 2 for preventing early symptoms of envenomation, whatever their route of administration. Intraperitoneal injection of F(ab') 2 and Fab was similar for the prevention of the delayed symptoms, even after a late administration. Fab was more effective than F(ab') 2 in the inhibition of airway resistance, independent of the route and time of administration. These results show that the treatment for scorpion stings might be improved by the intravascular injection of a mixture of Fab and F(ab') 2 . If antivenom cannot be administered intravenously, Fab might be an alternative as they are more effective than F(ab') 2 when injected intramuscularly

  5. Testes mass, but not sperm length, increases with higher levels of polyandry in an ancient sex model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Vrech

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that polyandrous taxa have evolved relatively larger testes than monogamous relatives. Sperm size may either increase or decrease across species with the risk or intensity of sperm competition. Scorpions represent an ancient direct mode with spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer and are particularly well suited for studies in sperm competition. This work aims to analyze for the first time the variables affecting testes mass, ejaculate volume and sperm length, according with their levels of polyandry, in species belonging to the Neotropical family Bothriuridae. Variables influencing testes mass and sperm length were obtained by model selection analysis using corrected Akaike Information Criterion. Testes mass varied greatly among the seven species analyzed, ranging from 1.6 ± 1.1 mg in Timogenes dorbignyi to 16.3 ± 4.5 mg in Brachistosternus pentheri with an average of 8.4 ± 5.0 mg in all the species. The relationship between testes mass and body mass was not significant. Body allocation in testes mass, taken as Gonadosomatic Index, was high in Bothriurus cordubensis and Brachistosternus ferrugineus and low in Timogenes species. The best-fitting model for testes mass considered only polyandry as predictor with a positive influence. Model selection showed that body mass influenced sperm length negatively but after correcting for body mass, none of the variables analyzed explained sperm length. Both body mass and testes mass influenced spermatophore volume positively. There was a strong phylogenetic effect on the model containing testes mass. As predicted by the sperm competition theory and according to what happens in other arthropods, testes mass increased in species with higher levels of sperm competition, and influenced positively spermatophore volume, but data was not conclusive for sperm length.

  6. Harvesting Venom Toxins from Assassin Bugs and Other Heteropteran Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Andrew Allan; Rosenthal, Max; Undheim, Eivind E A; King, Glenn F

    2018-04-21

    Heteropteran insects such as assassin bugs (Reduviidae) and giant water bugs (Belostomatidae) descended from a common predaceous and venomous ancestor, and the majority of extant heteropterans retain this trophic strategy. Some heteropterans have transitioned to feeding on vertebrate blood (such as the kissing bugs, Triatominae; and bed bugs, Cimicidae) while others have reverted to feeding on plants (most Pentatomomorpha). However, with the exception of saliva used by kissing bugs to facilitate blood-feeding, little is known about heteropteran venoms compared to the venoms of spiders, scorpions and snakes. One obstacle to the characterization of heteropteran venom toxins is the structure and function of the venom/labial glands, which are both morphologically complex and perform multiple biological roles (defense, prey capture, and extra-oral digestion). In this article, we describe three methods we have successfully used to collect heteropteran venoms. First, we present electrostimulation as a convenient way to collect venom that is often lethal when injected into prey animals, and which obviates contamination by glandular tissue. Second, we show that gentle harassment of animals is sufficient to produce venom extrusion from the proboscis and/or venom spitting in some groups of heteropterans. Third, we describe methods to harvest venom toxins by dissection of anaesthetized animals to obtain the venom glands. This method is complementary to other methods, as it may allow harvesting of toxins from taxa in which electrostimulation and harassment are ineffective. These protocols will enable researchers to harvest toxins from heteropteran insects for structure-function characterization and possible applications in medicine and agriculture.

  7. Poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel: a National Poison Center Data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavon, Ophir; Bentur, Yedidia

    2017-06-01

    To characterize poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel as reported to the national poison center. Retrospective poison center chart review over a 14-year period. Cases included were Israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, the compulsory military service age required by the Israeli law. 1770 records of poison exposures in young military personnel were identified. Most exposed individuals involved males (n = 1268, 71.6%). Main routes of exposure were ingestion (n = 854, 48.3%), inhalation (n = 328, 18.6%) and ocular (n = 211, 11.9%). Accidents or misuse (n = 712, 40.2%) were the most frequently reported circumstances, followed by suicide attempts (370, 20.9%), and bites and stings (161, 9.1%). More than half of the cases involved chemicals (n = 939, 53.1%); hydrocarbons, gases and corrosives were the main causative agents. Pharmaceuticals (mainly analgesics) were involved in 519 (29.3%) cases, venomous animals (mainly scorpions, centipedes, and snakes) in 79 (4.5%). Clinical manifestations were reported in 666 (37.6%) cases, mostly gastrointestinal, neurologic, and respiratory. The vast majority of cases (1634, 92.3%) were asymptomatic or mildly affected; no fatalities were recorded. In 831 (46.9%) cases the clinical toxicologist recommended referral to an emergency department; ambulatory observation was recommended in 563 (31.8%) cases, and hospitalization in 86 (4.9%). Our data show that poison exposures among young soldiers involve mainly males, accidents, misuse and suicides, oral route and chemicals; most exposures were asymptomatic or with mild severity. Repeated evaluations of poison center data pertaining to military personnel is advised for identifying trends in poison exposure and characteristics in this particular population.

  8. Study of trends of poisoning in the cases reported to government hospital, Yavatmal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuganti Prabhakar Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: India is a developing country in south Asia. Rural population of this country is mostly dependant on agriculture. Pesticides, mainly the organophosphorus compounds are the most frequently used substances in agriculture and thus are easily accessible. Animal bites such as snake bite, scorpion bites are also common, as people here are mainly involved in the field work. Aims: This includes, knowing the pattern of poisoning in India along with various parameters, such as mode of poisoning, type of poison, outcome of the poisoning, the most vulnerable age group involved in poisoning, so that the study will help in rapid clinical diagnosis and immediate treatment of the cases leading to decreased mortality and morbidity. Setting and design: Retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Govt. Hospital, Yavatmal. Poisoning cases reported to casualty and post-mortem cases of poisoning brought to the hospital from 01/06/2003 to 30/05/2004 were included in the study. Result: Total 1003 patients studied; acute poisoning in the age group of 21-30 years was the most common with higher frequency in males. Most common mode was suicidal. Most common agent responsible for poisoning was organophosphorus compounds followed by snake bite. Overall mortality due to poisoning was 12%. It was highest in insecticidal poisoning. Conclusion: It was seen that adults between 21 and 30 years of age were more prone to suicidal poisoning with organophosphorous compounds followed by accidental poisoning due to snake bite. Steps are needed to be taken to educate the people, to improve their socioeconomic status and also to provide better treatment facilities at grass root level.

  9. Tityus serrulatus venom--A lethal cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucca, Manuela Berto; Cerni, Felipe Augusto; Pinheiro Junior, Ernesto Lopes; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Amorim, Fernanda Gobbi; Cordeiro, Francielle Almeida; Longhim, Heloisa Tavoni; Cremonez, Caroline Marroni; Oliveira, Guilherme Honda; Arantes, Eliane Candiani

    2015-12-15

    Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is the main scorpion species of medical importance in Brazil. Ts venom is composed of several compounds such as mucus, inorganic salts, lipids, amines, nucleotides, enzymes, kallikrein inhibitor, natriuretic peptide, proteins with high molecular mass, peptides, free amino acids and neurotoxins. Neurotoxins are considered the most responsible for the envenoming syndrome due to their pharmacological action on ion channels such as voltage-gated sodium (Nav) and potassium (Kv) channels. The major goal of this review is to present important advances in Ts envenoming research, correlating both the crude Ts venom and isolated toxins with alterations observed in all human systems. The most remarkable event lies in the Ts induced massive releasing of neurotransmitters influencing, directly or indirectly, the entire body. Ts venom proved to extremely affect nervous and muscular systems, to modulate the immune system, to induce cardiac disorders, to cause pulmonary edema, to decrease urinary flow and to alter endocrine, exocrine, reproductive, integumentary, skeletal and digestive functions. Therefore, Ts venom possesses toxins affecting all anatomic systems, making it a lethal cocktail. However, its low lethality may be due to the low venom mass injected, to the different venom compositions, the body characteristics and health conditions of the victim and the local of Ts sting. Furthermore, we also described the different treatments employed during envenoming cases. In particular, throughout the review, an effort will be made to provide information from an extensive documented studies concerning Ts venom in vitro, in animals and in humans (a total of 151 references). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Study to Determine the Mental Models in Preschool Children’s Conceptualization of a Desert Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat AHİ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine mental models and identify codes (schemes used in conceptualizing a desert environment. The sample for this study consisted of 184 – out of a total population of 3,630 - children in preschool education in the central district of Kastamonu, Turkey. Within the scope of this study, the children were initially asked to draw a desert-themed picture, followed by a semi-structured interview to seek their opinions about the drawing and clarify what a desert environment meant to them. According to the findings, the children referred to 38 different codes relevant to the conceptualization of a desert environment; the most frequently used were the sun (f= 160, 86.9%, sand (f= 100, 54.3%, cacti (f= 74, 35.3% and camels (f= 52, 28.6%. During the interview phase, 33 children described a desert as a place where there is no life, although a significant number of the children (f= 65, 39.1% did describe a desert as a place where plants and animals live. Moreover, the sun and its rays were disproportionately bigger in size, in order to emphasize the excessive heat associated with the specific ecosystem found in a desert environment; to reinforce this, humans drenched in sweat, the absence of trees and the prevalence of cacti and exotic wildlife, including camels, scorpions and lizards, were all features of the children’s drawings. Based on these findings, it was inferred that the mental models in some of the children (f= 72, 39.1% were scientifically informed, with a degree of accuracy, about a desert environment. On the basis of the findings, it is considered that determining mental models in children in relation to different ecological concepts can be beneficial to teachers and curriculum programmers involved in environmental education.

  11. A study to determine the mental models in preschool children’s conceptualization of a desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Ahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine mental models and identify codes (schemes used in conceptualizing a desert environment. The sample for this study consisted of 184 – out of a total population of 3,630 - children in preschool education in the central district of Kastamonu, Turkey. Within the scope of this study, the children were initially asked to draw a desert-themed picture, followed by a semi-structured interview to seek their opinions about the drawing and clarify what a desert environment meant to them. According to the findings, the children referred to 38 different codes relevant to the conceptualization of a desert environment; the most frequently used were the sun (f= 160, 86.9%, sand (f= 100, 54.3%, cacti (f= 74, 35.3% and camels (f= 52, 28.6%. During the interview phase, 33 children described a desert as a place where there is no life, although a significant number of the children (f= 65, 39.1% did describe a desert as a place where plants and animals live. Moreover, the sun and its rays were disproportionately bigger in size, in order to emphasize the excessive heat associated with the specific ecosystem found in a desert environment; to reinforce this, humans drenched in sweat, the absence of trees and the prevalence of cacti and exotic wildlife, including camels, scorpions and lizards, were all features of the children’s drawings. Based on these findings, it was inferred that the mental models in some of the children (f= 72, 39.1% were scientifically informed, with a degree of accuracy, about a desert environment. On the basis of the findings, it is considered that determining mental models in children in relation to different ecological concepts can be beneficial to teachers and curriculum programmers involved in environmental education.

  12. Glass Cathedral: Gay Novel or Liberation Theology? An Interview with Andrew Koh

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    Angus Whitehead

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Singaporean Andrew Koh was a founding member of the groundbreaking Necessary Stage theatre company in 1987. In Singapore he is best remembered as the author of Glass Cathedral (1995, Singapore's second gay novel[la], which won the 1994 Singapore Literature Prize Commendation Award and was subsequently shortlisted for the 1996 Commonwealth Writers Prize for the Best First Novel Regional Awards. A collection of poetry, Hybrid from the East, was published in the UK in 1997. A second novel awaits publication. After initially leaving Singapore for London in the mid-1990s he now lives in Sydney as a healthcare worker and qualified Chinese medicine practitioner. Sixteen years after its initial publication, Glass Cathedral the novel is finally receiving attention and reappraisal in the wake of its Glass Cathedral's republication by Epigram Books as a Singapore Classic, alongside works such as Goh Poh Seng's The Immolation, Robert Yeo's The Adventures of Holden Heng and Lloyd Fernando's Scorpion Orchid. The interview took place on 8 November 2011 at a restaurant on the site of Koh's alma mater St Joseph's Institution, Bras Basah Road, Singapore, just days after Koh returned to the city-state and gave a spirited reading from and talk about Glass Cathedral at the Singapore Writers Festival. In this interview Koh discusses his Catholic upbringing, and his employment as a policeman during Singapore's policy of entrapment of homosexual men during the 1990s. Koh goes on to discuss how he came to write Glass Cathedral, his leaving Singapore in response to the nation-state's repressive climate and unsympathetic response to queer writing. In the second half of the interview Koh discusses homophobia in Singapore, the Catholic Church, and elsewhere and its roots in misogyny. Koh also draws attention to other issues explored in Glass Cathedral: the marginalisation of minorities in a supposedly multicultural nation state and the impact of Singapore's secret history

  13. K+ transport and membrane potentials in isolated rat parotid acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauntofte, B.; Dissing, S.

    1988-01-01

    42K+ transport properties of isolated rat parotid acini were characterized concomitant with measurements of membrane potentials (Em) by means of the fluorescent dye diSC3-(5). In unstimulated acini suspended in a 5 mM K+ buffer, Em was governed by the K+ and Cl- gradients and amounted to about -59 mV, a value that remained unaffected on cholinergic stimulation. In unstimulated acini, 42K+ influx was largely mediated by the Na+-K+ pump, and the residual influxes were mediated by a bumetanide-sensitive component (cotransport system) and by K+ channels. Efflux of 42K+ was largely mediated by a bumetanide-sensitive component and by K+ channels. In the unstimulated state, the cotransport system was mediating K+-K+ exchange without contributing to the net uptake of K+. Within 10 s after stimulation, a approximately 10-fold increase in the acinar K+ conductance (gK) occurred, resulting in a rapid net efflux of K+ that amounted to approximately 3.8 mmol.l cells-1.s-1. Measurements of 42K+ fluxes as a function of the external K+ concentration revealed that in the stimulated state gK increases when external K+ is raised from 0.7 to 10 mM, consistent with an activation of acinar gK by the binding of external K+ to the channel. 42K+ flux ratios as well as the effect of the K+ channel inhibitor from scorpion venom (LQV) suggest that approximately 90% of K+ transport in the stimulated state is mediated by ''maxi'' K+ channels

  14. Synergistic Effect of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Bradykinin Potential Factor Isolated from Venom on Thymus and Spleen of Sublethally Irradiated Guinea Pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Sinna, G.; Kafafy, Y.; Nassar, A.Y.; Salman, A.

    2005-01-01

    The buthus occitanus, scorpion venom contains a strong bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) that augments bradykinin effects through enhancing its release. Based on the cytoprotective ability of BPF, the present work investigates it as a radioprotectant. Sublethal whole-body y-irradiation at 1.5 Gy was used. Bone marrow cells suspension (BM cells) alone or in combination with BPF was utilized. Three to four weeks-aged male Guinea pigs were grouped into two major groups. The first was non-irradiated control that was divided into subgroups treated i.p. with BM cells (2.5xl06 cells), one dose of BPF (lug/g b wt), BM cells+ BPF, one week spaced two doses of BPF, BM cells+ 2 doses of BPF, one week spaced three doses of BPF or BM cells+ 3 doses of BPF. Second major group (irradiated group) at 1.5 Gy that, subdivided and treated similarly. 5 animals from each group were killed at 7, 14 and 21 days from the initiation of treatment (3 h after irradiation). The subgroups of non-irradiated animals showed an increase in spleen wt and colony formation, thymus population, and globulins content particularly in those subgroups that stayed for the later time periods (14 and 21 days) and that treated with combined BM cells+ BPF or that groups that were treated with two or three BPF doses. Irradiation caused dramatic destruction in thymus and the spleen reflected on reduction of the lower globulins content. Treatment with BM cells, BM cells+ double doses of BPF or triple doses of BPF caused complete recovery in all measured indices, the best result was observed in those of subgroups treated with BM cells+ double doses of BPF or treated with triple doses of BPF. They completely normalized the investigated parameters after 14 and 21 days respectively

  15. Coagulopathy after spider bites in a six-year-old boy

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    Ansari SH.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spider bites are common in most parts of the world. In some areas, where snake or scorpion bites are common, spider bites may not be considered a significant problem by the general public and those who have been bitten by spiders may not go to a hospital. However, significant problems are observed in the victims of certain species of spiders including: widow spider (of the genus Latrodectus, including the black widow and brown spiders (of the genus Loxosceles, such as the brown recluse. Case: We report a six-year-old boy, admitted to the hospital two weeks after suffering a spider bite. The patient presented with a severe nose bleed, ecchymosis and purpura, as well as anemia, indicating a clotting disorder. Laboratory results revealed abnormal values for prothrombin time (PT >50 sec, partial thromboplastin time (PTT >120 min and fibrinogen = 0 mg/dl, whereas factor VIII was normal according to a mixing study, with a normal platelet count of 350,000/µl. The patient was managed with fresh frozen plasma every 12 h, and was discharged one week after hospital admission. At present, the patient is well with more normal laboratory results one month after treatment: PT=13.4 sec, PTT= 34 sec, fibrinogen=105 mg/dl.         Conclusions: Although spider bites are uncommon in Iran, severe systemic reactions may occur in the pediatric population requiring admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. These systemic reactions may include hemolytic anemia coagulopathy and renal failure.

  16. Concerted evolution of sea anemone neurotoxin genes is revealed through analysis of the Nematostella vectensis genome.

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    Moran, Yehu; Weinberger, Hagar; Sullivan, James C; Reitzel, Adam M; Finnerty, John R; Gurevitz, Michael

    2008-04-01

    Gene families, which encode toxins, are found in many poisonous animals, yet there is limited understanding of their evolution at the nucleotide level. The release of the genome draft sequence for the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of a gene family whose neurotoxin products affect voltage-gated sodium channels. All gene family members are clustered in a highly repetitive approximately 30-kb genomic region and encode a single toxin, Nv1. These genes exhibit extreme conservation at the nucleotide level which cannot be explained by purifying selection. This conservation greatly differs from the toxin gene families of other animals (e.g., snakes, scorpions, and cone snails), whose evolution was driven by diversifying selection, thereby generating a high degree of genetic diversity. The low nucleotide diversity at the Nv1 genes is reminiscent of that reported for DNA encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) and 2 hsp70 genes from Drosophila, which have evolved via concerted evolution. This evolutionary pattern was experimentally demonstrated in yeast rDNA and was shown to involve unequal crossing-over. Through sequence analysis of toxin genes from multiple N. vectensis populations and 2 other anemone species, Anemonia viridis and Actinia equina, we observed that the toxin genes for each sea anemone species are more similar to one another than to those of other species, suggesting they evolved by manner of concerted evolution. Furthermore, in 2 of the species (A. viridis and A. equina) we found genes that evolved under diversifying selection, suggesting that concerted evolution and accelerated evolution may occur simultaneously.

  17. Examination of the Fish Price Offered for Sale During 2012-2013 Fishing Season in Sinop, Turkey

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    Şennan Yücel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the monthly price distribution of the offered fish species for sale within the scope of information received from the centers engaged in the sale of retail fish during 2012-2013 fishing season in Sinop, Turkey. The enterprises were grouped as I (the most, II (middle and III (the least according to the sales volume and fish species. Each group was represented by two different fish enterprise and so a total of six separate enterprises were determined by purpose sampling method. During the study, sale prices and fish species were obtained twice every month at the same time of day. It was determined that anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix, atlantic bonito (Sarda sarda, twait shad (Alosa fallax nilotica, needlefish (Belone belone, mullet (Mugil cephalus, shi drum (Umbrina cirrosa, brown meagre (Sciana umbra, common two-banded seabream (Diplodus vulgaris, annular bream (Diplodus annularis, tub gurnard (Trigla lucerna, picarel (Maena smaris, turbot (Psetta maxima, red mullet (Mullus barbatus, whiting (Merlangus merlangus, scorpion fish (Scorpaena porcus, goby (Gobius niger were offered for sale in fish markets. While the prices of higher economic valued fish species like anchovy, bluefish, atlantic bonito and turbot prices were different between the enterprises, the prices of horse mackerel, red mullet and whiting species were not different. When considering the fish prices based on years, the prices of horse mackerel, bluefish, atlantic bonito, red mullet and haddock during 2012-2013 years were close to the average price of 2008-2012 years and the prices of anchovy and turbot during 2012-2013 years were higher than the average price of 2008-2012 years in Sinop.

  18. Astakine 2--the dark knight linking melatonin to circadian regulation in crustaceans.

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    Apiruck Watthanasurorot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily, circadian rhythms influence essentially all living organisms and affect many physiological processes from sleep and nutrition to immunity. This ability to respond to environmental daily rhythms has been conserved along evolution, and it is found among species from bacteria to mammals. The hematopoietic process of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is under circadian control and is tightly regulated by astakines, a new family of cytokines sharing a prokineticin (PROK domain. The expression of AST1 and AST2 are light-dependent, and this suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for PROK domain proteins in mediating circadian rhythms. Vertebrate PROKs are transmitters of circadian rhythms of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN in the brain of mammals, but the mechanism by which they function is unknown. Here we demonstrate that high AST2 expression is induced by melatonin in the brain. We identify RACK1 as a binding protein of AST2 and further provide evidence that a complex between AST2 and RACK1 functions as a negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock. By DNA mobility shift assay, we showed that the AST2-RACK1 complex will interfere with the binding between BMAL1 and CLK and inhibit the E-box binding activity of the complex BMAL1-CLK. Finally, we demonstrate by gene knockdown that AST2 is necessary for melatonin-induced inhibition of the complex formation between BMAL1 and CLK during the dark period. In summary, we provide evidence that melatonin regulates AST2 expression and thereby affects the core clock of the crustacean brain. This process may be very important in all animals that have AST2 molecules, i.e. spiders, ticks, crustaceans, scorpions, several insect groups such as Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Blattodea, but not Diptera and Coleoptera. Our findings further reveal an ancient evolutionary role for the prokineticin superfamily protein that links melatonin to direct regulation of the core clock gene feedback loops.

  19. Appropriate Utilization and Stocking of Antidotes in Qatar Public Hospitals

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    Rawan Salameh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are a few studies that evaluate preparedness and availability of antidotes in the emergency setting and none have been conducted in Qatar. Published studies show that timely availability of antidotes in the emergency department setting is a common issue. To address this, we conducted a study to evaluate antidote stocking and utilization in Qatar hospital pharmacies and emergency departments. Methods: In order to evaluate the appropriate use and timely administration of antidotes, research assistants prospectively collected data on ED patients. All ED patients who received any key antidote over the 6-month study period were identified through both ED and pharmacy records. In order to evaluate the stocking of the 31 most important antidotes in our main public hospitals, a survey assessing the stocking of these key antidotes was sent to the four general hospitals in Qatar, to determine their availability and whether they are stocked in the ED or only in the main pharmacy. Results: Poison exposure was evaluated in 471 cases. Antidotes were given within 30 minutes in 73% of cases, which included atropine, calcium, dextrose, flumazenil, naloxone, pralidoxime, sodium bicarbonate, thiamine, vitamin K and scorpion and snake antivenoms. Administration occurred later than 60 minutes in 2% of cases, exclusively with N-acetylcysteine and activated charcoal. Atropine, calcium, dextrose, naloxone, pralidoxime (2-PAM, sodium bicarbonate, and anti-venoms were clinically indicated 92% of the times they were ordered. N-acetylcysteine was indicated in only 51.5% of administrations. Significant variation in antidote stocking existed between hospitals, and there was no stocked hydroxocobalamin as antidotes for cyanide poisoning or fomepizole for toxic alcohol poisoning. Conclusion: Antidote stocking varied significantly between hospitals, and antidotes necessary for cyanide and toxic alcohol poisoning were deficient in all public hospitals. The

  20. Helminthes and insects: maladies or therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tantawy, Nora L

    2015-02-01

    By definition, parasites cause harm to their hosts. But, considerable evidence from ancient traditional medicine has supported the theory of using parasites and their products in treating many diseases. Maggots have been used successfully to treat chronic, long-standing, infected wounds which failed to respond to conventional treatment by many beneficial effects on the wound including debridement, disinfection, and healing enhancement. Maggots are also applied in forensic medicine to estimate time between the death and discovery of a corpse and in entomotoxicology involving the potential use of insects as alternative samples for detecting drugs and toxins in death investigations. Leeches are segmented invertebrates, famous by their blood-feeding habits and used in phlebotomy to treat various ailments since ancient times. Leech therapy is experiencing resurgence nowadays in health care principally in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Earthworms provide a source of medicinally useful products with potential antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer properties. Lumbrokinases are a group of fibrinolytic enzymes isolated and purified from earthworms capable of degrading plasminogen-rich and plasminogen-free fibrin and so can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombotic diseases. Helminth infection has been proved to have therapeutic effects in both animal and human clinical trials with promising evidence in treating many allergic diseases and can block the induction of or reduce the severity of some autoimmune disorders as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. What is more, venomous arthropods such as scorpions, bees, wasps, spiders, ants, centipedes, snail, beetles, and caterpillars. The venoms and toxins from these arthropods provide a promising source of natural bioactive compounds which can be employed in the development of new drugs to treat diseases as cancer. The possibility of using these active molecules in biotechnological processes can

  1. Proximate and fatty acid composition of some commercially important fish species from the Sinop region of the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocatepe, Demet; Turan, Hülya

    2012-06-01

    The proximate and fatty acid compositions of the commercially important fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Alosa alosa, Belone belone, Scorpaena porcus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Mullus barbatus) from the Sinop region of the Black Sea were examined. The fat contents ranged from 1.26% (for scorpion fish) to 18.12% (for shad). The protein contents were min 14.54% (for red mullet) and maximum 20.26% (for belone). The fatty acid compositions of the fish ranged from 27.83 to 35.91% for saturated fatty acids, 19.50-33.80% for monounsaturated fatty acids and 15.25-40.02% for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (16:0) (17.75-22.20%) was the dominant fatty acid for all the fish species. As a second saturated fatty acid, myristic acid (14:0) was observed in four of the fish species and its content ranged from 4.72 to 7.31%. Whereas, for the other two fish species, the second saturated fatty acid was stearic acid (18:0) ranging between 4.54 and 10.64%. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, those occurring in the highest proportions were oleic acid (18:1n-9c) (11.67-22.45%) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) (4.50-9.40%). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (5.41-28.52%), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (4.68-11.06) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (1.38-3.49%) were dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. All the species, in particular the belone, the anchovy and the shad had high levels of the n-3 series.

  2. Animal Toxins as Therapeutic Tools to Treat Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jessica M.; Goncalves, Bruno D. C.; Gomez, Marcus V.; Vieira, Luciene B.; Ribeiro, Fabiola M.

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of individuals worldwide. So far, no disease-modifying drug is available to treat patients, making the search for effective drugs an urgent need. Neurodegeneration is triggered by the activation of several cellular processes, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial impairment, neuroinflammation, aging, aggregate formation, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and apoptosis. Therefore, many research groups aim to identify drugs that may inhibit one or more of these events leading to neuronal cell death. Venoms are fruitful natural sources of new molecules, which have been relentlessly enhanced by evolution through natural selection. Several studies indicate that venom components can exhibit selectivity and affinity for a wide variety of targets in mammalian systems. For instance, an expressive number of natural peptides identified in venoms from animals, such as snakes, scorpions, bees, and spiders, were shown to lessen inflammation, regulate glutamate release, modify neurotransmitter levels, block ion channel activation, decrease the number of protein aggregates, and increase the levels of neuroprotective factors. Thus, these venom components hold potential as therapeutic tools to slow or even halt neurodegeneration. However, there are many technological issues to overcome, as venom peptides are hard to obtain and characterize and the amount obtained from natural sources is insufficient to perform all the necessary experiments and tests. Fortunately, technological improvements regarding heterologous protein expression, as well as peptide chemical synthesis will help to provide enough quantities and allow chemical and pharmacological enhancements of these natural occurring compounds. Thus, the main focus of this review is to highlight the most promising studies evaluating animal toxins as therapeutic tools to treat a wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, brain

  3. Chlorotoxin-mediated disinhibition of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons using a conditional transgenic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbaum, J Michael; Cirelli, Chiara; Walcott, Elisabeth; Krushel, Les A; Edelman, Gerald M; Tononi, Giulio

    2004-07-30

    The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) has been implicated in the promotion of arousal, in focused attention and learning, and in the regulation of the sleep/waking cycle. The complex biological functions of the central noradrenergic system have been investigated largely through electrophysiological recordings and neurotoxic lesions of LC neurons. Activation of LC neurons through electrical or chemical stimulation has also led to important insights, although these techniques have limited cellular specificity and short-term effects. Here, we describe a novel method aimed at stimulating the central noradrenergic system in a highly selective manner for prolonged periods of time. This was achieved through the conditional expression of a transgene for chlorotoxin (Cltx) in the LC of adult mice. Chlorotoxin is a component of scorpion venom that partially blocks small conductance chloride channels. In this manner, the influence of GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory inputs on LC cells is greatly reduced, while their ability to respond to excitatory inputs is unaffected. We demonstrate that the unilateral induction of Cltx expression in the LC is associated with a concomitant ipsilateral increase in the expression of markers of noradrenergic activity in LC neurons. Moreover, LC disinhibition is associated with the ipsilateral induction of the immediate early gene NGFI-A in cortical and subcortical target areas. Unlike previous gain of function approaches, transgenic disinhibition of LC cells is highly selective and persists for at least several weeks. This method represents a powerful new tool to assess the long-term effects of LC activation and is potentially applicable to other neuronal systems.

  4. A review of data on the effects of low and low dose-rate radiation with special reference to the dose limit problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsudaira, Hiromichi

    1977-01-01

    This is a review of data pertaining to detection and quantification of the effects after exposure to low LET radiations delivered at low and low dose-rate, i.e., at a level of maximum permissible dose for the radiation workers, on experimental materials ranging from plant to rodents and on some human populations. Irradiation at a dose of a few rad is reported to induce mutation or malignant transformation in some selected model systems, with a linear dose-effect relationship. Moreover, the incidence of the chromosome aberrations in spermatocytes is reported to be elevated in the scorpiones (Tityus bahiensis) collected in a region of high natural background radiations (several rem/year). An increase in the incidence of childhood malignancies is reported among children exposed in utero to diagnostic X-rays. Appreciable increase in the incidence of genetic diseases due possibly to chromosome aberrations is also reported among population living in a region of high natural background radiations. Points are raised and discussed as to the interpretation and particularly application of these data to the estimation of somatic and genetic risks of human population from man-made radiations. Recent attempts of risk-benefit analysis with populations subjected to mass X-ray examination of the chest and stomac are referred to. Since we are unaware of the actual injuries due to the exposure even at the level of radiation workers (5 rem/year), it is out of the capacity of a biologist to afford the basis for the decision of limiting the exposure of general population due to the light water reactor operation to 5 mrem/year. (auth.)

  5. A Novel Hyaluronidase from Brown Spider (Loxosceles intermedia) Venom (Dietrich's Hyaluronidase): From Cloning to Functional Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Valéria Pereira; de Mari, Thiago Lopes; Gremski, Luiza Helena; Trevisan Silva, Dilza; da Silveira, Rafael Bertoni; Gremski, Waldemiro; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Senff-Ribeiro, Andrea; Nader, Helena Bonciani; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2013-01-01

    Loxoscelism is the designation given to clinical symptoms evoked by Loxosceles spider's bites. Clinical manifestations include skin necrosis with gravitational spreading and systemic disturbs. The venom contains several enzymatic toxins. Herein, we describe the cloning, expression, refolding and biological evaluation of a novel brown spider protein characterized as a hyaluronidase. Employing a venom gland cDNA library, we cloned a hyaluronidase (1200 bp cDNA) that encodes for a signal peptide and a mature protein. Amino acid alignment revealed a structural relationship with members of hyaluronidase family, such as scorpion and snake species. Recombinant hyaluronidase was expressed as N-terminal His-tag fusion protein (∼45 kDa) in inclusion bodies and activity was achieved using refolding. Immunoblot analysis showed that antibodies that recognize the recombinant protein cross-reacted with hyaluronidase from whole venom as well as an anti-venom serum reacted with recombinant protein. Recombinant hyaluronidase was able to degrade purified hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS), while dermatan sulfate (DS) and heparan sulfate (HS) were not affected. Zymograph experiments resulted in ∼45 kDa lytic zones in hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) substrates. Through in vivo experiments of dermonecrosis using rabbit skin, the recombinant hyaluronidase was shown to increase the dermonecrotic effect produced by recombinant dermonecrotic toxin from L. intermedia venom (LiRecDT1). These data support the hypothesis that hyaluronidase is a “spreading factor”. Recombinant hyaluronidase provides a useful tool for biotechnological ends. We propose the name Dietrich's Hyaluronidase for this enzyme, in honor of Professor Carl Peter von Dietrich, who dedicated his life to studying proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. PMID:23658852

  6. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Ward C.; Babbitt, Courtney

    2002-01-01

    The ordinal level phylogeny of the Arachnida and the suprafamilial level phylogeny of the Opiliones were studied on the basis of a combined analysis of 253 morphological characters, the complete sequence of the 18S rRNA gene, and the D3 region of the 28S rRNA gene. Molecular data were collected for 63 terminal taxa. Morphological data were collected for 35 exemplar taxa of Opiliones, but groundplans were applied to some of the remaining chelicerate groups. Six extinct terminals, including Paleozoic scorpions, are scored for morphological characters. The data were analyzed using strict parsimony for the morphological data matrix and via direct optimization for the molecular and combined data matrices. A sensitivity analysis of 15 parameter sets was undertaken, and character congruence was used as the optimality criterion to choose among competing hypotheses. The results obtained are unstable for the high-level chelicerate relationships (except for Tetrapulmonata, Pedipalpi, and Camarostomata), and the sister group of the Opiliones is not clearly established, although the monophyly of Dromopoda is supported under many parameter sets. However, the internal phylogeny of the Opiliones is robust to parameter choice and allows the discarding of previous hypotheses of opilionid phylogeny such as the "Cyphopalpatores" or "Palpatores." The topology obtained is congruent with the previous hypothesis of "Palpatores" paraphyly as follows: (Cyphophthalmi (Eupnoi (Dyspnoi + Laniatores))). Resolution within the Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, and Laniatores (the latter two united as Dyspnolaniatores nov.) is also stable to the superfamily level, permitting a new classification system for the Opiliones. c2002 The Willi Hennig Society.

  7. Potentials of leaves of Aspilia africana (Compositae in wound care: an experimental evaluation

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    Akah PA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potentials of the leaves of the haemorrhage plant, Aspilia africana C. D Adams (Compositae in wound care was evaluated using experimental models. A. africana, which is widespread in Africa, is used in traditional medicine to stop bleeding from wounds, clean the surfaces of sores, in the treatment of rheumatic pains, bee and scorpion stings and for removal of opacities and foreign bodies from the eyes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potentials for use of leaves of this plant in wound care. Methods The effect of the methanol extract (ME and the hexane (HF and methanol (MF fractions (obtained by cold maceration and graded solvent extraction respectively on bleeding/clotting time of fresh experimentally-induced wounds in rats, coagulation time of whole rat blood, growth of microbial wound contaminants and rate of healing of experimentally-induced wounds in rats were studied as well as the acute toxicity and lethality (LD50 of the methanol extract and phytochemical analysis of the extract and fractions. Results The extract and fractions significantly (P ME>HF. Also, the extract and fractions caused varying degrees of inhibition of the growth of clinical isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as typed strains of Ps. aeruginosa (ATCC 10145 and Staph. aureus (ATCC 12600, and reduced epithelialisation period of wounds experimentally-induced in rats. Acute toxicity and lethality (LD50 test in mice established an i.p LD50 of 894 mg/kg for the methanol extract (ME. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, resins, sterols, terpenoids and carbohydrates. Conclusion The leaves of A. africana possess constituents capable of arresting wound bleeding, inhibiting the growth of microbial wound contaminants and accelerating wound healing which suggest good potentials for use in wound care.

  8. Recombinant expression of margatoxin and agitoxin-2 in Pichia pastoris: an efficient method for production of KV1.3 channel blockers.

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    Raveendra Anangi

    Full Text Available The K(v1.3 voltage-gated potassium channel regulates membrane potential and calcium signaling in human effector memory T cells that are key mediators of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, subtype-specific K(v1.3 blockers have potential for treatment of autoimmune diseases. Several K(v1.3 channel blockers have been characterized from scorpion venom, all of which have an α/β scaffold stabilized by 3-4 intramolecular disulfide bridges. Chemical synthesis is commonly used for producing these disulfide-rich peptides but this approach is time consuming and not cost effective for production of mutants, fusion proteins, fluorescently tagged toxins, or isotopically labelled peptides for NMR studies. Recombinant production of K(v1.3 blockers in the cytoplasm of E. coli generally necessitates oxidative refolding of the peptides in order to form their native disulfide architecture. An alternative approach that avoids the need for refolding is expression of peptides in the periplasm of E. coli but this often produces low yields. Thus, we developed an efficient Pichia pastoris expression system for production of K(v1.3 blockers using margatoxin (MgTx and agitoxin-2 (AgTx2 as prototypic examples. The Pichia system enabled these toxins to be obtained in high yield (12-18 mg/L. NMR experiments revealed that the recombinant toxins adopt their native fold without the need for refolding, and electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that they are almost equipotent with the native toxins in blocking K(V1.3 (IC(50 values of 201±39 pM and 97 ± 3 pM for recombinant AgTx2 and MgTx, respectively. Furthermore, both recombinant toxins inhibited T-lymphocyte proliferation. A MgTx mutant in which the key pharmacophore residue K28 was mutated to alanine was ineffective at blocking K(V1.3 and it failed to inhibit T-lymphocyte proliferation. Thus, the approach described here provides an efficient method of

  9. Study of mouse behavioural response in microgravity: ethogram and neurobiological related

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, Daniela; Francia, Nadia; Schwartz, Silvia; Biticchi, Roberta; Liu, Yi; Cancedda, Ranieri; Aloe, Luigi

    The conquest of space, which started with the dog Laika in 1966 to be followed few years later by Yuri Gagarin, has witnessed an increasing numbers of both vertebrates (tadpoles, frogs, rats mice etc.) and invertebrates (flies, scorpions, protozoa) species exposed to zero gravity levels. Animals are sent into orbit to proactively foresee possible health problems in humans. The issue of animal exposure to un-physiological gravity is of primary importance to i) understand behavioural and physiological adaptations in such environment as well as ii) develop coun-termeasures to improve 0-g life conditions and reduce possible animal suffering. The Mouse Drawer System (MDS), an Italian facility, has been transferred to the International Space Sta-tion with a first experiment investigating mechanisms underlying bone mass loss in microgravity in mice. Preliminary and ground-based control experiments have been conducted with six mice housed individually inside the MDS facility for 20 and 100 days. The behavioural repertoire of wild-type and transgenic mice housed in the MDS has been videorecorded with the observation subsystem, which allows to monitor animal's behavior through the use of 6 video cameras. The behavioural patterns characterizing mice in the MDS system have been finely analysed at several time points during the the experiment. Moreover, neurobiological parameters, known to be involved in the response to stress, have been evaluated. In particular, NGF and BDNF levels have been measured in the central nervous system (hippocampus, striatum, and cortex), adrenal gland and limbs. Preliminary data from ground based experiment revealed Several dif-ferences in behavioural profile between wt and tg mice, with transgenic ones apparently more active than wild type controls. Moreover a clear difference in time spent in different areas of the MDS cage was observed. Finally changes in neurotrophins levels were observed in relation to both genotype and environmental

  10. Tarantula huwentoxin-IV inhibits neuronal sodium channels by binding to receptor site 4 and trapping the domain ii voltage sensor in the closed configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yucheng; Bingham, Jon-Paul; Zhu, Weiguo; Moczydlowski, Edward; Liang, Songping; Cummins, Theodore R

    2008-10-03

    Peptide toxins with high affinity, divergent pharmacological functions, and isoform-specific selectivity are powerful tools for investigating the structure-function relationships of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). Although a number of interesting inhibitors have been reported from tarantula venoms, little is known about the mechanism for their interaction with VGSCs. We show that huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), a 35-residue peptide from tarantula Ornithoctonus huwena venom, preferentially inhibits neuronal VGSC subtypes rNav1.2, rNav1.3, and hNav1.7 compared with muscle subtypes rNav1.4 and hNav1.5. Of the five VGSCs examined, hNav1.7 was most sensitive to HWTX-IV (IC(50) approximately 26 nM). Following application of 1 microm HWTX-IV, hNav1.7 currents could only be elicited with extreme depolarizations (>+100 mV). Recovery of hNav1.7 channels from HWTX-IV inhibition could be induced by extreme depolarizations or moderate depolarizations lasting several minutes. Site-directed mutagenesis analysis indicated that the toxin docked at neurotoxin receptor site 4 located at the extracellular S3-S4 linker of domain II. Mutations E818Q and D816N in hNav1.7 decreased toxin affinity for hNav1.7 by approximately 300-fold, whereas the reverse mutations in rNav1.4 (N655D/Q657E) and the corresponding mutations in hNav1.5 (R812D/S814E) greatly increased the sensitivity of the muscle VGSCs to HWTX-IV. Our data identify a novel mechanism for sodium channel inhibition by tarantula toxins involving binding to neurotoxin receptor site 4. In contrast to scorpion beta-toxins that trap the IIS4 voltage sensor in an outward configuration, we propose that HWTX-IV traps the voltage sensor of domain II in the inward, closed configuration.

  11. On specimen killing in the era of conservation crisis - A quantitative case for modernizing taxonomy and biodiversity inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeber, Patrick O; Gardner, Charlie J; Lourenço, Wilson R; Wilmé, Lucienne

    2017-01-01

    For centuries taxonomy has relied on dead animal specimens, a practice that persists today despite the emergence of innovative biodiversity assessment methods. Taxonomists and conservationists are engaged in vigorous discussions over the necessity of killing animals for specimen sampling, but quantitative data on taxonomic trends and specimen sampling over time, which could inform these debates, are lacking. We interrogated a long-term research database documenting 2,723 land vertebrate and 419 invertebrate taxa from Madagascar, and their associated specimens conserved in the major natural history museums. We further compared specimen collection and species description rates for the birds, mammals and scorpions over the last two centuries, to identify trends and links to taxon descriptions. We located 15,364 specimens documenting endemic mammals and 11,666 specimens documenting endemic birds collected between 1820 and 2010. Most specimens were collected at the time of the Mission Zoologique Franco-Anglo-Américaine (MZFAA) in the 1930s and during the last two decades, with major differences according to the groups considered. The small mammal and bat collections date primarily from recent years, and are paralleled by the description of new species. Lemur specimens were collected during the MZFAA but the descriptions of new taxa are recent, with the type series limited to non-killed specimens. Bird specimens, particularly of non-passerines, are mainly from the time of the MZFAA. The passerines have also been intensely collected during the last two decades; the new material has been used to solve the phylogeny of the groups and only two new endemic taxa of passerine birds have been described over the last two decades. Our data show that specimen collection has been critical for advancing our understanding of the taxonomy of Madagascar's biodiversity at the onset of zoological work in Madagascar, but less so in recent decades. It is crucial to look for alternatives to

  12. Construction of concept maps as tool for Biochemistry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lopes de Menezes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of concept maps on the teaching of sciences has been object of worldwide research with different purposes: to detect the previous knowledge of the students on certain topics or to evaluate learning, among others. Based on Ausubel´s cognitive psychology, concept maps assume that the learning is accomplished by assimilation of new concepts and propositions to the students´ cognitive structure, contributing to establish links between the previous and new knowledge. It is especially interesting on the approach of interdisciplinary issues, as many studied in Biochemistry.The relevance of the use of concept maps on biochemistry learning was evaluated on a thirty-hour undergraduation optional course, with interdisciplinary topics, which are not usually included on introductory Biochemistry courses. The course Biochemistry of Animal Venoms was structured in seven module where the biochemical action mechanisms of the venoms of Crotalus sp (south american rattlesnake, Bothrops sp (jararaca, Loxosceles sp (brown spider, Tityus sp (yellow scorpion, Phoneutria sp (armed spider, Apis mellifera (honey bee and Latrodectus sp (black widowwere discussed. The students worked in small groups and, at each module, there were (1 an oriented study, guided by questions, texts and schemes, supervised by the teachers, (2 the construction of individual concept maps, where the local and systemic effects of the venoms should be predicted by their biochemical composition and (3 the construction of a new map by the group, incorporating the information of the individual maps. The difficulty level of these tasks was gradually increased throughout the course, with lesser time to carry out the tasks, lesser assistance during the oriented study and even lesser information on the venom effects.The course assessment was given by the number, quality and correction of the concepts relationship present in the concept maps, through a questionnaire and by the

  13. Tyrosine kinase domain mutations of EGFR gene in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatte C

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chittibabu Vatte,1 Ali M Al Amri,2 Cyril Cyrus,1 Shahanas Chathoth,1 Sadananda Acharya,3 Tariq Mohammad Hashim,4 Zhara Al Ali,2 Saleh Tawfeeq Alshreadah,2 Ahmed Alsayyah,4 Amein K Al-Ali5 1Department of Genetic Research, Institute for Research and Medical Consultation, University of Dammam, Dammam, 2Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahd Hospital of the University, University of Dammam, Al-Khobar, 3Department of Stemcell Research, Institute for Research and Medical Consultation, 4Department of Pathology, King Fahd Hospital of the University, University of Dammam, Al-Khobar, 5Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a commonly altered gene that is identified in various cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. Therefore, EGFR is a promising molecular marker targeted by monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the tyrosine kinase (TK domain. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the spectrum of mutations in exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 of the EGFR gene in HNSCC patients. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 47 confirmed HNSCC cases. Mutations in the TK domain, exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 of the EGFR gene, were detected by Scorpion® chemistry and ARMS® technologies on Rotor-Gene Q real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: The tumors exhibited EGFR-TK domain mutations in 57% of cases. Four cases of T790M mutations were reported for the first time among HNSCC patients. Out of the total mutations, L861Q (exon 21, exon 20 insertions and deletions of exon 19 accounted for the majority of mutations (21%, 19%, and 17%, respectively. EGFR mutation status was correlated with the higher grade (P=0.026 and advanced stage (P=0.034 of HNSCC tumors.Conclusion: Higher frequency of EGFR-TK domain mutations together with the presence of the T790M mutation suggests

  14. Identification of anti-tumoral effect of a polypeptide isolated from Scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom and assessment of its potential use for tumor diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soprani, Juliana

    2008-01-01

    Cancer has killed millions of people worldwide. Despite the increasing knowledge about the molecular basis of tumor development, few advances have been reached in clinical therapy and diagnoses, which shows the importance of new drugs development for therapeutic and diagnosis purpose. Venomous creatures have been studied as potential sources of pharmacological agents and physiological tools. A lot of work has been done about biological activity of terrestrial animals, but comparatively less research has been undertaken on venomous marine creature, particularly fish, which means that marine toxins represent a vast and unexplored source of novel molecules with therapeutical potential. In this work, the scorpion fish Scorpaena plumieri crude venom (SPB) and a gelatinolytic protease purified from this venom (SPGP) were evaluated for their applicability for in vivo tumor detection. In vitro results showed that both. SPB and SPGP, possess a powerful antitumor effects on p53-wild-type glioblastoma cells (LD 50 = 3,9 ± 0,98μg/mL and 8,00 x 10 -12 ± 2,94 x 10 -12 M, respectively) and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (LD 50 =14,05 ± 2,95 μg/mL and 1,22 x 10 -11 ± 6,56 x 10 -12 M, respectively). P53 mutant glioblastoma cells were more resistant to both, SPB and SPGP treatment (LD 50 > 125 μg/mL and LD 50 > 1,39 x 10 -9 M, respectively). The morphological changes observed in the cell lines treated with SPB and SPGP, and the data of DAPI staining, indicate that the antitumor effect of these substances occurs via apoptosis. Radioactive probes of SPB ([ 99m Tc] SPB) and SPGP ([ 125 I] SPGP) with high specific activity and high radiochemical purity were synthesized. Data of biodistribution studies, performed by intravenous injections in Swiss mice bearing Ehrlich carcinoma cells, showed that SPB has poor uptake in tumor region. On the other hand, SPGP had a substantial uptake in tumor at ali analyzed times. Intratumoral administration of [ 125 I]SPGP increased its uptake by

  15. Oral traditional knowledge on medicinal plants in jeopardy among Gaddi shepherds in hills of northwestern Himalaya, J&K, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Harish Chander; Bhagat, Nisha; Pandita, Shevita

    2015-06-20

    The Gaddi community has been known for its shepherd profession from time immemorial. At least one family member or 4-5 people from a village adopt a nomadic lifestyle with their sheep flocks in between the hills of north western Himalaya. In Jammu and Kashmir, India, law enforcement has banned the collection of the medicinal plants from the wild except for the Gaddi, Gujjar and Bakerwal tribes who are permitted to collect the species for their personal use only. As a consequence, knowledge of medicinal plants lies with these tribes only. This study has been undertaken to assess the status of Oral Traditional Knowledge (OTK) on medicinal plant usage in one of these tribes, known as the Gaddi. The study has focused specifically on the Gaddi Shepherds as their nomadic lifestyle means that they are closely associated with nature and dependent on natural resources for their livelihood including treatment of various ailments. Data on indigenous knowledge has been collected through direct interviews of 53 shepherds of the Gaddi tribe and analyzed for quantitative parameters such as use-value and factor informant consensus. A total of 190 plant species belonging to 70 families, growing along the migratory route of the Gaddi Shepherds are used to treat more than 80 different ailments and disorders. Leaves are the most common plant parts used by the Gaddi Shepherds. The older shepherds are much more aware about the traditional knowledge on medicinal plant usage than the younger ones. 56 plant species are used to treat a range of gastrointestinal and liver disorders, however, diabetic conditions and stings/bites by snakes/scorpions are treated using only two plant species each. Mentha longifolia with UV = 0.26 is the species most commonly used by the informants for medicinal purposes. The low UV (below 1) and low Fic (near 0) is a common observation in the present study. The UV and Fic, analysis reveals that OTK on the medicinal plants is dwindling among the Gaddi Shepherds

  16. The complexity of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus genome characterised through detailed analysis of two BAC clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Rmi a major cattle ectoparasite and tick borne disease vector, impacts on animal welfare and industry productivity. In arthropod research there is an absence of a complete Chelicerate genome, which includes ticks, mites, spiders, scorpions and crustaceans. Model arthropod genomes such as Drosophila and Anopheles are too taxonomically distant for a reference in tick genomic sequence analysis. This study focuses on the de-novo assembly of two R. microplus BAC sequences from the understudied R microplus genome. Based on available R. microplus sequenced resources and comparative analysis, tick genomic structure and functional predictions identify complex gene structures and genomic targets expressed during tick-cattle interaction. Results In our BAC analyses we have assembled, using the correct positioning of BAC end sequences and transcript sequences, two challenging genomic regions. Cot DNA fractions compared to the BAC sequences confirmed a highly repetitive BAC sequence BM-012-E08 and a low repetitive BAC sequence BM-005-G14 which was gene rich and contained short interspersed elements (SINEs. Based directly on the BAC and Cot data comparisons, the genome wide frequency of the SINE Ruka element was estimated. Using a conservative approach to the assembly of the highly repetitive BM-012-E08, the sequence was de-convoluted into three repeat units, each unit containing an 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA encoding gene sequence (rDNA, related internal transcribed spacer and complex intergenic region. In the low repetitive BM-005-G14, a novel gene complex was found between to 2 genes on the same strand. Nested in the second intron of a large 9 Kb papilin gene was a helicase gene. This helicase overlapped in two exonic regions with the papilin. Both these genes were shown expressed in different tick life stage important in ectoparasite interaction with the host. Tick specific sequence

  17. Understanding Biological Roles of Venoms Among the Caenophidia: The Importance of Rear-Fanged Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackessy, Stephen P; Saviola, Anthony J

    2016-11-01

    Snake venoms represent an adaptive trophic response to the challenges confronting a limbless predator for overcoming combative prey, and this chemical means of subduing prey shows several dominant phenotypes. Many front-fanged snakes, particularly vipers, feed on various vertebrate and invertebrate prey species, and some of their venom components (e.g., metalloproteinases, cobratoxin) appear to have been selected for "broad-brush" incapacitation of different prey taxa. Using proteomic and genomic techniques, the compositional diversity of front-fanged snakes is becoming well characterized; however, this is not the case for most rear-fanged colubroid snakes. Because these species consume a high diversity of prey, and because venoms are primarily a trophic adaptation, important clues for understanding specific selective pressures favoring venom component composition will be found among rear-fanged snake venoms. Rear-fanged snakes typically (but not always) produce venoms with lower complexity than front-fanged snakes, and there are even fewer dominant (and, arguably, biologically most relevant) venom protein families. We have demonstrated taxon-specific toxic effects, where lizards and birds show high susceptibility while mammals are largely unaffected, for both Old World and New World rear-fanged snakes, strongly indicating a causal link between toxin evolution and prey preference. New data are presented on myotoxin a, showing that the extremely rapid paralysis induced by this rattlesnake toxin is specific for rodents, and that myotoxin a is ineffectual against lizards. Relatively few rear-fanged snake venoms have been characterized, and basic natural history data are largely lacking, but directed sampling of specialized species indicates that novel compounds are likely among these specialists, particularly among those species feeding on invertebrate prey such as scorpions and centipedes. Because many of the more than 2200 species of colubroid snakes are rear

  18. Subnotificação de acidentes por animais peçonhentos registrados pelo SINAN no Estado do Rio de Janeiro no período de 2001 a 2005 Underreporting of accidents with venomous animals registered by SINAN in the State of Rio de Janeiro from 2001 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Tiomny Fiszon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar se o Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN já permite prescindir de sistemas de informação paralelos voltados ao controle da distribuição do soro, essencial ao atendimento das vítimas de acidentes por animais peçonhentos, foram comparados os dados dos acidentes causados por serpentes, aranhas e escorpiões, disponibilizados pelo SINAN para o Estado do Rio de Janeiro, com os registrados pela Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro (SES-RJ, de 2001 a 2005. Constatou-se o aumento da capacidade do SINAN para registrar os acidentes e a existência de discrepâncias de dados em municípios e regiões do Estado. Foi especialmente alta a subnotificação de acidentes ofídicos pelo SINAN. Discute-se as implicações desse resultado para estudos e pesquisas, bem como para o planejamento e a gestão dos serviços e distribuição dos soros, e conclui-se que ainda não é possível prescindir dos dados da SES-RJ.This article has the objective of determining if the Disease Reporting Information System (SINAN of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is adequate enough to do without corresponding information systems directed to serum distribution control, essential to provide care to victims of venomous animals. With this purpose, we compared data of accidents caused by snakes, spiders and scorpions reported to the State Health Department of Rio de Janeiro and those registered in the SINAN from 2001 to 2005. We found an increase in the number of cases reported to SINAN and disagreements in data from municipalities and regions of the State. More specifically, we noticed high underreporting of snake accidents in the SINAN. This paper addresses the implications of these results for studies and research, as well as for planning and management of healthcare services and serum distribution. The conclusion is that it is not possible to rule out data from the Rio de Janeiro State Health Department for

  19. (im)Balance of Forces in the Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwester, J.; Sylwester, B.

    Observed pattern of variability of solar atmosphere plasma structures, often accompanied by respective measured Doppler shifts, provides a direct evidence of imbalanced forces acting in this environment. Observed motions have been studied in various energy bands, extending from radio to hard X-rays using ground and space-borne instruments. Here, we present the results of a dedicated study of present observational databases in selected energy ranges with a special interest focused on TRACE movies. In our search we included also recently released wavelet-processed EIT and LASCO movies (from SOHO) as they provide additional support to the conclusions of this study. The main outcome of the work performed is our better understanding of a basic role played by plasma kernels in every ``layer'' of the solar atmosphere. These kernels appear to be present, and rapidly evolve at the locations of violent (intense) energy release locations. Subsequent formation of a more stable coronal magnetic structures seen in the form of ``spiders'' or ``scorpions'' is due to self-reorganization of plasma kernels. It comes out that the spider structure represents a basic, quasi-equilibrium building block of the solar atmosphere. When observed in a particular image, within a limited energy band, i.e. optical, EUV, soft or hard X-rays, only a part of this spider plasma structure can usually be seen, noticeably resembling a loop-like structure with a brighter top, or an arcade of loops connected along the ridge of summit kernels, or seemingly isolated oval source. This energy-dependent visibility effects caused a general confusion present in solar physics and led to proliferation of simple fluxtube scenarios. In our study presented herewith, we used the images obtained with the best available resolution, being enhanced numerically where possible. For the first time we enhanced the TRACE image data cube in a systematic way for a particular flare. Based on the results of analysis of a large

  20. The pMSSM10 after LHC Run 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, K.J.; Buchmueller, O.

    2015-04-01

    We present a frequentist analysis of the parameter space of the pMSSM10, in which the following 10 soft SUSY-breaking parameters are specified independently at the mean scalar top mass scale M SUSY ≡√(m t 1 m t 2 ): the gaugino masses M 1,2,3 , the 1st-and 2nd-generation squark masses m q 1 =m q 2 , the third-generation squark mass m q 3 , a common slepton mass M l and a common trilinear mixing parameter A, the Higgs mixing parameter μ, the pseudoscalar Higgs mass M A and tan β. We use the MultiNest sampling algorithm with ∝1.2 x 10 9 points to sample the pMSSM10 parameter space. A dedicated study shows that the sensitivities to strongly-interacting SUSY masses of ATLAS and CMS searches for jets, leptons+E T signals depend only weakly on many of the other pMSSM10 parameters. With the aid of the Atom and Scorpion codes, we also implement the LHC searches for EW-interacting sparticles and light stops, so as to confront the pMSSM10 parameter space with all relevant SUSY searches. In addition, our analysis includes Higgs mass and rate measurements using the HiggsSignals code, SUSY Higgs exclusion bounds, the measurements B-physics observables, EW precision observables, the CDM density and searches for spin-independent DM scattering. We show that the pMSSM10 is able to provide a SUSY interpretation of (g-2) μ , unlike the CMSSM, NUHM1 and NUHM2. As a result, we find (omitting Higgs rates) that the minimum χ 2 /d.o.f.=20.5/18 in the pMSSM10, corresponding to a χ 2 probability of 30.8 %, to be compared with χ 2 /d.o.f.=32.8/24(31.1/23)(30.3/22) in the CMSSM (NUHM1) (NUHM2). We display 1-dimensional likelihood functions for SUSY masses, and show that they may be significantly lighter in the pMSSM10 than in the CMSSM, NUHM1 and NUHM2. We discuss the discovery potential of future LHC runs, e + e - colliders and direct detection experiments.

  1. Identification of anti-tumoral effect of a polypeptide isolated from Scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom and assessment of its potential use for tumor diagnosis; Identificacao do efeito antitumoral de um polipeptidio isolado da peconha do peixe-escorpiao Scorpaena plumieri e avaliacao do seu potencial uso no diagnostico de tumores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soprani, Juliana

    2008-07-01

    Cancer has killed millions of people worldwide. Despite the increasing knowledge about the molecular basis of tumor development, few advances have been reached in clinical therapy and diagnoses, which shows the importance of new drugs development for therapeutic and diagnosis purpose. Venomous creatures have been studied as potential sources of pharmacological agents and physiological tools. A lot of work has been done about biological activity of terrestrial animals, but comparatively less research has been undertaken on venomous marine creature, particularly fish, which means that marine toxins represent a vast and unexplored source of novel molecules with therapeutical potential. In this work, the scorpion fish Scorpaena plumieri crude venom (SPB) and a gelatinolytic protease purified from this venom (SPGP) were evaluated for their applicability for in vivo tumor detection. In vitro results showed that both. SPB and SPGP, possess a powerful antitumor effects on p53-wild-type glioblastoma cells (LD{sub 50}= 3,9 {+-} 0,98{mu}g/mL and 8,00 x 10{sup -12} {+-} 2,94 x 10{sup -12}M, respectively) and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells (LD{sub 50}=14,05 {+-} 2,95 {mu}g/mL and 1,22 x 10{sup -11} {+-} 6,56 x 10{sup -12}M, respectively). P53 mutant glioblastoma cells were more resistant to both, SPB and SPGP treatment (LD{sub 50} > 125 {mu}g/mL and LD{sub 50} > 1,39 x 10{sup -9}M, respectively). The morphological changes observed in the cell lines treated with SPB and SPGP, and the data of DAPI staining, indicate that the antitumor effect of these substances occurs via apoptosis. Radioactive probes of SPB ([{sup 99m}Tc] SPB) and SPGP ([{sup 125}I] SPGP) with high specific activity and high radiochemical purity were synthesized. Data of biodistribution studies, performed by intravenous injections in Swiss mice bearing Ehrlich carcinoma cells, showed that SPB has poor uptake in tumor region. On the other hand, SPGP had a substantial uptake in tumor at ali analyzed times

  2. Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The monophyly of Mandibulata - the division of arthropods uniting pancrustaceans and myriapods - is consistent with several morphological characters, such as the presence of sensory appendages called antennae and the eponymous biting appendage, the mandible. Functional studies have demonstrated that the patterning of the mandible requires the activity of the Hox gene Deformed and the transcription factor cap-n-collar (cnc) in at least two holometabolous insects: the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Expression patterns of cnc from two non-holometabolous insects and a millipede have suggested conservation of the labral and mandibular domains within Mandibulata. However, the activity of cnc is unknown in crustaceans and chelicerates, precluding understanding of a complete scenario for the evolution of patterning of this appendage within arthropods. To redress these lacunae, here we investigate the gene expression of the ortholog of cnc in Parhyale hawaiensis, a malacostracan crustacean, and two chelicerates: the harvestman Phalangium opilio, and the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus. Results In the crustacean P. hawaiensis, the segmental expression of Ph-cnc is the same as that reported previously in hexapods and myriapods, with two distinct head domains in the labrum and the mandibular segment. In contrast, Po-cnc and Cs-cnc expression is not enriched in the labrum of either chelicerate, but instead is expressed at comparable levels in all appendages. In further contrast to mandibulate orthologs, the expression domain of Po-cnc posterior to the labrum is not confined within the expression domain of Po-Dfd. Conclusions Expression data from two chelicerate outgroup taxa suggest that the signature two-domain head expression pattern of cnc evolved at the base of Mandibulata. The observation of the archetypal labral and mandibular segment domains in a crustacean exemplar supports the synapomorphic nature of mandibulate cnc

  3. POLYPHENOLS, ASCORBIC ACID AND CAROTENOIDS CONTENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES IN FRUITS OF CAPSICUM CHINENSE JACQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Mamedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum chinense Jacq. is the rich source of phytochemical substances, such as vitamin C, phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and occupies a significant place in the cooking of many peoples. The pigment composition, the amount of carotenoids, ascorbic acid and their contribution to the formation of antioxidant properties were studied. The total content of carotenoids and red/yellow pigments varied greatly among the accessions of C. chinense. The highest content of carotenoids 0.581 mg/g was observed in the varieties ‘Ognennaya Deva’ with the red fruit color in the phase of biological ripeness, where red pigments accumulated 56% more than in yellow ones. Fruits of accessions ‘Kolokolchik’ only accumulated yellow pigments, 0.318 mg/g. Presence of significant amount, 2.03 times as much red pigments as yellow ones in the variety ‘Trinidad Scorpion Chocolate’, with protein complex could cause the formation of a brown fruit color. Another tendency was observed in ‘Trinidad Dglahou’. The yellow pigment is 1.5 times as much amount as red, as estimated 0.119 mg/g of yellow and 0.077 mg/g of red pigment. The ascorbic acid content did not depend on the fruit color. Fruits of the ‘Ognennaya Deva’ accumulated the highest amount of ascorbic acid, 301 mg%. The maximum total antioxidant content, was detected in the variety ‘Ognennaya Deva’ 2.65 (TAC, mg.eq. GA/g. Analysis of the dependence of the content of thermo stable antioxidants to the total ones showed the contribution of the unstable antioxidants to thermal effects (particularly ascorbic acid on the level of 16%, on average. A comparative assessment of the pungency level and quantitative capsaicin content in the fruit was carried out by organoleptic, spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. The intervals of observed concentrations of capsaicin were 1.0-7.5 mg/g of dry weight (HPLC, the level of pungency on the Scoville scale was 17440-153120 SHU. There

  4. Contribuição para o conhecimento da intoxicação pelo veneno dos "escorpiões"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio de Magalhães

    1928-01-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons travaillé à Bello Horizonte, Etat de Minas, avec le venin de 4 espèces de Scorpions: Tityus bahiensis (C. L. KOCK, 1836. Tityus serrulatus (LUTZ-MELLO, 1922. Tityus dorsomaculatus (LUTZ – MELLO, 1922. Bothriurus (espèce em étude, sur un total de 13.640 individus. Nous avons essayé et observe l’action du venin sur 97 espèces differentes d’êtres vivants – depuis les chlamydozoaires jusqu’à l’«Homo sapiens». Nous avons cherché à déterminer une unité toxique «plus précise, plus régulierè». Les étalons dits «unité vésicule», «unité morsure» sont inconstants et sans rigueur. Tout au plus, peuvent ils server à l’étude de l’action générale du venin, et cela meme, dans certains cas seulement. Nous avons employé la pesée pour determiner l’unité toxique. Ce qui est important pour qui étudie ces sujets ce n’est pás lê nombre de vésicules, mais bien la quantité de venin humide ou desséché qu’elles contiennent. La balance, pour notre travail, est um moyen indicateur de bien plus grande précision que la «vésicule» ou la «morsure». Nous sommes parvenus à prouver qu’il existe une relation constante entre le poid brut des vésicules et la quantité de venin humide ou desséché qu’elles contiennent dans leur intérieur. Donc em pesant les vésicules, nous pesons indirectement le venin. Peu nous importe qu’il y ait 10 ou 100 vésicules. Il nous importe seulement de savoir combien elles pèsent, et de déterminer par ce fait, la quantité proportionnelle de vain pur. La technique générale est la suivante: Nous pesons um certain nombre de vésicules. Nous triturons ensuite, dans um mortier stérilisé et nous emulsionnons, par l’addition consécutive d’eau distillée, stérilisée. Nous filtrons l’émulsion sur le papier filtre employé em chimie, préalablement taré et desséché dans une atmosphere de chlorure de calcium. Après le filtrage on sèche à nouveau les

  5. [Mechanism of action of neurotoxins acting on the inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, E

    1998-01-01

    This review focuses on the mechanism(s) of action of neurotoxins acting on the inactivation of voltage-gated Na channels. Na channels are transmembrane proteins which are fundamental for cellular communication. These proteins form pores in the plasma membrane allowing passive ionic movements to occur. Their opening and closing are controlled by gating systems which depend on both membrane potential and time. Na channels have three functional properties, mainly studied using electrophysiological and biochemical techniques, to ensure their role in the generation and propagation of action potentials: 1) a highly selectivity for Na ions, 2) a rapid opening ("activation"), responsible for the depolarizing phase of the action potential, and 3) a late closing ("inactivation") involved in the repolarizing phase of the action potential. As an essential protein for membrane excitability, the Na channel is the specific target of a number of vegetal and animal toxins which, by binding to the channel, alter its activity by affecting one or more of its properties. At least six toxin receptor sites have been identified on the neuronal Na channel on the basis of binding studies. However, only toxins interacting with four of these sites (sites 2, 3, 5 et 6) produce alterations of channel inactivation. The maximal percentage of Na channels modified by the binding of neurotoxins to sites 2 (batrachotoxin and some alkaloids), 3 (alpha-scorpion and sea anemone toxins), 5 (brevetoxins and ciguatoxins) et 6 (delta-conotoxins) is different according to the site considered. However, in all cases, these channels do not inactivate. Moreover, Na channels modified by toxins which bind to sites 2, 5 and 6 activate at membrane potentials more negative than do unmodified channels. The physiological consequences of Na channel modifications, induced by the binding of neurotoxins to sites 2, 3, 5 and 6, are (i) an inhibition of cellular excitability due to an important membrane depolarization (site

  6. Antiradiation Vaccine: Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    Introduction: Current medical management of the Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) does not include immune prophylaxis based on the Antiradiation Vaccine. Existing principles for the treatment of acute radiation syndromes are based on the replacement and supportive therapy. Haemotopoietic cell transplantation is recomended as an important method of treatment of a Haemopoietic form of the ARS. Though in the different hospitals and institutions, 31 pa-tients with a haemopoietic form have previously undergone transplantation with stem cells, in all cases(100%) the transplantants were rejected. Lethality rate was 87%.(N.Daniak et al. 2005). A large amount of biological substances or antigens isolated from bacterias (flagellin and derivates), plants, different types of venom (honeybees, scorpions, snakes) have been studied. This biological active substances can produce a nonspecific stimulation of immune system of mammals and protect against of mild doses of irradiation. But their radioprotection efficacy against high doses of radiation were not sufficient. Relative radioprotection characteristics or adaptive properties of antioxidants were expressed only at mild doses of radiation. However antioxidants demonstrated a very low protective efficacy at high doses of radiation. Some ex-periments demonstrated even a harmful effect of antioxidants administered to animals that had severe forms of the ARS. Only Specific Radiation Toxins roused a specific antigenic stim-ulation of antibody synthesis. An active immunization by non-toxic doses of radiation toxins includes a complex of radiation toxins that we call the Specific Radiation Determinant (SRD). Immunization must be provided not less than 24 days before irradiation and it is effective up to three years and more. Active immunization by radiation toxins significantly reduces the mortality rate (100%) and improves survival rate up to 60% compare with the 0% sur-vival rate among the irradiated animals in control groups

  7. The Snake with the Scorpion’s Sting: Novel Three-Finger Toxin Sodium Channel Activators from the Venom of the Long-Glanded Blue Coral Snake (Calliophis bivirgatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl C. Yang

    2016-10-01

    invertebrate venomous species including cone snails, scorpions, spiders, and anemones. Enhanced activation or delayed inactivation of sodium channels by toxins is associated with the extremely rapid onset of tetanic/excitatory paralysis in envenomed prey animals. A strong selection pressure exists for the evolution of such toxins where there is a high chance of prey escape. However, despite their prevalence in other venomous species, toxins causing delay of sodium channel inhibition have never previously been described in vertebrate venoms. Here we show that NaV modulators, convergent with those of invertebrates, have evolved in the venom of the long-glanded coral snake. Calliotoxin represents a functionally novel class of 3FTx and a structurally novel class of NaV toxins that will provide significant insights into the pharmacology and physiology of NaV. The toxin represents a remarkable case of functional convergence between invertebrate and vertebrate venom systems in response to similar selection pressures. These results underscore the dynamic evolution of the Toxicofera reptile system and reinforces the value of using evolution as a roadmap for biodiscovery.

  8. Distribución Geográfica del Alacranismo en el Estado de Guanajuato Distribución Geográfica del Alacranismo en el Estado de Guanajuato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ethel Rivera-Torres

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The annual incidence of scorpion stings in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico, during 2000-2005 period was more than an average 24,000 cases per year, with a mortality rate of 3 people every year; it affects a population nucleus both in the rural and urban areas. After many years of having detected the problem, the basic epidemiologic aspects ofthis problem in the State of Guanajuato are still unknown. Material and methods: From the data gathered by the Unified System of Epidemiologic Vigilance of the Guanajuato State Health Ministry, a descriptive, retrospective and observational, study was carried out during the 2000-2005 period, from which the incidence rate per municipality and an epidemiologic map were obtained. Results: During the years 2000-2005 a total of 149,068 cases were reported with an average rate of 500.9 per 100,000 inhabitants; the 15 to 44 year-old group was the most affected; the months with the highest incidence were from April to June. The 15 municipalities with the highest incidence rates (500.9 – 1991.6 during this period were located in the southeast, and the low incidence zones (1.4 in the northeast ofthe state. Conclusions: The municipalities with the highest incidence rates require greater efforts and actions to diminish the morbidity in these areas, with a primary attention program directed to solve this serious public health problem. Introducción: El registro de picados por alacrán en el Estado de Guanajuato durante el periodo 2000 – 2005 rebasó en promedio los 24 000 casos por año, con una mortalidad promedio de 3 personas; afectando a núcleos de población, tanto del medio rural como urbano. A muchos años de haberse detectado la problemática, todavía se desconocen con precisión los aspectos epidemiológicos básicos de este fenómeno en el Estado. Material y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, observacional y descriptivo de los años 2000 a 2005 de los datos recabados por el

  9. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Insects and Other Arthropods; Effet des rayonnements ionisants sur les insectes et autres arthropodes; Vozdejstvie ioniziruntsej radiatsii na nasekomykh i drugikh chlenistonogikh; Efectos de las radiaciones ionizantes sobre los insectos y otros artropodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, William E. [United States Department of Agriculture Laboratories, Mexico City, D.F (Mexico)

    1963-09-15

    Research into the possible application of the radiation sterilization method of population suppression is now under way on a number of insects that attack man, animals and a variety of crops. These exploratory investigations have shown that ionizing irradiation will induce sterility but there is considerable variation in the amounts needed. The research also suggests that radiation damage may in some cases prevent application of the method to some insects. A frequent obstacle that must be overcome is lack of practical mass-rearing methods. Some insects also appeartobeso abundant that the use of the technique may not be feasible without first processing the infested area with other control measures to bring wild populations within reach. Despite these difficulties, when conditions are favourable, few other approaches to the control of pests are so potentially rewarding. The radiation sterilization method may also be thought of as a possible means of delaying development of infestation until crops are harvested. The present paper reports on the influence-of gamma radiation on the reproductive potential, sexual aggressiveness, vigour and longevity of the oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis Hendel, the melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae Coq., the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied., the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens Loew, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and results of practical field trials of the sterile-male release method of population suppression. Progress in the campaign to eradicate the screw-worm, Cochliomyia hominivora Cqrl., in the United States and in studies to develop vigorous genetically marked strains that will permit ready identifications of released sterile flies is reviewed. Results of irradiation research on six additional species that infest fruit, vegetable, field and forest crops, three that attack livestock, three that largely affect man, the effects of irradiation on the scorpion, Centruroides limpid us Karsch, and the Lone

  10. Biological recipient control at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. Annual report for 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Jan; Franzen, Fredrik; Lingman, Anna

    2012-01-01

    (Anguilla anguilla) did not change over time in the recipient since the 1980s. The prevalence of swim bladder parasites (Anguillicoloides sp.) has been 50-60% since the parasite was established in Hamnefjaerden in the late 1980's. Gillnet surveys are performed in the spring on the open coast at the power plant to study effects on Baltic herring and other marine species, normally appearing at low water temperatures. Problems due to an increasing population of grey seals forced a change in fishing methodology in 2011, and the pelagic nets were replaced with a series of demersal nets. The abundances of the long term dominants Baltic herring (Clupea harengus), sea scorpions (Myoxocephalus scorpius) and cod (Gadus morhua) have shown large periodic variations since the survey was established in the early 1970's. Cod alone has shown a long term decrease, probably reflecting the general situation in the Baltic Sea. Silver eel (Anguilla anguilla) catches decreased in the local fishery, but increased in the reference area until silver eel fishing stopped in this area in 2001. The long term development is however believed to reflect the general trends of eel in the Baltic region. Abundance and species richness in soft bottom macro fauna increased strongly in shallow sites between 1962-2011, in Simpevarp as well as in the reference area. The number of species increased also on deeper sites, but the total abundance did not change significantly. The abundance of the introduced polychaete Marenzelleria sp. increased rapidly in recent years and is now among the dominants in both areas. The trend is reflective of the general changes in the Baltic Sea. Vegetation on hard bottoms is monitored on three sites in the coastal gradient of cooling water. The algal communities are considered to have good ecological status and the studied sites are among the richest in the region. The Fucus vesiculosus cover decreased however, in recent years due to the wearing of ice. Fucus increased its

  11. Biological recipient control at the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. Annual report for 2011; Biologisk recipientkontroll vid Oskarshamns kaernkraftverk. Aarsrapport foer 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Jan; Franzen, Fredrik; Lingman, Anna

    2012-07-01

    (Anguilla anguilla) did not change over time in the recipient since the 1980s. The prevalence of swim bladder parasites (Anguillicoloides sp.) has been 50-60% since the parasite was established in Hamnefjaerden in the late 1980's. Gillnet surveys are performed in the spring on the open coast at the power plant to study effects on Baltic herring and other marine species, normally appearing at low water temperatures. Problems due to an increasing population of grey seals forced a change in fishing methodology in 2011, and the pelagic nets were replaced with a series of demersal nets. The abundances of the long term dominants Baltic herring (Clupea harengus), sea scorpions (Myoxocephalus scorpius) and cod (Gadus morhua) have shown large periodic variations since the survey was established in the early 1970's. Cod alone has shown a long term decrease, probably reflecting the general situation in the Baltic Sea. Silver eel (Anguilla anguilla) catches decreased in the local fishery, but increased in the reference area until silver eel fishing stopped in this area in 2001. The long term development is however believed to reflect the general trends of eel in the Baltic region. Abundance and species richness in soft bottom macro fauna increased strongly in shallow sites between 1962-2011, in Simpevarp as well as in the reference area. The number of species increased also on deeper sites, but the total abundance did not change significantly. The abundance of the introduced polychaete Marenzelleria sp. increased rapidly in recent years and is now among the dominants in both areas. The trend is reflective of the general changes in the Baltic Sea. Vegetation on hard bottoms is monitored on three sites in the coastal gradient of cooling water. The algal communities are considered to have good ecological status and the studied sites are among the richest in the region. The Fucus vesiculosus cover decreased however, in recent years due to the wearing of ice. Fucus increased its

  12. Exoplanets Galore!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    -dwarf companions to HD 162020 and HD 202206 While about 40 giant exoplanet-candidates have so far been detected with masses in the range from 0.22 to 8.13 times that of Jupiter, only one companion object (in orbit around the star HD 114762) was known until now with a minimum mass between 10 and 15 times that of Jupiter. Such objects, referred to as "brown dwarfs" , are easier to detect than giant planets with similar periods because their greater mass induces larger velocity changes of the central star; they must therefore be very rare. This strongly points towards different formation/evolution processes for giant planets and stellar companions in the brown-dwarf domain. The brown-dwarf candidate around HD 162020 orbits this star (in constellation Scorpius - the Scorpion; visual magnitude 9.1; stellar type K2V) in 8.43 days on a moderately eccentric orbit. The inferred minimum mass of the companion is 13.7 times that of Jupiter. The second brown-dwarf candidate has a comparable minimum mass of 14.7 Jupiter masses. It orbits HD 202206 (in constellation Capricornus; visual magnitude 8.1; stellar type G6V) in 259 days and the orbit is fairly eccentric. The search for exoplanets: current status Most of the stars around which giant planets have been found so far show a significant excess of heavy elements in their atmosphere when compared to the majority of stars of the solar vicinity. This is also the case for most of the central stars of the eight new objects described here. This additional indication of an abnormal chemical composition of stars with giant gaseous planets provides a promising line for a better understanding of the mechanism(s) that ultimately lead to the formation of planetary systems. The high-precision radial-velocity survey with CORALIE in the southern hemisphere has the ambitious goal to make a complete inventory of giant exoplanets orbiting about 1600 stars in our galactic neighbourhood, all of which are relatively similar to our Sun. To date, 11 such exoplanets