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Sample records for sclerosis exercise radionuclide

  1. Myocardial function and perfusion in the CREST syndrome variant of progressive systemic sclerosis. Exercise radionuclide evaluation and comparison with diffuse scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.; Owens, G.R.; Steen, V.D.; Rodnan, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Myocardial function and perfusion were evaluated in 22 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis with the CREST syndrome using exercise and radionuclide techniques, pulmonary function testing, and chest roentgenography. The results were compared with a similar study of 26 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma. The prevalence of thallium perfusion abnormalities was similar in the groups with CREST syndrome and diffuse scleroderma, (64 percent versus 77 percent), but the defects were significantly smaller in the CREST syndrome (p less than 0.01). Reperfusion thallium defects in the absence of extramural coronary artery disease were seen in 38 percent of patients with diffuse scleroderma. This finding was not seen in any of the patients with the CREST syndrome. In diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of both right and left ventricular function were related to larger thallium perfusion defects. In the CREST syndrome, abnormalities of left ventricular function were minor, were seen only during exercise, and were unrelated to thallium perfusion defects. Abnormal resting right ventricular function was seen in 36 percent of the patients with the CREST syndrome and was associated with an isolated decrease in diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. It is concluded that the cardiac manifestations of the CREST syndrome are distinct from those found in diffuse scleroderma. Unlike diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of left ventricular function in the CREST syndrome are minor and are unrelated to abnormalities of coronary perfusion. Right ventricular dysfunction in the CREST syndrome appears to be primarily related to pulmonary vascular disease

  2. The effect of exercise therapy on fatigue in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A; Stenager, E; Dalgas, U

    2011-01-01

    Fatigue occurs in the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and therapeutic possibilities are few. Exercise therapy is a therapeutic option but no studies have systematically reviewed the existing literature evaluating the effect of exercise therapy on MS fatigue.......Fatigue occurs in the majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and therapeutic possibilities are few. Exercise therapy is a therapeutic option but no studies have systematically reviewed the existing literature evaluating the effect of exercise therapy on MS fatigue....

  3. Physical activity and exercise priorities in community dwelling people with multiple sclerosis: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stennett, Andrea; De Souza, Lorraine; Norris, Meriel

    2018-07-01

    Exercise and physical activity have been found to be beneficial in managing disabilities caused by multiple sclerosis. Despite the known benefits, many people with multiple sclerosis are inactive. This study aimed to identify the prioritised exercise and physical activity practices of people with multiple sclerosis living in the community and the reasons why they are engaged in these activities. A four Round Delphi questionnaire scoped and determined consensus of priorities for the top 10 exercise and physical activities and the reasons why people with multiple sclerosis (n = 101) are engaged in these activities. Data were analysed using content analysis, descriptive statistics, and non-parametric tests. The top 10 exercise and physical activity practices and the top 10 reasons why people with multiple sclerosis (n = 70) engaged in these activities were identified and prioritised. Consensus was achieved for the exercise and physical activities (W = 0.744, p multiple sclerosis engaged in exercise and physical activity were diverse. These self-selected activities and reasons highlighted that people with multiple sclerosis might conceptualise exercise and physical activity in ways that may not be fully appreciated or understood by health professionals. Considerations of the views of people with multiple sclerosis may be essential if the goal of increasing physical activity in this population is to be achieved. Implications for Rehabilitation Health professionals should work collaboratively with people with multiple sclerosis to understand how they prioritise activities, the underlying reasons for their prioritisations and embed these into rehabilitation programmes. Health professionals should utilise activities prioritised by people with multiple sclerosis in the community as a way to support, promote, and sustain exercise and physical activity in this population. Rehabilitation interventions should include both the activities people with multiple

  4. The interpretation of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours by persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Learmonth, Yvonne; Hubbard, Elizabeth; Pilutti, Lara; Roberts, Sarah; Fanning, Jason; Wójcicki, Thomas; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert

    2017-11-07

    This study adopted a qualitative research design with directed content analysis and examined the interpretations of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviour by persons with multiple sclerosis. Fifty three persons with multiple sclerosis who were enrolled in an exercise trial took part in semi-structured interviews regarding personal interpretations of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours. Forty three percent of participants indicated a consistent understanding of physical activity, 42% of participants indicated a consistent understanding of exercise, and 83% of participants indicated a consistent understanding of sedentary behaviour with the standard definitions. There was evidence of definitional ambiguity (i.e., 57, 58, and 11% of the sample for physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviour, respectively); 6% of the sample inconsistently defined sedentary behaviour with standard definitions. Some participants described physical activity in a manner that more closely aligned with exercise and confused sedentary behaviour with exercise or sleeping/napping. Results highlight the need to provide and utilise consistent definitions for accurate understanding, proper evaluation and communication of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours among persons with multiple sclerosis. The application of consistent definitions may minimise ambiguity, alleviate the equivocality of findings in the literature, and translate into improved communication about these behaviours in multiple sclerosis. Implications for Rehabilitation The symptoms of multiple sclerosis can be managed through participation in physical activity and exercise. Persons with multiple sclerosis are not engaging in sufficient levels of physical activity and exercise for health benefits. Rehabilitation professionals should use established definitions of physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviours when communicating about these behaviours among persons with

  5. Radionuclide exercise ventriculography and levels of workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchank, S.

    1982-01-01

    The wealth of useful information made available from the utilization of radionuclide cardiological investigations by non-invasive means is outlined and reasons for investigating results obtained under conditions of increased heart workload are explained. The lack of an accepted protocol for the determination of exercise levels is noted. A format for obtaining increasing heart loads dependent on increasing pulse rate is offered, with justification. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography examinations can be conducted which are simple, reproducible and allow appropriate levels of stress in patients who can benefit from such investigations

  6. Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume and improves memory in multiple sclerosis: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, V M; Cirnigliaro, C; Cohen, A; Farag, A; Brooks, M; Wecht, J M; Wylie, G R; Chiaravalloti, N D; DeLuca, J; Sumowski, J F

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis leads to prominent hippocampal atrophy, which is linked to memory deficits. Indeed, 50% of multiple sclerosis patients suffer memory impairment, with negative consequences for quality of life. There are currently no effective memory treatments for multiple sclerosis either pharmacological or behavioral. Aerobic exercise improves memory and promotes hippocampal neurogenesis in nonhuman animals. Here, we investigate the benefits of aerobic exercise in memory-impaired multiple sclerosis patients. Pilot data were collected from two ambulatory, memory-impaired multiple sclerosis participants randomized to non-aerobic (stretching) and aerobic (stationary cycling) conditions. The following baseline/follow-up measurements were taken: high-resolution MRI (neuroanatomical volumes), fMRI (functional connectivity), and memory assessment. Intervention was 30-minute sessions 3 times per week for 3 months. Aerobic exercise resulted in 16.5% increase in hippocampal volume and 53.7% increase in memory, as well as increased hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity. Improvements were specific, with no comparable changes in overall cerebral gray matter (+2.4%), non-hippocampal deep gray matter structures (thalamus, caudate: -4.0%), or in non-memory cognitive functioning (executive functions, processing speed, working memory: changes ranged from -11% to +4%). Non-aerobic exercise resulted in relatively no change in hippocampal volume (2.8%) or memory (0.0%), and no changes in hippocampal functional connectivity. This is the first evidence for aerobic exercise to increase hippocampal volume and connectivity and improve memory in multiple sclerosis. Aerobic exercise represents a cost-effective, widely available, natural, and self-administered treatment with no adverse side effects that may be the first effective memory treatment for multiple sclerosis patients.

  7. Heat sensitive persons with multiple sclerosis are more tolerant to resistance exercise than to endurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerbæk, Anders G; Møller, Andreas Buch; Jensen, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heat sensitivity (HS) is reported by 58% of all persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), causing symptom exacerbation possibly limiting exercise participation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that (a) a relationship between exercise-induced changes in core...... randomly completed a session of RE and EE, or EE and RE, respectively. Testing was conducted pre, post and one hour after exercise and consisted of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scoring (fatigue, spasticity, pain, strength, walking and balance), the 5-time sit-to-stand (5STS), the Multiple Sclerosis......-temperature (C(temp)) and changes in symptom intensity exists, and (b) that resistance exercise (RE), as a consequence of a minor increase in core temperature, will induce a lesser worsening of symptoms than endurance exercise (EE) in HS persons with MS. METHODS: On two separate days, 16 HS persons with MS...

  8. Prognostic value and limitations of exercise radionuclide angiography in medically treated coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taliercio, C.P.; Clements, I.P.; Zinsmeister, A.R.; Gibbons, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated whether exercise radionuclide angiography provides prognostic information in addition to that identified by resting left ventricular function and coronary anatomy in patients with medically treated coronary artery disease. Clinical follow-up (median, 21.7 months) was obtained in 424 medically treated patients who underwent exercise radionuclide angiography and coronary angiography. The mean age of the study population was 58 years, and 67% were men. Cardiac death occurred in 16 patients, nonfatal myocardial infarction in 16, and nonfatal out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in 1. Univariate analysis showed that multiple variables were associated with future cardiac events, including number of diseased vessels, exercise and rest radionuclide ejection fraction, history of myocardial infarction, exercise and rest left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volume indices, peak exercise workload, age, abnormal resting electrocardiogram, and peak exercise ST-segment depression. Only three variables were independently associated with cardiac events on follow-up: number of diseased vessels, radionuclide ejection fraction at rest, and age. In patients with three-vessel disease and a resting radionuclide ejection fraction of more than 40%, a subgroup with higher risk could not be identified on the basis of exercise radionuclide response

  9. Benefits of Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-09-01

    Exercise training represents a behavioral approach for safely managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and quality of life consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This topical review paper summarizes evidence from literature reviews and meta-analyses, supplemented by recent individual studies, indicating that exercise training can yield small but important improvements in walking, balance, cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in MS. The paper highlights limitations of research on exercise training and its consequences and future research directions and provides an overview for promotion of exercise training in MS based on recent prescriptive guidelines. Collectively, the evidence for the benefits of exercise training in MS suggests that the time is ripe for the promotion of exercise by healthcare providers, particularly neurologists as a central part of the clinical care and management of MS patients.

  10. Segmental wall-motion analysis in the right anterior oblique projection: comparison of exercise equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and exercise contrast ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.; Brymer, J.F.; Walton, J.A.; Pitt, B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease were studied at rest and during supine bicycle exercise with radionuclide and contrast left ventriculography. Analysis of regional wall motion was made by visual evaluation of the five standard 30 0 right anterior oblique (RAO) wall segments in the contrast images and the corresponding 10 0 RAO radionuclide segments. The radionuclide studies were evaluated independently by three observers using a five-point grading system. The interobserver wall-motion grading agreed completely in more than 80% of segments at rest and exercise, and agreed within one wall-motion grade in more than 95% of segments. The comparison of wall-motion grades between radionuclide and contrast ventriculograms showed complete agreement in 86% of segments at rest and in 78% during exercise, and agreement within one wall-motion grade in 97% of rest and 96% of exercise segments. Visual evaluation of 10 0 RAO rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms compares favorably with rest and exercise 30 0 RAO contrast ventriculograms and demonstrates satisfactory interobserver agreement

  11. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2...... exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body...... composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type...

  12. Rest and exercise radionuclide angiography for diagnosis in chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide angiography is frequently employed for the diagnosis of chest pain syndromes. Its value and limitations in this regard have been well studied, but proper utilization of the technique requires an understanding of five critical concepts: (1) Radionuclide angiography is superior to treadmill exercise testing and probably equivalent to thallium scintigraphy, although the published series did not use current methods. (2) The true specificity of radionuclide angiography is about 80%, intermediate between the early optimistic estimates and the later pessimistic ones. (3) The peak exercise ejection fraction is the preferred test parameter for diagnosis, although exercise hemodynamics, symptoms, and electrocardiographic changes should also be considered. (4) Although radionuclide angiography is clearly helpful for noninvasive diagnosis, significant numbers of patients will continue to fall in an uncertain category. (5) The proper application of the technique requires recognition of its limitations and careful attention to technical details. When properly applied, this modality can make an important contribution to clinical decision making. 58 references

  13. Use of the Godin leisure-time exercise questionnaire in multiple sclerosis research: a comprehensive narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Elizabeth Morghen; Richardson, Emma V; Cederberg, Katie J; Sasaki, Jeffer E; Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W

    2018-01-17

    The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire has been a commonly applied measure of physical activity in research among persons with multiple sclerosis over the past decade. This paper provides a comprehensive description of its application and inclusion in research on physical activity in multiple sclerosis. This comprehensive, narrative review included papers that were published between 1985 and 2017, written in English, involved participants with multiple sclerosis as a primary population, measured physical activity, and cited one of the two original Godin papers. There is a broad scope of research that has included the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire in persons with multiple sclerosis. Overall, 8 papers evaluated its psychometric properties, 21 evaluated patterns of physical activity, 24 evaluated correlates or determinants of physical activity, 28 evaluated outcomes or consequences of physical activity, and 15 evaluated physical activity interventions. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire is a valid self-report measure of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis, and further is an appropriate, simple, and effective tool for describing patterns of physical activity, examining correlates and outcomes of physical activity, and provides a sensitive outcome for measuring change in physical activity after an intervention. Implications for rehabilitation There is increasing interest in physical activity and its benefits in multiple sclerosis. The study of physical activity requires appropriate and standardized measures. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire is a common self-report measure of physical activity for persons with multiple sclerosis. Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire scores are reliable measures of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire further is an appropriate, simple, and effective tool for describing patterns of physical activity, examining

  14. Factor analysis for exercise stress radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Kazuyoshi; Yasuda, Mitsutaka; Oku, Hisao; Ikuno, Yoshiyasu; Takeuchi, Kazuhide; Takeda, Tadanao; Ochi, Hironobu

    1987-01-01

    Using factor analysis, a new image processing in exercise stress radionuclide ventriculography, changes in factors associated with exercise were evaluated in 14 patients with angina pectoris or old myocardial infarction. The patients were imaged in the left anterior oblique projection, and three factor images were presented on a color coded scale. Abnormal factors (AF) were observed in 6 patients before exercise, 13 during exercise, and 4 after exercise. In 7 patients, the occurrence of AF was associated with exercise. Five of them became free from AF after exercise. Three patients showing AF before exercise had aggravation of AF during exercise. Overall, the occurrence or aggravation of AF was associated with exercise in ten (71 %) of the patients. The other three patients, however, had disappearance of AF during exercise. In the last patient, none of the AF was observed throughout the study. In view of a high incidence of AF associated with exercise, the factor analysis may have the potential in evaluating cardiac reverse from the viewpoint of left ventricular wall motion abnormality. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Respiratory exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susana; Swash, Michael; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential role of respiratory exercise by implementing specific inspiratory muscle training in a selected population of early-affected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We studied 26 patients with ALS with normal respiratory function using two groups of patients in a parallel, control-group, randomized, delayed-start design. Patients in the first group (G1) started the active inspiratory exercise programme at entry and were followed for eight months, while the second group (G2) of patients followed a placebo exercise programme for the first four months and then active exercise for the second four-month period. The primary outcome measure was the ALSFRS. Respiratory tests, neurophysiological measurements, fatigue and quality of life scales were secondary outcomes. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes between and within groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Within-group analysis suggested that inspiratory exercise promotes a transient improvement in the respiratory subscore and in the maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow, and sniff inspiratory pressure. In conclusion, there was no clear positive or negative outcome of the respiratory exercise protocol we have proposed, but we cannot rule out a minor positive effect. Exercise regimes merit more detailed clinical evaluation in ALS.

  16. The perceived benefits and barriers to exercise participation in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Nicole; Minahan, Clare; Sabapathy, Surendran

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived benefits and barriers to exercise participation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). A cross-sectional postal survey comprised of 93 adults with MS was conducted. Participants completed the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Scale (EBBS), Spinal Cord Injury Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (EXSE), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale, Disease Steps Scale and International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Forty-three percent of the participants were classified as exercising individuals (EX group) as compared with non-exercising individuals (non-EX group). Participants in the EX group reported significantly higher scores on the EBBS and EXSE. Items related to physical performance and personal accomplishment were cited as the greatest perceived benefits to exercise participation and those items related to physical exertion as the greatest perceived barriers to both the EX and non-EX groups. When compared with previous studies conducted in the general population, the participants in the present study reported different perceived barriers to exercise participation. Furthermore, awareness of the benefits of physical activity is not sufficient to promote exercise participation in persons with MS. Perceived exercise self-efficacy is shown to play an important role in promoting exercise participation in persons with MS.

  17. Massage therapy and exercise therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahban, Hossein; Rezaie, Solmaz; Goharpey, Shahin

    2013-12-01

    The primary aim was to investigate the comparative effects of massage therapy and exercise therapy on patients with multiple sclerosis. The secondary aim was to investigate whether combination of both massage and exercise has an additive effect. Randomized controlled pilot trial with repeated measurements and blinded assessments. Local Multiple Sclerosis Society. A total of 48 patients with multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to four equal subgroups labelled as massage therapy, exercise therapy, combined massage-exercise therapy and control group. The treatment group received 15 sessions of supervised intervention for five weeks. The massage therapy group received a standard Swedish massage. The exercise therapy group was given a combined set of strength, stretch, endurance and balance exercises. Patients in the massage-exercise therapy received a combined set of massage and exercise treatments. Patients in the control group were asked to continue their standard medical care. Pain, fatigue, spasticity, balance, gait and quality of life were assessed before and after intervention. Massage therapy resulted in significantly larger improvement in pain reduction (mean change 2.75 points, P = 0.001), dynamic balance (mean change, 3.69 seconds, P = 0.009) and walking speed (mean change, 7.84 seconds, P = 0.007) than exercise therapy. Patients involved in the combined massage-exercise therapy showed significantly larger improvement in pain reduction than those in the exercise therapy (mean change, 1.67 points, P = 0.001). Massage therapy could be more effective than exercise therapy. Moreover, the combination of massage and exercise therapy may be a little more effective than exercise therapy alone.

  18. Multiple Sclerosis: associated cardiometabolic risks and impact of exercise therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by complex heterogeneous symptoms, which often leads to a more sedentary lifestyle. This lifestyle increases the likelihood to develop secondary health problems, like cardiometabolic risk (CMR) profile. However, in other population these secondary health problems can be, partly, reversed by exercise therapy. We hypothesized that MS affects the CMR profile, but the outcome can be reversed following exercise therapy. Persons with MS and matched healthy c...

  19. Benefits, safety, and prescription of exercise in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W

    2014-12-01

    Exercise represents a behavioral approach for the restoration of function and management of symptoms among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). The current paper provides a review on the topic of exercise in MS and is separated into four sections. The first section defines exercise and related constructs. The second section summarizes evidence for the benefits of exercise in MS based on literature reviews and meta-analyses. The third section focuses on the safety of exercise in MS based on the reporting of relapses and other adverse events, and the last section describes guidelines for exercise. The paper concludes with a discussion of major limitations with the existing body of research and highlights some of the pressing areas for future research on exercise in MS.

  20. Physiologic abnormalities of cardiac function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.; Steen, V.D.; Uretsky, B.F.; Owens, G.R.; Rodnan, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate cardiopulmonary function in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, we studied 26 patients with maximal exercise and redistribution thallium scans, rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography, pulmonary-function testing, and chest roentgenography. Although only 6 patients had clinical evidence of cardiac involvement, 20 had abnormal thallium scans, including 10 with reversible exercise-induced defects and 18 with fixed defects (8 had both). Seven of the 10 patients who had exercise-induced defects and underwent cardiac catheterization had normal coronary angiograms. Mean resting left ventricular ejection fraction and mean resting right ventricular ejection fraction were lower in patients with post-exercise left ventricular thallium defect scores above the median (59 +/- 13 per cent vs. 69 +/- 6 per cent, and 36 +/- 12 per cent vs. 47 +/- 7 per cent, respectively). The authors conclude that in progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of myocardial perfusion are common and appear to be due to a disturbance of the myocardial microcirculation. Both right and left ventricular dysfunction appear to be related to this circulatory disturbance, suggesting ischemically mediated injury

  1. Exercise radionuclide ventriculographic responses in hypertensive patients with chest pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, A.G.; Katz, R.J.; Varghese, P.J.; Leiboff, R.H.; Bren, G.G.; Schlesselman, S.; Varma, V.M.; Reba, R.C.; Ross, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effectiveness of exercise-treadmill testing in diagnosing coronary-artery disease in hypertensive patients is limited by a high rate of false positivity. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography, however, relies on different criteria (ejection fraction and wall motion), and we have evaluated this procedure in 37 hypertensive and 109 normotensive patients with chest pain, using coronary arteriography as an indicator of coronary disease. In the hypertensive cohort there was no difference in the ejection fraction at rest between the 17 patients with coronary disease and the 20 without it. Neither group had a significant mean (+/- S.E.M.) change in ejection fraction from rest to exercise (-1.9 +/- 2 and 1.4 +/- 1%, respectively). A wall-motion abnormality developed during exercise in 5 of the 17 hypertensive patients with coronary disease (29%) and in 4 of the 20 without it (20%) (P = not significant). In the normotensive cohort, however, the peak-exercise ejection fractions were significantly different. The 71 patients with coronary disease had a mean decrease of 3.6 +/- 1%, in contrast to the patients without coronary disease, who had an increase of +/- 1% (P < 0.001). An exercise-induced wall-motion abnormality was seen in 35 of the 71 patients with coronary disease (48%), as compared with 3 of the 38 without it (8%) (P < 0.001). We conclude that exercise radionuclide ventriculography is inadequate as a screening test for coronary atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients with chest pain. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  2. TEAMS (Tele-Exercise and Multiple Sclerosis), a Tailored Telerehabilitation mHealth App: Participant-Centered Development and Usability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, Mohanraj; Rimmer, James H; Johnson, George; Wilroy, Jereme; Young, Hui-Ju; Mehta, Tapan; Lai, Byron

    2018-05-24

    People with multiple sclerosis face varying levels of disability and symptoms, thus requiring highly trained therapists and/or exercise trainers to design personalized exercise programs. However, for people living in geographically isolated communities, access to such trained professionals can be challenging due to a number of barriers associated with cost, access to transportation, and travel distance. Generic mobile health exercise apps often fall short of what people with multiple sclerosis need to become physically active (ie, exercise content that has been adapted to accommodate a wide range of functional limitations). This usability study describes the development process of the TEAMS (Tele-Exercise and Multiple Sclerosis) app, which is being used by people with multiple sclerosis in a large randomized controlled trial to engage in home-based telerehabilitation. Twenty-one participants with disabilities (10 people with multiple sclerosis) were involved in the double iterative design, which included the simultaneous development of the app features and exercise content (exercise videos and articles). Framed within a user-centered design approach, the development process included 2 stages: ground-level creation (focus group followed by early stage evaluations and developments), and proof of concept through 2 usability tests. Usability (effectiveness, usefulness, and satisfaction) was evaluated using a mixed-methods approach. During testing of the app's effectiveness, the second usability test resulted in an average of 1 problem per participant, a decrease of 53% compared to the initial usability test. Five themes were constructed from the qualitative data that related to app usefulness and satisfaction, namely: high perceived confidence for app usability, positive perceptions of exercise videos, viable exercise option at home, orientation and familiarity required for successful participation, and app issues. Participants acknowledged that the final app was ready

  3. Exercise and Quality of Life in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Dietrich, Frederick; Larson, Rebecca; White, Lesley J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate perceptions of quality of life after a 4-month progressive resistance training program for individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). A second purpose was to examine participants' views about factors that facilitated or impeded exercise behavior. Qualitative interviews were conducted with eight females…

  4. Exercise and cognition in multiple sclerosis: The importance of acute exercise for developing better interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training represents a promising approach for managing this clinical symptom of the disease. However, results from early randomized controlled trials of exercise on cognition in MS are equivocal, perhaps due to methodological concerns. This underscores the importance of considering the well-established literature in the general population that documents robust, beneficial effects of exercise training on cognition across the lifespan. The development of such successful interventions is based on examinations of fitness, physical activity, and acute exercise effects on cognition. Applying such an evidence-based approach in MS serves as a way of better informing exercise training interventions for improving cognition in this population. To that end, this paper provides a focused, updated review on the evidence describing exercise effects on cognition in MS, and develops a rationale and framework for examining acute exercise on cognitive outcomes in this population. This will provide keen insight for better developing exercise interventions for managing cognitive impairment in MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercise echocardiography for the assessment of pulmonary hypertension in systemic sclerosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Rui; Serra, Sara; Martins, Rui; Teixeira, Rogério; Castro, Graça; Salvador, Maria João; Pereira da Silva, José António; Santos, Lèlita; Monteiro, Pedro; Pêgo, Mariano

    2016-07-02

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) complicates the course of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is associated with poor prognosis. The elevation of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) during exercise in patients with SSc with normal resting haemodynamics may anticipate the development of PAH. Exercise echocardiography (ExEcho) has been proposed as a useful technique to identify exercise-induced increases in sPAP, but it is unclear how to clinically interpret these findings. In this systematic review, we summarize the available evidence on the role of exercise echocardiography to estimate exercise-induced elevations in pulmonary and left heart filling pressures in patients with systemic sclerosis. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Web of Knowledge, using the vocabulary terms: ('systemic sclerosis' OR 'scleroderma') AND ('exercise echocardiography') AND ('pulmonary hypertension'). Studies including patients with SSc without a prior diagnosis of PAH, and subjected to exercise echocardiography were included. All searches were limited to English and were augmented by review of bibliographic references from the included studies. The quality of evidence was assessed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project system. We identified 15 studies enrolling 1242 patients, who were mostly middle-aged and female. Several exercise methods were used (cycloergometer, treadmill and Master's two step), with different protocols and positions (supine, semi-supine, upright); definition of a positive test also varied widely. Resting estimated sPAP levels varied from 18 to 35 mm Hg, all in the normal range. The weighted means for estimated sPAP were 22.2 ± 2.9 mmHg at rest and 43.0 ± 4.3 mmHg on exercise; more than half of the studies reported mean exercise sPAP ≥40 mmHg. The assessment of left ventricular diastolic function on peak exercise was reported in a minority of studies; however, when assessed, surrogate

  6. GHSI emergency radionuclide bioassay laboratory network - summary of the second exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Quayle, Debora; Sadi, Baki; Bartizel, Christine; Battisti, Paolo; Boettger, Axel; Bouvier, Celine; Paquet, Francois; CapoteCuellar, Antonio; Carr, Zhanat; Hammond, Derek; Hartmann, Martina; Heikkinen, Tarja; Jones, Robert L.; Kim, Eunjoo; Koga, Roberto; Kukhta, Boris; Mitchell, Lorna; Morhard, Ryan; Rulik, Petr; Sergei, Aleksanin; Sierra, Inmaculada; Oliveira Sousa, Wandersonde; Szabo, Gyula

    2017-01-01

    The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) established a laboratory network within the GHSI community to develop collective surge capacity for radionuclide bioassay in response to a radiological or nuclear emergency as a means of enhancing response capability, health outcomes and community resilience. GHSI partners conducted an exercise in collaboration with the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network and the IAEA Response and Assistance Network, to test the participating laboratories (18) for their capabilities in in vitro assay of biological samples, using a urine sample spiked with multiple high-risk radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 106 Ru, 137 Cs, and 239 Pu). Laboratories were required to submit their reports within 72 h following receipt of the sample, using a pre-formatted template, on the procedures, methods and techniques used to identify and quantify the radionuclides in the sample, as well as the bioassay results with a 95% confidence interval. All of the participating laboratories identified and measured all or some of the radionuclides in the sample. However, gaps were identified in both the procedures used to assay multiple radionuclides in one sample, as well as in the methods or techniques used to assay specific radionuclides in urine. Two-third of the participating laboratories had difficulties in determining all the radionuclides in the sample. Results from this exercise indicate that challenges remain with respect to ensuring that results are delivered in a timely, consistent and reliable manner to support medical interventions. Laboratories within the networks are encouraged to work together to develop and maintain collective capabilities and capacity for emergency bioassay, which is an important component of radiation emergency response. (authors)

  7. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Ilke; Kirdi, Nuray; Meric, Aydin; Kurne, Asli Tuncer; Karabudak, Rana

    2013-01-01

    This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed balance and coordination exercises. All patients were evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) before and after the physiotherapy program. In group analysis, TIS, BBS, ICARS, and MSFC scores and strength of abdominal muscles were significantly different after treatment in both groups (p 0.05). Although trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept are rarely applied in MS rehabilitation, the results of this study show that they are as effective as routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Therefore, trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept can be beneficial in MS rehabilitation programs.

  8. Detection of coronary artery disease by exercise radionuclide ventriculography, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Saito, Muneyasu; Uehara, Toshiisa; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) and LV functional reserve, exercise radionuclide ventriculography (ERV) were performed in 80 patients who underwent selective cardiac catneterization for evaluation of chest pain syndrome. 70 patients had CAD (30 patients with angina pectoris and 40 patients with myocardial infarction) and 10 did not. In this study, to obtain accurate data by ERV, its practical consideration were metioned. Radionuclide cardioangiography with sup(99m)Tc-invivo RBC labelling were performed using an Anger camera attached with high-sense collimator and on-line minicomputer system. For data aquisition, multi-gated method were used, especially during exercise, list mode collection was suitable for ERV because of variable R-R intervals. Patient stability was performed with an adjustable shoulder support and hand grip, ECG monitoring system by carbon electrolode was used to obtain during exercise. Exercise protocal was graded bicycle ergometer in supine position. As the results, in the patients of CAD, changes of LVEF from rest to exercise were under 5%, while in normal patients, LVEF increased over 5% in all patients. In 30 patients with angina pectoris, the ERV was abnormal in 25 for a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 100%. The ERV were thought to be superior than stress ECG for the detection of CAD. In conclusion, with increasing clinical application, the use of ERV is rapidly becoming wider-spread but the excellent results were thought to depend upon the careful attention to equipment and exercise procedure. (author)

  9. Radionuclide angiographic evaluation of left ventricular performance at rest and during exercise in patients with aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide angiographic evaluation of LV performance at rest and during exercise in patients with AR have shown that an abnormal EF response to exercise may be observed in asymptomatic patients with normal resting LV function. The EF response to exercise has been correlated with a number of clinical and exercise measurements; important among these are the slope of the systolic pressure-to-end-systolic volume, end-systolic volume, cardiac index, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and wall stress. The changes in the regurgitant fraction, EF, and LV volume have shown considerable individual variability; they have also allowed a better understanding of the circulatory responses during exercise. Radionuclide angiography provides a reliable and reproducible method of measuring the rest LVEF that is important in the timing and the outcome of valve replacement. The value of the EF response to exercise in patient management is not yet clear; it is possible that other radionuclide-derived measurements at rest or during exercise, such as the systolic pressure-to-end-systolic volume relationship, and the end-systolic volume may provide complementary information to that provided by the EF

  10. Acute and chronic cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training in people with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Dalgas, Ulrik; Brolin Gade, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is a well-established part of rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), and it has been hypothesized to stimulate an anti-inflammatory environment that might be disease modifying. Yet, investigations on exercise-induced immune responses are scarce and generally not paying...

  11. Detection of coronary artery disease - comparison of exercise stress radionuclide angiocardiography and thallium stress perfusion scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jengo, J.A.; Freeman, R.; Brizendine, M.; Mena, I.; St. Mary Medical Center, Long Beach, Calif.)

    1980-01-01

    Exercise thallium scanning and stress radionuclide angiography were compared in 16 normal subjects and 42 patients with more than 75% coronary arterial obstruction in studies using upright exercise on a bicycle ergometer. Studies at rest were subsequently obtained. Exercise thallium scans in the control group were normal in 15 and showed a defect in 1. Ejection fraction increased in all 16. During exercise, regional wall motion increased uniformly. In the group with coronary artery disease, thallium scanning revealed a new defect in the distribution of the involved arteries in 24 patients. In 15 who had a defect at rest, no new defect developed, but in 9 of the 15 new segmental wall motion defects were evident on radionuclide angiography. With exercise, ejection fraction decreased slightly. Regional wall motion abnormalities developed in the areas corresponding to thallium defects in all. Thallium scanning had a 93% and radionuclide angiography a 98% sensitivity value in detecting coronary artery disease. The respective specificity values were 94 and 100%. In patients with prior myocardial infarction who manifested new exercise abnormalities, 50% showed new thallium defects and 81% new wall motion defects

  12. Importance of adequate exercise in the detection of coronary heart disease by radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Lo, K.; Pitt, B.

    1980-01-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained on 77 symptomatic patients without prior documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease was present by angiograms in 48. Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was abnormal in 41 patients (overall sensitivity 85%). In 29 patients with normal coronary arteries, RNV was normal in 24 (specificity 83%). To determine if the exercise level affects sensitivity, the studies were graded for adequacy of exercise. It was considered adequate if patients developed (a) chest pain, or (b) ST segment depression of at least 1 mm, or (c) if they achieved a pressure rate product greater than 250. Among the 48 patients with coronary artery disease, 35 achieved adequate exercise. Thirty-three had an abnormal RNV (sensitivity 94%). In 13 patients who failed to achieve adequate exercise, RNV was abnormal in eight (sensitivity of only 62%). Some patients with coronary artery disease may have a normal ventricular response at inadequate levels of stress

  13. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison of Recumbent Stepping and Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilutti, Lara A; Paulseth, John E; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P; Hicks, Audrey L

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0-8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS.

  14. An intercomparison exercise on radionuclides in sediment samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1996-07-01

    An intercomparison exercise on artificial and natural radionuclides in two sediment samples, one from the Baltic Sea and one from the Kattegat, has been carried out under the EKO-1 project or the Nordic Safety Research Programme (NKS) for the period 1996-97. The measurement techniques have included direct gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge and NaI detectors, and radiochemical procedures followed by beta counting and alpha spectrometry. The participants have 21 laboratories. Results were submitted for Cs-137, Cs-134, Co-60, Sb-125, Pu-239,240, Pu-238, Am-241, Sr-90, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40, Pb-210, Po-210 and U-235. The analytical performance of the participants was evaluated for those radionuclides where six or more data sets were received. Statistical tests were made to see if individual results agreed with overall average radionuclide concentrations in the two sediment materials within target standard deviations. The results of these tests show that for Cs-137, Cs-134, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 the analytical performance criteria were not met for 20-40% of the data sets. For plutonium isotopes the tests show that the performance criteria were not met for 13% of the data sets. Tests of overall analytical performance show that 61% of the data sets do not meet the combined performance criteria. This shows that there is room for considerable improvement of analytical quality for most of the laboratories that have participated in this intercomparison. The intercomparison exercise has furthermore demonstrated several elementary problems in analytical work. (au) 57 tabs., 16 ills., 1 ref.

  15. An intercomparison exercise on radionuclides in sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1996-07-01

    An intercomparison exercise on artificial and natural radionuclides in two sediment samples, one from the Baltic Sea and one from the Kattegat, has been carried out under the EKO-1 project or the Nordic Safety Research Programme (NKS) for the period 1996-97. The measurement techniques have included direct gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge and NaI detectors, and radiochemical procedures followed by beta counting and alpha spectrometry. The participants have 21 laboratories. Results were submitted for Cs-137, Cs-134, Co-60, Sb-125, Pu-239,240, Pu-238, Am-241, Sr-90, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40, Pb-210, Po-210 and U-235. The analytical performance of the participants was evaluated for those radionuclides where six or more data sets were received. Statistical tests were made to see if individual results agreed with overall average radionuclide concentrations in the two sediment materials within target standard deviations. The results of these tests show that for Cs-137, Cs-134, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 the analytical performance criteria were not met for 20-40% of the data sets. For plutonium isotopes the tests show that the performance criteria were not met for 13% of the data sets. Tests of overall analytical performance show that 61% of the data sets do not meet the combined performance criteria. This shows that there is room for considerable improvement of analytical quality for most of the laboratories that have participated in this intercomparison. The intercomparison exercise has furthermore demonstrated several elementary problems in analytical work. (au) 57 tabs., 16 ills., 1 ref

  16. Different types of exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Aerobic exercise or Pilates, a single-blind clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Bilge; Küçük, Fadime; Poyraz, Esra Coşkuner; Tomruk, Melda Soysal; İdıman, Egemen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study is to examine effects of aerobic and Pilates exercises on disability, cognition, physical performance, balance, depression and fatigue in relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients as compared to healthy controls. The subjects were divided as aerobic exercise (n = 26), Pilates (n = 9), and the healthy control group (n = 21). We used MSFC, physical performance, Berg balance scale, Beck depression scale, fatigue impact scale. All evaluations were performed before and after exercise training. There are statistically meaningful differences between Nine hole testing, PASAT 3, physical performance and fatique impact scale before and after aerobic exercise. Also we found significant difference for physical performance in the Pilates group. There are no significant differences in measures of fatique impact scale and depression between aerobic exercise group and the healthy controls after exercise. We found significant differences between Pilates and control group's after measurements except depression. There were significant differences between the Pilates and aerobic group for cognitive tests in favor of the Pilates group. Aerobic exercise and clinical Pilates exercises revealed moderate changes in levels of cognitive, physical performance, balance, depression, fatigue in MS patients.

  17. Effects of Pilates exercises on sensory interaction, postural control and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal Tomruk, Melda; Uz, Muhammed Zahid; Kara, Bilge; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-05-01

    Decreased postural control, sensory integration deficits and fatigue are important problems that cause functional impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). To examine the effect of modified clinical Pilates exercises on sensory interaction and balance, postural control and fatigue in pwMS. Eleven patients with multiple sclerosis and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited in this study. Limits of stability and postural stability tests were used to evaluate postural control by Biodex Balance System and sensory interaction assessed. Fatigue was assessed by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Pilates exercises were applied two times a week for 10 weeks and measurements were repeated to pwMS after exercise training. Postural control and fatigue (except psychosocial parameter) of pwMS were significantly worser than healthy controls (pPilates training (ppilates exercises (p>0.05). Ten-week Pilates training is effective to improve sensory interaction and to decrease fatigue. Pilates exercises can be applied safely in ambulatory pwMS for enhance sensory interaction and balance and combat fatigue. More investigations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radionuclide ventriculographic evaluation of exercised left ventricular performance in asymptomatic diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yusuke; Hara, Fumio

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclide ventriculography was made in 49 asymptomatic diabetic patients, aged 30∼70 years, to investigate cardiac function. Comparisons were made with 33 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls. Radionuclide ventriculography was performed at rest and during dynamic exercise by multigraded, supine bicycle ergometer. The resting left ventricular ejection fractions were similar between the diabetic patients and control subjects. No significant rise in the left ventricular ejection fractions during dynamic exercise was observed in the diabetic patients [58.4±9.8% (mean±SD) to 60.3±9.9]. In the control subjects, the left ventricular ejection fractions increased during dynamic exercise [59.3±8.4 to 63.0±11.4 (p -1 ) vs -2.66±0.52] and during dynamic exercise [-3.25±0.74 vs -3.23±0.90]. Time to end-systole were similar in both groups at rest [315±42 (ms) vs 309±42] and during dynamic exercise [258±37 vs 262±37]. The resting peak filling rates were similar in both groups [2.27±0.62 (s -1 ) vs 2.45±0.58], and the peak filling rates increased (p 1c in the diabetic patients. These results suggest that diabetic patients have less cardiac reserved performance. (author)

  19. Home-based exercise program and fall-risk reduction in older adults with multiple sclerosis: phase 1 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Finlayson, Marcia; McAuley, Edward; Morrison, Steve; Motl, Robert W

    2014-03-01

    To determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a home-based exercise intervention targeting fall risk in older adults with multiple sclerosis. A randomized controlled pilot trial. A home-based exercise program. Participants were randomly allocated to either a home-based exercise intervention group (n = 13) or a waiting list control group (n = 14). The exercise group completed exercises targeting lower muscle strength and balance three times a week for 12 weeks. The control group continued normal activity. Fall risk (Physiological Profile Assessment scores), balance (Berg Balance Scale), and walking testing prior to and immediately following the 12-week intervention. Each outcome measure was placed in an analysis of covariance with group as the between-subject factor and baseline values as the covariate. Effect sizes were calculated. Twelve participants from the control group and ten from the exercise group completed the study. There were no related adverse events. Fall risk was found to decrease in the exercise group following the intervention (1.1 SD 1.0 vs. 0.6 SD 0.6) while there was an increase in fall risk in the control group (1.9 SD 1.5 vs. 2.2 SD 1.9). Effect sizes for most outcomes were large (η(2) > 0.15). Home-based exercise was found to be feasible, safe, and effective for reducing physiological fall risk in older adults with multiple sclerosis. Our findings support the implementation of a larger trial to reduce fall risk in persons with multiple sclerosis.

  20. Review: Multiple sclerosis and physical exercise: recommendations for the application of resistance-, endurance- and combined training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Ingemann-Hansen, T

    2008-01-01

    This review summarizes the existing knowledge regarding the effects of physical exercise in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS). Furthermore, recommendations are given regarding exercise prescription for MS patients and for future study directions. Previously, MS patients were advised...... not to participate in physical exercise. During recent years, it has been increasingly acknowledged that exercise benefits MS patients. The requirement for exercise in MS patients is emphasized by their physiological profile, which probably reflects both the effects of the disease per se and the reversible effects...

  1. Is There a Role for Exercise in the Management of Bulbar Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The role of exercise in the management of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (PALS) is controversial and currently unclear. The purpose of this review article is to review literature examining the impact of limb, respiratory, and oral motor exercise on function, disease progression, and survival in PALS and the transgenic ALS…

  2. Serial exercise gated radionuclide ventriculograms (RVG) in monitoring doxorubicin cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, H.A.; Lahoda, J.; Fox, L.

    1985-01-01

    The resting RVG (Radionuclide Ventriculograms) are demonstrated to be an effective monitor of the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. The exercise RVG has not been as well studied to see if it yields additional information or detects toxicity effects earlier. Sixteen patients receiving doxorubicin for chemotherapy had 2-6 serial exercise studies with intervals between studies of 1 month to 15 months. The patients exercised varying amounts with cardiac work indicated by their double products (HR x Sys. BP). Although all patients started with a normal resting LVEF (>50%), 5 of the 16 did not have a normal response (≥5% increase in LVEF) with initial exercise study. Of the 11 patients with an initially normal response to exercise, on at least one subsequent study, 3 had an abnormal response to exercise. On a later follow up study 1 of these 3 patients again had a normal response to exercise. Six of these 11 patients had had RVG evidence of cardiotoxicity. Four of these 6 patients had continually normal exercise responses, while 2 of these 5 patients had had an abnormal exercise response. An initial exercise RVG may be reasonable to detect unsuspected CAD in cancer victims. These patients are reported to be more sensitive to the toxic effects of doxorubicin. Follow up exercise RVGs do not contribute useful information, do not predict cardiotoxicity, and may be misleading

  3. Exercise and multiple sclerosis: physiological, psychological, and quality of life issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, G; Andersen, M B

    2001-12-01

    The case for the benefits of physical activity has been well documented in healthy individuals, and the potential for reducing the risk of mental and physical ill health is substantial. Yet, individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) have long been advised to avoid participation in exercise in order to minimise the risk of exacerbations and symptoms of fatigue. There is, however, increasing interest in how acute and chronic exercise affect physiological and psychological functioning in MS. Much of the research has examined physiological tolerance to exercise and focused on responses in terms of heart rate, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle function, and symptom stability. Little research has focused on understanding how exercise affects psychosocial functioning and brings about changes in depression, affect, mood, well-being, and quality of life. This paper provides a summary of the research exploring the efficacy of physical activity for people with MS. In addition, the key issues that face clinical practice are examined, and considerations for research are discussed.

  4. Accuracy of diagnosis of coronary artery disease by radionuclide management of left ventricular function during rest and exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; McEwan, P.; Newman, G.E.; Port, S.; Rerych, S.K.; Scholz, P.M.; Upton, M.T.; Peter, C.A.; Austin, E.H.; Leong, K.H.; Gibbons, R.J.; Cobb, F.R.; Coleman, R.E.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide angiocardiographic measurements of left ventricular function were obtained in 496 patients who underwent cardiac catheterization for chest pain. Two hundred forty-eight of these patients also had an exercise treadmill test. An ejection fraction less than 50% was the abnormality of resting left ventricular function that provided the greatest diagnostic information. In patients with normal resting left ventricular function, exercise abnormalities that were optimal for diagnosis of coronary artery disease were an injection fraction at least 6% less than predicted, an increase greater than 20 ml in end-systolic volume and the appearance of an exercise-induced wall motion abnormality. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were lower in patients who were taking propranolol at the time of study and in patients who failed to achieve an adequate exercise end point. In the 387 patients with an optimal study, the test had a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 58%. Radionuclide angiocardiography was more sensitive and less specific than the exercise treadmill test. The high degree of sensitivity of the radionuclide test suggests that it is most appropriately applied to patient groups with a high prevalence of disease, including those considered for cardiac catheterization

  5. Response of left ventricular volume to exercise in man assessed by radionuclide equilibrium angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.; Karliner, J.; Ricci, D.; Schuler, G.; Pfisterer, M.; Peterson, K.; Ashburn, W.

    1979-01-01

    To assess the effects of exercise on left ventricular volumes we studied 10 normal men, 15 patients with coronary disease who developed angina pectoris during exercise, and 10 patients with known coronary disease who did not develop angina during exercise. Each subject performed supine bicycle exercise under a mobile, single-crystal scintillation camera until angina or fatigue occurred. Technetium-99m bound to human serum albumin was the imaging agent. Data were collected at rest and during the last 2 minutes of each 3-minute stage of exercise and for 10 minutes after exercise. Volumes were calculated by a new radionuclide technique that correlated well with cineangiography and is expressed in nondimensional units. In normal subjects, the end-diastolic volume (EDV) at rest was not different from that a peak exercise. The end-systolic volume (ESV) decreased at peak exercise. ESV decreased progressively in all but two of 30 exercise periods. Angina patients had a larger EDV at rest and during chest pain than normals. Angina patients increased their ESV during chest pain resulting in a decreased ejection fraction (EF). All angina patients had a higher ESV during chest pain than during the exercise stage before chest pain. As a group, patients who did not develop angina had a lower EDV at rest and peak exercise than those who did develop angina. We conclude: that the EF increases during exercise due to a decrease in ESV; that the EF in patients with angina decreases because of an increase in ESV; and that the EF in coronary disease patients without angina shows no change because there is no significant change in the ESV. Radionuclide equilibrium angiography may prove useful for assessing EF and volume changes in patients with coronary artery disease

  6. Specific Physical Exercise Improves Energetic Metabolism in the Skeletal Muscle of Amyotrophic-Lateral- Sclerosis Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Desseille

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the specific loss of motor neurons, leading to muscle paralysis and death. Although the cellular mechanisms underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-induced toxicity for motor neurons remain poorly understood, growing evidence suggest a defective energetic metabolism in skeletal muscles participating in ALS-induced motor neuron death ultimately destabilizing neuromuscular junctions. In the present study, we report that a specific exercise paradigm, based on a high intensity and amplitude swimming exercise, significantly improves glucose metabolism in ALS mice. Using physiological tests and a biophysics approach based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, we unexpectedly found that SOD1(G93A ALS mice suffered from severe glucose intolerance, which was counteracted by high intensity swimming but not moderate intensity running exercise. Furthermore, swimming exercise restored the highly ALS-sensitive tibialis muscle through an autophagy-linked mechanism involving the expression of key glucose transporters and metabolic enzymes, including GLUT4 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH. Importantly, GLUT4 and GAPDH expression defects were also found in muscles from ALS patients. Moreover, we report that swimming exercise induced a triglyceride accumulation in ALS tibialis, likely resulting from an increase in the expression levels of lipid transporters and biosynthesis enzymes, notably DGAT1 and related proteins. All these data provide the first molecular basis for the differential effects of specific exercise type and intensity in ALS, calling for the use of physical exercise as an appropriate intervention to alleviate symptoms in this debilitating disease.

  7. Participant recruitment into a randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy for people with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Sharrack, Basil; Daley, Amanda; Petty, Jane; Woodroofe, Nicola; Saxton, John

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of a clinical trial is often dependant on whether recruitment targets can be met in the required time frame. Despite an increase in research into the benefits of exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), no trial has reported detailed data on effective recruitment strategies for large-scale randomised controlled trials. The main purpose of this report is to provide a detailed outline of recruitment strategies, rates and estimated costs in the Exercise Intervent...

  8. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook an Integrated Field Exercise (IFE14) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5–2 kT underground nuclear explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research paper evaluates two of the OSI techniques used during the IFE14, laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in-situ gamma-spectrometry, both of which were implemented to search for 17 OSI relevant particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and within the Treaty/Protocol-specified OSI timeframes. - Highlights: • The 2014 Integrated Field Exercise occurred in Jordan. • The detection sensitivity for two On-site Inspection techniques was evaluated. • The techniques search for 17 particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. • Laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples was the optimum technique.

  9. Long-term benefits of exercising on quality of life and fatigue in multiple sclerosis patients with mild disability: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Ruth; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Murphy, Raymond P; Cooke, Grace

    2008-03-01

    To determine if exercise benefits patients with multiple sclerosis. Randomized controlled trial. Participants exercised at home and also attended exercise classes held in a hospital physiotherapy gym. Thirty patients, diagnosed and independently mobile, were recruited in the Dublin area. For three months, classes were held twice-weekly and participants exercised independently once-weekly. The control group was monitored monthly and management remained unchanged. Measurements were taken at baseline, three and six months. The Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29 (MSIS-29) and Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis (FAMS) were used to measure fatigue and quality of life (QOL). Heart rate (HR) and the Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) were recorded during an incremental exercise test. The change from baseline scores between groups was compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Twenty-four participants completed the programme (n = 12 in each group). Based on the change in scores at three months, the exercise group had significantly greater improvements in exercise capacity (HR: -14 [-18.5, -2.5] versus 0.5 [-4, 5.5], P= 0.009), QOL (FAMS: 23 [9.5, 42.5] versus -3.5 [-16, 5], P=0.006) and fatigue (MFIS: -13 [-20, -3] versus 1 [-4, 4.5], P=0.02). At six months, the difference in change scores remained significant for FAMS (19 [14, 31] versus -4.5 [-25, 8], P=0.002) and MFIS (-8.5 [-19.5, -1] versus 0.5 [-2.5, 6.5], P=0.02) only. A three-month exercise programme improved participants' exercise capacity, QOL and fatigue, with the improvements in QOL and fatigue lasting beyond the programme.

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation primes the effects of exercise therapy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Francesco; Ljoka, Concetta; Magni, Elisabetta; Codecà, Claudia; Kusayanagi, Hajime; Monteleone, Fabrizia; Sancesario, Andrea; Bernardi, Giorgio; Koch, Giacomo; Foti, Calogero; Centonze, Diego

    2011-07-01

    Exercise therapy (ET) can be beneficial in disabled multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Intermittent transcranial magnetic theta burst stimulation (iTBS) induces long-term excitability changes of the cerebral cortex and may ameliorate spasticity in MS. We investigated whether the combination of iTBS and a program of ET can improve motor disability in MS patients. In a double-blind, sham-controlled trial, 30 participants were randomized to three different interventions: iTBS plus ET, sham stimulation plus ET, and iTBS alone. Before and after 2 weeks of treatment, measures of spasticity through the modified Ashworth scale (MAS) and the 88 items Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Score questionnaire (MSSS-88), fatigue through the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), daily living activities (ADL) through the Barthel index and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) through the 54 items Multiple Sclerosis Quality of life inventory (MSQoL-54) were collected. iTBS plus ET reduced MAS, MSSS-88, FSS scores, while in the Barthel index and MSQoL-54, physical composite scores were increased. iTBS alone caused a reduction of the MAS score, while none of the measured scales showed significant changes after sham iTBS plus ET. iTBS associated with ET is a promising tool for motor rehabilitation of MS patients.

  11. Determinants of exercise-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voilliot, Damien; Magne, Julien; Dulgheru, Raluca; Kou, Seisyou; Henri, Christine; Laaraibi, Saloua; Sprynger, Muriel; Andre, Béatrice; Pierard, Luc A; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2014-05-15

    Exercise-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (EIPH) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) has already been observed but its determinants remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the determinants of EIPH in SSc. We prospectively enrolled 63 patients with SSc (age 54±3years, 76% female) followed in CHU Sart-Tilman in Liège. All patients underwent graded semi-supine exercise echocardiography. Systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) was derived from the peak velocity of the tricuspid regurgitation jet and adding the estimation of right atrial pressure, both at rest and during exercise. Resting pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) was defined as sPAP > 35 mmHg and EIPH as sPAP > 50 mmHg during exercise. The following formulas were used: mean PAP (mPAP) = 0.61 × sPAP + 2, left atrial pressure (LAP)=1.9+1.24 × left ventricular (LV) E/e' and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR)=(mPAP-LAP)/LV cardiac output (CO) and slope of mPAP-LVCO relationship=changes in mPAP/changes in LVCO. Resting PH was present in 3 patients (7%) and 21 patients developed EIPH (47%). Patients with EIPH had higher resting LAP (10.3 ± 2.2 versus 8.8 ± 2.3 mmHg; p = 0.03), resting PVR (2.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.4 ± 1.1 Woods units; p=0.004), exercise LAP (13.3 ± 2.3 vs. 9 ± 1.7 mmHg; p exercise PVR (3.6 ± 0.7 vs. 2.1 ± 0.9 Woods units; p = 0.02) and slope of mPAP-LVCO (5.8 ± 2.4 vs. 2.9 ± 2.1 mmHg/L/min; p age and gender, exercise LAP (β=3.1 ± 0.8; p=0.001) and exercise PVR (β=7.9 ± 1.7; p=0.0001) were independent determinants of exercise sPAP. EIPH is frequent in SSc patients and is mainly related to both increased exercise LV filling pressure and exercise PVR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of Natural Levels of Radionuclides in Proposed Mushroom Reference Material (A Proficiency Test Exercise)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, S.; Rahman, A.; Siddique, N.; Ahmad, S.; Zaidi, J.H.

    2006-08-01

    A proficiency test (PT) was organized within the framework of international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project INT/1/054, entitled 'Preparation' of Reference Materials and Organization of Proficiency Test Rounds'. This exercise served to estimate the proficiency of the analytical laboratories from participating countries. This report presents the results of the proficiency test exercise on the proposed Mushroom Reference Material for the determination of natural levels of radionuclides. Laboratories from 6 different countries submitted data on the following three radionuclides: /sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K. Results for /sup 134/Cs, 137/sup 137/Cs, and /sup 40/K in the mushroom reference material were reported by three or more participating laboratories and could be subjected to statistical evaluation. The original data of these raionuclides was subjected to a computer program 'Histo Vession 2.1' provided by IAEA. The four outlier tests i.e. Dixon, Grubbs, Skewness and Kurtosis were applied to the data sets. All values for these three radionuclides were accepted by the software. Consensus (overall) mean value, absolute standard deviation, relative standard deviation, standard error, median and range of values for these three radionuclides have been are obtained (at significance level 0.05). the consensus mean values and confidence intervals are given./sup 134/Cs: 4.4 Bq/kg (3.4-5.3 Bq/kg) /sup 137/Cs: 2899 Bq/kg (2740-3058 Bq/kg) /sup 40/K: 1136 Bq/kg (1046-1226 Bq/kg). (author)

  13. Exercise prescription for patients with multiple sclerosis; potential benefits and practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabchi, Farzin; Alizadeh, Zahra; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Abolhasani, Maryam

    2017-09-16

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) can result in significant mental and physical symptoms, specially muscle weakness, abnormal walking mechanics, balance problems, spasticity, fatigue, cognitive impairment and depression. Patients with MS frequently decrease physical activity due to the fear from worsening the symptoms and this can result in reconditioning. Physicians now believe that regular exercise training is a potential solution for limiting the reconditioning process and achieving an optimal level of patient activities, functions and many physical and mental symptoms without any concern about triggering the onset or exacerbation of disease symptoms or relapse. Appropriate exercise can cause noteworthy and important improvements in different areas of cardio respiratory fitness (Aerobic fitness), muscle strength, flexibility, balance, fatigue, cognition, quality of life and respiratory function in MS patients. Aerobic exercise training with low to moderate intensity can result in the improvement of aerobic fitness and reduction of fatigue in MS patients affected by mild or moderate disability. MS patients can positively adapt to resistance training which may result in improved fatigue and ambulation. Flexibility exercises such as stretching the muscles may diminish spasticity and prevent future painful contractions. Balance exercises have beneficial effects on fall rates and better balance. Some general guidelines exist for exercise recommendation in the MS population. The individualized exercise program should be designed to address a patient's chief complaint, improve strength, endurance, balance, coordination, fatigue and so on. An exercise staircase model has been proposed for exercise prescription and progression for a broad spectrum of MS patients. Exercise should be considered as a safe and effective means of rehabilitation in MS patients. Existing evidence shows that a supervised and individualized exercise program may improve fitness, functional capacity and

  14. Simultaneous maximal exercise radionuclide angiography and thallium stress perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narahara, K.A.; Mena, I.; Maublant, J.C.; Brizendine, M.; Criley, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Gold-195m is a new ultra-short-lived radionuclide that can be used for cardiac studies. Accurate, reproducible ejection fraction and ventricular wall motion studies can be obtained from first-transit angiography using commercially available imaging and image-processing equipment. The short half-life of gold-195m (30.5 seconds) makes simultaneous dual isotope imaging possible and substantially reduces the radiation exposure from the isotope angiography. The feasibility and possible benefits of performing dual radionuclide studies were evaluated during a single exercise stress test in 24 subjects with known coronary artery disease (CAD) and in 20 normal volunteers. High-quality first-transit angiograms were obtained in all subjects. An 83% sensitivity and 95% specificity for detecting CAD with thallium-201 imaging was noted in this investigation, suggesting that its diagnostic accuracy was not altered by simultaneous dual isotone imaging. When segmental left ventricular (LV) wall motion was compared with thallium-201 perfusion imaging, divergent results were noted in 15 of 44 subjects. An analysis of the ejection fraction (EF) results at rest and stress provided additional information that could be useful in assessing the clinical significance of such differences in segmental wall motion and perfusion. Simultaneous dual isotope imaging appears to be appropriate for situations in which both LV perfusion and function require evaluation. The use of gold-195m allows such information to be obtained from a single exercise test and can thereby reduce the cost and time required for noninvasive evaluations of patients for CAD

  15. Inefficient skeletal muscle oxidative function flanks impaired motor neuron recruitment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranconi, F; Ferri, A; Corna, G; Bonazzi, R; Lunetta, C; Silani, V; Riva, N; Rigamonti, A; Maggiani, A; Ferrarese, C; Tremolizzo, L

    2017-06-07

    This study aimed to evaluate muscle oxidative function during exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (pALS) with non-invasive methods in order to assess if determinants of reduced exercise tolerance might match ALS clinical heterogeneity. 17 pALS, who were followed for 4 months, were compared with 13 healthy controls (CTRL). Exercise tolerance was assessed by an incremental exercise test on cycle ergometer measuring peak O 2 uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2peak ), vastus lateralis oxidative function by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and breathing pattern ([Formula: see text]E peak ). pALS displayed: (1) 44% lower [Formula: see text]O 2peak vs. CTRL (p motor units recruitment, is a major determinant of pALS clinical heterogeneity and working capacity exercise tolerance. CPET and NIRS are useful tools for detecting early stages of oxidative deficiency in skeletal muscles, disclosing individual impairments in the O 2 transport and utilization chain.

  16. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography to detect restenosis following coronary angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Puey, E.G.; Leatherman, L.L.; Dear, W.E.; Leachman, R.D.; Massin, E.K.; Mathur, V.S.; Burdine, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Forty one patients (pts) underwent semiupright exercise gated radionuclide ventriculography (EGRNV) before, within 3 d after single vessel transluminal coronary angioplasty (TCA), and 4 to 12 mos later, at which time follow-up cardiac catheterization was also performed. Prior to TCA 76% of pts had abnormal EGRNV, as defined by a failure to increase ejection fraction (EF) by 5 points or the development of a new regional wall motion abnormality. Stenosis was reduced from 90 +- 7% to 18 +- 17%. Early after TCA, exercise duration and maximum double product increased (p's 20% but <50%; Group III (n=8): ≥ 50%] Pts with abnormal EGRNV early after TCA were demonstrated to have a greater percent increase in stenosis at late follow-up than pts with normal EGRNV (41 +- 30% vs 19 +- 25%, p<.001). Early after TCA EGRNV was abnormal in 5% of Group I pts vs 75% in Group III (p<.01), and EF increased to a greater degree during exercise in Group I pts (+11.3 +- 7.5 vs +3.5 +- 6.5 points, p<.01). At 4-12 mos EGRNV was abnormal in 27% of Group I vs 88% of Group III (p<.01), and during exercise EF increased in Group I pts (+11.8 +- 7.8 points) but decreased in Group III (-1.9 +- 8.7 points) (p<.0005). The accuracy of abnormal EGRNV in predicting ≥ 50% restenosis was 73% early post-TCA and 77% at 4-12 mos. The authors conclude that EGRNV is a valuable test to verify the success of TCA and to detect subsequent restenosis

  17. Pilates exercise training vs. physical therapy for improving walking and balance in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Rosenblum, Uri; Frid, Lior; Achiron, Anat

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate the effects of a Pilates exercise programme on walking and balance in people with multiple sclerosis and compare this exercise approach to conventional physical therapy sessions. Randomized controlled trial. Multiple Sclerosis Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel. Forty-five people with multiple sclerosis, 29 females, mean age (SD) was 43.2 (11.6) years; mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (S.D) was 4.3 (1.3). Participants received 12 weekly training sessions of either Pilates ( n=22) or standardized physical therapy ( n=23) in an outpatient basis. Spatio-temporal parameters of walking and posturography parameters during static stance. Functional tests included the Time Up and Go Test, 2 and 6-minute walk test, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale and the Four Square Step Test. In addition, the following self-report forms included the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. At the termination, both groups had significantly increased their walking speed ( P=0.021) and mean step length ( P=0.023). According to the 2-minute and 6-minute walking tests, both groups at the end of the intervention program had increased their walking speed. Mean (SD) increase in the Pilates and physical therapy groups were 39.1 (78.3) and 25.3 (67.2) meters, respectively. There was no effect of group X time in all instrumented and clinical balance and gait measures. Pilates is a possible treatment option for people with multiple sclerosis in order to improve their walking and balance capabilities. However, this approach does not have any significant advantage over standardized physical therapy.

  18. Exercise as a therapy for improvement of walking ability in adults with multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Melissa; Dieberg, Gudrun; Smart, Neil

    2015-07-01

    To quantify improvements in walking performance commonly observed in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), a systematic literature search and meta-analysis were conducted quantifying the expected benefits of exercise on walking ability in pwMS. Potential studies were identified by systematic search using PubMed (1966 to March 31, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to March 31, 2014), CINAHL (1998 to March 31, 2014), SPORTDiscus (1991 to March 31, 2014), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1966 to March 31, 2014). The search used key concepts of "multiple sclerosis" AND "exercise." Randomized controlled trials of exercise training in adult pwMS. Data on patient and study characteristics, walking ability, 10-m walk test (10mWT), timed 25-foot walk test (T25FW), 2-minute walk test (2MWT), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and timed Up and Go (TUG) were extracted and archived. Data from 13 studies were included. In pwMS who exercised, significant improvements were found in walking speed, measured by the 10mWT (mean difference [MD] reduction in walking time of -1.76s; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.47 to -1.06; Pwalking endurance as measured by the 6MWT and 2MWT, with an increased walking distance of MD=36.46m (95% CI, 15.14-57.79; Pwalking speed and endurance in pwMS. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple sclerosis patients need and want information on exercise promotion from healthcare providers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Adamson, Brynn C; Balto, Julia M; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Molina-Guzman, Isabel; Finlayson, Marcia; Riskin, Barry J; Motl, Robert W

    2017-08-01

    There is growing recognition of the benefits and safety of exercise and its importance in the comprehensive care of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet uptake is low. We explored the needs and wants of patients with MS regarding exercise promotion through healthcare providers. Participants were adults with MS who had mild-or-moderate disability and a range of exercise levels. All participants lived in the Midwest of the United States. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged, namely interactions between patients and healthcare providers and needs and wants of patients. Analysis of participant accounts illustrate that current exercise promotion by healthcare providers does not meet patient needs and wants. The identified needs and wants of persons with MS involved (i) information and knowledge on the benefits of exercise and exercise prescription, (ii) materials to allow home and community exercise and (iii) tools for initiating and maintaining exercise behaviour. Patients with MS frequently interact with healthcare providers and are generally unsatisfied with exercise promotion during interactions. Healthcare providers can address the low uptake of exercise among persons with MS by acting upon the identified unmet needs involving materials, knowledge and behaviour change strategies for exercise. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the interplay with exercise and noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilho, Rita; de Carvalho, Mamede; Swash, Michael; Pinto, Susana; Pinto, Anabela; Costa, Júlia

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with reference to the effects of respiratory failure, noninvasive ventilation (NIV), and exercise. We studied plasma VEGF levels in 83 ALS patients, 20 healthy controls, and 10 patients with other disorders. There were 4 groups of ALS patients: G1, 27 patients without respiratory problems; G2, 14 patients stabilized on nocturnal NIV; G3, 30 patients presenting with respiratory failure; G4, 12 patients on an aerobic exercise protocol. VEGF plasma levels did not differ significantly between ALS patients and controls, or between ALS groups. In G3, the mean VEGF levels increased 75% during NIV. In G4, the mean VEGF level increased by 300% during the exercise program. VEGF levels did not change during the course of the disease. VEGF levels in ALS depend on changes in ventilation and exercise but are probably not affected by the disease process itself. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Exercising Impacts on Fatigue, Depression, and Paresthesia in Female Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razazian, Nazanin; Yavari, Zeinab; Farnia, Vahid; Azizi, Akram; Kordavani, Laleh; Bahmani, Dena Sadeghi; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease impacting both body and mind. Typically, patients with MS report fatigue, depression, and paresthesia. Standard treatment consists of immune modulatory medication, though there is growing evidence that exercising programs have a positive influence on fatigue and psychological symptoms such as depression. We tested the hypothesis that, in addition to the standard immune regulatory medication, either yoga or aquatic exercise can ameliorate both fatigue and depression, and we examined whether these interventions also influence paresthesia compared with a nonexercise control condition. Fifty-four women with MS (mean age: M = 33.94 yr, SD = 6.92) were randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: yoga, aquatic exercise, or nonexercise control. Their existing immune modulatory therapy remained unchanged. Participants completed questionnaires covering symptoms of fatigue, depression, and paresthesia, both at baseline and on completion of the study 8 wk later. Compared with the nonexercise control condition and over time, fatigue, depression, and paresthesia decreased significantly in the yoga and aquatic exercise groups. On study completion, the likelihood of reporting moderate to severe depression was 35-fold higher in the nonexercise control condition than in the intervention conditions (yoga and aquatic exercising values collapsed). The pattern of results suggests that for females with MS and treated with standard immune regulatory medication, exercise training programs such as yoga and aquatic exercising positively impact on core symptoms of MS, namely, fatigue, depression, and paresthesia. Exercise training programs should be considered in the future as possible complements to standard treatments.

  2. Effect of exercise interventions on perceived fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis: synthesis of meta-analytic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Reza; Van der Linden, Marietta L; Mercer, Tom H

    2017-06-01

    Although exercise training has been advocated as a nonpharmacological treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) related fatigue, no consensus exists regarding its effectiveness. To address this, we collated meta-analytic reviews that explored the effectiveness of exercise training for the treatment of MS-related fatigue. We searched five online databases for relevant reviews, published since 2005, and identified 172 records. Five reviews were retained for systematic extraction of information and evidence quality analysis. Although our review synthesis indicated that exercise training interventions have a moderate effect on fatigue reduction in people with MS, no clear insight was obtained regarding the relative effectiveness of specific types or modes of exercise intervention. Moreover, Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation revealed that the overall quality of evidence emanating from these five reviews was 'very low'.

  3. Can aerobic exercise alleviate flu-like symptoms following interferon beta-1a injections in patients with multiple sclerosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langeskov-Christensen, Martin; Kjølhede, Tue; Stenager, Egon

    2016-01-01

    IFNß-1a injections in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise can alleviate FLS following IFNß-1a injections in PwMS, and secondarily to examine whether or not fluctuations in circulating cytokines provide a mechanism that can explain a potential...

  4. Getting the balance right: a randomised controlled trial of physiotherapy and Exercise Interventions for ambulatory people with multiple sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coote, Susan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland run physiotherapy, yoga and exercise classes for their members, however there is little evidence to suggest which form of physical activity optimises outcome for people with the many and varied impairments associated with MS. METHODS AND DESIGN: This is a multi-centre, single blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Participants will be recruited via the ten regional offices of MS Ireland. Telephone screening will establish eligibility and stratification according to the mobility section of the Guys Neurological Disability Scale. Once a block of people of the same strand in the same geographical region have given consent, participants will be randomised. Strand A will concern individuals with MS who walk independently or use one stick to walk outside. Participants will be randomised to yoga, physiotherapy led exercise class, fitness instructor led exercise class or to a control group who don\\'t change their exercise habits.Strand B will concern individuals with MS who walk with bilateral support or a rollator, they may use a wheelchair for longer distance outdoors. Participants will be randomised to 1:1 Physiotherapist led intervention, group intervention led by Physiotherapist, group yoga intervention or a control group who don\\'t change their exercise habits. Participants will be assessed by physiotherapist who is blind to the group allocation at week 1, week 12 (following 10 weeks intervention or control), and at 12 week follow up. The primary outcome measure for both strands is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Secondary outcomes are Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, 6 Minute Walk test, and muscle strength measured with hand held dynamometry. Strand B will also use Berg Balance Test and the Modified

  5. Getting the balance right: a randomised controlled trial of physiotherapy and Exercise Interventions for ambulatory people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, Susan; Garrett, Maria; Hogan, Neasa; Larkin, Aidan; Saunders, Jean

    2009-07-16

    People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland run physiotherapy, yoga and exercise classes for their members, however there is little evidence to suggest which form of physical activity optimises outcome for people with the many and varied impairments associated with MS. This is a multi-centre, single blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Participants will be recruited via the ten regional offices of MS Ireland. Telephone screening will establish eligibility and stratification according to the mobility section of the Guys Neurological Disability Scale. Once a block of people of the same strand in the same geographical region have given consent, participants will be randomised. Strand A will concern individuals with MS who walk independently or use one stick to walk outside. Participants will be randomised to yoga, physiotherapy led exercise class, fitness instructor led exercise class or to a control group who don't change their exercise habits.Strand B will concern individuals with MS who walk with bilateral support or a rollator, they may use a wheelchair for longer distance outdoors. Participants will be randomised to 1:1 Physiotherapist led intervention, group intervention led by Physiotherapist, group yoga intervention or a control group who don't change their exercise habits. Participants will be assessed by physiotherapist who is blind to the group allocation at week 1, week 12 (following 10 weeks intervention or control), and at 12 week follow up. The primary outcome measure for both strands is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Secondary outcomes are Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, 6 Minute Walk test, and muscle strength measured with hand held dynamometry. Strand B will also use Berg Balance Test and the Modified Ashworth Scale. Confounding variables such

  6. Getting the Balance Right: A randomised controlled trial of physiotherapy and Exercise Interventions for ambulatory people with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larkin Aidan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Multiple Sclerosis have a life long need for physiotherapy and exercise interventions due to the progressive nature of the disease and their greater risk of the complications of inactivity. The Multiple Sclerosis Society of Ireland run physiotherapy, yoga and exercise classes for their members, however there is little evidence to suggest which form of physical activity optimises outcome for people with the many and varied impairments associated with MS. Methods and design This is a multi-centre, single blind, block randomised, controlled trial. Participants will be recruited via the ten regional offices of MS Ireland. Telephone screening will establish eligibility and stratification according to the mobility section of the Guys Neurological Disability Scale. Once a block of people of the same strand in the same geographical region have given consent, participants will be randomised. Strand A will concern individuals with MS who walk independently or use one stick to walk outside. Participants will be randomised to yoga, physiotherapy led exercise class, fitness instructor led exercise class or to a control group who don't change their exercise habits. Strand B will concern individuals with MS who walk with bilateral support or a rollator, they may use a wheelchair for longer distance outdoors. Participants will be randomised to 1:1 Physiotherapist led intervention, group intervention led by Physiotherapist, group yoga intervention or a control group who don't change their exercise habits. Participants will be assessed by physiotherapist who is blind to the group allocation at week 1, week 12 (following 10 weeks intervention or control, and at 12 week follow up. The primary outcome measure for both strands is the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Secondary outcomes are Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, 6 Minute Walk test, and muscle strength measured with hand held dynamometry. Strand B will also use Berg Balance Test

  7. Participant recruitment into a randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy for people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Sharrack, Basil; Daley, Amanda; Petty, Jane; Woodroofe, Nicola; Saxton, John

    2015-10-15

    The success of a clinical trial is often dependant on whether recruitment targets can be met in the required time frame. Despite an increase in research into the benefits of exercise in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), no trial has reported detailed data on effective recruitment strategies for large-scale randomised controlled trials. The main purpose of this report is to provide a detailed outline of recruitment strategies, rates and estimated costs in the Exercise Intervention for Multiple Sclerosis (ExIMS) trial to identify best practices for future trials involving multiple sclerosis (MS) patient recruitment. The ExIMS researchers recruited 120 PwMS to participate in a 12-week exercise intervention. Participants were randomly allocated to either exercise or usual-care control groups. Participants were sedentary, aged 18-65 years and had Expanded Disability Status Scale scores of 1.0-6.5. Recruitment strategies included attendance at MS outpatient clinics, consultant mail-out and trial awareness-raising activities. A total of 120 participants were recruited over the course of 34 months. To achieve this target, 369 potentially eligible and interested participants were identified. A total of 60 % of participants were recruited via MS clinics, 29.2 % from consultant mail-outs and 10.8 % through trial awareness. The randomisation yields were 33.2 %, 31.0 % and 68.4 % for MS clinic, consultant mail-outs and trial awareness strategies, respectively. The main reason for ineligibility was being too active (69.2 %), whilst for eligible participants the most common reason for non-participation was the need to travel to the study site (15.8 %). Recruitment via consultant mail-out was the most cost-effective strategy, with MS clinics being the most time-consuming and most costly. To reach recruitment targets in a timely fashion, a variety of methods were employed. Although consultant mail-outs were the most cost-effective recruitment strategy, use of this

  8. Factor analysis of radionuclide ejection fraction response during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamuro, Masashi

    1986-01-01

    In 204 patients with ischemic heart disease and 25 normal subjects who underwent exercise radionuclide ventriculography (RNV), multivariate analyses and other statistical methods were employed to study factors affecting changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (ΔEF). Twenty one variables were obtained from clinical diagnosis, cardiac catheterization, and RNV. Multivariate analyses showed that coronary score for the severity of coronary artery lesions was the most significant factor, followed by exercise duration, resting heart rate, the number of diseased vessels, and exercise heart rate. Statistically significant decrease in ΔEF was associated with regional wall motion abnormality, ECG changes, and chest pain. Lesions in the left main trunk and the proximal area of left anterior descending artery were greatly involved in the decrease of ΔEF. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Impact of Pilates Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Whitney R.D.; Andrushko, Justin W.; Renshaw, Doug W.; Chilibeck, Philip D.; Farthing, Jonathan P.; Danielson, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pilates is a series of exercises based on whole-body movement and may improve mobility in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Pilates on walking performance in people with MS. Methods: 30 individuals with MS who were not restricted to a wheelchair or scooter (Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale score Pilates (twice weekly) and massage therapy (once weekly) or once-weekly massage therapy only (control group). The Pilates was delivered in a group setting (five to ten participants per session). The primary outcome was change in walking performance (6-Minute Walk Test) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included functional ability (Timed Up and Go test), balance (Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale), flexibility (sit and reach test), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), core endurance (plank-hold test), and muscle strength and voluntary activation (quadriceps). Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using a two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: Walking distance increased by a mean (SD) of 52.4 (40.2) m in the Pilates group versus 15.0 (34.1) m in the control group (group × time, P = .01). Mean (SD) time to complete the Timed Up and Go test decreased by 1.5 (2.8) seconds in the Pilates group versus an increase of 0.3 (0.9) seconds in the control group (group × time, P = .03). There were no other significant differences between groups over time. Conclusions: Pilates improved walking performance and functional ability in persons with MS and is a viable exercise option to help manage the disease. PMID:29670495

  10. Improvement of fatigue in multiple sclerosis by physical exercise is associated to modulation of systemic interferon response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero, Patricia; Almansa, Raquel; Neri, María José; Bermejo-Martin, Jesús Francisco; Archanco, Miguel; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Téllez, Nieves

    2015-03-15

    Mechanisms underlying multiple sclerosis (MS) fatigue and the causes of the beneficial effect of exercise on this symptom are not clarified. Our aim was to evaluate gene expression profiles in MS patients who improved their fatigue status after an exercise program and to compare them with healthy controls (HC). Gene expression in whole blood was profiled at baseline in 7 HC and also in 7 fatigued-MS patients. Patients underwent an exercise program for 6 months, and their fatigue status and gene expression profiles were again analyzed. MS patients showed a significant activation of genes participating in the systemic interferon response in comparison with HC that disappeared at the end of the program. Our results provide a biological basis for the observed benefit of exercise in MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamic models for radionuclide transport in agricultural ecosystems: summary of results from a UK code comparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meekings, G.F.; Walters, B.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, models have been developed by three organisations in the UK to represent the time-dependent behaviour of radionuclides in agricultural ecosystems. These models were developed largely independently of each other and, in view of their potential applications in relation to radioactive waste management and discharge, the Food Science Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food initiated a calculational intercomparison exercise with the agreement and cooperation of all three organisations involved. A subset of the results obtained is reported here. In general a high degree of consistency between the results of the various models was obtained particularly regarding the responses with time. The exercise supported the case for using dynamic models in radiological assessment studies. It also demonstrated areas where differences in results from the models are a consequence of a lack of appropriate data on the environmental behaviour of the radionuclides considered. (author)

  12. Qualitative Investigation of Exercise Perceptions and Experiences in People With Multiple Sclerosis Before, During, and After Participation in a Personally Tailored Exercise Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Helen; Carter, Anouska; Humphreys, Liam; Snowdon, Nicky; Daley, Amanda; Woodroofe, Nicola; Sharrack, Basil; Petty, Jane; Saxton, John M

    2017-12-01

    To undertake a qualitative investigation of exercise perceptions and experiences in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) before, during, and after participation in a personally tailored program designed to promote long-term maintenance of self-directed exercise. Focus groups and semistructured telephone interviews. University exercise science department close to the recruiting hospital. PwMS (N=33; mean age ± SD, 47.6±7.9y). Participants were recruited after participation in a randomized controlled exercise trial; all had been allocated to a 12-week exercise program comprising supervised and self-directed exercise sessions. Exercise perceptions and experiences before, during, and after participation in the program. Four themes emerged from the analysis: (1) the transition to inactivity; (2) lack of knowledge and confidence; (3) positive exercise experiences; and (4) perspectives on exercise adherence. Lack of confidence and exercise knowledge, coupled with negative perceptions about physical capabilities after an MS diagnosis, are clear barriers to exercise participation in PwMS. These issues are not being adequately addressed as part of the health care pathway or in community settings. Perceptions of improved posture, ability to overcome everyday difficulties, acute mood enhancements during and after exercise, and increased opportunities for social interaction were among the reported benefits of exercise participation. Despite the provision of a personally tailored exercise plan and use of cognitive behavioral strategies, self-directed exercise continued to present challenges to PwMS, and the importance of seeking cost-effective ways to maintain motivational support was implicit in participant responses. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise radionuclide ventriculographic study of mitral stenosis before and after percutaneous mirtal valvuloplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Do Yun; Shim, Won Heum; Cho, Seung Yun; Kim, Sung Soon; Lee, Woong Ku; Kim, Myeong Jin; Choe, Kyu Ok [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Jung [Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-11-15

    We performed radionuclide ventriculography before and within 1 week after percutaneous mirtal valvuloplasty (PMV) to evaluate left ventricular (LV) function in 20 patients (2 meals and 17 females, mean age of 38 {+-} 10 years) who were pure mitral stenosis before PMV and less than grade 1 mirtal regurgitation developed after PMV. 9 out of 20 patients had atrial fibrillation and 3 patients developed a small left-to-right shunt (Qp/Qs < 1.5) after PMV. PMV using double-balloon technique resulted in a increase in mitral valve area (0.9 {+-} 0.3 to 2.1 {+-} 0.8cm{sup 2}, {rho} < 0.001) and in rest cardiac output (4.2 {+-} 1.0 to 4.8 {+-} 1.4 L/min, {rho} < 0.005). And also a decrease in mean mitral gradient (16.2 {+-} 7.0 to 5.2 {+-} 3.0 mmHg, {rho} < 0.001) was noted. Comparisons of LV function by supine bicycle exercise radionuclide ventriculography before and after PMV showed no significant changes in rest LV ejection fraction (LVEF, 55.2 {+-} 9.7 to 56.1 {+-} 11.0%, {rho} > 0.05), maximal exercise LVEF (60.9 {+-} 10.3 to 59.3 {+-} 11.1%, {rho} > 0.05), peak ejection rate (2.02 {+-} 0.58 to 2.15 {+-} 0.60 EDV/ses, {rho} > 0.05), and peak filling rate (1.04 {+-} 0.55 to 1.52 {+-} 0.49 EDV/ses, {rho} > 0.05). However, LV end diastolic volume (LVEDV, -29.3 {+-} 19.0 to +3.3 {+-} 32.9%, {rho} < 0.001), stroke volume (SV,-22.0 {+-} 22.0 to +11.2 {+-} 40.0%, {rho} < 0.001), and cardiac output (CO, 64.6 {+-} 54.0 to 100.4 {+-} 69.7%, {rho} < 0.05) with exercise compared to resting values were significantly increased. We conclude that PMV resulted in a significant increase in LVEDV, SV, and CO with exercise, but decreased LV systolic performance and no improvement in diastolic filling.

  14. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Effects on Muscle Contractile Characteristics and Exercise Capacity, a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inez Wens

    Full Text Available Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS. The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown.Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11 and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12 or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11, both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks.Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21 ± 7%, HCTR: +23 ± 5%. Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29 ± 6%, whereas type II (+23 ± 7% and IIa (+23 ± 6%, CSA increased in HITR. Muscle strength improved in HITR and HCTR (between +13 ± 7% and +45 ± 20% and body fat percentage tended to decrease (HITR: -3.9 ± 2.0% and HCTR: -2.5 ± 1.2%. Furthermore, endurance capacity (Wmax +21 ± 4%, time to exhaustion +24 ± 5%, VO2max +17 ± 5% and lean tissue mass (+1.4 ± 0.5% only increased in HITR. Finally self-reported physical activity levels increased 73 ± 19% and 86 ± 27% in HCTR and HITR, respectively.High intensity cardiovascular exercise combined with resistance training was safe, well tolerated and improved muscle contractile characteristics and endurance capacity in MS.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01845896.

  15. Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography in the ambulatory monitoring of patients with valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raichlen, J.S.; Brest, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide angiography serves as a valuable adjunct in the noninvasive evaluation and monitoring of patients with valvular heart disease. Although estimations of regurgitant fractions and the differences between left and right ventricular stroke volumes can be made, the limitations of the techniques do not enable adequate quantitation of the severity of valvular insufficiency to warrant routine use in ambulatory management. The importance of radionuclide ventriculography, however, lies in its ability to examine global ventricular function both at rest and with exercise, thus enabling assessment of the functional reserve of the left and right ventricles. Such data are of considerable value in determining the need for invasive evaluation and the timing of valve replacement in patients with valvular heart disease. 41 references.

  16. Rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography in the ambulatory monitoring of patients with valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raichlen, J.S.; Brest, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide angiography serves as a valuable adjunct in the noninvasive evaluation and monitoring of patients with valvular heart disease. Although estimations of regurgitant fractions and the differences between left and right ventricular stroke volumes can be made, the limitations of the techniques do not enable adequate quantitation of the severity of valvular insufficiency to warrant routine use in ambulatory management. The importance of radionuclide ventriculography, however, lies in its ability to examine global ventricular function both at rest and with exercise, thus enabling assessment of the functional reserve of the left and right ventricles. Such data are of considerable value in determining the need for invasive evaluation and the timing of valve replacement in patients with valvular heart disease. 41 references

  17. Physical activity and exercise training in multiple sclerosis: a review and content analysis of qualitative research identifying perceived determinants and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Motl, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review was conducted to provide rich and deep evidence of the perceived determinants and consequences of physical activity and exercise based on qualitative research in multiple sclerosis (MS). Electronic databases and article reference lists were searched to identify qualitative studies of physical activity and exercise in MS. Studies were included if they were written in English and examined consequences/determinants of physical activity in persons with MS. Content analysis of perceived determinants and consequences of physical activity and exercise was undertaken using an inductive analysis guided by the Physical Activity for people with Disabilities framework and Social Cognitive Theory, respectively. Nineteen articles were reviewed. The most commonly identified perceived barriers of physical activity and exercise were related to the environmental (i.e. minimal or no disabled facilities, and minimal or conflicting advice from healthcare professionals) and related to personal barriers (i.e. fatigue, and fear and apprehension). The most commonly identified perceived facilitators of physical activity were related to the environment (i.e. the type of exercise modality and peer support) and related to personal facilitators (i.e. appropriate exercise and feelings of accomplishment). The most commonly identified perceived beneficial consequences of physical activity and exercise were maintaining physical functions, increased social participation and feelings of self-management and control. The most commonly identified perceived adverse consequences were increased fatigue and feelings of frustration and lost control. Results will inform future research on the perceived determinants and consequences of physical activity and exercise in those with MS and can be adopted for developing professional education and interventions for physical activity and exercise in MS. Physical activity and exercise behaviour in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is subject

  18. Walking impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis: exercise training as a treatment option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Motl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Robert W Motl1, Myla D Goldman2, Ralph HB Benedict31Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 2Department of Neurology, University of Virginia, VA, USA; 3Department of Neurology, SUNY Buffalo School of Medicine, Buffalo, NY, USAAbstract: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic disease of the central nervous system that culminates in the progression of physical and cognitive disability over time. Walking impairment is a ubiquitous feature of MS and a sentinel characteristic of the later or advanced stages of the disease. This paper presents a conceptual rationale along with empirical evidence for exercise training as a rehabilitation approach for managing walking impairment and improving walking function in persons with MS. Conceptually, MS is associated with a decrease in physical activity, which, in turn, can result in deconditioning across multiple domains of physiological functioning. The resulting deconditioning feeds back and further drives physical inactivity until a threshold is reached that likely initiates the progression of walking impairment in MS. Empirically, physical activity and exercise training have been associated with beneficial effects on walking function in persons with MS. This is based on cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research that included diversity in the breadth of measures of walking, persons with MS, and exercise/physical activity characteristics. Of particular importance, future researchers might consider examining the combinatory effects of exercise training plus pharmacological agents on walking mobility in MS. Collectively, exercise training and physical activity might hold significant potential for the management of progressive mobility disability in MS.Keywords: mobility, walking, exercise, physical activity, movement

  19. Validation of rest and exercise radionuclide angiography in patients with aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosiewska-Marcinkowska, E.; Rawczynska-Englert, I.; Szumilak, B.; Konieczna, S.; Rozycka-Chrzanowska, B.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the significance of rest and stress test using radionuclide angiography (RA) in assessment of left ventricular (LV) function in the patients with aortic regurgitation (AR). In 32 patients we analyzed pre and 12 months after aortic valve replacement (AVR) the clinical data (including LV cavity dimension, LV hypertrophy, relative heart volume - RHV, the value of diastolic pressure) and the RA at rest and during supine stress test. We compared the clinical data with eject fraction (EF) and rest (EFr), at exercise (EFex) and ΔEF=EFex-EFr. Results show good correlation between clinical data and EF. Conclusions: 1) exercise RA is an useful method of estimation of LV function and after AVR; 2) early evaluation of the reserve of the LV allows to establish the appropriate time for AVR even before the signs of insufficiency of the LV are revealed. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs

  20. Possibilities of exercise radionuclide ventriculography carried out in equilibrium in the detection of ischaemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csernay, L.; Mester, J.; Edes, I.; Pavics, L.; Gruber, N.; Szasz, K.; Csanady, M.

    1985-08-04

    Authors give account of the initiation of the exercise radionuclide ventriculography and of their diagnostic experiences. In 33 control persons and 20 patients with coronary heart disease verified with coronarography, the left ventricular ejection fraction, the wall motion and the systolic and diastolic volume of the left ventricle were examined at rest and during exercise. A decrease or an increase of not more than 5% of ejection fraction, the exercise induced wall motion abnormalities or an increase of resting wall motion disorder were interpreted as an index of underlying significant coronary stenosis. A sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 88% of the method were found. Upon the results, which are in good agreement with literary data, the initiation of the method in nuclear medical laboratories equipped with camera-computer system is proposed

  1. Possibilities of exercise radionuclide ventriculography carried out in equilibrium in the detection of ischaemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernay, Laszlo; Mester, Janos; Edes, Istvan; Pavics, Laszlo; Gruber, Noemi; Szasz, Karoly; Csanady, Miklos

    1985-01-01

    Authors give account of the initiation of the exercise radionuclide ventriculography and of their diagnostic experiences. In 33 control persons and 20 patients with coronary heart disease verified with coronarography, the left ventricular ejection fraction, the wall motion and the systolic and diastolic volume of the left ventricle were examined at rest and during exercise. A decrease or an increase of not more than 5% of ejection fraction, the exercise induced wall motion abnormalities or an increase of resting wall motion disorder were interpreted as an index of underlying significant coronary stenosis. A sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 88% of the method were found. Upon the results, which are in good agreement with literary data, the initiation of the method in nuclear medical laboratories equipped with camera-computer system is proposed. (author)

  2. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Miley, Harry S; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook an Integrated Field Exercise (IFE14) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5-2 kT underground nuclear explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research paper evaluates two of the OSI techniques used during the IFE14, laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in-situ gamma-spectrometry, both of which were implemented to search for 17 OSI relevant particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and within the Treaty/Protocol-specified OSI timeframes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rehabilitation and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    In a chronic and disabling disease like multiple sclerosis, rehabilitation becomes of major importance in the preservation of physical, psychological and social functioning. Approximately 80% of patients have multiple sclerosis for more than 35 years and most will develop disability at some point......, a paradigm shift is taking place and it is now increasingly acknowledged that exercise therapy is both safe and beneficial. Robot-assisted training is also attracting attention in multiple sclerosis rehabilitation. Several sophisticated commercial robots exist, but so far the number of scientific studies...... promising. This drug has been shown to improve walking ability in some patients with multiple sclerosis, associated with a reduction of patients' self-reported ambulatory disability. Rehabilitation strategies involving these different approaches, or combinations of them, may be of great use in improving...

  4. [Cognitive training combined with aerobic exercises in multiple sclerosis patients: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Morales, R M; Herrera-Jimenez, L F; Macias-Delgado, Y; Perez-Medinilla, Y T; Diaz-Diaz, S M; Forn, C

    2017-06-01

    The scientific evidences associated to the effectiveness of different techniques of cognitive rehabilitation are still contradictory. To compare a program of combined training (physical and cognitive) in front of a program of physical training and to observe their effectiveness about the optimization of the cognitive functions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It was carried out an experimental study in 32 patients with MS. The patients were distributed in two groups: 16 to the experimental group (combined cognitive training with aerobic exercises) and 16 patients to the control group (aerobic exercises). The intervention was planned for six weeks combining cognitive tasks by means of a game of dynamic board of cubes and signs (TaDiCS ®) and a program of aerobic exercises. The Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Test and the Stroop Test were applied to evaluate the cognitive yield. Also, the Beck Depression Inventory was administered. There were found significant differences in the intergrupal analysis after the intervention in the variable learning and visuoespacial long term memory (p = 0.000), attention (p = 0.026) and inhibitory control (p = 0.007). Also, in the intragroup analysis there were found significant differences in these variables and information processing speed in the group that received the combined training. These patients also showed a significant improvement in the emotional state (p = 0.043). The cognitive training combined with the aerobic exercises is effective to improve the cognitive performance.

  5. Multimodal exercise training in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial in persons with substantial mobility disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Bollaert, Rachel E; Pilutti, Lara A; Peterson, Melissa L; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    Mobility disability is a common, debilitating feature of multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training has been identified as an approach to improve MS-related mobility disability. However, exercise randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mobility in MS have generally not selectively targeted those with the onset of irreversible mobility disability. The current multi-site RCT compared the efficacy of 6-months of supervised, multimodal exercise training with an active control condition for improving mobility, gait, physical fitness, and cognitive outcomes in persons with substantial MS-related mobility disability. 83 participants with substantial MS-related mobility disability underwent initial mobility, gait, fitness, and cognitive processing speed assessments and were randomly assigned to 6-months of supervised multimodal (progressive aerobic, resistance, and balance) exercise training (intervention condition) or stretching-and-toning activities (control condition). Participants completed the same outcome assessments halfway through and immediately following the 6-month study period. There were statistically significant improvements in six-minute walk performance (F(2158)=3.12, p=0.05, η p 2 =0.04), peak power output (F(2150)=8.16, pmobility disability. This is critical for informing the development of multi-site exercise rehabilitation programs in larger samples of persons with MS-related mobility disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The value of radionuclide phase analysis and parameters of cardial function for diagnosis CAD at rest and during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gang

    1990-01-01

    27 patients and 5 normal were studied with ECG-gated cardial blood pool images and radionuclide phase analysis at rest and during exercise. The results showed that the sensitivity of LVEF in CAD at rest and during exercise were 57% and 71% respectively, and the sensitivity of the ventricular phase in CAD were 79% at rest and 90% during exercise, and the sensitivity of phase angle in CAD were higher than of LVEF. This suggested that the ventricular phase angle was important for diagnosing early CAD. In addition, regional EF, phase image and ventricular wall motion were useful to detect the lesion of ischemia in CAD

  7. Multiple sclerosis patients' experiences in relation to the impact of the kinect virtual home-exercise programme: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Ortiz-Gutierrez, Rosa M; Buesa-Estellez, Almudena; Galán-Del-Río, Fernando; Cachon Perez, José M; Martínez-Piedrola, Rosa; Velarde-Garcia, Juan F; Cano-DE-LA-Cuerda, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Neurorehabilitation programs are among the most popular therapies aimed at reducing the disabilities that result from multiple sclerosis. Video games have recently gained importance in the rehabilitation of patients with motor neurological dysfunctions. Currently, the studies describing the perspective of patients with multiple sclerosis who have participated in rehabilitation programmes via home-based video games are almost inexistent. The aim of this paper was to explore the experiences of multiple sclerosis patients who performed a virtual home-exercise programme using Kinect. A qualitative research enquiry was conducted as part of a study that examined postural control and balance after a 10-week Kinect home-exercise programme in adults with multiple sclerosis. Patients were recruited from a Neurology Unit of a University Hospital. The inclusion criteria were: subjects aged between 20 and 60 years, diagnosed with multiple sclerosis for over 2 years based on the McDonald Criteria; with an EDSS score ranging from 3 to 5. Purposeful sampling method was implemented. The data collection consisted of unstructured interviews, using open questions, and thematic analysis was conducted. Guidelines for conducting qualitative studies established by the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research were followed. Twenty-four patients with a mean age of 36.69 were included. Four main themes emerged from the data: 1) regaining previous capacity and abilities. The patients described how, after the treatment with Kinect they felt more independent; 2) sharing the disease. The patients sharing the experience of living with MS with their family, thanks to the use of Kinect; 3) adapting to the new treatment. This refers to how the use of the videogame console incorporated novelties to their rehabilitation programme; and 4) comparing oneself. This refers to the appearance of factors that motivate the patient during KVHEP. The patients' experiences gathered in this study

  8. Radionuclide angiographical assessment of the effects of aorto-coronary bypass grafting on ventricular function during rest and exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kito, Yoshitsugu; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Ohara, Kuniyoshi

    1983-01-01

    Ventricular function was measured by radionuclide angiography during rest and exercise in 27 patients before and after aorto-coronary bypass grafting (AC bypass). The patients were divided in three groups: 6 patients in complete revascularisation (group A), 8 patients in surgical complete revascularisation (group B), and 13 patients in incomplete revascularisation (group C). Heart rate increased by exercise from 58 +- 5 bpm to 87 +- 5 bpm, from 60 +- 5 bpm to 90 +- 15 bpm, and from 61 +- 8 bpm to 84 +- 7 bpm before AC bypass, and increased from 81 +- 7 bpm to 116 +- 11 bpm, from 86 +- 13 bpm to 114 +- 12 bpm, and from 80 +- 11 bpm to 106 +- 13 bpm after AC bypass in group A, B and C, respecitively. EF decreased by exercise from 61 +- 7 % to 58 +- 12 %, from 53 +- 10 % to 49 +- 7 %, and from 54 +- 8 % to 52 +- 8 % before AC bypass, and increased by exercise from 66 +- 7 % to 77 +- 6 %, from 49 +- 11 % to 56 +- 13 %, and from 54 +- 8 % to 59 +- 10 % after AC bypass in group A,FB and C, respectively. dV/dt(Vmax/sec) increased by exercise from 4.0 +- 1.0 to 4.4 +- 1.0, from 2.5 +- 1.0 to 3.4 +- 1.5 and from 3.5 +- 0.5 to 3.4 +- 0.6 before AC bypass, and increased from 3.9 +- 0.5 to 6.2 +- 0.7, from 3.5 +- 0.9 to 5.0 +- 0.7, and from 3.6 +- 1.0 to 5.4 +- 1.5 after AC bypass in group A,B and C, respectively. In conclusion, left ventricular performance during exercise was significantly increased after AC bypass in all patients. However, the rate of increase in left ventricular performance during exercise after AC bypass was more significant in the group of complete revascularisation than in the group of others. Serial application of radionuclide angiography to patients after AC bypass appears promising in evaluating the long-term effects of operation on ventricular function. (author)

  9. The effects of one period of exercise walking program on textured surface on balance in Multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi Ghaleni M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system with signs and symptoms such as fatigue and balance that are disable. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of training which instructions focus of attention on postural sway of multiple sclerosis patients. Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study used a pretest-posttest design. The subjects with the age of 27-42, expanded disability status scale 1-4 and were purposefully and voluntarily selected and randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups. Training program for groups was carried out in 3 weeks, five sessions per week, and each session lasted about one hour. Berg Balance Scale was used to measure balance. The data was analyzed by using analysis of independent and dependent sample t-test at a significance level of p≤0.05. Results: The results showed that significant improvements observed in balance (p≤0/05. Also significant differences observed between post hoc scores in the experimental and control groups (p≥0/05. Conclusion: According to research findings, the exercise walking program on textured surface resulted in considerable improvements in balance in multiple sclerosis. Also, the respective specialists can use these exercies as a complementary treatment along with the drug therapy for patiens with multiple sclerosis.

  10. Assessment of right ventricular afterload in mitral valve diseases with radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Mitsuharu; Nakagawa, Tomio; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Masahiro; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Hiraki, Yoshio; Nagaya, Isao; Senoh, Yoshimasa; Teramoto, Shigeru

    1991-01-01

    Right ventricular function at rest and during exercise was studied in 33 patients with mitral valve disease by equilibrium gated radionuclide angiography using 99m Tc in vivo labeled red blood cells. Radionuclide measurements of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) were correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP). RVEF decreased significantly with exercise. There was no significant correlation between RVEF at rest and mPAP. However, mPAP showed significant negative correlation with RVEF during exercise and with the changes of RVEF from rest to exercise. It is concluded that RVEF during exercise in mitral valve disease is affected by right ventricular afterload, and the measurements of RVEF at rest and during exercise by equilibrium gated radionuclide angiography is useful to assess right ventricular afterload. (author)

  11. Motoneuron survival is promoted by specific exercise in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforges, Séverine; Branchu, Julien; Biondi, Olivier; Grondard, Clément; Pariset, Claude; Lécolle, Sylvie; Lopes, Philippe; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Chanoine, Christophe; Charbonnier, Frédéric

    2009-07-15

    Several studies using transgenic mouse models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have reported a life span increase in exercised animals, as long as animals are submitted to a moderate-intensity training protocol. However, the neuroprotective potential of exercise is still questionable. To gain further insight into the cellular basis of the exercise-induced effects in neuroprotection, we compared the efficiency of a swimming-based training, a high-frequency and -amplitude exercise that preferentially recruits the fast motor units, and of a moderate running-based training, that preferentially triggers the slow motor units, in an ALS mouse model. Surprisingly, we found that the swimming-induced benefits sustained the motor function and increased the ALS mouse life span by about 25 days. The magnitude of this beneficial effect is one of the highest among those induced by any therapeutic strategy in this disease. We have shown that, unlike running, swimming significantly delays spinal motoneuron death and, more specifically, the motoneurons of large soma area. Analysis of the muscular phenotype revealed a swimming-induced relative maintenance of the fast phenotype in fast-twitch muscles. Furthermore, the swimming programme preserved astrocyte and oligodendrocyte populations in ALS spinal cord. As a whole, these data are highly suggestive of a causal relationship not only linking motoneuron activation and protection, but also motoneuron protection and the maintenance of the motoneuron surrounding environment. Basically, exercise-induced neuroprotective mechanisms provide an example of the molecular adaptation of activated motoneurons.

  12. Strategies to reduce hyperthermia in ambulatory multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Cox, Mary Jude; Long, William B; Winters, Kathryne L; Becker, Daniel G

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 400,000 Americans have multiple sclerosis. Worldwide, multiple sclerosis affects 2.5 million individuals. Multiple sclerosis affects two to three times as many women as men. The adverse effects of hyperthermia in patients with multiple sclerosis have been known since 1890. While most patients with multiple sclerosis experience reversible worsening of their neurologic deficits, some patients experience irreversible neurologic deficits. In fact, heat-induced fatalities have been encountered in multiple sclerosis patients subjected to hyperthermia. Hyperthermia can be caused through sun exposure, exercise, and infection. During the last 50 years, numerous strategies have evolved to reduce hyperthermia in individuals with multiple sclerosis, such as photoprotective clothing, sunglasses, sunscreens, hydrotherapy, and prevention of urinary tract infections. Hydrotherapy has become an essential component of rehabilitation for multiple sclerosis patients in hospitals throughout the world. On the basis of this positive hospital experience, hydrotherapy has been expanded through the use of compact aquatic exercise pools at home along with personal cooling devices that promote local and systemic hypothermia in multiple sclerosis patients. The Multiple Sclerosis Association of America and NASA have played leadership roles in developing and recommending technology that will prevent hyperthermia in multiple sclerosis patients and should be consulted for new technological advances that will benefit the multiple sclerosis patient. In addition, products recommended for photoprotection by The Skin Cancer Foundation may also be helpful to the multiple sclerosis patient's defense against hyperthermia. Infections in the urinary tract, especially detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia, are initially managed conservatively with intermittent self-catheterization and pharmacologic therapy. In those cases, refractory to conservative therapy, transurethral external

  13. Real-time radionuclide cineangiography in the noninvasive evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function at rest and during exercise in patients with coronary-artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, J.S.; Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Kent, K.M.; Epstein, S.E.; Johnston, G.S.

    1977-01-01

    Although coronary angiography defines regions of potential ischemia in patients with coronary-artery disease, accurate assessment of the presence and functional importance of ischemia requires appraisal of regional and global left ventricular function during stress. To perform such assessment, we developed a noninvasive real-time radionuclide cineangiographic procedure permitting continuous monitoring and analysis of left ventricular function during exercise. In 11 patients with coronary disease who had normal regional and global ventricular function at rest, new regions of dysfunction developed during exercise (P less than 0.001), and in 10, global ejection fraction dropped 7 to 47 percent. Fourteen age-matched normal subjects were studied; during exercise none had regional dysfunction, and each increased global ejection fraction (average increase, 23 +- 3 percent [+-S.E.], P less than 0.001 as compared with patients with coronary disease). Radionuclide cineangiography during exercise permits accurate assessment of the presence and functional severity of ischemic heart disease

  14. Effect of 12-Week Pilates Trainning on EDSS in Women Suffering fromMultiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Shanazari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Multiple sclerosis is a debilitating disease that strikes the immune system. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease which debilitates the nervous system. The study was evaluated the effects of Pilates exercise on women with physical disabilities suffering from multiple sclerosis for 12 weeks .The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of Pilates trainning on EDSS of women suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS for 12 weeks. Methods: In the present clinical trial study, 38 patients age 20-40 years (mean disease duration of 8±2 years with multiple sclerosis grade 0-4.5 were selected. The Patients were randomly divided into two groups: experimental and control groups. The training program for pilates, 12 weeks, three sessions a week, with each session consisting of 60 minutes. Patients' physical disability was measured using Krutzke Expanded Disability Status Scale, before and after exercise. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA test. Results: Physical disability scores before and after the exercise in intervention was 47.1 and 37 and in the control group, was 93.1 and 43.1 respectively, which was significantly different in the intervention group before and after training (p<0.05. Conclusion: Pilates training improves the physical disability of MS patients. Therefore, this exercise can be used as a complementary treatment alongside drug treatments. Key Words: Multiple Sclerosis, Women, Pilates, EDSS

  15. The significance of abnormal systolic blood pressure response during supine ergometer exercise and postexercise in ischemic heart disease, studied by exercise radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Masuoka, Takeshi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal response to blood pressure (BP) during exercise and postexercise was examined in 169 patients with ischemic heart disease. The patients underwent supine ergometer exercise gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and coronary arteriography. When BP during exercise did not increase by at least 11 mmHg or initially increased but later decreased by more than 10 mmHg, the BP response was defined as abnormal during exercise. A postexercise BP increase of more than 10 mmHg above the peak exercise BP was defined as abnormal during postexercise. Fifteen-one patients (30%) were classified as abnormal (group 1) and the other 118 as normal (group 2). Abnormal BP response fell into three types: (1a) exercise hypotension (n=11), (1b) postexercise hypertension (n=30), and (1c) exercise hypotension with postexercise hypertension (n=10). Both average exercise duration and peak heart rate were significantly lower in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c than group 2. Exercise ST-segment depression was more noticeable in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. However, there was no significant difference in the severitiy of exercise ST-segment depression between groups 1a and 2. A decline in ejection fraction occurred more frequently in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. Patients in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c had more extensive coronary artery disease than did patients in group 2. Medically managed patients having an abnormal BP response had a poorer prognosis than those with a normal BP response. An abnormal BP response during both supine exercise and postexercise was infrequent. The abnormal BP during exercise may be usually associated with impaired exercise tolerance and severe coronary artery disease; and that during postexercise may be closely associated with myocardial ischemia and global left ventricular dysfunction. Postexercise hypertension may be of the same value as exercise hypotension in predicting poor prognosis. (Namekawa, K)

  16. Computer analysis of the exercise electrocardiogram and control of radionuclide ventriculography: an optimal statistical decision model for diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsia, P.W.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new automated technique for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) by stress electrocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) has been developed. The method employs digital signal processing of the electrocardiogram (ECG) for recognition of ischemic and arrhythmic events. On-line detection of abnormal beats is used for control image acquisition by the gamma camera resulting in improved image quality since only identical beats are included in the composite images of the cardiac cycle. A combined stress ECG analysis which measures ST changes indicative of ischemia, and radionuclide results, which reveal corresponding ejection fraction abnormalities yields greater sensitivity and specificity than either test alone. Digitized data from the electrocardiogram are analyzed in a beat-by-beat mode and a contextual diagnosis of underlying rhythm is given. Template generation, R wave detection, QRS window size, baseline correction, and continuous updating of heart rate are completely automated. A statistical model base on computerized ST segment measurements combined with radionuclide ventriculography data has been developed by using a logistic model with stepwise regression fitting. A previously acquired database of similar measurements was used for designing the model. The most significant parameters were found to be (1) ejection fraction of exercise RNV; (2) difference of ST level between exercise and resting test (stdif); and (3) ejection fraction difference between exercise and resting test. The new parameter stdif, not previously used in ECG interpretation, was found to be of great diagnostic significance

  17. Radionuclide determination of right and left ventricular stroke volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei Feng; Roubin, G S; Choong, C Y.P.; Harris, P J; Flether, P J; Kelly, D T; Uren, R F; Hutton, B F

    1985-03-01

    The relationship between radionuclide and thermodilution measurement of stroke volumes (SV) was investigated in 30 patients without valvular regurgitation or intracardiac shunt (group A) at rest and during exercise. Both attenuated radionuclide right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) SV measurements correlated well with the SV determined by the thermodilution method (r = 0.87 and r = 0.93, all P < 0.001). The reliability of the radionuclide method to estimate SV was evaluated prospectively in two additional groups of patients. In 11 patients without valvular regurgitation or intracardiac shunt (group B) the radionuclide RVSV and LVSV closely approximated to thermodilution SV at rest and during exercise. In 15 patients with aortic regurgitation (group C) the radionuclide stroke volume ratio correlated well with the angiographic regurgitant fraction. Thus, both RVSV and LVSV and the severity of aortic regurgitation can be reliably measured with gated radionuclide ventriculography.

  18. Exercise tolerance in mitral stenosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Evaluation by anaerobic threshold and radionuclide ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenami, Atsushi; Mizuno, Toshikazu; Chiba, Hiroshi; Ohno, Masanori; Wakino, Kouichi; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Joichi; Kume, Kiyoshi

    1986-06-01

    Serial radionuclide ventriculography was performed using a newly developed ''real-time'' system, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) were measured during graded supine exercise in five patients with mitral stenosis (MS), in five patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in five healthy subjects. Simultaneous pulmonary gas exchange analysis permitted determining the anaerobic threshold, which is the point during incremental exercise when lactate begins to accumulate in the blood. LVEF at the anaerobic threshold was not significantly changed in any patient groups and in healthy subjects, but RVEF at the anaerobic threshold was lower in COPD and MS patients as compared with healthy subjects. In MS, SV during exercise was reduced at the anaerobic threshold, but not in COPD or in healthy subjects. In conclusion, reduced working capacity is related to decreased RVEF in both COPD and MS, but the inhibited increase in CO during exercise is also important for the working capacity in MS.

  19. Can isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) prevent myocardial ischemia during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease; An assessment with radionuclide ventriculography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Koyama, Takao; Aoki, Toshikazu; Okamoto, Shinya; Setsuda, Morimichi; Futagami, Yasuo; Nakano, Takeshi (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    The effects of sublingual isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) on left ventricular function during exercise were evaluated in 8 patients with coronary artery disease. ECG gated multistage exercise radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was performed to assess the global and regional left ventricular function before and after sublingual ISND. Chest pain during exercise was observed in six patients (75%) during exercise but subsided negative ISDN. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) during stress did not show improved significant change during exercise (from 64.4 {plus minus} 8.7% to 64.6 {plus minus} 8.3%) but increased significantly from 66.0 {plus minus} 6.3% to 69.9 {plus minus} 8.6% after ISDN. Left ventricular end-systolic volume increased during exercise from 56.9 {plus minus} 19.6 ml to 68.0 {plus minus} 15.9 ml, but the increase was suppressed (from 49.1 {plus minus} 11.0 ml to 44.5 {plus minus} 15.5 ml) after ISDN. ISDN prevented not only cardiac symptoms nor ECG changes but also improved abnormal left ventricular function during exercise. (author).

  20. Identifying preferred format and source of exercise information in persons with multiple sclerosis that can be delivered by health-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Adamson, Brynn C; Balto, Julia M; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Molina-Guzman, Isabel M; Finlayson, Marcia; Riskin, Barry J; Motl, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    There is increasing recognition of the benefits of exercise in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet the MS population does not engage in sufficient amounts of exercise to accrue health benefits. There has been little qualitative inquiry to establish the preferred format and source for receiving exercise information from health-care providers among persons with MS. We sought to identify the desired and preferred format and source of exercise information for persons with MS that can be delivered through health-care providers. Participants were adults with MS who had mild or moderate disability and participated in a range of exercise levels. All participants lived in the Midwest of the United States. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged, (i) approach for receiving exercise promotion and (ii) ideal person for promoting exercise. Persons with MS want to receive exercise information through in-person consultations with health-care providers, print media and electronic media. Persons with MS want to receive exercise promotion from health-care providers with expertise in MS (ie neurologists) and with expertise in exercise (eg physical therapists). These data support the importance of understanding how to provide exercise information to persons with MS and identifying that health-care providers including neurologists and physical therapists should be involved in exercise promotion. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The effect of exercise training in adults with multiple sclerosis with severe mobility disability: A systematic review and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Pilutti, Lara A

    2017-08-01

    There is evidence for the benefits of exercise training in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, these benefits have primarily been established in individuals with mild-to-moderate disability (i.e., Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] scores 1.0-5.5), rather than among those with significant mobility impairment. Further, the approaches to exercise training that have been effective in persons with mild-to-moderate MS disability may not be physically accessible for individuals with mobility limitations. Therefore, there is a demand for an evidence-base on the benefits of physically accessible exercise training approaches for managing disability in people with MS with mobility impairment. To conduct a systematic review of the current literature pertaining to exercise training in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) with severe mobility disability. Four electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, OvidMEDLINE, and PsychINFO) were searched for relevant articles published up until October 2016. The review focused on English-language studies that examined the effect of exercise training in people with MS with severe mobility disability, characterized as the need for assistance in ambulation or EDSS score ≥ 6.0. The inclusion criteria involved full-text articles that: (i) included participants with a diagnosis of MS; (ii) included primarily participants with a reported EDSS score ≥ 6.0 and/or definitively described disability consistent with this level of neurological impairment; and (iii) implemented a prospective, structured exercise intervention. Data were analyzed using a descriptive approach and summarized by exercise training modality (conventional or adapted exercise training), and by outcome (disability, physical fitness, physical function, and symptoms and participation). Initially, 1164 articles were identified and after removal of duplicates, 530 articles remained. In total, 512 articles did not meet the inclusion criteria. 19 articles were

  2. Exercise and disease progression in multiple sclerosis: can exercise slow down the progression of multiple sclerosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik; Stenager, Egon

    2012-01-01

    studies evaluating the effects on clinical outcome measures, (2) cross-sectional studies evaluating the relationship between fitness status and MRI findings, (3) cross-sectional and longitudinal studies evaluating the relationship between exercise/physical activity and disability/relapse rate and, finally......, (4) longitudinal exercise studies applying the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model of MS. Data from intervention studies evaluating disease progression by clinical measures (1) do not support a disease-modifying effect of exercise; however, MRI data (2), patient-reported data...... (3) and data from the EAE model (4) indicate a possible disease-modifying effect of exercise, but the strength of the evidence limits definite conclusions. It was concluded that some evidence supports the possibility of a disease-modifying potential of exercise (or physical activity) in MS patients...

  3. Systematic, Evidence-Based Review of Exercise, Physical Activity, and Physical Fitness Effects on Cognition in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W; Scudder, Mark R; DeLuca, John

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence suggests that exercise might have beneficial effects on cognition in this population. The current systematic, evidence-based review examined the existing literature on exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness effects on cognition in MS to accurately describe the current status of the field, offer recommendations for clinicians, and identify study-specific and participant-specific characteristics for providing future direction for ongoing MS research. We performed an open-dated search of Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL in December 2015. The search strategy involved using the terms 'exercise' OR 'physical activity' OR 'physical fitness' OR 'aerobic' OR 'resistance' OR 'balance' OR 'walking' OR 'yoga' OR 'training' OR 'rehabilitation' AND 'multiple sclerosis'. Articles were eliminated from the systematic review if it was a review article, theoretical paper, or textbook chapter; did not involve persons with MS; involved only persons with pediatric-onset MS; did not involve neuropsychological outcomes; did not include empirical data to evaluate outcomes; involved pharmacological interventions; or was not available in English. The selected articles were first classified as examining exercise, physical activity, or physical fitness, and were then randomly assigned to 2 independent reviewers who rated each article for level of evidence based on American Academy of Neurology criteria. Reviewers further completed a table to characterize important elements of each study (i.e., intervention characteristics), the cognitive domain(s) that were targeted, participant-specific characteristics, outcome measures, and study results. The present review resulted in 26 studies on the effects of exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness on cognition in persons with MS. This included 1 Class I study, 3 Class II studies, 8 Class III studies, and

  4. Hemodynamic and radionuclide effects of acute captopril therapy for heart failure: changes in left and right ventricular volumes and function at rest and during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massie, B.; Kramer, B.L.; Topic, N.; Henderson, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Although the resting hemodynamic effects of captopril in congestive heart failure are known, little information is available about the hemodynamic response to captopril during exercise or about changes in noninvasive measurements of the size and function of both ventricles. In this study, 14 stable New York Heart Association class III patients were given 25 mg of oral captopril. Rest and exercise hemodynamic measurements and blood pool scintigrams were performed simultaneously before and 90 minutes after captopril. The radionuclide studies were analyzed for left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes, end-systolic volumes, ejection fractions and pulmonary blood volume. The primary beneficial responses at rest were decreases in left and right ventricular end-diastolic volumes from 388 +/- 81 to 350 +/- 77 ml and from 52 +/- 26 to 43 +/- 20 volume units, respectively, and in their corresponding filling pressures, from 24 +/- 10 to 17 +/- 9 mm Hg and 10 +/- 5 to 6 +/- 5 mm Hg. Although stroke volume did not increase significantly, both left and right ventricular ejection fractions increased slightly, from 19 +/- 6% to 22+/- 5% and from 25 +/- 9% to 29 +/- 11%, respectively. During exercise, similar changes were noted in both hemodynamic and radionuclide indexes. This, in patients with moderate symptomatic limitation from chronic heart failure, captopril predominantly reduces ventricular volume and filling pressure, with a less significant effect on cardiac output. These effects persist during exercise, when systemic vascular resistance is already very low. Radionuclide techniques are valuable in assessing the drug effect in these subjects, particularly when ventricular volumes are also measured

  5. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure in patients with multiple sclerosis - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Wittrin, Anna; Kånåhols, Margareta; Gunnarsson, Martin; Nilsagård, Ylva

    2016-11-01

    Breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure are often recommended to patients with advanced neurological deficits, but the potential benefit in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with mild and moderate symptoms has not yet been investigated in randomized controlled trials. To study the effects of 2 months of home-based breathing exercises for patients with mild to moderate MS on respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and subjective breathing and health status outcomes. Forty-eight patients with MS according to the revised McDonald criteria were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Patients performing breathing exercises (n = 23) were compared with a control group (n = 25) performing no breathing exercises. The breathing exercises were performed with a positive expiratory pressure device (10-15 cmH 2 O) and consisted of 30 slow deep breaths performed twice a day for 2 months. Respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure at the mouth), spirometry, oxygenation, thoracic excursion, subjective perceptions of breathing and self-reported health status were evaluated before and after the intervention period. Following the intervention, there was a significant difference between the breathing group and the control group regarding the relative change in lung function, favoring the breathing group (vital capacity: P < 0.043; forced vital capacity: P < 0.025). There were no other significant differences between the groups. Breathing exercises may be beneficial in patients with mild to moderate stages of MS. However, the clinical significance needs to be clarified, and it remains to be seen whether a sustainable effect in delaying the development of respiratory dysfunction in MS can be obtained. © 2015 The Authors. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-384. Radionuclides in Fangataufa lagoon sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Pham, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    The accurate and precise determinations of radionuclide concentrations in marine samples are important aspects of marine radioactivity assessments and the use of radionuclides in studies of oceanographic processes. To address the problem of data quality, and to assist Member States in verifying the performance of their laboratories, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's programme of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). For this intercomparison exercise, in 1996 IAEA-MEL collected sediment in Fangataufa lagoon, French Polynesia. The sample aliquots were distributed during 1997-1998 for intercomparison of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. 110 laboratories worldwide agreed to participate. Of these, only 94 sent results which could be used in the evaluation of this intercomparison exercise. This report describes the results obtained from 94 laboratories on anthropogenic and natural radionuclide determinations in Fangataufa lagoon sediment

  7. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-384. Radionuclides in Fangataufa lagoon sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinec, P P; Pham, M K

    2000-07-01

    The accurate and precise determinations of radionuclide concentrations in marine samples are important aspects of marine radioactivity assessments and the use of radionuclides in studies of oceanographic processes. To address the problem of data quality, and to assist Member States in verifying the performance of their laboratories, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's programme of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). For this intercomparison exercise, in 1996 IAEA-MEL collected sediment in Fangataufa lagoon, French Polynesia. The sample aliquots were distributed during 1997-1998 for intercomparison of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. 110 laboratories worldwide agreed to participate. Of these, only 94 sent results which could be used in the evaluation of this intercomparison exercise. This report describes the results obtained from 94 laboratories on anthropogenic and natural radionuclide determinations in Fangataufa lagoon sediment.

  8. Right and left ventricular ejection fraction at rest and during exercise assessed with radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstroem, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Right (RVEF) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) assessed with radionuclide angiocardiography were compared to simultaneously obtained catheterization results at rest and during exercise in patients with pulmonary hypertension and ischemic heart disease. Blood pool imaging was performed with red blood cells (RBC) labelled with 99 Tcsup(m) in vivo as this method gave more stable 99 Tcsup(m) levels in blood compared to 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled human serum albumin and because it was more convenient than labelling RBC in vitro. RVEF measured with first pass (FP) technique and equilibrium (EQ) technique correlated well at rest, r = 0.86, and during exercise, r = 0.91. The FP technique had the best reproducibility and reference values at rest were 49+-5 per cent increasing with exercise. When 99 Tcsup(m) and 133 Xe were compared to assess RVEF with FP technique, the correlation was good, r = 0.88. LVEF assessed with EQ technique and a fixed end-diastolic region of interest was very reproducible at rest and during exercise; reference values at rest were 56+-8 per cent increasing with exercise. In 10 patients with pulmonary hypertension significant negative correlations were found between RVEF assessed with FP technique and pressures in pulmonary artery and right atrium. Abnormal RVEF was found in all patients with right ventricular disfunction. In 22 patients with recent myocardial infarction measurements of LVEF detected left ventricular disfunction better than did measurement of pulmonary artery diastolic pressure. During effort angina in another 10 patients all had abnormal LVEF and abnormal hemodynamics. By combining ejection fraction and stroke volume, ventricular volumes were calculated at rest and during exercise. (author)

  9. A systematic review of the effect of moderate intensity exercise on function and disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Andrew J; Byl, Nancy N

    2009-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an idiopathic disease of adults affecting upper and lower motor neurons. In one to four years, progressive weakness, spasticity, and respiratory insufficiency compromise independence and survival. Current medical treatment is limited to medication and supportive care. The benefit and harm of moderate physical exercise are controversial. This review examined current research related to moderate exercise for maintaining independence without accelerating disease progression in persons with ALS. An evidence-based search was conducted using keywords alone and in combination (ALS, exercise, Lou Gehrig's disease, physical therapy) to search PubMed, PEDro, Hooked on Evidence, Ovid, and Cochrane databases. Human and animal models were included and graded on level of evidence and strength of recommendations for developing guidelines to practice. A secondary reviewer evaluated all selected studies, and statistics were calculated. The search yielded the following nine studies: four small clinical studies, one clinical systematic review, and four randomized, controlled trials based on animal models. In human studies, there were small to moderate effect sizes supporting the benefit of moderate exercise in persons with early-stage ALS, with no adverse affects on disease progression or survival time. In transgenic mice with superoxide dismutase-1 ALS, moderate exercise most often had a moderate effect size for increasing life span. Large randomized clinical trials are needed to develop specific exercise guidelines. However, evidence suggests that moderate exercise is not associated with adverse outcomes in persons with early-stage ALS. Moderate exercise programs can be safely adapted to abilities, interests, specific response to exercise, accessibility, and family support.

  10. Impact of Pilates Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Whitney R D; Andrushko, Justin W; Renshaw, Doug W; Chilibeck, Philip D; Farthing, Jonathan P; Danielson, Jana; Evans, Charity D

    2018-01-01

    Pilates is a series of exercises based on whole-body movement and may improve mobility in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Pilates on walking performance in people with MS. 30 individuals with MS who were not restricted to a wheelchair or scooter (Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale score Pilates (twice weekly) and massage therapy (once weekly) or once-weekly massage therapy only (control group). The Pilates was delivered in a group setting (five to ten participants per session). The primary outcome was change in walking performance (6-Minute Walk Test) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included functional ability (Timed Up and Go test), balance (Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale), flexibility (sit and reach test), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), core endurance (plank-hold test), and muscle strength and voluntary activation (quadriceps). Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using a two-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance. Walking distance increased by a mean (SD) of 52.4 (40.2) m in the Pilates group versus 15.0 (34.1) m in the control group (group × time, P = .01). Mean (SD) time to complete the Timed Up and Go test decreased by 1.5 (2.8) seconds in the Pilates group versus an increase of 0.3 (0.9) seconds in the control group (group × time, P = .03). There were no other significant differences between groups over time. Pilates improved walking performance and functional ability in persons with MS and is a viable exercise option to help manage the disease.

  11. Incremental value of clinical assessment, supine exercise electrocardiography, and biplane exercise radionuclide ventriculography in the prediction of coronary artery disease in men with chest pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, P.J.; Kelly, M.J.; Harper, R.W.; Federman, J.; Kalff, V.; Anderson, S.T.; Pitt, A.

    1983-01-01

    The incremental value of clinical assessment, exercise electrocardiography (ECG) and biplane radionuclide ventriculography (RVG) in the prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD) was assessed in 105 men without myocardial infarction who were undergoing coronary angiography for investigation of chest pain. Independent clinical assessment of chest pain was made prospectively by 2 physicians. Graded supine bicycle exercise testing was symptom-limited. Right anterior oblique ECG-gated first-pass RVG and left anterior oblique ECG-gated equilibrium RVG were performed at rest and exercise. Regional wall motion abnormalities were defined by agreement of 2 of 3 blinded observers. A combined strongly positive exercise ECG response was defined as greater than or equal to 2 mm ST depression or 1.0 to 1.9 mm ST depression with exercise-induced chest pain. A multivariate logistic regression model for the preexercise prediction of CAD was derived from the clinical data and selected 2 variables: chest pain class and cholesterol level. A second model assessed the incremental value of the exercise test in prediction of CAD and found 2 exercise variables that improved prediction: RVG wall motion abnormalities, and a combined strongly positive ECG response. Applying the derived predictive models, 37 of the 58 patients (64%) with preexercise probabilities of 10 to 90% crossed either below the 10% probability threshold or above the 90% threshold and 28 (48%) also moved across the 5 and 95% thresholds. Supine exercise testing with ECG and biplane RVG together, but neither test alone, effectively adds to clinical prediction of CAD. It is most useful in men with atypical chest pain and when the ECG and RVG results are concordant

  12. Comparison of exercise radionuclide angiography with thallium SPECT imaging for detection of significant narrowing of the left circumflex coronary artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilsizian, V.; Perrone-Filardi, P.; Cannon, R.O. III; Freedman, N.M.; Bacharach, S.L.; Bonow, R.O.

    1991-01-01

    Although quantitation of exercise thallium tomograms has enhanced the noninvasive diagnosis and localization of coronary artery disease, the detection of stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery remains suboptimal. Because posterolateral regional wall motion during exercise is well assessed by radionuclide angiography, this study determined whether regional dysfunction of the posterolateral wall during exercise radionuclide angiography is more sensitive in identifying left circumflex disease than thallium perfusion abnormalities assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). One hundred ten consecutive patients with CAD were studied, of whom 70 had a significant stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery or a major obtuse marginal branch. Both regional function and segmental thallium activity of the posterolateral wall were assessed using visual and quantitative analysis. Left ventricular regional function was assessed objectively by dividing the left ventricular region of interest into 20 sectors; the 8 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral free wall were used to assess function in the left circumflex artery distribution. Similarly, using circumferential profile analysis of short-axis thallium tomograms, left ventricular myocardial activity was subdivided into 64 sectors; the 16 sectors corresponding to the posterolateral region were used to assess thallium perfusion abnormalities in the left circumflex artery territory. Qualitative posterolateral wall motion analysis detected 76% of patients with left circumflex coronary artery stenosis, with a specificity of 83%, compared with only 44% by qualitative thallium tomography (p less than 0.001) and a specificity of 92%

  13. Automated system for ST segment and arrhythmia analysis in exercise radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsia, P.W.; Jenkins, J.M.; Shimoni, Y.; Gage, K.P.; Santinga, J.T.; Pitt, B.

    1986-01-01

    A computer-based system for interpretation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in the diagnosis of arrhythmia and ST segment abnormality in an exercise system is presented. The system was designed for inclusion in a gamma camera so the ECG diagnosis could be combined with the diagnostic capability of radionuclide ventriculography. Digitized data are analyzed in a beat-by-beat mode and a contextual diagnosis of underlying rhythm is provided. Each beat is assigned a beat code based on a combination of waveform analysis and RR interval measurement. The waveform analysis employs a new correlation coefficient formula which corrects for baseline wander. Selective signal averaging, in which only normal beats are included, is done for an improved signal-to-noise ratio prior to ST segment analysis. Template generation, R wave detection, QRS window size, baseline correction, and continuous updating of heart rate have all been automated. ST level and slope measurements are computed on signal-averaged data. Arrhythmia analysis of 13 passages of abnormal rhythm by computer was found to be correct in 98.4 percent of all beats. 25 passages of exercise data, 1-5 min in length, were evaluated by the cardiologist and found to be in agreement in 95.8 percent in measurements of ST level and 91.7 percent in measurements of ST slope

  14. Effect of 12-Week Pilates Trainning on EDSS in Women Suffering fromMultiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Z Shanazari; SM Marandi; S Samie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background & aim: Multiple sclerosis is a debilitating disease that strikes the immune system. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease which debilitates the nervous system. The study was evaluated the effects of Pilates exercise on women with physical disabilities suffering from multiple sclerosis for 12 weeks .The aim of this study was to investigating the effects of Pilates trainning on EDSS of women suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS) for 12 weeks. Methods: In the pres...

  15. Exercise training effects on memory and hippocampal viscoelasticity in multiple sclerosis: a novel application of magnetic resonance elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandroff, Brian M. [Kessler Foundation, Neuropsychology and Neuroscience Laboratory, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Johnson, Curtis L. [University of Delaware, Deparment of Biomedical Engineering, Newark, DE (United States); Motl, Robert W. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Cognitive impairment is common and debilitating among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and might be managed with exercise training. However, the effects of exercise training on viscoelastic brain properties in this population are unknown. The present pilot study adopted a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design and is the first to examine the effect of an aerobic exercise training intervention on learning and memory and hippocampal viscoelasticity using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in persons with MS. Eight fully ambulatory females with MS were randomly assigned into exercise training intervention or waitlist control conditions. The intervention condition involved 12 weeks of supervised, progressive treadmill walking exercise training. All participants underwent measures of learning and memory (i.e., California Verbal Learning Test-II; CVLT-II) and further underwent MRE scans for measurement of shear stiffness (μ) and damping ratio (ξ) of the hippocampus before and after the 12-week period. Overall, there were small-to-moderate intervention effects on CVLT-II performance (d = 0.34) and large intervention effects on hippocampal μ (d = 0.94) and hippocampal ξ (d = -1.20). Change in CVLT-II scores was strongly associated with change in μ (r = 0.93, p < 0.01) and ξ (r = -.96, p < 0.01) of the hippocampus. This small pilot RCT provides exciting proof-of-concept data supporting progressive treadmill walking exercise training for potentially improving learning and memory and underlying hippocampal viscoelastic properties in persons with MS. This is important given the high prevalence and burden of MS-related memory impairment. (orig.)

  16. Exercise training effects on memory and hippocampal viscoelasticity in multiple sclerosis: a novel application of magnetic resonance elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandroff, Brian M.; Johnson, Curtis L.; Motl, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common and debilitating among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and might be managed with exercise training. However, the effects of exercise training on viscoelastic brain properties in this population are unknown. The present pilot study adopted a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design and is the first to examine the effect of an aerobic exercise training intervention on learning and memory and hippocampal viscoelasticity using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in persons with MS. Eight fully ambulatory females with MS were randomly assigned into exercise training intervention or waitlist control conditions. The intervention condition involved 12 weeks of supervised, progressive treadmill walking exercise training. All participants underwent measures of learning and memory (i.e., California Verbal Learning Test-II; CVLT-II) and further underwent MRE scans for measurement of shear stiffness (μ) and damping ratio (ξ) of the hippocampus before and after the 12-week period. Overall, there were small-to-moderate intervention effects on CVLT-II performance (d = 0.34) and large intervention effects on hippocampal μ (d = 0.94) and hippocampal ξ (d = -1.20). Change in CVLT-II scores was strongly associated with change in μ (r = 0.93, p < 0.01) and ξ (r = -.96, p < 0.01) of the hippocampus. This small pilot RCT provides exciting proof-of-concept data supporting progressive treadmill walking exercise training for potentially improving learning and memory and underlying hippocampal viscoelastic properties in persons with MS. This is important given the high prevalence and burden of MS-related memory impairment. (orig.)

  17. Use of a Time-of-Flight Camera With an Omek Beckon™ Framework to Analyze, Evaluate and Correct in Real Time the Verticality of Multiple Sclerosis Patients during Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Eguíluz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Any person with Multiple Sclerosis (MS, regardless of the severity of their disability, needs regular physical activity. Poorly performed exercises could aggravate muscle imbalances and worsen the patient’s health. In this paper, we propose a human body verticality detection system using a time-of-flight camera as a tool to detect incorrect postures and improve them in real time. The prototype uses Omek’s Beckon™ Framework to analyze and evaluate the position of patients during exercise. Preliminary results, based on objective questionnaires, indicate an improvement in patients’ evolution through better positions and performance of the exercises.

  18. IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL INDEPENDENCE OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BY PHYSICAL THERAPY AND OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Ticărat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with multiple sclerosis can have a normal life despite of their real or possible disability and of the progressive nature of it. Scope. Patients who follow physical therapy and occupational therapy will have an increased quality of life and a greater functional independence.Methods. The randomized study was made on 7 patients with multiple sclerosis, from Oradea Day Centre, 3 times/week, ages between 35 – 55 years, functional level between mild and sever. Assessment and rehabilitation methods: inspection, BARTHEL Index. Frenkel method, brething exercises, weights exercises, gait exercises, writind exercises and games were used in the rehabilitation process. Group therapies: sociotherapy, arttherapy, music therapy. Results analysis consisted of the comparison of baseline and final means.Results. By analizing baseline and final means for Barthel Index for each functon separately, it was shown a mild improvement of functional independence for almost assessed functions, with at least 1-1,5 points.Conclusions. Persons with multiple sclerosis who follow physical therapy and occupational therapy presents a better functional independence after the treatment.

  19. Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1984-01-01

    Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury.

  20. Stress injuries of the pars interarticularis: Radiologic classification and indications for radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, R.; Maurer, A.R.; Bonakdarpour, A.

    1984-01-01

    Lumbar spine radiographs and radionuclide images were compared and correlated with clinical histories of 20 athletes with low back pain. Radiographs were classified as: Normal (Type 0); showing a healing stress fracture (an irregular lucent line) with sclerosis (Type I); as an evolving or healed stress injury with either sclerosis, narrowing, or demineralization (Type II); and as a chronic fracture showing a large lucency with well-defined margins classically referred to as spondylolysis (Type III). Patients were grouped clinically on the basis of their pain: acute onset (Group A, n = 7), acute superimposed on chronic (Group B, n = 9), and chronic pain without an acute event (Group C, n = 4). Radiographic abnormalities were present in 95% (19/20) of the patients and radionuclide studies were positive in 60% (12/20). Scintigraphy was positive most often with Type I pars abnormalities (77%, 10/13) and negative most often with Type III abnormalities (91%, 11/12). Of all positive scintigraphy 12/14 (86%) were in pts in Groups A and B (acute symptoms). The authors' findings support theories that radiographic pars abnormalities exist which correspond to stages in the healing of stress induced fractures. With acute symptoms radionuclide imaging need not be obtained if a Type I radiographic abnormality is seen. Radionuclide imaging is indicated with either Type 0, II or III radiographs to confirm or rule out recent stress injury

  1. Effects of Single Bouts of Walking Exercise and Yoga on Acute Mood Symptoms in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Ipek; Sandroff, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the acute or immediate effects of walking exercise and yoga on mood in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Such an examination is important for identifying an exercise modality for inclusion in exercise-training interventions that yields mood benefits in MS. We examined the effects of single bouts of treadmill walking and yoga compared with a quiet, seated-rest control condition on acute mood symptoms in MS. Methods: Twenty-four participants with MS completed 20 minutes of treadmill walking, yoga, or quiet rest in a randomized, counterbalanced order with 1 week between sessions. Participants completed the Profile of Mood States questionnaire before and immediately after each condition. Total mood disturbance (TMD) and the six subscales of the Profile of Mood States were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired-samples t tests. Results: There was a significant condition × time interaction on TMD scores (ηp2 = 0.13). Walking and yoga conditions yielded comparable reductions in TMD scores. There was a significant condition × time interaction on vigor (ηp2 = 0.23) whereby walking but not yoga yielded an improvement in vigor. There was a significant main effect of time on anger, confusion, depression, and tension (P improvements in overall acute mood symptoms, and walking improved feelings of vigor. These effects should be further investigated in long-term exercise-training studies. PMID:26917992

  2. Comparison of exercise stress testing with dobutamine stress echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography for diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, K.; Kisacik, H.L.; Oguzhan, A.

    1999-01-01

    Dobutamine stress echocardiography, Tc-99m radionuclide ventriculography (RNVG), and exercise stress testing were performed prospectively in 63 patients with suspected coronary artery disease to compare the values of exercise testing, dobutamine stress echocardiography and RNVG in the non-invasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The sensitivities of dobutamine stress echocardiography and RNVG were found to be higher than that of exercise testing (93-62%, p 0.05). There were no differences between the sensitivities of the three techniques in multiple vessel disease (p>0.05). The specificities of dobutamine stress echocardiography and RNVG were higher than that of exercise testing (for both of the tests 86-62%, p 0.05). The results of dobutamine stress echocardiography RNVG were concordant with each other in 46 patients (76%, kappa=65%) in sectional analysis. Dobutamine stress echocardiography and RNVG tests were comparable with each other in 85% of the 189 segments (kappa=64%). The expected 5% decrease at peak doses of dobutamine was not detected in stress echocardiography in 25 patients and in RNVG in 26 of the patients. Dobutamine stress echocardiography and RNVG are superior to exercise testing in the diagnosis of single vessel disease and there is no significant difference between the two techniques. When the ejection fraction is considered in dobutamine stress echocardiography and RNVG, it does not make an additional contribution to the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. (author)

  3. Radionuclide methods of identifying patients who may require coronary artery bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.A.; Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Myocardial thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) scintigraphy or radionuclide angiography performed in conjunction with exercise stress testing can provide clinically useful information regarding the functional significance of underlying coronary artery stenoses in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Knowledge of type, location, and extent of myocardial 201 Tl perfusion abnormalities or the severity of exercise-induced global and regional dysfunction has prognostic value. Risk stratification can be undertaken with either radionuclide technique by consideration of the magnitude of the ischemic response and may assist in the selection of patients for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). In patients with coronary artery disease, delayed 201 Tl redistribution observed on exercise or dipyridamole 201 Tl scintigraphy, particularly when present in multiple vascular regions and associated with increased lung 201 Tl uptake, has been shown to be predictive of an adverse outcome, whereas patients with chest pain and a normal exercise 201 Tl scintigram have a good prognosis with medical treatment. Similarly, a marked fall in the radionuclide ejection fraction from rest to exercise has been found to correlate with high-risk anatomic disease. Another important application of radionuclide imaging in patients being considered for CABG (particularly those with a depressed resting left ventricular ejection fraction) is the determination of myocardial viability and potential for improved blood flow and enhanced regional function after revascularization. 69 references

  4. How to accurately assess the clinical value of isometric exercise radionuclide ventriculography in diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunfang; Zhu Huiping; Zeng Jun; Xie Wenhui; Yu Zhichang

    2001-01-01

    To assess the influence of isometric handgrip exercise on left ventricular function by radionuclide ventriculography in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Using gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, parameters of left ventricular function were analyzed at rest and during 30% sustained handgrip (HNG) for 5 - 10 minuets in 8 normal control subjects and 38 consecutive CAD patients. All investigated subjects were also performed coronary arteriography within 2 weeks. Results showed that at rest, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), peak filling rate (PFR), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and heart rate (HR) were reduced in one-vessel, two-vessel and three-vessel of stenosis patient group (53.67 +- 5.0)%, (52.47 +- 8.26)%, (52.81 +- 8.89)%; 2.87 +- 0.29, 2.71 +- 0.88, 3.07 +- 0.71 end-diastolic volume per second (EDV/s); 1.36 +- 0.05, 1.34 +- 0.06, 1.34 +- 0.06; 0.62 +-0.06, 0.66 +- 0.06, 0.65 +- 0.1; 69.67 +- 8.14, 72.85 +- 10.5, 76.56 +- 18.04 (min -1 ), respectively, as compared with controls (57 +- 10.45)%, p = NS; 2.94 +- 0.44 (EDV/s), p = NS; 1.38 +- 0.15, p = NS; 0.59 +- 0.11, p = NS; 72.88 +- 8.25 (min -1 ), p = NS, respectively. During HNG exercise using both hands, the indexes were reduced in CAD patients (54.44 +- 5.66)%, (48.84 +- 8.70)%, (45.25 +- 8.69)%; 2.75 +- 0.39, 2.50 +- 0.68, 2.22 +- 0.58 (EDV/s); 1.36 +- 0.05, 1.31 +- 0.06, 1.26 +- 0.07; 0.61 +- 0.07, 0.69 +- 0.06, 0.71 +- 0.09; 81.33 +- 8.92, 84.46 +- 14.29, 90.56 +- 26.54 (min -1 ), respectively, as compared with controls (59.38 +- 9.44)%, p = NS; -1 ), p = NS, respectively. The four protocols of CAD diagnosis were 1. LVEF <55% and ΔPFR < 0 EDV/s at rest (Δ value = during HNG value-rest value); 2. LVEF <55% during HNG and ΔPFR <0 EDV/s; 3. ΔLVEF <0% and ΔPFR <0 EDV/s; 4. ΔEF <0%. Their sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 45%, 53%, 66%, 76%, 100%, 100%, 87.5%, 87.5%, 54%, 61%, 70%, 78%, respectively. The isomeric exercise radionuclide

  5. Short-Term and Long-Term Effects of an Exercise-Based Patient Education Programme in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lutz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although people with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS benefit from physical exercise, they still show reduced physical activity and exercise behaviour. This study aimed to investigate short- and long-term effects of an exercise-based patient education programme (ePEP that focuses on empowering pwMS to a sustainable and self-regulated exercise training management. Methods. Fourteen pwMS were randomly assigned to immediate experimental group (EG-I: n=8 and waitlist-control group (EG-W: n=6 and attended biweekly in a six-week ePEP. All participants were measured for walking ability, quality of life, fatigue, and self-efficacy towards physical exercise before and after the ePEP, after 12 weeks, and one year after baseline. Short-term effects were analysed in a randomised control trial and long-term effects of all ePEP participants (EG-I + EG-W = EG-all in a quasi-experimental design. Results. Only functional gait significantly improved in EG-I compared to EG-W (p=0.008, r=-0.67. Moderate to large effects were found in EG-all for walking ability. Not significant, however, relevant changes were detected for quality of life and fatigue. Self-efficacy showed no changes. Conclusion. The ePEP seems to be a feasible option to empower pwMS to a self-regulated and sustainable exercise training management shown in long-term walking improvements.

  6. Effects of physiotherapy treatment for urinary incontinence in patient with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla Maria de Abreu; Castiglione, Mariane; Kasawara, Karina Tamy

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the study was to evaluate the benefits of physical therapy for urinary incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis and to verify the impact of urinary incontinence on the patient's quality of life. [Subject and Methods] A case study of a 55-year-old female patient diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and mixed urinary incontinence was conducted. Physical therapy sessions were conducted once a week, in total 15 sessions, making use of targeted functional electrical vaginal stimulation, along with active exercises for the pelvic floor muscles and electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve, behavioral rehabilitation and exercise at home. [Results] After 15 physical therapy sessions, a patient diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and mixed urinary incontinence showed continued satisfactory results after five months. She showed better quality of life, higher strength of pelvic floor muscle and reduced urinary frequency without nocturia and enuresis. [Conclusion] The physical therapy protocol in this patient with multiple sclerosis and mixed urinary incontinence showed satisfactory results reducing urinary incontinence symptomatology and improving the patient's quality of life.

  7. Rapid Exercise-Induced Mobilization of Dendritic Cells Is Potentially Mediated by a Flt3L- and MMP-9-Dependent Process in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Deckx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In healthy individuals, one exercise bout induces a substantial increase in the number of circulating leukocytes, while their function is transiently suppressed. The effect of one exercise bout in multiple sclerosis (MS is less studied. Since recent evidence suggests a role of dendritic cells (DC in the pathogenesis of MS, we investigated the effect of one combined endurance/resistance exercise bout on the number and function of DC in MS patients and healthy controls. Our results show a rapid increase in the number of DC in response to physical exercise in both MS patients and controls. Further investigation revealed that in particular DC expressing the migratory molecules CCR5 and CD62L were increased upon acute physical activity. This may be mediated by Flt3L- and MMP-9-dependent mobilization of DC, as demonstrated by increased circulating levels of Flt3L and MMP-9 following one exercise bout. Circulating DC display reduced TLR responsiveness after acute exercise, as evidenced by a less pronounced upregulation of activation markers, HLA-DR and CD86, on plasmacytoid DC and conventional DC, respectively. Our results indicate mobilization of DC, which may be less prone to drive inflammatory processes, following exercise. This may present a negative feedback mechanism for exercise-induced tissue damage and inflammation.

  8. Changes of Motivational Variables in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis in an Exercise Intervention: Associations between Physical Performance and Motivational Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Geertz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study examines the effects of a standardized fitness training on motivational factors such as the intention to be physically active, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, counterstrategies, and exercise specific social support in patients with progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS and the relation of these factors to physical performance. Methods. Moderately disabled patients with secondary or primary progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale of 4–6 were randomized to a training group or a waitlist control group. Patients completed on average 20 sessions of training tailored to their individual fitness at baseline over a course of 8–12 weeks. Motivational variables (stage of change according to the transtheoretical model (TTM, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, counterstrategies, and exercise specific social support were assessed via questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Results. Forty patients completed the trial. We found significant effects on stages of change p=.016 and self-efficacy p=.014 and a trend in counterstrategies p=.08. Significant correlations between change of physical performance during the exercise training and change in the TTM, perceived barriers, and counterstrategies were detected. Conclusion. This study indicates that tailored individual endurance training could stabilize self-efficacy and increase exercise motivation in patients with progressive MS. Motivational variables were related to the physical performance.

  9. Effect of exercising at minimum recommendations of the multiple sclerosis exercise guideline combined with structured education or attention control education - secondary results of the step it up randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, Susan; Uszynski, Marcin; Herring, Matthew P; Hayes, Sara; Scarrott, Carl; Newell, John; Gallagher, Stephen; Larkin, Aidan; Motl, Robert W

    2017-06-24

    Recent exercise guidelines for people with multiple sclerosis (MS) recommend a minimum of 30 min moderate intensity aerobic exercise and resistance exercise twice per week. This trial compared the secondary outcomes of a combined 10-week guideline based intervention and a Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) education programme with the same exercise intervention involving an attention control education. Physically inactive people with MS, scoring 0-3 on Patient Determined Disease Steps Scale, with no MS relapse or change in MS medication, were randomised to 10-week exercise plus SCT education or exercise plus attention control education conditions. Outcomes included fatigue, depression, anxiety, strength, physical activity, SCT constructs and impact of MS and were measured by a blinded assessor pre and post-intervention and 3 and 6 month follow up. One hundred and seventy-four expressed interest, 92 were eligible and 65 enrolled. Using linear mixed effects models, the differences between groups on all secondary measures post-intervention and at follow-up were not significant. Post-hoc, exploratory, within group analysis identified improvements in both groups post intervention in fatigue (mean ∆(95% CI) SCT -4.99(-9.87, -0.21), p = 0.04, Control -7.68(-12.13, -3.23), p = 0.00), strength (SCT -1.51(-2.41, -0.60), p exercise planning (SCT 5.88(3.37, 8.39), p Exercising at the minimum guideline amount has a positive effect on fatigue, strength and PA that is sustained at 3 and 6 months following the cessation of the program. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02301442 , retrospectively registered on November 13th 2014.

  10. Feasibility study design and methods for a home-based, square-stepping exercise program among older adults with multiple sclerosis: The SSE-MS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastião, Emerson; McAuley, Edward; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Motl, Robert W

    2017-09-01

    We propose a randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining the feasibility of square-stepping exercise (SSE) delivered as a home-based program for older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). We will assess feasibility in the four domains of process, resources, management and scientific outcomes. The trial will recruit older adults (aged 60 years and older) with mild-to-moderate MS-related disability who will be randomized into intervention or attention control conditions. Participants will complete assessments before and after completion of the conditions delivered over a 12-week period. Participants in the intervention group will have biweekly meetings with an exercise trainer in the Exercise Neuroscience Research Laboratory and receive verbal and visual instruction on step patterns for the SSE program. Participants will receive a mat for home-based practice of the step patterns, an instruction manual, and a logbook and pedometer for monitoring compliance. Compliance will be further monitored through weekly scheduled Skype calls. This feasibility study will inform future phase II and III RCTs that determine the actual efficacy and effectiveness of a home-based exercise program for older adults with MS.

  11. Left ventricular performance at rest and during peak exercise in never-treated hypertensive female - an assessment with radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topuzovic, N.; Karner, I.; Rusic, A.; Krstonosic, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate left ventricular performance and exercise tolerance in never-treated female hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: Seventeen female patients with newly established, uncomplicated essential hypertension (aged 25 to 57 years) were evaluated with rest-stress radionuclide gated ventriculography, and were compared to 23 age-matched normotensive female volunteers. Results: Mean blood pressure was significantly higher in patients at rest and during exercise than in controls (121±13 vs. 89±7 mm Hg, and 143±11 vs. 122±9 mm Hg, respectively, p 2 , respectively, p<0.01), while ESV was similar in both groups. Ejection fraction (EF) at rest and stress did not differ significantly (54±10 vs. 55±8%, and 70±10 vs. 66±8%, respectively), but % rise in EF during exercise was significantly higher in patients. At rest and during exercise, there were no significant difference in peak ejection rate (PER) and time to PER (TPER) between patients and controls. Patients had similar peak filling rate (PFR) at rest (2.88±0.79 vs. 2.76±0.76 EDV/s) and during exercise (5.85±1.86 vs. 6.21±1.97 EDV/s), in addition to nonsignificant difference in time to PFR (at rest 143±62 vs. 146±42 ms at rest, and 97±20 vs. 91±19 ms during exercise). Conclusion: Female patients with newly diagnosed, never-treated hypertension have preserved maximal exercise performance, systolic function and diastolic function, but they have significant enlargement of EDV and elevated cardiac output during exercise

  12. CoDuSe group exercise programme improves balance and reduces falls in people with multiple sclerosis: A multi-centre, randomized, controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Anna; Forsberg, Anette; Gunnarsson, Martin; Nilsagård, Ylva

    2017-09-01

    Imbalance leading to falls is common in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). To evaluate the effects of a balance group exercise programme (CoDuSe) on balance and walking in PwMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale, 4.0-7.5). A multi-centre, randomized, controlled single-blinded pilot study with random allocation to early or late start of exercise, with the latter group serving as control group for the physical function measures. In total, 14 supervised 60-minute exercise sessions were delivered over 7 weeks. Pretest-posttest analyses were conducted for self-reported near falls and falls in the group starting late. Primary outcome was Berg Balance Scale (BBS). A total of 51 participants were initially enrolled; three were lost to follow-up. Post-intervention, the exercise group showed statistically significant improvement ( p = 0.015) in BBS and borderline significant improvement in MS Walking Scale ( p = 0.051), both with large effect sizes (3.66; -2.89). No other significant differences were found between groups. In the group starting late, numbers of falls and near falls were statistically significantly reduced after exercise compared to before ( p balance and reduced perceived walking limitations, compared to no exercise. The intervention reduced falls and near falls frequency.

  13. Experimental protocol of a randomized controlled clinical trial investigating exercise, subclinical atherosclerosis, and walking mobility in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Garett; Klaren, Rachel E; Motl, Robert W; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-03-01

    This randomized controlled trial (RCT) will investigate the effects of a home-based aerobic exercise training regimen (i.e., cycle ergometry) on subclinical atherosclerosis and walking mobility in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and minimal disability. This RCT will recruit 54 men and women who have an Expanded Disability Status Scale characteristic of the 1st stage of MS (i.e., 0-4.0) to participate in a 3 month exercise or stretching intervention, with assessments of subclinical atherosclerosis and walking mobility conducted at baseline, week 6 (midpoint), and week 12 (conclusion) of the program. The exercise intervention will consist of 3 days/week of cycling, with a gradual increase of duration followed by an increase in intensity across the 3 month period. The attention-control condition will incorporate stretching activities and will require the same contact time commitment as the exercise condition. Both study groups will participate in weekly video chat sessions with study personnel in order to monitor and track program adherence. Primary outcomes will consist of assessments of vascular structure and function, as well as several walking tasks. Additional outcomes will include questionnaires, cardiorespiratory fitness assessment, and a 1-week free-living physical activity assessment. This investigation will increase understanding of the role of aerobic exercise as part of a treatment plan for managing subclinical atherosclerosis and improving walking mobility persons in the 1st stage of MS. Overall, this study design has the potential to lead to effective aerobic exercise intervention strategies for this population and improve program adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise as medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Saltin, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis); musculo-skeletal disorders (osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, back pain, rheumatoid arthritis); and cancer. The effect of exercise therapy on disease pathogenesis and symptoms are given and the possible mechanisms of action are discussed. We have interpreted the scientific......This review provides the reader with the up-to-date evidence-based basis for prescribing exercise as medicine in the treatment of 26 different diseases: psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, stress, schizophrenia); neurological diseases (dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis...... literature and for each disease, we provide the reader with our best advice regarding the optimal type and dose for prescription of exercise....

  15. IAEA-RML-2015-01 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories has provided quality support services and products to laboratories in Member States for over 50 years. They include the organization of proficiency test exercises and laboratory intercomparisons, and the production of certified reference materials with a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a follow-up proficiency test exercise was organized in 2015 at the request of the Nuclear Regulation Authority of Japan to continue testing the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. The exercise was designed to support laboratories in seawater analyses of 3H, 134Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr relating to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in March 2011, and the subsequent contamination of the marine environment. The results of the exercise, which are described in this publication, allow the participating laboratories to evaluate and compare their performance in the analysis of these radionuclides for this sample type. A total of 43 laboratories from 29 Member States participated from August to October 2015. Earlier exercises are described in IAEA Analytical Quality in Nuclear Applications Series Nos 40–43.

  16. Radionuclide exercise testing for coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    It is obvious that the indication and clinical applications of radionuclide stress testing have been expanded and that both techniques described in this article are useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive stress testing have been significantly enhanced by the introduction of these radionuclide approaches for detecting ischemia in patients with undiagnosed chest pain. High-risk patients with either stable CAD or recent myocardial infarction can be identified by the severity of the abnormal response elicited. Patients with multiple thallium defects, particularly of the redistribution type, appear to be at the highest risk for subsequent cardiac events. Similarly, patients with a greater than 10 per cent fall in ejection fraction with development of multiple wall motion abnormalities and an increase in end-systolic volume seem to be in a high risk subset. Further developments with single photon emission tomography and computer quantitation of thallium or ventriculographic images should make these tests even more reliable in obtaining useful information in patients with CAD. 34 references

  17. Application of radionuclide ventriculography to cardiac screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, J. Jr.; Milner, M.R.; Chandeysson, P.L.; Rodman, D.J.; Okin, P.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Screening asymptomatic individuals for latent coronary disease often requires sequential testing because exercise electrocardiography typically produces more false positive than true positive results in a population with a low prevalence of coronary disease. Cardiac scintigraphy is a technique that may be employed as a confirmatory test in lieu of coronary arteriography to further evaluate the significance of a positive exercise electrocardiogram. Radionuclide ventriculography was employed in 98 asymptomatic individuals who were considered to be at moderate risk of heart disease after risk factor analysis and exercise electrocardiography. Seventeen (17%) patients had an abnormal study and underwent cardiac catheterization. Seven had coronary artery disease, two had cardiomyopathy, and eight were normal. Eighty-one (83%) patients had a normal study. Because the sensitivity of radionuclide ventriculography is 63-80%, it was postulated that 2 to 5 individuals with disease were missed. Thus, from a population with an 11-14% prevalence of disease, two subsets were identified. A large subset in which a prevalence of 2-6% could be estimated was separated from a much smaller one in which a prevalence of approximately 50% was demonstrated

  18. A quality control exercise of radionuclide calibrators among Belgian hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reher, D.F.G.; Merlo, P.

    1990-01-01

    On the initiative of the Belgian Association of Hospital Physicists, eleven Belgian hospitals participated in a quality control of radionuclide calibrators conducted in collaboration with the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements of the Commission of the European Communities. For practical reasons the nuclide 57 Co was chosen. The results from 20 different radionuclide calibrators show a fair agreement with a similar comparison carried out in 1980 in the UK. (orig.)

  19. Effects of a short-term exercise training program on aerobic fitness, fatigue, health perception and activity level of subjects with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, S; Kesselring, J

    2002-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients of an inpatient rehabilitation program have been randomly assigned to an exercise training (MS-ET) or nontraining group (MS-NI). Before and after 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training, a graded maximal exercise test with measurement of gas exchange and a lung function test was administered to all 26 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Activity level, fatigue and health perception were measured by means of questionnaires. Twenty-six healthy persons served as control group and were matched in respect of age, gender and activity level. Training intervention consisted of 5x30 min sessions per week of bicycle exercise with individualised intensity. Compared with baseline, the MS training group demonstrated a significant rightward placement of the aerobic threshold (AT) (VO2+13%; work rate [WR])+11%), an improvement of health perception (vitality+46%; social interaction+36%), an increase of activity level (+17%) and a tendency to less fatigue. No changes were observed for the MS-NI group and the control groups. Maximal aerobic capacity and lung function were not changed by either training or nontraining in all four groups. Overall compliance to the training program was quite low (65%), whereas incidence of symptom exacerbation by physical activity has been lower than expected (6%).

  20. Physical Exercise and MS Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Ingemann-Hansen, T; Stenager, E

    2009-01-01

    in a number of physiological functions, which ultimately can lead to functional improvements that have a positive effect on a patients daily life. The purpose of this review is, based on the existing research, to provide clinicians with some easily administrable recommendations for the application of exercise......The use of physical exercise programmes in the rehabilitation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been a controversial issue for many years. During the last decade, however, evidence from a number of studies has suggested that exercise is a safe and efficient way to induce improvements...

  1. Preoperative prediction of reversible myocardial asynergy by postexercise radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, A.; Berman, D.; Gray, R.; Diamond, G.; Raymond, M.; Prause, J.; Maddahi, J.; Swan, H.J.; Matloff, J.

    1982-01-01

    Myocardial asynergy is sometimes reversed by coronary bypass, and a noninvasive method of predicting which assess are reversible would be desirable. To assess whether changes in myocardial wall motion observed immediately after exercise can differentiate reversible from nonreversible myocardial asynergy, we evaluated 53 patients by radionuclide ventriculography before and after exercise and again at rest after coronary bypass surgery. Preoperative improvement in wall motion immediately after exercise was highly predictive of the surgical outcome (average chance-corrected agreement, 91 per cent). At surgery the asynergic segments that had improved after exercise were free of grossly apparent epicardial scarring. The accuracy of these predictions for postoperative improvement was significantly greater (P less than 0.01) than that of analysis of Q waves on resting electrocardiography (average chance-corrected agreement, 40 per cent). In contrast, preoperative changes in left ventricular ejection fraction after exercise were not predictive of postoperative resting ejection fraction. We conclude that postexercise radionuclide ventriculography can be used to identify reversible resting myocardial asynergy. This test should prove effective in predicting which patients with myocardial asynergy are most likely to benefit from aortocoronary revascularization

  2. Effectiveness of Home-Based Exercises Without Supervision by Physical Therapists for Patients With Early-Stage Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Kosuke; Asakawa, Takashi; Kamide, Naoto; Yorimoto, Keisuke; Yoneda, Masaki; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Sawada, Makoto; Komori, Tetsuo

    2018-03-31

    To verify the effects of structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist in patients with early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A historical controlled study that is part of a multicenter collaborative study. Rehabilitation departments at general hospitals and outpatient clinics with a neurology department. Patients (N=21) with ALS were enrolled and designated as the home-based exercise (Home-EX) group, and they performed unsupervised home-based exercises. As a control group, 84 patients with ALS who underwent supervised exercise with a physical therapist for 6 months were extracted from a database of patients with ALS and matched with the Home-EX group in terms of their basic attributes and clinical features. The Home-EX group was instructed to perform structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist that consisted of muscle stretching, muscle training, and functional training for 6 months. The primary outcome was the score on the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R), which is composed of 3 domains: bulbar function, limb function, and respiratory function. The score ranges from 0 to 48 points, with a higher score indicating better function. In the Home-EX group, 15 patients completed the home-based exercises for 6 months, and 6 patients dropped out because of medical reasons or disease progression. No adverse events were reported. The Home-EX group was found to have a significantly higher respiratory function subscore and total score on the ALSFRS-R than the control group at follow-up (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). Structured home-based exercises without supervision by a physical therapist could be used to alleviate functional deterioration in patients with early-stage ALS. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Therapeutic use of sport climbing for patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ožura

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sport climbing is a form of exercise that requires complex and variable movement. Because of the use of the so-called "top-rope system", this is a safe activity appropriate for individuals with physical disabilities. Therefore, climbing might prove to be an effective form of therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological disease that may include motor and cognitive deficits as well as affective disturbances. The illness is characterized by multifocal areas of brain damage (plaques, as consequence of autoimmune inflammation. Sport climbing might be a potentially useful activity for treating spasticity, improving a person's self image and certain aspects of cognition, such as attention and executive functions, as well as for managing emotional disturbances. All of the above are areas where patients with multiple sclerosis might be in need of assistance. The article also describes the experience of a patient with multiple sclerosis who was enrolled in our climbing program. Future research is needed to evaluate the effect of climbing therapy for patients with multiple sclerosis.

  4. Afferent thermosensory function in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis following exercise-induced increases in body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Chaseling, Georgia; Hoang, Phu; Barnett, Michael; Davis, Scott L; Jay, Ollie

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Between 60 and 80% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience transient worsening of symptoms with increased body temperature (heat sensitivity). As sensory abnormalities are common in MS, we asked whether afferent thermosensory function is altered in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature. What is the main finding and its importance? Increases in body temperature of as little as ∼0.4°C were sufficient to decrease cold, but not warm, skin thermosensitivity (∼10%) in MS, across a wider temperature range than in age-matched healthy individuals. These findings provide new evidence on the impact of heat sensitivity on afferent function in MS, which could be useful for clinical evaluation of this neurological disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), increases in body temperature result in transient worsening of clinical symptoms (heat sensitivity or Uhthoff's phenomenon). Although the impact of heat sensitivity on efferent physiological function has been investigated, the effects of heat stress on afferent sensory function in MS are unknown. Hence, we quantified afferent thermosensory function in MS following exercise-induced increases in body temperature with a new quantitative sensory test. Eight relapsing-remitting MS patients (three men and five women; 51.4 ± 9.1 years of age; Expanded Disability Status Scale score 2.8 ± 1.1) and eight age-matched control (CTR) subjects (five men and three women; 47.4 ± 9.1 years of age) rated the perceived magnitude of two cold (26 and 22°C) and two warm stimuli (34 and 38°C) applied to the dorsum of the hand before and after 30 min cycling in the heat (30°C air; 30% relative humidity). Exercise produced similar increases in mean body temperature in MS [+0.39°C (95% CI: +0.21, +0.53) P = 0.001] and CTR subjects [+0.41°C (95% CI: +0.25, +0.58) P = 0.001]. These changes were sufficient to decrease thermosensitivity significantly to all cold [26

  5. [The influence of high-tone power therapy on the functional status of patients with multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubsik, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Klimkiewicz, Robert; Jankowska, Katarzyna; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2014-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which is characterized by diverse symptomatology. Most often affects people at a young age gradually leading to their disability. Looking for new therapies to alleviate neurological deficits caused by the disease. One of the alternative methods of therapy is high - tone power therapy. The article is a comparison of high-tone power therapy and kinesis in improving patients with multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of high-tone power therapy and exercises in kinesis on the functional status of patients with multiple sclerosis. The study involved 20 patients with multiple sclerosis, both sexes, treated at the Department of Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine in Lodz. Patients were randomly divided into two groups studied. In group high-tone power therapy applied for 60 minutes, while in group II were used exercises for kinesis. Treatment time for both groups of patients was 15 days. To assess the functional status scale was used: Expanded Disability Status Scale of Kurtzke (EDSS), as well as by Barthel ADL Index. Assessment of quality of life were made using MSQOL Questionnaire-54. For the evaluation of gait and balance using Tinetti scale, and pain VAS rated, and Laitinen. Changes in muscle tone was assessed on the basis of the Ashworth scale. Both group I and II improved on scales conducted before and after therapy. In group I, in which the applied high-tone power therapy, reported statistically significant results in 9 out of 10 tested parameters, while in group II, which was used in the exercises in kinesis an improvement in 6 out of 10 tested parameters. Correlating the results of both the test groups in relation to each other did not show statistically significant differences. High-Tone Power Therapy beneficial effect on the functional status of patients with multiple sclerosis. Obtaining results in terms of number of tested

  6. Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, B.B.; Elsas, L.J.; Wyly, J.B.; Pasquali, M.

    1994-01-01

    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) is a specific bone dysplasia manifested by hypertelorism, flat nasal bridge, frontal bossing, large head, hypoplastic maxilla, palate anomalies, chronic otitis media, hearing deficits, nasal obstruction, and neurological changes of deafness, facial palsy, ophthalmoplegia, and mental retardation. We will review the clinical and radiologic findings in a new patient from birth to 20 years; this is believed to be the thirty-fifth patient reported. OS-CS is 2.5 times more common in females and occurs as an autosomal dominant condition or a sporadic dominant mutation with patients presenting for evaluation from the newborn period to the fifth decade. Skeletal abnormalities are distinctive including sclerosis of the skull base and calvarium, linear striated densities in the long bones and pelvis, and poor development of the mastoid and sinus air cells. Radionuclide bone scans with SPECT indicated in our patient increased bone turnover which was supported by biochemical findings of increased pyridinoline excretion. The major complications are due to constriction of essential foramina at the skull base. The condition is not life-threatening but can produce disability. (orig.)

  7. Improving physical functional and quality of life in older adults with multiple sclerosis via a DVD-delivered exercise intervention: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; Roberts, Sarah A; Learmonth, Yvonne C; Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominque; Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward

    2014-12-01

    There is a need to identify innovative, low-cost and broad-reaching strategies for promoting exercise and improving physical function in older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). This randomised controlled pilot trial will test the efficacy of a 6-month, DVD-delivered exercise intervention to improve functional performance and quality of life in older adults with MS. Participants will be randomised either into a DVD-delivered exercise condition or an attentional control condition. This novel approach to programme delivery provides participants with detailed exercise instructions which are presented in a progressive manner and includes a variety of modifications to better meet varying levels of physical abilities. The targeted exercises focus on three critical elements of functional fitness: flexibility, strength and balance. It is hypothesised that participants who are randomised to the exercise DVD condition will demonstrate improvements in physical function compared with participants assigned to the attentional control condition. Data analysis will include a 2 (condition)×2 (time) mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) that follows intent-to-treat principles, as well as an examination of effect sizes. Participants will take part in qualitative interviews about perspectives on physical activity and programme participation. The study protocol was approved by a university institutional review board and registered with a federal database. Participants will be asked to read and sign a detailed informed consent document and will be required to provide a physician's approval to participate in the study. The exercise DVDs include an overview of safety-related concerns and recommendations relative to exercise participation, as well as detailed instructions highlighting the proper execution of each exercise presented on screen. Following completion of this trial, data will be immediately analysed and results will be presented at scientific meetings and published in

  8. Fall risk and incidence reduction in high risk individuals with multiple sclerosis: a pilot randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J; Moon, Yaejin; Wajda, Douglas A; Finlayson, Marcia L; McAuley, Edward; Peterson, Elizabeth W; Morrison, Steve; Motl, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    To determine the feasibility of three fall prevention programs delivered over 12 weeks among individuals with multiple sclerosis: (A) a home-based exercise program targeting physiological risk factors; (B) an educational program targeting behavioral risk factors; and (C) a combined exercise-and-education program targeting both factors. Randomized controlled trial. Home-based training with assessments at research laboratory. A total of 103 individuals inquired about the investigation. After screening, 37 individuals with multiple sclerosis who had fallen in the last year and ranged in age from 45-75 years volunteered for the investigation. A total of 34 participants completed postassessment following the 12-week intervention. Participants were randomly assigned into one of four conditions: (1) wait-list control (n = 9); (2) home-based exercise (n = 11); (3) education (n = 9); or (4) a combined exercise and education (n = 8) group. Before and after the 12-week interventions, participants underwent a fall risk assessment as determined by the physiological profile assessment and provided information on their fall prevention behaviors as indexed by the Falls Prevention Strategy Survey. Participants completed falls diaries during the three-months postintervention. A total of 34 participants completed postintervention testing. Procedures and processes were found to be feasible. Overall, fall risk scores were lower in the exercise groups (1.15 SD 1.31) compared with the non-exercise groups (2.04 SD 1.04) following the intervention (p fall prevention behaviors (p > 0.05). Further examination of home-based exercise/education programs for reducing falls in individuals with multiple sclerosis is warranted. A total of 108 participants would be needed in a larger randomized controlled trial.ClinicalTrials.org #NCT01956227. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Black Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Motl, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    To examine variables from social cognitive theory as correlates of physical activity in black and white individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional. National survey. Black (n=151) and white (n=185) individuals with MS were recruited through the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis Registry. Not applicable. The battery of questionnaires included information on demographic and clinical characteristics, physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, function, social support, exercise outcome expectations, and exercise goal setting and planning. Black individuals with MS reported significantly lower levels of physical activity compared with white individuals with MS. Physical activity levels were significantly correlated with self-efficacy, outcome expectations, functional limitations as impediments, and goal setting in black participants with MS. The pattern and magnitude of correlations were comparable with those observed in white participants based on Fisher z tests. Researchers should consider applying behavioral interventions that target social cognitive theory variables for increasing physical activity levels among black individuals with MS. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Radionuclide ventriculography for evaluation of left ventricular function in patients after myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sledzevskaya, I.K.; Stroganova, N.P.; Il'yash, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of an expanded set of parameters of radionuclide ventriculography with 99m Tc-prtechnetate, characterizing myocardial function, made it possible to specify radionuclide semiotics of myocardial infarction, to identify 4 cardiodynamic types, and to establish correlation between a degree of cardiodynamic changes and a site of lesion, and the relationship with exercise tolerance

  11. Exercise testing and hemodynamic performance in healthy elderly persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitzhusen, J.C.; Hickler, R.B.; Alpert, J.S.; Doherty, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the effect of age on cardiovascular performance, 39 healthy elderly men and women, 70 to 83 years old, underwent treadmill thallium-201 exercise perfusion imaging and radionuclide equilibrium angiography at rest and during supine bicycle exercise. Five volunteers who had a positive exercise thallium test response were excluded from the study. Radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction, regional wall abnormalities, relative cardiac output, stroke volume, end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume were measured. Seventy-four percent of the subjects maintained or increased their ejection fraction with exercise. With peak exercise, mean end-diastolic volume did not change, end-systolic volume decreased and cardiac output and stroke volume increased. Moreover, in 35% of the subjects, minor regional wall motion abnormalities developed during exercise. There was no significant difference in the response of men and women with regard to these variables. However, more women than men had difficulty performing bicycle ergometry because they had never bicycled before. Subjects who walked daily performed the exercise tests with less anxiety and with a smaller increase in heart rate and systolic blood pressure

  12. Being prepared to verify the CTBT-Atmospheric Transport modeling and radionuclide analysis at the Austrian National Data Centre during the NDC Preparedness Exercise 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Schraick, Irene

    2010-05-01

    An explosion in the Kara-Zhyra mine in Eastern Kazakhstan on 28 November 2009 around 07:20 UTC was recorded by both the CTBTO seismic and infrasound networks. This event triggered a world-wide preparedness exercise among the CTBTO National Data Centres. Within an hour after the event was selected by the German NDC, a computer program developed by NDC Austria based on weather forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and from the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) was started to analyse what Radionuclide Stations of the CTBTO International Monitoring System (IMS) would be potentially affected by the release from a nuclear explosion at this place in the course of the following 3-10 days. These calculations were daily updated to consider the observed state of the atmosphere instead of the predicted one. Based on these calculations, automated and reviewed radionuclide reports from the potentially affected stations as produced by the CTBTO International Data Centre (IDC) were looked at. An additional analysis of interesting spectra was provided by the Seibersdorf Laboratories. Based on all the results coming in, no evidence whatsoever was found that the explosion in Kazakhstan was nuclear. This is in accordance with ground truth information saying that the event was caused by the detonation of more than 53 Tons of explosives as part of mining operations. A number of conclusions can be drawn from this exercise. First, the international, bilateral as well as national mechanisms and procedures in place for such an event worked smoothly. Second, the products and services from the CTBTO IDC proved to be very useful to assist the member states in their verification efforts. Last but not least, issues with the availability of data from IMS radionuclide stations do remain.

  13. Physiotherapy Rehabilitation for People With Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Evan; Coulter, Elaine H; Mattison, Paul G; Miller, Linda; McFadyen, Angus; Paul, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of physiotherapy interventions, including exercise therapy, for the rehabilitation of people with progressive multiple sclerosis. Five databases (Cochrane Library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database [PEDro], Web of Science Core Collections, MEDLINE, Embase) and reference lists of relevant articles were searched. Randomized experimental trials, including participants with progressive multiple sclerosis and investigating a physiotherapy intervention or an intervention containing a physiotherapy element, were included. Data were independently extracted using a standardized form, and methodologic quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Thirteen studies (described by 15 articles) were identified and scored between 5 and 9 out of 10 on the PEDro scale. Eight interventions were assessed: exercise therapy, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, functional electrical stimulation, botulinum toxin type A injections and manual stretches, inspiratory muscle training, therapeutic standing, acupuncture, and body weight-supported treadmill training. All studies, apart from 1, produced positive results in at least 1 outcome measure; however, only 1 article used a power calculation to determine the sample size and because of dropouts the results were subsequently underpowered. This review suggests that physiotherapy may be effective for the rehabilitation of people with progressive multiple sclerosis. However, further appropriately powered studies are required. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Added prognostic value of ischaemic threshold in radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging: a common-sense integration of exercise tolerance and ischaemia severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Cecilia [IRCCS AOU San Martino-National Institute for Cancer Research, CNR Institute of Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Section of Genoa c/o Nuclear Medicine, Pad. Sommariva, Genoa (Italy); Acampa, Wanda [National Council of Research, Naples (Italy); Bauckneht, Matteo; Capitanio, Selene; Fiz, Francesco; Dib, Bassam; Sambuceti, Gianmario [University of Genoa, IRCCS-AOU San Martino-National Institute for Cancer Research, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Health Science, Genoa (Italy); Daniele, Stefania; Cantoni, Valeria; Zampella, Emilia; Assante, Roberta; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Nuclear Medicine, Naples (Italy); Bruzzi, Paolo [IRCCS AOU San Martino-National Institute for Cancer Research, Epidemiology Unit, Genoa (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    Reversible ischaemia at radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) accurately predicts risk of cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (major adverse cardiac events, MACE). This prognostic penetrance might be empowered by accounting for exercise tolerance as an indirect index of ischaemia severity. The present study aimed to verify this hypothesis integrating imaging assessment of ischaemia severity with exercise maximal rate pressure product (RPP) in a large cohort of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD). We analysed 1,502 consecutive patients (1,014 men aged 59 ± 10 years) submitted to exercise stress/rest MPI. To account for exercise tolerance, the summed difference score (SDS) was divided by RPP at tracer injection providing a clinical prognostic index (CPI). Reversible ischaemia was documented in 357 patients (24 %) and was classified by SDS as mild (SDS 2-4) in 180, moderate (SDS 5-7) in 118 and severe (SDS >7) in 59. CPI values of ischaemic patients were clustered into tertiles with lowest and highest values indicating low and high risk, respectively. CPI modified SDS risk prediction in 119/357 (33 %) patients. During a 60-month follow-up, MACE occurred in 68 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that CPI significantly improved predictive power for MACE incidence with respect to SDS alone. Multivariate Cox analysis confirmed the additive independent value of CPI-derived information. Integration of ischaemic threshold and ischaemia extension and severity can improve accuracy of exercise MPI in predicting long-term outcome in a large cohort of patients with suspected or known CAD. (orig.)

  15. Lifestyle and age as determinates of intake and dose from inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The whole-body dose from inhaled radionuclides is a complex function of factors describing exposure and physiology. Exposure-related factors may be estimated by considering likely emission rates combined with measured time-varying meteorological (transport) parameters and estimated exercise patterns. Physiological factors, strongly influencing radionuclide intake and consequent radiation dose, have been catalogued as functions of age and activity level. Both exercise patterns and physiological factors are related to age of the exposed individual. Combining these factors permits estimates to be made of the span of exposures that may be expected in a typical population. The ratio of highest to lowest radionuclide intake is predicted to be of the order of 40, suggesting that specification of an 'average' value may be misleading if this value approaches regulatory limits. Individuals exposed to maximal risk may be identified, and are likely to be active children. Activity pattern (lifestyle) is a primary determinant of risk. (author)

  16. An intercomparison on radionuclides in environmental samples, Baltic-Danish co-operation project on radiation protection 2001-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Sixteen laboratories participated in an intercomparison exercise carried out in 2003 on laboratory analyses of radionuclides in environmental samples. The sample types included seawater, lake water, soil, dry milk and seaweed and the exercise involved theradionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, 239, 240Pu...... laboratories passed the evaluation tests. The results indicate that for several of the laboratories there isroom to improve the analytical quality on radionuclides in environmental samples to match an uncertainty corresponding to a relative standard deviation of 10%....

  17. Effects of exercise training on fitness, mobility, fatigue, and health-related quality of life among adults with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review to inform guideline development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Pilutti, Lara A; Hicks, Audrey L; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Fenuta, Alyssa M; MacKibbon, K Ann; Motl, Robert W

    2013-09-01

    To conduct a systematic review of evidence surrounding the effects of exercise training on physical fitness, mobility, fatigue, and health-related quality of life in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). The databases included EMBASE, 1980 to 2011 (wk 12); Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid OLDMEDLINE, 1947 to March (wk 3) 2011; PsycINFO, 1967 to March (wk 4) 2011; CINAHL all-inclusive; SPORTDiscus all-inclusive; Cochrane Library all-inclusive; and Physiotherapy Evidence Database all-inclusive. The review was limited to English-language studies (published before December 2011) of people with MS that evaluated the effects of exercise training on outcomes of physical fitness, mobility, fatigue, and/or health-related quality of life. One research assistant extracted data and rated study quality. A second research assistant verified the extraction and quality assessment. From the 4362 studies identified, 54 studies were included in the review. The extracted data were analyzed using a descriptive approach. There was strong evidence that exercise performed 2 times per week at a moderate intensity increases aerobic capacity and muscular strength. The evidence was not consistent regarding the effects of exercise training on other outcomes. Among those with mild to moderate disability from MS, there is sufficient evidence that exercise training is effective for improving both aerobic capacity and muscular strength. Exercise may improve mobility, fatigue, and health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coping strategies and mood profiles in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysel Milanlioglu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the coping strategies, mood characteristics and the association between these aspects in patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and healthy subjects. Method: Fifty consecutive patients who were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis according to McDonald criteria and thirty-one healthy subjects were included in the study. In addition to the sociodemographic form, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS, Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Scale (COPE, and Profile of Mood States (POMS tests were applied to the participants. Results: Non-functional coping strategies were significantly higher in the secondary-progressive type (p≤0.05. Depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia and total POMS scores were significantly higher in the secondary-progressive type (p≤0.05. Conclusion: The results of our study demonstrate the importance of rehabilitation programs that encourage exercise among patients with multiple sclerosis to increase vigor-activity levels.

  19. Can the diagnostic accuracy of radionuclide ventriculography during exercise be improved by means of a step-up loading procedure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruegenberg, T.

    1985-01-01

    34 patients (31 of whom were coronary heart disease sufferers as proven by angiography) and further 3 patients failing to show symptoms of this disorder were subjected to radionuclide ventriculography carried out with the aid of 99m Tc-labelled erythrocytes in such a way that examinations at rest were directly followed by maximum loading tests. In a second series of examinations a step-up procedure was adopted where initial recordings at rest were followed by preliminary exercise tests using only 25% of the maximum load. The parameters chosen to evaluate the results were heart rate, ejection fraction, maximum velocity of changes in volume, endsystolic and enddiastolic volumes (ESV and EDV) as well as cardiac output. In 23 patients the preliminary exercise test revealed an insufficient increase or even decrease of the ejection fraction that was associated with delayed volume changes, increases in ESV and EDV as well as reductions in cardiac output and in 21 patients it became evident during those examinations that the onset of stenocardiac complaints was preceded by markedly pronounced function disorders in the left ventricle. It was concluded from these findings that the step-up procedure followed here may in some patients provide additional information on the level of myocardial performance. It can thus be assumed to contribute considerably to higher diagnostic accuracy, although it requires no more time than conventional exercise tests and is not associated with additional radiation exposure. (TRV) [de

  20. Report on the intercomparison run and certified reference material IAEA-381. Radionuclides in Irish sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Pham, M.K.; Ballestra, S.

    1999-01-01

    The accurate and precise determinations of radionuclide concentrations in marine samples are important aspects of marine radioactivity assessments and the use of radionuclides in studies of oceanographic processes. To address the problem of data quality, the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's programme of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). For this intercomparison exercise, the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, Hamburg, Germany (BSH) collected sea water from the Irish Sea in 1993. IAEA-MEL distributed sample aliquots during 1995-1996 for intercomparison of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides. About 80 laboratories world-wide were approached with a questionnaire for participation. Of these, only 43 accepted the invitation because of financial constraints (the participating laboratories were asked to pay transportation expenses). As the sample was collected in the Irish Sea, elevated levels of anthropogenic radionuclides were expected due to discharges from the Sellafield reprocessing plant. Participants were informed that the expected activities for anthropogenic radionuclides would be in the ranges: 90 Sr: 50-500 Bq/kg, 137 Cs: 100-1000 Bq/kg, 239+240 Pu: 1-50Bq/kg, 241 Am: 1-50Bq/kg. This report describes the results obtained from 28 laboratories on anthropogenic and natural radionuclide determinations in sea water

  1. Exercise testing in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic aortic regurgitation: relationship of left ventricular ejection fraction to left ventricular filling pressure during exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, C.A.; Wilson, R.A.; Kanarek, D.J.; Hutter, A.M. Jr.; Okada, R.D.; Liberthson, R.R.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Exercise radionuclide angiography is being used to evaluate left ventricular function in patients with aortic regurgitation. Ejection fraction is the most common variable analyzed. To better understand the rest and exercise ejection fraction in this setting, 20 patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic severe aortic regurgitation were studied. All underwent simultaneous supine exercise radionuclide angiography and pulmonary gas exchange measurement and underwent rest and exercise measurement of pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) during cardiac catheterization. Eight patients had a peak exercise PAWP less than 15 mm Hg (group 1) and 12 had a peak exercise PAWP greater than or equal to 15 mm Hg (group 2). Group 1 patients were younger and more were in New York Heart Association class I. The two groups had similar cardiothoracic ratios, changes in ejection fractions with exercise, and rest and exercise regurgitant indexes. Using multiple regression analysis, the best correlate of the exercise PAWP was peak oxygen uptake (r . -0.78, p less than 0.01). No other measurement added significantly to the regression. When peak oxygen uptake was excluded, rest and exercise ejection fraction also correlated significantly (r . -0.62 and r . -0.60, respectively, p less than 0.01). Patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic severe aortic regurgitation have a wide spectrum of cardiac performance in terms of the PAWP during exercise. The absolute rest and exercise ejection fraction and the level of exercise achieved are noninvasive variables that correlate with exercise PAWP in aortic regurgitation, but the change in ejection fraction with exercise by itself is not

  2. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-308 radionuclides in seaweed mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Lopez, J.J.; Noshkin, V.

    1989-12-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a sample of mixed seaweeds from the Mediterranean Sea, IAEA-308, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclide levels, are reported. The data from 67 laboratories representing 33 countries have been evaluated. The recommended median values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides 106 Ru, 110m Ag, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 40 K, 210 Pb and 228 Th are given. Refs and tabs

  3. Myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function during exercise evaluated by 201Tl myocardial scintigraphy and 99mTc radionuclide ventriculography in patients treated with PTCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Toshio; Jo, Tadafumi; Doiuchi, Junji

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), we investigated myocardial ischemia and left ventricular function during exercise before and after successful PTCA in 30 patients. We used extent and severity scores of 201 thallium ( 201 Tl) exercise myocardial scintigraphy to assess myocardial ischemia and determined global and regional left ventricular ejection fraction (EF and REF) of 99m Tc-RBC exercise radionuclide ventriculography to assess left ventricular function. The extent and severity scores of stress images were significantly less after PTCA than before PTCA. The scores of the redistribution images were unchanged before and after PTCA. Global EF during exercise was significantly higher after PTCA than before PTCA. There was no difference in resting global EF between before and after PTCA. Myocardial ischemia induced by exercise was semi-quantitatively analyzed as transient perfusion defect with severity score. Severity score was significantly less after PTCA than before PTCA. ΔEF, which was obtained by subtraction of resting global EF from exercise one, was significantly higher after PTCA than before PTCA. However, the degree of improvement in myocardial ischemia and left ventricular function varied from patient to patient. In 17 patients with one-vessel left anterior descending artery disease, ΔREF, which was determined by subtracting resting regional EF from exercise one, was significantly higher in septal and apical segments after PTCA than before PTCA. Myocardial ischemia and left ventricular function under exercise were alleviated by PTCA. However, the degree of improvement varied from patient to patient and it might have been affected by various factors including coronary dissection, edema, thrombus, restenosis, spasm, side branch stenosis or occlusion, distal thrombus, and myocardial hibernation. (author)

  4. Exercise thallium testing in ventricular preexcitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, S.; Gornick, C.; Grund, F.; Shafer, R.; Weir, E.K.

    1987-05-01

    Ventricular preexcitation, as seen in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, results in a high frequency of positive exercise electrocardiographic responses. Why this occurs is unknown but is not believed to reflect myocardial ischemia. Exercise thallium testing is often used for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with conditions known to result in false-positive electrocardiographic responses. To assess the effects of ventricular preexcitation on exercise thallium testing, 8 men (aged 42 +/- 4 years) with this finding were studied. No subject had signs or symptoms of coronary artery disease. Subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer to a double product of 26,000 +/- 2,000 (+/- standard error of mean). All but one of the subjects had at least 1 mm of ST-segment depression. Tests were terminated because of fatigue or dyspnea and no patient had chest pain. Thallium test results were abnormal in 5 patients, 2 of whom had stress defects as well as abnormally delayed thallium washout. One of these subjects had normal coronary arteries on angiography with a negative ergonovine challenge, and both had normal exercise radionuclide ventriculographic studies. Delayed thallium washout was noted in 3 of the subjects with ventricular preexcitation and normal stress images. This study suggests that exercise thallium testing is frequently abnormal in subjects with ventricular preexcitation. Ventricular preexcitation may cause dyssynergy of ventricular activation, which could alter myocardial thallium handling, much as occurs with left bundle branch block. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography may be a better test for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with ventricular preexcitation.

  5. Exercise thallium testing in ventricular preexcitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, S.; Gornick, C.; Grund, F.; Shafer, R.; Weir, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ventricular preexcitation, as seen in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, results in a high frequency of positive exercise electrocardiographic responses. Why this occurs is unknown but is not believed to reflect myocardial ischemia. Exercise thallium testing is often used for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with conditions known to result in false-positive electrocardiographic responses. To assess the effects of ventricular preexcitation on exercise thallium testing, 8 men (aged 42 +/- 4 years) with this finding were studied. No subject had signs or symptoms of coronary artery disease. Subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer to a double product of 26,000 +/- 2,000 (+/- standard error of mean). All but one of the subjects had at least 1 mm of ST-segment depression. Tests were terminated because of fatigue or dyspnea and no patient had chest pain. Thallium test results were abnormal in 5 patients, 2 of whom had stress defects as well as abnormally delayed thallium washout. One of these subjects had normal coronary arteries on angiography with a negative ergonovine challenge, and both had normal exercise radionuclide ventriculographic studies. Delayed thallium washout was noted in 3 of the subjects with ventricular preexcitation and normal stress images. This study suggests that exercise thallium testing is frequently abnormal in subjects with ventricular preexcitation. Ventricular preexcitation may cause dyssynergy of ventricular activation, which could alter myocardial thallium handling, much as occurs with left bundle branch block. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography may be a better test for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with ventricular preexcitation

  6. Radionuclide solubilities at elevated temperatures. A literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, T.; Vuorinen, U.

    1997-07-01

    This literature study contains experimental data and modelling data collected in order to illustrate how temperature affects radionuclide solubilities under conditions similar to those expected in the vicinity of a planned repository for spent nuclear fuel. The elements considered were Ni, Se, Zr, Tc, Pd, Sn, Ra, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu and Am. The temperatures of main interest are restricted to the interval between room temperature and 100 deg C. The study showed that the literature on radionuclide solubility at temperatures above room temperature is scarce. Therefore, also work that refers to conditions slightly varying from the expected repository conditions has been considered. A minor modelling exercise was done in this study in order to show the effect of temperature on the solubilities of Ni, Np and U under various conditions. The results from the literature survey and our modelling demonstrate the complexity of groundwater systems and the difficulty in finding simple and general relationships between temperature and radionuclide solubilities. Often an increase in temperature (below 100 deg C) leads to a reduction of the radionuclide solubility or leaves it roughly unchanged. However, examples are also found where the rise in temperature increases the radionuclide solubility by several orders of magnitude. (orig.)

  7. Radionuclide solubilities at elevated temperatures. A literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, T.; Vuorinen, U. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-07-01

    This literature study contains experimental data and modelling data collected in order to illustrate how temperature affects radionuclide solubilities under conditions similar to those expected in the vicinity of a planned repository for spent nuclear fuel. The elements considered were Ni, Se, Zr, Tc, Pd, Sn, Ra, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu and Am. The temperatures of main interest are restricted to the interval between room temperature and 100 deg C. The study showed that the literature on radionuclide solubility at temperatures above room temperature is scarce. Therefore, also work that refers to conditions slightly varying from the expected repository conditions has been considered. A minor modelling exercise was done in this study in order to show the effect of temperature on the solubilities of Ni, Np and U under various conditions. The results from the literature survey and our modelling demonstrate the complexity of groundwater systems and the difficulty in finding simple and general relationships between temperature and radionuclide solubilities. Often an increase in temperature (below 100 deg C) leads to a reduction of the radionuclide solubility or leaves it roughly unchanged. However, examples are also found where the rise in temperature increases the radionuclide solubility by several orders of magnitude. (orig.). 54 refs.

  8. An intercomparison on radionuclides in environmental samples, Baltic-Danish co-operation project on radiation protection 2001-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen laboratories participated in an intercomparison exercise carried out in 2003 on laboratory analyses of radionuclides in environmental samples. The sample types included seawater, lake water, soil, dry milk and seaweed and the exercise involved the radionuclides 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, 226 Ra, 2 40 K. The evaluation of analytical performance was based on comparison with median values, a 10% target standard deviation and statistical tests at the 99% level. For 137Cs the results from 10 out of 16 laboratories passed the evaluation tests. For 90 Sr the results from 5 out of 12 laboratories passed the evaluation tests. For 60 Co, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am two laboratories submitted results and both passed the tests. For the natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, only a few laboratories did not pass the tests. For all radionuclides combined, the results from 6 out of 16 laboratories passed the evaluation tests. The results indicate that for several of the laboratories there is room to improve the analytical quality on radionuclides in environmental samples to match an uncertainty corresponding to a relative standard deviation of 10%. (au)

  9. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-307 radionuclides in sea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veglia, A.; Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.

    1989-10-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Mediterranean Sea plant sample, coded as IAEA-307, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclide levels, are reported. This sample was collected along the shore from the vicinity of the Principality of Monaco in October 1986. The data from 66 laboratories representing 31 countries have been evaluated. The most frequently measured radionuclides: 106 Ru, 110m Ag, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 40 K and 226 Ra. 10 refs, 38 tabs

  10. The effects of pilates on balance, mobility and strength in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Citaker, Seyit; Irkec, Ceyla; Nazliel, Bijen; Batur-Caglayan, Hale Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    Although there are evidences as to Pilates developing dynamic balance, muscle strength and flexibility in healthy people, evidences related to its effects on Multiple Sclerosis patients are insufficient. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of Pilates on balance, mobility, and strength in ambulatory patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Twenty six patients were divided into two groups as experimental (n = 18) and control (n = 8) groups for an 8-week treatment program. The experimental group underwent Pilates and the control group did abdominal breathing and active extremity exercises at home. Balance and mobility were measured with Berg Balance Scale and Timed up and go test, upper and lower muscle strength with hand-held dynamometer. Confidence in balance skills while performing daily activities was evaluated with Activities Specific Balance Confidence Scale. Improvements were observed in balance, mobility, and upper and lower extremity muscle strength in the Pilates group (p 0.05). Due to its structure which is made up of balance and strengthening exercises, Pilates training may develop balance, mobility and muscle strength of MS patients. For this reason, we think that, Pilates exercises which are appropriate for the disability level of the patient may be suggested.

  11. Systematic Review: The Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Falls and Improve Balance in Adults With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Hilary; Markevics, Sophie; Haas, Bernhard; Marsden, Jonathan; Freeman, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in reducing falls and/or improving balance as a falls risk in multiple sclerosis (MS). Computer-based and manual searches included the following medical subject heading keywords: "Multiple Sclerosis AND accidental falls" OR "Multiple Sclerosis AND postural balance" OR "Multiple Sclerosis AND exercise" OR "Multiple Sclerosis AND physical/physio therapy" NOT animals. All literature published to November 2014 with available full-text details were included. Studies were reviewed against the PICO (participants, interventions, comparisons, outcomes) selection criteria: P, adults with MS; I, falls management/balance rehabilitation interventions; C, randomized/quasi-randomized studies comparing intervention with usual care or placebo control; O, falls outcomes and measures of balance. Fifteen articles of the original 529 search results were included. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Random-effects meta-analysis indicated a small decrease in falls risk (risk ratio, .74), although the 95% confidence interval (CI) crossed 1 (95% CI, .12-4.38). The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) for balance outcomes was .55 (95% CI, .35-.74). SMD varied significantly between exercise subgroupings; gait, balance, and functional training interventions yielded the greatest pooled effect size (ES) (SMD=.82; 95% CI, 0.55-1.10). There was a moderate positive correlation between program volume (min/wk) and ES (Cohen's d) (r=.70, P=.009), and a moderate negative correlation between program duration in weeks and ES (r=-.62, P=.03). Variations in interventions and outcomes and methodological limitations mean that results must be viewed with caution. This review suggests that balance may improve through exercise interventions, but that the magnitude of the improvements achieved in existing programs may not be sufficient to impact falls outcomes. Supporting

  12. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample IAEA-367

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Gastaud, J.; Vas, D.; Noshkin, V.

    1991-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Pacific Ocean sediment sample, IAEA-367, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 81 laboratories representing 37 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for 60 Co, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239+240 Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1990). Information values for 155 Eu, 238 Pu, 241 Am, and 241 Pu are reported. Information values for the following natural radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 234 U, 235 U and 238 U are also reported. (author)

  13. Tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tuberous sclerosis has been described with a diagnostic triad, it is not present consistently in all cases. Variety of skin manifestations were reported in tuberous sclerosis. This studay was undertaken to assess the frequency of various skin changes in tuberous sclerosis. Ten consecutive cases of tuberous sclerosis were studied. Angiofibroma was the commonest cutaneous manifestation. Atypical fibroxanthoma, dermatofibroma and neurofibroma were also noticed as interesting associations.

  14. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  15. Serial assessment of left ventricular function following coronary bypass surgery by radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasuji, Michio; Sawa, Shigeharu; Sakakibara, Naoki; Iwa, Takashi; Taki, Junichi; Bunko, Hisashi

    1988-01-01

    The serial change in left ventricular function was investigated by radionuclide angiocardiography in 25 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Multiple gated equilibrium blood pool imaging was performed at rest before, and at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after the operation and also during exercise on a supine bicycle ergometer before and 4 weeks after surgery. Global ejection fraction at rest was unchanged after CABG while peak ejection rate increased significantly at 1 and 2 weeks (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively) after the operation. Peak filling rate at rest was generally unchanged after surgery but peak filling rate during the first third of diastole at rest decreased significantly at 1 and 2 weeks (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). After CABG, the increases in ejection fraction and peak ejection rate with exercise were significantly greater than those values measured before surgery. The increases, due to exercise, in peak filling rate and peak filling rate during the first third of diastole were unchanged after the operation. Radionuclide angiocardiography affords a safe, noninvasive, and highly reproducible procedure for serially assessing ventricular function in patients undergoing CABG. Our study revealed early diastolic dysfunction within 2 weeks of surgery and that CABG abolished abnormalities in left ventricular function induced by exercise. (author)

  16. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-306 radionuclides in Baltic Sea sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Lopez, J.J.; Noshkin, V.

    1989-10-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Baltic Sea sediment sample, coded as IAEA-306, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclide levels, are reported. This sample was collected in the fall 1986. It was anticipated that the concentrations of the artificial radionuclides in this sediment would be higher than the environmental levels usually found and, therefore, would constitute an excellent intercomparison sample. The data from 84 laboratories representing 34 countries have been evaluated. The most frequently measured radionuclides are: 90 Sr, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 40 K, 210 Pb- 210 Po, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U and 238 U. 6 refs, 13 tabs

  17. Radionuclide investigations in clinical cardiology - 10 years of cooperation in Frankfurt/FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepzig, H. Jr.; Kaltenbach, M.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclide investigations today are an important tool in cardiology. They close the diagnostic gap in cases where non-invasive procedures of cardiological diagnosis such as ecg, exercise-ecg, echocardiography and chest-x-ray remains unrevealing. Further, they are helpful when an exact quantitation of the disease or a precise follow-up is required. Radionuclide techniques are very useful to detect myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary heart disease and to judge myocardial function in patients with aortic or mitral regurgitation. Follow-up investigations after therapy (aortocoronary bypass, PTCA, valve replacement) permit conclusions regarding the benefit of these measures. Results of radionuclide investigations should consider the Bayes' theorem in order to keep false-negative and false-positive reports as low as possible. (orig.) [de

  18. Exercise left ventricular performance in patients with chest pain, ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiograms, and angiographically normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.J.; Sands, M.J.; Davies, R.A.; Wackers, F.J.; Alexander, J.; Lachman, A.S.; Williams, B.W.; Zaret, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Left ventricular performance was evaluated using first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography in 31 patients with chest pain, an ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiogram, and angiographically normal coronary arteries at rest and during maximal upright bicycle exercise. 201 Tl imaging was done in all patients after treadmill exercise and in selected patients after ergonovine provocation. Resting left ventricular performance was normal in all patients. An abnormal ejection fraction response to exercise was detected in 12 of 31 patients. Regional dysfunction was present during exercise in four patients, all of whom also had abnormal global responses. Three of these 12 patients and two additional patients had exercise-induced 201 Tl perfusion defects. In all nine patients who underwent ergonovine testing, there was no suggestion of coronary arterial spasm. Thus, left ventricular dysfunction during exercise, in the presence of normal resting performance, was found in a substantial number of patients with chest pain, an ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiogram, and normal coronary arteries

  19. Quantitation of aortic and mitral regurgitation in the pediatric population: evaluation by radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurwitz, R.A.; Treves, S.; Freed, M.; Girod, D.A.; Caldwell, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The ability to quantitate aortic (AR) or mitral regurgitation (MR), or both, by radionuclide angiocardiography was evaluated in children and young adults at rest and during isometric exercise. Regurgitation was estimated by determining the ratio of left ventricular stroke volume to right ventricular stroke volume obtained during equilibrium ventriculography. The radionuclide measurement was compared with results of cineangiography, with good correlation between both studies in 47 of 48 patients. Radionuclide stroke volume ratio was used to classify severity: the group with equivocal regurgitation differed from the group with mild regurgitation (p less than 0.02); patients with mild regurgitation differed from those with moderate regurgitation (p less than 0.001); and those with moderate regurgitation differed from those with severe regurgitation (p less than 0.01). The stroke volume ratio was responsive to isometric exercise, remaining constant or increasing in 16 of 18 patients. After surgery to correct regurgitation, the stroke volume ratio significantly decreased from preoperative measurements in all 7 patients evaluated. Results from the present study demonstrate that a stroke volume ratio greater than 2.0 is compatible with moderately severe regurgitation and that a ratio greater than 3.0 suggests the presence of severe regurgitation. Thus, radionuclide angiocardiography should be useful for noninvasive quantitation of AR or MR, or both, helping define the course of young patients with left-side valvular regurgitation

  20. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume is decreased at maximal exercise in athletes with marked repolarisation abnormalities: a continuous radionuclide monitoring study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flotats, Albert; Camacho, Valle; Mena, Esther; Estorch, Montserrat; Tembl, Ana; Fuertes, Jordi; Carrio, Ignasi; Serra-Grima, Ricard; Borras, Xavier; Cinca, Juan

    2005-01-01

    Although marked repolarisation abnormalities (MRAs) are considered innocuous in trained athletes, their functional significance awaits clarification. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the pathophysiological implications of such MRAs. We compared left ventricular (LV) functional response to exhausting exercise in 39 male athletes with (n=22) or without (n=17) MRAs and with no structural cardiac abnormalities, by means of a portable radionuclide monitoring system (Vest, Capintec, Inc., Ramsey, NJ). MRAs were defined by the presence of negative T waves ≥2 mm in three or more rest ECG leads. The Vest data were averaged for 30 s and analysed at baseline and at different heart rate (HR) values (50%, 75%, 85%, 95% and 100% of peak HR), as well as at 2, 5 and 10 min of recovery. There were no significant differences in the effect of exhausting exercise between athletes with and athletes without MRAs. However, there was a significant difference in the trend in end-diastolic volume (EDV) during exercise depending upon the group of athletes considered (p=0.05). EDV differed significantly between the two groups of athletes at peak HR (p=0.031). EDV in athletes with MRAs was lower than that in athletes without MRAs (102%±7% vs 107%±8%, p=0.034). EDV is decreased at peak HR in athletes with MRAs. Such high HR values are infrequently achieved or maintained during sporting activities; therefore, in the absence of structural heart disease, MRAs should not preclude physical training and competitive availability. (orig.)

  1. Rest and exercise ventricular function in adults with congenital ventricular septal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonsky, G.; Hilton, J.D.; Liu, P.P.; Morch, J.E.; Druck, M.N.; Bar-Shlomo, B.Z.; McLaughlin, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Rest and exercise right and left ventricular function were compared using equilibrium gated radionuclide angiography in 19 normal sedentary control subjects and 34 patients with hemodynamically documented congenital ventricular septal defect (VSD). Gated radionuclide angiography was performed at rest and during each level of graded supine bicycle exercise to fatigue. Heart rate, blood pressure, maximal work load achieved, and right and left ventricular ejection fractions were assessed. The control subjects demonstrated an increase in both the left and right ventricular ejection fractions with exercise. All study groups failed to demonstrate an increase in ejection fraction in either ventricle with exercise. Furthermore, resting left ventricular ejection fraction in Groups 2 and 3 was lower than that in the control subjects and resting right ventricular ejection fraction was lower in Group 3 versus control subjects. Thus left and right ventricular function on exercise were abnormal in patients with residual VSD as compared with control subjects; rest and exercise left ventricular ejection fractions remained abnormal despite surgical closure of VSD in the remote past; resting left and right ventricular function was abnormal in patients with Eisenmenger's complex; lifelong volume overload may be detrimental to myocardial function

  2. Efficacy of Balance and Eye-Movement Exercises for Persons With Multiple Sclerosis (BEEMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Jeffrey R; Corboy, John R; Vollmer, Timothy; Forster, Jeri E; Schenkman, Margaret

    2018-02-27

    To determine whether a multifaceted vestibular-related rehabilitation program (Balance and Eye-Movement Exercises for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis; BEEMS) improves balance in persons with MS and whether there are differences in outcomes based on brainstem/cerebellar lesion involvement. A 2-arm, examiner-blinded, stratified (involvement vs no involvement of brainstem/cerebellar structures), randomized controlled trial was implemented. Eighty-eight participants were allocated to BEEMS or no treatment control. Computerized Dynamic Posturography-Sensory Organization Test (CDP-SOT) measured balance control. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), and Short Form-36 Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36) were also administered. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the primary and secondary aims. From baseline to 6 weeks, BEEMS participants experienced greater improvements compared to control participants in CDP-SOT composite (model-estimated difference in change 4.9, 95% confidence interval 1.39-8.38, p = 0.006), DHI total (-13.5, -17.7 to -7.25, p weeks in CDP-SOT composite (8.3, 4.73-11.9, p weeks, BEEMS participants with brainstem/cerebellar lesion involvement experienced greater improvements compared to those without in CDP-SOT composite (5.26, 0.34-10.2, p = 0.04) and MFIS total (-7.6, -14.0 to -1.33, p = 0.02) scores. BEEMS improved multiple outcomes regardless of whether brainstem/cerebellar lesions were present, supporting the generalizability of BEEMS for ambulatory people with MS who have at least minimally impaired balance and fatigue. NCT01698086. This study provides Class I evidence that BEEMS training improves dynamic posturography-based balance, dizziness, fatigue, and quality of life in persons with MS. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Comparison of exercise ECG and radionuclide ventriculography in the assessment of myocardial ischemia in patients with isolated stenoses of the left anterior descending artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepzig, H. Jr.; Mildenberger, D.; Kaltenbach, M.; Standke, R.; Baum, R.P.; Tezak, S.; Maul, F.D.; Hoer, G.

    1988-01-01

    21 patients with LAD-stenoses of at least 70% and 21 patients with LAD-stenoses and additional intramural anterior wall infarctions were studied. 20 patients without heart disease or after successful transluminal coronary angioplasty and 18 patients with intramural anterior wall infarction after successful transluminal dilatation of the LAD (remaining stenosis maximal 30%) served as controls. The normal range of global and regional left ventricular ejection fraction response to exercise was defined based on the data of 25 further patients without relevant coronary heart disease. Thus, a decrease in global ejection fraction and regional wall motion abnormalities were judged pathological. All patients were comparable with respect to age, ejection fraction at rest and work load. Myocardial ischemia could be detected by the exercise ECG in 81% of all patients without infarction and in 71% of patients with infarction. The corresponding values for global left ventricular ejection fraction were 76% and 81%, respectively, and for regional ejection fraction 95% in both groups. No false-positive exercise ECGs were observed in the healthy controls and 2(11%) in the corresponding group with intramural infaction. The global ejection fraction was pathological in 1(5%) healthy subject without infarction and in 3(17%) corresponding patients with infarction. Sectorial analysis revealed 5 and 22%, respectively. Our findings suggest that the exercise ECG has a limited sensitivity to detect myocardial ischemia in patients with isolated LAD-stenoses and intramural myocardial infarction. Radionuclide ventriculography yields pathological values more often; however, false-positive results also occur more frequently. (orig.) [de

  4. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-352 radionuclides in tuna fish flesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Lopez, J.J.; Noshkin, V.

    1990-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a sample of tuna fish flesh from the Mediterranean Sea, IAEA-352, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 63 laboratories from 31 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides (Reference data: 1 January 1989): 137 Cs 2.7 Bq kg -1 , 90 Sr 0.2 Bq Kg -1 , 40 K 391 Bq Kg -1 , 210 Pb 0.6 Bq Kg -1 , 210 Po 2.2 Bq Kg -1 . Tabs

  5. Effect of aerobic interval training on serum IL-10, TNFα, and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis: possible relations with fatigue and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzade, Motahare; Ranjbar, Rouholah; Majdinasab, Nastaran; Patel, Darpan; Molanouri Shamsi, Mehdieh

    2017-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis is associated with immune system dysfunction and chronic inflammation; however, possible relations between immunologic and metabolic factors and some psychological indexes such as fatigue and quality of life, especially in relation to exercise training, have not yet been investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aerobic interval training on interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factor ratio and adipokine (leptin and adiponectin) concentrations in women with multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the relationship between these factors with fatigue and quality of life were assessed. Forty women with multiple sclerosis (Expanded Disability Status Scale ≤3) were randomized into either a non-exercising control or training group. The training group performed 8-weeks of upper and lower limb aerobic interval training. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factorα, interleukin-10, leptin, and adiponectin were measured before and after the 8-week intervention. Moreover, antropometric measures and measures for fatigue and quality of life were determined at the onset of and after exercise training. The results revealed that leptin and tumor necrosis factorα levels significantly decreased subsequent to the aerobic interval training. Although blood adiponectin levels considerably increased in the training group, interleukin-10 and interleukin-10/tumor necrosis factorα ratio underwent no substantial change after the exercise training. In addition, the aerobic interval training was associated with improvement in fatigue, quality of life, and maximal oxygen consumption. Our findings suggested that aerobic interval training can be an effective strategy for managing the immune system at least by its significant impact on inflammatory cytokines and adipokines levels in women with multiple sclerosis. Additionally, this positive impact improved fatigue and adipose tissue indicators.

  6. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample IAEA-367

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestra, S; Lopez, J J; Gastaud, J; Vas, D; Noshkin, V

    1991-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Pacific Ocean sediment sample, IAEA-367, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 81 laboratories representing 37 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239+240}Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1990). Information values for {sup 155}Eu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 241}Pu are reported. Information values for the following natural radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U are also reported. (author)

  7. Evaluation with equilibrium radionuclide angiography of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuya; Sera, Kazuaki; Fukuzaki, Hisashi.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic pulmonary diseases, 86 patients were studied using equilibrium radionuclide angiography with forward and reverse gating from the R wave. At rest left ventricular function, both in systolic and diastolic properties, in patients with pulmonary hypertension was significantly lower than in normal subjects (LVEF; P<0.05, PER; P<0.05, PFR; P<0.025, FF; P<0.025). During exercise left ventricular systolic function did not increase as much as in normals (LVEF; N.S., PER; N.S.). Left ventricular diastolic function during exercise was significantly lower than at rest (PFR; P<0.05, FF; P<0.001). The indices of left ventricular function obtained from radionuclide angiography had no close correlation with pulmonary hemodynamics or with blood gases. These results demonstrated that left ventricular dysfunction in patients with pulmonary hypertension was observed both at rest and during exercise, and might play an important role in reduced exercise tolerance. (author)

  8. Evaluation with equilibrium radionuclide angiography of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic pulmonary diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Kazuya; Sera, Kazuaki [National Akashi Hospital, Hyogo (Japan); Fukuzaki, Hisashi

    1989-08-01

    To evaluate left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in patients with pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic pulmonary diseases, 86 patients were studied using equilibrium radionuclide angiography with forward and reverse gating from the R wave. At rest left ventricular function, both in systolic and diastolic properties, in patients with pulmonary hypertension was significantly lower than in normal subjects (LVEF; P<0.05, PER; P<0.05, PFR; P<0.025, FF; P<0.025). During exercise left ventricular systolic function did not increase as much as in normals (LVEF; N.S., PER; N.S.). Left ventricular diastolic function during exercise was significantly lower than at rest (PFR; P<0.05, FF; P<0.001). The indices of left ventricular function obtained from radionuclide angiography had no close correlation with pulmonary hemodynamics or with blood gases. These results demonstrated that left ventricular dysfunction in patients with pulmonary hypertension was observed both at rest and during exercise, and might play an important role in reduced exercise tolerance. (author).

  9. Limited Mouth Opening Secondary to Diffuse Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Wada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a relatively rare condition with an immunologically mediated pathogenesis. For reasons that are not clearly understood, dense collagen is deposited in the connective tissues of the body in extraordinary amounts. Although its dramatic effects are seen in association with the skin, the disease is often quite serious with visceral organ involvement. We describe a case of limited mouth opening secondary to diffuse SSc, improvement in mouth opening with passive jaw stretch exercises, and the challenges involved in performing dental procedures for such patients.

  10. Pediatric multiple sclerosis: current perspectives on health behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikes EM

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Morghen Sikes,1 Robert W Motl,1 Jayne M Ness2 1Department of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Department of Pediatric Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS accounts for ~5% of all multiple sclerosis cases, and has a prevalence of ~10,000 children in the USA. POMS is associated with a higher relapse rate, and results in irreversible disability on average 10 years earlier than adult-onset multiple sclerosis. Other manifestations of POMS include mental and physical fatigue, cognitive impairment, and depression. We believe that the health behaviors of physical activity, diet, and sleep may have potential benefits in POMS, and present a scoping review of the existing literature. Methods: We identified papers by searching three electronic databases (PubMed, GoogleScholar, and CINAHL. Search terms included: pediatric multiple sclerosis OR pediatric onset multiple sclerosis OR POMS AND health behavior OR physical activity OR sleep OR diet OR nutrition OR obesity. Papers were included in this review if they were published in English, referenced nutrition, diet, obesity, sleep, exercise, or physical activity, and included pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis as a primary population. Results: Twenty papers were identified via the literature search that addressed health-promoting behaviors in POMS, and 11, 8, and 3 papers focused on diet, activity, and sleep, respectively. Health-promoting behaviors were associated with markers of disease burden in POMS. Physical activity participation was associated with reduced relapse rate, disease burden, and sleep/rest fatigue symptoms. Nutritional factors, particularly vitamin D intake, may be associated with relapse rate. Obesity has been associated with increased risk of developing POMS. POMS is associated with better sleep hygiene, and this may benefit fatigue and quality of life

  11. Improvements in cognition, quality of life, and physical performance with clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Fadime; Kara, Bilge; Poyraz, Esra Çoşkuner; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into two groups as the clinical Pilates and control groups. Cognition (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical performance (timed performance tests, Timed up and go test), tiredness (Modified Fatigue Impact scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire) were measured before and after treatment in all participants. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in balance, timed performance, tiredness and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite tests between before and after treatment in the clinical Pilates group. We also found significant differences in timed performance tests, the Timed up and go test and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite between before and after treatment in the control group. According to the difference analyses, there were significant differences in Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire scores between the two groups in favor of the clinical Pilates group. There were statistically significant clinical differences in favor of the clinical Pilates group in comparison of measurements between the groups. Clinical Pilates improved cognitive functions and quality of life compared with traditional exercise. [Conclusion] In Multiple Sclerosis treatment, clinical Pilates should be used as a holistic approach by physical therapists.

  12. Application and validation of predictive computer programs describing the chemistry of radionuclides in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, M.; Duffield, J.R.; Griffiths, P.J.F.; Williams, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Chemval is an international project concerned with improving the data used to model the speciation chemistry of radionuclide migration from underground waste disposal sites. Chemval has two main aims: to produce a reliable database of thermodynamic equilibrium constants for use in such chemical modelling; to perform a series of test-case modelling exercises based upon real site and field data to verify and validate the existing tools used for simulating the chemical speciation and the transport of radionuclides in the environment

  13. The value of radionuclide angiography for risk assessment of patients following acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Radionuclide angiography (RNA) is an accurate noninvasive method for the evaluation of left ventricular function at rest and exercise. Both the change in ejection fraction from rest to exercise and the exercise ejection fraction correlate with the severity of coronary artery disease and are more sensitive than ST-segment changes for detecting abnormalities due to exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. The amount of left ventricular dysfunction produced acutely by myocardial ischemia appears to vary linearly with the severity of ischemia produced. Thus rest and exercise RNA provide information noninvasively regarding both the severity of left ventricular dysfunction and the amount of potentially ischemic myocardium, two of the three major pathophysiologic mechanisms related to prognosis. It is reasonable to hypothesize that rest and exercise RNA may provide useful prognostic information concerning subsequent mortality and morbidity in survivors of acute myocardial infarction

  14. Ejection fraction response to exercise in patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, R.L.; Lee, K.L.; Cobb, F.; Jones, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this study we describe the ejection fraction response to upright exercise using first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography in a group of 60 patients with chest pain, normal coronary ateriograms and normal resting ventricular function. A wide range of resting function (heart rate and ejection fraction) and exercise function (heart rate, ejection fraction, peak work load and estimated peak oxygen uptake) were measured. The ejection fraction response to exercise demonstrated wide variation, ranging from a decrease of 23% to an increase of 24%. Six of 22 clinical and radionuclide angiocardiographic variables (resting ejection fraction, peak work load, age, sex, body surface area and the change in end-diastolic volume index with exercise) were significant univariate predictors of the ejection fraction response to exercise. Multivariable analysis identified resting ejection fraction, the change in end-diastolic volume index with exercise and either sex or peak work load as variables that provided significant independent predictive information. These observations indicate that the ejection fraction response to exercise is a complex response that is influenced by multiple physiologic variables. The wide variation in this population suggests that the ejection fraction response to exercise is not a reliable test for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease because of its low specificity

  15. Results from the RESUME-95 exercise. In-situ gamma spectrometry performed at Vesivehmaa Airport, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Univ. Hospital MAS, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    The Department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe has an agreement with the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, in which we are obliged to perform instantaneous field measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclides in case of a major release of radionuclides in the environment. The department possesses a High Purity Germanium detector system (35 % commercial at 1.33 MeV) with a PC software spectrum analyser that was purchased and calibrated for this reason. The aim of our participation in the RESUME-95{sup 1} exercise, which took place in Vaeaexsy, Finland, in August 1995, was both to obtain efficiency values for different source geometries (both artificial and natural radionuclides) in field and to compare our results with those of other groups. Furthermore, this exercise was an ideal opportunity to test the full equipment under field conditions. (au).

  16. Results from the RESUME-95 exercise. In-situ gamma spectrometry performed at Vesivehmaa Airport, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C L [Univ. Hospital MAS, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The Department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe has an agreement with the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, in which we are obliged to perform instantaneous field measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclides in case of a major release of radionuclides in the environment. The department possesses a High Purity Germanium detector system (35 % commercial at 1.33 MeV) with a PC software spectrum analyser that was purchased and calibrated for this reason. The aim of our participation in the RESUME-95{sup 1} exercise, which took place in Vaeaexsy, Finland, in August 1995, was both to obtain efficiency values for different source geometries (both artificial and natural radionuclides) in field and to compare our results with those of other groups. Furthermore, this exercise was an ideal opportunity to test the full equipment under field conditions. (au).

  17. Review and assessment of models for predicting the migration of radionuclides through rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, Luigi; Boyer, Patrick; Brittain, John E.; Haakanson, Lars; Lepicard, Samuel; Smith, Jim T.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper summarises the results of the review and assessment of state-of-the-art models developed for predicting the migration of radionuclides through rivers. The different approaches of the models to predict the behaviour of radionuclides in lotic ecosystems are presented and compared. The models were classified and evaluated according to their main methodological approaches. The results of an exercise of model application to specific contamination scenarios aimed at assessing and comparing the model performances were described. A critical evaluation and analysis of the uncertainty of the models was carried out. The main factors influencing the inherent uncertainty of the models, such as the incompleteness of the actual knowledge and the intrinsic environmental and biological variability of the processes controlling the behaviour of radionuclides in rivers, are analysed

  18. Global ejection fraction and phase analysis assessed by radionuclide angiography during exercise and after isoproterenol infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righetti, A.; Ratib, O.; Merier, G.; Widmann, T.; Donath, A.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide angiography obtained during and following Isoproterenol infusion is a new approach for detecting latent myocardial ischemia. It is very sensitive and could be considered as an alternative to conventional exercice radionuclide angiography. The data presented show that phase analysis assessment of regional systolic wall motion is a better indicator than global ejection fraction for quantifying left ventricular dysfunction

  19. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise 'RESUME 95' in August 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I.; Arntsing, R.

    1997-01-01

    In the exercise called 'RESUME 95' the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au)

  20. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise `RESUME 95` in August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I.; Arntsing, R. [National Defence Research Establisment, Nuclear Detection Group, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    In the exercise called `RESUME 95` the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au).

  1. Total deposition of cesium-137 measured in Finland during the exercise `RESUME 95` in August 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, L.E. De; Vintersved, I; Arntsing, R [National Defence Research Establisment, Nuclear Detection Group, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    In the exercise called `RESUME 95` the Nuclear Detection Group from the National Defence Research Establishment in Stockholm participated with field gamma ray measurements combined with soil sampling and profile measurements. The results are presented in this report for the measurements of cesium-137. We considered the measurements of cesium-137 at the airfield the most important part of the in-situ exercise. Data was of course collected also for cesium-134 and natural radionuclides but time has not permitted a full analysis of these radionuclides. The methodology would, however, be the same as applied for cesium-137. Less attention was paid for area II and due to limited personnel resources the search exercise was not fully carried out. (au).

  2. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indwelling catheter Osteoporosis or thinning of the bones Pressure sores Side effects of medicines used to treat the ... Daily bowel care program Multiple sclerosis - discharge Preventing pressure ulcers Swallowing problems Images Multiple sclerosis MRI of the ...

  3. A qualitative study exploring the usability of Nintendo Wii Fit among persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plow, Matthew; Finlayson, Marcia

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the usability of Nintendo Wii Fit to promote physical activity in adults with multiple sclerosis. Qualitative interviews were conducted as part of a pilot study that examined the health outcomes of a 14-week Wii Fit home-exercise programme in 30 adults with multiple sclerosis. We found participants reported that Wii Fit helped build confidence in abilities, achieve goals related to engagement in leisure activities and remove barriers associated with going to a gym to exercise. However, Wii Fit induced initial reactions of intimidation and worries about falling, and feedback during game play reminded participants of their impairments. Wii Fit was limited in its customizability to accommodate different functional levels. Understanding how to improve the usability and customizability of commercially available exergaming technology could be of benefit to people with disabling conditions. Before conducting randomized controlled trials of commercially available exergaming technology in adults with disabling conditions, we recommend that strategies be identified to remove usability barriers so those with moderate impairments can be included in the trial. This will reduce the likelihood of ceiling effects and clinical irrelevance. In terms of clinical recommendations, rehabilitation professionals need to consider patients' functional level, surrounding environment and preferences when prescribing a Wii Fit-based exercise programme. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. ALMERA Proficiency Test: Determination of Natural and Artificial Radionuclides in Soil and Water. IAEA-TEL-2011-04

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) network is a cooperative effort of analytical laboratories worldwide. Members of the network are nominated by their respective Member States on the expectation of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. The ALMERA network consists of 131 laboratories representing 81 Member States at December 2012. The IAEA's Environment Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Monaco are the central coordinators of the ALMERA network activities. The IAEA helps the ALMERA network to maintain their readiness by coordinating activities, including the organization of meetings, development of standardized methods of sample collection and analysis, and organization of interlaboratory comparison exercises and proficiency tests as tools for external quality control. IAEA proficiency tests and interlaboratory comparison exercises are organized on a regular basis specifically for the members of the ALMERA network. At least one exercise is organized per year by the IAEA for the ALMERA network. These exercises are designed to monitor and to demonstrate the performance and analytical capabilities of the network members, and to identify gaps and problem areas where further development is needed. The ALMERA proficiency tests enable ALMERA members to report their results on gamma emitting radionuclides in a very short time frame, i.e. three days, which is what would be required for emergency response. This publication presents the results of the ALMERA proficiency test IAEA-TEL-2011-04 on the determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in water and soil. The methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each radionuclide and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described

  5. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  6. Radionuclide angiocardiography in the diagnosis of congenital heart disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Austin, E.H.; Peter, C.A.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide angiocardiography provides a noninvasive assessment of cardiac function and blood flow through the heart and lungs. During the past three years, this procedure has been used at the Duke University Medical Center for evaluation of 343 patients with congenital heart disorders. A review of this experience shows tat the resulting data were frequently useful in the surgical management of these patients. In patients with abnormal blood flow patterns, noninvasive imaging of blood flow was useful before and after operative correction. Radionuclide measurements of left-to-right intracardiac shunts were sufficiently accurate for use in the initial evaluation of patients with murmurs and to document the absence of shunt after operative closure of intracardiac septal defects. Moreover, measurements of right-to-left cardiac shunts were of benefit in the management of children with cyanotic heart disease. Measurements of left ventricular function obtained during rest and exercise were most useful in patients with origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery and in patients with congenital valvular insufficiency. This experience demonstrates that radionuclide angiocardiography provides important measurements of central hemodynamics and cardiac function which are useful in the management of patients with congenital heart disorders

  7. A new cognitive rehabilitation programme for patients with multiple sclerosis: the 'MS-line! Project'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gich, Jordi; Freixenet, Jordi; Garcia, Rafael; Vilanova, Joan Carles; Genís, David; Silva, Yolanda; Montalban, Xavier; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation is often delayed in multiple sclerosis (MS). To develop a free and specific cognitive rehabilitation programme for MS patients to be used from early stages that does not interfere with daily living activities. MS-line!, cognitive rehabilitation materials consisting of written, manipulative and computer-based materials with difficulty levels developed by a multidisciplinary team. Mathematical, problem-solving and word-based exercises were designed. Physical materials included spatial, coordination and reasoning games. Computer-based material included logic and reasoning, working memory and processing speed games. Cognitive rehabilitation exercises that are specific for MS patients have been successfully developed. © The Author(s), 2014.

  8. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  9. Enhancement of the 1985 Browns Ferry exercise through the use of spiked samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNees, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The use of spiked environmental samples has proven to be a beneficial part of nuclear power plant exercises. Milk, soil, and air sampling cartridges can easily be spiked with realistic concentrations of radionuclide without violating Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations or policy and with no significant radiation hazard to exercise participants. Analysis and reporting of data from realistic samples significantly improves motivation, attitude, moral, and overall preparedness of the individuals participating in that phase of the exercise

  10. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  11. Association between systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis: lupoid sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Yimy F; Martinez, Jose B; Fernandez, Andres R; Quintana, Gerardo; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Rondon, Federico; Gamarra, Antonio Iglesias

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) with/without antiphospholipid syndrome are autoimmune illnesses. It has been described in many occasions the association of these two illnesses and the clinical picture of MS with characteristics of laboratory of SLE. When they affect to the central nervous system they can make it in a defined form for each illness or they can also make it in interposed or combined form of the two illnesses what has been called lupoid sclerosis; making that in some cases difficult the differentiation of the two illnesses and therefore to address the treatment. We present four cases of lupoid sclerosis, discuss the clinical and laboratory characteristics of this entity and we make a differentiation of the multiple sclerosis with the neurological affectation of SLE especially for images and laboratory results.

  12. IAEA/IDEAS intercomparison exercise on internal dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerfel, H.; Andrasi, A.; Cruz-Suarez, R.; Castellani, C. M.; Hurtgen, C.; Marsh, J.; Zeger, J.

    2007-01-01

    An Internet based intercomparison exercise on assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides has been performed to check the applicability of the 'General Guidelines for the Assessment of Internal Dose from Monitoring Data' developed by the IDEAS group. There were six intake cases presented on the Internet and 81 participants worldwide reported solutions to these cases. Results of the exercise indicate that the guidelines have a positive influence on the methodologies applied for dose assessments and, if correctly applied, improve the harmonisation of assessed doses. (authors)

  13. The value of exercise radionuclide ventriculography in risk stratification after coronary arterial bypass grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Goel, I.P.; Mundth, E.D.; Kane, S.; Schenk, C.

    1985-01-01

    Cardiac events after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be related to left ventricular (LV) function, residual coronary artery diseases (CAD), graft occlusion, and progression of CAD. This study examined the value of rest and exercise (EX) radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) done 3-6 mos after CABG in risk stratification in 212 pts. There were 185 men and 27 women, aged 57 +- 8 years (mean +- SD). During a followup period of up to 4 years, (15 +- 10 months), there were 23 cardiac events; 13 pts died of cardiac causes and 20 had non-fatal acute myocardial infarctions. The pts with and without events did not differ in: clinical presentation after CABG (most were asymptomatic), medications and ECG findings at rest and EX. The pts with events had lower EX systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01); resting LV ejection fraction (EF) (p = 0.002), and EX EF (40 +- 18% vs 54 +- 16%, p = 0.002). The change in EF (rest to EX) was not significantly different (l.6 +- 8.2%, vs 2.1 +- 9.2%). Survival analysis (Cox model) identified the EX EF as the best predictor of death and total events (X/sup 2/ = 4.3 and 2.4, p = 0.04 and 0.07 respectively). Actuarial life table analysis showed that the risk increased as the EX EF decreased when pts were grouped into EX EF ≥ 50, 30-49, and <30%, (p < 0.001, Mantel-Cox). Thus, EX RNA is useful in risk stratification after CABG. The EX LVEF is an important descriptor that categorizes pts into different risks groups. The pts at high risk probably require more aggressive followup and continued medical therapy

  14. Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model prediction-experimental data intercomparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ould-Dada, Z.; Carini, F.; Eged, K.; Kis, Z.; Linkov, I.; Mitchell, N.G.; Mourlon, C.; Robles, B.; Sweeck, L.; Venter, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from an international exercise undertaken to test model predictions against an independent data set for the transfer of radioactivity to fruit. Six models with various structures and complexity participated in this exercise. Predictions from these models were compared against independent experimental measurements on the transfer of 134 Cs and 85 Sr via leaf-to-fruit and soil-to-fruit in strawberry plants after an acute release. Foliar contamination was carried out through wet deposition on the plant at two different growing stages, anthesis and ripening, while soil contamination was effected at anthesis only. In the case of foliar contamination, predicted values are within the same order of magnitude as the measured values for both radionuclides, while in the case of soil contamination models tend to under-predict by up to three orders of magnitude for 134 Cs, while differences for 85 Sr are lower. Performance of models against experimental data is discussed together with the lessons learned from this exercise

  15. Speciation analysis of radionuclides in the environment - NSK-B SPECIATION project report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.; Lujaniene, G.; Lehto, J.; Skipperud, L.; Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B.

    2009-10-01

    The second stage of the NKS-B project SPECIATION was complemented in 2008-2009, which mainly focus on three aspects: (1) Further improvement and development of methods for speciation analysis of radionuclides; (2) Investigation of speciation of some radionuclides in the environment (water, sediments, particles); and (3) Intercomparison excise for speciation analysis of radionuclides in soil and sediment. This report summarizes the work completed in the project partners' laboratories. Method developments include: Development of an rapid and in-suit separation method for the speciation analysis of 129I in seawater samples; Development of a simple method for the speciation analysis of 129I in fresh water and seawater samples; Development of an on-line HPLC-ICP-MS method for the direct speciation analysis of 127I in water and leachate samples; Speciation of radionuclides in water includes: Speciation of 129I and 127I in time-series precipitation samples collected in Denmark 2001-2006 and its application for the investigation of geochemistry and atmospheric chemistry of iodine, Speciation of radionuclides in Ob and Yenisey Rivers, and Speciation of 129I and 127I in Lake Heimdalen water. Speciation of radionuclides in soils and sediments includes: Sequential extraction of radionuclides in sediments and of trace elements in soil samples. Sequential extraction of radionuclides in aerosols and particles has also been performed. Furthermore, sorption experiments have been performed to investigate the association of Pu, Am and Cs with different geological materials. The intercomparison exercises included sequential extraction of Pu, 137Cs, U, Th, and 129I in one soil and one sediment standard reference materials (NIST-4354, IAEA-375) and Pu in sediment collected from the Lake Heimdalen, Norway. (author)

  16. Speciation analysis of radionuclides in the environment - NSK-B SPECIATION project report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aldahan, A. (Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Earth Science (Sweden)); Possnert, G. (Uppsala Univ., Tandem Lab. (Sweden)); Lujaniene, G. (Univ. of Helsinki, Lab. of Radiochemistry (Finland)); Lehto, J. (Institute of Physics (Lithuania)); Skipperud, L.; Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. (Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Isotope Lab., AAs (Norway))

    2009-10-15

    The second stage of the NKS-B project SPECIATION was complemented in 2008-2009, which mainly focus on three aspects: (1) Further improvement and development of methods for speciation analysis of radionuclides; (2) Investigation of speciation of some radionuclides in the environment (water, sediments, particles); and (3) Intercomparison excise for speciation analysis of radionuclides in soil and sediment. This report summarizes the work completed in the project partners' laboratories. Method developments include: Development of an rapid and in-suit separation method for the speciation analysis of 129I in seawater samples; Development of a simple method for the speciation analysis of 129I in fresh water and seawater samples; Development of an on-line HPLC-ICP-MS method for the direct speciation analysis of 127I in water and leachate samples; Speciation of radionuclides in water includes: Speciation of 129I and 127I in time-series precipitation samples collected in Denmark 2001-2006 and its application for the investigation of geochemistry and atmospheric chemistry of iodine, Speciation of radionuclides in Ob and Yenisey Rivers, and Speciation of 129I and 127I in Lake Heimdalen water. Speciation of radionuclides in soils and sediments includes: Sequential extraction of radionuclides in sediments and of trace elements in soil samples. Sequential extraction of radionuclides in aerosols and particles has also been performed. Furthermore, sorption experiments have been performed to investigate the association of Pu, Am and Cs with different geological materials. The intercomparison exercises included sequential extraction of Pu, 137Cs, U, Th, and 129I in one soil and one sediment standard reference materials (NIST-4354, IAEA-375) and Pu in sediment collected from the Lake Heimdalen, Norway. (author)

  17. Virtual reality in multiple sclerosis - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Thais; Trevizan, Isabela Lopes; Arab, Claudia; Favero, Francis Meire; Ribeiro-Papa, Denise Cardoso; de Mello Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira

    2016-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease in which the insulating cover of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. The methods used for motor rehabilitation of patients with neurological problems require the performance of several rehabilitation exercises. Recently, studies related to the use of video game consoles have proliferated in the field of motor rehabilitation. Virtual reality (VR) has been proposed as a potentially useful tool for motoring assessment and rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results shown in previous studies on "Multiple Sclerosis" and "Virtual Reality". A bibliographic review was performed without time limitations. The research was carried out using PubMed and BVS databases. Considering keywords, we included articles that showed the terms "Multiple Sclerosis" and "Virtual Reality". The review was according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines The initial search yielded 41 articles. After the duplicates were removed, two authors independently evaluated the title and abstract of each of the articles with the study inclusion criteria. From these, 31 articles were excluded based on the title and abstract. Finally, 10 articles were isolated that met the inclusion criteria. VR represents a motivational and effective alternative to traditional motor rehabilitation for MS patients. The results showed that VR programs could be an effective method of patients with MS rehabilitation in multiple cognitive and / or motor deficits. Additional research is needed to support the rehabilitation protocols with VR and increase the effects of treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrition Facts in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Riccio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The question whether dietary habits and lifestyle have influence on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS is still a matter of debate, and at present, MS therapy is not associated with any information on diet and lifestyle. Here we show that dietary factors and lifestyle may exacerbate or ameliorate MS symptoms by modulating the inflammatory status of the disease both in relapsing-remitting MS and in primary-progressive MS. This is achieved by controlling both the metabolic and inflammatory pathways in the human cell and the composition of commensal gut microbiota. What increases inflammation are hypercaloric Western-style diets, characterized by high salt, animal fat, red meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, fried food, low fiber, and lack of physical exercise. The persistence of this type of diet upregulates the metabolism of human cells toward biosynthetic pathways including those of proinflammatory molecules and also leads to a dysbiotic gut microbiota, alteration of intestinal immunity, and low-grade systemic inflammation. Conversely, exercise and low-calorie diets based on the assumption of vegetables, fruit, legumes, fish, prebiotics, and probiotics act on nuclear receptors and enzymes that upregulate oxidative metabolism, downregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory molecules, and restore or maintain a healthy symbiotic gut microbiota. Now that we know the molecular mechanisms by which dietary factors and exercise affect the inflammatory status in MS, we can expect that a nutritional intervention with anti-inflammatory food and dietary supplements can alleviate possible side effects of immune-modulatory drugs and the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus favor patient wellness.

  19. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  20. Decision analysis of countermeasures for the milk pathway after an accidental release of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, M.; Sinkko, K.; Kostiainen, E.; Salo, E.; Liskola, K.; Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Mustajoki, J

    2001-12-01

    A facilitated workshop was arranged to plan countermeasures that could reduce the dose arising from the consumption of radionuclide-contaminated milk products. It was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear facility had led to the release of considerable amounts of radionuclides, which subsequently spread across one of Finland's most important agricultural regions and contaminated the milk produced there. The participants in the workshop, interest groups on food issues, considered all the factors influencing the countermeasure decision, not only radiological or monetary ones but less tangible psychosocial effects as well. The participants preferred the countermeasures provision of uncontaminated fodder and production control to banning and disposal. The analysis showed that these countermeasures could be implemented even if the radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs were below internationally recommended intervention levels. Banning and withdrawal of milk products from sale was not a favourable option, because of the high costs and disadvantages to producers and the industry, and because the disposal of enormous amounts of milk causes a considerable environmental problem. The study revealed the need to further develop methods to realistically assess the radiological and cost implications of food countermeasures. The feasibility and constraints of actions also need further investigation. The experience gained strongly supports the format of a facilitated workshop to tackle a decision problem that concerns different stakeholders. The participants considered the workshop and the decision analysis very useful in exercises. They also expected a similar approach to be applicable in a real situation, although the suitability was not rated as high as for exercises. It is concluded that a facilitated workshop is a valuable instrument for emergency management and in exercises, when revising emergency plans or in order to identify issues that need to be

  1. Gastric emptying abnormalities in progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, K.; Magyar, L.; Lange, R.; McCallum, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied gastric emptying (GE) in patients with peripheral manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) using a radionuclide method. 18 patients underwent esophageal manometry and a GE study using chicken liver labeled in vivo with Tc-99m sulfur colloid as a marker of solid emptying. GE was also measured in 13 normal volunteers. 4 PSS patients with normal esophageal motility also had normal GE. The GE of 14 PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility was significantly (p < 0.05) delayed; with 67.4% retention of isotope after 2 hours compared to 49.8 in normals. The authors conclude that GE of solids is slow in approximately 2/3 of PSS patients with abnormal esophageal motility but is normal if the esophagus is uninvolved; Delayed GE may contribute to the severity of gastroesophageal reflux in PSS patients and the degree of dysphasgia; and Metoclopramide accelerates GE in PSS patients and should have a valuable therapeutic role

  2. Temporal lobe sclerosis associated with hippocampal sclerosis in temporal lobe epilepsy: neuropathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Maria; Eriksson, Sofia; Martinian, Lillian; Caboclo, Luis O; McEvoy, Andrew W; Duncan, John S; Sisodiya, Sanjay M

    2009-08-01

    Widespread changes involving neocortical and mesial temporal lobe structures can be present in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis. The incidence, pathology, and clinical significance of neocortical temporal lobe sclerosis (TLS) are not well characterized. We identified TLS in 30 of 272 surgically treated cases of hippocampal sclerosis. Temporal lobe sclerosis was defined by variable reduction of neurons from cortical layers II/III and laminar gliosis; it was typically accompanied by additional architectural abnormalities of layer II, that is, abnormal neuronal orientation and aggregation. Quantitative analysis including tessellation methods for the distribution of layer II neurons supported these observations. In 40% of cases, there was a gradient of TLS with more severe involvement toward the temporal pole, possibly signifying involvement of hippocampal projection pathways. There was a history of a febrile seizure as an initial precipitating injury in 73% of patients with TLS compared with 36% without TLS; no other clinical differences between TLS and non-TLS cases were identified. Temporal lobe sclerosis was not evident preoperatively by neuroimaging. No obvious effect of TLS on seizure outcome was noted after temporal lobe resection; 73% became seizure-free at 2-year follow-up. In conclusion, approximately 11% of surgically treated hippocampal sclerosis is accompanied by TLS. Temporal lobe sclerosis is likely an acquired process with accompanying reorganizational dysplasia and an extension of mesial temporal sclerosis rather than a separate pathological entity.

  3. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Shariat, K.; Kostopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [de

  4. The Combined Effects of Training on Serum Levels of Interferon Gamma (INF-γ) and Expanded Scale Disability Status Scale of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis at Different Levels of Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Z Saberi; E Banitalebi; M Faramarzi

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic and debilitating nervous system, leading to demyelination of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Regular exercise and general physical activity is important to maintain health and prevent disease, already well known. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of combined exercises (strength training, Strengthening Exercises, cardio respiratory endurance, a variety of static and dynamic balance exer...

  5. Discordance of exercise thallium testing with coronary arteriography in patients with atypical presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bungo, M.W.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-one patients with diagnostically difficult clinical presentations suggesting coronary disease underwent symptom-limited maximal-exercise treadmill testing (ETT) and exercise radionuclide scanning with 201 Tl. Results of these tests were in agreement in only 47 percent of the cases. Either exercise thallium or ETT was positive in 94 percent of patients with disease. Among a population with a disease prevalence of 67 percent, agreement between exercise thallium an ETT predicted disease in 92 percent of instances or excluded disease in 82 percent of instances. Frequent discordance between these two tests in 53 percent of the cases unfortunately limits this usefulness

  6. Sex-related differences in the normal cardiac response to upright exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, M.B.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Cobb, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was found that approximately 30% of women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries demonstrated either a decrease in or a failure to increase radionuclide ejection fraction during exercise. To examine the hypothesis that this apparent abnormality in left ventricular function represents a physiologic difference between men and women, a prospective study was made of central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to exercise in 31 age-matched healthy volunteers (16 women and 15 men). A combination of quantitative radionuclide (technetium) angiography and expired-gas analysis was used to measure ejection fraction and relative changes in end-diastolic counts, stroke counts, count output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. Normal male and female volunteers demonstrated comparable baseline left ventricular function and similar aerobic capacity, as determined by weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption. However, their cardiac responses to exercise were significantly different. The ejection fraction increased by 5 points or more in 14 of 15 men, but in only seven of the 16 women. End-diastolic counts increased by 30% in women, but was unchanged in men. Because decreases in ejection fraction were matched by increases in end-diastolic counts, relative increases in stroke counts and count output were the same for men and women. These data demonstrate a basic difference between men and women with respect to the mechanism by which they achieve a normal response of stroke volume to exercise; these differences must be taken into account when measurements of cardiac function during exercise stress are used for diagnostic purposes

  7. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  8. The dependence of the seriousness of the ischaemic reaction in exercise ECGs and the left-ventricular disfunction determined by means of angiography on the extent of stenosing coronary sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apelbaum, J.

    1981-01-01

    The relations between the depression of the ST segment in exercise EC and the extent of an angiographically determined sclerosis of the coronary arteries with consideration of the normal vessel diameter are significant in 23 patients without myocardial infarction but with a disease of a single vessel. With increasing stenosis of a single blood vessel with large normal diameter the severity and expansion of the resulting ischaemic reaction in the exercise EGG also increases. The comparisons of the 75 diseases involving several vessels, however, showed only very loose relationships. It was found out in the group of patients after infarction that the size of the infarction region depends on the diameter of the stenosing blood vessel. Significant correlations were also revealed by comparisons to EDP, EF, the contraction-disturbed diastolic heart circumference, and the number of the changed leads of the resting ECG. The correlations with EDP were relatively insignificant. The resting ECG could be additionally correlated to the contraction-disturbed diastolic heart circumference, the EDP and EF. In all sections of this paper the correlations with stenoses in the region of ramus circumflexus were not as good. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Mathematical Basis and Test Cases for Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport Modeling in GDSA-PFLOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This report provides documentation of the mathematical basis for a colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport modeling capability that can be incorporated into GDSA-PFLOTRAN. It also provides numerous test cases against which the modeling capability can be benchmarked once the model is implemented numerically in GDSA-PFLOTRAN. The test cases were run using a 1-D numerical model developed by the author, and the inputs and outputs from the 1-D model are provided in an electronic spreadsheet supplement to this report so that all cases can be reproduced in GDSA-PFLOTRAN, and the outputs can be directly compared with the 1-D model. The cases include examples of all potential scenarios in which colloid-facilitated transport could result in the accelerated transport of a radionuclide relative to its transport in the absence of colloids. Although it cannot be claimed that all the model features that are described in the mathematical basis were rigorously exercised in the test cases, the goal was to test the features that matter the most for colloid-facilitated transport; i.e., slow desorption of radionuclides from colloids, slow filtration of colloids, and equilibrium radionuclide partitioning to colloids that is strongly favored over partitioning to immobile surfaces, resulting in a substantial fraction of radionuclide mass being associated with mobile colloids.

  10. Exploring barriers to remaining physically active: a case report of a person with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Kathryn

    2007-03-01

    Physical therapy intervention for those with chronic disabling conditions typically follows an episode of care approach: therapists provide services when a decrement in functional performance occurs such that individuals require intervention to return to baseline performance. Attention to the psychosocial supports required for successful transition can be unintentionally minimized when the focus of an episode of care follows a change in physical function. The purpose of this case report is to present and discuss the challenges to successful community reintegration following physical therapy intervention with an emphasis on developing independent exercise habits in management of a person with multiple sclerosis. RW, presented in this case study, is a 52-year-old man diagnosed with progressive multiple sclerosis five years before self-referral to a pro bono physical therapy clinic.

  11. Status of radionuclide sorption-desorption studies performed by the WRIT program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Relyea, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper focuses on interactions between dissolved radionuclides in groundwater and rocks and sediments away from the nearfield repository. Two approaches were used to study the primary mechanism, adsorption-desorption. Empirical studies rely on distribution coefficient measurements, and mechanism studies strive to identify, differentiate, and quantify the processes that control nuclide retardation. The status of sorption mechanism studies is discussed, with emphasis on delineating the usefulness of ideal ion-exchange, site-binding electrical double-layer, and redox-controlled sorption constructs. Since studies to date show greater potential for site-binding electrical double-layer models, future efforts will concentrate on this construct. Laboratory studies are discussed which corroborate the importance of redox reactions in causing nuclide retardation for multivalent elements, such as Tc, Np, Pu, and U. Results suggest that both solution-mediated reduction, such as the Fe(II)-Fe(III) couple, and solid-solution heterogeneous reduction reactions, such as reduction of solution Pu(VI) at the mineral surface by structural Fe(II), occur. Coupled microscopy, microprobe, and autoradiography studies have determined actual sorption sites for radionuclides on polymineralic rocks. The studies show that it is possible for minor phases to completely dominate the mass of radionuclides adsorbed. The most active minerals are typically alternation products (clays and zeolites). Several exercises are discussed which rank radionuclides according to their potential dose hazards. In each of the analyses discussed, the top four radionuclides are I, Tc, Np, and Ra. Other elements that rank high in potential hazards are Pu, U, Am, Th, Pb, Sn, Pd, and Se

  12. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Strength Training in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis Or Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Travis M.; Reyes, Alvaro R.; Ziman, Melanie R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Strength training has, in recent years, been shown to be beneficial for people with Parkinson disease and multiple sclerosis. Consensus regarding its utility for these disorders nevertheless remains contentious among healthcare professionals. Greater clarity is required, especially in regards to the type and magnitude of effects as well as the response differences to strength training between individuals with Parkinson disease or multiple sclerosis. This study examines the effects, magnitude of those effects, and response differences to strength training between patients with Parkinson disease or multiple sclerosis. A comprehensive search of electronic databases including Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL was conducted from inception to July 2014. English articles investigating the effect of strength training for individuals with neurodegenerative disorders were selected. Strength training trials that met the inclusion criteria were found for individuals with Parkinson disease or multiple sclerosis. Individuals with Parkinson disease or multiple sclerosis were included in the study. Strength training interventions included traditional (free weights/machine exercises) and nontraditional programs (eccentric cycling). Included articles were critically appraised using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Of the 507 articles retrieved, only 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were randomized and 6 were nonrandomized controlled articles in Parkinson disease or multiple sclerosis. Six randomized and 2 nonrandomized controlled articles originated from 3 trials and were subsequently pooled for systematic analysis. Strength training was found to significantly improve muscle strength in people with Parkinson disease (15%–83.2%) and multiple sclerosis (4.5%–36%). Significant improvements in mobility (11.4%) and disease progression were also reported in people

  13. Results Assessment of Intercomparison Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-2011 among Spanish National Laboratories of Environmental Radioactivity (Water)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascó, C.; Trinidad, J. A.; Llauradó, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results assessment of the intercomparsion exercise among environmental radioactivity laboratories, organised by Spanish Regulatory Institution (CSN) and prepared and evaluated by UAB and CIEMAT respectively. The exercise has been carried out following the international standards ISO-43 and ISO/IUPAC that provide a useful guide to perform proficiency tests and inter-laboratories comparisons. The selected matrix for this year (2011) was deionized water, simulating drinking water, that was enriched with artificial radionuclides (Cs-137, Co-60, Fe-55, Ni-63, Sr-90, Am-241 and Pu-238) and contained natural radionuclides (U-234, U-238, U-natural, Pb-210, Po-210, Th-230, Ra-226 and K-40) at environmental level of activity concentration. A second matrix of deionized water was prepared with I-129 and C-14. The z-score test was applied to determine how much the laboratories differ from the reference value. The reference value for this exercise was the median of the results from the different laboratories and their standard deviations to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The participant laboratories have demonstrated a satisfactory quality level for measuring the natural and artificial radionuclides content in this matrix. The study has showed a homogeneous behaviour of the laboratories.

  14. IAEA-RML-2014-01 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) has been providing quality support products and services for the past 50 years. These include the organization of proficiency tests and laboratory comparisons, and the production of certified reference materials, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a proficiency test was organized at the request of the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) of Japan to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. This exercise was initiated to support laboratories in seawater analyses of tritium, strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment

  15. Impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function in heart failure. An iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, D.; Bouvard, G.; Lecluse, E.; Grollier, G.; Potier, J.C.; Belin, A.; Babatasi, G.; Amar, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    Exercise training can induce important haemodynamic and metabolic adaptations in patients with chronic heart failure due to severe left ventricular dysfunction. This study examined the impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function using iodine-123 metaiobodenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Fourteen patients (11 men, 3 women; mean age 48 years; range: 36-66 years) with stable chronic heart failure of NYHA class II-III and an initial resting radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy provided measurements of cardiac neuronal uptake (heart-mediastinum ratio activity, 4 h after intravenous injection of 185 MBq of MIBG). Radionuclide LVEF was also assessed at the outset and after 6 months of exercise training. Workload (801±428 vs 1229±245 kpm.min -1 , P=0.001), exercise duration (504±190 vs 649±125 s, P=0.02), and myocardial MIBG uptake (135%±19% vs 156%±25%, P=0.02) increased significantly after rehabilitation. However, LVEF did not change significantly (23%±9% vs 21%±10%, p=NS). It is concluded that exercise rehabilitation induces improvement of cardiac neuronal function without having negative effects on cardiac contractility in patients with stable chronic heart failure. (orig.)

  16. Effects of creatine supplementation on exercise performance and muscular strength in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, L; Balzarini, C; Colombo, R; Mora, G; Pastore, I; De Ambrogio, R; Caligari, M

    2001-10-15

    Creatine supplementation in humans has been reported to enhance power and strength both in normal subjects and in patients with various neuromuscular diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of supplementation on exercise performance and maximal voluntary isometric muscular contraction (MVIC) in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients. We report the results obtained in 28 patients with probable/definite ALS. In each patient we acquired the dynamometric measurement of MVIC in 10 muscle groups of upper and lower limbs and a measure of fatigue by means of an high-intensity intermittent protocol in elbow flexors and knee extensors muscles. All patients completed the protocols at the baseline and after supplementation of 20 g per day for 7 days and after supplementation of 3 g per day for 3 and 6 months. MVIC increased after 7 days of supplementation in 20 patients (70%) in knee extensors and in 15 (53%) of them also in elbow flexors. A statistically significant difference between pre and post-treatment mean values of MVIC was found both in elbow flexors (P<0.05) and knee extensors (p<0.04). The analysis of the slopes of fatigue test showed a statistically significant improvement after 7 days of supplementation in 11 patients (39%) in elbow flexors and in 9 patients (32%) also in knee extensors muscles. During the 6-month follow-up period all the examined parameters showed a linear progressive decline. In conclusion, our preliminary results have demonstrated that supplementation temporary increases maximal isometric power in ALS patients so it may be of potential benefit in situations such as high intensity activity and it can be proposed as a symptomatic treatment.

  17. Hydrotherapy for the Treatment of Pain in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A.; Lara-Palomo, Inmaculada; Saavedra-Hernández, Manuel; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating neurological disease. Several studies have reported that complementary and alternative therapies can have positive effects against pain in these patients. Objective. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program against pain and other symptoms in MS patients. Methods. In this randomized controlled trial, 73 MS patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group for a 20-we...

  18. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  19. Interstitial Lung disease in Systemic Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, G.C.; Mok, M.Y.; Tsang, K.W.T.; Khong, P.L.; Fung, P.C.W.; Chan, S.; Tse, H.F.; Wong, R.W.S.; Lam, W.K.; Lau, C.S.; Wong, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) parameters of inflammation and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc), for correlation with lung function, skin scores and exercise tolerance. Material and Methods: : 45 SSc patients (40 women, 48.5±13.4 years), underwent thoracic HRCT, lung function assessment, and modified Rodnan skin scores. Exercise tolerance was also graded. HRCT were scored for extent of 4 HRCT patterns of interstitial lung disease (ILD): ground glass opacification (GGO), reticular, mixed and honeycomb pattern in each lobe. Total HRCT score, inflammation index (GGO and mixed score) and fibrosis index (reticular and honeycomb scores) were correlated with lung function and clinical parameters. Results: ILD was present in 39/45 (86.7%) patients. Abnormal (<80% predicted) forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC) and carbon monoxide diffusion factor (DLco) were detected in 30%, 22% and 46% of patients. Total HRCT score correlated with FVC (r=0.43, p=0.008), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume) (r=-0.37, p=0.03), TLC (r=-0.47, p=0.003), and DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008); inflammatory index with DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008) and exercise tolerance (r=-0.39, p < 0.05); and fibrosis index with FVC (r=-0.31, p=0.05) and TLC (r=-0.38, p=0.02). Higher total HRCT score, and inflammation and fibrosis indices were found in patients with abnormal lung function. Conclusion: Qualitative HRCT is able to evaluate inflammation and fibrosis, showing important relationships with diffusion capacity and lung volume, respectively

  20. Vascular comorbidities in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vascular comorbidities before and after the clinical onset of multiple sclerosis. In this combined case-control and cohort study, all Danish born citizens with onset of multiple sclerosis 1980-2005 were identified from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry...... and randomly matched with controls regarding year of birth, gender, and municipality on January 1st in the year of multiple sclerosis (MS) onset (index date). Individual-level information on comorbidities was obtained from several independent nationwide registries and linked to the study population by unique...

  1. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  2. The EWGRD Round Robin Measurement Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, D. A.; Wagemans, J.; Fernandes, A. C.; Girard, J. M.; Kis, D. P.; Klupák, V.; Mutnuru, R.; Philibert, H.; Rousseau, G.; Santos, J. P.; Serén, T.; Zsolnay, E. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a round robin exercise carried out to compare specific activity measurements performed by eight European organisations on a set of ten neutron activation detectors containing the radio-nuclides 110mAg, 60Co, 54Mn, 46Sc and 94Nb. The purpose of the exercise was to demonstrate the level of consistency between the participating organisations in blind tests of measurements relevant to reactor metrology. The samples used were selected from a stock of pre-existing irradiated material held at SCK•CEN. Taking turns over a period of approximately 9 months, the participating organisations received the samples, measured them and provided their results to an independent referee who collated and compared the data. The inter-comparison has demonstrated good agreement between the participants with standard deviations for each dosimeter varying between 1.6% and 3.1%. The paper provides results of the EWGRD Round Robin in an anonymised form together with discussion and conclusions which may be drawn from the exercise.

  3. Lifestyle physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis: the new kid on the MS block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W

    2014-07-01

    Supervised exercise training has substantial benefits for persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet 80% of those with MS do not meet recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This same problem persisted for decades in the general population of adults and prompted a paradigm shift away from "exercise training for fitness" toward "physical activity for health." The paradigm shift reflects a public health approach of promoting lifestyle physical activity through behavioral interventions that teach people the skills, techniques, and strategies based on established theories for modifying and self-regulating health behaviors. This paper describes: (a) the definitions of and difference between structured exercise training and lifestyle physical activity; (b) the importance and potential impact of the paradigm shift; (c) consequences of lifestyle physical activity in MS; and (d) behavioral interventions for changing lifestyle physical activity in MS. The paper introduces the "new kid on the MS block" with the hope that lifestyle physical activity might become an accepted partner alongside exercise training for inclusion in comprehensive MS care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. A Pilot Study of an Exercise-Based Patient Education Program in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Kersten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that physical exercise leads to numerous positive effects in PwMS. However, long-term effects of exercise may only be achievable if training is implemented in daily routine. Enabling patients to exercise regularly, we developed a patient education program focused on evidence-based information of training. PwMS were educated in neurophysiological effects of physical exercise, exercise-induced benefits for PwMS, and risk factors (e.g., weather. Fifteen PwMS were analyzed before (T0 and after (T1 a 12-week patient education. Afterwards, participants performed their exercises autonomously for 32 weeks and were tested in sustainability tests (T2. Guided interviews were carried out, additionally. Significant improvements from T0 to T1 were found in 6MWT, gait velocity, TUG, fatigue, and quality of life. Significant results of TUG and gait velocity from T1 to T2 demonstrated that participants kept few effects after the 32-week training phase. Qualitative analyses showed improved self-confidence and identified training strategies and barriers. This pilot study provides evidence that PwMS are able to acquire good knowledge about physical exercise and apply this knowledge successfully in training management. One might conclude that this exercise-based patient education seems to be a feasible option to maintain or improve patients’ integral constitution concerning physical and mental health.

  5. Technical summary of the Performance Assessment Calculational Exercises for 1990 (PACE-90)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A.

    1991-06-01

    A Performance Assessment Calculational Exercise for 1990 (PACE-90) was coordinated by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office for a total-system performance-assessment problem. The primary objectives of the exercise were to develop performance-assessment computational capabilities of the Yucca Mountain Project participates and to aid in identifying critical elements and processes associated with the calculation. The problem defined for PACE-90 was simulation of a ''nominal case'' groundwater flow and transport of a selected group of radionuclides through a portion of Yucca Mountain. Both 1-D and 2-D calculations were run for a modeling period of 100,000 years. The nuclides used, 99 Tc, 135 Cs, 129 I, and 237 Np, were representative of ''classes'' of long-lived nuclides expected to be present in the waste inventory. Movement of the radionuclides was simulated through a detailed hydrostratigraphy developed from Yucca Mountain data specifically for this exercise. The results showed that, for the specified conditions with the conceptual models used in the problem, no radioactive contamination reached the water table, 230 m below the repository. However, due to the unavailability of sufficient site-specific data, the results of this exercise cannot be considered a comprehensive total-system- performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site as a high-level- waste repository. 46 refs., 94 figs., 19 tabs

  6. Exercise therapy in multiple sclerosis and its effects on function and the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    to clinically relevant improvements in physical function, but should be considered an adjunct to specific task-based training. Exercise has also shown positive effects on the brain, including improvements in brain volume and cognition. In summary, exercise therapy is a safe and potent nonpharmacological...... intervention in MS, with beneficial effects on both functional capacity and the brain....

  7. Clinical assessment of first pass radionuclide ventriculography after dipyridamole infusion in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Tohru; Tono-oka, Ichiro; Satoh, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiko; Hoshi, Hikaru; Ikeda, Kozue; Tsuiki, Kai; Yasui, Shoji; Komatani, Akio

    1986-01-01

    First pass radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was performed after dipyridamole (D) infusion in 33 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 15 normal volunteers. RNV findings after D infusion were compared with those of conventional exercise RNV and body surface ECG mapping (MAP). For patients with multiple vessel disease, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly lower after D infusion than at rest. Wall motion abnormality (WMA) sites induced by D infusion were well coincident with those induced by exercise. Pressure rate product at exercise was significantly higher than that after D infusion, suggesting the different mechanism of the occurrence of WMA after D infusion and at exercise. The incidence of ischemic reaction tended to be higher after D infusion than at exercise in 25 patients with CAD. There was negative correlation between ST depression on MAP after D infusion and LVEF on RNV after D infusion. This RNV after D infusion can be used as a supplement tool to conventional exercise RNV in the evaluation of the degree of coronary artery lesions and preserved left ventricular function. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Lessons learnt from participation in international inter-comparison exercise for environmental radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.K.; Pulhani, Vandana; Sartandel, Sangeeta

    2016-06-01

    Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Section of Health Physics Division is regularly carrying out surveillance of the radioactivity concentration in the environment. The laboratory participates in the inter-comparison exercises conducted by various international agencies for quality assurance and quality control of analytical estimations. This report summarizes the results of the analysis of radioactivity in environmental matrices of the inter-comparison exercises. The participation in inter-comparison exercises has demonstrated competence in radionuclide identification and estimations, equivalence with the results of other participating laboratories, validated adopted analytical methods, introduced traceability to measurement etc. at national and international level. (author)

  9. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample IAEA-368

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Gastaud, J.; Parsi, P.; Vas, D.; Noshkin, V.

    1991-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Pacific Ocean sediment sample, IAEA-368, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 89 laboratories representing 37 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for 60 Co, 155 Eu, 210 7Pb, 226 Ra, 238 U, 238 Pu and 239+240 Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1990). Information values for 40 K, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 235 U and 241 Am are also reported. (author)

  10. Fatigue and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area Donate Donate ... of MS What Causes MS? Who Gets MS? Multiple Sclerosis FAQs Types of MS Related Conditions Symptoms & Diagnosis ...

  11. Does vagotomy protect against multiple sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundbøll, Jens; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Adelborg, Kasper; Svensson, Elisabeth

    2017-07-01

    To examine the association between vagotomy and multiple sclerosis. We conducted a matched cohort study of all patients who underwent truncal or super-selective vagotomy and a comparison cohort, by linking Danish population-based medical registries (1977-1995). Hazard ratios (HRs) for multiple sclerosis, adjusting for potential confounders were computed by means of Cox regression analysis. Median age of multiple sclerosis onset corresponded to late onset multiple sclerosis. No association with multiple sclerosis was observed for truncal vagotomy (0-37 year adjusted HR=0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-1.74) or super-selective vagotomy (0-37 year adjusted HR=1.28, 95% CI: 0.79-2.09) compared with the general population. We found no association between vagotomy and later risk of late onset multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil sampling intercomparison exercise by selected laboratories of the ALMERA Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratories in Austria have the programmatic responsibility to provide assistance to Member State laboratories in maintaining and improving the reliability of analytical measurement results, both in radionuclide and trace element determinations. This is accomplished through the provision of reference materials of terrestrial origin, validated analytical procedures, training in the implementation of internal quality control, and through the evaluation of measurement performance by the organization of worldwide and regional interlaboratory comparison exercises. The IAEA is mandated to support global radionuclide measurement systems related to accidental or intentional releases of radioactivity in the environment. To fulfil this obligation and ensure a reliable, worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA coordinates an international network of analytical laboratories for the measurement of environmental radioactivity (ALMERA). The network was established by the IAEA in 1995 and makes available to Member States a world-wide network of analytical laboratories capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. A primary requirement for the ALMERA members is participation in the IAEA interlaboratory comparison exercises, which are specifically organized for ALMERA on a regular basis. These exercises are designed to monitor and demonstrate the performance and analytical capabilities of the network members, and to identify gaps and problem areas where further development is needed. In this framework, the IAEA organized a soil sampling intercomparison exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) for selected laboratories of the ALMERA network. The main objective of this exercise was to compare soil sampling procedures used by different participating laboratories. The performance evaluation results of the interlaboratory comparison exercises performed in the framework of

  13. Motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) arising from longstanding primary lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, R. P.; Koelman, J. H.; Troost, D.; de Jong, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Three men were initially diagnosed as having primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), but eventually developed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after 7.5, 9, and at least 27 years. Non-familial ALS and PLS might be different manifestations of a single disease or constitute completely distinct entities.

  14. Radioisotope heart examination during exercise to diagnose ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farsky, S.

    1986-01-01

    The radioisotope exercise test is discussed and its benefits characterized for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, namely the use of 99m Tc in scintiscanning heart ventricles and of 201 Tl in scintiscanning myocardial perfusion. The exercise ventricular function and perfusion scintigraphies are compared with the common exercise ECG examination, and their superior sensitivity and specificity emphasized. Considering the constraints of scintigraphic imaging, indications are outlined for patients including those with suspect serious ischemic heart disease in whom the exercise ECG test has been negative or inconclusive, patients with the so-called nondiagnostic ECG, patients with atypical symptoms, and healthy individuals for whom the exercise ECG test indicated with respect to their occupation has been positive. Both radionuclide imaging techniques are complementary and are shown to be valuable not only in improving the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease but also in identifying the high-risk patients in whom cardiac surgery is to be considered. (L.O.)

  15. Results Assessment of Intercomparison Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-2013 among Spanish National Laboratories of Environmental Radioactivity (Air)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, J. A.; Gascó, C.; Llauradó, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results assessment of the intercomparsion exercise among environmental radioactivity laboratories, organised by Spanish Regulatory Institution (CSN) and prepared and evaluated by UB and CIEMAT respectively. The exercise has been carried out following the international standards ISO-43 and ISO/IUPAC that provide a useful guide to perform proficiency tests and inter-laboratories comparisons. The selected matrix for this year (2013) was filters, which was enriched with artificial radionuclides (137Cs, 60Co and 57Co) and contained natural radionuclides (234U, 238U, U-natural 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 234Th, 214Bi and 214Pb) at environmental level of activity concentration. Three commonly used filters (47 mm diameter, 44x44 cm2 and 20x25 cm2) were prepared. Two 47 mm diameter filter were prepared to separate 226Ra and 210Pb analysis. The z-score test was applied to determine how much the laboratories differ from the reference value. The reference value for this exercise was the median of the results from the different laboratories and their standard deviations to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The participant laboratories have demonstrated a satisfactory quality level for measuring the natural and artificial radionuclides content in this matrix. The study has showed a homogeneous behaviour of the laboratories

  16. Results Assessment of Intercomparison Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-2012 among Spanish National Laboratories of Environmental Radioactivity (Soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, J. A.; Gascó, C.; Llauradó, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results assessment of the intercomparsion exercise among environmental radioactivity laboratories, organised by Spanish Regulatory Institution (CSN) and prepared and evaluated by UB and CIEMAT respectively. The exercise has been carried out following the international standards ISO-43 and ISO/IUPAC that provide a useful guide to perform proficiency tests and inter-laboratories comparisons. The selected matrix for this year (2012) was soil, that was enriched with artificial radionuclides (137Cs, 60Co, 55Fe, 63Ni, 90Sr, 241Am, 239+240Pu and 238Pu) and contained natural radionuclides (234U, 238U, U-natural 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Ra, 228Ac, 234Th, 214Bi, 214Pb, 212Pb, 208Tl and 40K) at environmental level of activity concentration. Two soil matrixes were prepared in order to separate 55Fe and 63Ni analysis. The z-score test was applied to determine how much the laboratories differ from the reference value. The reference value for this exercise was the median of the results from the different laboratories and their standard deviations to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The participant laboratories have demonstrated a satisfactory quality level for measuring the natural and artificial radionuclides content in this matrix. The study has showed a homogeneous behaviour of the laboratories.

  17. Comparison of the analytical methods used to determine natural and artificial radionuclides from environmental samples by gamma, alpha and beta spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pöllänen, Roy; Virtanen, Sinikka; Kämäräinen, Meerit

    In CAMNAR, an extensive interlaboratory exercise on the analytical methods used to determine several radionuclides present in the environmental samples was organized. Activity concentration of different natural radionuclides, such as Rn-222, Pb-210, Po-210, K-40, Ra-226, Ra-228 and isotopes...... of uranium, in addition to artificial Cs-137 and Am-241 were analysed from lake sediment samples and drinking water. The measurement techniques were gamma-ray spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, liquid scintillation counting and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Twenty six laboratories from nine...

  18. Radionuclides migration or isolation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Grambow, B.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    After 20 years of research, the chemical behaviour of actinides and fission products in nuclear waste disposal environments is much better understood. Consistent thermodynamic data have been gathered and allow much more accurate previsions. Through the considerable development of analytical spectroscopy, including time resolved laser fluorescence and X ray absorption, a better understanding of the chemical reactivity (complexation, sorption) of actinides and fission products at a molecular scale has been possible. Chemically reducing conditions are found in most selected disposal host rock formations, generally chosen for their high sorption capacity (clays); such conditions favour the chemical confinement of most radionuclides through precipitation or sorption. Low permeability host rocks participate to this confinement, as convective fluxes are lower than diffusive fluxes. The most recent performance assessment exercises have taken into account the recent progress of knowledge in the chemical evolution of the near field. They show that the dose rates at the outlet are far lower than existing recommendations for normal and most altered evolution scenarios. (authors)

  19. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  20. General concepts of ventricular function, Myocardial perfusion, and exercise physiology relevant to nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, M.W.; Becker, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of ventricular mechanics, the physiology of the coronary circulation, and exercise physiology is necessary for the accurate interpretation of radionuclide ventriculographic and myocardial perfusion images. This chapter outlines these important basic concepts as applied to the whole heart

  1. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  2. Determination of radionuclide solubility limits to be used in SR 97. Uncertainties associated to calculated solubilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, J.; Cera, E.; Duro, L.; Jordana, S. [QuantiSci S.L., Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, J. de [DEQ-UPC, Barcelona (Spain); Savage, D. [QuantiSci Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-01

    The thermochemical behaviour of 24 critical radionuclides for the forthcoming SR97 PA exercise is discussed. The available databases are reviewed and updated with new data and an extended database for aqueous and solid species of the radionuclides of interest is proposed. We have calculated solubility limits for the radionuclides of interest under different groundwater compositions. A sensitivity analysis of the calculated solubilities with the composition of the groundwater is presented. Besides selecting the most likely solubility limiting phases, in this work we have used coprecipitation approaches in order to calculate more realistic solubility limits for minor radionuclides, such as Ra, Am and Cm. The comparison between the calculated solubilities and the concentrations measured in relevant natural systems (NA) and in spent fuel leaching experiments helps to assess the validity of the methodology used and to derive source term concentrations for the radionuclides studied. The uncertainties associated to the solubilities of the main radionuclides involved in the spent nuclear fuel have also been discussed in this work. The variability of the groundwater chemistry; redox conditions and temperature of the system have been considered the main factors affecting the solubilities. In this case, a sensitivity analysis has been performed in order to study solubility changes as a function of these parameters. The uncertainties have been calculated by including the values found in a major extent in typical granitic groundwaters. The results obtained from this analysis indicate that there are some radionuclides which are not affected by these parameters, i.e. Ag, Cm, Ho, Nb, Ni, Np, Pu, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc and U

  3. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  4. Isolated pulmonary veno-occlusive disease and pulmonary arterial thrombosis in systemic sclerosis – a lethal combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Jeevagan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Arun JeevaganGeneral Medicine, Ipswich NHS Hospital, UKBackground: Isolated pulmonary hypertension secondary to systemic sclerosis is not uncommon. Our patient with systemic sclerosis presented with a very aggressive form of pulmonary hypertension due to a lethal combination of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD and pulmonary arterial thrombosis. This combined presentation has never before been reported in medical literature.Case report: A 75-year-old woman with a 4-month history of atypical chest pains was admitted with a 3-week history of worsening symptoms of shortness of breath, reduced exercise tolerance, and bilateral pitting edema. On examination she had thickened skin in her hands, telangiectasia on her face, maculopapular rash in her legs, raised jugular venous pressure, and bilateral pitting edema. Her autoimmune profile revealed positive anticentromere antibodies, and her echocardiogram showed right ventricular systolic pressure of 91 mmHg. She also had renal impairment secondary to hypoperfusion. A diagnosis of isolated pulmonary hypertension secondary to limited systemic sclerosis was made. As she was clinically improving on slow diuretic infusion and awaiting transfer to a specialist center for management of pulmonary hypertension, our patient died due to cardiopulmonary arrest. Her postmortem revealed that she died of a combination of PVOD and pulmonary arteriopathy due to thrombosis.Conclusion: This is clearly a unique case both in presentation and difficulty of management. Pulmonary vasodilators used in therapy of pulmonary arteriopathy can be detrimental in patients with PVOD. There is no definitive investigation, curative treatment, or management, that exists for a combination of PVOD and pulmonary arteriopathy due to thrombosis secondary to systemic sclerosis.Keywords: pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, systemic sclerosis, pulmonary arteriopathy with thrombosis

  5. Impact of a Pelvic Floor Training Program Among Women with Multiple Sclerosis: A Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Paula Silva; Pegorare, Ana Beatriz Gomes de Souza; Salgado, Pedro Rippel; Casafus, Filemón Silva; Christofoletti, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of two programs for strengthening the pelvic floor on the urinary incontinence of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This is a prospective study of the clinical trial type, monitored for 6 mos, in which 24 women in the moderate stage of MS participated in a program of exercises for strengthening the pelvic floor-associated (experimental group) or not (control group) with electrotherapy. The variables analyzed were as follows: quality-of-life, overactivity of the bladder, perineal contraction, and level of anxiety and depression. The statistical procedures involved multivariate analyses of repeated measurements, with a significance of 5%. Initial homogeneity being observed in the anthropometric and clinical variables, both protocols resulted in improvements in quality-of-life (P = 0.001), overactive bladder (P = 0.001), perineal contraction (P = 0.004), and level of anxiety (P = 0.001) and depression (P = 0.001), in relation to the initial comparison. The association of electrotherapy with strengthening exercises increased the improvement of the patients regarding overactive bladder (P = 0.039) and perineal contraction (P = 0.001), in comparison with the control group. The results reinforce the benefit of exercises for strengthening the musculature of the pelvic floor in women with overactive bladder in MS and demonstrate a potential of the action when associated with electrotherapy. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES:: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Identify common dysfunctions of the lower urinary tract in women with multiple sclerosis; (2) Discuss the relationship between quality-of-life, level of anxiety and depression, degree of perineal contraction, and overactive bladder; and (3) Recognize the benefits promoted by physical therapy for strengthening the pelvic floor in patients with

  6. Performance assessment calculational exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Performance Assessment Calculational Exercises (PACE) are an ongoing effort coordinated by Yucca Mountain Project Office. The objectives of fiscal year 1990 work, termed PACE-90, as outlined in the Department of Energy Performance Assessment (PA) Implementation Plan were to develop PA capabilities among Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) participants by calculating performance of a Yucca Mountain (YM) repository under ''expected'' and also ''disturbed'' conditions, to identify critical elements and processes necessary to assess the performance of YM, and to perform sensitivity studies on key parameters. It was expected that the PACE problems would aid in development of conceptual models and eventual evaluation of site data. The PACE-90 participants calculated transport of a selected set of radionuclides through a portion of Yucca Mountain for a period of 100,000 years. Results include analyses of fluid-flow profiles, development of a source term for radionuclide release, and simulations of contaminant transport in the fluid-flow field. Later work included development of a problem definition for perturbations to the originally modeled conditions and for some parametric sensitivity studies. 3 refs

  7. Effects of aquatic exercises in a rat model of brainstem demyelination with ethidium bromide on the beam walking test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Cíntia Cristina Souza; Bondan, Eduardo Fernandes; Alouche, Sandra Regina

    2009-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system associated with varied levels of disability. The impact of early physiotherapeutic interventions in the disease progression is unknown. We used an experimental model of demyelination with the gliotoxic agent ethidium bromide and early aquatic exercises to evaluate the motor performance of the animals. We quantified the number of footsteps and errors during the beam walking test. The demyelinated animals walked fewer steps with a greater number of errors than the control group. The demyelinated animals that performed aquatic exercises presented a better motor performance than those that did not exercise. Therefore aquatic exercising was beneficial to the motor performance of rats in this experimental model of demyelination.

  8. The effect of Nintendo® Wii® on balance in people with multiple sclerosis: a pilot randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichetto, Giampaolo; Spallarossa, Patricio; de Carvalho, Maria L Lopes; Battaglia, Mario A

    2013-08-01

    Improvement of sensory strategies is a relevant part of balance rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to Assess the effectiveness of visual-feedback exercises in improving balance in MS. We divided 36 patients into Wii and control-treated groups that underwent balance rehabilitation. Outcomes were obtained for Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and sway area under conditions of opened and closed eyes. BBS showed a statistically significant improvement (from 49.6 to 54.6 points, p Wii group. Interactive visual-feedback exercises such as Wii could be more effective than the current standard protocol in improving balance disorders in MS.

  9. Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Susan H.; Griffith, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized entity. This article reviews the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis, its prevalence, its relationship to different types of multiple sclerosis, and its contribution to long-term functional prognosis. The discussion also focuses on the key elements of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis which distinguish it from other forms of cognitive impairment. Therapeutic interventions potentially effective for the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis are reviewed including the effects of disease modifying therapies and the use of physical and cognitive interventions. PMID:16720960

  10. Performance and quality control of radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.; Baker, M.

    2002-01-01

    operators can be determined by the conduct of comparison exercises by expert and impartial laboratories. Such exercises can also have the added advantage of enabling the calibration of particular calibrators to be checked and even determined more accurately. A regular programme of such comparisons has been organised in the United Kingdom by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) over the last fifteen to twenty years and follow-up workshops have been held for the participants to discuss the results and the potential avenues to performance improvements. The outputs from these comparisons, supplemented by regular dialogues and exchanges of information and experiences between the NPL and the user community, have identified a number of potential sources of error. In addition, the NPL, together with the relevant professional organisation in the UK, produced a quality assurance protocol in 1992, designed to establish and maintain the calibration of medical radionuclide calibrators and their quality control. That protocol is currently being revised to take into account both the increased emphasis on uncertainty estimation, the accumulation of comparison data and user experiences and the changes in equipment formats. This paper presents and discusses the results of the various comparisons conducted by NPL, particularly as they relate to the potential improvements in performance that can be achieved, and the developments in the recommended quality assurance protocol. It also addresses the developments of calibration facilities available with these systems, especially as they relate to the measurement of, and achievable accuracies for, therapeutic radiation sources. (author)

  11. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  12. Interferon Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Alajbegovic, Azra; Deljo, Dervis; Alajbegovic, Salem; Djelilovic-Vranic, Jasminka; Todorovic, Ljubica; Tiric-Campara, Merita

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) differ: treatment of relapse, treatment slow the progression of the disease (immunomodulators and immunosuppression), and symptomatic treatment. The aim: The aim of this study is to analyze the application of interferon therapy in the treatment of MS-E: Process the disease, patients with multiple sclerosis who have passed the commission for multiple sclerosis at the Neurology Clinic of Clinical Center of Sarajevo University as a refere...

  13. Hippocampal Sclerosis in Older Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D.; Powell, Suzanne Z.; Schulz, Paul E.; Takei, Hidehiro; Rivera, Andreana L.; Jackson, Robert E.; Roman, Gustavo; Jicha, Gregory A.; Nelson, Peter T.

    2018-01-01

    Context Autopsy studies of the older population (≥65 years of age), and particularly of the “oldest-old” (≥85 years of age), have identified a significant proportion (~20%) of cognitively impaired patients in which hippocampal sclerosis is the major substrate of an amnestic syndrome. Hippocampal sclerosis may also be comorbid with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer disease, and Lewy body disease. Until recently, the terms hippocampal sclerosis of aging or hippocampal sclerosis dementia were applied in this context. Recent discoveries have prompted a conceptual expansion of hippocampal sclerosis of aging because (1) cellular inclusions of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) are frequent; (2) TDP-43 pathology may be found outside hippocampus; and (3) brain arteriolosclerosis is a common, possibly pathogenic, component. Objective To aid pathologists with recent recommendations for diagnoses of common neuropathologies in older persons, particularly hippocampal sclerosis, and highlight the recent shift in diagnostic terminology from HS-aging to cerebral age-related TDP-43 with sclerosis (CARTS). Data Sources Peer-reviewed literature and 5 autopsy examples that illustrate common age-related neuropathologies, including CARTS, and emphasize the importance of distinguishing CARTS from late-onset frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology and from advanced Alzheimer disease with TDP-43 pathology. Conclusions In advanced old age, the substrates of cognitive impairment are often multifactorial. This article demonstrates common and frequently comorbid neuropathologic substrates of cognitive impairment in the older population, including CARTS, to aid those practicing in this area of pathology. PMID:28467211

  14. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  15. IAEA-RML-2014-02 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) has been providing quality support products and services for the past 50 years. These include the organization of proficiency tests and laboratory comparisons, and the production of certified reference materials, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a third proficiency test was organized in the framework of the technical cooperation project entitled Marine Benchmark Study on the Possible Impact of the Fukushima Radioactive Releases in the Asia-Pacific Region, to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. This exercise was initiated to support Member States in seawater analyses of tritium, strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment

  16. IAEA-RML-2012-01 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) has been providing quality support products and services for the past 50 years. These include the organization of proficiency tests and laboratory comparisons, and the production of certified reference materials, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a new proficiency test was organized in the framework of the technical cooperation project entitled Marine Benchmark Study on the Possible Impact of the Fukushima Radioactive Releases in the Asia-Pacific Region, to test the performance of participating laboratories in the analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. This exercise was initiated to support Member States in seawater analyses of caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment

  17. IAEA-RML-2013-01 Proficiency Test for Determination of Radionuclides in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories (NAEL) has been providing quality support products and services for the past 50 years. These include the organization of proficiency tests and laboratory comparisons, and the production of certified reference materials, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide levels. As part of these activities, a second proficiency test was organized in the framework of the technical cooperation project entitled Marine Benchmark Study on the Possible Impact of the Fukushima Radioactive Releases in the Asia-Pacific Region, to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in a seawater sample. This exercise was initiated to support Member States in seawater analyses of strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment

  18. Biventricular function in sickle-cell anemia: radionuclide angiographic and thallium-201 scintigraphic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manno, B.V.; Burka, E.R.; Hakki, A.H.; Manno, C.S.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Noone, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function were evaluated at rest and during exercise using radionuclide ventriculography in 10 patients, aged 19-53 years, with sickle-cell anemia (SCA). Seven patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I and 3 were in class II. The resting LV ejection fraction (EF) was normal in 9 patients and the resting RVEF was normal in 4. LV dilation and high cardiac output were observed in 6 patients at rest. The LVEF during exercise was normal in all 10 patients, whereas only 2 patients had normal RVEF at rest and during exercise. The LVEF was lower in patients with SCA at rest (54 +/- 4% versus 61 +/- 6%, p less than 0.001) and exercise (66 +/- 4% versus 74 +/- 6%, p less than 0.001) than in 42 age-matched normal subjects. Rest thallium-201 images from 9 patients showed abnormal RV uptake in 8 and normal LV uptake in 8. Thus, in adult patients with SCA, LV function was normal during exercise in all patients and at rest in all but 1 patient. The LVEF, however, was lower than that in age-matched normal subjects. RV function was abnormal in most patients at rest and during exercise. RV thallium-201 uptake suggested pressure or volume overload (or both), most likely due to pulmonary vaso-occlusive complications of the disease

  19. Treatment of Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Susan H.; Griffith, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized entity. This article reviews the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis, its prevalence, its relationship to different types of multiple sclerosis, and its contribution to long-term functional prognosis. The discussion also focuses on the key elements of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis which distinguish it from other forms of cognitive impairment. Therapeutic interventions potentially effective for the co...

  20. Effects of upright and supine position on cardiac rest and exercise response in aortic regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W F; Roubin, G S; Fletcher, P J; Choong, C Y; Hutton, B F; Harris, P J; Kelly, D T

    1985-02-01

    The effects of upright and supine position on cardiac response to exercise were assessed by radionuclide ventriculography in 15 patients with moderate to severe aortic regurgitation (AR) and in 10 control subjects. In patients with AR, heart rate was higher during upright exercise, but systolic and diastolic blood pressure and left ventricular (LV) output were similar during both forms of exercise. LV stroke volume and end-diastolic volume were not altered during supine exercise. LV end-systolic volume increased and ejection fraction decreased during supine exercise, but both were unchanged during upright exercise. Of 15 patients, 5 in the upright and 12 in the supine position had an abnormal LV ejection fraction response to exercise (p less than 0.01). Right ventricular ejection fraction increased and regurgitant index decreased with both forms of exercise and was not significantly different between the 2 positions. Thus, posture is important in determining LV response to exercise in patients with moderate to severe AR.

  1. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  2. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  3. Comparison of concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in Plankton from French Polynesian and Australian coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletiko, C.; Twining, J.R.; Jeffree, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Zooplankton samples from French Polynesian and Australian coastal waters were analysed for natural and artificial radionuclides. Quality control was assured by correlating replicate analyses between three laboratories and by participation in an international intercomparison exercise. Pu239/240 was detected sporadically among samples from both regions, with the highest levels being more consistently found in Tuamotu-Gambier samples. The artificial radionuclides Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90 and Co-60 were not detected. Of the natural nuclides, Ac-228 was detected in shallow continental waters off Northern Australia and an inverse relationship (P<0.02) was established between plankton density and their Po-210 concentration. (authors). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs

  4. Impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function in heart failure. An iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, D.; Bouvard, G. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Lecluse, E.; Grollier, G.; Potier, J.C. [Service de Cardiologie, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Belin, A. [Service de Readaptation Cardiaque, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Babatasi, G. [Service de Chirurgie Cardio-Thoracique, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Amar, M.H. [Centre Francois Baclesse, Caen (France). Service de Recherche Clinique

    1998-03-01

    Exercise training can induce important haemodynamic and metabolic adaptations in patients with chronic heart failure due to severe left ventricular dysfunction. This study examined the impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function using iodine-123 metaiobodenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Fourteen patients (11 men, 3 women; mean age 48 years; range: 36-66 years) with stable chronic heart failure of NYHA class II-III and an initial resting radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent progressive, supervised endurance training (treadmill test, Bruce protocol) during a 6-month period (60 sessions, 3 sessions per week) at a cardiac rehabilitation referral centre in order to measure exercise parameters. Planar {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy provided measurements of cardiac neuronal uptake (heart-mediastinum ratio activity, 4 h after intravenous injection of 185 MBq of MIBG). Radionuclide LVEF was also assessed at the outset and after 6 months of exercise training. Workload (801{+-}428 vs 1229{+-}245 kpm.min{sup -1}, P=0.001), exercise duration (504{+-}190 vs 649{+-}125 s, P=0.02), and myocardial MIBG uptake (135%{+-}19% vs 156%{+-}25%, P=0.02) increased significantly after rehabilitation. However, LVEF did not change significantly (23%{+-}9% vs 21%{+-}10%, p=NS). It is concluded that exercise rehabilitation induces improvement of cardiac neuronal function without having negative effects on cardiac contractility in patients with stable chronic heart failure. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of poststress left ventricular ejection fraction by gated SPECT: comparison with equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acampa, Wanda; Liuzzi, Raffaele; De Luca, Serena; Capasso, Enza; Luongo, Luca; Cuocolo, Alberto; Caprio, Maria Grazia; Nicolai, Emanuele; Petretta, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We compared left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction obtained by gated SPECT with that obtained by equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography in a large cohort of patients. Within 1 week, 514 subjects with suspected or known coronary artery disease underwent same-day stress-rest 99m Tc-sestamibi gated SPECT and radionuclide angiocardiography. For both studies, data were acquired 30 min after completion of exercise and after 3 h rest. In the overall study population, a good correlation between ejection fraction measured by gated SPECT and by radionuclide angiocardiography was observed at rest (r=0.82, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.83, p<0.0001). In Bland-Altman analysis, the mean differences in ejection fraction (radionuclide angiocardiography minus gated SPECT) were -0.6% at rest and 1.7% after stress. In subjects with normal perfusion (n=362), a good correlation between ejection fraction measured by gated SPECT and by radionuclide angiocardiography was observed at rest (r=0.72, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.70, p<0.0001) and the mean differences in ejection fraction were -0.9% at rest and 1.4% after stress. Also in patients with abnormal perfusion (n=152), a good correlation between the two techniques was observed both at rest (r=0.89, p<0.0001) and after stress (r=0.90, p<0.0001) and the mean differences in ejection fraction were 0.1% at rest and 2.5% after stress. In a large study population, a good agreement was observed in the evaluation of LV ejection fraction between gated SPECT and radionuclide angiocardiography. However, in patients with perfusion abnormalities, a slight underestimation in poststress LV ejection fraction was observed using gated SPECT as compared to equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography. (orig.)

  6. Effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait kinematic parameters of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, M; Sohrabi, M; Taheri Torbati, H R; Nikkhah, K; NaeimiKia, M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the effect of rhythmic auditory stimulation on gait kinematic parameters of patients with multiple sclerosis. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 18 subjects, comprising 4 males and 14 females with Multiple Sclerosis with expanded disability status scale of 3 to 6 were chosen. Subjects were selected by available and targeted sampling and were randomly divided into two experimental (n = 9) and control (n = 9) groups. Exercises were gait with rhythmic auditory stimulation by a metronome device, in addition to gait without stimulation for the experimental and control groups, respectively. Training was carried out for 3 weeks, with 30 min duration for each session 3 times a week. Stride length, stride time, double support time, cadence and gait speed were measured by motion analysis device. Results: There was a significant difference between stride length, stride time, double support time, cadence and gait speed in the experimental group, before and after the training. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the enhancement of stride length, stride time, cadence and gait speed in favor of the experimental group. While this difference was not significant for double support time. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that rhythmic auditory stimulation is an effective rehabilitation method to improve gait kinematic parameters in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  7. Benchmark studies of computer prediction techniques for equilibrium chemistry and radionuclide transport in groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review of two recent benchmark exercises is presented. These were separately concerned with the equilibrium chemistry of groundwater and the geosphere migration of radionuclides, and involved the use of a total of 19 computer codes by 11 organisations in Europe and Canada. A similar methodology was followed for each exercise, in that series of hypothetical test cases were used to explore the limits of each code's application, and so provide an overview of current modelling potential. Aspects of the user-friendliness of individual codes were also considered. The benchmark studies have benefited participating organisations by providing a means of verifying current codes, and have provided problem data sets by which future models may be compared. (author)

  8. The Effect of 12 Weeks Individualized Combined Exercise Rehabilitation Training on Physiological Cost Index (PCI and Walking Speed in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis at all Levels of Physical Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Narimani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Most research on the effects of exercise on people with MS rehabilitation exercises sclerosis (MS  have been carried out on patients with low to moderate disability, but research on patients with different severity of disability (physical disability scale of zero to 10 still has to be carefully considered. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of twelve weeks of rehabilitation exercises personalized compound exercise on physiological cost index (PCI and average speed walking in patients with MS at various levels of disability. Methods: The present research was a semi-experimental practical study. Thus among female patients admitted to the MS Association of Shahrekord city, 96 people were chosen on the basis of physical disability scores and divided into three groups. The first group consisted of less than 5/4 a total of 44 people, the second group between 5/65 and 5/6 up third of each 26 patients were then randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Afterwards each group was divided randomly into an experimental group and a control group. The first group (the scale of disability less than 4.5, N= 44. The second group (the scale of disability 5 - 6.5, N=26. Also 26 patients were in the third group (the scale of disability 6.5 and above. In addition, they were divided into 6 experimental and control groups. Training programs for experimental groups were 12 weeks, three sessions per week and one hour for each session. Factors such as physiological cost index and walking speed were measured with the appropriate tools before and after training. The experimental groups of 1, 2 and 3 each did their own intervention, while the control groups received only stretching exercises. Analysis of data obtained from 96 patients studied was done using descriptive statistics and the analysis of covariance and paired comparing of the adjusted means (P<0.05. ‌‌‌ Results: A significant difference in walking

  9. Multiple Sclerosis After Infectious Mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association. OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of sex, age at and time since infectious mononucleosis......, and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the Danish...... Multiple Sclerosis Registry. SETTING: Statens Serum Institut. PATIENTS: A cohort of 25 234 Danish patients with mononucleosis was followed up for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis beginning on April 1, 1968, or January 1 of the year after the diagnosis of mononucleosis or after a negative Paul...

  10. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  11. Exercise intravenous digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiannikas, J.

    1986-01-01

    Attempts to use exercise ventriculography have been made, not only to give diagnostic and perhaps even prognostic information in patients with coronary artery disease, but also in patients with valvular heart disease both before and after surgical intervention. Clearly an accurate method of assessing ventricular function under conditions of stress in various cardiac diseases would provide important information that would help in patient management. Exercise ventriculography using gated blood pool equilibrium technetium studies are widely used, but are limited by spatial resolution and by the foreshortening affects of visualizing the left ventricular chamber in the left anterior oblique view. First pass radionuclide studies have the added advantage of being able to visualize the ventricular chamber in the anterior or even the right anterior oblique view, but are even more limited by their spatial resolution problems. Several investigations have shown that digital subtraction angiography produces left ventricular images with a spatial resolution almost identical to that of conventional contrast ventriculography, but without the inherent problems of cardiac arrhythmias, which often limit the assessment of left ventricular function. Because of its ability to accurately delineate wall motion abnormalities, the technique may provide an adequate assessment of global and regional left ventricular function after exercise. Digital subtraction angiography may identify ischemic wall motion abnormalities produced by exercise in patients who already had significant permanent left ventricular damage from myocardial infarction

  12. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D Andrew J. Solomon, MD WHAT ... caused by improper immune responses (autoimmune diseases), including multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent Patient Page in Neurology provided ...

  13. Discordance of exercise thallium testing with coronary arteriography in patients with atypical presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bungo, M.W.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-one patients with diagnostically difficult clinical presentations suggesting coronary artery disease underwent symptom-limited maximal-exercise treadmill testing (ETT) and exercise radionuclide scanning with thallium-201 followed by coronary angiography. Results showed that in nearly half of the patients (47%) these tests were in agreement, while either exercise thallium or ETT was positive in 94% of patients with coronary artery disease. It was found that agreement between exercise thallium and ETT tests predicted disease in 92% of the instances or excluded disease in 82% of the instances. It is concluded that despite frequent discord between these two tests in 53% of the cases, a significant gain in exclusive diagnostic capability is realized when applied to a patient population anticipated to have a disease prevalence equal to the 67% encountered in this study

  14. Chromosomal radiosensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenkova, Maria; Milanov, Ivan; Kmetska, Ksenia; Deleva, Sofia; Popova, Ljubomira; Hadjidekova, Valeria; Groudeva, Violeta; Hadjidekova, Savina; Domínguez, Inmaculada

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied radiosensitivity to in vitro γ-irradiated lymphocytes from MS patients. • Immunotherapy in RRMS patients reduced the yield of radiation induced MN. • The group of treated RRMS accounts for the low radiosensitivity in MS patients. • Spontaneous yield of MN was similar in treated and untreated RRMS patients. - Abstract: Multiple sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease leading to severe neurological disability. Although during the last years many disease-modifying agents as treatment options for multiple sclerosis have been made available, their mechanisms of action are still not fully determined. In the present study radiosensitivity in lymphocytes of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and healthy controls was investigated. Whole blood cultures from multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls were used to analyze the spontaneous and radiation-induced micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes. A subgroup of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis was treated with immunomodulatory agents, interferon β or glatiramer acetate. The secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients group was not receiving any treatment. Our results reveal that the basal DNA damage was not different between relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls. No differences between gamma-irradiation induced micronuclei frequencies in binucleated cells from relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls were found either. Nevertheless, when we compared the radiation induced DNA damage in binucleated cells from healthy individuals with the whole group of patients, a reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was obtained in the patients group. Induced micronuclei yield was significantly lower in the irradiated samples from treated relapsing–remitting multiple

  15. Chromosomal radiosensitivity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milenkova, Maria; Milanov, Ivan; Kmetska, Ksenia [III Neurological Clinic, University Hospital Saint Naum, Sofia (Bulgaria); Deleva, Sofia; Popova, Ljubomira; Hadjidekova, Valeria [Laboratory of Radiation Genetics, NCRRP, Sofia (Bulgaria); Groudeva, Violeta [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, University Hospital St. Ekaterina, Sofia (Bulgaria); Hadjidekova, Savina [Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University, Sofia (Bulgaria); Domínguez, Inmaculada, E-mail: idomin@us.es [Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Seville, Avda. Reina Mercedes 6, 41012 (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We studied radiosensitivity to in vitro γ-irradiated lymphocytes from MS patients. • Immunotherapy in RRMS patients reduced the yield of radiation induced MN. • The group of treated RRMS accounts for the low radiosensitivity in MS patients. • Spontaneous yield of MN was similar in treated and untreated RRMS patients. - Abstract: Multiple sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease leading to severe neurological disability. Although during the last years many disease-modifying agents as treatment options for multiple sclerosis have been made available, their mechanisms of action are still not fully determined. In the present study radiosensitivity in lymphocytes of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and healthy controls was investigated. Whole blood cultures from multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls were used to analyze the spontaneous and radiation-induced micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes. A subgroup of patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis was treated with immunomodulatory agents, interferon β or glatiramer acetate. The secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients group was not receiving any treatment. Our results reveal that the basal DNA damage was not different between relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls. No differences between gamma-irradiation induced micronuclei frequencies in binucleated cells from relapsing–remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls were found either. Nevertheless, when we compared the radiation induced DNA damage in binucleated cells from healthy individuals with the whole group of patients, a reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was obtained in the patients group. Induced micronuclei yield was significantly lower in the irradiated samples from treated relapsing–remitting multiple

  16. Physical activity and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Developing a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, E Ann; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Grover, Stephanie A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Three-quarters of children with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue or depression, and progressive neurocognitive decline may be seen as early as two years after MS diagnosis. Furthermore, a higher magnetic resonance imaging disease burden is seen in pediatric-onset MS compared with adult-onset MS. To date, limited knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods for managing symptoms and disease progression in pediatric MS. To that end, this paper builds an evidence-based argument for the possible symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of exercise and physical activity in pediatric MS. This will be accomplished through: (a) a review of pediatric MS and its consequences; (b) a brief overview of physical activity and its consequences in children and adults with MS; and (c) a selective review of research on the neurological benefits of physical activity in pediatric populations. This topical review concludes with a list of 10 questions to guide future research on physical activity and pediatric MS. The objective of this paper is the provision of a research interest, focus and agenda involving pediatric MS and its lifelong management though exercise and physical activity behavior. Such an agenda is critical as the effects and maintenance of physical activity and exercise track across the lifespan, particularly when developed in the early stages of life. © The Author(s), 2015.

  17. Radionuclides in radiation-induced bystander effect; may it share in radionuclide therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widel, M

    2017-01-01

    For many years in radiobiology and radiotherapy predominated the conviction that cellular DNA is the main target for ionizing radiation, however, the view has changed in the past 20 years. Nowadays, it is assumed that not only directed (targeted) radiation effect, but also an indirect (non-targeted) effect may contribute to the result of radiation treatment. Non-targeted effect is relatively well recognized after external beam irradiation in vitro and in vivo, and comprises such phenomena like radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal (out of field) effect. These stress-induced and molecular signaling mediated phenomena appear in non-targeted cells as variety responses resembling that observed in directly hit cells. Bystander effects can be both detrimental and beneficial in dependence on dose, dose-rate, cell type, genetic status and experimental condition. Less is known about radionuclide-induced non-targeted effects in radionuclide therapy, although, based on characteristics of the radionuclide radiation, on experiments in vitro utilizing classical and 3-D cell cultures, and preclinical study on animals it seems obvious that exposure to radionuclide is accompanied by various bystander effects, mostly damaging, less often protective. This review summarizes existing data on radionuclide induced bystander effects comprising radionuclides emitting beta- and alpha-particles and Auger electrons used in tumor radiotherapy and diagnostics. So far, separation of the direct effect of radionuclide decay from crossfire and bystander effects in clinical targeted radionuclide therapy is impossible because of the lack of methods to assess whether, and to what extent bystander effect is involved in human organism. Considerations on this topic are also included.

  18. [Future challenges in multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Óscar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis occurs in genetically susceptible individuals, in whom an unknown environmental factor triggers an immune response, giving rise to a chronic and disabling autoimmune disease. Currently, significant progress is being made in our knowledge of the frequency and distribution of multiple sclerosis and its risk factors, genetics, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and prognostic markers, and treatment. This has radically changed patients' and clinicians' expectations of multiple sclerosis and has raised hope that there will soon be a way to control the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  20. Improved fatigue in individuals with multiple sclerosis after participating in a short-term self-care programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navipour, Hassan; Madani, Hossein; Mohebbi, Mohammad R; Navipour, Reza; Roozbayani, Parviz; Paydar, Afshin

    2006-01-01

    Fatigue is among the most common, yet least understood symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The debilitating symptoms of MS can have adverse effects on the sufferer's self-esteem. We report the effect of a short-term self-managed graded exercise programme on fatigue and self-esteem of patients with MS. Thirty-four (age range: 20-50, mean: 29.7 years; M:F 0.7:1.0) patients with MS who lived in Tehran and were not physically disabled entered the study. Self-esteem score was measured with the Persian translation of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Fatigue was evaluated with a visual analogue scale. The patients performed the self-managed techniques for 6 weeks. Self-esteem and fatigue were evaluated once more after the self-managed graded exercise programme. On paired sample test, the self-esteem score of the patients was significantly different before (53.9) and after (68.1) the self-managed graded exercise programme (Pself-care training as an alternative in rehabilitation of the patients with MS. Self-managed graded exercise programme may be considered as an alternative to direct nursing services for patients with MS.

  1. Multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadashima, Hiromichi; Kusaka, Hirofumi; Imai, Terukuni; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamamoto, Toru; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis were examined in terms of correlations between the clinical features and the results of cranial computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: In 5 of the 11 patients, both CT and MRI demonstrated lesions consistent with a finding of multiple sclerosis. In 3 patients, only MRI demonstrated lesions. In the remaining 3 patients, neither CT nor MRI revealed any lesion in the brain. All 5 patients who showed abnormal findings on both CT and MRI had clinical signs either of cerebral or brainstem - cerebellar lesions. On the other hand, two of the 3 patients with normal CT and MRI findings had optic-nerve and spinal-cord signs. Therefore, our results suggested relatively good correlations between the clinical features, CT, and MRI. MRI revealed cerebral lesions in two of the four patients with clinical signs of only optic-nerve and spinal-cord lesions. MRI demonstrated sclerotic lesions in 3 of the 6 patients whose plaques were not detected by CT. In conclusion, MRI proved to be more helpful in the demonstration of lesions attributable to chronic multiple sclerosis. (author)

  2. Lung commitment in Tuberous Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo B, Jorge A; Araque G, Julio Mario; Camargo P, Carlos B

    1992-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare hereditary anomaly characterized by hamartomas in many parts of the body. Lung involvement is found in only one of 100 cases. In this case report we present a patient with lung involvement in tuberous sclerosis

  3. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  4. An overview of results obtained in intercomparison exercises for determination of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedik, L.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the Jožef Stefan Institute participated in numerous intercomparison exercises for determination of natural and man-made radionuclides. The reported values were mostly in good agreement with the resulting reference values. This paper describes an analysis of the measurement results obtained in intercomparison exercises for determination of actinides in the period from 2009 to 2011, organised by the National Physical Laboratory and the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz. The review covers neptunium, plutonium and americium radioisotopes over this period. - Highlights: • The goal of this study is an overview of results obtained in intercomparison exercises for determination of actinides. • The disagreement of results for Np-237 was evaluated. • Improvements in separation procedures were done

  5. Physiotherapy or self-selected exercise in multiple sclerosis: a comparative evaluation of community-based interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis is a major cause of neurological disability in the population of the UK with an incidence of 2,500 new cases diagnosed each year. The estimated number of people affected with MS in the UK is currently believed to be 85,000. (MS Trust 2006). The disease affects those in the prime of their lives as well as those more advanced in years. The reality of living with a progressive neurological condition requires self-management strategies as well as professional involvement. One m...

  6. Pilates based core stability training in ambulant individuals with multiple sclerosis: protocol for a multi-centre randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Jennifer; Fox, Esther; Gear, Margaret; Hough, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background People with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) frequently experience balance and mobility impairments, including reduced trunk stability. Pilates-based core stability training, which is aimed at improving control of the body's stabilising muscles, is popular as a form of exercise with people with MS and therapists. A replicated single case series study facilitated by the Therapists in MS Group in the United Kingdom (UK) provides preliminary evidence that this approach can improve bal...

  7. Receiver operating characteristic analysis improves diagnosis by radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, C.Z.; Forman, M.B.; Vaugh, W.K.; Sandler, M.P.; Kronenberg, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC) evaluates continuous variables to define diagnostic criteria for the optimal sensitivity (SENS) and specificity (SPEC) of a test. The authors studied exercise-induced chest pain (CP), ST-changes on electrocardiography (ECG) and rest-exercise gated radionuclide ventriculography (RVG) using ROC to clarify the optimal criteria for detecting myocardial ischemia due to coronary artherosclerosis (CAD). The data of 95 consecutive patients studied with coronary angiography, rest-exercise RVG and ECG were reviewed. 77 patients had ''significant'' CAD (≥50% lesions). Exercise-induced CP, ECG abnormalities (ST-T shifts) and RVG abnormalities (change in ejection fraction, 2-view regional wall motion change and relative end-systolic volume) were evaluated to define optimal SENS/SPEC of each and for the combined data. ROC curves were constructed by multiple logistic regression (MLR). By MLR, RVG alone was superior to ECG and CP. The combination of all three produced the best ROC curve for the entire group and for clinical subsets based on the number of diseased vessels and the presence or absence of prior myocardial infarction. When CP, ECG and RVG were combined, the optimal SENS/SPEC for detection of single vessel disease was 88/86. The SENS/SPEC for 3 vessel disease was 93/95. Thus, the application of RVG for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is improved with the inclusion of ECG and CP data by the use of a multiple logistic regression model. ROC analysis allows clinical application of multiple data for diagnosing CAD at desired SENS/SPEC rather than by arbitrary single-standard criteria

  8. Demyelination versus remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramow, Stephan; Frischer, Josa M; Lassmann, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The causes of incomplete remyelination in progressive multiple sclerosis are unknown, as are the pathological correlates of the different clinical characteristics of patients with primary and secondary progressive disease. We analysed brains and spinal cords from 51 patients with progressive...... multiple sclerosis by planimetry. Thirteen patients with primary progressive disease were compared with 34 with secondary progressive disease. In patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, we found larger brain plaques, more demyelination in total and higher brain loads of active demyelination...... compared with patients with primary progressive disease. In addition, the brain density of plaques with high-grade inflammation and active demyelination was highest in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and remained ~18% higher than in primary progressive multiple sclerosis after adjustments...

  9. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  10. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  11. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  12. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample IAEA-368

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballestra, S; Lopez, J J; Gastaud, J; Parsi, P; Vas, D; Noshkin, V

    1991-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a Pacific Ocean sediment sample, IAEA-368, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 89 laboratories representing 37 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for {sup 60}Co, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 210}7Pb, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu and{sup 239+240}Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1990). Information values for {sup 40}K, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U and {sup 241}Am are also reported. (author)

  13. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  14. Cardiac inotropic reserve examined by postextrasystolic potentiation and redistribution of exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Adachi, Haruhiko; Nakagawa, Hiroaki

    1986-01-01

    Evaluation of regional contractile reserve and the viability of an infarcted segment of the myocardium is very important in determining the indications for aorto-coronary bypass after myocardial infarction and in predicting the prognosis. Regional wall motion of the left ventricle after postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP) was studied in 18 patients with old myocardial infarction, and compared with indices of redistribution of thallium after exercise. Equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (RNA) using Tc 99m HSA was performed at rest and after PESP produced by a programmable cardiac stimulator via a right ventricular catheter. Regional ejection fractions (REF) were determined, and wall motion was observed visually. The relative thallium activity (RTA) and washout rate (WOR) were obtained from exercise myocardial scintigraphy performed 10 minutes, and 3 hours after thallium-201 injections. Wall motion improved in 12 of 23 infarcted segments after PESP. Regional ejection fraction and relative thallium activity (in three hours, or the difference between the activities of the initial and three hours after exercise) in the improved segments were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in the unchanged segments. Washout rate was lower (p < 0.02) in the improved segments. Significant correlation was observed between the change in regional ejection fraction and relative thallium activity (3 hours after exercise) (r = 0.654, p < 0.05). Thus, the wall motion of some infarcted regions of the myocardium improved after PESP, and thallium was redistributed during three hours after exercise. It is concluded that contractility and viability might be preserved even in the infarcted site following myocardial infarction, and that these results are indications for aorto-coronary bypass surgery in cases of old myocardial infarction. Both PESP assessed by equilibrium radionuclide angiography and exercise thallium scintigraphy are useful means for these evaluations. (author)

  15. Effects of environmental enrichment on the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrells, A D; Corcoran-Gomez, K; Eckert, K A; Fahey, A G; Hoots, B L; Charleston, L B; Charleston, J S; Roberts, C R; Markowitz, H

    2009-04-01

    The manner in which an animal's environment is furnished may have significant implications for animal welfare as well as research outcomes. We evaluated four different housing conditions to determine the effects of what has been considered standard rodent enrichment and the exercise opportunities those environments allow on disease progression in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model. Forty-eight copper/zinc superoxide dismutase mice (strain: B6SJL-TgN [SOD1-G931]1Gur) (SOD1) and 48 control (C) (strain: B6SJL-TgN[SOD1]2Gur) male mice were randomly assigned to four different conditions where 12 SOD1 and 12 C animals were allotted to each condition (n = 96). Conditions tested the effects of standard housing, a forced exercise regime, access to a mouse house and opportunity for ad libitum exercise on a running wheel. In addition to the daily all-occurrence behavioural sampling, mice were weighed and tested twice per week on gait and Rotor-Rod performance until the mice reached the age of 150 days (C) or met the criteria for our humane endpoint (SOD1). The SOD1 mice exposed to the forced exercise regime and wheel access did better in average lifespan and Rotor-Rod performance, than SOD1 mice exposed to the standard cage and mouse house conditions. In SOD1 mice, stride length remained longest throughout the progression of the disease in mice exposed to the forced exercise regime compared with other SOD1 conditions. Within the control group, mice in the standard cage and forced exercise regime conditions performed significantly less than the mice with the mouse house and wheels on the Rotor-Rod. Alpha motor neuron counts were highest in mice with wheels and in mice exposed to forced exercise regime in both mouse strains. All SOD1 mice had significantly lower alpha neuron counts than controls (P model, and may have implications for the effects of these strategies on experimental outcomes.

  16. Hippocampal sclerosis in advanced age: clinical and pathological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Frederick A.; Lin, Yushun; Abner, Erin L.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Patel, Ela; Thomason, Paula C.; Neltner, Janna H.; Smith, Charles D.; Santacruz, Karen S.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Poon, Leonard W.; Gearing, Marla; Green, Robert C.; Woodard, John L.; Van Eldik, Linda J.; Kryscio, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is a relatively common neuropathological finding (∼10% of individuals over the age of 85 years) characterized by cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus that is not explained by Alzheimer’s disease. Hippocampal sclerosis pathology can be associated with different underlying causes, and we refer to hippocampal sclerosis in the aged brain as hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. Much remains unknown about hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. We combined three different large autopsy cohorts: University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Centre, the Nun Study and the Georgia Centenarian Study to obtain a pool of 1110 patients, all of whom were evaluated neuropathologically at the University of Kentucky. We focused on the subset of cases with neuropathology-confirmed hippocampal sclerosis (n = 106). For individuals aged ≥95 years at death (n = 179 in our sample), each year of life beyond the age of 95 years correlated with increased prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis pathology and decreased prevalence of ‘definite’ Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Aberrant TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was seen in 89.9% of hippocampal sclerosis positive patients compared with 9.7% of hippocampal sclerosis negative patients. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry can be used to demonstrate that the disease is usually bilateral even when hippocampal sclerosis pathology is not obvious by haematoxylin and eosin stains. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was negative on brain sections from younger individuals (n = 10) after hippocampectomy due to seizures, who had pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis. There was no association between cases with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing and apolipoprotein E genotype. Age of death and clinical features of hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing (with or without aberrant TAR DNA protein 43) were distinct from previously published cases of frontotemporal lobar

  17. Hippocampal sclerosis in advanced age: clinical and pathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter T; Schmitt, Frederick A; Lin, Yushun; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Patel, Ela; Thomason, Paula C; Neltner, Janna H; Smith, Charles D; Santacruz, Karen S; Sonnen, Joshua A; Poon, Leonard W; Gearing, Marla; Green, Robert C; Woodard, John L; Van Eldik, Linda J; Kryscio, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is a relatively common neuropathological finding (∼10% of individuals over the age of 85 years) characterized by cell loss and gliosis in the hippocampus that is not explained by Alzheimer's disease. Hippocampal sclerosis pathology can be associated with different underlying causes, and we refer to hippocampal sclerosis in the aged brain as hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. Much remains unknown about hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing. We combined three different large autopsy cohorts: University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Centre, the Nun Study and the Georgia Centenarian Study to obtain a pool of 1110 patients, all of whom were evaluated neuropathologically at the University of Kentucky. We focused on the subset of cases with neuropathology-confirmed hippocampal sclerosis (n=106). For individuals aged≥95 years at death (n=179 in our sample), each year of life beyond the age of 95 years correlated with increased prevalence of hippocampal sclerosis pathology and decreased prevalence of 'definite' Alzheimer's disease pathology. Aberrant TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was seen in 89.9% of hippocampal sclerosis positive patients compared with 9.7% of hippocampal sclerosis negative patients. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry can be used to demonstrate that the disease is usually bilateral even when hippocampal sclerosis pathology is not obvious by haematoxylin and eosin stains. TAR DNA protein 43 immunohistochemistry was negative on brain sections from younger individuals (n=10) after hippocampectomy due to seizures, who had pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis. There was no association between cases with hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing and apolipoprotein E genotype. Age of death and clinical features of hippocampal sclerosis associated with ageing (with or without aberrant TAR DNA protein 43) were distinct from previously published cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration TAR

  18. Hydrotherapy for the Treatment of Pain in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida María Castro-Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic demyelinating neurological disease. Several studies have reported that complementary and alternative therapies can have positive effects against pain in these patients. Objective. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program against pain and other symptoms in MS patients. Methods. In this randomized controlled trial, 73 MS patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group for a 20-week treatment program. The experimental group underwent 40 sessions of Ai-Chi exercise in swimming pool and the control group 40 sessions of abdominal breathing and contraction-relaxation exercises in therapy room. Outcome variables were pain, disability, spasm, depression, fatigue, and autonomy, which were assessed before the intervention and immediately and at 4 and 10 weeks after the last treatment session. Results. The experimental group showed a significant (P<0.028 and clinically relevant decrease in pain intensity versus baseline, with an immediate posttreatment reduction in median visual analogue scale scores of 50% that was maintained for up to 10 weeks. Significant improvements were also observed in spasm, fatigue, disability, and autonomy. Conclusion. According to these findings, an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program improves pain, spasms, disability, fatigue, depression, and autonomy in MS patients.

  19. Hydrotherapy for the treatment of pain in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sánchez, Adelaida María; Matarán-Peñarrocha, Guillermo A; Lara-Palomo, Inmaculada; Saavedra-Hernández, Manuel; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Moreno-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating neurological disease. Several studies have reported that complementary and alternative therapies can have positive effects against pain in these patients. Objective. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program against pain and other symptoms in MS patients. Methods. In this randomized controlled trial, 73 MS patients were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group for a 20-week treatment program. The experimental group underwent 40 sessions of Ai-Chi exercise in swimming pool and the control group 40 sessions of abdominal breathing and contraction-relaxation exercises in therapy room. Outcome variables were pain, disability, spasm, depression, fatigue, and autonomy, which were assessed before the intervention and immediately and at 4 and 10 weeks after the last treatment session. Results. The experimental group showed a significant (P < 0.028) and clinically relevant decrease in pain intensity versus baseline, with an immediate posttreatment reduction in median visual analogue scale scores of 50% that was maintained for up to 10 weeks. Significant improvements were also observed in spasm, fatigue, disability, and autonomy. Conclusion. According to these findings, an Ai-Chi aquatic exercise program improves pain, spasms, disability, fatigue, depression, and autonomy in MS patients.

  20. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  1. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  2. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  3. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  4. Combined exercise training reduces fatigue and modulates the cytokine profile of T-cells from multiple sclerosis patients in response to neuromediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga-Filho, Helcio; Sacramento, Priscila M; Ferreira, Thais B; Hygino, Joana; Abreu, Jorge Eduardo Canto; Carvalho, Sonia Regina; Wing, Ana Cristina; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2016-04-15

    Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), a classical Th1- and Th17-mediated autoimmune disease. There is no effective pharmacological treatment for fatigue, but some reports point towards beneficial effects of physical activity on management of the fatigue in MS patients. As both MS and fatigue have been associated with dysregulated cytokine network production, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a physical activity program consisting of a 12-week series of combining Pilates and aerobic exercises on fatigue severity, determined by FSS, and cytokine production, quantified by ELISA, by T cells from MS patients (n=08) with low disability (EDSS≤2). The results showed decrease in FSSs in all patients at the end of physical activity intervention. Regarding the cytokines, a significant reduction of IL-22 release was observed in polyclonally-activated T cells form MS patients post-training follow-up. Interestingly, while the physical activity attenuated the ability of dopamine in up-regulating Th17-related cytokines, it enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of serotonin, evidenced by high IL-10 production. In summary, all results suggest that programmed physical activity has beneficial effects on management of fatigue in MS patients, and it could be related, at least in part, to its ability in regulating neuroimmune parameters into T cell compartment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tuberous sclerosis complex surveillance and management: recommendations of the 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Darcy A; Northrup, Hope

    2013-10-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder affecting every organ system, but disease manifestations vary significantly among affected individuals. The diverse and varied presentations and progression can be life-threatening with significant impact on cost and quality of life. Current surveillance and management practices are highly variable among region and country, reflective of the fact that last consensus recommendations occurred in 1998 and an updated, comprehensive standard is lacking that incorporates the latest scientific evidence and current best clinical practices. The 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group, comprising 79 specialists from 14 countries, was organized into 12 separate subcommittees, each led by a clinician with advanced expertise in tuberous sclerosis complex and the relevant medical subspecialty. Each subcommittee focused on a specific disease area with important clinical management implications and was charged with formulating key clinical questions to address within its focus area, reviewing relevant literature, evaluating the strength of data, and providing a recommendation accordingly. The updated consensus recommendations for clinical surveillance and management in tuberous sclerosis complex are summarized here. The recommendations are relevant to the entire lifespan of the patient, from infancy to adulthood, including both individuals where the diagnosis is newly made as well as individuals where the diagnosis already is established. The 2012 International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Recommendations provide an evidence-based, standardized approach for optimal clinical care provided for individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring Wellness Interventions in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: an Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venasse, Myriam; Edwards, Thomas; Pilutti, Lara A

    2018-04-10

    There has been recent interest in the role of lifestyle and wellness-based approaches in the treatment and management of multiple sclerosis (MS). These approaches may be particularly relevant for patients with progressive MS, considering limited therapeutic options currently available. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of wellness-based interventions including exercise training, emotional well-being therapies, and dietary modification in patients with progressive MS. We conducted a literature search on the efficacy of wellness-based interventions in patients with progressive MS published between 1985 and July 2017. The level of evidence for each trial was evaluated using the American Academy of Neurology criteria. Overall, 21 articles reporting on 16 wellness-based interventions were identified: ten trials involved exercise training, three involved emotional wellness therapies, two involved dietary modification, and one was a combined wellness intervention. There is level C evidence (possibly effective; one class II study) for the efficacy of aerobic exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with progressive MS. There is level B evidence (probably effective; one class I study) for the efficacy of mindfulness training on psychological distress, depression, anxiety, pain, and quality of life in patients with progressive MS. There is inadequate evidence (level U) for efficacy of dietary modification (one class III study and one class IV study) and combined wellness interventions involving exercise training, meditation, and dietary modification (one class IV study). High-quality research is needed to provide evidence-based recommendations for wellness behaviors and lifestyle change in patients with progressive MS.

  7. Seismological investigation of the National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Hartmann, Gernot; Ross, J. Ole; Ceranna, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) prohibits all kinds of nuclear explosions conducted on Earth - underground, underwater or in the atmosphere. The verification regime of the CTBT is designed to detect any treaty violation. While the data of the International Monitoring System (IMS) is collected, processed and technically analyzed at the International Data Centre (IDC) of the CTBT-Organization, National Data Centres (NDC) of the member states provide interpretation and advice to their government concerning suspicious detections. The NDC Preparedness Exercises (NPE) are regularly performed dealing with fictitious treaty violations to practice the combined analysis of CTBT verification technologies. These exercises should help to evaluate the effectiveness of analysis procedures applied at NDCs and the quality, completeness and usefulness of IDC products for example. The exercise trigger of NPE2013 is a combination of a tempo-spatial indication pointing to a certain waveform event and simulated radionuclide concentrations generated by forward Atmospheric Transport Modelling based on a fictitious release. For the waveform event the date (4 Sept. 2013) is given and the region is communicated in a map showing the fictitious state of "Frisia" at the Coast of the North Sea in Central Europe. The potential connection between the waveform and radionuclide evidence remains unclear for exercise participants. The verification task was to identify the waveform event and to investigate potential sources of the radionuclide findings. The final question was whether the findings are CTBT relevant and justify a request for On-Site-Inspection in "Frisia". The seismic event was not included in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the IDC. The available detections from the closest seismic IMS stations lead to a epicenter accuracy of about 24 km which is not sufficient to specify the 1000 km2 inspection area in case of an OSI. With use of data from local stations and

  8. Multiple Sclerosis: Can It Cause Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... multiple sclerosis and epilepsy? Answers from B Mark Keegan, M.D. Epileptic seizures are more common in ... controlled with anti-seizure medication. With B Mark Keegan, M.D. Lund C, et al. Multiple sclerosis ...

  9. Suicide among Danes with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Stenager, E; Nylev Stenager, E

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the suicide risk among Danish citizens with multiple sclerosis with that of the general population, and to evaluate changes over 45 years. METHODS: The study was based on linkage of the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry to the Cause of Death Registry. It comprised all 10...... taken their own lives, whereas the expected number of suicides was 54.2 (29.1 men, 25.1 women). Thus the suicide risk among persons with multiple sclerosis was more than twice that of the general population (SMR = 2.12). The increased risk was particularly high during the first year after diagnosis (SMR...... = 3.15). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of suicide in multiple sclerosis was almost twice as high as expected more than 20 years after diagnosis. The excess suicide risk has not declined since 1953....

  10. SUMMIT (Serially Unified Multicenter Multiple Sclerosis Investigation): creating a repository of deeply phenotyped contemporary multiple sclerosis cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Riley; Chitnis, Tanuja; Cree, Bruce Ac; Tintoré, Mar; Naegelin, Yvonne; Uitdehaag, Bernard Mj; Kappos, Ludwig; Khoury, Samia J; Montalban, Xavier; Hauser, Stephen L; Weiner, Howard L

    2017-08-01

    There is a pressing need for robust longitudinal cohort studies in the modern treatment era of multiple sclerosis. Build a multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort repository to capture the variability of disability accumulation, as well as provide the depth of characterization (clinical, radiologic, genetic, biospecimens) required to adequately model and ultimately predict a patient's course. Serially Unified Multicenter Multiple Sclerosis Investigation (SUMMIT) is an international multi-center, prospectively enrolled cohort with over a decade of comprehensive follow-up on more than 1000 patients from two large North American academic MS Centers (Brigham and Women's Hospital (Comprehensive Longitudinal Investigation of Multiple Sclerosis at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (CLIMB; BWH)) and University of California, San Francisco (Expression/genomics, Proteomics, Imaging, and Clinical (EPIC))). It is bringing online more than 2500 patients from additional international MS Centers (Basel (Universitätsspital Basel (UHB)), VU University Medical Center MS Center Amsterdam (MSCA), Multiple Sclerosis Center of Catalonia-Vall d'Hebron Hospital (Barcelona clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) cohort), and American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC-Multiple Sclerosis Interdisciplinary Research (AMIR)). We provide evidence for harmonization of two of the initial cohorts in terms of the characterization of demographics, disease, and treatment-related variables; demonstrate several proof-of-principle analyses examining genetic and radiologic predictors of disease progression; and discuss the steps involved in expanding SUMMIT into a repository accessible to the broader scientific community.

  11. Comorbidity of Bipolar Disorder and Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of a central nervous system. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis and bipolar disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders that coexist with multiple sclerosis. Manic episodes may be the first presenting symptom of multiple sclerosis as comorbid pathology or as an adverse effect of pharmacotherapies used in multiple sclerosis. The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis is well-proven but its etiology is not known and investigated accurately. Recent studies support a common genetic susceptibility. Management of bipolar disorder in multiple sclerosis is based on evidence provided by case reports and treatment should be individualized. In this report, the association between bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis, epidemiology, ethiology and treatment is discussed through a case had diagnosed as multiple sclerosis and had a manic episode with psychotic features. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 832-836

  12. Perceptions of using videogames in rehabilitation: a dual perspective of people with multiple sclerosis and physiotherapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsagård, Ylva; Boström, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to describe experiences of using Nintendo Wii Fit™ for balance exercise, from the perspectives of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their physiotherapists (PT). Methods: Individual interviews with 15 patients with MS were conducted, recruited from a multi-centre study investigating the effects of balance exercising using Wii Fit. We also conducted a single focus group interview with nine PT involved in the study. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed using content analysis. Results: Both patients and PT said that exercising with Wii Fit games was fun, and that it challenged the patients' physical and cognitive capacities. The competitive content in the games provided motivation to continue playing. Patients and PT reported improved body control and, more importantly, positive effects on balance and walking in daily life. The PT regarded Wii training as an effective alternative to other balance training, but some felt unsure in how to manage the video game. The patients regarded Wii training as a possible home training solution. Conclusions: Patients with MS and their PT considered Wii Fit exercises to be fun, challenging, and self-motivating. Exercising with Wii games can address balance impairments in MS, and can be performed at home as well as in rehabilitation settings. Implications for Rehabilitation Nintendo Wii Fit™ can be used as a fun and challenging way to perform balance exercises. The competitive content embedded in the games triggers continued playing and exercising. The positive effect on balance control can improve standing and walking in everyday activities. PMID:24833535

  13. Perceptions of using videogames in rehabilitation: a dual perspective of people with multiple sclerosis and physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Anette; Nilsagård, Ylva; Boström, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to describe experiences of using Nintendo Wii Fit™ for balance exercise, from the perspectives of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and their physiotherapists (PT). Individual interviews with 15 patients with MS were conducted, recruited from a multi-centre study investigating the effects of balance exercising using Wii Fit. We also conducted a single focus group interview with nine PT involved in the study. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed using content analysis. Both patients and PT said that exercising with Wii Fit games was fun, and that it challenged the patients' physical and cognitive capacities. The competitive content in the games provided motivation to continue playing. Patients and PT reported improved body control and, more importantly, positive effects on balance and walking in daily life. The PT regarded Wii training as an effective alternative to other balance training, but some felt unsure in how to manage the video game. The patients regarded Wii training as a possible home training solution. Patients with MS and their PT considered Wii Fit exercises to be fun, challenging, and self-motivating. Exercising with Wii games can address balance impairments in MS, and can be performed at home as well as in rehabilitation settings. Implications for Rehabilitation Nintendo Wii Fit™ can be used as a fun and challenging way to perform balance exercises. The competitive content embedded in the games triggers continued playing and exercising. The positive effect on balance control can improve standing and walking in everyday activities.

  14. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  15. Genetics Home Reference: tuberous sclerosis complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 42. Citation on PubMed Northrup H, Koenig MK, Pearson DA, Au KS. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. 1999 Jul ... Tuberous sclerosis complex: advances in diagnosis, genetics, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Aug;57(2): ...

  16. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  17. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, R W; Goldman, M

    2011-02-01

    We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (VO₂(peak) ) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Study 1 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that VO₂(peak) was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = -0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = -0.40) had statistically significant associations with VO₂(peak). The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. The use of gaming technology for rehabilitation in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J D; Griffin, M

    2015-04-01

    Gaming technology - exergaming - is a novel tool to facilitate exercise, improve balance, and encourage rehabilitation training. This review will describe some of the key exergame research to promote physical activity and its use in rehabilitation in other diseases or clinical populations. We will then describe the current state of research in exergaming in people with multiple sclerosis and describe the theories for the mechanism behind some of the improvements in outcomes seen after using exergaming. Lastly, we will identify gaps in the literature and provide directions for future work in this growing area. The current work is contradictory and there is no consensus with regards to training duration/intensity and the outcomes used to assess the clinical effectiveness. This in part is due to the off-the-shelf nature of the games used. A more satisfactory approach would be the development of bespoke games which match a clinical need. Exergames are seen as enjoyable and could be effective in enhancing adherence to rehabilitation. However, the definitive RCT has yet to be carried out comparing exergaming to traditional exercise. © The Author(s), 2014.

  19. Exercise tolerance in mitral stenosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenami, Atsushi; Mizuno, Toshikazu; Chiba, Hiroshi; Ohno, Masanori; Wakino, Kouichi; Sawada, Yoshihiro; Ohno, Joichi; Kume, Kiyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Serial radionuclide ventriculography was performed using a newly developed ''real-time'' system, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), stroke volume (SV), and cardiac output (CO) were measured during graded supine exercise in five patients with mitral stenosis (MS), in five patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and in five healthy subjects. Simultaneous pulmonary gas exchange analysis permitted determining the anaerobic threshold, which is the point during incremental exercise when lactate begins to accumulate in the blood. LVEF at the anaerobic threshold was not significantly changed in any patient groups and in healthy subjects, but RVEF at the anaerobic threshold was lower in COPD and MS patients as compared with healthy subjects. In MS, SV during exercise was reduced at the anaerobic threshold, but not in COPD or in healthy subjects. In conclusion, reduced working capacity is related to decreased RVEF in both COPD and MS, but the inhibited increase in CO during exercise is also important for the working capacity in MS. (author)

  20. Results Assessment of Intercomparison Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-2010 among Spanish National Laboratories of Environmental Radioactivity (Diet Ashes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Trinidad, J. A.; Llaurado, M.; Suarez, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the results assessment of the intercomparison exercise among environmental radioactivity laboratories, organised by Spanish Regulatory Institution (CSN) and prepared and evaluated by UAB and CIEMAT respectively. The exercise has been carried out following the international standards ISO-43 and ISO/IUPAC that provide a useful guide to perform proficiency tests and inter-laboratories comparisons. The selected matrix for this year (2010) was a diet ash obtained from the ashing of a whole fresh diet (breakfast, lunch and dinner), that was enriched with artificial radionuclides (Cs-137, Co-60,Fe-55,Ni-63,Sr-90,Am-241,Pu-238,Pu-239,240 y C-14) and contained natural radionuclides (U-234, U-238, U-natural Th-230, Th-234, Ra-226, Ra-228, Pb-210, Pb-212, Pb-214, Bi-214, Ac-228, Tl-208, K-40) at environmental level of activity concentration. The z-score test was applied to determine how much the laboratories differ from the reference value. The reference value for this exercise was the median of the results from the different laboratories and their standard deviations to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The participant laboratories have demonstrated a satisfactory quality level for measuring the natural and artificial radionuclides content in this matrix. The reference values obtained through the medians show a negative bias for Pb-210 and Th-234 when comparing to the given values of external qualified laboratories from ENEA and IRSN and positive one for K-40. (Author)

  1. Erasmus Syndrome: Silicosis and Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shubhra; Joshi, Vinod; Rathore, Yogendra S; Khippal, Narendra

    2017-01-01

    Several occupational hazards, especially exposure to silica, have been implicated as causal factors for the development of scleroderma-like disorders. Compared to other connective tissue disorders, silica-associated systemic sclerosis (SA-SS) is relatively rare. Silica-induced scleroderma is indistinguishable from idiopathic systemic sclerosis. However, the former expresses a high predisposition of pulmonary involvement and anti-Scl-70 antibody. We report the case of a 42-year-old male, stone cutter by occupation, who was diagnosed as simple chronic silicosis and developed systemic sclerosis.

  2. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  3. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs

  4. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  5. Final report proficiency test on the determination of α, β and γ-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Trinkl, A.; Benesch, T.; Sansone, U.

    2005-06-01

    A proficiency test on the determination of α, β and γ-emitting radionuclides was organised within the frame of the Technical Cooperation project: RAS/9/024 'Environmental Radiation Monitoring and Regional Data Base' to evaluate the analytical performance of 14 laboratories from 12 Asian countries. This report summarises the performance evaluation of the participating laboratories. Analytical data evaluation of this proficiency test showed that 58% of all reported results obtained a 'Passed' final score for both the trueness and precision criteria applied to this exercise. (author)

  6. Review of radionuclides released from the nuclear fuel cycle and methods of assessing dose to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    There are two broad subject areas associated with releases of radionuclides from nuclear fuel cycle installations to the environment in which there are biological implications. One concerns interpretation of doses to man in terms of their radiological significance; the other concerns estimation of environmental transfer of radionuclides and of associated radiation doses to man. The radiation protection philosophy on which past practice regarding effluent releases of radionuclides to the environment was based is illustrated by drawing upon estimates of the associated radiation doses to man given in the 1977 report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The present emphasis in radiation protection philosophy is illustrated by summarizing a review of environmental models relevant to estimation of radiation doses to population groups with reference to effluent releases of 3 H, 14 C, 85 Kr and 129 I; the author carried out the review as a contribution to a current study by an expert group set up by the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD. Radionuclides of significance in the future may differ from those currently released to the environment because of possible developments in nuclear fuel cycles and options which may be exercised for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, already in storage or postulated to be produced in the future. (author)

  7. Laboratory diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Rinck, P.A.; Nilsen, G.; Romslo, I.

    1991-01-01

    In 26 patients with multiple sclerosis 100% responded abnormally to magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Lesions in the posterior fossa were observed in 18 patients. The auditory brain stem response was abnormal in 15 patients, and 22 had abnormal immunoglobulins in the cerebrospinal fluid. The correlation between abnormalities of the auditory brain stem response and the magnetic resonance images was greatest in a subgroup where the two investigations were performed within a ten day interval. Results from magnetic resonance imaging, evoked potentials and cerebrospinal fluid investigations were used to reclassify 13 of 15 patients with clinically ''possible'' or ''probable''multiple sclerosis to a higher level using Poser's criteria. Evoked potentials (the auditory brain stem response in particular) correlated best with clinical multiple sclerosis category. The authors recommend that the magnetic resonance imaging is established as a first-hand investigation in evaluation of multiple sclerosis. Evoked potentials and cerebrospinal fluid investigations may prove to be more specific, however, and these investigations should also be performed as a routine. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. The value of exercise radionuclide ventriculography in risk stratification in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.; Schenk, C.

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the value of rest and exercise (EX) radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) in risk stratification in 392 pts with suspected or known coronary artery disease who were being evaluated for anginal symptoms. There were 289 men and 203 women, aged 55 +- 12 years (mean +- SD). There were 20 cardiac events in the followup period of up to 4 years (19 +- 10 months): 14 pts died of cardiac causes and 6 had non-fatal acute myocardial infarctions. The pts with and without events did not differ in age, clinical presentation, risk factors, and rest and EX ECGs. However, pts with events had lower EX systolic blood pressure (p < 0.02); lower EX duration; (5.5 +- 2.5 vs 7.6 +- 3.7 minutes, p < 0.0l), lower resting left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (p = 0.001), and lower EX EF (35 +- 17% vs 56 +- 15%, p = 0.0001). The change in EF from rest to EX was not significantly different (-0.1 +- 6.1 vs 3 +- 9.9). Univariate survival analysis (Cox model) showed several descriptors related to prognosis: EX EF, rest EF, wall motion and EX duration. Multivariate analysis, however, identified the EX EF as the only significant predictor (X/sup 2/ = 19.9). None of the other variables added independent information to that provided by the EX EF. Actuarial lie table analysis showed that the risk increased as the EX EF decreased, when pts were grouped into those with EXEF ≥ 50%, 30-49%, and <30%., (p = 0.001, Mantel-Cox). Thus, the EX RNV is useful in risk stratification; the EX EF is the best descriptor that categorizes pts into different risk groups

  9. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  10. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with exercise and pharmacological stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundram, F X [General Hospital of Singapore, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine (Senegal)

    1996-12-31

    Cardiac studies including myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was begun in the Singapore General Hospital, nuclear medicine department in 1983. From a few patients per year using planar imaging, we have in 1994 studied 1500 patients for myocardial perfusion, using mainly SPECT (single-photon emission computerised tomography) and radionuclides such as Thallium-201, Technetium-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin. Patients have been stressed using treadmill exercise or pharmacological agents; we have used dipyridamole, and dobutamine for pharmacological stress but have no experience with intravenous adenosine.

  11. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with exercise and pharmacological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, F.X.

    1995-01-01

    Cardiac studies including myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was begun in the Singapore General Hospital, nuclear medicine department in 1983. From a few patients per year using planar imaging, we have in 1994 studied 1500 patients for myocardial perfusion, using mainly SPECT (single-photon emission computerised tomography) and radionuclides such as Thallium-201, Technetium-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin. Patients have been stressed using treadmill exercise or pharmacological agents; we have used dipyridamole, and dobutamine for pharmacological stress but have no experience with intravenous adenosine

  12. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample IAEA-135

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P.; Vas, D.

    1993-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a marine sediment from Irish Sea, IAEA-135, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides levels, are reported. The data from 151 laboratories representing 51 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for 40 K, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 154 Eu, 155 Eu, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 232 Th, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1992). Information values for 57 Co, 90 Sr, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 228 Th, 230 Th, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U and 241 Am are also reported. All values are expressed in Bq kg -1 dry weight. (author)

  13. Intercomparison of radionuclide measurements on marine sediment sample IAEA-300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P.; Vas, D.

    1994-09-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a sediment from Baltic Sea, IAEA-300, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclides' levels, are reported. The data from 159 laboratories representing 51 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, 40 K, 60 Co, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 155 Eu, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 228 Ra, 234 U, 238 U, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. Information values for 54 Mn, 90 Sr, 226 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 235 U and 238 Pu are also reported. All values are given on the reference date of 1 January 1993 and expressed in Bq kg -1 dry weight. (author)

  14. Acute Responses of a Physical Training Session with a Nintendo Wii on Hemodynamic Variables of an Individual with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Junior, Renato Sobral; Dantas, Aretha; de Souza, Cíntia Pereira; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2012-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a neurological illness that decreases motor functions. This disease can cause weakness of cardiorespiratory muscles and impaired functional capacity and quality of life. Therefore it requires preventive treatments. This study investigated the acute responses of a virtual physical training session with the Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) Wii™ on hemodynamic variables of an individual with multiple sclerosis (relapsing-remitting). A 34-year-old man with multiple sclerosis with previous experience in aerobic, strength, and functional training (2 years) was tested. His Expanded Disability Status Scale was 2.5. We compared the heart rate, blood pressure, and double product obtained at rest and during (heart rate) and after the Nintendo Wii games "Boxing" and "Sword Play." In rest, the variables were measured in the supine position. Our results showed positive hemodynamic alterations after execution of both games. The peak of heart rate was 121 beats per minute (65% of maximal heart rate) and 104 beats per minute (56% of maximal heart rate) for "Boxing" and "Sword Play," respectively. The training session with "Boxing" was able to stimulate the heart rate to achieve the recommended values for the maintenance of physical fitness in accordance with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines. We conclude that an exercise training program with the Nintendo Wii may improve physical fitness in people with multiple sclerosis. Moreover, these activities could improve affective status and perhaps maintain the individual engaged at treatment program.

  15. A Comparison of 12 Weeks of Pilates and Aquatic Training on the Dynamic Balance of Women with Mulitple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad; Nejad, Vahid Shayegan; Shanazari, Zohreh; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disabling chronic disease of the nervous system in which the myelin system of the central nervous system is deteriorated. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of Pilates exercises and aquatic training for a 12 week period on the dynamic balance of MS patients. Methods: The research method is semi-experimental. As a result, among the female patients visiting the MS clinic of Kashani hospital in Esfahan, 57 patients with disease in...

  16. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the material that surrounds and protects your nerve cells. This damage slows down ...

  17. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CNS/CIEMAT-05 among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Vegetable Ash)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gonzalez, M. L.; Barrera Izquierdo, M.; Valino Garcia, F.

    2006-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-05 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the IUPAC I nternational harmonised protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical chemistry laboratories . The exercise has been designed to evaluate the capability of national laboratories to determine environmental levels of radionuclides in vegetable ash samples. The sample has been prepared by the Environmental Radiation Laboratory, from the University of Barcelona, and it contains the following radionuclides: Sr-90, Pu-238, Am-241, Th-230, Pb-210, U-238, Ra-226, K-40, Ra-228, TI-208, Cs- 137 and Co-60. Reference values have been established TROUGH the kind collaboration of three international laboratories of recognized experience: IAEA MEL and IRSN-Orsay. The results of the exercise were computed for 35 participating laboratories and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. Robust statistics of the participant's results was applied to obtain the median and standard deviation, to achieve a more complete and objetiva study of the laboratories' performance. Some difficulties encountered to dissolve the test sample caused a lower response of analyses involving radiochemical separation, thus some laboratories couldn't apply their routine methods and no conclusions on PU-238, Am-241 and Th-230 performances have been obtained. The exercise has revealed an homogeneous behaviour of laboratories, being statistical parameters from the results close to the reference values. The study has shown that participant laboratories perform radioactive determinations in vegetable ash samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 6 refs

  18. Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

  19. Gait Characteristics in Adolescents With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalron, Alon; Frid, Lior; Menascu, Shay

    2017-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a progressive autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. A presentation of multiple sclerosis before age18 years has traditionally been thought to be rare. However, during the past decade, more cases have been reported. We examined gait characteristics in 24 adolescents with multiple sclerosis (12 girls, 12 boys). Mean disease duration was 20.4 (S.D. = 24.9) months and mean age was 15.5 (S.D. = 1.1) years. The mean expanded disability status scale score was 1.7 (S.D. = 0.7) indicating minimal disability. Outcomes were compared with gait and the gait variability index value of healthy age-matched adolescents. Adolescents with multiple sclerosis walked slower with a wider base of support compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. Moreover, the gait variability index was lower in the multiple sclerosis group compared with the values in the healthy adolescents: 85.4 (S.D. = 8.1) versus 96.5 (S.D. = 7.4). We present gait parameters of adolescents with multiple sclerosis. From a clinical standpoint, our data could improve management of walking dysfunction in this relatively young population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Primary progressive multiple sclerosis in the Polish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Brola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was the epidemiological analysis and evaluation of selected clinical and sociodemographic factors in Polish patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Methods: The study included patients from 7 provinces in central and eastern Poland registered in the Registry of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis on 31 December 2016. The incidence of various forms of the disease was compared, and clinical, demographic and social disparities between relapsing-remitting and primary progressive multiple sclerosis were analysed. Results: Of 3,199 registered patients, 2,188 persons (66.2% had the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis, 774 (24.2% had the secondary progressive type and 307 (9.6% suffered from primary progressive disease. The first symptoms of primary progressive multiple sclerosis appeared almost 10 years later than in patients with the relapsing-remitting type (39.2 ± 11.4 vs. 29.8 ± 9.8. The period from the first symptoms to diagnosis was more than twice as long in patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis (5.8 ± 3.4 as in those with relapsing-remitting disease (2.4 ± 1.6. The average degree of disability in the Expanded Disability Status Scale was similar and amounted to 3.2 ± 2.1 for relapsing-remitting and 3.6 ± 2.4 for primary progressive multiple sclerosis. The relapsing-remitting form was observed more often in women (2.4:1, and the primary progressive form appeared with equal frequency in both sexes (1:1. Disease-modifying treatment was received by 34% of patients with relapsing-remitting and in only 1.9% of patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Conclusions: The primary progressive form affects approximately 10% of Polish patients with multiple sclerosis. The first symptoms appear at about 40 years of age with equal frequency in both sexes, and its diagnosis takes more than twice as much time as in the case of relapsing-remitting multiple

  1. Tuberous Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Esclerosis tuberosa Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations Child Neurology ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Esclerosis tuberosa Order NINDS Publications Definition Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) ...

  2. Scintigraphic evaluation of muscle damage following extreme exercise: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matin, P.; Lang, G.; Carretta, R.; Simon, G.

    1983-01-01

    Total body Tc-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy was performed on 11 ''ultramarathon'' runners to assess the ability of nuclear medicine techniques to evaluate skeletal-muscle injury due to exercise. We found increased muscle radionuclide concentration in 90% of the runners. The pattern of muscle uptake correlated with the regions of maximum pain. The detection of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis appeared to be best when scintigraphy was performed within 48 hr after the race, and to be almost undetectable after about a week. It was possible to differentiate muscle injury from joint and osseous abnormalities such as bone infarct or stress fracture. Although 77% of the runners had elevated serum creatine kinase MB activity, cardiac scintigraphy showed no evidence of myocardial injury

  3. Left ventricular diastolic performance at rest in patients with angina and normal systolic function - assessment by equilibrium radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maini, C.L.; Bonetti, M.G.; Valle, G.; Antonelli Incalzi, R.; Montenero, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of the study was to correlate diastolic function, as evaluated by peak filling rate (PFR) and relative time (TPFR), with the severity of ischemic heart disease, as evaluated by exercise electrocardiography. Accordingly, 83 ischemic patients with effort angina, but normal ejection function at rest and normal left ventricular size, were studied by equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography within two weeks from the exercise ECG. Diastolic dysfunction, as determined from PFR and, to a lesser extent, from TPFR, is common in patients with ischemic heart disease and normal systolic function. The prevalence and severity of such dysfunction is related more to the severity of the ischemia, as evaluated by the exercise ECG, than to the presence of an old myocardial infarction. Such findings are consistent with the hypothesis that PFR reflects mainly the early diastolic active uncoupling process. (orig.) [de

  4. Association between systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis: lupoid sclerosis; Asociacion de LES y esclerosis multiple: esclerosis lupoide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Yimy F; Martinez, Jose B; Fernandez, Andres R; Quintana, Gerardo; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Rondon, Federico; Gamarra, Antonio Iglesias

    2010-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) with/without antiphospholipid syndrome are autoimmune illnesses. It has been described in many occasions the association of these two illnesses and the clinical picture of MS with characteristics of laboratory of SLE. When they affect to the central nervous system they can make it in a defined form for each illness or they can also make it in interposed or combined form of the two illnesses what has been called lupoid sclerosis; making that in some cases difficult the differentiation of the two illnesses and therefore to address the treatment. We present four cases of lupoid sclerosis, discuss the clinical and laboratory characteristics of this entity and we make a differentiation of the multiple sclerosis with the neurological affectation of SLE especially for images and laboratory results.

  5. Intercomparison exercise on internal dose assessment. Final report of a joint IAEA-IDEAS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    There have been several intercomparison exercises organized already at national and international levels for the assessment of occupational exposure due to intakes of radionuclides. These intercomparison exercises revealed significant differences in approaches, methods and assumptions, and consequently in the results. Because of the relevance of the issue for internal dosimetrists, the IAEA organized a new intercomparison exercise in cooperation with the IDEAS project General Guidelines for the Evaluation of Incorporation Monitoring Data, launched under the 5th EU Framework Programme (EU Contract No. FIKR-CT2001-00160). This new intercomparison exercise focused especially on the effect of the guidelines for harmonization of internal dosimetry. It also considered the following aspects: - to provide possibilities for the participating laboratories to check the quality of their internal dose assessment methods in applying the recent ICRP recommendations (e.g. for the new respiratory tract model); - to compare different approaches in interpretation of internal contamination monitoring data; - to quantify the differences in internal dose assessments based on the new guidelines or on other procedures, respectively; - to provide some figures for the influence of the input parameters on the monitoring results; and - to provide a broad forum for information exchange. Several cases have been selected for this exercise with the aim of covering a wide range of practices in the nuclear fuel cycle and in medical applications. The cases were: 1. Acute intake of HTO; 2. Acute inhalation of fission products 137 Cs and 90 Sr; 3. Intake of 60 Co; 4. Repeated intakes of 131 I; 5. Intake of enriched uranium; 6. Single intake of plutonium radionuclides and 241 Am. An Internet based approach had been used for the presentation of the cases, collection of responses and potential discussion of the results. Solutions to these cases were reported by 80 participants worldwide. This report

  6. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  7. Multiple sclerosis - etiology and diagnostic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Joanna; Koper, Olga M; Piechal, Kinga; Kemona, Halina

    2017-06-30

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of autoimmune originate. The main agents responsible for the MS development include exogenous, environmental, and genetic factors. MS is characterized by multifocal and temporally scattered central nervous system (CNS) damage which lead to the axonal damage. Among clinical courses of MS it can be distinguish relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPSM), primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS), and progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (RPMS). Depending on the severity of signs and symptoms MS can be described as benign MS or malignant MS. MS diagnosis is based on McDonald's diagnostic criteria, which link clinical manifestation with characteristic lesions demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and visual evoked potentials. Among CSF laboratory tests used to the MS diagnosis are applied: Tibbling & Link IgG index, reinbegrams, and CSF isoelectrofocusing for oligoclonal bands detection. It should be emphasized, that despite huge progress regarding MS as well as the availability of different diagnostics methods this disease is still a diagnostic challenge. It may result from fact that MS has diverse clinical course and there is a lack of single test, which would be of appropriate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for quick and accurate diagnosis.

  8. Multiple sclerosis - etiology and diagnostic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kamińska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of autoimmune originate. The main agents responsible for the MS development include exogenous, environmental, and genetic factors. MS is characterized by multifocal and temporally scattered central nervous system (CNS damage which lead to the axonal damage. Among clinical courses of MS it can be distinguish relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPSM, primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS, and progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (RPMS. Depending on the severity of signs and symptoms MS can be described as benign MS or malignant MS. MS diagnosis is based on McDonald’s diagnostic criteria, which link clinical manifestation with characteristic lesions demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis, and visual evoked potentials. Among CSF laboratory tests used to the MS diagnosis are applied: Tibbling & Link IgG index, reinbegrams, and CSF isoelectrofocusing for oligoclonal bands detection. It should be emphasized, that despite huge progress regarding MS as well as the availability of differentdiagnostics methods this disease is still a diagnostic challenge. It may result from fact that MS has diverse clinical course and there is a lack of single test, which would be of appropriate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for quick and accurate diagnosis.

  9. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, Arman; Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Prados, Ferran; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-06-01

    See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article.Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse-onset multiple

  10. Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2018-01-01

    Abstract See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article. Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse

  11. Radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems - results of a model validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, G.; Venter, A.; Avila, R.; Bergman, R.; Bulgakov, A.; Calmon, P.; Fesenko, S.; Frissel, M.; Goor, F.; Konoplev, A.; Linkov, I.; Mamikhin, S.; Moberg, L.; Orlov, A.; Rantavaara, A.; Spiridonov, S.; Thiry, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the IAEA's BIOMASS Forest Working Group (FWG) was to bring together experimental radioecologists and modellers to facilitate the exchange of information which could be used to improve our ability to understand and forecast radionuclide transfers within forests. This paper describes a blind model validation exercise which was conducted by the FWG to test nine models which members of the group had developed in response to the need to predict the fate of radiocaesium in forests in Europe after the Chernobyl accident. The outcomes and conclusions of this exercise are summarised. It was concluded that, as a group, the models are capable of providing an envelope of predictions which can be expected to enclose experimental data for radiocaesium contamination in forests over the time scale tested. However, the models are subject to varying degrees of conceptual uncertainty which gives rise to a very high degree of divergence between individual model predictions, particularly when forecasting edible mushroom contamination. Furthermore, the forecasting capability of the models over future decades currently remains untested

  12. Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evidence-based Guideline for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet presents the current research on emotional disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) and summarizes the ...

  13. Hippocampal Sclerosis in Older Patients: Practical Examples and Guidance With a Focus on Cerebral Age-Related TDP-43 With Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Powell, Suzanne Z; Schulz, Paul E; Takei, Hidehiro; Rivera, Andreana L; Jackson, Robert E; Roman, Gustavo; Jicha, Gregory A; Nelson, Peter T

    2017-08-01

    - Autopsy studies of the older population (≥65 years of age), and particularly of the "oldest-old" (≥85 years of age), have identified a significant proportion (∼20%) of cognitively impaired patients in which hippocampal sclerosis is the major substrate of an amnestic syndrome. Hippocampal sclerosis may also be comorbid with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Alzheimer disease, and Lewy body disease. Until recently, the terms hippocampal sclerosis of aging or hippocampal sclerosis dementia were applied in this context. Recent discoveries have prompted a conceptual expansion of hippocampal sclerosis of aging because (1) cellular inclusions of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) are frequent; (2) TDP-43 pathology may be found outside hippocampus; and (3) brain arteriolosclerosis is a common, possibly pathogenic, component. - To aid pathologists with recent recommendations for diagnoses of common neuropathologies in older persons, particularly hippocampal sclerosis, and highlight the recent shift in diagnostic terminology from HS-aging to cerebral age-related TDP-43 with sclerosis (CARTS). - Peer-reviewed literature and 5 autopsy examples that illustrate common age-related neuropathologies, including CARTS, and emphasize the importance of distinguishing CARTS from late-onset frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 pathology and from advanced Alzheimer disease with TDP-43 pathology. - In advanced old age, the substrates of cognitive impairment are often multifactorial. This article demonstrates common and frequently comorbid neuropathologic substrates of cognitive impairment in the older population, including CARTS, to aid those practicing in this area of pathology.

  14. Radionuclides in air, water, and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection

  15. Phytoremediation of radionuclides: an emerging alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Shraddha

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of nuclear power industry, nuclear weapon testing, dismantling of existing nuclear weapons and occasional accidents have contributed to an enhancement in the level of radionuclides in the environment. The radionuclides due to their long half life and transfer through the food chain effect adversely to normal biological systems. Hence, it is essential to effectively remove the radionuclides from contaminated soils and solutions. Phytoremediation - the use of plants for remediation of toxic metals and radionuclides has been recognized as an aesthetically pleasing, low cost and environment friendly in situ method. Phytoremediation is an umbrella term which covers several plant based approaches. Plants have shown the potential of remediation of these radionuclides from spiked solutions, low level nuclear waste and soil. Various aspects of phytoremediation as well as potential of various plants for remediation of radionuclides will be discussed here. (author)

  16. Radionuclide migration test using undisturbed aerated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Ohtsuka, Yoshiro; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

    1988-01-01

    As one of the most important part of safety assessment on the shallow land disposal of lowlevel radioactive waste, the radionuclide migration was studied using undisturbed soil samples, in order to evaluate an exact radionuclide migration in an aerated soil layer. Soil samples used in the migration test were coastal sand and loamy soil which form typical surface soil layers in Japan. The aqueous solution containing 60 CoCl 2 , 85 SrCl 2 and 137 CsCl was fed into the soil column and concentration of each radionuclide both in effluent and in soil was measured. Large amount of radionuclides was adsorbed on the surface of soil column and small amount of radionuclides moved deep into the soil column. Difference in the radionuclide profile was observed in the low concentration portion particularly. It is that some fractions of 60 Co and 137 Cs are stable in non-ionic form and move downward through the soil column together with water. The radionuclide distribution in the surface of soil column can be fairly predicted with a conventional migration equation for ionic radionuclides. As a result of radionuclide adsorption, both aerated soil layers of coastal sand and loamy soil have large barrier ability on the radionuclide migration through the ground. (author)

  17. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CNS/CIEMAT-2008 among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Phosphogypsum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M. L.; Barrera, M.; Valino, F.

    2010-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-2008 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC. Aphosphogypsum material was used as a test sample, in an attempt to evaluate the performance of the laboratories analyzing NORM (Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials). The analysis required were: U-238, Th-234, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Pb-214, Bi-214, Pb-210, Po-210, Th-232 and U-235, and also gross alpha and gross beta activities. Reference values have been established according to the method of consensus of expert laboratories, with four international laboratories of credited experience: IAEA Seibersdorf, IAEA MEL, IRSN-Orsay and Sta.Teresa ENEA. The results of the exercise were computed for 34 answering laboratories and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score. Robust statistics of the participants results was applied to obtain the median and standard deviation, to achieve a more complete and objective study of the laboratories performance. The exercise has shown an homogeneous behaviour of laboratories, being statistical parameters from the results close to the assigned Reference Values. Participant laboratories have demonstrated their ability to determine natural radionuclides in phosphogypsum samples (NORM material) with a satisfactory quality level. The scheme has also allowed examining the capability of laboratories to determine the activities of natural radionuclides at the equilibrium. (Author) 10 refs.

  18. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  19. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  20. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  1. Benchmarking of numerical codes describing the dispersion of radionuclides in the Arctic Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, E.M.; Gurbutt, P.; Harms, I.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the International Arctic Seas Assessment Project (IASAP) of IAEA a working group has been created to model the dispersal and transfer of radionuclides released from the radioactive waste disposed of in the Kara Sea. The aim of the benchmarking work is to quantitatively assess the reliability of the models, which would lead ultimately to the evaluation of consensus/best estimates of the concentration fields to be used in the radiological assessment. The results from the benchmarking have been compared and the results of the comparison are summarised in terms of agreement in maximum concentrations and when the maximum concentrations occurred. This has been carried out for both water and sediment, at each of the defined locations and for each of the radionuclides. The paper presents a full description of the benchmarking results and discusses the similarities and differences. The role of the exercise within the modelling programme of IASAP is also discussed and the planning for the next stage of the work is presented. 4 refs

  2. Management of dysphagia in Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchesi, Karen Fontes; Kitamura, Satoshi; Mourão, Lucia Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    To describe swallowing management in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson' disease (PD), to investigate whether physiopathology determines the choice of therapeutic approaches, and to investigate whether the disease duration modifies the therapeutic approaches. This is a long-term study comprising 24 patients with idiopathic PD and 27 patients with ALS. The patients were followed-up in a dysphagia outpatient clinic between 2006 and 2011. The patients underwent clinic evaluation and Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing, Functional Oral Intake Scale, and therapeutic intervention every 3 months. The swallowing management was based on orientation about the adequate food consistency and volume, besides the necessary maneuvers or exercises to improve swallowing functionality. An exploratory analysis of data was used to investigate associations between the groups of disease (PD or ALS) and clinic aspects and to know about the association between the groups of diseases and the application of maneuver or exercises over the follow-up. The most frequent recommended maneuvers in PD were bolus effect (83.3%), bolus consistency (79.2%), and swallowing frequency (79%). To patients with ALS, the bolus consistency (92%) and the bolus effect (74.1%) were more recommended. Strengthening-tongue (p=0.01), tongue control (p=0.05), and vocal exercises (p<0.001) were significantly more recommended in PD than in ALS. Compensatory and sensorial maneuvers are more recommended to rehabilitee program in both diseases. The physiopathology of the diseases determined the choice of therapeutic approaches. The disease duration of the patients did not interfere directly in the therapeutic approaches.

  3. Right-ventricular and left-ventricular function parameters in patients with and without outflow tract patches as determined by radionuclide methods at least 10 years following surgical correction of Fallot's tetralogy in the adult individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, P.

    1988-01-01

    During a period starting in 1983 and ending in April 1984 radionuclide ventriculography was performed in 26 patients subjected to surgical correction of Fallot's tetralogy after having reached adulthood. They were divided into two groups according to the surgical methods used. Patients showing no right-ventricular outflow patch were assigned to group I, while group II was made up of individuals that had received outflow tract patches of Dacron or Teflon for pressure reduction in the right ventricle. The parameters registered during radionuclide ventriculography, in which the tracer substance TC 99m was administered into a peripheral vein, included the endiastolic volume, endsystolic volume, stroke volume, global ejection fraction and cardiac index. For resting patients, these values were calculated using the first-pass technique, the determinations during exercise on the ergometer were based on equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography. It could be concluded from the results obtained here that non-invasive endocardial scintigraphy is a sensitive method that can be used both at rest and during exercise on the ergometer to detect function disorders of the right and left ventricles. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Socket sclerosis--an obstacle for orthodontic space closure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertel, Sebastian

    2009-07-01

    Socket sclerosis is a rare reaction to tooth extraction resulting in high-density bone in the center of the alveolar process, where, under normal circumstances, cancellous bone is to be expected. In an adult orthodontic patient, routine extractions of the mandibular first permanent bicuspids were performed, resulting in socket sclerosis and unsuccessful orthodontic space closure. Orthodontic mini-implants were inserted to augment anchorage and aid in space closure. In the presence of socket sclerosis, conventional orthodontic mechanics failed to close the extraction spaces. However, with absolute anchorage in place, space closure occurred at a nearly normal rate. After treatment, no signs of socket sclerosis were discernible on the periapical radiographs. Socket sclerosis can be an obstacle for orthodontic space closure if traditional mechanics are employed. However, mini-implant-reinforced anchorage can lead to successful space closure, resulting in complete resolution of the sclerotic sites.

  5. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  6. A soil sampling intercomparison exercise for the ALMERA network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, Maria [Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Castel Romano 100, I-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: maria.belli@apat.it; Zorzi, Paolo de [Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA), Via di Castel Romano 100, I-00128 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: paolo.dezorzi@isprambiente.it; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: u.sansone@iaea.org; Shakhashiro, Abduhlghani [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.shakhashiro@iaea.org; Gondin da Fonseca, Adelaide [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.gondin-da-fonseca-azeredo@iaea.org; Trinkl, Alexander [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: a.trinkl@iaea.org; Benesch, Thomas [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)], E-mail: t.benesch@iaea.org

    2009-11-15

    Soil sampling and analysis for radionuclides after an accidental or routine release is a key factor for the dose calculation to members of the public, and for the establishment of possible countermeasures. The IAEA organized for selected laboratories of the ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) network a Soil Sampling Intercomparison Exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) with the objective of comparing soil sampling procedures used by different laboratories. The ALMERA network is a world-wide network of analytical laboratories located in IAEA member states capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. Ten ALMERA laboratories were selected to participate in the sampling exercise. The soil sampling intercomparison exercise took place in November 2005 in an agricultural area qualified as a 'reference site', aimed at assessing the uncertainties associated with soil sampling in agricultural, semi-natural, urban and contaminated environments and suitable for performing sampling intercomparison. In this paper, the laboratories sampling performance were evaluated.

  7. A soil sampling intercomparison exercise for the ALMERA network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, Maria; Zorzi, Paolo de; Sansone, Umberto; Shakhashiro, Abduhlghani; Gondin da Fonseca, Adelaide; Trinkl, Alexander; Benesch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Soil sampling and analysis for radionuclides after an accidental or routine release is a key factor for the dose calculation to members of the public, and for the establishment of possible countermeasures. The IAEA organized for selected laboratories of the ALMERA (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity) network a Soil Sampling Intercomparison Exercise (IAEA/SIE/01) with the objective of comparing soil sampling procedures used by different laboratories. The ALMERA network is a world-wide network of analytical laboratories located in IAEA member states capable of providing reliable and timely analysis of environmental samples in the event of an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. Ten ALMERA laboratories were selected to participate in the sampling exercise. The soil sampling intercomparison exercise took place in November 2005 in an agricultural area qualified as a 'reference site', aimed at assessing the uncertainties associated with soil sampling in agricultural, semi-natural, urban and contaminated environments and suitable for performing sampling intercomparison. In this paper, the laboratories sampling performance were evaluated.

  8. Radionuclides and isotopes release of spent fuel matrix. Conceptual and mathematical models of wastes behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cera, E.; Merino, J.; Bruno, J.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a conceptual and numerical model to calculate release of selected radionuclides from spent fuel under repository condition. This has been done in the framework of the Enresa 2000 performance assessment exercise. The model has been developed based on kinetic mass balance equations in order to study the evolution of the spent fuel water interface as a function of time. Several processes have been kinetically modelled: congruent dissolution, radioactive decay, ingrowth and water turnover in the gap. The precipitation/redissolution of secondary solid phases has been taken into account from a thermodynamic point of view. Both approaches have been coupled and the resulting equations solved for a number of radionuclides in both, a conservative and realistic approach. The results show three distinct groups of radionuclides based on their release behaviour: a first group is composed of radioisotopes of highly insoluble elements (e. g., Pu, Am, Pd) whose concentration in the gap is mainly controlled by their solubility and therefore their evolution is identical in both cases. Secondly, a set of radionuclides from soluble elements under these conditions (e. g., I, Cs, Ra) show concentrations kinetically controlled, decreasing with time following the congruent dissolution trend. Their release concentrations are one order of magnitude larger in the conservative case than in the realistic case. Finally, a third group has been identified (e. g., Se, Th, Cm) where a mixed behaviour takes place: initially their solubility limiting phases control their concentration in the gap but the situation reverts to a kinetic control as the chemical conditions change and the secondary precipitates become totally dissolved. The fluxes of the different radionuclides are also given as an assessment of the source term in the performance assessment. (Author)

  9. Assessment of the doses due to natural radionuclide in the green leafy vegetables of Domiasiat, Meghalaya India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.; Chaturvedi, S.S.; Jha, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    A radiation dose assessment exercise was carried out for the Ipomea batata, Allium sativum, Dacaus carota, and Solanum tuberosum due to naturally available radionuclide 40 K, 238 U and 232 Th in the Domiasiat area of Meghalaya. The concentration of radionuclides in biota as well as corresponding soil was measured by precipitation method using NaI detector for continuous 12 months. Transfer factor was calculated and was, for 40 K(3.96E-05, 3.40E-05, 3.40E-05, 2.70E-05), for 232 Th(3.94E-05, 3.20E-05, 3.20E-054.93E-05), for 238 U(3.60E-05, 3.89E-05, 3.85E-054.57E-05), respectively in each biota due to each radionuclide. The point source dose distribution (source ↔ target) hypotheses was applied for the consideration of absorbed fraction. The generated data were modeled using the FASSET method and obtained dose was 8.42E-03, 8.36E-03, 7.78E-03, 7.74E-03 μGy h -1 , respectively and finally compared with the IAEA and UNSCEAR dataset for screening level dose for terrestrial biota. (author)

  10. A comparative study of pelvic floor muscle training in women with multiple sclerosis: its impact on lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia Correia Lúcio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare pelvic floor muscle training and a sham procedure for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life in women with multiple sclerosis. METHODS: Thirty-five female patients with multiple sclerosis were randomized into two groups: a treatment group (n = 18 and a sham group (n = 17. The evaluation included use of the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form, and Qualiveen questionnaire. The intervention was performed twice per week for 12 weeks in both groups. The treatment group underwent pelvic floor muscle training with assistance from a vaginal perineometer and instructions to practice the exercises daily at home. The sham group received a treatment consisting of introducing a perineometer inside the vagina with no exercises required. Pre- and post-intervention data were recorded. RESULTS: The evaluation results of the two groups were similar at baseline. At the end of the treatment, the treatment group reported fewer storage and voiding symptoms than the sham group. Furthermore, the differences found between the groups were significant improvements in the following scores in the treatment group: Overactive Bladder Questionnaire, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form, and the General Quality of Life, and Specific Impact of Urinary Problems domains of the Qualiveen questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms had a positive effect on the quality of life of women with multiple sclerosis who underwent pelvic floor muscle training, as the disease-specific of quality of life questionnaires demonstrated. This study reinforces the importance of assessing quality of life to judge the effectiveness of a treatment intervention.

  11. Radionuclide usage survey 1979-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.J.

    1980-08-01

    Details of a survey by the Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) on radionuclide usage by medical physicists in 11 countries are presented. The results indicate that the radionuclide which will be of most significance in the future will be F-18, Fe-52, Ga-67, Ga-68, Kr-81m, Tc-99m, In-111, I-123, Xe-127 and Tl-201, (U.K.)

  12. Influence of age on left ventricular performance during exercise in normal Japanese subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tokuji; Koyama, Takao; Aoki, Toshikazu; Makino, Katsutoshi; Yamamuro, Masashi; Nakai, Kyudayu; Nakamura, Masayuki; Nakano, Takeshi.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of age on left ventricular performance, multistage supine ergometer exercise radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was performed in 92 normal subjects. The subjects ranged in age from 24 to 86 years and were free of cardiopulmonary disease and diabetes. Age-related changes in exercise duration, left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), cardiac output (CO) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular dv/dt, systolic and diastolic time indexes of dv/dt, and peak systolic pressure/left ventricular end-systolic volume (PSP/LVESV) were analyzed at rest and during the peak exercise stage. Age-related decrease in LVEDV and peak diastolic dv/dt were significant at rest. The time indexes of ECG R to peak systolic dv/dt and time of end-systole to peak diastolic dv/dt also were prolonged with age. Both maximum heart rate and exercise duration were shown to decline with age. No age-related difference was observed in LVESV, LVEF or PSP/LVESV either at rest or during exercise. However, the change of LVEF and LVESV during exercise was less in subjects aged 60 or more. These results indicate decreased left ventricular function during exercise in elderly subjects. (author)

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Barker, G J; MacKay, A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The theory of relaxation processes and their measurements are described. An overview is presented of the literature on relaxation time measurements in the normal and the developing brain, in experimental diseases in animals, and in patients with multiple sclerosis. RESULTS...... AND CONCLUSION: Relaxation time measurements provide insight into development of multiple sclerosis plaques, especially the occurrence of oedema, demyelination, and gliosis. There is also evidence that normal appearing white matter in patients with multiple sclerosis is affected. What is now needed are fast...

  14. [Assessment of the pain patients with the multiple sclerosis after applying the physiotherapy treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubsik, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Robert; Klimkiewicz, Paulina; Janczewska, Katarzyna; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Łukasiak, Adam; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common demyelinating disease of the CNS connected with the autoimmune action. The effect of the disease is progressive disability, and one of the symptoms is pain. In relieving pain in the course of MS physical procedures and exercises of physiotherapy are used. The aim of the study was assessment of the pain in patients with the multiple sclerosis after applying laser radiation, magnetostimulation and kinesiotherapy. The studied material was consisted of 120 patients with multiple sclerosis of both sexes (82 women and 38 men) aged 21-81 years. Patients were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups and the assesment was performed three times. In the first group laser therapy, in the group II laser and magnetostimulation, in the third group kinesiotherapy, in the fourth group magnetostimulation was used. The same program of physiotherapy in all groups was used. All patients were performed the following tests to assess of the pain: The Laitinen Modified Questionnaire Indicators of Pain of and the Visual- Analogue Scale (VAS). In all treatment groups was observed tends to decrease a result of a point in The Laitinen Modified Questionnaire Indicators of Pain and the Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS). Correlation between groups demonstrated statistically significant result on the level ptreatment was applied towards group II assessed with parameter of the Questionnaire of Pain according to Laitinen, as well as towards group II and III assessed with parameter - of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The good result, i.e. the reduction of the spot value, after the III examination towards the preliminary examination were got in the group II. Laser radiation is an effective method which has an analgesisc action. The combination of laser radiation and magnetostimulation reduces pain in patients with multiple sclerosis, and also allows to maintain a therapeutic effect even after the cessation of the application of these procedures, which indicates

  15. National Data Center Preparedness Exercise 2015 (NPE 2015): MY-NDC Preliminary Analysis Result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal Izwan Abdul Rashid; Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia has established the CTBT National Data Centre (MY-NDC) in December 2005. MY-NDC is tasked to perform Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) data management as well as provide information for Treaty related events to Nuclear Malaysia as CTBT National Authority. In 2015, MY-NDC has participated in the National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise 2015 (NPE 2015). This paper aims at presenting MY-NDC preliminary analysis result of NPE 2015. In NPE 2015, MY-NDC has performed five different analyses, namely, radionuclide, atmospheric transport modelling (ATM), data fusion, seismic analysis and site forensics. The preliminary findings show the hypothetical scenario in NPE 2015 most probably is an uncontained event resulted high release of radionuclide to the air. (author)

  16. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  17. Tuberous sclerosis complex: Recent advances in manifestations and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataya-Kaneda, Mari; Uemura, Motohide; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Hirata, Haruhiko; Osuga, Keigo; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Nonomura, Norio

    2017-09-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by generalized involvement and variable manifestations with a birth incidence of 1:6000. In a quarter of a century, significant progress in tuberous sclerosis complex has been made. Two responsible genes, TSC1 and TSC2, which encode hamartin and tuberin, respectively, were discovered in the 1990s, and their functions were elucidated in the 2000s. Hamartin-Tuberin complex is involved in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-protein kinase B-mammalian target of rapamycin signal transduction pathway, and suppresses mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity, which is a center for various functions. Constitutive activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 causes variable manifestations in tuberous sclerosis complex. Recently, genetic tests were launched to diagnose tuberous sclerosis complex, and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 inhibitors are being used to treat tuberous sclerosis complex patients. As a result of these advances, new diagnostic criteria have been established and an indispensable new treatment method; that is, "a cross-sectional medical examination system," a system to involve many experts for tuberous sclerosis complex diagnosis and treatments, was also created. Simultaneously, the frequency of genetic tests and advances in diagnostic technology have resulted in new views on symptoms. The numbers of tuberous sclerosis complex patients without neural symptoms are increasing, and for these patients, renal manifestations and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis have become important manifestations. New concepts of tuberous sclerosis complex-associated neuropsychiatric disorders or perivascular epithelioid cell tumors are being created. The present review contains a summary of recent advances, significant manifestations and therapy in tuberous sclerosis complex. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  18. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  19. The Effects of Massage Therapy on Multiple Sclerosis Patients’ Quality of Life and Leg Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Schroeder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Massage therapy is a noninvasive treatment that many individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS use to supplement their conventional treatment. Objective. We hypothesize that massage therapy will improve the leg function and overall quality of life (QoL of MS patients. Design. A two-period (rest, massage crossover design was used. Twenty-four individuals with MS ranging from 3.0 to 7.0 on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS received Swedish massage treatments for four weeks. Exercise capacity and leg function as well as QoL were assessed using the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT and the Hamburg Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis (HAQUAMS instrument, respectively. Assessments were measured before and after a massage period and a rest period where no massages were employed. Results. The results displayed no significant changes in 6MWT distances or HAQUAMS scores. However, the participants perceived improvement in overall health as expressed in written comments. Conclusions. Massage is a safe, noninvasive treatment that may assist MS patients in managing the stress of their symptoms. Future studies with larger sample size and cortisol measures are warranted.

  20. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  1. Gait characteristics of individuals with multiple sclerosis before and after a 6-month aerobic training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M M; Mulcare, J A; King, D L; Mathews, T; Gupta, S C; Glaser, R M

    1999-07-01

    Individuals who have multiple sclerosis (MS) typically experience problems with physical activities such as walking, resulting from the combined effects of skeletal muscle weakness, sensory disturbances, spasticity, gait ataxia, and reduction in aerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to determine whether a 6-mo exercise program designed for aerobic conditioning might also affect gait abnormalities in individuals with MS. Subjects included 18 individuals with MS who presented a range of disability. Passive range of motion (PROM) in the lower limbs was measured and gait analyzed before and after exercise conditioning. Three-dimensional kinematics, ground reaction forces (GRF), and electromyographic information were acquired as subjects walked at self-selected velocities. Hip PROM increased following conditioning. Mean walking velocity, cadence, and posterior shear GRF (push-off force) decreased. During walking, maximum ankle dorsiflexion decreased and ankle plantarflexion increased. Total knee flexion/extension range during the walking cycle decreased slightly as did maximum hip extension. Results suggest this 6-mo training program had minimal effect on gait abnormalities.

  2. Localized Scleroderma, Systemic Sclerosis and Cardiovascular Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselvig, Jeanette Halskou; Kofoed, Kristian; Wu, Jashin J

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that patients with systemic sclerosis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To determine whether patients with systemic sclerosis or localized scleroderma are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged ≥ 18...... and ≤ 100 years was conducted, followed from 1997 to 2011 by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for a composite cardiovascular disease endpoint. A total of 697 patients with localized scleroderma and 1......,962 patients with systemic sclerosis were identified and compared with 5,428,380 people in the reference population. In systemic sclerosis, the adjusted HR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval 1.99-2.48). No association was seen between patients with localized scleroderma and cardiovascular disease. In conclusion...

  3. OECOSYS prevailing exercise applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Suda, M.

    1999-10-01

    In the Research Center Seibersdorf the computer simulation code OECOSYS was installed in 1989 which represents a version of the model ECOSYS-87 developed by GSF in Neuherberg, and adapted to the Austrian situation. The model available since then simulates from input parameters such as the integral of the activity concentration in air and the ground deposition of each radionuclide as well as the precipitation values via the interception on plants and deposition on soil and the transfer of radionuclides into the various ecosystems and fodder-food chains into the various foodstuffs and calculates in this way the course of the activity concentration in these foodstuffs. Via the consumption rates of each foodstuff the contribution of the ingestion of each foodstuff and by that the total ingestion dose may be evaluated. Further, the simulation model permits the calculation of the various exposure pathways as inhalation and external irradiation from the plume and ground and enable the user to obtain a fast comparison of the various exposure pathways. In order to ensure the availability of the code and the accompanying infrastructure, by order of the federal chancellery sect. VI the computer code is run in certain intervals and test calculations are performed with it. Each exercise run was based on scenarios which could result in case of severe accidents in neighboring nuclear power plants. Generally, extremely unrealistic scenarios were assumed which do not correspond to the safety standard of the respective nuclear power plant in order to obtain calculation examples which may serve the emergency units in their planning for emergency situations. Furthermore, by these exercise runs a demonstration of the contribution of the various exposure pathways for the persons responsible for emergency management in case of a crisis shall be given to enable them to appropriately design the respective planning features. In the present report the calculations performed up to now are

  4. The management of multiple sclerosis in children: a European view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghezzi, Angelo; Banwell, Brenda; Boyko, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    in the paediatric multiple sclerosis population has triggered the use of disease-modifying therapies that have been shown to reduce relapse rate, disease progression and cognitive decline in adult patients with multiple sclerosis. Hard evidence for the right treatment and its appropriate timing is scarce...... in the management of paediatric multiple sclerosis. One of the aims was to generate a common view on the management of paediatric multiple sclerosis patients. The result of this meeting is presented here to help standardize treatment and to support clinicians with less experience in this field.......About 3-5% of all patients with multiple sclerosis experience the onset of their disease under the age of 16. A significant proportion of paediatric multiple sclerosis patients develop significant cognitive disturbances and persistent physical disability. The high relapse rate and the morbidity...

  5. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  6. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  7. Review and critique of April 10, 1985 exercise at the new NRC Operations Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.; Charlton, T.R.; Bryan, G.R.; Beelman, R.J.; Bray, M.A.; Bethke, G.A.; King, M.A.

    1985-07-01

    An emergency preparedness training exercise was conducted. Objectives of the exercise addressed how well the new Operations Center was utilized when responding to an incident at a nuclear power plant. The simulated accident portrayed a small (approx.75 gpm) leak from the Turkey Point Unit 3 primary coolant system, that led to radionuclide release that exceeded EPA guidelines at the site boundary. The Operation Center response was led by NRC Chairman Nunzio J. Palladino and the roles of the simulated power plant and other outside organizations were jointly portrayed by EG and G Idaho, COMEX Corporation and the NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement. Overall, the exercise was successful. The new Operations Center facility provided capabilities and services never before available, which significantly aided the performance of the Operations Center staff. The various teams that manned the Center performed credibly. Substantial improvement in team performance was noted over the past several exercises

  8. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  9. Self-Regulatory Strategies as Correlates of Physical Activity Behavior in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Katie L; Balto, Julia M; Motl, Robert W

    2018-05-01

    To examine self-regulation strategies as correlates of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional, or survey, study. University-based research laboratory. Convenience sample of persons with MS (N=68). Not applicable. Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (EXSE), 12-item Physical Activity Self-Regulation Scale (PASR-12), and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Correlation analyses indicated that GLTEQ scores were positively and significantly associated with overall self-regulation (r=.43), self-monitoring (r=.45), goal-setting (r=.27), reinforcement (r=.30), time management (r=.41), and relapse prevention (r=.53) PASR-12 scores. Regression analyses indicated that relapse prevention (B=5.01; SE B=1.74; β=.51) and self-monitoring (B=3.65; SE B=1.71; β=.33) were unique predictors of physical activity behavior, and relapse prevention demonstrated a significant association with physical activity behavior that was accounted for by EXSE. Our results indicate that self-regulatory strategies, particularly relapse prevention, may be important correlates of physical activity behavior that can inform the design of future behavioral interventions in MS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Falls in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Patricia N; Shumway-Cook, Anne; Bamer, Alyssa M; Johnson, Shana L; Amtmann, Dagmar; Kraft, George H

    2011-07-01

    To examine incidence, associated factors, and health care provider (HCP) response to falls in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Cross-sectional retrospective design. Community setting. Four hundred seventy-four persons with MS. Mailed survey questionnaire examined incidence, risk factors, and HCP response to falls in persons with MS who were dwelling in the community. Univariate and multiple ordinal regression analysis identified variables associated with single and multiple falls. Falls, causes and perceived reasons for falls, and HCP response. A total of 265 participants (58.2%) reported one or more falls in the previous 6 months, and 58.5% of falls were medically injurious. Trips/slips while walking accounted for 48% of falls. Factors associated with falls included use of a cane or walker (odds ratio [OR] 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-4.14), income falls; recommended strategies included safety strategies (53.2%), use of gait assistive devices (42.1%), exercise/balance training (22.2%), and home modifications (16.6%). Factors associated with falls in persons with MS are similar to those in other populations with neurologic diseases. Despite the high incidence of falls, fewer than 50% of people with MS receive information about prevention of falls from an HCP. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  12. Environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behaviour of the radionuclides making the major contribution to man's irradiation through diet is described. The following stages are emphasized: transfer of radionuclides to plants; transfer of radionuclides to animals; metabolism of inhaled or ingested radionuclides in animals providing food for man; transfer of radionuclides through the aquatic environment; application of food chain models. (43 references)

  13. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  14. 12 Weeks of Combined Endurance and Resistance Training Reduces Innate Markers of Inflammation in a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Deckx

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS demonstrate improved muscle strength, exercise tolerance, and lean tissue mass following a combined endurance and resistance exercise program. However, the effect of exercise on the underlying disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Since recent evidence supports a crucial role of dendritic cells (DC in the pathogenesis of MS, we investigated the effect of a 12-week combined exercise program in MS patients on the number and function of DC. We demonstrate an increased number of plasmacytoid DC (pDC following the exercise program. These pDC display an activated phenotype, as evidenced by increased numbers of circulating CD62L+ and CD80+ pDC. Interestingly, the number of CD80+ pDC positively correlates with the presence of IL-10-producing regulatory type 1 cells (Tr1, an important cell type for maintaining peripheral tolerance to self-antigens. In addition, decreased production of the inflammatory mediators, TNF-α and MMP-9, upon Toll-like receptor (TLR stimulation was found at the end of the exercise program. Overall, our findings suggest that the 12-week exercise program reduces the secretion of inflammatory mediators upon TLR stimulation and promotes the immunoregulatory function of circulating pDC, suggestive for a favorable impact of exercise on the underlying immunopathogenesis of MS.

  15. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  16. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  17. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  18. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  19. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 240 Pu, and 3 H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  20. Recurrent myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis: a case report of a child with Schilder's variant of multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, M.J.; Coleman, L.T.

    2000-01-01

    Myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis (MDS, Schilder's disease) is a rare CNS demyelinating disorder affecting mainly children and usually presenting as an intracranial mass lesion. We report the first case of recurrent intracranial MDS where the third episode of demyelination involved the cervical spinal cord. This may represent a subset of the disease, which should be considered as Schilder's variant (childhood form) of multiple sclerosis. (orig.)

  1. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  2. Radionuclide assessment of left ventricular function in patients requiring intraoperative balloon pump assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.A.; Laks, H.; Wackers, F.J.; Berger, H.J.; Williams, B.; Hammond, G.L.; Geha, A.S.; Gottschalk, A.; Zaret, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-three surviving patients who were weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass with intraaortic balloon pump assistance returned for follow-up radionuclide left ventricular (LV) function and thallium 201 perfusion studies at a mean of 23 +/- 3 months following operation. It was found that despite profound intraoperative myocardial depression requiring intraaortic balloon assistance, 13 patients had no change (within 10%) in the resting LV ejection fraction compared with the preoperative measurement. Among all 23 patients, there was no difference between mean (+/- standard error of the mean) preoperative and postoperative resting LV ejection fraction (48 +/- 4 vs 46 +/- 4%, p . not significant [NS]). Only 11 patients had perioperative myocardial infarction documented by new Q waves in the electrocardiogram, by elevation of creatine kinase-MB fraction, or by defects on thallium 201 imaging not explained by documented myocardial infarction before operation. Overall, postoperative resting LV ejection fraction was not different from the preoperative value in patients with perioperative myocardial infarction (44 +/- 7 vs 47 +/- 5%, p . NS). Postoperative resting LV ejection fraction rose by greater than 10% compared with preoperative values in 4 patients (3 with aortic valve replacement), remained within the 10% limit in 9 patients, and fell by greater than 10% in 10 patients (7 with perioperative myocardial infarction). Only 4 out of 16 patients studied at follow-up with exercise radionuclide studies demonstrated a normal LV response to exercise (greater than 5% increase in LV ejection fraction). Thus, among survivors requiring intraaortic balloon pump assistance for weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, LV performance at rest is frequently preserved. In addition, 11 of the 23 patients had evidence of perioperative myocardial infarction, indicating a component of reversible intraoperative LV dysfunction

  3. Reproduction and the risk of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils Iørgen; Pfleger, Claudia Christina

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark has doubled in women since 1970, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men.......The incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark has doubled in women since 1970, whereas it has been almost unchanged in men....

  4. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  5. Diagnosis and Management of Systemic Sclerosis: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason J; Pope, Janet E

    2016-02-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a devastating multisystem rheumatologic condition that is characterized by autoimmunity, tissue fibrosis, obliterative vasculopathy and inflammation. Clinical presentation and course of the condition vary greatly, which complicates both diagnosis and corresponding treatment. In this regard, recent advances in disease understanding, both clinically and biochemically, have led to newer classification criteria for systemic sclerosis that are more inclusive than ever before. Still, significant disease modifying therapies do not yet exist for most patients. Therefore, organ-based management strategies are employed and research has been directed within this paradigm focusing on either the most debilitating symptoms, such as Raynaud's phenomenon, digital ulcers and cutaneous sclerosis, or life-threatening organ involvement such as interstitial lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension. The current trends in systemic sclerosis diagnosis, evidence-based treatment recommendations and potential future directions in systemic sclerosis treatment are discussed.

  6. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Aquatic Exercise Training on Functional Capacity, Balance, and Perceptions of Fatigue in Female Patients With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Shariat, Ardalan; Ingle, Lee; Cleland, Joshua A; Kargarfard, Mina

    2018-02-01

    To assess the effects of an 8-week aquatic exercise training program on functional capacity, balance, and perceptions of fatigue in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Randomized controlled design. Referral center of an MS society. Women (N=32; mean age ± SD, 36.4±8.2y) with diagnosed relapsing-remitting MS. After undergoing baseline testing by a neurologist, participants were allocated to either an intervention (aquatic training program, n=17) or a control group (n=15). The intervention consisted of an 8-week aquatic training program (3 supervised training sessions per week; session duration, 45-60min; 50%-75% estimated maximum heart rate). Six-minute walk test (6-MWT), balance (Berg Balance Scale [BBS]), and perceptions of fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale; [MFIS]) at baseline and after the 8-week intervention. Differences over time between the experimental and control groups were assessed by a 2×2 (group by time) repeated-measures analysis of variance. Thirty-two women completed the 8-week aquatic training intervention (experimental group, n=17; control group, n=15). All outcome measures improved in the experimental group: 6-MWT performance (pretest mean ± SD, 451±58m; posttest mean ± SD, 503±57m; Ptraining improved functional capacity, balance, and perceptions of fatigue in women with MS. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radionuclide analysis of right and left ventricular response to exercise in patients with atrial and ventricular septal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, C.A.; Bowyer, K.; Jones, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    In patients with ventricular or atrial septal defect, the ventricle which is chronically volume overloaded might not appropriately respond to increased demand for an augmentation in output and thereby might limit total cardiac function. In this study we simultaneously measured right and left ventricular response to exercise in 10 normal individuals, 10 patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD), and 10 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD). The normal subjects increased both right and left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume to achieve a higher cardiac output during exercise. Patients with VSD failed to increase right ventricular ejection fraction, but increased right ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume did not increase in these patients but ejection fraction, stroke volume, and forward left ventricular output achieved during exercise were comparable to the response observed in healthy subjects. In the patients with ASD, no rest-to-exercise change occurred in either right ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, or stroke volume. In addition, left ventricular end-diastolic volume failed to increase, and despite an increase in ejection fraction, left ventricular stroke volume remained unchanged from rest to exercise. Therefore, cardiac output was augmented only by the heart rate increase in these patients. Right ventricular function appeared to be the major determinant of total cardiac output during exercise in patients with cardiac septal defects and left-to-right shunt

  9. Registers of multiple sclerosis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Henriksen, N; Magyari, M; Laursen, B

    2015-01-01

    between a number of different environmental exposures in the past and the subsequent risk of MS. Some of these studies have been able to exonerate suspected risk factors. The other register, the nationwide Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register, is a follow-up register for all patients who have......There are two nationwide population-based registers for multiple sclerosis (MS) in Denmark. The oldest register is The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry (DMSR), which is an epidemiological register for estimation of prevalence and incidence of MS and survival, and for identifying exposures earlier...... received disease-modifying treatments since 1996. It has, in particular, contributed to the knowledge of the role of antibodies against the biological drugs used for the treatment of MS....

  10. Gut microbiota in multiple sclerosis: possible influence of immunomodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarel, Brandi L; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Chehoud, Christel; Kuczynski, Justin; DeSantis, Todd Z; Warrington, Janet; Venkatesan, Arun; Fraser, Claire M; Mowry, Ellen M

    2015-06-01

    Differences in gut bacteria have been described in several autoimmune disorders. In this exploratory pilot study, we compared gut bacteria in patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls and evaluated the influence of glatiramer acetate and vitamin D treatment on the microbiota. Subjects were otherwise healthy white women with or without relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who were vitamin D insufficient. Patients with multiple sclerosis were untreated or were receiving glatiramer acetate. Subjects collected stool at baseline and after 90 days of vitamin D3 (5000 IU/d) supplementation. The abundance of operational taxonomic units was evaluated by hybridization of 16S rRNA to a DNA microarray. While there was overlap of gut bacterial communities, the abundance of some operational taxonomic units, including Faecalibacterium, was lower in patients with multiple sclerosis. Glatiramer acetate-treated patients with multiple sclerosis showed differences in community composition compared with untreated subjects, including Bacteroidaceae, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Lactobacillaceae, Clostridium, and other Clostridiales. Compared with the other groups, untreated patients with multiple sclerosis had an increase in the Akkermansia, Faecalibacterium, and Coprococcus genera after vitamin D supplementation. While overall bacterial communities were similar, specific operational taxonomic units differed between healthy controls and patients with multiple sclerosis. Glatiramer acetate and vitamin D supplementation were associated with differences or changes in the microbiota. This study was exploratory, and larger studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  11. Multiple sclerosis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This volume proceedings contains four contributions which are in INIS scope, dealing with MRI and SPECT in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis and assessment of disease activity. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  12. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  13. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide migration have been studied in natural fissures orieted parallel to the axis of granite drill cores. A short pulse of the radionuclides solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. After several hundred fissure volumes water had been pumped through the fissure following the radionuclide pulse the activity distribution on the fissure surfaces was measured. From the retardation of 152 Eu, 235 Np and 237 Pu it is concluded that these radionuclides are transported in the oxidation states Eu(III), Pu(IV) and Np(V). The distribution coefficients K sub (d) calculated from flow and activity distribution data on the basis of geometric surface area/volume ratios are of the same order as published K sub (d) values obtained from batch equilibrium experiments. (Author)

  14. Measurement of anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere with a radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    A worldwide radionuclide monitoring network for nuclear tests has detected the anthropogenic radioactive materials released in the atmosphere due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant impacted by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. After four months have passed since the accident occurred, most overseas stations do not detect the radionuclides of Fukushima origin any more. The Takasaki station in Japan, however, is still detecting them every day. This paper describes radionuclide monitoring stations and the network of them as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), as well as the measurement results of radionuclide particulates and radioactive isotopes of xenon released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant with the monitoring network. (J.P.N.)

  15. Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasennykh, M.Yu.; Apps, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions)

  16. [Current therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio García Merino, J

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of interferon beta 1 b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there has been a progressive increase in the number of drugs available for this disease. Currently, 11 drugs have been approved in Spain, and their indications depend on specific clinical characteristics. The present article reviews these indications and also discusses other medications without official approval that have also been used in multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. A vector Wiener filter for dual-radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Links, J.M.; Prince, J.L.; Gupta, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    The routine use of a single radionuclide for patient imaging in nuclear medicine can be complemented by studies employing two tracers to examine two different processes in a single organ, most frequently by simultaneous imaging of both radionuclides in two different energy windows. In addition, simultaneous transmission/emission imaging with dual-radionuclides has been described, with one radionuclide used for the transmission study and a second for the emission study. There is thus currently considerable interest in dual-radionuclide imaging. A major problem with all dual-radionuclide imaging is the crosstalk between the two radionuclides. Such crosstalk frequently occurs, because scattered radiation from the higher energy radionuclide is detected in the lower energy window, and because the lower energy radionuclide may have higher energy emissions which are detected in the higher energy window. The authors have previously described the use of Fourier-based restoration filtering in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) to improve quantitative accuracy by designing a Wiener or other Fourier filter to partially restore the loss of contrast due to scatter and finite spatial resolution effects. The authors describe here the derivation and initial validation of an extension of such filtering for dual-radionuclide imaging that simultaneously (1) improves contrast in each radionuclide's direct image, (2) reduces image noise, and (3) reduces the crosstalk contribution from the other radionuclide. This filter is based on a vector version of the Wiener filter, which is shown to be superior [in the minimum mean square error (MMSE) sense] to the sequential application of separate crosstalk and restoration filters

  18. Neuraxial anesthesia in patients with multiple sclerosis - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmar Bornemann-Cimenti

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Current guidelines for neuraxial analgesia in patients with multiple sclerosis are ambiguous and offer the clinician only a limited basis for decision making. This systematic review examines the number of cases in which multiple sclerosis has been exacerbated after central neuraxial analgesia in order to rationally evaluate the safety of these procedures. Methods: A systematic literature search with the keywords "anesthesia or analgesia" and "epidural, peridural, caudal, spinal, subarachnoid or intrathecal" in combination with "multiple sclerosis" was performed in the databases PubMed and Embase, looking for clinical data on the effect of central neuraxial analgesia on the course of multiple sclerosis. Results and conclusions: Over a period of 65 years, our search resulted in 37 reports with a total of 231 patients. In 10 patients multiple sclerosis was worsened and nine multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica was first diagnosed in a timely context with central neuraxial analgesia. None of the cases showed a clear relation between cause and effect. Current clinical evidence does not support the theory that central neuraxial analgesia negatively affects the course of multiple sclerosis.

  19. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  20. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  1. Serum total antioxidant capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Hadžović-Džuvo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. It is characterized by loss of myelin, the fatty tissue that surrounds and protects nerve fibres allowing them to conduct electrical impulses. Recent data indicate that oxidative stress (OS plays a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS. The aim of this study was to estimate level of serum total antioxidative capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our cross-sectional study included 33 patients with MS and 24 age and sex matched control subjects. All our patients had a Poser criteria for definite diagnostic categories of multiple sclerosis. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC was measured by quantitative colorimetric determination, using Total antioxidant Capacity-QuantiCromAntioxidant Assay Kit (BioAssay systems, USA; DTAC-100. Mean serum TAC in multiple sclerosis group of patients was 119.2 mM Trolox equivalents and was significantly lower (p<0.001 compared to the control group of subjects (167.1 mM Trolox equivalents. Our results showed that oxidative stress plays an important role in pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. This finding, also, suggests the importance of antioxidants in diet and therapy of MS patients.

  2. Mathematical modelling of radionuclide transport through fractured rock using numerical inversion of Laplace transforms: applications to INTRACOIN Level 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkinson, D.P.; Lever, D.A.; England, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the transport of radionuclides through fractured rock has been developed and used to study a problem which forms part of Level 3 of the INTRACOIN project (the international exercise in which the results from various radionuclide-migration computer programs are compared). The model includes the effects of 1-D advection, dispersion, kinetic and/or equilibrium surface sorption, diffusion into the rock matrix with equilibrium bulk sorption and radioactive decay, and incorporates flexible input and output boundary conditions. It is evaluated by numerically inverting the analytical solution to the Laplace-transformed transport equations. Matrix diffusion was found to be the most important retardation mechanism for Np based on data reflecting the conditions at the Finnsjeeo site in east central Sweden. However, improved data and field testing are required to make the predictions of such models more reliable. (author)

  3. Neuromuscular fatigue during exercise: Methodological considerations, etiology and potential role in chronic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Rosie; Aboodarda, Saied Jalal; Kruger, Renata; Culos-Reed, Susan Nicole; Temesi, John; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2017-04-01

    The term fatigue is used to describe a distressing and persistent symptom of physical and/or mental tiredness in certain clinical populations, with distinct but ultimately complex, multifactorial and heterogenous pathophysiology. Chronic fatigue impacts on quality of life, reduces the capacity to perform activities of daily living, and is typically measured using subjective self-report tools. Fatigue also refers to an acute reduction in the ability to produce maximal force or power due to exercise. The classical measurement of exercise-induced fatigue involves neuromuscular assessments before and after a fatiguing task. The limitations and alternatives to this approach are reviewed in this paper in relation to the lower limb and whole-body exercise, given the functional relevance to locomotion, rehabilitation and activities of daily living. It is suggested that under some circumstances, alterations in the central and/or peripheral mechanisms of fatigue during exercise may be related to the sensations of chronic fatigue. As such, the neurophysiological correlates of exercise-induced fatigue are briefly examined in two clinical examples where chronic fatigue is common: cancer survivors and people with multiple sclerosis. This review highlights the relationship between objective measures of fatigability with whole-body exercise and perceptions of fatigue as a priority for future research, given the importance of exercise in relieving symptoms of chronic fatigue and/or overall disease management. As chronic fatigue is likely to be specific to the individual and unlikely to be due to a simple biological or psychosocial explanation, tailored exercise programmes are a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Intercomparison of radionuclides measurements in marine cockle flesh sample IAEA-134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Gastaud, J.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P.; Vas, D.

    1993-08-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a cockle flesh sample from Irish Sea, IAEA-134, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclide levels, are reported. The data from 134 laboratories representing 49 countries have been evaluated. The following are the recommended values, with confidence intervals, for 40 K, 60 Co, 137 Cs, and 2 39+240 Pu (Reference date: 1 January 1992). Information values for 90 Sr, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 134 Cs, 154 Eu, 155 Eu, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 238 Pu and 241 Am are also reported. All the following values are expressed in Bq kg -1 (dry weight). (author)

  5. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  6. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  7. Sit less and move more: perspectives of adults with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminian, Saeideh; Ezeugwu, Victor E; Motl, Robert W; Manns, Patricia J

    2017-12-20

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological disease with the highest prevalence in Canada. Replacing sedentary behavior with light activities may be a feasible approach to manage multiple sclerosis symptoms. This study explored the perspectives of adults with multiple sclerosis about sedentary behavior, physical activity and ways to change behavior. Fifteen adults with multiple sclerosis (age 43 ± 13 years; mean ± standard deviation), recruited through the multiple sclerosis Clinic at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, participated in semi-structured interviews. Interview audios were transcribed verbatim and coded. NVivo software was used to facilitate the inductive process of thematic analysis. Balancing competing priorities between sitting and moving was the primary theme. Participants were aware of the benefits of physical activity to their overall health, and in the management of fatigue and muscle stiffness. Due to fatigue, they often chose sitting to get their energy back. Further, some barriers included perceived fear of losing balance or embarrassment while walking. Activity monitoring, accountability, educational and individualized programs were suggested strategies to motivate more movement. Adults with multiple sclerosis were open to the idea of replacing sitting with light activities. Motivational and educational programs are required to help them to change sedentary behavior to moving more. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION One of the most challenging and common difficulties of multiple sclerosis is walking impairment that worsens because of multiple sclerosis progression, and is a common goal in the rehabilitation of people with multiple sclerosis. The deterioration in walking abilities is related to lower levels of physical activity and more sedentary behavior, such that adults with multiple sclerosis spend 8 to 10.5 h per day sitting. Replacing prolonged sedentary behavior with light physical activities, and incorporating education

  8. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  9. Thallium-201 right lung/heart ratio during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: relation to thallium-201 myocardial single-photon emission tomography, rest and exercise left ventricular function and coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, O.; Pezard, P.; Le Jeune, J.J.; Denizot, B.; Jallet, P.; Furber, A.; Vielle, B.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate lung thallium-201 uptake on exercise with 201 Tl single-photon emission tomography (SPET) myocardial perfusion imaging, rest and exercise equilibrium radionuclide angiographic and coronary angiographic findings in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) using a simple, reproducible lung/heart (L/H) ratio that would be easy to use in clinical practice. L/H ratio was defined on the anterior planar image obtained during exercise 201 Tl SPET acquisition as the mean counts per pixel in an entire right lung field region of interest divided by the mean counts per pixel in the hottest myocardial wall region of interest. We studied 103 patients. Fifty-nine patients (group I) with 201 Tl SPET, radionuclide angiographic and coronary angiographic variables. The group I L/H ratio of 0.35±0.05 (mean ±1 SD) was significantly lower (P 0.45 (mean+2 SD in group I) was considered abnormal. In group II, L/H ratio showed a significant correlation with stress and rest 201 Tl perfusion defect size (r=0.39 and r=0.42, P<0.01, respectively), but not with extent of ischaemic myocardium. The mean L/H ratio was 0.41±0.10 in patients with one-vessel disease (n=15), 0.46±0.08 in those with two-vessel disease (n=17) and 0.47±0.12 in those with three-vessel disease (n=12), but no significant difference was found between the three subgroups. L/H ratio showed a significant inverse relation with rest and exercise left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.37 and r=-0.50, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). Using stepwise multiple regression analysis, exercise left ventricular ejection fraction and previous history of hypertension were the sole two variables independently predictive of the L/H ratio. In conclusion, although lung thallium uptake is usually found to correlate with extent and severity of CAD, increased L/H ratio should primarily be considered as a marker of exercise-induced left ventricular systolic and perhaps diastolic dysfunction, probably

  10. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  11. Demyelination of subcortical nuclei in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutenkova, E.; Aitmagambetova, G.; Khodanovich, M.; Bowen, J.; Gangadharan, B.; Henson, L.; Mayadev, A.; Repovic, P.; Qian, P.; Yarnykh, V.

    2016-02-01

    Myelin containing in basal ganglia in multiple sclerosis patients was evaluated using new noninvasive quantitative MRI method fast whole brain macromolecular proton fraction mapping. Myelin level in globus pallidus and putamen significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis patients as compared with healthy control subjects but not in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus.

  12. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection and multiple sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Martyn, C N; Cruddas, M; Compston, D A

    1993-01-01

    In a case-control study of 214 patients with multiple sclerosis, recall of infectious mononucleosis in subjects seropositive for Epstein-Barr viral capsid antigen was associated with a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 7.2). Those who reported having infectious mononucleosis before the age of 18 years had a relative risk of multiple sclerosis of 7.9 (95% CI 1.7 to 37.9). The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis may involve an age-dependent host response to Epstein-Barr virus infection.

  14. Radionuclides in the study of marine processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershaw, P.J.; Woodhead, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. The primary objective of the symposium is to provide a forum for an open discussion of the insights concerning processes in the marine environment which can be gained from studies of radionuclide behaviour. Papers have been grouped within the following principal themes; the uses of radionuclides as tracers of water transport; scavenging and particulate transport processes in the oceans as deduced from radionuclide behaviour; processes in the seabed and radionuclides in biological systems. (Author)

  15. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  16. Clinical Usefulness of Aripiprazole and Lamotrigine in Schizoaffective Presentation of Tuberous Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, In Goo; Kim, Jung Jin

    2016-08-31

    Tuberous sclerosis is not as rare as once thought and has high psychiatric comorbidities. However, bipolar or psychotic features associated with tuberous sclerosis have been rarely reported. This report first presents a tuberous sclerosis patient, resembling a schizoaffective disorder of bipolar type. A patient with known tuberous sclerosis displayed mood fluctuation and psychotic features. Her symptoms did not remit along with several psychiatric medications. After hospitalization, the patient responded well with lamotrigine and aripiprazole without exacerbation. As demonstrated in this case, tuberous sclerosis may also encompass bipolar affective or psychotic features. We would like to point out the necessity to consider bipolarity in evaluating and treating tuberous sclerosis.

  17. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  18. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  19. Progressive multiple sclerosis: from pathogenic mechanisms to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correale, Jorge; Gaitán, María I; Ysrraelit, María C; Fiol, Marcela P

    2017-03-01

    During the past decades, better understanding of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis disease mechanisms have led to the development of several disease-modifying therapies, reducing relapse rates and severity, through immune system modulation or suppression. In contrast, current therapeutic options for progressive multiple sclerosis remain comparatively disappointing and challenging. One possible explanation is a lack of understanding of pathogenic mechanisms driving progressive multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, diagnosis is usually retrospective, based on history of gradual neurological worsening with or without occasional relapses, minor remissions or plateaus. In addition, imaging methods as well as biomarkers are not well established. Magnetic resonance imaging studies in progressive multiple sclerosis show decreased blood-brain barrier permeability, probably reflecting compartmentalization of inflammation behind a relatively intact blood-brain barrier. Interestingly, a spectrum of inflammatory cell types infiltrates the leptomeninges during subpial cortical demyelination. Indeed, recent magnetic resonance imaging studies show leptomeningeal contrast enhancement in subjects with progressive multiple sclerosis, possibly representing an in vivo marker of inflammation associated to subpial demyelination. Treatments for progressive disease depend on underlying mechanisms causing central nervous system damage. Immunity sheltered behind an intact blood-brain barrier, energy failure, and membrane channel dysfunction may be key processes in progressive disease. Interfering with these mechanisms may provide neuroprotection and prevent disability progression, while potentially restoring activity and conduction along damaged axons by repairing myelin. Although most previous clinical trials in progressive multiple sclerosis have yielded disappointing results, important lessons have been learnt, improving the design of novel ones. This review discusses mechanisms involved

  20. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  1. Demyelination of subcortical nuclei in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutenkova, E; Aitmagambetova, G; Khodanovich, M; Yarnykh, V; Bowen, J; Gangadharan, B; Henson, L; Mayadev, A; Repovic, P; Qian, P

    2016-01-01

    Myelin containing in basal ganglia in multiple sclerosis patients was evaluated using new noninvasive quantitative MRI method fast whole brain macromolecular proton fraction mapping. Myelin level in globus pallidus and putamen significantly decreased in multiple sclerosis patients as compared with healthy control subjects but not in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus. (paper)

  2. Tomography patterns of lung disease in systemic sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Andrea de Lima; Correa, Ricardo de Amorim; Ferreira, Gilda Aparecida, E-mail: andrealb@ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2016-09-15

    Currently, lung impairment is the leading factor responsible for the morbidity and mortality associated with systemic sclerosis. Therefore, the recognition of the various tomography patterns becomes decisive in the clinical management of these patients. In high-resolution computed tomography studies, the most common pattern is that of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. However, there are other forms of lung involvement that must also be recognized. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the main changes resulting from pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis and the corresponding radiological findings, considering the current classification of interstitial diseases. We searched the Medline (PubMed), Lilacs, and SciELO databases in order to select articles related to pulmonary changes in systemic sclerosis and published in English between 2000 and 2015. The pulmonary changes seen on computed tomography in systemic sclerosis are varied and are divided into three main categories: interstitial, alveolar, and vascular. Interstitial changes constitute the most common type of pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis. However, alveolar and vascular manifestations must also be recognized and considered in the presence of atypical clinical presentations and inadequate treatment responses. (author)

  3. Tomography patterns of lung disease in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Lima Bastos

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, lung impairment is the leading factor responsible for the morbidity and mortality associated with systemic sclerosis. Therefore, the recognition of the various tomography patterns becomes decisive in the clinical management of these patients. In high-resolution computed tomography studies, the most common pattern is that of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. However, there are other forms of lung involvement that must also be recognized. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the main changes resulting from pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis and the corresponding radiological findings, considering the current classification of interstitial diseases. We searched the Medline (PubMed, Lilacs, and SciELO databases in order to select articles related to pulmonary changes in systemic sclerosis and published in English between 2000 and 2015. The pulmonary changes seen on computed tomography in systemic sclerosis are varied and are divided into three main categories: interstitial, alveolar, and vascular. Interstitial changes constitute the most common type of pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis. However, alveolar and vascular manifestations must also be recognized and considered in the presence of atypical clinical presentations and inadequate treatment responses.

  4. Tomography patterns of lung disease in systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, Andrea de Lima; Correa, Ricardo de Amorim; Ferreira, Gilda Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Currently, lung impairment is the leading factor responsible for the morbidity and mortality associated with systemic sclerosis. Therefore, the recognition of the various tomography patterns becomes decisive in the clinical management of these patients. In high-resolution computed tomography studies, the most common pattern is that of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. However, there are other forms of lung involvement that must also be recognized. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the main changes resulting from pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis and the corresponding radiological findings, considering the current classification of interstitial diseases. We searched the Medline (PubMed), Lilacs, and SciELO databases in order to select articles related to pulmonary changes in systemic sclerosis and published in English between 2000 and 2015. The pulmonary changes seen on computed tomography in systemic sclerosis are varied and are divided into three main categories: interstitial, alveolar, and vascular. Interstitial changes constitute the most common type of pulmonary involvement in systemic sclerosis. However, alveolar and vascular manifestations must also be recognized and considered in the presence of atypical clinical presentations and inadequate treatment responses. (author)

  5. Unusual renal angiomyolipoma in tuberous sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    A patient with tuberous sclerosis and a normal intravenous urogram 5 years previously presented with a large and palpable upper pole renal mass. Since patients with tuberous sclerosis have small bilateral hamartomas, a Wilms' tumor was suspected. In retrospect, inhomogeneous nephrograms should have alerted the radiologist to the multiplicity of other small lesions. Also, a partially lucent rim should have substantiated that the lesion was not a Wilms' tumor. (orig.) [de

  6. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily 210 Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report

  7. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  8. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  9. Radionuclide transport in a single fissure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fissures running parallel to the axes of granitic drill cores. A short pulse of radionuclide solution was injected at one end of the fissure and the temporal change in radionuclide concentration of the eluate measured. At the end of each experiment the fissure was opened and the radionuclide distribution on the fissure surfaces measured. The retardation of 241 Am(III) at pH 8.2 as well as the variation in 235 Np(V) retardation with pH are found to be in good agreement with K d-values obtained in batch experiments. The reduction of (TcO - 4 ) to Tc(IV) leads as expected to increasing retardation.(author)

  10. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  11. Spinal Cord Gray Matter Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, M-Ê; El Mendili, M M; Gros, C; Dupont, S M; Cohen-Adad, J; Pradat, P-F

    2018-01-01

    There is an emerging need for biomarkers to better categorize clinical phenotypes and predict progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to quantify cervical spinal gray matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and investigate its association with clinical disability at baseline and after 1 year. Twenty-nine patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 healthy controls were scanned with 3T MR imaging. Standard functional scale was recorded at the time of MR imaging and after 1 year. MR imaging data were processed automatically to measure the spinal cord, gray matter, and white matter cross-sectional areas. A statistical analysis assessed the difference in cross-sectional areas between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and controls, correlations between spinal cord and gray matter atrophy to clinical disability at baseline and at 1 year, and prediction of clinical disability at 1 year. Gray matter atrophy was more sensitive to discriminate patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls ( P = .004) compared with spinal cord atrophy ( P = .02). Gray matter and spinal cord cross-sectional areas showed good correlations with clinical scores at baseline ( R = 0.56 for gray matter and R = 0.55 for spinal cord; P amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. A comparison of 12 weeks of pilates and aquatic training on the dynamic balance of women with mulitple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad; Nejad, Vahid Shayegan; Shanazari, Zohreh; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2013-04-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disabling chronic disease of the nervous system in which the myelin system of the central nervous system is deteriorated. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of Pilates exercises and aquatic training for a 12 week period on the dynamic balance of MS patients. The research method is semi-experimental. As a result, among the female patients visiting the MS clinic of Kashani hospital in Esfahan, 57 patients with disease intensity levels between 0 and 4.5 were taken as samples. The average length of the disease was 8 ± 2 years, 20;40 years old, and they were randomly divided into three groups of Pilates exercise group, aquatic training group, and the control group. The exercise schedule for the experiment groups consisted of 12 weeks, three sessions per week, and 1 hour for each session. The dynamic balance of the patients, before and after the exercises was measured by Six Spot Step Test. The adjusted mean differences of Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) scores of the experimental groups are significantly different (PPilates exercise interventions and aquatic training can significantly increase the dynamic balance of the examinees in the post-experiment stage. Performing the Pilate exercises and aquatic training increases dynamic balance of the MS patients. Considering the role of dynamic balance on physical fitness and enabling the person in doing is daily chores and routines, and its direct effect on the quality of life, it leads the specialists in applying these exercises as a supplementary treatment along with the medicinal treatments for MS patients.

  13. Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis: Genes, Environment, and a Comprehensive Therapeutic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Ryan; Theroux, Liana; Brenton, J Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Pediatric multiple sclerosis is an increasingly recognized and studied disorder that accounts for 3% to 10% of all patients with multiple sclerosis. The risk for pediatric multiple sclerosis is thought to reflect a complex interplay between environmental and genetic risk factors. Environmental exposures, including sunlight (ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D levels), infections (Epstein-Barr virus), passive smoking, and obesity, have been identified as potential risk factors in youth. Genetic predisposition contributes to the risk of multiple sclerosis, and the major histocompatibility complex on chromosome 6 makes the single largest contribution to susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. With the use of large-scale genome-wide association studies, other non-major histocompatibility complex alleles have been identified as independent risk factors for the disease. The bridge between environment and genes likely lies in the study of epigenetic processes, which are environmentally-influenced mechanisms through which gene expression may be modified. This article will review these topics to provide a framework for discussion of a comprehensive approach to counseling and ultimately treating the pediatric patient with multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magyari M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Melinda Magyari,1,3 Nils Koch-Henriksen,1,2 Per Soelberg Sørensen3 1Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Clinical Institute, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, 3Danish Multiple Sclerosis Center, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Aim of the database: The Danish Multiple Sclerosis Treatment Register (DMSTR serves as a clinical quality register, enabling the health authorities to monitor the quality of the disease-modifying treatment, and it is an important data source for epidemiological research. Study population: The DMSTR includes all patients with multiple sclerosis who had been treated with disease-modifying drugs since 1996. At present, more than 8,400 patients have been registered in this database. Data are continuously entered online into a central database from all sites in Denmark at start and at regular visits. Main variables: Include age, sex, onset year and year of the diagnosis, basic clinical information, and information about treatment, side effects, and relapses. Descriptive data: Notification is done at treatment start, and thereafter at every scheduled clinical visit 3 months after treatment start, and thereafter every 6 months. The longitudinally collected information about the disease activity and side effects made it possible to investigate the clinical efficacy and adverse events of different disease-modifying therapies. Conclusion: The database contributed to a certain harmonization of treatment procedures in Denmark and will continue to be a major factor in terms of quality in clinical praxis, research and monitoring of adverse events, and plays an important role in research. Keywords: multiple sclerosis, epidemiology, immunomodulatory treatment, neutralizing antibodies, observational studies, registry research, disease modifying therapy

  15. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  16. Risks of multiple sclerosis in relatives of patients in Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, H; Vlietinck, R; Debruyne, J; DeKeyser, J; DHooghe, MB; Loos, R; Medaer, R; Truyen, L; Yee, IML; Sadovnick, AD

    Objectives - To calculate age adjusted risks for multiple sclerosis in relatives of Flemish patients with multiple sclerosis. Methods - Lifetime risks were calculated using the maximum likelihood approach. Results - Vital information was obtained on 674 probands with multiple sclerosis in Flanders

  17. Retinal layer segmentation in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petzold, Axel; Balcer, Laura J; Calabresi, Peter A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Structural retinal imaging biomarkers are important for early recognition and monitoring of inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis. With the introduction of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), supervised automated segmentation of individual retinal...... layers is possible. We aimed to investigate which retinal layers show atrophy associated with neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis when measured with SD-OCT. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched for studies in which SD-OCT was used to look at the retina in people...... with multiple sclerosis with or without optic neuritis in PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar between Nov 22, 1991, and April 19, 2016. Data were taken from cross-sectional cohorts and from one timepoint from longitudinal studies (at least 3 months after onset in studies of optic neuritis). We classified...

  18. Selected methods of rehabilitation in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gerkowicz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is a chronic connective tissue disease characterized by microvascular abnormalities, immune disturbances and progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Skin involvement may result in contractures, leading to marked loss of hand mobility, adversely affecting the performance of daily activities and decreasing the quality of life. Face involvement not only causes functional loss, but also lowers the self-esteem of patients. Increasing attention has recently been focused on the need to rehabilitate patients with systemic sclerosis in order to prevent the development of joint contractures and loss of mobility. The study presents a review of the current literature on rehabilitation possibilities in patients with systemic sclerosis, with a special focus on physiotherapy methods.

  19. Physical activity in subjects with multiple sclerosis with focus on gender differences: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anens, Elisabeth; Emtner, Margareta; Zetterberg, Lena; Hellström, Karin

    2014-03-10

    There is increasing research that examines gender-issues in multiple sclerosis (MS), but little focus has been placed on gender-issues regarding physical activity. The aim of the present study was to describe levels of physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, fall-related self-efficacy, social support for physical activity, fatigue levels and the impact of MS on daily life, in addition to investigating gender differences. The sample for this cross-sectional cohort study consisted of 287 (84 men; 29.3%) adults with MS recruited from the Swedish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. A questionnaire was sent to the subjects consisting of the self-administrated measurements: Physical Activity Disability Survey - Revised, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Falls-Efficacy Scale (Swedish version), Social Influences on Physical Activity, Fatigue Severity Scale and Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale. Response rate was 58.2%. Men were less physically active, had lower self-efficacy for physical activity and lower fall-related self-efficacy than women. This was explained by men being more physically affected by the disease. Men also received less social support for physical activity from family members. The level of fatigue and psychological consequences of the disease were similar between the genders in the total sample, but subgroups of women with moderate MS and relapsing remitting MS experienced more fatigue than men. Men were less physically active, probably a result of being more physically affected by the disease. Men being more physically affected explained most of the gender differences found in this study. However, the number of men in the subgroup analyses was small and more research is needed. A gender perspective should be considered in strategies for promoting physical activity in subjects with MS, e.g. men may need more support to be physically active.

  20. Adie’s Tonic Pupil in Systemic