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Sample records for scl tal1 locus

  1. Characterization of the human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) mediated Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction in proliferating mammalian dopaminergic neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Lei [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Physiology, Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin 300071 (China); Carr, Aprell L. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Center for Zebrafish Research, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Li, Ping; Lee, Jessica; McGregor, Mary [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Li, Lei, E-mail: Li.78@nd.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Center for Zebrafish Research, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Stil is a human oncogene that is conserved in vertebrate species. • Stil functions in the Shh pathway in mammalian cells. • The expression of Stil is required for mammalian dopaminergic cell proliferation. - Abstract: The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in all vertebrate species. In humans, the expression of Stil is involved in cancer cell survival, apoptosis and proliferation. In this research, we investigated the roles of Stil expression in cell proliferation of mammalian dopaminergic (DA) PC12 cells. Stil functions through the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation tests revealed that STIL interacts with Shh downstream components, which include SUFU and GLI1. By examining the expression of Stil, Gli1, CyclinD2 (cell-cycle marker) and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), we found that up-regulation of Stil expression (transfection with overexpression plasmids) increased Shh signaling transduction and PC12 cell proliferation, whereas down-regulation of Stil expression (by shRNA) inhibited Shh signaling transduction, and thereby decreased PC12 cell proliferation. Transient transfection of PC12 cells with Stil knockdown or overexpression plasmids did not affect PC12 cell neural differentiation, further indicating the specific roles of Stil in cell proliferation. The results from this research suggest that Stil may serve as a bio-marker for neurological diseases involved in DA neurons, such as Parkinson’s disease.

  2. Transcriptional regulatory networks downstream of TAL1/SCL in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Palomero, Teresa; Odom, Duncan T.; O'Neil, Jennifer; Ferrando, Adolfo A.; Margolin, Adam; Neuberg, Donna S.; Winter, Stuart S.; Larson, Richard S.; Li, Wei; Liu, X. Shirley; Young, Richard A.; Look, A. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Aberrant expression of 1 or more transcription factor oncogenes is a critical component of the molecular pathogenesis of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL); however, oncogenic transcriptional programs downstream of T-ALL oncogenes are mostly unknown. TAL1/SCL is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor oncogene aberrantly expressed in 60% of human T-ALLs. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on chip to identify 71 direct transcriptional targets of TAL1/SCL. ...

  3. Eto2/MTG16 and MTGR1 are heteromeric corepressors of the TAL1/SCL transcription factor in murine erythroid progenitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Ying; Xu, Zhixiong; Xie, Jingping [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Ham, Amy-Joan L. [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Koury, Mark J. [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Tennessee Valley VA Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 37212 (United States); Hiebert, Scott W. [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Brandt, Stephen J., E-mail: stephen.brandt@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Tennessee Valley VA Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 37212 (United States)

    2009-12-11

    The TAL1 (or SCL) gene, originally discovered through its involvement by a chromosomal translocation in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor essential for hematopoietic and vascular development. To identify its interaction partners, we expressed a tandem epitope-tagged protein in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and characterized affinity-purified Tal1-containing complexes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. In addition to known interacting proteins, two proteins related to the Eight-Twenty-One (ETO) corepressor, Eto2/Mtg16 and Mtgr1, were identified from the peptide fragments analyzed. Tal1 interaction with Eto2 and Mtgr1 was verified by coimmunoprecipitation analysis in Tal1, Eto2-, and Mtgr1-transfected COS-7 cells, MEL cells expressing V5 epitope-tagged Tal1 protein, and non-transfected MEL cells. Mapping analysis with Gal4 fusion proteins demonstrated a requirement for the bHLH domain of Tal1 and TAF110 domain of Eto2 for their interaction, and transient transfection and glutathione S-transferase pull-down analysis showed that Mtgr1 and Eto2 enhanced the other's association with Tal1. Enforced expression of Eto2 in differentiating MEL cells inhibited the promoter of the Protein 4.2 (P4.2) gene, a direct target of TAL1 in erythroid progenitors, and transduction of Eto2 and Mtgr1 augmented Tal1-mediated gene repression. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Eto2 occupancy of the P4.2 promoter in MEL cells decreased with differentiation, in parallel with a decline in Eto2 protein abundance. These results identify Eto2 and Mtgr1 as authentic interaction partners of Tal1 and suggest they act as heteromeric corepressors of this bHLH transcription factor during erythroid differentiation.

  4. Eto2/MTG16 and MTGR1 are heteromeric corepressors of the TAL1/SCL transcription factor in murine erythroid progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Ying; Xu, Zhixiong; Xie, Jingping; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Koury, Mark J.; Hiebert, Scott W.; Brandt, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    The TAL1 (or SCL) gene, originally discovered through its involvement by a chromosomal translocation in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor essential for hematopoietic and vascular development. To identify its interaction partners, we expressed a tandem epitope-tagged protein in murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells and characterized affinity-purified Tal1-containing complexes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. In addition to known interacting proteins, two proteins related to the Eight-Twenty-One (ETO) corepressor, Eto2/Mtg16 and Mtgr1, were identified from the peptide fragments analyzed. Tal1 interaction with Eto2 and Mtgr1 was verified by coimmunoprecipitation analysis in Tal1, Eto2-, and Mtgr1-transfected COS-7 cells, MEL cells expressing V5 epitope-tagged Tal1 protein, and non-transfected MEL cells. Mapping analysis with Gal4 fusion proteins demonstrated a requirement for the bHLH domain of Tal1 and TAF110 domain of Eto2 for their interaction, and transient transfection and glutathione S-transferase pull-down analysis showed that Mtgr1 and Eto2 enhanced the other's association with Tal1. Enforced expression of Eto2 in differentiating MEL cells inhibited the promoter of the Protein 4.2 (P4.2) gene, a direct target of TAL1 in erythroid progenitors, and transduction of Eto2 and Mtgr1 augmented Tal1-mediated gene repression. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Eto2 occupancy of the P4.2 promoter in MEL cells decreased with differentiation, in parallel with a decline in Eto2 protein abundance. These results identify Eto2 and Mtgr1 as authentic interaction partners of Tal1 and suggest they act as heteromeric corepressors of this bHLH transcription factor during erythroid differentiation.

  5. TAL1/SCL is downregulated upon histone deacetylase inhibition in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, B. A.; de Almeida, S. F.; Laranjeira, A. B. A.; Carmo-Fonseca, M.; Yunes, J. A.; Coffer, P. J.; Barata, J. T.

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factor T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (TAL)-1 is a major T-cell oncogene associated with poor prognosis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). TAL1 binds histone deacetylase 1 and incubation with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) promotes apoptosis of leukemia

  6. Aberrant TAL1 activation is mediated by an interchromosomal interaction in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B; Kang, Y; Cui, K; Litt, M; Riberio, M S J; Deng, C; Salz, T; Casada, S; Fu, X; Qiu, Y; Zhao, K; Huang, S

    2014-02-01

    Long-range chromatin interactions control metazoan gene transcription. However, the involvement of intra- and interchromosomal interactions in development and oncogenesis remains unclear. TAL1/SCL is a critical transcription factor required for the development of all hematopoietic lineages; yet, aberrant TAL1 transcription often occurs in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we report that oncogenic TAL1 expression is regulated by different intra- and interchromosomal loops in normal hematopoietic and leukemic cells, respectively. These intra- and interchromosomal loops alter the cell-type-specific enhancers that interact with the TAL1 promoter. We show that human SET1 (hSET1)-mediated H3K4 methylations promote a long-range chromatin loop, which brings the +51 enhancer in close proximity to TAL1 promoter 1 in erythroid cells. The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) facilitates this long-range enhancer/promoter interaction of the TAL1 locus in erythroid cells while blocking the same enhancer/promoter interaction of the TAL1 locus in human T-cell leukemia. In human T-ALL, a T-cell-specific transcription factor c-Maf-mediated interchromosomal interaction brings the TAL1 promoter into close proximity with a T-cell-specific regulatory element located on chromosome 16, activating aberrant TAL1 oncogene expression. Thus, our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism involving changes in three-dimensional chromatin interactions that activate the TAL1 oncogene in human T-cell leukemia.

  7. Unique Footprint in the scl1.3 Locus Affects Adhesion and Biofilm Formation of the Invasive M3-Type Group A Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachert, Beth A; Choi, Soo J; LaSala, Paul R; Harper, Tiffany I; McNitt, Dudley H; Boehm, Dylan T; Caswell, Clayton C; Ciborowski, Pawel; Keene, Douglas R; Flores, Anthony R; Musser, James M; Squeglia, Flavia; Marasco, Daniela; Berisio, Rita; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2016-01-01

    The streptococcal collagen-like proteins 1 and 2 (Scl1 and Scl2) are major surface adhesins that are ubiquitous among group A Streptococcus (GAS). Invasive M3-type strains, however, have evolved two unique conserved features in the scl1 locus: (i) an IS1548 element insertion in the scl1 promoter region and (ii) a nonsense mutation within the scl1 coding sequence. The scl1 transcript is drastically reduced in M3-type GAS, contrasting with a high transcription level of scl1 allele in invasive M1-type GAS. This leads to a lack of Scl1 expression in M3 strains. In contrast, while scl2 transcription and Scl2 production are elevated in M3 strains, M1 GAS lack Scl2 surface expression. M3-type strains were shown to have reduced biofilm formation on inanimate surfaces coated with cellular fibronectin and laminin, and in human skin equivalents. Repair of the nonsense mutation and restoration of Scl1 expression on M3-GAS cells, restores biofilm formation on cellular fibronectin and laminin coatings. Inactivation of scl1 in biofilm-capable M28 and M41 strains results in larger skin lesions in a mouse model, indicating that lack of Scl1 adhesin promotes bacterial spread over localized infection. These studies suggest the uniquely evolved scl1 locus in the M3-type strains, which prevents surface expression of the major Scl1 adhesin, contributed to the emergence of the invasive M3-type strains. Furthermore these studies provide insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating colonization, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis of group A streptococci.

  8. Unique footprint in the scl1.3 locus affects adhesion and biofilm formation of the invasive M3-type group A Streptococcus

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    Beth Alexandra Bachert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The streptococcal collagen-like proteins 1 and 2 (Scl1 and Scl2 are major surface adhesins that are ubiquitous among group A Streptococcus (GAS. Invasive M3-type strains, however, have evolved two unique conserved features in the scl1 locus: (i an IS1548 element insertion in the scl1 promoter region and (ii a nonsense mutation within the scl1 coding sequence. The scl1 transcript is drastically reduced in M3-type GAS, contrasting with a high transcription level of scl1 allele in invasive M1-type GAS. This leads to a lack of Scl1 expression in M3 strains. In contrast, while scl2 transcription and Scl2 production are elevated in M3 strains, M1 GAS lack Scl2 surface expression. M3-type strains were shown to have reduced biofilm formation on inanimate surfaces coated with cellular fibronectin and laminin, and in human skin equivalents. Repair of the nonsense mutation and restoration of Scl1 expression on M3-GAS cells, restores biofilm formation on cellular fibronectin and laminin coatings. Inactivation of scl1 in biofilm-capable M28 and M41 strains results in larger skin lesions in a mouse model, indicating that lack of Scl1 adhesin promotes bacterial spread over localized infection. These studies suggest the uniquely evolved scl1 locus in the M3-type strains, which prevents surface expression of the major Scl1 adhesin, contributed to the emergence of the invasive M3-type strains. Furthermore these studies provide insight into the molecular mechanisms mediating colonization, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis of group A streptococci.

  9. Core Transcriptional Regulatory Circuit Controlled by the TAL1 Complex in Human T Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda, Takaomi; Lawton, Lee N.; Barrasa, M. Inmaculada; Fan, Zi Peng; Kohlhammer, Holger; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Ma, Wenxue; Tatarek, Jessica; Ahn, Yebin; Kelliher, Michelle A.; Jamieson, Catriona H.M.; Staudt, Louis M.; Young, Richard A.; Look, A. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in over 40% of cases of human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), emphasizing its importance in the molecular pathogenesis of T-ALL. Here we identify the core transcriptional regulatory circuit controlled by TAL1 and its regulatory partners HEB, E2A, LMO1/2, GATA3 and RUNX1. We show that TAL1 forms a positive interconnected auto-regulatory loop with GATA3 and RUNX1, and that the TAL1 complex directly activates the MY...

  10. Core transcriptional regulatory circuit controlled by the TAL1 complex in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanda, Takaomi; Lawton, Lee N; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Fan, Zi Peng; Kohlhammer, Holger; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Ma, Wenxue; Tatarek, Jessica; Ahn, Yebin; Kelliher, Michelle A; Jamieson, Catriona H M; Staudt, Louis M; Young, Richard A; Look, A Thomas

    2012-08-14

    The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in over 40% of cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), emphasizing its importance in the molecular pathogenesis of T-ALL. Here we identify the core transcriptional regulatory circuit controlled by TAL1 and its regulatory partners HEB, E2A, LMO1/2, GATA3, and RUNX1. We show that TAL1 forms a positive interconnected autoregulatory loop with GATA3 and RUNX1 and that the TAL1 complex directly activates the MYB oncogene, forming a positive feed-forward regulatory loop that reinforces and stabilizes the TAL1-regulated oncogenic program. One of the critical downstream targets in this circuitry is the TRIB2 gene, which is oppositely regulated by TAL1 and E2A/HEB and is essential for the survival of T-ALL cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The TAL1 complex targets the FBXW7 tumor suppressor by activating miR-223 in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour, Marc R.; Sanda, Takaomi; Lawton, Lee N.; Li, Xiaoyu; Kreslavsky, Taras; Novina, Carl D.; Brand, Marjorie; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Kelliher, Michelle A.; Jamieson, Catriona H.M.; von Boehmer, Harald; Young, Richard A.; Look, A. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in 60% of cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and initiates T-ALL in mouse models. By performing global microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling after depletion of TAL1, together with genome-wide analysis of TAL1 occupancy by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to massively parallel DNA sequencing, we identified the miRNA genes directly controlled by TAL1 and its regulatory partners HEB, E2A, LMO1/2, GAT...

  12. Analysis list: Tal1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Tal1 Blood,Embryo,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/mm9/target/Tal1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Tal1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Tal1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Tal1....Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Tal1.Embryo.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Tal1.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscienced

  13. The subclonal complexity of STIL-TAL1+ T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Caroline L; Mansur, Marcela B; Weston, Victoria J; Ermini, Luca; van Delft, Frederik W; Jenkinson, Sarah; Gale, Rosemary; Harrison, Christine J; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; Sanchez-Martin, Marta; Ferrando, Adolfo A; Kearns, Pamela; Titley, Ian; Ford, Anthony M; Potter, Nicola E; Greaves, Mel

    2018-03-20

    Single-cell genetics were used to interrogate clonal complexity and the sequence of mutational events in STIL-TAL1+ T-ALL. Single-cell multicolour FISH was used to demonstrate that the earliest detectable leukaemia subclone contained the STIL-TAL1 fusion and copy number loss of 9p21.3 (CDKN2A/CDKN2B locus), with other copy number alterations including loss of PTEN occurring as secondary subclonal events. In three cases, multiplex qPCR and phylogenetic analysis were used to produce branching evolutionary trees recapitulating the snapshot history of T-ALL evolution in this leukaemia subtype, which confirmed that mutations in key T-ALL drivers, including NOTCH1 and PTEN, were subclonal and reiterative in distinct subclones. Xenografting confirmed that self-renewing or propagating cells were genetically diverse. These data suggest that the STIL-TAL1 fusion is a likely founder or truncal event. Therapies targeting the TAL1 auto-regulatory complex are worthy of further investigation in T-ALL.

  14. The proto-oncogenic protein TAL1 controls TGF-β1 signaling through interaction with SMAD3

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    Jean-Michel Terme

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available TGF-β1 is involved in many aspects of tissue development and homeostasis including hematopoiesis. The TAL1 transcription factor is also an important player of this latter process and is expressed very early in the myeloid and erythroid lineages. We previously established a link between TGF-β1 signaling and TAL1 by showing that the cytokine was able to induce its proteolytic degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. In this manuscript we show that TAL1 interacts with SMAD3 that acts in the pathway downstream of TGF-β1 association with its receptor. TAL1 expression strengthens the positive or negative effect of SMAD3 on various genes. Both transcription factors activate the inhibitory SMAD7 factor through the E box motif present in its transcriptional promoter. DNA precipitation assays showed that TAL1 present in Jurkat or K562 cells binds to this SMAD binding element in a SMAD3 dependent manner. SMAD3 and TAL1 also inhibit several genes including ID1, hTERT and TGF-β1 itself. In this latter case TAL1 and SMAD3 can impair the positive effect exerted by E47. Our results indicate that TAL1 expression can modulate TGF-β1 signaling by interacting with SMAD3 and by increasing its transcriptional properties. They also suggest the existence of a negative feedback loop between TAL1 expression and TGF-β1 signaling.

  15. Analysis of Multiple Genomic Sequence Alignments: A Web Resource, Online Tools, and Lessons Learned From Analysis of Mammalian SCL Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael A.; Donaldson, Ian J.; Gilbert, James; Grafham, Darren; Rogers, Jane; Green, Anthony R.; Göttgens, Berthold

    2004-01-01

    Comparative analysis of genomic sequences is becoming a standard technique for studying gene regulation. However, only a limited number of tools are currently available for the analysis of multiple genomic sequences. An extensive data set for the testing and training of such tools is provided by the SCL gene locus. Here we have expanded the data set to eight vertebrate species by sequencing the dog SCL locus and by annotating the dog and rat SCL loci. To provide a resource for the bioinformatics community, all SCL sequences and functional annotations, comprising a collation of the extensive experimental evidence pertaining to SCL regulation, have been made available via a Web server. A Web interface to new tools specifically designed for the display and analysis of multiple sequence alignments was also implemented. The unique SCL data set and new sequence comparison tools allowed us to perform a rigorous examination of the true benefits of multiple sequence comparisons. We demonstrate that multiple sequence alignments are, overall, superior to pairwise alignments for identification of mammalian regulatory regions. In the search for individual transcription factor binding sites, multiple alignments markedly increase the signal-to-noise ratio compared to pairwise alignments. PMID:14718377

  16. Psychometric validation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) subscales for depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bille, J; Møller, S B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The psychometric validity of many subscales of the 90-item Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the "Hamilton-subscales" for depression (SCL-D16), anxiety (SCL-A14), their 6......-item core-measures (SCL-D6 and SCL-A6), the anxiety symptom scale (SCL-ASS8) and the interpersonal sensitivity scale (IPS5). METHODS: The psychometric properties of the SCL-D16, SCL-A14, SCL-D6, SCL-A6, SCL-ASS8, and the IPS5 were evaluated based on SCL-90 ratings from 850 day patients from a Danish...... SCL-90 subscales were identified. Using these scales it is possible to perform a psychometrically valid evaluation of psychiatric patients regarding the severity of depression (HAM-D6), specific anxiety (SCL-ASS8) and interpersonal sensitivity (IPS5)....

  17. Cre-/IoxP-Mediated Recombination between the SIL and SCL Genes Leads to a Block in T-Cell Development at the CD4-CD8- to CD4+CD8+ Transition

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    Yue Cheng

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the most common form of stem cell leukemia (SCL gene rearrangement, an interstitial deletion of 82 kb brings SCL under the control of regulatory elements that normally govern expression of the ubiquitously expressed SCL interrupting locus (SIL gene, which is located directly upstream of SCL. To investigate the effect of this fusion in a mouse model, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clone containing both human SIL and SCL genes was isolated, and IoxP sites were inserted into intron 1 of both the SIL and SCL genes, corresponding to the sites at which recombination occurs in human T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia patients. This BAC clone was used to generate transgenic SILIoxloxSCL mice. These transgenic mice were subsequently bred to Lck-Cre mice that express the Cre recombinase specifically in the thymus. The BAC transgene was recombined between the two IoxP sites in over 50% of the thymocytes from SILIoxloxSCL/Cre double-transgenic mice, bringing the SCL gene under the direct control of SIL regulatory elements. Aberrant SCL gene expression in the thymus was verified by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction. Using FACS analysis, we found that mice carrying both SILIoxloxSCL and Cre transgenes have increased CD4-/CD8- thymocytes compared with transgenenegative mice. In the spleen, these transgenic mice show a marked reduction in the number of mature CD4+ or CD8+ cells. These results demonstrate that conditional activation of SCL under control of SIL regulatory elements can impair normal T-cell development.

  18. Variation in Gamma-Globin Expression before and after Induction with Hydroxyurea Associated with BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1.

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    Amanda J Grieco

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms governing γ-globin expression in a subset of fetal hemoglobin (α2γ2: HbF expressing red blood cells (F-cells and the mechanisms underlying the variability of response to hydroxyurea induced γ-globin expression in the treatment of sickle cell disease are not completely understood. Here we analyzed intra-person clonal populations of basophilic erythroblasts (baso-Es derived from bone marrow common myeloid progenitors in serum free cultures and report the level of fetal hemoglobin production in F-cells negatively correlates with expression of BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1. We then examined the effects of hydroxyurea on these three transcription factors and conclude that a successful induction of γ-globin includes a reduction in BCL11A, KLF1 and TAL1 expression. These data suggests that expression changes in this transcription factor network modulate γ-globin expression in F-cells during steady state erythropoiesis and after induction with hydroxyurea.

  19. A Finnish validation study of the SCL-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holi, M M; Sammallahti, P R; Aalberg, V A

    1998-01-01

    The Symptom Check-List-90 (SCL-90) is a widely used psychiatric questionnaire which has not yet been validated in Finland. We investigated the utility of the translated version of the SCL-90 in the Finnish population, and set community norms for it. The internal consistency of the original subscales was checked and found to be good. Discriminant function analysis, based on the nine original subscales, showed that the power of the SCL-90 to discriminate between patients and the community is good. Factor analysis of the items of the questionnaire yielded a very strong unrotated first factor, suggesting that a general factor may be present. This together with the fact that high intercorrelations were found between the nine original subscales suggests that the instrument is not multidimensional. The SCL-90 may be useful in a research setting as an instrument for measuring the change in symptomatic distress, or as a screening instrument. The American community norms should be used with caution, as the Finnish community sample scored consistently higher on all subscales.

  20. LONGITUDINAL MISMATCH IN SCL AS A SOURCE OF BEAM HALO.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUGGIERO,A.G.

    2003-06-19

    An advantage of a proton Super-conducting Linac (SCL) is that RF cavities can be operated independently, allowing easier beam transport: and acceleration. But cavities are to be separated by drifts long enough to avoid they couple to each other. Moreover, cavities are placed in cryostats that include inactive insertions for cold-warm transitions; and interspersed are warm insertions for magnets and other devices. The SCL is then an alternating sequence of accelerating elements and drifts. No periodicity is present, and the longitudinal motion is not adiabatic. This has the consequence that the beam bunch ellipse will tumble, dilute and create a halo in the momentum plane because of inherent nonlinearities. When this is coupled to longitudinal space-charge forces, it may cause beam loss with latent activation of the accelerator components.

  1. Co-expression of TAL1 and ADH1 in recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the presence of furfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Nambu, Yumiko; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass dedicated to bioethanol production usually contains pentoses and inhibitory compounds such as furfural that are not well tolerated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Thus, S. cerevisiae strains with the capability of utilizing both glucose and xylose in the presence of inhibitors such as furfural are very important in industrial ethanol production. Under the synergistic conditions of transaldolase (TAL) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) overexpression, S. cerevisiae MT8-1X/TAL-ADH was able to produce 1.3-fold and 2.3-fold more ethanol in the presence of 70 mM furfural than a TAL-expressing strain and a control strain, respectively. We also tested the strains' ability by mimicking industrial ethanol production from hemicellulosic hydrolysate containing fermentation inhibitors, and ethanol production was further improved by 16% when using MT8-1X/TAL-ADH compared to the control strain. Transcript analysis further revealed that besides the pentose phosphate pathway genes TKL1 and TAL1, ADH7 was also upregulated in response to furfural stress, which resulted in higher ethanol production compared to the TAL-expressing strain. The improved capability of our modified strain was based on its capacity to more quickly reduce furfural in situ resulting in higher ethanol production. The co-expression of TAL/ADH genes is one crucial strategy to fully utilize undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate, leading to cost-competitive ethanol production. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SCL-90-R Symptom Profiles and Outcome of Short-Term Psychodynamic Group Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background. Psychodynamic group psychotherapy may not be an optimal treatment for anxiety and agoraphobic symptoms. We explore remission of SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI) and target symptoms in 39 sessions of psychodynamic group therapy. Methods. SCL-90-R “target symptom” profile a...

  3. Check List of Symptoms SCL - 90 - R at Persons with Extremities Amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suada Kapidžić-Duraković

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Multidimensional Inventory Check List of Symptoms (SCL-90-r is based on self-evaluation and it has been used for determination of level of: somatisation, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobias, paranoia and psychosis at persons which are exposed to long term emotional and physical stress. Our goal was to determine relations of physical trauma and psychological changes at persons with lower extremities amputations and to determine factors which influence those changes. Thirty seven persons with lower extremities amputations were examined. The sample included 26 (70.2 % veterans and 11 (29.7 % civilians with diseases related amputations. They voluntarily filled Check List of Symptoms SCL-90-r. Symptoms Inventory includes 9 dimensions of primary symptoms: SCL1-somatisation, SCL2-obsessive-compulsive symptoms, SCL3-interpersonal sensitivity, SCL4-depression, SCL5-anxiety, SCL6-hostility, SCL7-phobias, SCL8-paranoia, SCL9-psychosis and SCL10-extra scale. Inventory includes 90 statements, each evaluated with five-level scale of disorder. Every answer is graded with 0-4 points. Thirty seven persons with lower extremities amputations and average chronological age 46.2 +/- 10.92 years were analyzed. Considering marital status 30 (81.1 % of them were married, 4 (10.8 % were not married and 3 (8.1 % were widowers. Considering level of amputation 27 of them (73.0 % had amputation below knee, 5 (13.5 % of them amputation above knee and 5 of them (13.5 % foot amputation. SCL-90-r in both groups determined high level of sensitivity, anxiety, hostility and paranoia. Veterans showed higher level of paranoia comparing to civilians (p<0.002, and younger veterans and married ones had higher level of paranoia comparing to other veterans (p<0.01. Persons with amputations below and above knee showed higher level of paranoia comparing those with foot amputation (p<0.001. Persons with lower extremities

  4. Comparison between the SCL-90-R and MMPI in TMD patients with psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M-J; Lim, M-J; Park, W-K; Kho, H-S

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients with psychological problems. Subjective symptoms, objective signs, and psychological characteristics of 36 TMD patients with psychological problems were analyzed. The symptom severity index (SSI) and craniomandibular index (CMI) were used to assess subjective symptoms and objective signs of patients with TMD, respectively. The SCL-90-R and MMPI were used for psychological evaluation. The SSI was not significantly correlated with the CMI in TMD patients with psychological problems, and these indices displayed significant correlations with the SCL-90-R and MMPI in several selected subscales. The results of SCL-90-R had a limited relationship with those of MMPI in these patients. Based on the MMPI diagnosis, the SCL-90-R somatization subscale showed moderate to high sensitivity and specificity, but the SCL-90-R depression subscale showed moderate to low sensitivity and specificity. Considering the limited relationship between the SCL-90-R and MMPI in TMD patients with psychological problems, more comprehensive psychological tests are recommended when clinicians suspect patients with TMD of having accompanying psychological problems. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. PM1-Alpha ELISA: the assay of choice for the detection of anti-PM/Scl autoantibodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Michael; Fritzler, Marvin J

    2009-03-01

    A characteristic serological feature of patients suffering from the overlap polymyositis and scleroderma (PM/Scl) syndrome are antibodies to the human counterpart of the yeast exosome referred to as the PM/Scl complex. Historically, the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies was laborious and relied largely on indirect immunofluorescence and immunodiffusion techniques. In 1992 the major autoantigen PM/Scl-100 was identified and cloned. Subsequently, the major epitopes were mapped and one of these, termed PM1-Alpha, became the antigen for a novel ELISA exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies. Comparative studies with other methods using other PM/Scl autoantigens have shown that the PM1-Alpha ELISA has higher sensitivity and specificity than assays that employed recombinant PM/Scl-75c and PM/Scl-100. Anti-PM1-Alpha antibodies were identified in 55.0% of sera from PM/Scl overlap syndrome patients, but were also seen in 7.9% of SSc and in 7.5% of PM patients. The frequency in other systemic autoimmune diseases and in infectious diseases was significant lower. In summary, the data derived from individual studies suggest that PM1-Alpha may become the "gold standard" for the detection of anti-PM/Scl antibodies.

  6. Distinct Functions of Different scl Isoforms in Zebrafish Definitive Hematopoietic Stem Cell Initiation and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yahui

    2011-07-01

    The establishment of entire blood system relies on the multi-potent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), thus identifying the molecular mechanism in HSC generation is of importance for not only complementing the fundamental knowledge in stem cell biology, but also providing insights to the regenerative therapies. Recent researches have documented the formation of nascent HSCs through a direct transition from ventral aortic endothelium, named as endothelial hematopoietic transition (EHT) process. However, the precise genetic program engaged in this process remains largely elusive. The transcription factor scl plays pivotal and conserved roles in embryonic and adult hematopoiesis from teleosts to mammals. Our lab have previously identified a new truncated scl isoform, scl-beta, which is indispensible for the specification of HSCs in the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA), the zebrafish equivalent of mammalian fetal hematopoietic organ. Here we observe that, by combining time-lapse confocal imaging of transgenic zebrafish and genetic epistasis analysis, scl-beta is expressed in a subset of ventral aortic endothelial cells and critical for their forthcoming transformation to hemogenic endothelium; in contrast, runx1 is required downstream to govern the successful egress of the hemogenic endothelial cells to become naive HSCs. In addition, the traditional known full-length scl-alpha isoform is firstly evidenced to be required for the maintenance or survival of newly formed HSCs in VDA. Collectively our data has established the genetic hierarchy controlling discrete steps in the consecutive process of HSC formation from endothelial cells and further development in VDA.

  7. [Application study on PHI and 16PF and SCL-90 for freshman's psychology inspection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Peng

    2009-07-01

    To explore the effect of application of the measurement table of PHI and 16PF and SCL-90 for freshmen psychology inspection. The measurement tables of PHI and 16PF for psychology inspection of freshmen of 2004-2007 years were used to sift crisis intervention objects. Continuous four years test showed certain stability, in addition to excited factors,the scores of Freshmen's PHI factors were more lower than normal. The incidence rates of mental problems screened by PHI table were very low and 3-5 serious-mental-problem students weren't detected. The problem can be resolved by the application of PHI combined with 16PF through remesuring the suspected cases by SCL-90. The combinative application of PHI, 16PF and SCL-90 would be better.

  8. Evaluating psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's Disease by a clinimetric analysis of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Morberg, Bo Mohr; Siri, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    , psychoticism, and neurasthenia (apathy), as well as the SCL-90-R GSI, were the most impaired psychiatric syndromes reaching a clinically significant effect size above 0.80, whereas the total SCL-28 GSI obtained an effect size of just 0.80. Our clinimetric analysis has shown that patients with PD not only...... patients with a control group from a general population study. Scalability was tested by the non-parametric item response theory model by use of a Mokken analysis. Among the various SCL-90-R or SCL-28 subscales we identified from the clinimetric analysis that the somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety...

  9. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny and expression analyses of SCARECROW-LIKE(SCL) genes in millet (Setaria italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyun; Qin, Jiajia; Fan, Hui; Cheng, Jinjin; Li, Lin; Liu, Zheng

    2017-07-01

    As a member of the GRAS gene family, SCARECROW - LIKE ( SCL ) genes encode transcriptional regulators that are involved in plant information transmission and signal transduction. In this study, 44 SCL genes including two SCARECROW genes in millet were identified to be distributed on eight chromosomes, except chromosome 6. All the millet genes contain motifs 6-8, indicating that these motifs are conserved during the evolution. SCL genes of millet were divided into eight groups based on the phylogenetic relationship and classification of Arabidopsis SCL genes. Several putative millet orthologous genes in Arabidopsis , maize and rice were identified. High throughput RNA sequencing revealed that the expressions of millet SCL genes in root, stem, leaf, spica, and along leaf gradient varied greatly. Analyses combining the gene expression patterns, gene structures, motif compositions, promoter cis -elements identification, alternative splicing of transcripts and phylogenetic relationship of SCL genes indicate that the these genes may play diverse functions. Functionally characterized SCL genes in maize, rice and Arabidopsis would provide us some clues for future characterization of their homologues in millet. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of millet SCL genes at the genome wide level. Our work provides a useful platform for functional analysis of SCL genes in millet, a model crop for C 4 photosynthesis and bioenergy studies.

  10. A clinimetric analysis of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) in general population studies (Denmark, Norway, and Italy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Vassend, Olav; Bjørndal, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    the factor structure. The scalability of the traditional SCL-90-R subscales (somatization, hostility, and interpersonal sensitivity) as well as the affective subscales (depression and anxiety and ADHD) were tested by Mokken’s item response theory model. Results: Across the three general population studies...... the traditional scaled SCL-90-R factor including 83 items was identified by PCA. The Mokken analysis accepted the scalability of both the general factor and the clinical SCL-90-R subscales under examination. Conclusion: The traditional, scaled, general 83 item SCL-90-R scale is a valid measure of general...

  11. scid Thymocytes with TCRbeta gene rearrangements are targets for the oncogenic effect of SCL and LMO1 transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervinsky, D S; Lam, D H; Melman, M P; Gross, K W; Aplan, P D

    2001-09-01

    SCL and LMO1 were both discovered by virtue of their activation by chromosomaltranslocation in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Overexpression of SCL and LMO1 in the thymus of transgenic mice leads to T-ALL at a young age. scid (severe combined immunodeficient) mice are unable to efficiently recombine antigen receptor genes and consequently display a developmental block at the CD4-CD8- to CD4+CD8+ transition. To test the hypothesis that this developmental block would protect SCL/LMO1 transgenic mice from developing T-ALL, we crossed the SCL and LMO1 transgenes onto a scid background. The age of onset for T-ALL in the SCL/LMO1/scid mice was significantly delayed (P < 0.001) compared with SCL/LMO1/wild-type mice. Intriguingly, all of the SCL/LMO1/scid malignancies displayed clonal, in-frame TCRbeta gene rearrangements. Taken together, these findings suggest that the "leaky" scid thymocyte that undergoes a productive TCRbeta gene rearrangement is susceptible to the oncogenic action of SCL and LMO1 and additionally suggests that TCRbeta gene rearrangements may be required for the oncogenic action of SCL and LMO1.

  12. SCL, LMO1 and Notch1 Reprogram Thymocytes into Self-Renewing Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Sutterlin, Shanti; Herblot, Sabine; Hébert, Josée; Sauvageau, Guy; Lemieux, Sébastien; Lécuyer, Eric; Veiga, Diogo F. T.; Hoang, Trang

    2014-01-01

    The molecular determinants that render specific populations of normal cells susceptible to oncogenic reprogramming into self-renewing cancer stem cells are poorly understood. Here, we exploit T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) as a model to define the critical initiating events in this disease. First, thymocytes that are reprogrammed by the SCL and LMO1 oncogenic transcription factors into self-renewing pre-leukemic stem cells (pre-LSCs) remain non-malignant, as evidenced by their capacities to generate functional T cells. Second, we provide strong genetic evidence that SCL directly interacts with LMO1 to activate the transcription of a self-renewal program coordinated by LYL1. Moreover, LYL1 can substitute for SCL to reprogram thymocytes in concert with LMO1. In contrast, inhibition of E2A was not sufficient to substitute for SCL, indicating that thymocyte reprogramming requires transcription activation by SCL-LMO1. Third, only a specific subset of normal thymic cells, known as DN3 thymocytes, is susceptible to reprogramming. This is because physiological NOTCH1 signals are highest in DN3 cells compared to other thymocyte subsets. Consistent with this, overexpression of a ligand-independent hyperactive NOTCH1 allele in all immature thymocytes is sufficient to sensitize them to SCL-LMO1, thereby increasing the pool of self-renewing cells. Surprisingly, hyperactive NOTCH1 cannot reprogram thymocytes on its own, despite the fact that NOTCH1 is activated by gain of function mutations in more than 55% of T-ALL cases. Rather, elevating NOTCH1 triggers a parallel pathway involving Hes1 and Myc that dramatically enhances the activity of SCL-LMO1 We conclude that the acquisition of self-renewal and the genesis of pre-LSCs from thymocytes with a finite lifespan represent a critical first event in T-ALL. Finally, LYL1 and LMO1 or LMO2 are co-expressed in most human T-ALL samples, except the cortical T subtype. We therefore anticipate that the self-renewal network

  13. Perception that "everything requires a lot of effort": transcultural SCL-25 item validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Nicolas; Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile; Chenguiti, Khalid

    2009-09-01

    This brief report illustrates how the migration context can affect specific item validity of mental health measures. The SCL-25 was administered to 432 recently settled immigrants (220 Haitian and 212 Arabs). We performed descriptive analyses, as well as Infit and Outfit statistics analyses using WINSTEPS Rasch Measurement Software based on Item Response Theory. The participants' comments about the item You feel everything requires a lot of effort in the SCL-25 were also qualitatively analyzed. Results revealed that the item You feel everything requires a lot of effort is an outlier and does not adjust in an expected and valid fashion with its cluster items, as it is over-endorsed by Haitian and Arab healthy participants. Our study thus shows that, in transcultural mental health research, the cultural and migratory contexts may interact and significantly influence the meaning of some symptom items and consequently, the validity of symptom scales.

  14. SCL-90 R: Distrés psicológico, género y conductas de riesgo / SCL-90 R: Psychological Distress, Gender and Risky Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Patricia Caballero Suárez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Con base en una muestra probabilística de 466 estudiantes universitarios mexicanos, se explora la relación entre distrés psicológico y conductas de riesgo (consumo de sustancias, conductas sexuales, y ambas, en hombres y mujeres. Los resultados indican que el distrés psicológico presenta diferencias con mayor frecuencia en el caso de las mujeres que presentan consumo de drogas, tabaco y alcohol, o conductas que mezclan sexo y alcohol, y sexo y consumo de drogas, que en el caso de los hombres. Los hombres con actividad sexual ocasional presentan mayor distrés que quellos que no presentan esta conducta. Como punto de partida, se explora la estructura factorial del SCL-90-R, coincidiendo en los resultados con los obtenidos por investigadores de otras latitudes; al parecer, el análisis factorial no soporta la estructura propuesta por los autores del instrumento.

  15. Six-Correction Logic (SCL Gates in Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anisur Rahman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (QCA is a promising nanotechnology in Quantum electronics for its ultra low power consumption, faster speed and small size features. It has significant advantages over the Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor (CMOS technology. This paper present, a novel QCA representation of Six-Correction Logic (SCL gate based on QCA logic gates: the Maj3, Maj AND gate and Maj OR. In order to design and verify the functionality of the proposed layout, QCADesigner a familiar QCA simulator has been employed. The simulation results confirm correctness of the claims and its usefulness in designing a digital circuits.

  16. Image simulation using LOCUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Roberts, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The LOCUS data base program has been used to simulate images and to solve simple equations. This has been accomplished by making each record (which normally would represent a data entry)represent sequenced or random number pairs

  17. Exploratory Factor Analysis of SCL90-R Symptoms Relevant to Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Amini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Inconsistent results have been reported regarding the symptom dimensions relevant to psychosis in symptoms check list revised (SCL90-R, i.e., "psychoticism" and "paranoid ideation". Therefore, some studies have suggested different factor structures for questions of these two dimensions, and proposed two newly defined dimensions of "schizotypal signs" and "schizophrenia nuclear symptoms". We conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the items of these two dimensions in a general population sample in Iran. "nMethod: A total of 2158 subjects residing in Southern Tehran (capital of Iran were interviewed using the psychoticism and paranoid ideation questions in SCL90-R to assess severity of these symptom dimensions. Factor analysis was done through SAS 9.1.3 PROC FACTOR using Promax rotation (power=3 on the matrix of "polychoric correlations among variables" as the input data. "nResults: Two factors were retained by the proportion criterion. Considering loadings >= 0.5 as minimum criteria for factor loadings, 7 out of 10 questions  from psychoticism ,and 3 out of 6 questions from paranoid ideation were retained, and others were eliminated. The factor labels proposed by the questionnaire suited the extracted factors and were retained. Internal consistency for each of the dimensions was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha 0.7 and 0.74 for paranoid ideation and psychoticism respectively. Composite scores showed a half-normal distribution for both dimensions which is predictable for instruments that detect psychotic symptoms. "nConclusion: Results were in contrast with similar studies, and questioned them by suggesting a different factor structure obtained from a statistically large population. The population in a developing nation (Iran in this study and the socio-cultural differences in developed settings are the potential sources for discrepancies between this analysis and previous reports.

  18. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  19. Comparison of the GHQ-36, the GHQ-12 and the SCL-90 as psychiatric screening instruments in the Finnish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holi, Matti M; Marttunen, Mauri; Aalberg, Veikko

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the screening properties of two General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) versions and the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90), and to evaluate them as psychiatric screening instruments in Finland. We administered the GHQ-36 and the SCL-90 to psychiatric outpatients (n=207) and to a community sample (n=315). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to estimate the screening performance of the two instruments and of the GHQ-12 extracted from the GHQ-36. The screening properties of the scales were found to be good and similar. Suggested optimal cut-off points were 3/4 for the GHQ-12, 8/9 for the GHQ-36 and 0.90/0.91 for the SCL-90. In conclusion, the scales functioned equally well in screening. This favors the GHQ-12 for pure screening. When information on the symptom level is also needed, the GHQ-36 and the SCL-90 become better choices. The cut-off points presented here should be considered in the future Finnish psychiatric screening studies.

  20. Application of scl - pbl method to increase quality learning of industrial statistics course in department of industrial engineering pancasila university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, M.; Hidayah, N. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Currently, there has been a change of new paradigm in the learning model in college, ie from Teacher Centered Learning (TCL) model to Student Centered Learing (SCL). It is generally assumed that the SCL model is better than the TCL model. The Courses of 2nd Industrial Statistics in the Department Industrial Engineering Pancasila University is the subject that belongs to the Basic Engineering group. So far, the applied learning model refers more to the TCL model, and field facts show that the learning outcomes are less satisfactory. Of the three consecutive semesters, ie even semester 2013/2014, 2014/2015, and 2015/2016 obtained grade average is equal to 56.0; 61.1, and 60.5. In the even semester of 2016/2017, Classroom Action Research (CAR) is conducted for this course through the implementation of SCL model with Problem Based Learning (PBL) methods. The hypothesis proposed is that the SCL-PBL model will be able to improve the final grade of the course. The results shows that the average grade of the course can be increased to 73.27. This value was then tested using the ANOVA and the test results concluded that the average grade was significantly different from the average grade value in the previous three semesters.

  1. Doing Textiles Experiments in Game-Based Virtual Reality: A Design of the Stereoscopic Chemical Laboratory (SCL) for Textiles Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kung Wong; Kan, Chi Wai; Lee, Pui Yuen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of stereoscopic virtual technology in textile and fashion studies in particular to the area of chemical experiment. The development of a designed virtual platform, called Stereoscopic Chemical Laboratory (SCL), is introduced. Design/methodology/approach: To implement the suggested…

  2. The IGF2 Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a peptide hormone regulating various cellular processes such as proliferation and apoptosis. IGF2 is vital to embryo development. The IGF2 locus covers approximately 150-kb genomic region on human chromosome 11, containing two imprinted genes, IGF2 and H19, sha...

  3. The streptococcal collagen-like protein-1 (Scl1 is a significant determinant for biofilm formation by group a Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver-Kozup Heaven A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group A Streptococcus (GAS is a human-specific pathogen responsible for a number of diseases characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations. During host colonization GAS-cell aggregates or microcolonies are observed in tissues. GAS biofilm, which is an in vitro equivalent of tissue microcolony, has only recently been studied and little is known about the specific surface determinants that aid biofilm formation. In this study, we demonstrate that surface-associated streptococcal collagen-like protein-1 (Scl1 plays an important role in GAS biofilm formation. Results Biofilm formation by M1-, M3-, M28-, and M41-type GAS strains, representing an intraspecies breadth, were analyzed spectrophotometrically following crystal violet staining, and characterized using confocal and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The M41-type strain formed the most robust biofilm under static conditions, followed by M28- and M1-type strains, while the M3-type strains analyzed here did not form biofilm under the same experimental conditions. Differences in architecture and cell-surface morphology were observed in biofilms formed by the M1- and M41-wild-type strains, accompanied by varying amounts of deposited extracellular matrix and differences in cell-to-cell junctions within each biofilm. Importantly, all Scl1-negative mutants examined showed significantly decreased ability to form biofilm in vitro. Furthermore, the Scl1 protein expressed on the surface of a heterologous host, Lactococcus lactis, was sufficient to induce biofilm formation by this organism. Conclusions Overall, this work (i identifies variations in biofilm formation capacity among pathogenically different GAS strains, (ii identifies GAS surface properties that may aid in biofilm stability and, (iii establishes that the Scl1 surface protein is an important determinant of GAS biofilm, which is sufficient to enable biofilm formation in the heterologous host

  4. Performance of EVA-Based Membranes for SCL in Hard Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    The bonded property of multi-layered sprayed concrete tunnel linings (SCL) waterproofed with sprayed membranes means that the constituent materials will be exposed to the groundwater without any draining or mechanically separating measures. Moisture properties of the sprayed concrete and membrane materials are therefore important in order to establish the system properties of such linings. Ethyl-vinyl-acetate based sprayed membranes exhibit high water absorption potential under direct exposure to water, but are found to be significantly less hygroscopic and exhibit lower sorptivity (water absorption rate) than sprayed concrete. This material behavior explains the relatively dry in situ condition of the membrane that was observed. Measured in situ moisture content levels of the membrane material in tunnel linings have been found to vary within the range of 30-40 % of the maximum water absorption potential, and show a decreasing trend over the first 4 years after construction has been completed. A model for the mechanical loading, moisture condition and thermal exposure of the membrane and the resulting realistic parameters to be tested is presented. Laboratory testing methods for the membrane materials are evaluated considering possible loads, moisture and freezing exposure. Material testing of membrane materials was conducted with preconditioning to realistic moisture contents and under different temperature conditions including relevant freezing temperatures for tunnel linings. The main effects of the in situ moisture condition of the tested membrane materials are favorable tensile strengths in the range of 1.1-1.5 MPa and low risk of freeze-thaw damage. The crack bridging capacity of the tested membranes is found to be sensitive to temperature. With membrane thicknesses in the range of 3-4 mm, crack bridging capacity up to 4-6 mm opening of the crack width at 23 °C and approximately 1 mm opening at -3 °C was measured for the tested membranes. No significant

  5. Sclérose latérale amyotrophique et traumatisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schachter

    1959-09-01

    Full Text Available À propos d'une deuxième observation personnelle de sclérose latérale amyotrophique d'origine traumatique, nous passons en revue les connaissances actuelles sur le chapitre de neuro-traumatologie. Dans l'observation présente le traumatisme cranien n'avait pas entrainé de perte de la connaissance; l'intervalle entre traumatisme et installation des premiers signes (à caractère bulbaire surtout fut de pratiquement un mois; mais on connaît des cas où cet intervalle a été de l'ordre de plusieurs années, comme dans notre première observation (15 ans. La relation entre traumatisme et maladie de Charcot est encore discutée, mais il est indubitable que ce facteur peut déclencher, à lui seul, cette maladie, sans que l'on doive faire intervenir d'autres facteurs pré-dispo-sants.

  6. The Scl1 protein of M6-type group A Streptococcus binds the human complement regulatory protein, factor H, and inhibits the alternative pathway of complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Clayton C; Han, Runlin; Hovis, Kelley M; Ciborowski, Pawel; Keene, Douglas R; Marconi, Richard T; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2008-02-01

    Non-specific activation of the complement system is regulated by the plasma glycoprotein factor H (FH). Bacteria can avoid complement-mediated opsonization and phagocytosis through acquiring FH to the cell surface. Here, we characterize an interaction between the streptococcal collagen-like protein Scl1.6 of M6-type group A Streptococcus (GAS) and FH. Using affinity chromatography with immobilized recombinant Scl1.6 protein, we co-eluted human plasma proteins with molecular weight of 155 kDa, 43 kDa and 38 kDa. Mass spectrometry identified the 155 kDa band as FH and two other bands as isoforms of the FH-related protein-1. The identities of all three bands were confirmed by Western immunoblotting with specific antibodies. Structure-function relation studies determined that the globular domain of the Scl1.6 variant specifically binds FH while fused to collagenous tails of various lengths. This binding is not restricted to Scl1.6 as the phylogenetically linked Scl1.55 variant also binds FH. Functional analyses demonstrated the cofactor activity of the rScl1.6-bound FH for factor I-mediated cleavage of C3b. Finally, purified FH bound to the Scl1.6 protein present in the cell wall material obtained from M6-type GAS. In conclusion, we have identified a functional interaction between Scl1 and plasma FH, which may contribute to GAS evasion of complement-mediated opsonization and phagocytosis.

  7. CsSCL1 is differentially regulated upon maturation in chestnut microshoots and is specifically expressed in rooting-competent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielba, Jesús M; Díaz-Sala, Carmen; Ferro, Enrique; Rico, Saleta; Lamprecht, María; Abarca, Dolores; Ballester, Antonio; Sánchez, Conchi

    2011-10-01

    The Castanea sativa SCL1 gene (CsSCL1) has previously been shown to be induced by auxin during adventitious root (AR) formation in rooting-competent microshoots. However, its expression has not previously been analyzed in rooting-incompetent shoots. This study focuses on the regulation of CsSCL1 during maturation and the role of the gene in the formation of AR. The expression of CsSCL1 in rooting-incompetent microshoots and other tissues was investigated by quantitative reverse transcriptase--polymerase chain reaction. The analysis was complemented by in situ hybridization of the basal segments of rooting-competent and --incompetent microshoots during AR induction, as well as in AR and lateral roots. It was found that CsSCL1 is upregulated by auxin in a cell-type- and phase-dependent manner during the induction of AR. In root-forming shoots, CsSCL1 mRNA was specifically located in the cambial zone and derivative cells, which are rooting-competent cells, whereas in rooting-incompetent shoots the hybridization signal was more diffuse and evenly distributed through the phloem and parenchyma. CsSCL1 expression was also detected in lateral roots and axillary buds. The different CsSCL1 expression patterns in rooting-competent and -incompetent microshoots, together with the specific location of transcripts in cell types involved in root meristem initiation and in the root primordia of AR and lateral roots, indicate an important role for the gene in determining whether certain cells will enter the root differentiation pathway and its involvement in meristem maintenance.

  8. Combining EL4-B5-based B-cell stimulation and phage display technology for the successful isolation of human anti-Scl-70 autoantibody fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Malte; Weiss, Etienne; Engel, Alfred M

    2003-07-01

    Scl-70 is the major antigen recognised by autoantibodies in the sera of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The autoantibodies that specifically react with Scl-70 are highly characteristic of the disease and represent valuable markers for the diagnosis of SSc. We describe a novel strategy for cloning autoantibody fragments starting with a small blood sample from an SSc patient. B cells isolated from the collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in vitro using the EL4-B5 system. Anti-Scl-70 IgG-producing cells were pooled for RNA preparation followed by the generation of phagemid libraries of approximately 10(7) independent single-chain Fvs (scFvs). The screening of these libraries by phage display allowed us to isolate four anti-Scl-70 scFvs following three rounds of biopanning. About 10 times more starting blood material was needed to generate scFv libraries of similar size from PBMCs of an SSc patient and only two anti-Scl-70 scFvs were isolated after three rounds of phage selection. Together, this work shows that functional autoantibody fragments can be advantageously cloned after in vitro expansion of B cells. The isolated anti-Scl-70 autoantibody fragments represent useful tools for calibrating SSc diagnostic assays.

  9. SclR, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, regulates hyphal morphology and promotes sclerotial formation in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Feng Jie; Takahashi, Tadashi; Matsushima, Ken-ichiro; Hara, Seiichi; Shinohara, Yasutomo; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Koyama, Yasuji

    2011-07-01

    Most known basic-region helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins belong to a superfamily of transcription factors often involved in the control of growth and differentiation. Therefore, inappropriate expression of genes encoding bHLH proteins is frequently associated with developmental dysfunction. In our previously reported study, a novel bHLH protein-encoding gene (AO090011000215) of Aspergillus oryzae was identified. The gene-disrupted strain was found to produce dense conidia, but sparse sclerotia, relative to the parent strain. Here, to further analyze its function, we generated an overexpressing strain using the A. oryzae amyB gene promoter. Genetic overexpression led to a large number of initial hyphal aggregations and then the formation of mature sclerotia; it was therefore designated sclR (sclerotium regulator). At the same time, the sclR-overexpressing strain also displayed both delayed and decreased conidiation. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the aerial hyphae of the sclR-overexpressing strain were extremely branched and intertwined with each other. In the generation of the SclR-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression strain, the SclR-EGFP protein fusion was conditionally detected in the nuclei. In addition, the loss of sclR function led to rapid protein degradation and cell lysis in dextrin-polypeptone-yeast extract liquid medium. Taken together, these observations indicate that SclR plays an important role in hyphal morphology, asexual conidiospore formation, and the promotion of sclerotial production, even retaining normal cell function, at least in submerged liquid culture.

  10. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) improves osteomalacia phenotype in dentin matrix protein 1(Dmp1) knockout mice with little impact on serum levels of phosphorus and FGF23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yinshi; Han, Xianglong; Jing, Yan; Yuan, Baozhi; Ke, Huazhu; Liu, Min; Feng, Jian Q

    2016-01-01

    Unlike treatments for most rickets, the treatment using 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 has little efficacy on patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, a set of rare genetic diseases. Thus, understanding the local cause for osteomalacia in hypophosphatemic rickets and developing an effective treatment to restore mineralization in this rare disease has been a longstanding goal in medicine. Here, we used Dmp1 knockout (KO) mice (whose mutations led to the same type of autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets in humans) as the model in which the monoclonal antibody of sclerostin (Scl-Ab) was tested in two age groups for 8weeks: the prevention group (starting at age 4weeks) and the treatment group (starting at age 12weeks). Applications of Scl-Ab greatly improved the osteomalacia phenotype (>15%) and the biomechanical properties (3-point bending, ~60%) in the treated long-bone group. Our studies not only showed improvement of the osteomalacia in the alveolar bone, which has the highest bone metabolism rate, as well as the long bone phenotypes in treated mice. All these improvements attributed to the use of Scl-Ab are independent of the change in serum levels of phosphorus and FGF23, since Scl-Ab had little efficacy on those parameters. Finally, we propose a model to explain how Scl-Ab can improve the Dmp1 KO osteomalacia phenotype, in which the sclerostin level is already low. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Design and evaluation of an IGCC power plant using iron-based syngas chemical-looping (SCL) combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorgenfrei, Max; Tsatsaronis, George

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept for power generation including carbon capture was found. • The air reactor temperature significantly influences the net efficiency. • The use of a CO 2 turbine decreases the net efficiency. • Compared to a conventional IGCC with 90% CO 2 capture the net efficiency increases. - Abstract: Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO 2 . This paper focuses on the design and thermodynamic evaluation of an integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process using syngas chemical looping (SCL) combustion for generating electricity. The syngas is provided by coal gasification; the gas from the gasifier is cleaned using high-temperature gas desulfurization (HGD). In this study, the oxygen carrier iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) is selected to oxidize the syngas in a multistage moving-bed reactor. The resulting reduced iron particles then consist of FeO and Fe 3 O 4 . To create a closed-cycle operation, these particles are partially re-oxidized with steam in a fluidized-bed regenerator to pure Fe 3 O 4 and then fully re-oxidized in a fluidized-bed air combustor to Fe 2 O 3 . One advantage of this process is the co-production of hydrogen diluted with water vapor within the steam regenerator. Both the HGD and CLC systems are not under commercial operation so far. This mixture is fed to a gas turbine for the purpose of generating electricity. The gas turbine is expected to exhibit low NO x emissions due to the high ratio of water in the combustion chamber. Cooling the flue gas in the HRSG condenses the water vapor to yield high-purity CO 2 for subsequent compression and disposal. To evaluate the net efficiency, two conventional syngas gasifiers are considered, namely the BGL slagging gasifier and the Shell entrained-flow gasifier. The option of using a CO 2 turbine after the SCL-fuel reactor is also investigated. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the SCL

  12. Element Production in the S-Cl Region During Carbon Burning in Massive Stars. Using Computer Systems for Modeling of the Nuclear-Reaction Network

    CERN Document Server

    Szalanski, P; Marganeic, A; Gledenov, Yu M; Sedyshev, P V; Machrafi, R; Oprea, A; Padureanu, I; Aranghel, D

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of calculations for nuclear network in S-Cl region during helium burning in massive stars (25 M_{\\odot}) using integrated mathematical systems. The authors also examine other application of presented method in different physical tasks.

  13. The group A streptococcal collagen-like protein 1, Scl1, mediates biofilm formation by targeting the EDA-containing variant of cellular fibronectin expressed in wounded tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver-Kozup, Heaven; Martin, Karen H.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Green, Brett J.; Betts, Courtney; Shinde, Arti V.; Van De Water, Livingston; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2012-01-01

    Summary Wounds are known to serve as portals of entry for group A Streptococcus (GAS). Subsequent tissue colonization is mediated by interactions between GAS surface proteins and host extracellular matrix components. We recently reported that the streptococcal collagen-like protein-1, Scl1, selectively binds the cellular form of fibronectin (cFn) and also contributes to GAS biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. One structural feature of cFn, which is predominantly expressed in response to tissue injury, is the presence of a spliced variant containing extra domain A (EDA/EIIIA). We now report that GAS biofilm formation is mediated by the Scl1 interaction with EDA-containing cFn. Recombinant Scl1 proteins that bound cFn also bound recombinant EDA within the C-C′ loop region recognized by the α9β1 integrin. The extracellular 2-D matrix derived from human dermal fibroblasts supports GAS adherence and biofilm formation. Altogether, this work identifies and characterizes a novel molecular mechanism by which GAS utilizes Scl1 to specifically target an extracellular matrix component that is predominantly expressed at the site of injury in order to secure host tissue colonization. PMID:23217101

  14. Locus of Control and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eNeymotin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the developed world, the hazards associated with obesity have largely outstripped the risk of starvation. Obesity remains a difficult public health issue to address, due in large part to the many disciplines involved. A full understanding requires knowledge in the fields of genetics, endocrinology, psychology, sociology, economics, and public policy – among others. In this short review, which serves as an introduction to the Frontiers in Endocrinology research topic, we address one cross-disciplinary relationship: the interaction between the hunger/satiation neural circuitry, an individual’s perceived locus of control, and the risk for obesity. Mammals have evolved a complex system for modulating energy intake. Overlaid on this, in humans, there exists a wide variation in perceived locus of control – that is, the extent to which an individual believes to be in charge of the events that affect them. Whether one has primarily an internal or external locus of control itself affects, and is affected by, external and physiological factors and has been correlated with the risk for obesity. Thus, the path from hunger and satiation to an individual’s actual behavior may often be moderated by psychological factors, included among which is locus of control.

  15. Locus of control and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymotin, Florence; Nemzer, Louis R

    2014-01-01

    In the developed world, the hazards associated with obesity have largely outstripped the risk of starvation. Obesity remains a difficult public health issue to address, due in large part to the many disciplines involved. A full understanding requires knowledge in the fields of genetics, endocrinology, psychology, sociology, economics, and public policy - among others. In this short review, which serves as an introduction to the Frontiers in Endocrinology research topic, we address one cross-disciplinary relationship: the interaction between the hunger/satiation neural circuitry, an individual's perceived locus of control, and the risk for obesity. Mammals have evolved a complex system for modulating energy intake. Overlaid on this, in humans, there exists a wide variation in "perceived locus of control" - that is, the extent to which an individual believes to be in charge of the events that affect them. Whether one has primarily an internal or external locus of control itself affects, and is affected by, external and physiological factors and has been correlated with the risk for obesity. Thus, the path from hunger and satiation to an individual's actual behavior may often be moderated by psychological factors, included among which is locus of control.

  16. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maremmani, Icro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Pacini, Matteo; Bizzarri, Jacopo V; Trogu, Emanuela; Maremmani, Angelo Gi; Gerra, Gilberto; Perugi, Giulio; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2010-04-13

    Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90), we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females) aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. A total of 150 (14.2%) patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4%) had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4%) interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3%) panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7%) violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.

  17. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maremmani Icro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90, we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2% patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4% had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4% interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3% panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7% violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.

  18. Relationship of locus of control, psychological distress, and trauma exposure in groups impacted by intense political conflict in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Vasiliki; Gadallah, Mohsen; Leon, Gloria R; Massou, Efthalia; Prodromitis, Gerasimos; Skembris, Angelos; Levett, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Social and political instability have become common situations in many parts of the world. Exposure to different types of traumatic circumstances may differentially affect psychological status. The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between personal perceptions of control over the events happening in one's life and psychological distress in two groups who experienced physical trauma but differed as to whether the trauma was a result of political upheaval and violence. Views on the extent to which the state was interested in the individual were also assessed. The sample consisted of 120 patients who were injured in the Cairo epicenter and 120 matched controls from the greater Cairo area whose injuries were from other causes. The Brown Locus of Control Scale and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL 90-R) were administered approximately three months after the January 2011 start of the demonstrations and subsequent overthrow of the government. The groups did not differ on locus of control. For both groups, externality was associated with greater distress, suggesting a relationship between perceived helplessness in controlling one's life and distress. The Cairo group scored significantly higher than the control group on the SCL 90-R Global Severity Index (GSI) and Positive Symptom Total (PST). Perceptions of state interest in the population were low; overall, 78% viewed the state as having little or no interest in them. Discussion The relationship between exposure intensity and psychological distress is examined. In addition, differences in findings in populations experiencing political chaos compared with other types of disasters are considered. Beliefs regarding personal control over one's life circumstances are more closely associated with psychological distress than the circumstances in which the trauma occurred.

  19. The Ties that Bind (the Igh Locus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krangel, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus V(D)J recombination requires a 3D chromatin organization which permits widely distributed variable (V) gene segments to contact distant diversity (D) and joining (J) gene segments. A recent study has identified key nodes in the locus interactome, paving the way for new molecular insights into how the locus is configured for recombination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Locus: mede-ontwikkelaar van inclusieve arbeidsorganisaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukema, Leni; de Lange, Annet; Wielenga-Meijer, Etty; Duijker, Theo; Hanstede, Bram

    2018-01-01

    in deze bijdrage wordt Locus beschreven, een netwerk waarin publieke partijen en grote, landelijk opererende bedrijven samenwerken om mensen met een afstand tot de arbeidsmarkt duurzaam aan het werk te helpen. Het hoofdstuk start met de ontstaansgeschiedenis en benadering van Locus. Vervolgens wordt

  1. Macrophages/Microglie et formes progressives dans la sclérose en plaques Analyse histologique et moléculaire

    OpenAIRE

    Chanal , Marie

    2010-01-01

    La sclérose en plaques (SEP) est une pathologie inflammatoire chronique du système nerveux central (SNC) impliquant des interactions neuro-immunologiques de nature et d’intensité variées. Chez les patients atteints d’une forme progressive de SEP, la perte axonale diffuse est actuellement considérée comme l’élément majeur du handicap neurologique irréversible. L’implication de l’inflammation diffuse dans le développement de cette perte axonale est fortement suspectée. Néanmoins la responsabili...

  2. EL LOCUS DE DISTRIBUCION COMO COROLARIO DEL LOCUS DE CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Mayoral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este es un artículo científico acerca del Locus de Distribución, surgido de un estudio realizado con una población de docentes y alumnos universitarios. Respecto de los primeros, se ha indagado acerca de las atribuciones que se realizaban en torno a las recompensas y sanciones, que ellos distribuían a sus alumnos. Respecto de los segundos, se ha buscado determinar la valoración que estos realizaban de sus profesores, en términos de aquellas atribuciones. Para ello, se utilizaron dos paradigmas clásicamente empleados para verificar la existencia de una norma: el paradigma de la autopresentación (docentes, y el paradigma de los juicios (alumnos. La cuestión planteada fue determinar si en el caso de los comportamientos distributivos de refuerzos, las causas se atribuían a variables externas -en particular a los receptores de esos refuerzos- y si esas formas de atribución eran conocidas y valoradas o no, por los alumnos. De los resultados, surgió la confirmación de nuestra hipótesis de explicaciones externas en materia de comportamientos distributivos de sanciones en el ámbito de la docencia y la valoración positiva de estas atribuciones por los alumnos.

  3. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  4. The Relationship Between Job Stress, Job Satisfaction, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R in Marine Officers on Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hee Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the relationships among job stress, job satisfaction, and mental health in marine officers. Methods The researchers gathered data on marine officers working at a harbor in Chungcheong Province, South Korea, using a self-reported questionnaire. Mental health was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R, and general characteristics including socioeconomic factors, job stress, and job satisfaction were measured by structured questionnaires. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationships among job stress, job satisfaction, and mental health status according to the symptom dimensions of the SCL-90-R. Results Among the marine officers, obsessive-compulsive behavior, depression, and somatization were the most problematic symptoms. Those who reported poor health, low job satisfaction, and high job stress had a higher prevalence of psychoticism, somatization, depression, anxiety, and phobic anxiety. Conclusions An occupational health system should be introduced that would regularly check the mental health of marine officers in charge of ships and sailors, in order to help reduce their stress levels, enhance their job satisfaction, and thereby improve their mental health.

  5. Culture, gender and locus of control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottsen, Christina Lundsgaard; Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The current study is a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender differences in personal goals and how goals are affected by locus of control.......The current study is a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender differences in personal goals and how goals are affected by locus of control....

  6. Locus of control in relation to flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste M Taylor

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of the study was to examine the relationship between locus of control and optimal experience (flow in carrying out work and/or study activities. Two questionnaires measuring the aforementioned constructs were administered to a group of first and second-year Human Resource Management students (n=168 between the ages of 16 and 30. The results suggest that more frequent experience of flow is positively correlated with Autonomy and Internal Locus of Control. Limitations, lines of future research, implications and further contributions are discussed.

  7. The LOCUS interface to the MFE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miner, W.H. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The MFE database now consists of over 900 shots from TFTR, PDX, PLT, T-10, JT-60, TEXT, JET and ASDEX. A variety of discharge conditions is represented, ranging from single time slice Ohmic discharges to multiple time-slice auxiliary heated discharges. Included with most datasets is a reference that describes the experiment being performed when the data was taken. The MFE database is currently implemented under INGRES on a VAX that is on Internet. LOCUS, a database utility, developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is now available as an interface to the database. The LOCUS front end provides a graphic interface to the database from any generic graphics terminal that supports Tektronix 4010 emulation. It provides a variety of procedures for extracting, manipulating and graphing data from the MFE database. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the LOCUS interface, the authors examine, in detail, one of the recently added JET, H-mode discharges. In this example, they address some new concepts such as monitor functions, which have been introduced in order to help users more fully understand the multiple time-slice datasets. They also describe some of the more advanced techniques available in LOCUS for data access and manipulation. Specific areas of interest that are discussed are searching for and retrieving datasets, graphics, data fitting, and linear regression analysis

  8. The Impact of Locus of Control on Language Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…

  9. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest

    The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…

  10. Pleiotropic roles of Clostridium difficile sin locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Junjun; Dupuy, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It produces dormant spores, which serve as an infectious vehicle responsible for transmission of the disease and persistence of the organism in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, the sin locus coding SinR (113 aa) and SinI (57 aa) is responsible for sporulation inhibition. In B. subtilis, SinR mainly acts as a repressor of its target genes to control sporulation, biofilm formation, and autolysis. SinI is an inhibitor of SinR, so their interaction determines whether SinR can inhibit its target gene expression. The C. difficile genome carries two sinR homologs in the operon that we named sinR and sinR’, coding for SinR (112 aa) and SinR’ (105 aa), respectively. In this study, we constructed and characterized sin locus mutants in two different C. difficile strains R20291 and JIR8094, to decipher the locus’s role in C. difficile physiology. Transcriptome analysis of the sinRR’ mutants revealed their pleiotropic roles in controlling several pathways including sporulation, toxin production, and motility in C. difficile. Through various genetic and biochemical experiments, we have shown that SinR can regulate transcription of key regulators in these pathways, which includes sigD, spo0A, and codY. We have found that SinR’ acts as an antagonist to SinR by blocking its repressor activity. Using a hamster model, we have also demonstrated that the sin locus is needed for successful C. difficile infection. This study reveals the sin locus as a central link that connects the gene regulatory networks of sporulation, toxin production, and motility; three key pathways that are important for C. difficile pathogenesis. PMID:29529083

  11. The algebraic locus of Feynman integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Kol, Barak

    2016-01-01

    In the Symmetries of Feynman Integrals (SFI) approach, a diagram's parameter space is foliated by orbits of a Lie group associated with the diagram. SFI is related to the important methods of Integrations By Parts and of Differential Equations. It is shown that sometimes there exist a locus in parameter space where the set of SFI differential equations degenerates into an algebraic equation, thereby enabling a solution in terms of integrals associated with degenerations of the diagram. This i...

  12. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Vasculopathie artérielle dans la sclérodermie systémique. Caractéristiques micro- et macrovasculaire de l’angioscanner des artères des membres supérieurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emad, Y.; Al-Sherbeni, H.; Ragab, Y.; Abo-El-Youn, I.; El Shaarawy, Nashwa; Nassar, D.Y.; Fathy, Ahmed; Al-Hanafi, H.; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectifs Décrire les résultats de l’angioscanner de la vasculopathie artérielle des gros vaisseaux ainsi que des petits et moyens vaisseaux de l’ensemble de l’arbre vasculaire des membres supérieurs chez les patients porteurs d’une sclérodermie systémique (ScS) avec ou sans ulcération digitale.

  14. Locus of control and online learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suretha Esterhuysen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The integration of online learning in university courses is considered to be both inevitable and necessary. Thus there is an increasing need to raise awareness among educators and course designers about the critical issues impacting on online learning. The aim of this study, therefore, was to assess the differences between two groups of first-year Business Sciences learners (online and conventional learners in terms of biographic and demographic characteristics and locus of control. The study population consisted of 586 first-year learners of whom 185 completed the Locus of Control Inventory (LCI. The results show that the two groups of learners do not differ statistically significantly from each other with respect to locus of control. The findings and their implications are also discussed. Opsomming Die integrasie van aanlyn-leer in universiteitskursusse word beskou as sowel onafwendbaar as noodsaaklik. Daar is dus ’n toenemende behoefte om bewustheid onder opvoedkundiges en kursusontwerpers te kweek oor die kritiese aspekte wat ’n impak op aanlyn-leer het (Morgan, 1996. Daarom was die doel van hierdie ondersoek om die verskille tussen twee groepe eerstejaarleerders in Bestuurs- en Ekonomiese Wetenskap (aanlyn en konvensionele leerders te bepaal ten opsigte van biografiese en demografiese eienskappe en lokus van beheer. Die populasie het bestaan uit 586 eerstejaarleerders waarvan 185 die Lokus van Beheer Vraelys voltooi het. Die resultate toon dat die twee groepe leerders nie statisties beduidend van mekaar verskil het met betrekking tot lokus van beheer nie. Die bevindinge en implikasies word ook bespreek.

  15. Designing Epigenome Editors: Considerations of Biochemical and Locus Specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Dilara; Keung, Albert J

    2018-01-01

    The advent of locus-specific protein recruitment technologies has enabled a new class of studies in chromatin biology. Epigenome editors enable biochemical modifications of chromatin at almost any specific endogenous locus. Their locus specificity unlocks unique information including the functional roles of distinct modifications at specific genomic loci. Given the growing interest in using these tools for biological and translational studies, there are many specific design considerations depending on the scientific question or clinical need. Here we present and discuss important design considerations and challenges regarding the biochemical and locus specificities of epigenome editors. These include how to account for the complex biochemical diversity of chromatin; control for potential interdependency of epigenome editors and their resultant modifications; avoid sequestration effects; quantify the locus specificity of epigenome editors; and improve locus specificity by considering concentration, affinity, avidity, and sequestration effects.

  16. Cut Locus Construction using Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Anton, François

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for appproximating cut loci for a given point p on Riemannian 2D manifolds, closely related to the notion of Voronoi diagrams. Our method finds the cut locus by advecting a front of points equally distant from p along the geodesics originating at p and finding...... the domain to have disk topology. We test our method for tori of revolution and compare our results to the benchmark ones from [2]. The method, however, is generic and can be easily adapted to construct cut loci for other manifolds of genera other than 1....

  17. Relationships between locus of control and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Robert W; Davis, Jessica Boyette

    2004-06-01

    The present study investigated the associations between scores on paranormal beliefs, locus of control, and certain psychological processes such as affect and cognitions as measured by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Analysis yielded significant correlations between scores on Locus of Control and two subscales of Tobacyk's (1988) Revised Paranormal Beliefs Scale, New Age Philosophy and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs. A step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that Locus of Control was significantly related to New Age Philosophy. Other correlations were found between Tobacyk's subscales, Locus of Control, and three processes measured by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count.

  18. Impact of locus of control on health message effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ying; Shen, Fuyuan

    2011-10-01

    This article examined how individuals' locus of control might moderate the effect of health message frames. An experiment was conducted whereby participants read either individual- or social-responsibility message frames after their locus of control was primed. Results indicated that messages presented in individual-responsibility frames were more persuasive when people were primed with internal locus of control, whereas social-responsibility framed appeals were more persuasive when people were primed with external locus of control. These results were found for individuals in both high and low cognitive load conditions. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Locus - ASTRA | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/astra/LATEST/astra_locus.zip File size: 887 KB Simple search URL htt...icing type (ex. cassette) About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Locus - ASTRA | LSDB Archive ...

  20. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  1. Metacognition: As a Predictor of One's Academic Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Serhat; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of metacognition on one's academic locus of control. The study's sample group consists of 451 university students enrolled in various programs at Sakarya University, Turkey. In this study, the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and the Academic Locus of Control Scale were used. The correlations and…

  2. Personality and Locus of Control among School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

  3. Physical Attractiveness, Locus of Control, Sex Role, and Conversational Assertiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Keith F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship among physical attractiveness, locus of control, sex role orientation, and assertiveness in undergraduate students. Reviews videotapes of mixed-sex student groups engaged in discussion. Finds an internal locus of control positively correlated with assertiveness. Uses a behavioral measure of assertiveness rather than…

  4. Locus of control and investment in risky assets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca Acosta, N.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.; Montizaan, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Using representative household panel data, we show that the investment behavior of households is related to the economic locus of control of household heads. A household’s internal locus of control in economic issues is positively related to its decision to hold risky assets as well as its share of

  5. Locus of control and investment in risky assets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca, N.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.; Montizaan, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Using representative household panel data, we show that the investment behavior of households is related to the economic locus of control of household heads. A household's internal locus of control in economic issues is positively related to its decision to hold risky assets as well as its share of

  6. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  7. Escala de Locus de controle ELCO/TELEBRÁS Scale of Locus of control - ELCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Pasquali

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Com base na teoria de Rotter e Escala de Levenson foi elaborada uma escala de Locus de Controle Organizacional (ELCO, composta por 28 itens. A escala foi validada com uma amostra de 350 empregados do Sistema Telebrás. Verificou-se a presença dos 2 fatores previstos na teoria, a saber: internalidade e externalidade, aparecendo a escala de externalidade, com 18 itens, bem estruturada (alfa = 0.81 e a de internalidade, com 10 itens, deixando a desejar no que se refere à consistência interna (alfa = 0.66. Com os dados desta pesquisa foi feita também análise do Locus de Controle desses mesmos empregados. A constatação mais saliente foi a de que o nível de internalidade caiu com o aumento do nível escolar e o aumento da experiência profissional desses mesmos empregados. Estes resultados surpreendentes foram interpretados em termos da situação típica da empresa, que está passando por um período de transição, a saber: a passagem da condição de empresa estatal para empresa privada, o que seria motivo da perda de confiança dos empregados na própria competência, particularmente por parte daqueles com maior competência intelectual e maior experiência profissional. Fez-se igualmente reparos na qualidade psicométrica da escala e da própria teoria do Locus de controle, no sentido de que esta precisa ser melhor axiomatizada para possibilitar a elaboração de escalas mais precisas para a medida dos construtos que propõe.A scale with 28 items, the Organizational Locus of Control (ELCO, was built based on Rotter’s theory and Levenson’s scale. ELCO was validated on a sample of 350 employees of Telebrás, a governmental firm in Brazil. As foreseen from the theory, a principal-axis factoring showed the presence of the expected two factors, namely internal and external locus of control. The external locus of control factor, composed of 18 items, showed good internal consistency (alpha =.81 whereas the internal factor, with 10 items

  8. Health Locus of Control尺度開発の歴史(社会科学編)

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 由美; Yumi, YOSHIDA; 千葉県立衛生短期大学(看護学); Chiba College of Health Science

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the origins history of Health Locus of Control scales. First, Rotter's social learing theory, which is the theoretical background of the Health Locus of Control construct, is outlined. The scale and research trends of Locus of Control concept, and those of Health Locus of Control concept which are based on Locus of Control, are then reviewed. Finally, Health Locus of Control is discussed with regard to the implications for health education.

  9. Study on cell survival, induction of apoptosis and micronucleus formation in SCL-II and RTiV3 cells after exposure to the Auger electron emitter Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadenbach, K.; Kriehuber, R.; Weiss, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cell survival, induction of apoptosis and micronucleus (MN) formation have been investigated in the human squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCL-II and in the rat tracheal cell line RTiV3 after exposure to the Auger electron emitter Tc-99m. Cells were either acutely gamma(Co-60)-irradiated (0.78 Gy/min) or exposed to Tc-99m-Pertechnetate (25-300 MBq/20ml) for 24 h under cell culture conditions and assayed for cell survival (Colony-forming assay), micronucleus formation (Cytochalasin B assay) and the frequency of apoptotic cells (Fluorescence microscopy). Analytical dosimetrical models have been applied to derive the absorbed dose corresponding to the accumulated decays of Tc-99m. Absorbed doses up to 1.3 Gy could be achieved after Tc-99m exposure leading to no significant cell killing in this dose range except at one dose point (0.25 Gy) in SCL-II cells. MN formation was consistently lower when compared to Co-60 irradiated cells and showed a linear dose-response. The apoptotic response in SCL-II cells after Tc-99m exposure was described best by a 3rd order polynomial and increased apoptosis induction could be observed at much lower doses (0.25 Gy) in comparison to the reference radiation (0.8 Gy). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) has been determined for MN formation and apoptosis induction and was found to be in the range of 0.1- 1.3 for both investigated biological endpoints, depending on which mathematical model for describing the dose-effect curve was used. Up-take experiments revealed an activity concentration ratio cells vs. medium of 1.2 after 16 h up to 24 h of exposure. No increased biological effectiveness of Tc-99m applied as Sodium-Pertechnetate could be observed in the investigated cell lines in comparison to gamma-irradiation. Induction of apoptosis is slightly increased after Tc-99m exposure in SCL-II cells and it has to be further evaluated, if this is due to the emitted Auger-component. A passive up-take mechanism of Tc-99m is

  10. EL LOCUS DE DISTRIBUCION COMO COROLARIO DEL LOCUS DE CONTROL (THE LOCUS OF DISTRIBUTION AS A COROLLARY TO THE LOCUS OF CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayoral Luisa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este es un artículo científico acerca del Locus de Distribución, surgido de un estudio realizado con una población de docentes y alumnos universitarios. Respecto de los primeros, se ha indagado acerca de las atribuciones que se realizaban en torno a las recompensas y sanciones, que ellos distribuían a sus alumnos.Respecto de los segundos, se ha buscado determinar la valoración que estos realizaban de sus profesores, en términos de aquellas atribuciones. Para ello, se utilizaron dos paradigmas clásicamente empleados para verificar la existencia de una norma: el paradigma de la autopresentación (docentes, y el paradigma de los j uicios (alumnos. La cuestión planteada fue determinar si en el caso de los comportamientos distributivos de refuerzos, las causas se atribuían a variables externas -en particular a los receptores de esos refuerzos- y si esas formas de atribución eran conocidas y valoradas o no, por los alumnos. De los resultados, surgió la confirmación de nuestra hipótesis de explicaciones externas en materia de comportamientos distributivos de sanciones en el ámbito de la docencia y la valoración positiva de estas atribuciones por los alumnos.Abstract:This one is a scientific article brings over of the Locus of Distribution, arisen from a study realized with a population of teachers and university pupils. Respect of the first ones, it has been investigated brings over of the attributions that were concerning around the reinforcements which they were distributing to pupils. Respect of the second ones, one has sought to determine the valuation that these realized of the teachers, in terms of those attributions. For it, two paradigms were in use classic used to check the existence of a norm: the paradigm of the auto-presentation (teachers, and the paradigm of the judgments (pupils The raised question was to determine if in case of the distributive behaviours of reinforcements, the reasons were assuming to external

  11. Relation of organizational citizenship behavior and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, David L; Bacon, Calvin M

    2009-12-01

    The relation of organizational citizenship behavior and locus of control was assessed in a sample of 286 college students (52% men; M age = 24 yr.) who worked an average of 26 hr. per week. Measures were Spector's Work Locus of Control Scale and Podsakoff, et al.'s Organization Citizenship Behavior scale. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated positive association of scores on work locus of control with scores on each of the four tested dimensions of organizational citizenship, as well as total organizational citizenship behavior.

  12. Autism, fever, epigenetics and the locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, Mark F; Purpura, Dominick P

    2009-03-01

    Some children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit improved behaviors and enhanced communication during febrile episodes. We hypothesize that febrigenesis and the behavioral-state changes associated with fever in autism depend upon selective normalization of key components of a functionally impaired locus coeruleus-noradrenergic (LC-NA) system. We posit that autistic behaviors result from developmental dysregulation of LC-NA system specification and neural network deployment and modulation linked to the core behavioral features of autism. Fever transiently restores the modulatory functions of the LC-NA system and ameliorates autistic behaviors. Fever-induced reversibility of autism suggests preserved functional integrity of widespread neural networks subserving the LC-NA system and specifically the subsystems involved in mediating the cognitive and behavioral repertoires compromised in ASD. Alterations of complex gene-environmental interactions and associated epigenetic mechanisms during seminal developmental critical periods are viewed as instrumental in LC-NA dysregulation as emphasized by the timing and severity of prenatal maternal stressors on autism prevalence. Our hypothesis has implications for a rational approach to further interrogate the interdisciplinary etiology of ASD and for designing novel biological detection systems and therapeutic agents that target the LC-NA system's diverse network of pre- and postsynaptic receptors, intracellular signaling pathways and dynamic epigenetic remodeling processes involved in their regulation and functional plasticity.

  13. A locus for isolated cataract on human Xp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, P J; Berry, V; Hardcastle, A J; Maher, E R; Moore, A T; Bhattacharya, S S

    2002-02-01

    To genetically map the gene causing isolated X linked cataract in a large European pedigree. Using the patient registers at Birmingham Women's Hospital, UK, we identified and examined 23 members of a four generation family with nuclear cataract. Four of six affected males also had complex congenital heart disease. Pedigree data were collated and leucocyte DNA extracted from venous blood. Linkage analysis by PCR based microsatellite marker genotyping was used to identify the disease locus and mutations within candidate genes screened by direct sequencing. The disease locus was genetically refined to chromosome Xp22, within a 3 cM linkage interval flanked by markers DXS9902 and DXS999 (Zmax=3.64 at theta=0 for marker DXS8036). This is the first report of a locus for isolated inherited cataract on the X chromosome. The disease interval lies within the Nance-Horan locus suggesting allelic heterogeneity. The apparent association with congenital cardiac anomalies suggests a possible new oculocardiac syndrome.

  14. Multidimensional profiles of health locus of control in Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Brian R; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2016-10-01

    Latent profile analysis identified health locus of control profiles among 436 Hispanic Americans who completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales. Results revealed four profiles: Internally Oriented-Weak, -Moderate, -Strong, and Externally Oriented. The profile groups were compared on sociocultural and demographic characteristics, health beliefs and behaviors, and physical and mental health outcomes. The Internally Oriented-Strong group had less cancer fatalism, religiosity, and equity health attributions, and more alcohol consumption than the other three groups; the Externally Oriented group had stronger equity health attributions and less alcohol consumption. Deriving multidimensional health locus of control profiles through latent profile analysis allows examination of the relationships of health locus of control subtypes to health variables. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. 240 INFLUENCES OF PEER RELATIONS AND LOCUS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financial recklessness is a behavior that has far reaching negative .... between consumer financial knowledge, income and locus of control on financial ... Their interactions with their peers increased their internal motivations and thus helped.

  16. Emotional intelligence and locus of control of adult patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-15

    Mar 15, 2011 ... Keywords: breast cancer, treatment, positive psychology, emotional intelligence, locus of control ... branches are organised in a hierarchy with perception of ..... Asian. Development Bank Knowledge Solutions [serial online].

  17. LOCUS OF CONTROL AND JOB SATISFACTION: PSU EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshman Vijayashree

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research studies have demonstrated that internal/external locus of control impacts jobsatisfaction. The present study thus aims to analyze type of locus of control and its relation with jobsatisfaction. The study will be of great help for organization to understand and know what type oflocus of control their employees has and how it has an impact on job satisfaction.The objectives of this study were: 1- To identify the type of Locus of Control (i.e. Internal orExternal present in Public Sector Units (PSU in Bangalore and 2- To analyze the impact of differenttype of Locus of Control on job satisfaction of PSU Employees. Further hypothesis was also set tocheck the relationship between locus of control and job satisfaction. In addition, the relationshipbetween different demographic factors was also examined. The tool used for this study was LocoInventory. The concept of locus of control by Levenson (1972 was used to develop Loco Inventory(Locus of Control in Organization Inventory. The survey used a questionnaire, which had thirty fivestatements which highlights the factors that determine the locus of control and job satisfaction levelof the employees. The Ratio, ANOVA, and Correlation analysis were used as statistical techniquesfor analysis.The results indicate that there is a positive correlation between internal locus of control and jobsatisfaction as well as between External (other locus of control and job satisfaction. And in case ofExternal (Chance locus of control and job satisfaction there exists partial positive correlation. As perthis study Job satisfaction level among the employees is also good as the mean is 17, which is closerto maximum scale value of 25. As per ANOVA table there is a significant variance betweeninternality and age as well as between externality (chance and age. There is no significantrelationship between internality and demographic factors like gender and education. There is nosignificant relationship between

  18. The relationship between locus of control and career advancement

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (Industrial Psychology) The objective which career of this study advancement is was to investigate the extent to contingent on the personality construct locus of control. In order to achieve this, empirical research was conducted in a South African organisation. A survey questionnaire measuring career advancement and locus of control was completed by 152 subjects. The hypothesis which was formulated was that people with higher rates of career advancement would be more internal and t...

  19. Analysis of the ABCA4 genomic locus in Stargardt disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zernant, Jana; Xie, Yajing Angela; Ayuso, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    excluded since they were not conserved in non-human primates, were frequent in African populations and, therefore, represented ancestral, and not disease-associated, variants. The sequence variability in the ABCA4 locus is extensive and the non-coding sequences do not harbor frequent mutations in STGD...... patients of European-American descent. Defining disease-associated alleles in the ABCA4 locus requires exceptionally well characterized large cohorts and extensive analyses by a combination of various approaches....

  20. Science Study For A Low Cost Upper Atmosphere Sounder (LOCUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Ellison, B. N.; Siddans, R.; Kerridge, B. J.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.

    2013-12-01

    We present the findings of an initial science study to define the spectral bands for the proposed Mesosphere / Lower Thermosphere (MLT) sounder LOCUS. The LOCUS mission (Fig 1) uses disruptive technologies to make key MLT species detectable globally by satellite remote sensing for the first time. This presentation summarises the technological and scientific foundation on which the current 4-band Terahertz (THz) and sub- millimetre wave (SMW) instrument configuration was conceived.

  1. Fixation probability in a two-locus intersexual selection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Guillermo; Lessard, Sabin

    2016-06-01

    We study a two-locus model of intersexual selection in a finite haploid population reproducing according to a discrete-time Moran model with a trait locus expressed in males and a preference locus expressed in females. We show that the probability of ultimate fixation of a single mutant allele for a male ornament introduced at random at the trait locus given any initial frequency state at the preference locus is increased by weak intersexual selection and recombination, weak or strong. Moreover, this probability exceeds the initial frequency of the mutant allele even in the case of a costly male ornament if intersexual selection is not too weak. On the other hand, the probability of ultimate fixation of a single mutant allele for a female preference towards a male ornament introduced at random at the preference locus is increased by weak intersexual selection and weak recombination if the female preference is not costly, and is strong enough in the case of a costly male ornament. The analysis relies on an extension of the ancestral recombination-selection graph for samples of haplotypes to take into account events of intersexual selection, while the symbolic calculation of the fixation probabilities is made possible in a reasonable time by an optimizing algorithm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-locus linkage analysis in multiple sclerosis (MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tienari, P.J. (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland) Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. (Columbia Univ., New York (United States)); Palo, J. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)); Peltonen, L. (National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland))

    1994-01-15

    One of the major challenges in genetic linkage analyses is the study of complex diseases. The authors demonstrate here the use of two-locus linkage analysis in multiple sclerosis (MS), a multifactorial disease with a complex mode of inheritance. In a set of Finnish multiplex families, they have previously found evidence for linkage between MS susceptibility and two independent loci, the myelin basic protein gene (MBP) on chromosome 18 and the HLA complex on chromosome 6. This set of families provides a unique opportunity to perform linkage analysis conditional on two loci contributing to the disease. In the two-trait-locus/two-marker-locus analysis, the presence of another disease locus is parametrized and the analysis more appropriately treats information from the unaffected family member than single-disease-locus analysis. As exemplified here in MS, the two-locus analysis can be a powerful method for investigating susceptibility loci in complex traits, best suited for analysis of specific candidate genes, or for situations in which preliminary evidence for linkage already exists or is suggested. 41 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A

    1992-06-01

    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.

  5. DNA modification study of major depressive disorder: beyond locus-by-locus comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gabriel; Wang, Sun-Chong; Pal, Mrinal; Chen, Zheng Fei; Khare, Tarang; Tochigi, Mamoru; Ng, Catherine; Yang, Yeqing A; Kwan, Andrew; Kaminsky, Zachary A; Mill, Jonathan; Gunasinghe, Cerisse; Tackett, Jennifer L; Gottesman, Irving I; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Vink, Jacqueline M; Slagboom, P Eline; Wray, Naomi R; Heath, Andrew C; Montgomery, Grant W; Turecki, Gustavo; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I; McGuffin, Peter; Kustra, Rafal; Petronis, Art

    2015-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibits numerous clinical and molecular features that are consistent with putative epigenetic misregulation. Despite growing interest in epigenetic studies of psychiatric diseases, the methodologies guiding such studies have not been well defined. We performed DNA modification analysis in white blood cells from monozygotic twins discordant for MDD, in brain prefrontal cortex, and germline (sperm) samples from affected individuals and control subjects (total N = 304) using 8.1K CpG island microarrays and fine mapping. In addition to the traditional locus-by-locus comparisons, we explored the potential of new analytical approaches in epigenomic studies. In the microarray experiment, we detected a number of nominally significant DNA modification differences in MDD and validated selected targets using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Some MDD epigenetic changes, however, overlapped across brain, blood, and sperm more often than expected by chance. We also demonstrated that stratification for disease severity and age may increase the statistical power of epimutation detection. Finally, a series of new analytical approaches, such as DNA modification networks and machine-learning algorithms using binary and quantitative depression phenotypes, provided additional insights on the epigenetic contributions to MDD. Mapping epigenetic differences in MDD (and other psychiatric diseases) is a complex task. However, combining traditional and innovative analytical strategies may lead to identification of disease-specific etiopathogenic epimutations. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  6. Mutation at the Human D1S80 Minisatellite Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppareddi Balamurugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the general biology of minisatellites. The purpose of this study is to examine repeat mutations from the D1S80 minisatellite locus by sequence analysis to elucidate the mutational process at this locus. This is a highly polymorphic minisatellite locus, located in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 1. We have analyzed 90,000 human germline transmission events and found seven (7 mutations at this locus. The D1S80 alleles of the parentage trio, the child, mother, and the alleged father were sequenced and the origin of the mutation was determined. Using American Association of Blood Banks (AABB guidelines, we found a male mutation rate of 1.04×10-4 and a female mutation rate of 5.18×10-5 with an overall mutation rate of approximately 7.77×10-5. Also, in this study, we found that the identified mutations are in close proximity to the center of the repeat array rather than at the ends of the repeat array. Several studies have examined the mutational mechanisms of the minisatellites according to infinite allele model (IAM and the one-step stepwise mutation model (SMM. In this study, we found that this locus fits into the one-step mutation model (SMM mechanism in six out of seven instances similar to STR loci.

  7. Inferring Demographic History Using Two-Locus Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, Aaron P; Gutenkunst, Ryan N

    2017-06-01

    Population demographic history may be learned from contemporary genetic variation data. Methods based on aggregating the statistics of many single loci into an allele frequency spectrum (AFS) have proven powerful, but such methods ignore potentially informative patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between neighboring loci. To leverage such patterns, we developed a composite-likelihood framework for inferring demographic history from aggregated statistics of pairs of loci. Using this framework, we show that two-locus statistics are more sensitive to demographic history than single-locus statistics such as the AFS. In particular, two-locus statistics escape the notorious confounding of depth and duration of a bottleneck, and they provide a means to estimate effective population size based on the recombination rather than mutation rate. We applied our approach to a Zambian population of Drosophila melanogaster Notably, using both single- and two-locus statistics, we inferred a substantially lower ancestral effective population size than previous works and did not infer a bottleneck history. Together, our results demonstrate the broad potential for two-locus statistics to enable powerful population genetic inference. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Bivalent promoter marks and a latent enhancer may prime the leukaemia oncogene LMO1 for ectopic expression in T-cell leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, S H; Thoms, J; Sive, J I; Calero-Nieto, F J; Kinston, S J; Schütte, J; Knezevic, K; Lock, R B; Pimanda, J E; Göttgens, B

    2013-06-01

    LMO1 is a transcriptional regulator and a T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) oncogene. Although first identified in association with a chromosomal translocation in T-ALL, the ectopic expression of LMO1 occurs far more frequently in the absence of any known mutation involving its locus. Given that LMO1 is barely expressed in any haematopoietic lineage, and activation of transcriptional drivers in leukaemic cells is not well described, we investigated the regulation of this gene in normal haematopoietic and leukaemic cells. We show that LMO1 has two promoters that drive reporter gene expression in transgenic mice to neural tissues known to express endogenous LMO1. The LMO1 promoters display bivalent histone marks in multiple blood lineages including T-cells, and a 3' flanking region at LMO1 +57 contains a transcriptional enhancer that is active in developing blood cells in transgenic mouse embryos. The LMO1 promoters become activated in T-ALL together with the 3' enhancer, which is bound in primary T-ALL cells by SCL/TAL1 and GATA3. Taken together, our results show that LMO1 is poised for expression in normal progenitors, where activation of SCL/TAL1 together with a breakdown of epigenetic repression of LMO1 regulatory elements induces ectopic LMO1 expression that contributes to the development and maintenance of T-ALL.

  9. Locus-specific view of flax domestication history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Diederichsen, Axel; Allaby, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    Crop domestication has been inferred genetically from neutral markers and increasingly from specific domestication-associated loci. However, some crops are utilized for multiple purposes that may or may not be reflected in a single domestication-associated locus. One such example is cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the earliest oil and fiber crop, for which domestication history remains poorly understood. Oil composition of cultivated flax and pale flax (L. bienne Mill.) indicates that the sad2 locus is a candidate domestication locus associated with increased unsaturated fatty acid production in cultivated flax. A phylogenetic analysis of the sad2 locus in 43 pale and 70 cultivated flax accessions established a complex domestication history for flax that has not been observed previously. The analysis supports an early, independent domestication of a primitive flax lineage, in which the loss of seed dispersal through capsular indehiscence was not established, but increased oil content was likely occurred. A subsequent flax domestication process occurred that probably involved multiple domestications and includes lineages that contain oil, fiber, and winter varieties. In agreement with previous studies, oil rather than fiber varieties occupy basal phylogenetic positions. The data support multiple paths of flax domestication for oil-associated traits before selection of the other domestication-associated traits of seed dispersal loss and fiber production. The sad2 locus is less revealing about the origin of winter tolerance. In this case, a single domestication-associated locus is informative about the history of domesticated forms with the associated trait while partially informative on forms less associated with the trait. PMID:22408732

  10. [Observation and analysis on mutation of routine STR locus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-yang; Feng, Wei-jun; Yang, Qin-gen

    2005-05-01

    To observe and analyze the characteristic of mutation at STR locus. 27 mutant genes observed in 1211 paternity testing cases were checked by PAGE-silver stained and PowerPlex 16 System Kit and validated by sequencing. Mutant genes locate on 15 loci. The pattern of mutation was accord with stepwise mutation model. The mutation ratio of male-to-female was 8:1 and correlated to the age of father. Mutation rate is correlated to the geometric mean of the number of homogeneous repeats of locus. The higher the mean, the higher the mutation rate. These loci are not so appropriate for use in paternity testing.

  11. Heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping identifies intra-locus interactions that underlie reproductive hybrid vigor in Sorghum bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Israel, Imri; Kilian, Benjamin; Nida, Habte; Fridman, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Identifying intra-locus interactions underlying heterotic variation among whole-genome hybrids is a key to understanding mechanisms of heterosis and exploiting it for crop and livestock improvement. In this study, we present the development and first use of the heterotic trait locus (HTL) mapping approach to associate specific intra-locus interactions with an overdominant heterotic mode of inheritance in a diallel population using Sorghum bicolor as the model. This method combines the advantages of ample genetic diversity and the possibility of studying non-additive inheritance. Furthermore, this design enables dissecting the latter to identify specific intra-locus interactions. We identified three HTLs (3.5% of loci tested) with synergistic intra-locus effects on overdominant grain yield heterosis in 2 years of field trials. These loci account for 19.0% of the heterotic variation, including a significant interaction found between two of them. Moreover, analysis of one of these loci (hDPW4.1) in a consecutive F2 population confirmed a significant 21% increase in grain yield of heterozygous vs. homozygous plants in this locus. Notably, two of the three HTLs for grain yield are in synteny with previously reported overdominant quantitative trait loci for grain yield in maize. A mechanism for the reproductive heterosis found in this study is suggested, in which grain yield increase is achieved by releasing the compensatory tradeoffs between biomass and reproductive output, and between seed number and weight. These results highlight the power of analyzing a diverse set of inbreds and their hybrids for unraveling hitherto unknown allelic interactions mediating heterosis.

  12. Locus of Control and Technology Adoption in Developing Country Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Blalock, Garrick; Berhane, Guush

    2017-01-01

    and psychological explanations for the low rates of adoption of profitable agricultural technologies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results highlight that improving farmers’ non-cognitive skills (locus of control) may facilitate technology adoption and agricultural transformation. More generally, the results suggest...

  13. AUTOMATIC GENERATION OF ROOT LOCUS PLOTS FOR LINEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and analysis of control systems often become difficult due to the complexity of the system model and the design techniques involved. This paper presents the development of a Tools Box in Microsoft Excel for control engineer that uses root locus as a time domain technique for system design and analysis. The Tool ...

  14. Male-pattern baldness susceptibility locus at 20p11.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, J.B.; Yuan, X.; Geller, F.; Waterworth, D.; Bataille, V.; Glass, D.; Song, K.; Waeber, G.; Vollenweider, P.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Walters, B.; Soranzo, N.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Kong, A.; Rafnar, T.; Deloukas, P.; Sulem, P.; Stefansson, H.; Stefansson, K.; Spector, T.D.; Mooser, V.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study for androgenic alopecia in 1,125 men and identified a newly associated locus at chromosome 20p11.22, confirmed in three independent cohorts (n = 1,650; OR = 1.60, P = 1.1 x 10(-14) for rs1160312). The one man in seven who harbors risk alleles at both

  15. (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coping among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA): influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus of control and gender. ... approach, social support should be in the front burner, society should be sensitized to the importance of social support that is culturally appropriate and behaviour modification focused.

  16. Relationship Among Achievement Motivation, Self-Esteem, Locus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thrust of the study was to examine the relationship among achievement motivation, self-esteem, locus of control and academic performance of university students in a Nigerian University. The purpose was to determine the extent university student\\'s academic performance was influenced by these criterion variables.

  17. Locus of control and learning strategies as predictors of academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the research was to determine the relationships which exist between academic success, learning strategies and locus of control. In order to achieve this aim a small-scale quantitative study, utilising two inventories, was done. The first measuring instrument is the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, which is ...

  18. Y-Chromosome short tandem repeat, typing technology, locus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... Y-Chromosome short tandem repeat, typing technology, locus information and allele frequency in different population: A review. Muhanned Abdulhasan Kareem1, Ameera Omran Hussein2 and Imad Hadi Hameed2*. 1Babylon University, Centre of Environmental Research, Hilla City, Iraq. 2Department of ...

  19. Influence of Locus Control on Real and Perceived Relationships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They included the Nowicki-Strickland Internal – External Locus of Control Scale for children by Nowicki and Strickland (1973) and Emotional – Social Loneliness Inventory by Vincenzi and Grabosky, (1987). A cross sectional survey design was used while regression analysis and multivariate statistics were used in data ...

  20. Screening for genomic rearrangements at BRCA1 locus in Iranian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 1. Screening for genomic rearrangements at BRCA1 locus in Iranian women with breast cancer using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Vahid R. Yassaee Babak Emamalizadeh Mir Davood Omrani. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 1 ...

  1. Gender, Age and Locus of Control as Correlates of Remedial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender, Age and Locus of Control as Correlates of Remedial Learners' Attitude towards English Language. ... These findings have far-reaching implications for adult and non-formal education practitioners and other stakeholders interested in improving the lots of several learners out there, in English language. Keywords: ...

  2. Sex Differences in Locus of Control, Helplessness, Hopelessness, and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkin, Richard A.; And Others

    This experiment investigated: (1) relationships among locus of control, attributional style, and depression; (2) if a depressogenic attributional style could be empirically isolated; and (3) if reliable relationships existed between attribution and depression when depression was operationalized using different instruments. Subjects completed the…

  3. Demographic Determinants of Locus of Control among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Levenson Multidimensional Locus of Control Inventory and a Socio - demographic data collection sheet were used to collect data from 262 (183 males and 79 females) students selected through convenience sampling. Data were th analyzed using the 16th version of the SPPS. Percentages, means, t-test and ANOVA ...

  4. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera : an "unintelligent" design?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilgenburg, Ellen van; Driessen, Gerard; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2006-01-01

    The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid) has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding,

  5. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgenburg, E.; Driessen, G.J.J.; Beukeboom, L.W.

    2006-01-01

    The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid) has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding,

  6. The Influence of Locus of Control on Student Financial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Sonya; Cumbie, Julie A.; Bell, Mary M.

    2013-01-01

    Data on psychological influences of financial behaviors has not been well addressed in student populations, which is concerning given the high levels of general and financial stress experienced by college students. The findings of this study indicate that college students with an external locus of control exhibit the worst financial behaviors.…

  7. Dealing with Malfunction: Locus of Control in Web-Conferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how students deal with malfunctions that occur during the use of web conferencing systems in learning arrangements. In a survey among participants in online courses that make use of a web-conferencing system (N = 129), the relationship between a preference for internal or external locus of control and the perception of…

  8. Influences of peer relations and locus of control on students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effort to checkmate extravagance and maximize gain is the focus of all organizations more in this period of global financial crisis. There is need therefore to checkmate unnecessary financial spending. This study examines the influence of the variables, peer relations and locus of control, on such spending among University ...

  9. Exploring Learner Autonomy: Language Learning Locus of Control in Multilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Ron

    2016-01-01

    By using data from an online language learning beliefs survey (n?=?841), defining language learning experience in terms of participants' multilingualism, and using a domain-specific language learning locus of control (LLLOC) instrument, this article examines whether more experienced language learners can also be seen as more autonomous language…

  10. A multi-locus phylogenetic evaluation of Diaporthe (Phomopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udayanga, D.; Liu, X.; Crous, P.W.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Diaporthe (Phomopsis) includes important plant pathogenic fungi with wide host ranges and geographic distributions. In the present study, phylogenetic species recognition in Diaporthe is re-evaluated using a multi-locus phylogeny based on a combined data matrix of rDNA ITS, and partial

  11. Relationship between internet addiction and academic locus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified the various internet activities engaged in by students in a Nigerian University and examined the relationship between internet addiction and their academic locus of control. The sample was made of 250 students selected from a University in Nigeria. An instrument tagged “Questionnaire on Students' ...

  12. Arousal, exploration and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jepma, Marieke

    2011-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis address a range of topics related to arousal, exploration, temporal attention, and the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. Chapters 2 and 3 report two studies that investigated a recent theory about the role of the LC-NE system in the regulation of the

  13. Locus of Control and Likelihood of Nuclear War: Two Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdahl, Paul; Rounds, James B.

    The Nuclear Locus of Control (NLOC) scales were constructed to assess beliefs as to whether nuclear war and nuclear policy decisions are, or can be, influenced by oneself, powerful others, or chance. Three scales measuring internal, powerful others, and chance nuclear LOC show internal consistency estimates (Cronbach's Alpha) of .87, .76, and .85,…

  14. Strengthening Locus Standi in Human Rights Litigation in Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2016-05-30

    May 30, 2016 ... approach is likely to impact on the right to access to justice and human rights protection. 2. Locus standi ... Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights General Comment 9: The. Domestic .... animosity towards an accused, in bad faith and without any warrant, were to rule that the question raised by ...

  15. Should Farmers' Locus of Control Be Used in Extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuthall, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether Farmers' Locus of Control (LOC) could be useful in agricultural extension programmes to improve managerial ability. This test records a farmer's belief in her/his control over production outcomes. A mail survey of 2300 New Zealand farmers was used to obtain a range of variables, and to measure their LOC using a question set…

  16. DNA marker mining of ILSTS035 microsatellite locus on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We describe tests for detecting and locating quantitative trait loci (QTL) for traits in Hanwoo cattle. From results of a permutation test to detect QTL for marbling, we selected the microsatellite locus ILSTS035 on chromosome 6 for further analysis. K-means clustering analysis applied to five traits and nine DNA markers in ...

  17. Determination of the yield locus by means of temperature measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banabic, D.; Huetink, Han

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical background of the thermo-graphical method of determining the yield locus. The analytical expression of the temperature variation of the specimen deformed in the elastic state is determined starting from the first law of thermodynamics. The experimental method for

  18. Inferring relationships between pairs of individuals from locus heterozygosities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinetti Isabella

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional exact method for inferring relationships between individuals from genetic data is not easily applicable in all situations that may be encountered in several fields of applied genetics. This study describes an approach that gives affordable results and is easily applicable; it is based on the probabilities that two individuals share 0, 1 or both alleles at a locus identical by state. Results We show that these probabilities (zi depend on locus heterozygosity (H, and are scarcely affected by variation of the distribution of allele frequencies. This allows us to obtain empirical curves relating zi's to H for a series of common relationships, so that the likelihood ratio of a pair of relationships between any two individuals, given their genotypes at a locus, is a function of a single parameter, H. Application to large samples of mother-child and full-sib pairs shows that the statistical power of this method to infer the correct relationship is not much lower than the exact method. Analysis of a large database of STR data proves that locus heterozygosity does not vary significantly among Caucasian populations, apart from special cases, so that the likelihood ratio of the more common relationships between pairs of individuals may be obtained by looking at tabulated zi values. Conclusions A simple method is provided, which may be used by any scientist with the help of a calculator or a spreadsheet to compute the likelihood ratios of common alternative relationships between pairs of individuals.

  19. Response to selection in finite locus models with nonadditive effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esfandyari, Hadi; Henryon, Mark; Berg, Peer; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Bijma, Piter; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    2017-01-01

    Under the finite-locus model in the absence of mutation, the additive genetic variation is expected to decrease when directional selection is acting on a population, according to quantitative-genetic theory. However, some theoretical studies of selection suggest that the level of additive

  20. Locus of control and investment in risky assets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca Acosta, Nicolas; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, Didier; Montizaan, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We show that household heads with a strong internal economic locus of control are more likely to hold equity and hold a larger share of equity in their investment portfolio. This relation holds when we control for economic preferences and possible confounders such as financial literacy,

  1. 40 CFR 798.5195 - Mouse biochemical specific locus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-induced variants are bred to determine the genetic nature of the change. (f) Data and reports—(1... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Genetic Toxicity § 798.5195 Mouse...) A biochemical specific locus mutation is a genetic change resulting from a DNA lesion causing...

  2. Emotional intelligence and locus of control of adult patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This article investigates emotional intelligence and locus of control in an adult breast cancer population receiving treatment. Gaining insight into these constructs will contribute to improving breast cancer patients' psychological well-being and to reducing physical vulnerability to disease before and during ...

  3. The Locus of Metaphorical Persuasion: An Empirical Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchon, Jacqueline C.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates whether the locus of persuasion of the metaphor "A is B" lies in the valence of B, as widely assumed, or in the valence of the metaphor ground, what A and B share. Indicates that global affect toward B does not transfer onto A and that metaphorical persuasion is a distinct process meriting further investigation. (SR)

  4. Social support, locus of control, and psychological well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, KI; Buunk, BP; Sanderman, R

    1997-01-01

    Social support seems to be positively related to psychological well-being. Studies have shown that individual differences exist in the ability to mobilize and use sources of support. The current study focused on locus of control as a personality factor that might be related to this ability, In 2

  5. Locus of Control and Neuropsychological Performance in Chronic Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, M. D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined correlated neuropsychological performance in male chronic alcoholics and non-alcoholic controls. Results showed external locus of control (LOC-E) scores to predict performance on neuropsychological tests in alcoholics but not in controls. Suggests the LOC-E variables cannot account for the widespread differences between the groups on…

  6. New distal marker closely linked to the fragile X locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsebos, T. J.; Oostra, B. A.; Broersen, S.; Smits, A.; van Oost, B. A.; Westerveld, A.

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated II-10, a new X-chromosomal probe that identifies a highly informative two-allele TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism at locus DXS466. Using somatic cell hybrids containing distinct portions of the long arm of the X chromosome, we could localize DXS466 between DXS296 and

  7. DMPD: The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10669111 The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. Qur...e The Lps locus: genetic regulation of host responses to bacteriallipopolysaccharide. Authors Qur

  8. [Relationship between work locus of control and occupational stress in oil workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xian-Hai; He, Ya-Hui; Yu, Shan-Fa; Qi, Xiu-Ying

    2008-12-01

    To investigate general states of the work locus of control and explore the relationship between work locus of control and occupational stress in oil workers. 582 oil workers were investigated by using the General Questionnaire and Occupational Stress Measure Inventory. There were significant differences in WCLS score between two age groups (= 30 years old group and locus of control; values of role ambiguity, working prospect, depression and social support were higher in the group of external locus of control (P locus of control had positive relation with role ambiguity, working prospect, depression, and social support, and negative with interpersonal relationship, promotion, participation, task consistency, challenge, job satisfaction, mental health, self-esteem and coping strategies. In the regression analysis, work locus of control was the major predictive factor of work satisfaction. Work locus of control is associated with many occupational stress factors. The group of extrinsic work locus of control experience more stress in oil workers.

  9. The +37 kb Cebpa Enhancer Is Critical for Cebpa Myeloid Gene Expression and Contains Functional Sites that Bind SCL, GATA2, C/EBPα, PU.1, and Additional Ets Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stacy; Guo, Hong; Friedman, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    The murine Cebpa gene contains an evolutionarily conserved 453 bp enhancer located at +37 kb that, together with its promoter, directs expression to myeloid progenitors and to long-term hematopoietic stem cells in transgenic mice. In human acute myeloid leukemia cases, the enhancer lacks point mutations but binds the RUNX1-ETO oncoprotein. The enhancer contains the H3K4me1 and H3K27Ac histone modifications, denoting an active enhancer, at progressively increasing levels as long-term hematopoietic stem cells transition to granulocyte-monocyte progenitors. We previously identified four enhancer sites that bind RUNX1 and demonstrated that their integrity is required for maximal enhancer activity in 32Dcl3 myeloid cells. The +37 kb Cebpa enhancer also contains C/EBP, Ets factor, Myb, GATA, and E-box consensus sites conserved in the human +42 kb CEBPA enhancer. Mutation of the two C/EBP, seven Ets, one Myb, two GATA, or two E-box sites reduces activity of an enhancer-promoter reporter in 32Dcl3 cells. In 293T gel shift assays, exogenous C/EBPα binds both C/EBP sites, c-Myb binds the Myb site, PU.1 binds the second Ets site, PU.1, Fli-1, ERG, and Ets1 bind the sixth Ets site, GATA2 binds both GATA sites, and SCL binds the second E-box. Endogenous hematopoietic RUNX1, PU.1, Fli-1, ERG, C/EBPα, GATA2, and SCL were previously shown to bind the enhancer, and we find that endogenous PU.1 binds the second Ets site in 32Dcl3 cells. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we developed 32Dcl3 lines in which the wild-type enhancer alleles are replaced with a variant mutant in the seven Ets sites. These lines have 20-fold reduced Cebpa mRNA when cultured in IL-3 or G-CSF, demonstrating a critical requirement for enhancer integrity for optimal Cebpa expression. In addition, these results indicate that the +37 kb Cebpa enhancer is the focus of multiple regulatory transcriptional pathways that impact its expression during normal hematopoiesis and potentially during myeloid transformation. PMID:25938608

  10. A cut locus for finite graphs and the farthest point mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddaloni, Alessandro; Zamfirescu, Carol T.

    2016-01-01

    We reflect upon an analogue of the cut locus, a notion classically studied in Differential Geometry, for finite graphs. The cut locus C(x) of a vertex x shall be the graph induced by the set of all vertices y with the property that no shortest path between x and z, z≠y, contains y. The cut locus ...

  11. Reframing Student Affairs Leadership: An Analysis of Organizational Frames of Reference and Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Ashley; Freeman, Jerrid P.

    2011-01-01

    Examined in this study were the identified frames of reference and locus of control used by 478 student affairs administrators. Administrator responses were examined to identify frames of reference most commonly used and their preference order. Locus of control most commonly used and the relationship between frames of reference and locus of…

  12. Locus of Control in Offenders and Alleged Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Wendy; Leggett, Janice; Garrett, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Locus of control can be a useful measure of treatment outcome in offenders from the general population. However, there is little information regarding locus of control and offenders with learning disabilities. Existing measures of locus of control use complex language and abstract ideas that may not be accessible to individuals in this group. A…

  13. Rasch Analysis of the Locus-of-Hope Scale. Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadiana, Leny G.; David, Adonis P.

    2015-01-01

    The Locus-of-Hope Scale (LHS) was developed as a measure of the locus-of-hope dimensions (Bernardo, 2010). The present study adds to the emerging literature on locus-of-hope by assessing the psychometric properties of the LHS using Rasch analysis. The results from the Rasch analyses of the four subscales of LHS provided evidence on the…

  14. On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Shirvan, Majid Elahi

    2011-01-01

    Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of…

  15. Characterization of a Multipeptide Lantibiotic Locus in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricic, Natalie; Anderson, Erica S; Opipari, AnneMarie E; Yu, Emily A; Dawid, Suzanne

    2016-01-26

    Bacterial communities are established through a combination of cooperative and antagonistic interactions between the inhabitants. Competitive interactions often involve the production of antimicrobial substances, including bacteriocins, which are small antimicrobial peptides that target other community members. Despite the nearly ubiquitous presence of bacteriocin-encoding loci, inhibitory activity has been attributed to only a small fraction of gene clusters. In this study, we characterized a novel locus (the pld locus) in the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae that drives the production of a bacteriocin called pneumolancidin, which has broad antimicrobial activity. The locus encodes an unusual tandem array of four inhibitory peptides, three of which are absolutely required for antibacterial activity. The three peptide sequences are similar but appear to play distinct roles in regulation and inhibition. A modification enzyme typically found in loci encoding a class of highly modified bacteriocins called lantibiotics was required for inhibitory activity. The production of pneumolancidin is controlled by a two-component regulatory system that is activated by the accumulation of modified peptides. The locus is located on a mobile element that has been found in many pneumococcal lineages, although not all elements carry the pld genes. Intriguingly, a minimal region containing only the genes required for pneumolancidin immunity was found in several Streptococcus mitis strains. The pneumolancidin-producing strain can inhibit nearly all pneumococci tested to date and provided a competitive advantage in vivo. These peptides not only represent a unique strategy for bacterial competition but also are an important resource to guide the development of new antimicrobials. Successful colonization of a polymicrobial host surface is a prerequisite for the subsequent development of disease for many bacterial pathogens. Bacterial factors that directly inhibit the growth of neighbors

  16. Refined localization of the Prieto-syndrome locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, F.; Prieto, F. [Unidad de Genetica, Valencia (Spain); Gal, A. [Universitaets-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-07-12

    PRS designates the locus for a syndromal form of X-linked mental retardation (Prieto syndrome) characterized by minor facial anomalies, ear malformation, abnormal growth of teeth, clinodactyly, sacral dimple, patellar luxation, malformation of lower limbs, abnormalities of the fundus of the eye, and subcortical cerebral atrophy. Linkage analysis localized the disease locus between DXS84 (Xp21.1) and DXS255. Here we present additional linkage data that provide further support and refinement of this localization. Individual III-18 gave birth to a male, currently aged 2 7/12 years, who clearly shows delayed psychomotor development. He began to walk at 23 months and his speech is delayed. In addition, he shows the characteristic facial anomalies, {open_quotes}dysplastic{close_quotes} ears, sacral dimple, and clinodactyly, as do all other affected males in this family. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  17. A large duplication involving the IHH locus mimics acrocallosal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel-Apak, Memnune; Bögershausen, Nina; Pawlik, Barbara; Li, Yun; Apak, Selcuk; Uyguner, Oya; Milz, Esther; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Karaman, Birsen; Gülgören, Ayan; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz; Nürnberg, Peter; Kayserili, Hülya; Wollnik, Bernd

    2012-06-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling is a major determinant of various processes during embryonic development and has a pivotal role in embryonic skeletal development. A specific spatial and temporal expression of Ihh within the developing limb buds is essential for accurate digit outgrowth and correct digit number. Although missense mutations in IHH cause brachydactyly type A1, small tandem duplications involving the IHH locus have recently been described in patients with mild syndactyly and craniosynostosis. In contrast, a ∼600-kb deletion 5' of IHH in the doublefoot mouse mutant (Dbf) leads to severe polydactyly without craniosynostosis, but with craniofacial dysmorphism. We now present a patient resembling acrocallosal syndrome (ACS) with extensive polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, craniofacial abnormalities including macrocephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, dysplastic and low-set ears, severe hypertelorism and profound psychomotor delay. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array copy number analysis identified a ∼900-kb duplication of the IHH locus, which was confirmed by an independent quantitative method. A fetus from a second pregnancy of the mother by a different spouse showed similar craniofacial and limb malformations and the same duplication of the IHH-locus. We defined the exact breakpoints and showed that the duplications are identical tandem duplications in both sibs. No copy number changes were observed in the healthy mother. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a human phenotype similar to the Dbf mutant and strikingly overlapping with ACS that is caused by a copy number variation involving the IHH locus on chromosome 2q35.

  18. Characterization of a Multipeptide Lantibiotic Locus in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Maricic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities are established through a combination of cooperative and antagonistic interactions between the inhabitants. Competitive interactions often involve the production of antimicrobial substances, including bacteriocins, which are small antimicrobial peptides that target other community members. Despite the nearly ubiquitous presence of bacteriocin-encoding loci, inhibitory activity has been attributed to only a small fraction of gene clusters. In this study, we characterized a novel locus (the pld locus in the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae that drives the production of a bacteriocin called pneumolancidin, which has broad antimicrobial activity. The locus encodes an unusual tandem array of four inhibitory peptides, three of which are absolutely required for antibacterial activity. The three peptide sequences are similar but appear to play distinct roles in regulation and inhibition. A modification enzyme typically found in loci encoding a class of highly modified bacteriocins called lantibiotics was required for inhibitory activity. The production of pneumolancidin is controlled by a two-component regulatory system that is activated by the accumulation of modified peptides. The locus is located on a mobile element that has been found in many pneumococcal lineages, although not all elements carry the pld genes. Intriguingly, a minimal region containing only the genes required for pneumolancidin immunity was found in several Streptococcus mitis strains. The pneumolancidin-producing strain can inhibit nearly all pneumococci tested to date and provided a competitive advantage in vivo. These peptides not only represent a unique strategy for bacterial competition but also are an important resource to guide the development of new antimicrobials.

  19. 'Locus of control', health-related quality of life, emotional distress and disability in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Federica; Gison, Annalisa; Bonassi, Stefano; Dall'Armi, Valentina; Tonto, Francesca; Giaquinto, Salvatore

    2017-06-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated locus of control and its subscales in Parkinson's disease. A total of 50 consecutive Parkinson's disease participants and 50 healthy volunteers (control group) were enrolled. External locus of control was significantly higher in Parkinson's disease participants, whereas internal locus of control had no significant differences. External locus of control and internal locus of control were correlated in control group, but not in Parkinson's disease. In Parkinson's disease participants, external locus of control was negatively associated with health-related quality of life as well as positively associated with emotional distress and disease severity (but not with disability). After adjusting to confound variables, the associations remained. On the other hand, internal locus of control was negatively associated with depression.

  20. The Effects of Locus of Control and Task Difficulty on Procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Tracy; Carton, John S

    1999-12-01

    The authors investigated the effects of locus of control expectancies and task difficulty on procrastination. Forty-two college students were administered an academic locus of control scale and a task that was similar to a typical college homework assignment. The students were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 task difficulty levels. Although none of the results involving task difficulty was significant, several results involving locus of control were significant. Specifically, analyses revealed that students with internal locus of control expectancies tended to begin working on the assignment sooner than students with external locus of control expectancies. In addition, students with internal locus of control completed and returned the assignment sooner than students with external locus of control. The results are discussed within the context of J. B. Rotter's (1966, 1975, 1982) social learning theory.

  1. Genetic analysis of the claret locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, W.; Nelson, C.R.; Szauter, P.

    1989-01-01

    The claret (ca) locus of Drosophila melanogaster comprises two separately mutable domains, one responsible for eye color and one responsible for proper disjunction of chromosomes in meiosis and early cleavage divisions. Previously isolated alleles are of three types: (1) alleles of the claret (ca) type that affect eye color only, (2) alleles of the claret-nondisjunctional (ca nd ) type that affect eye color and chromosome behavior, and (3) a meiotic mutation, non-claret disjunctional (ncd), that affects chromosome behavior only. In order to investigate the genetic structure of the claret locus, the authors have isolated 19 radiation-induced alleles of claret on the basis of the eye color phenotype. Two of these 19 new alleles are of the ca nd type, while 17 are of the ca type, demonstrating that the two domains do not often act as a single target for mutagenesis. This suggests that the two separately mutable functions are likely to be encoded by separate or overlapping genes rather than by a single gene. One of the new alleles of the ca nd type is a chromosome rearrangement with a breakpoint at the position of the claret locus. If this breakpoint is the cause of the mutant phenotype and there are no other mutations associated with the rearrangement, the two functions must be encoded by overlapping genes

  2. Population genetics of the HRAS1 minisatellite locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, B.; Risch, N. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)); Krontiris, T. (Tufts Univ., Boston, MA (United States) New England Medical Center Hospital, Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Several years ago it was reported that rare HRAS1 VNTR alleles occurred more frequently in US Caucasian cancer patients than in unaffected controls. Such an association, in theory, could be caused by undetected population heterogeneity. Also, in a study clearly relevant to this issue, it was recently reported that significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium exist at this locus in a sample of US Caucasians. These considerations motivate population genetic analysis of the HRAS1 locus. From published studies of the HRAS1 VNTR locus, which classified alleles into types, the authors found only small differences in the allele frequency distributions of samples from various European nations, although there were larger differences among ethnic groups (African American, Caucasian, and Oriental). In an analysis of variation of rare-allele frequencies among samples from four European nations, most of the variance was attributable to molecular methodology, and very little of the variance was accounted for by nationality. In addition, the authors showed that mixture of European subpopulations should result in only minor deviations from expected genotype proportions in a Caucasian database and demonstrated that there was no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the HRAS1 data. 35 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Origin of allelic diversity in antirrhinum S locus RNases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y; Carpenter, R; Dickinson, H G; Coen, E S

    1996-01-01

    In many plant species, self-incompatibility (SI) is genetically controlled by a single multiallelic S locus. Previous analysis of S alleles in the Solanaceae, in which S locus ribonucleases (S RNases) are responsible for stylar expression of SI, has demonstrated that allelic diversity predated speciation within this family. To understand how allelic diversity has evolved, we investigated the molecular basis of gametophytic SI in Antirrhinum, a member of the Scrophulariaceae, which is closely related to the Solanaceae. We have characterized three Antirrhinum cDNAs encoding polypeptides homologous to S RNases and shown that they are encoded by genes at the S locus. RNA in situ hybridization revealed that the Antirrhinum S RNase are primarily expressed in the stylar transmitting tissue. This expression is consistent with their proposed role in arresting the growth of self-pollen tubes. S alleles from the Scrophulariaceae form a separate group from those of the Solanaceae, indicating that new S alleles have been generated since these families separated (approximately 40 million years). We propose that the recruitment of an ancestral RNase gene into SI occurred during an early stage of angiosperm evolution and that, since that time, new alleles subsequently have arisen at a low rate. PMID:8672882

  4. High-resolution mapping of the x-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zonana, J.; Jones, M.; Litt, M.; Kramer, P.; Browne, D.; Becker, H.W. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)); Brockdorff, N.; Rastan, S. (Medical Council Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (United Kingdom)); Davies, K.P.; Clarke, A. (Univ. of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)) (and others)

    1992-11-01

    The X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) locus has been previously localized to the subchromosomal region Xq11-q21.1. The authors have extended previous linkage studies and analyzed linkage between the EDA locus and 10 marker loci, including five new loci, in 41 families. Four of the marker loci showed no recombination with the EDA locus, and six other loci were also linked to the EDA locus with recombination fractions of .009-.075. Multipoint analysis gave support to the placement of the PGK1P1 locus proximal to the EDA locus and the DXS453 and PGK1 loci distal to EDA. Further ordering of the loci could be inferred from a human-rodent somatic cell hybrid derived from an affected female with EDA and an X;9 translocation and from studies of an affected male with EDA and a submicroscopic deletion. Three of the proximal marker loci, which showed no recombination with the EDA locus, when used in combination, were informative in 92% of females. The closely linked flanking polymorphic loci DXS339 and DXS453 had heterozygosites of 72% and 76%, respectively, and when used jointly, they were doubly informative in 52% of females. The human DXS732 locus was defined by a conserved mouse probe pcos169E/4 (DXCrc169 locus) that consegregates with the mouse tabby (Ta) locus, a potential homologue to the EDA locus. The absence of recombination between EDA and the DXSA732 locus lends support to the hypothesis that the DXCrc169 locus in the mouse and the DXS732 locus in humans may contain candidate sequences for the Ta and EDA genes, respectively. 36 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Locus de Controle e escolha do método anticoncepcional Locus de Control y método anticonceptivo elegido Locus of Control and choice of contraceptive method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Salheb Alves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre o Locus de Controle e o tipo de método contraceptivo escolhido. Foi utilizada a Escala Multidimensional de Locus de Controle de Levenson e entrevistadas 191 mulheres. As usuárias de preservativo masculino apresentaram maior Internalidade do que as usuárias de injetável mensal. Quanto ao locus Externalidade Outros Poderosos, as usuárias de implante apresentavam menor externalidade do que as usuárias de preservativo masculino, laqueadura, injetável trimestral e DIU. Considerando-se o locus Externalidade Acaso, as usuárias de implante apresentaram menores escores do que as mulheres que optaram pela laqueadura, injetável trimestral e DIU. Observou-se ainda, menor Externalidade Acaso entre as usuárias de injetável mensal em relação às mulheres que fizeram opção pelo injetável trimestral.El objetivo es validar la relación entre el Locus de Control y el tipo de método anticonceptivo elegido. Fue usada la Escala Multidimensional de Locus de Control de Levenson. Fueron entrevistadas 191 mujeres. Las usuarias de condón masculino presentaron Internalidad más grande que las usuarias de inyectable mensual. Considerado el Locus Externalidad - Otro poderoso, las usuarias de implante presentaron menor externalidad de que las usuarias de condón masculino, laqueadura, inyectable trimestral y DIU. Considerado el Locus Externalidad - Quizá, las usuarias del implante presentaron menores resultados que las mujeres que eligieron por la laqueadura, inyectable trimestral y DIU. Se observo que las mujeres usuarias de inyectable mensual presentaron menor Externalidad - Quizá que las mujeres usuarias de inyectable trimestral.The purpose was to assess the relationship between locus of control and the contraceptive method chosen. It was used the Levenson's Multidimensional Locus of Control Scale and 191 women was interviewed. Users of male condoms presented greater Internality than the monthly contraceptive

  6. Examining the relationship between health locus of control and God Locus of Health Control: Is God an internal or external source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Joni M; Wilcox, Sara

    2017-11-01

    For many people, the influence of believing in a higher power can elicit powerful effects. This study examined the relationship between God control, health locus of control, and frequency of religious attendance within 838 college students through online surveys. Regression analysis showed that chance and external locus of control and frequency of religious attendance were significant and positive predictors of God Locus of Health Control. The association of powerful others external locus of control and God Locus of Health Control differed by race (stronger in non-Whites than Whites) and somewhat by gender (stronger in women than men). For some people, the role of a supreme being, or God, should be considered when designing programs for improving health behaviors.

  7. HEALTH LOCUS OF CONTROL PERCEPTION OF ADOLESCENTS, AND ITS EFFECTS ON THEIR HEALTH BEHAVIOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhi Selcuk TABAK

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate the relationships between health locus of control perceptions and health behaviours of adolescents as well as the effectiveness of lectures on health locus of control to them. The subjects of our study are 192 students in 6 groups of the 9. Grade students of a high school. Three groups of 108 students were randomly selected as the experiment group who were subjected to 4 class-hours specific lectures on health locus of control. The rest 84 students constituted the control group. A 34-item questionnaire for health behaviours and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLOC, were filled by the students before and after the lectures. The lectures on health locus of control increased the perception of internal health locus of control of adolescents while decreasing chance health locus of control. The differences between experiment and control groups in this aspect were found to be statistically significant. Internal health locus of control is the main source for the increase of responsibility and management of individuals on their health. The relations that were detected between students’ health behaviours and information solicitation and their perceptions of health locus of control showed that the students with higher internal health locus of control are more eager to be responsible and active for their health, especially, for the health behaviours such as physical exercise, smoking, tooth-brushing, medical check-ups so on. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 118-130

  8. Plk4-dependent phosphorylation of STIL is required for centriole duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Kratz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Duplication of centrioles, namely the formation of a procentriole next to the parental centriole, is regulated by the polo-like kinase Plk4. Only a few other proteins, including STIL (SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus, SIL and Sas-6, are required for the early step of centriole biogenesis. Following Plk4 activation, STIL and Sas-6 accumulate at the cartwheel structure at the initial stage of the centriole assembly process. Here, we show that STIL interacts with Plk4 in vivo. A STIL fragment harboring both the coiled-coil domain and the STAN motif shows the strongest binding affinity to Plk4. Furthermore, we find that STIL is phosphorylated by Plk4. We identified Plk4-specific phosphorylation sites within the C-terminal domain of STIL and show that phosphorylation of STIL by Plk4 is required to trigger centriole duplication.

  9. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Levenson's Locus of Control Scale in Iranian infertile people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroufizadeh, Saman; Omani Samani, Reza; Amini, Payam; Navid, Behnaz

    2016-09-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the Levenson's Locus of Control Scale among Iranian infertile patients. In all, 312 infertile patients completed the Levenson's Locus of Control Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the original three-factor model of Levenson's Locus of Control Scale was adequate ( χ 2 / df = 2.139; goodness-of-fit index = 0.88; root mean square error of approximation = 0.061; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.076). The Cronbach's alpha of the subscales ranged from 0.56 to 0.67. The Levenson's Locus of Control Scale subscales significantly correlated with anxiety and depression, showing an acceptable convergent validity. In conclusion, the Levenson's Locus of Control Scale has adequate reliability and validity and can be used to measure locus of control orientation in Iranian infertile patients.

  10. Locus of the apices of projectile trajectories under constant drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, H.

    2017-11-01

    Using the hodograph method, we present an analytical solution for projectile coplanar motion under constant drag, parametrised by the velocity angle. We find the locus formed by the apices of the projectile trajectories, and discuss its implementation for the motion of a particle on an inclined plane in presence of Coulomb friction. The range and time of flight are obtained numerically, and we find that the optimal launching angle is smaller than in the drag-free case. This is a good example of a problem with constant dissipation of energy that includes curvature; it is appropriate for intermediate courses of mechanics.

  11. Measurement of supernatural belief: sex differences and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, T M; Desrosiers, M

    1980-10-01

    Although we live in an age dominated by science and technology, there exists an increasingly popular anti-science sentiment. This study describes the development of a scale to assess the degree of personal acceptance of supernatural causality versus acceptance of scientific explanation. In addition to the psychometric data concerning validity and reliability of the scale, data are presented which showed the personality factor of supernaturalism to be independent of orthodox religious attitudes. Results indicated a significantly greater supernatural acceptance for women, and a positive relation of supernaturalism with external locus of control.

  12. Locus de control y conocimiento, actitud y práctica contraceptivas entre adolescentes universitarios

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Aline Salheb; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between locus of control and knowledge, attitude and practice regarding pill and condom use among university students. METHODS: The inquiry was developed in Campinas, a city in Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. A total of 295 adolescent newcomers to a public university answered a structured questionnaire and Levenson's multidimensional locus of control scale. The scores of the dimensions of locus of control were calculated and Spearman's correlation coefficie...

  13. Locus of Control and Career Interest of Sophomore Accountancy Students: Basis for Employment Path

    OpenAIRE

    Jovielyn Mañibo; Elna Lopez

    2014-01-01

    This academic undertaking sought to determine the relationship between the locus of control and career interest of the respondents towards their future employment. The objectives of the study were to determine the respondents’ locus of control and career interest; to find if there is a significant relationship between the respondents’ locus of control and career interest and to develop an action plan that will gauge the students’ employment success as to their chosen field. In ...

  14. Characterization of additional rabbit IgM allotypes and the effect of suppression of a VH locus allotypes on the expression of n Cμ locus allotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman-Sachs, A.; Roux, K.H.; Horing, W.J.; Dray, S.

    1982-01-01

    Anti-allotype antisera were produced that identified eight rabbit IgM allotypic specificities, n80, n81, n82, n83, n84, n85, n86, and n87. The n locus Cμ genes controlling these IgM allotypic specificities are closely linked to the a (VH subgroup) locus. The genes controlling these allotypic specificities were found to be in the heavy chain chromosomal region and were assigned to 11 haplotypes present in our rabbit colony. The n locus and a locus genes appeared in the haplotypes in six combinations: a 1 n 81 , a 2 n/sup 81,n87/, a 1 n/sup 80,83/, a 2 n/sup 80,82,87/, a 3 n/sup 81,84,85/ and a 3 n/sup 80,84,86,87/. By radioprecipitation analysis, 70 to 80% of serum IgM reacts with the antiserum directed to each n locus allotypic specificity found encoded in one haplotype; thus, each allotypic specificity of the haplotype is present on the same IgM molecule. When sera from a locus allotype-suppressed homozygous rabbits were tested for expression of each n locus allotypic specificity, n80, n81, and n87 were still expressed, whereas n82, n83, n84, n85, and n86 were not. These data provide direct evidence that some IgM specificities are expressed independently of the a locus (i.e., ''true''), and other s are dependent on the expression of an a locus specificity (i.e., conformational). The expression of the ''true'' allotypic specificities probably reflects genetic control of the germline Cμ gene, and the expression of ''conformationally dependent'' allotypic specificities probably reflects the interaction of VH and Cμ gene segments. This distinction is important and must be recognized when evaluating the genetics and structure of the IgM molecule

  15. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Meyer, Oanh L.; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L.; Willis, Sherry L.; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.; Parisi, Jeanine M.

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. PMID:26237116

  16. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Meyer, Oanh L; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L; Willis, Sherry L; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W; Parisi, Jeanine M

    2015-09-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Role of Oculoproprioception in Coding the Locus of Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoj, Bartholomaeus; Balslev, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    The most common neural representations for spatial attention encode locations retinotopically, relative to center of gaze. To keep track of visual objects across saccades or to orient toward sounds, retinotopic representations must be combined with information about the rotation of one's own eyes in the orbits. Although gaze input is critical for a correct allocation of attention, the source of this input has so far remained unidentified. Two main signals are available: corollary discharge (copy of oculomotor command) and oculoproprioception (feedback from extraocular muscles). Here we asked whether the oculoproprioceptive signal relayed from the somatosensory cortex contributes to coding the locus of attention. We used continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over a human oculoproprioceptive area in the postcentral gyrus (S1EYE). S1EYE-cTBS reduces proprioceptive processing, causing ∼1° underestimation of gaze angle. Participants discriminated visual targets whose location was cued in a nonvisual modality. Throughout the visual space, S1EYE-cTBS shifted the locus of attention away from the cue by ∼1°, in the same direction and by the same magnitude as the oculoproprioceptive bias. This systematic shift cannot be attributed to visual mislocalization. Accuracy of open-loop pointing to the same visual targets, a function thought to rely mainly on the corollary discharge, was unchanged. We argue that oculoproprioception is selective for attention maps. By identifying a potential substrate for the coupling between eye and attention, this study contributes to the theoretical models for spatial attention.

  18. Single locus complementary sex determination in Hymenoptera: an "unintelligent" design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Gerard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The haplodiploid sex determining mechanism in Hymenoptera (males are haploid, females are diploid has played an important role in the evolution of this insect order. In Hymenoptera sex is usually determined by a single locus, heterozygotes are female and hemizygotes are male. Under inbreeding, homozygous diploid and sterile males occur which form a genetic burden for a population. We review life history and genetical traits that may overcome the disadvantages of single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD. Behavioural adaptations to avoid matings between relatives include active dispersal from natal patches and mating preferences for non-relatives. In non-social species, temporal and spatial segregation of male and female offspring reduces the burden of sl-CSD. In social species, diploid males are produced at the expense of workers and female reproductives. In some social species, diploid males and diploid male producing queens are killed by workers. Diploid male production may have played a role in the evolution or maintenance of polygyny (multiple queens and polyandry (multiple mating. Some forms of thelytoky (parthenogenetic female production increase homozygosity and are therefore incompatible with sl-CSD. We discuss a number of hypothetical adaptations to sl-CSD which should be considered in future studies of this insect order.

  19. [Locus of control in girls with anorexia readiness syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Katarzyna; Oszwa, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to indicate whether there are differences between locus of control (LOC) in girls with anorexia readiness syndrome (ARS) and without this syndrome. There was also a question about the relationship between LOC and the tendency to respond in incorrect attitudes towards food, eating and their bodies under stress. The sample consisted of girls aged 13-18 years randomly selected from five public Polish middle and high schools. Tools: 1) Eating Attitudes Questionnaire (EAQ) by B. Ziółkowska; 2) Locus of Control Questionnaire (LOCQ) by G. Krasowicz, A. Kurzyp-Wojnarska, to assess LOC of the subjects. The criterion group (N=23) was formed by girls who received high score in EAQ (signs of ARS) in the first stage of research (N=189). The control group (N = 23) were girls who received a low score in EAQ (no signs of ARS). Subjects with ARS were characterized by more external LOC than girls without any signs of this syndrome (t = -2.898; p control, LOC may play a role as a mediating variable rather than a direct determinant of this syndrome.

  20. Allelism of Genes in the Ml-a locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Jensen, Hans Peter; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1980-01-01

    Seven barley lines or varieties, each with a different gene at the Ml-a locus for resistance to Erysiphe graminis were intercrossed. Progeny testing of the F2s using two different fungal isolates per cross provided evidence that there are two or more loci in the Ml-a region. Apparent recombinants...... were also screened for recombination between the Hor1 and Hor2 loci which are situated either side of the Ml-a locus. The cross between Ricardo and Iso42R (Rupee) yielded one possible recombinant, with Ml-a3 and Ml-a(Rul) in the coupling phase; other recombinants had wild-type genes in the coupling...... phase. Iso20R, derived from Hordeum spontaneum 'H204', carrying Ml-a6, had an additional gene, in close coupling with Ml-a6, tentatively named Ml-aSp2 or Reglv, causing an intermediate infection type with isolate EmA30. It is suggested that Ml-a(Ar) in Emir and Ml-a(Rul), shown to differ from other Ml...

  1. Breaking bad news: patients' preferences and health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Raquel Gomes; Carvalho, Irene Palmares

    2013-07-01

    To identify patients' preferences for models of communicating bad news and to explore how such preferences, and the reasons for the preferences, relate with personality characteristics, specifically patients' health locus of control (HLC): internal/external and 'powerful others' (PO). Seventy-two patients from an oncology clinic watched videotaped scenarios of a breaking bad news moment, selected the model they preferred, filled an HLC scale and were interviewed about their choices. Data were analyzed with Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Interviews were content-analyzed. 77.8% preferred an "empathic professional", 12.5% a "distanced expert" and 9.7% an "emotionally burdened expert". Preferences varied significantly with HLC scores (patients with higher internal locus of control (ILC) and lower PO preferred the empathic model), presence of cancer, age and education. Patients explained their preferences through aspects of Caring, Professionalism, Wording, Time and Hope. ILC registered significant differences in regards to Wording and Time, whereas PO was associated with Hope and Time. HLC is an important dimension that can help doctors to better know their patients. Knowing whether patients attribute their health to their own behaviors or to chance/others can help tailor the disclosure of bad news to their specific preferences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Focus, locus, and sensus: the three dimensions of virtual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, E L; Waterworth, J A

    2001-04-01

    A model of virtual/physical experience is presented, which provides a three dimensional conceptual space for virtual and augmented reality (VR and AR) comprising the dimensions of focus, locus, and sensus. Focus is most closely related to what is generally termed presence in the VR literature. When in a virtual environment, presence is typically shared between the VR and the physical world. "Breaks in presence" are actually shifts of presence away from the VR and toward the external environment. But we can also have "breaks in presence" when attention moves toward absence--when an observer is not attending to stimuli present in the virtual environment, nor to stimuli present in the surrounding physical environment--when the observer is present in neither the virtual nor the physical world. We thus have two dimensions of presence: focus of attention (between presence and absence) and the locus of attention (the virtual vs. the physical world). A third dimension is the sensus of attention--the level of arousal determining whether the observer is highly conscious or relatively unconscious while interacting with the environment. After expanding on each of these three dimensions of experience in relation to VR, we present a couple of educational examples as illustrations, and also relate our model to a suggested spectrum of evaluation methods for virtual environments.

  3. Are there gender differences in locus of control specific to alcohol dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Andrew; Martin, Colin R

    2017-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in locus of control in an alcohol-dependent population. Locus of control helps to explain behaviour in terms of internal (the individual is responsible) or external (outside forces, such as significant other people or chance, are responsible) elements. Past research on gender differences in locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence has shown mixed results. There is a need then to examine gender and locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence to ascertain the veracity of any locus of control differences as a function of gender. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control form-C was administered to clients from alcohol dependence treatment centres in the West of Scotland. Independent t-tests were carried out to assess gender differences in alcohol dependence severity and internal/external aspects of locus of control. One hundred and eighty-eight (53% females) participants were recruited from a variety of alcohol dependence treatment centres. The majority of participants (72%) came from Alcoholics Anonymous groups. Women revealed a greater internal locus of control compared with men. Women also had a greater 'significant others' locus of control score than men. Men were more reliant on 'chance' and 'doctors' than women. All these trends were not, however, statistically significant. Gender differences in relation to locus of control and alcohol dependence from past studies are ambiguous. This study also found no clear statistically significant differences in locus of control orientation as a function of gender. This article helps nurses to contextualise health behaviours as a result of internal or external forces. It also helps nursing staff to better understand alcohol dependence treatment in relation to self-efficacy and control. Moreover, it highlights an important concept in health education theory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Locus of control and pain: Validity of the Form C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales when used with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castarlenas, Elena; Solé, Ester; Racine, Mélanie; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Elisabet; Jensen, Mark P; Miró, Jordi

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Form C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales in adolescents. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that adequate fit of a four-factor model and the internal consistency of the scales were adequate. Criterion validity of the four scales of the Form C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control was also supported by significant correlations with measures of pain-related self-efficacy, anxiety, and coping strategies. The results indicate that the four Form C of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale scores are reliable and valid and therefore support their use to assess pain-related locus of control beliefs in adolescents.

  5. The fester locus in Botryllus schlosseri experiences selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nydam Marie L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allorecognition, the ability of an organism to distinguish self from non-self, occurs throughout the entire tree of life. Despite the prevalence and importance of allorecognition systems, the genetic basis of allorecognition has rarely been characterized outside the well-known MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex in vertebrates and SI (Self-Incompatibility in plants. Where loci have been identified, their evolutionary history is an open question. We have previously identified the genes involved in self/non-self recognition in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, and we can now begin to investigate their evolution. In B. schlosseri, colonies sharing 1 or more alleles of a gene called FuHC (Fusion Histocompatibility will fuse. Protein products of a locus called fester, located ~300 kb from FuHC, have been shown to play multiple roles in the histocompatibility reaction, as activating and/or inhibitory receptors. We test whether the proteins encoded by this locus are evolving neutrally or are experiencing balancing, directional, or purifying selection. Results Nearly all of the variation in the fester locus resides within populations. The 13 housekeeping genes (12 nuclear genes and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I have substantially more structure among populations within groups and among groups than fester. All polymorphism statistics (Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D* and F* are significantly negative for the East Coast A-type alleles, and Fu and Li's F* statistic is significantly negative for the West Coast A-type alleles. These results are likely due to selection rather than demography, given that 10 of the housekeeping loci have no populations with significant values for any of the polymorphism statistics. The majority of codons in the fester proteins have ω values 95% posterior probability of ω values > 1. Conclusion Fester proteins are evolving non-neutrally. The polymorphism statistics are consistent with either

  6. Locus of Control and Self-Esteem in Indian and White Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James C.

    1976-01-01

    The development and relationship of two dimensions of personality, self esteem and locus of control, were examined in a study of 763 fourth, eighth, and twelfth grade Indian and white children selected from 22 Oklahoma public schools. The students were given the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Nowicky-Strickland Locus of Control Scale during…

  7. Self Esteem, Locus of Control and Multidimensional Perfectionism as the Predictors of Subjective Well Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Zeynep; Tagay, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism, and the extent to which the variables of self-esteem, locus of control and multidimensional perfectionism contribute to the prediction of subjective well-being. The study was carried out with 318 final…

  8. PHIP - a novel candidate breast cancer susceptibility locus on 6q14.1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, X. (Xiang); Aravidis, C. (Christos); Marikkannu, R. (Rajeshwari); Rantala, J. (Johanna); Picelli, S. (Simone); Adamovic, T. (Tatjana); Liu, T. (Tao); Maguire, P. (Paula); B. Kremeyer (Barbara); Luo, L. (Liping); von Holst, S. (Susanna); Kontham, V. (Vinaykumar); Thutkawkorapin, J. (Jessada); Margolin, S. (Sara); Du, Q. (Quan); Lundin, J. (Johanna); Michailidou, K. (Kyriaki); Bolla, M.K. (Manjeet K.); Wang, Q. (Qin); Dennis, J. (Joe); Lush, M. (Michael); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); Antonenkova, N.N. (Natalia N.); Arndt, V. (Volker); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); C. Blomqvist (Carl); W.J. Blot (William); Boeckx, B. (Bram); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); H. Brenner (Hermann); A. Broeks (Annegien); T. Brüning (Thomas); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); Cai, Q. (Qiuyin); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); NBCS Collaborators, (); Couch, F.J. (Fergus J.); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); S.L. Deming-Halverson (Sandra); P. Devilee (Peter); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); Dörk, T. (Thilo); M. Eriksson (Mats); P.A. Fasching (Peter); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); H. Flyger (Henrik); M. Gabrielson (Marike); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); A. González-Neira (Anna); P. Guénel (Pascal); Q. Guo (Qi); Gündert, M. (Melanie); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); Hallberg, E. (Emily); U. Hamann (Ute); P. harrington (Patricia); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); J.L. Hopper (John); Huang, G. (Guanmengqian); A. Jakubowska (Anna); M. Jones (Michael); M. Kerin (Michael); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); Kristensen, V.N. (Vessela N.); Lambrechts, D. (Diether); L. Le Marchand (Loic); J. Lubinski (Jan); A. Mannermaa (Arto); J.W.M. Martens (John); A. Meindl (Alfons); R.L. Milne (Roger); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); J. Peto (Julian); K. Pykäs (Katri); P. Radice (Paolo); V. Rhenius (Valerie); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); Shah, M. (Mitul); J. Simard (Jacques); Southey, M.C. (Melissa C.); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); T. Truong (Thérèse); Wendt, C. (Camilla); R. Winqvist (Robert); W. Zheng (Wei); kConFab/AOCS Investigators, (); J. Benítez (Javier); A.M. Dunning (Alison); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); D.F. Easton (Douglas); K. Czene (Kamila); P. Hall (Per); A. Lindblom (Annika)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractMost non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families have no identified genetic cause. We used linkage and haplotype analyses in familial and sporadic breast cancer cases to identify a susceptibility locus on chromosome 6q. Two independent genome-wide linkage analysis studies suggested a 3 Mb locus

  9. Hubungan antara Locus Of Control dan Efektivitas Komunikasi antar Pribadi dengan Problem Focused Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Sujadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem focused coping need to be possessed by every individual. The purposes of this research were to described locus of control, the effectiveness of interpersonal communication, problem focused coping,the correlation between locus of control with problem focused coping, andthe correlationbetween the effectiveness of interpersonal communication with problem focused coping.This research was descriptive & correlation research by using quantitative approach. Data were collected through a Likert scale questionaire and locus of controlby using inventory Rotters Internal-External Locus of Control (I-E Scale, which was the validity and reliability has been tested. The data were analyzed by percentage technique and product moment correlation. The finding of research are:  1locus of control were in the middle range between internal locus of control and external locus of control with an average as big as 11.46, 2 the general level of effectiveness of interpersonal communication is in high category, 3 the general level of problem focused coping is in high category, 4 there is correlation between locus of control withproblem focused coping, and 5 there is correlation betweeneffectiveness of interpersonal communicationwithproblem focused coping.

  10. Predictors of Parental Locus of Control in Mothers of Pre- and Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Rachel D.; Tompson, Martha C.

    2011-01-01

    Parental locus of control refers to parents' perceived power and efficacy in child-rearing situations. This study explored parental locus of control and its correlates in 160 mothers of children ages 8 to 14 cross-sectionally and 1 year later. Maternal depression, maternal expressed emotion, and child internalizing and externalizing behavior were…

  11. Health Locus of Control and Preventive Behaviour among Students of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Claudia; Burger, Thorsten; Hildebrandt, Horst; Seidenglanz, Karin

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated health locus of control, preventive behaviour and previous playing-related health problems of music students; 326 students of music (58% female, mean age 22 years) filled in the Locus of Control Inventory for Illness and Health (Lohaus and Schmitt, 1989) and the Epidemiological Questionnaire for Musicians (Spahn,…

  12. Relationship of Personality and Locus of Control With Employment Outcomes among Participants with Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S.; Broderick, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    We investigated relationships among personality, locus of control, and current post-injury employment status for 1,391 participants with spinal cord injury. Participants with higher internality locus-of-control scores and activity scores (personality) reported more favorable employment outcomes. Higher scores on chance and powerful others (locus…

  13. The Relationship between the Perception of Own Locus of Control and Aggression of Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breet, Lettie; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Aggression is increasingly seen in most parts of South African society. Aggressive behaviour of boys in secondary school often results from frustrations caused by perceived high expectations of others regarding the role, locus of control, and personality of boys. Locus of control plays an important role in a person's perception concerning a…

  14. An Examination of Locus of Control, Epistemological Beliefs and Metacognitive Awareness in Preservice Early Childhood Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedel, Emine Ferda

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the locus of control, epistemological beliefs and metacognitive awareness levels of preservice early childhood education teachers and to determine the interrelations among these variables. 206 teacher candidates have been asked to fill out Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, Central Epistemological Beliefs…

  15. Locus of Control as It Relates to the Teaching Style of Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ture, Abidemi

    2013-01-01

    This research explored the relationship between elementary teachers' locus of control and teaching style. This research observed elementary teachers in their classrooms coupled with data gathered from information sheets, surveys, and interviews to determine if a relationship exists between the locus of control of the elementary teachers and…

  16. Goal Orientations, Locus of Control and Academic Achievement in Prospective Teachers: An Individual Differences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulus, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the prospective teachers' locus of control in goal orientations and of both orientations in academic achievement. The participants were 270 undergraduate students studying in different majors at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Goal Orientations and Locus of Control Scales were…

  17. The genetic and regulatory architecture of ERBB3-type 1 diabetes susceptibility locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Simranjeet; Mirza, Aashiq H.; Brorsson, Caroline Anna

    2016-01-01

    -producing INS-1E cells and the genetic and regulatory architecture of the ERBB3 locus to provide insights to how rs2292239 may confer disease susceptibility. rs2292239 strongly correlated with residual β-cell function and metabolic control in children with T1D. ERBB3 locus associated lncRNA (NONHSAG011351...

  18. Social Self-Efficacy, Academic Locus of Control, and Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of internet addiction, social self-efficacy, and academic locus of control. Participants were 311 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Academic Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Social Self-efficacy Scale. The…

  19. Authoritarian Child Rearing, Parental Locus of Control, and the Child's Behavior Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…

  20. A Study to Investigate the Relationship between Locus of Control and Academic Achievement of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Aijaz, Rukhma

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is regarded as the alpha and omega of learning. It is the heart of teaching learning process. Motivation is defined as an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains the behavior over time. Thus motivation is the pivotal component of learning and locus of control which is one of the important factors it stems from. Locus of…

  1. A Locus of Control-based HIV and AIDS Risk Reduction Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effi cacy of a locus of control-based training programme in reducing HIV and AIDS risk among university students. The locus of control-based variables that formed the training programme were social systems control, deferment of gratifi cation, personal values and expectancies, ...

  2. Locus ceruleus neurons in people with autism contain no histochemically-detectable mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamphlett, Roger; Kum Jew, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to environmental mercury has been proposed to play a part in autism. Mercury is selectively taken up by the human locus ceruleus, a region of the brain that has been implicated in autism. We therefore looked for the presence of mercury in the locus ceruleus of people who had autism, using the histochemical technique of autometallography which can detect nanogram amounts of mercury in tissues. In addition, we sought evidence of damage to locus ceruleus neurons in autism by immunostaining for hyperphosphorylated tau. No mercury was found in any neurons of the locus ceruleus of 6 individuals with autism (5 male, 1 female, age range 16-48 years). Mercury was present in locus ceruleus neurons in 7 of 11 (64%) age-matched control individuals who did not have autism, which is significantly more than in individuals with autism. No increase in numbers of locus ceruleus neurons containing hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in people with autism. In conclusion, most people with autism have not been exposed early in life to quantities of mercury large enough to be found later in adult locus ceruleus neurons. Human locus ceruleus neurons are sensitive indicators of mercury exposure, and mercury appears to remain in these neurons indefinitely, so these findings do not support the hypothesis that mercury neurotoxicity plays a role in autism.

  3. Locus of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming: Evidence from Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Disagreement exists regarding the functional locus of semantic interference of distractor words in picture naming. This effect is a cornerstone of modern psycholinguistic models of word production, which assume that it arises in lexical response-selection. However, recent evidence from studies of dual-task performance suggests a locus in…

  4. The Effect of Locus of Control on Message Acceptance and Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Catherine A.; Singh, Surendra

    Locus of control is a personality trait that influences human behavior in many situations. Internal-external control reactions to a persuasive message and the recall of the message were examined in two studies. In the first study, 35 undergraduate students' locus of control was measured using Duttweiler's Internal Control Measure. On the basis of…

  5. The Role of Locus of Control and Feedback on Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined Students' Locus of Control and Teacher Feedback using a 2x3 factorial to measure the performance of thirty-six (36) primary school students utilizing the two locus of control types and three levels of teacher feedback: no feedback, attributional feedback, and progressive feedback. No significant ...

  6. The relationship between the perception of own locus of control and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aggression is increasingly seen in most parts of South African society. Aggressive behaviour of boys in secondary school often results from frustrations caused by perceived high expectations of others regarding the role, locus of control, and personality of boys. Locus of control plays an important role in a person's ...

  7. Fine-Scale Mapping of the FGFR2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Kerstin B; O'Reilly, Martin; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of...

  8. Locus of Control, Perceptions and Attributions of Student Teachers in Educational Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Lya; Kurtz, Chaya

    Student teachers' perceptions of locus of control was investigated. Locus of control is defined as representing the extent of dependence upon inner or outer forces, the extent one is willing to invest in shaping the environment, and the perception of reinforcement as dependent upon those efforts, or upon random events. The specific questions were:…

  9. Measurement of locus copy number by hybridisation with amplifiable probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, John A. L.; Sismani, Carolina; Patsalis, Philippos C.; Cross, Gareth

    2000-01-01

    Despite its fundamental importance in genome analysis, it is only recently that systematic approaches have been developed to assess copy number at specific genetic loci, or to examine genomic DNA for submicroscopic deletions of unknown location. In this report we show that short probes can be recovered and amplified quantitatively following hybridisation to genomic DNA. This simple observation forms the basis of a new approach to determining locus copy number in complex genomes. The power and specificity of multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation is demonstrated by the simultaneous assessment of copy number at a set of 40 human loci, including detection of deletions causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Prader–Willi/Angelman syndromes. Assembly of other probe sets will allow novel, technically simple approaches to a wide variety of genetic analyses, including the potential for extension to high resolution genome-wide screens for deletions and amplifications. PMID:10606661

  10. Orexin modulates behavioral fear expression through the locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soya, Shingo; Takahashi, Tohru M; McHugh, Thomas J; Maejima, Takashi; Herlitze, Stefan; Abe, Manabu; Sakimura, Kenji; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2017-11-20

    Emotionally salient information activates orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus, leading to increase in sympathetic outflow and vigilance level. How this circuit alters animals' behavior remains unknown. Here we report that noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (NA LC neurons) projecting to the lateral amygdala (LA) receive synaptic input from orexin neurons. Pharmacogenetic/optogenetic silencing of this circuit as well as acute blockade of the orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) decreases conditioned fear responses. In contrast, optogenetic stimulation of this circuit potentiates freezing behavior against a similar but distinct context or cue. Increase of orexinergic tone by fasting also potentiates freezing behavior and LA activity, which are blocked by pharmacological blockade of OX1R in the LC. These findings demonstrate the circuit involving orexin, NA LC and LA neurons mediates fear-related behavior and suggests inappropriate excitation of this pathway may cause fear generalization sometimes seen in psychiatric disorders, such as PTSD.

  11. Measurement of locus copy number by hybridisation with amplifiable probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Sismani, C; Patsalis, P C; Cross, G

    2000-01-15

    Despite its fundamental importance in genome analysis, it is only recently that systematic approaches have been developed to assess copy number at specific genetic loci, or to examine genomic DNA for submicro-scopic deletions of unknown location. In this report we show that short probes can be recovered and amplified quantitatively following hybridisation to genomic DNA. This simple observation forms the basis of a new approach to determining locus copy number in complex genomes. The power and specificity of multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation is demonstrated by the simultaneous assessment of copy number at a set of 40 human loci, including detection of deletions causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Prader-Willi/Angelman syndromes. Assembly of other probe sets will allow novel, technically simple approaches to a wide variety of genetic analyses, including the potential for extension to high resolution genome-wide screens for deletions and amplifications.

  12. Interrelationships of locus of control content dimensions and hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L C; Thomas, L L

    1985-07-01

    Items from three locus of control (LOC) tests and the Beck Hopelessness Scale were administered to 197 college students. Factor analyses produced multiple factors for each LOC test, but the Beck scale proved to be unidimensional. Factor scales were constructed for each test, and scores were factor analyzed to discover common content. Each LOC test contained a salient dimension that described belief in luck, chance, or fate, and corresponding scales were well correlated. Internal control was the second common theme, with variations according to whether control was attributed to oneself or to people in general. The third common component expressed a personal helplessness or powerlessness. Each common factor was loaded by the Hopelessness Scale, which also correlated with all but one LOC factor scale.

  13. Dynamic Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of Plant Phenomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zitong; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2015-12-01

    Advanced platforms have recently become available for automatic and systematic quantification of plant growth and development. These new techniques can efficiently produce multiple measurements of phenotypes over time, and introduce time as an extra dimension to quantitative trait locus (QTL) studies. Functional mapping utilizes a class of statistical models for identifying QTLs associated with the growth characteristics of interest. A major benefit of functional mapping is that it integrates information over multiple timepoints, and therefore could increase the statistical power for QTL detection. We review the current development of computationally efficient functional mapping methods which provide invaluable tools for analyzing large-scale timecourse data that are readily available in our post-genome era. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A strabismus susceptibility locus on chromosome 7p

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Vaishali; Shugart, Yin Yao; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Zhang, Jie; Li, Lan; Williams, John; Hayden, David; Craig, Brian; Capo, Hilda; Chamblee, Denise; Chen, Cathy; Collins, Mary; Dankner, Stuart; Fiergang, Dean; Guyton, David; Hunter, David; Hutcheon, Marcia; Keys, Marshall; Morrison, Nancy; Munoz, Michelle; Parks, Marshall; Plotsky, David; Protzko, Eugene; Repka, Michael X.; Sarubbi, Maria; Schnall, Bruce; Siatkowski, R. Michael; Traboulsi, Elias; Waeltermann, Joanne; Nathans, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Strabismus has been known to have a significant genetic component, but the mode of inheritance and the identity of the relevant genes have been enigmatic. This paper reports linkage analysis of nonsyndromic strabismus. The principal results of this study are: (i) the demonstrated feasibility of identifying and recruiting large families in which multiple members have (or had) strabismus; (ii) the linkage in one large family of a presumptive strabismus susceptibility locus to 7p22.1 with a multipoint logarithm of odds score of 4.51 under a model of recessive inheritance; and (iii) the failure to observe significant linkage to 7p in six other multiplex families, consistent with genetic heterogeneity among families. These findings suggest that it will be possible to localize and ultimately identify strabismus susceptibility genes by linkage analysis and mutation screening of candidate genes. PMID:14519848

  15. Hearing the zero locus of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, R.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the ground state of a two-dimensional quantum particle in a magnetic field where the field vanishes nondegenerately along a closed curve. We show that the ground state concentrates on this curve as e/h tends to infinity, where e is the charge, and that the ground state energy grows like (e/h) 2/3 . These statements are true for any energy level, the level being fixed as the charge tends to infinity. If the magnitude of the gradient of the magnetic field is a constant b 0 along its zero locus, then we get the precise asymptotics (e/h) 2/3 (b 0 ) 2/3 E * + O(1) for every energy level. The constant E * ≅ .5698 is the infimum of the ground state energies E(β) of the anharmonic oscillator family -d 2 /dy 2 + (1/2 y 2 - β) 2 . (orig.)

  16. A novel stroke locus identified in a northern Sweden pedigree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janunger, T.; Nilsson-Ardnor, S.; Wiklund, P.-G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The population of northern Sweden is characterized by reduced genetic diversity and a high incidence of stroke. We sought to reduce genetic variation further, using genealogic analysis in a set of nuclear families affected by stroke, and we subsequently performed a genome-wide scan...... to identify novel stroke susceptibility loci. METHODS: Through genealogy, 7 nuclear families with a common ancestor, connected over 8 generations, were identified. A genome-wide scan using 449 microsatellite markers was performed with subsequent haplotype analyses. RESULTS: A maximum allele-sharing lod score...... of 4.81 on chromosome 9q31-q33 was detected. Haplotype analysis identified a common 2.2-megabase interval in the chromosomal region in 4 of the nuclear families, where an overrepresentation of intracerebral hemorrhage was observed. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a novel susceptibility locus for stroke...

  17. Examining the locus of age effects on complex span tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jennifer; Hartman, Marilyn

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the locus of age effects on complex span tasks, the authors evaluated the contributions of working memory functions and processing speed. Age differences were found in measures of storage capacity, language processing speed, and lower level speed. Statistically controlling for each of these in hierarchical regressions substantially reduced, but did not eliminate, the complex span age effect. Accounting for lower level speed and storage, however, removed essentially the entire age effect, suggesting that both functions play important and independent roles. Additional evidence for the role of storage capacity was the absence of complex span age differences with span size calibrated to individual word span performance. Explanations for age differences based on inhibition and concurrent task performamce were not supported.

  18. Chemogenetic locus coeruleus activation restores reversal learning in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, Jacki M; Chalermpalanupap, Termpanit; Botz-Zapp, Christian A; Fu, Vanessa M; Lembeck, Natalie A; Cohen, Robert M; Weinshenker, David

    2017-11-01

    See Grinberg and Heinsen (doi:10.1093/brain/awx261) for a scientific commentary on this article. Clinical evidence suggests that aberrant tau accumulation in the locus coeruleus and noradrenergic dysfunction may be a critical early step in Alzheimer’s disease progression. Yet, an accurate preclinical model of these phenotypes that includes early pretangle tau accrual in the locus coeruleus, loss of locus coeruleus innervation and deficits locus coeruleus/norepinephrine modulated behaviours, does not exist, hampering the identification of underlying mechanisms and the development of locus coeruleus-based therapies. Here, a transgenic rat (TgF344-AD) expressing disease-causing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APPsw) and presenilin-1 (PS1ΔE9) was characterized for histological and behavioural signs of locus coeruleus dysfunction reminiscent of mild cognitive impairment/early Alzheimer’s disease. In TgF344-AD rats, hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in the locus coeruleus prior to accrual in the medial entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, and tau pathology in the locus coeruleus was negatively correlated with noradrenergic innervation in the medial entorhinal cortex. Likewise, TgF344-AD rats displayed progressive loss of hippocampal norepinephrine levels and locus coeruleus fibres in the medial entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus, with no frank noradrenergic cell body loss. Cultured mouse locus coeruleus neurons expressing hyperphosphorylation-prone mutant human tau had shorter neurites than control neurons, but similar cell viability, suggesting a causal link between pretangle tau accrual and altered locus coeruleus fibre morphology. TgF344-AD rats had impaired reversal learning in the Morris water maze compared to their wild-type littermates, which was rescued by chemogenetic locus coeruleus activation via designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). Our results indicate that TgF344-AD rats uniquely meet several key criteria for a

  19. Association between the ABO locus and hematological traits in Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Kyung-Won

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, genome-wide association studies identified a pleiotropic gene locus, ABO, as being significantly associated with hematological traits. To confirm the effects of ABO on hematological traits, we examined the link between the ABO locus and hematological traits in Korean population-based cohorts. Results Six tagging SNPs for ABO were analyzed with regard to their effects on hematological traits [white blood cell count (WBC, red blood cell count (RBC, platelet (Plat, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC]. Linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for recruitment center, sex, and age as covariates. Of the 6 tagging SNPs, 3 (rs2073823, rs8176720, and rs495828 and 3 (rs2073823, rs8176717, and rs687289 were significantly associated with RBC and MCV, respectively (Bonferroni correction p-value criteria r2s = 0.99. Of the remaining 3 SNPs (rs8176720, rs8176717 and rs687289, rs8176717 generated an independent signal with moderate p-value (= 0.045 when it was adjusted for by rs2073823 (the most significant SNP. We also identified a copy number variation (CNV that was tagged by the SNP rs8176717, the minor allele of which correlated with the deletion allele of CNV. Our haplotype analysis indicated that the haplotype that contained the CNV deletion was significantly associated with MCV (β ± se = 0.363 ± 0.118, p =2.09 × 10-3. Conclusions Our findings confirm that ABO is one of the genetic factors that are associated with hematological traits in the Korean population. This result is notable, because GWASs fail to evaluate the link between a CNV and phenotype traits.

  20. The locus of semantic interference in picture naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Macizo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El locus del efecto de interferencia semántica en la denominación de dibujos. En los experimentos que se presentan se utilizó el procedimiento de priming enmascarado para explorar el locus del efecto de interferencia semántica. Para ello se manipuló la naturaleza de la tarea (denominación y decisión de género, el tipo de relación entre el prime y el target (semántica y fonológica y el tiempo de presentación del prime. Los resultados indicaron que el efecto de interferencia semántica aparece en las tareas de denominación (Experimento 1 y de decisión de género (Experimento 2, con tiempos de presentación del prime de 100 ms. Este resultado replica el efecto encontrado por otros investigadores y lo extiende a la tarea de decisión de género. Por otro lado, el efecto de facilitación fonológica no apareció en la tarea de decisión de género (Experimento 3. Este patrón de resultados sugiere que el efecto de interferencia semántica es consecuencia de procesos que ocurren en el nivel de representación del lemma, y que la tarea de decisión de género no está influenciada por la activación fonológica.

  1. Somatic cell genotoxicity at the glycophorin A locus in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.H.; Grant, S.G.; Langlois, R.G.; Bigbee, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    We have developed an assay for detecting variant erythrocytes that occur as a result of in vivo allele loss at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus on chromosome 4 in humans. This gene codes for an erythroid- specific cell surface glycoprotein, and with our assay we are able to detect rare variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of one of the two GPA alleles. Two distinctly different variant cell types are detected with this assay. One variant cell type (called N OE) is hemizygous. Our assay also detects homozygous variant erythrocytes that have lost expression of the GPA(M) allele and express the GPA(N) allele at twice the heterozygous level. The results of this assay are an enumeration of the frequency of N OE and NN variant cell types for each individual analyzed. These variant cell frequencies provide a measure of the amount of somatic cell genotoxicity that has occurred at the GPA locus. Such genotoxicity could be the result of (1) reactions of toxic chemicals to which the individual has been exposed, or (2) high energy radiation effects on erythroid precursor cells, or (3) errors in DNA replication or repair in these cells of the bone marrow. Thus, the GPA-based variant cell frequency can serve as a biodosimeter that indicates the amount of genotoxic exposure each individual has received. Because two very different kinds of variant cells are enumerated, different kinds of genotoxicity should be distinguishable. Results of the GPA somatic genotoxicity assay may also provide valuable information for cancer-risk estimation on each individual. 16 refs

  2. The Contribution of Locus of Control to Academic Procrastination in Islamic Education Management Students in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Batubara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the locus of control and academic procrastination, and investigate whether there is significance contributions of locus of control on student academic procrastination. This research was conducted by the Ex post-facto method was used in this study, where the data taken from two set of questionnaires. Proportional Stratified Random Sampling was used. There were 107 students involved this study. The results showed that the locus of control is in average level, meanwhile, and the students’ academic achievement was high. The study also showed that there is a significant contribution between the locus of control on students' academic procrastination. The article concludes that the importance that locus control for procrastination research, and with suggestions for educators who work with students who are adversely affected by procrastination.

  3. Life events, locus of control, and behavioral problems among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Kurita, H; Uchiyama, M; Okawa, M; Liu, L; Ma, D

    2000-12-01

    This study examined associations of life events and locus of control with behavioral problems among 1,365 Chinese adolescents by using the Youth Self-Report (YSR), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist (ASLEC), and the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems was 10.7% (95% CI = 9.9-11.5%). Logistic-regression analyses showed that a total of 13 negative life events mainly coming from academic domain and interpersonal relationships, high life-stress score, and high external locus score significantly increased the risk for behavioral problems. Life stress and locus of control significantly interacted with behavioral problems. These findings support the linkage between stressful life events and psychopathology in a general population of adolescents from mainland China, and demonstrate the stress-moderating effects of locus of control on psychopathology as well.

  4. How Multidimensional Health Locus of Control predicts utilization of emergency and inpatient hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Dawn; Peterson, Bridget; Cunningham, Amy; Ku, Bon; Scott, Kevin; LaNoue, Marianna

    2017-03-01

    Health locus of control may be an important predictor of health care utilization. We analyzed associations between health locus of control and frequency of emergency department visits and hospital admissions, and investigated self-rated health as a potential mediator. Overall, 863 patients in an urban emergency department completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control instrument, and self-reported emergency department use and hospital admissions in the last year. We found small but significant associations between Multidimensional Health Locus of Control and utilization, all of which were mediated by self-rated health. We conclude that interventions to shift health locus of control may change patients' perceptions of their own health, thereby impacting utilization.

  5. Specific locus mutagenesis of human mammary epithelial cells by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, S.R.; Gould, M.N.

    1991-01-01

    Tissue and locus specificity of mutation induction was studied in human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). Primary HMEC from normal tissue, and immortalized HMEC (184B5) derived from normal HMEC, were cultured under identical conditions and exposed to 10J/m 2 ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm peak wavelength), which produced approximately 50% mean survival in all cell strains and lines tested. UV radiation was found to induce mutations at the Na + -K + ATPase locus as determined by ouabain-resistance in both normal and immortalized HMEC. Mutation frequencies measured in these cells following UV exposure were similar to those reported for human diploid fibroblasts. Mutation induction was investigated at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus in normal and immortalized HMEC. Induced mutations at the HPRT locus as determined by 6-thioguanine resistance in normal primary HMEC were not observed following UV radiation. Mutation induction was observed at this locus UV-exposed immortalized HMEC. (author)

  6. Organization of the cpe locus in CPE-positive clostridium perfringens type C and D isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (encoded by the cpe gene contributes to several important human, and possibly veterinary, enteric diseases. The current study investigated whether cpe locus organization in type C or D isolates resembles one of the three (one chromosomal and two plasmid-borne cpe loci commonly found amongst type A isolates. Multiplex PCR assays capable of detecting sequences in those type A cpe loci failed to amplify products from cpe-positive type C and D isolates, indicating these isolates possess different cpe locus arrangements. Therefore, restriction fragments containing the cpe gene were cloned and sequenced from two type C isolates and one type D isolate. The obtained cpe locus sequences were then used to construct an overlapping PCR assay to assess cpe locus diversity amongst other cpe-positive type C and D isolates. All seven surveyed cpe-positive type C isolates had a plasmid-borne cpe locus partially resembling the cpe locus of type A isolates carrying a chromosomal cpe gene. In contrast, all eight type D isolates shared the same plasmid-borne cpe locus, which differed substantially from the cpe locus present in other C. perfringens by containing two copies of an ORF with 67% identity to a transposase gene (COG4644 found in Tn1546, but not previously associated with the cpe gene. These results identify greater diversity amongst cpe locus organization than previously appreciated, providing new insights into cpe locus evolution. Finally, evidence for cpe gene mobilization was found for both type C and D isolates, which could explain their cpe plasmid diversity.

  7. The relationship between the INTERMED patient complexity instrument and Level of Care Utilisation System (LOCUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Steven; Wilson, Ann; Realmuto, George; Specker, Sheila

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the concurrent and criterion validity of two independently developed measurement instruments, INTERMED and LOCUS, designed to improve the treatment and clinical management of patients with complex symptom manifestations. Participants (N = 66) were selected from hospital records based on the complexity of presenting symptoms, with tripartite diagnoses across biological, psychiatric and addiction domains. Biopsychosocial information from hospital records were submitted to INTERMED and LOCUS grids. In addition, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) ratings were gathered for statistical analyses. The product moment correlation between INTERMED and LOCUS was 0.609 (p = .01). Inverse zero-order correlations for INTERMED and LOCUS total score and GAF were obtained. However, only the beta weight for LOCUS and GAF was significant. An exploratory principal components analysis further illuminated areas of convergence between the instruments. INTERMED and LOCUS demonstrated shared variance. INTERMED appeared more sensitive to complex medical conditions and severe physiological reactions, whereas LOCUS findings are more strongly related to psychiatric symptoms. Implications are discussed.

  8. Work stress and emotional exhaustion in nurses: the mediating role of internal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partlak Günüşen, Neslihan; Ustün, Besti; Erdem, Sabri

    2014-01-01

    Burnout is a major problem for nursing. There is a strong relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion. Although studies report a negative correlation between the internal locus of control and emotional exhaustion and work stress, the number of studies available on the subject is limited. This study intends to examine the extent to which the relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion is mediated by nurses' internal locus of control. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. The study sample consisted of 347 nurses who worked in a university hospital in Izmir, Turkey and who agreed to participate in the study. The Work-Related Strain Inventory was used to evaluate the nurses' work stress level, Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to evaluate their emotional exhaustion levels, and the Locus of Control Scale was used to evaluate the internal locus of control. The variables of the study were based on the Neuman Systems Model. Work stress was positively related to internal locus of control (β3 = .21, p 0.1). Internal locus of control was negatively related to emotional exhaustion (β = -.14, p Work stress is directly (β = .87, p Work stress is directly (β = .87, p work stress was mediated, the impact of internal locus of control was limited. It is recommended that different variables be included in future studies so that they can mediate the relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion.

  9. The Relationship between Health Locus of Control and Health Behaviors in Emergency Medicine Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhoseinzadeh, Mansour; Gheibizadeh, Mahin; Moradikalboland, Mehrnaz

    2017-10-01

    Health locus of control defined as individual beliefs based on past experiences in health issues and having external or internal control over them, could affect health. Health locus of control plays a role in health behaviors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health locus of control and health behavior in emergency medical personnel in Ahvaz during 2016. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study, which began in August 2016 for a period of six months on 215 emergency medical personnel in Ahvaz who were selected randomly. The data were collected by a demographic questionnaire, Rotter's locus of control questionnaire, and health behavior questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software, version 22. The correlation between variables was estimated by Pearson's correlation coefficient and independent t test. The level of significance for all statistical tests was set at 0.05. We found no significant relationship between health locus of control (external and internal) and health behavior (P>0.05).Health behaviors were very good in terms of personal health (86.5%), nutrition (53%), and sleep and rest (48.4%), and poor in terms of physical activity (52.6%) and stress management (79.5%). Furthermore, 79.5% of the emergency personnel, in general, had poor heath behaviors. Leaders and officials in the field of health must necessarily design programs in relation to health locus of control and the factors developing and affecting it as well as the role of health locus of control in doing correct behaviors.

  10. Weight loss maintenance in relation to locus of control: The MedWeight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Fappa, Evaggelia; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Gkza, Anastasia; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Locus of control, i.e. the degree of an individual's belief on the control of his/her life, has been related to many health outcomes, including weight loss in overweight/obese individuals. No information is available on the impact of locus of control in maintaining weight loss. We aimed to investigate the effect of locus of control in weight loss maintenance and explore potential associations with lifestyle factors. Study participants included 239 individuals (41% males) who had lost at least 10% of body weight in the past and either maintained the loss (maintainers: weight maintenance of at least 10% of initial weight) or regained it (regainers). Locus of control was defined by a relevant multi-dimensional scale; participants were categorised to internals and externals, based on "internal" and "others" sub-scales. A significant interaction was found between locus of control and weight loss maintenance status (p locus of control. Individualised treatment, according to locus of control, may increase weight loss maintenance rates in former overweight/obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Internal health locus of control predicts willingness to track health behaviors online and with smartphone applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brooke L; Goldstein, Carly M; Gathright, Emily C; Hughes, Joel W; Latner, Janet D

    2017-12-01

    Given rising technology use across all demographic groups, digital interventions offer a potential strategy for increasing access to health information and care. Research is lacking on identifying individual differences that impact willingness to use digital interventions, which may affect patient engagement. Health locus of control, the amount of control an individual believes they have over their own health, may predict willingness to use mobile health (mHealth) applications ('apps') and online trackers. A cross-sectional study (n = 276) was conducted to assess college students' health locus of control beliefs and willingness to use health apps and online trackers. Internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs predicted willingness to use health apps and online trackers while chance health locus of control beliefs did not. Individuals with internal and powerful other health locus of control beliefs are more willing than those with chance health locus of control beliefs to utilize a form of technology to monitor or change health behaviors. Health locus of control is an easy-to-assess patient characteristic providers can measure to identify which patients are more likely to utilize mHealth apps and online trackers.

  12. Investigation of the 5q33.3 longevity locus and age-related phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Marianne; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christensen, Kaare

    2017-01-01

    A large meta-analysis recently found the 5q33.3 locus to be associated with survival to ≥ 90 years and lower all-cause mortality, thus suggesting it as a third human longevity locus alongside APOE and FOXO3A. The 5q33.3 locus has previously been associated with blood pressure regulation and cardi......A large meta-analysis recently found the 5q33.3 locus to be associated with survival to ≥ 90 years and lower all-cause mortality, thus suggesting it as a third human longevity locus alongside APOE and FOXO3A. The 5q33.3 locus has previously been associated with blood pressure regulation...... and cardiovascular diseases in middle-aged individuals. However, part of the influence on mortality appears to be independent of cardiovascular phenotypes, and the role of the 5q33.3 locus in longevity and survival is therefore still partly unknown. We investigated the association between the longevity......-associated variant rs2149954 on chromosome 5q33.3 and age-related phenotypes in two cohorts of 1,588 and 1,271 long-lived individuals (mean ages 93.1 and 95.9 years, respectively) as well as in 700 middle-aged and 677 elderly individuals (mean ages 52.5 and 78.7 years). Altogether, nominally significant associations...

  13. Relationship of emotional intelligence and health locus of control among female breast cancer patients in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, R.; Kamal, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate relationship between emotional intelligence and health locus of control in married women with breast cancer disease. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The data was collected from Nuclear Oncology and Radiology Institute (NORI Hospital) Islamabad (n=210) and from Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Rawalpindi (n=101). Data collection was completed between the period from Oct 2013 to Feb 2014. Patients and Methods: The sample was selected using non- probability sampling technique. Collected breast cancer patients sample was n= 311 whose age range was from 18-80 years. A biographical sheet that contain personal and disease information of patient, and two scales were used: Self Report Measure of Emotional Intelligence (Khan and Kamal, 2010), and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (Wallston, Stein, and Smith, 1994) were used to assess the constructs explored in this study. Results: Results depict that there was significant positive correlation between emotional intelligence (EI), including its sub scales Emotional Self-Regulation Skills (ESRS), Emotional Self Awareness Skills (ESAS), and Interpersonal Skills Scale (ISS) with the Internal Health Locus of Control (IHLOC). Doctors Health Locus of Control (DHLOC) also have significant relationship to emotional intelligence's all sub divisions, whereas external health locus of control including Chance Health Locus of Control (CHLOC) and Powerful Other people Health Locus of Control (PHLOC) both are related to psychological distresses but it was observed in breast cancer population that chance was significantly correlated to ESAS, and ISS and powerful other people locus. Further on group comparison One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) depicted no significant difference on disease stage groups. Conclusion: The strength factors of EI and HLOC are highlighted in current study. It was concluded that Emotional Intelligence (EI) and health locus of control (IHLOC, and

  14. [Illness concepts of children. Validation of a modified locus of control test in illness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A; Altmann-Herz, U

    1992-12-01

    We investigated the health and illness concepts of 53 healthy children aged 8 to 14 years using a modified illness and health locus of control scale (KKG, Lohaus and Schmitt, 1989) with the scales internal, external-p (powerful others) and external-c (chance). A comparison of the results with those on self-esteem (FSK 4-6), anxiety (CMAS-R) and hopelessness (HSC) scales showed a decrease in externality, but not an increase in internality, with increasing age and a correlation between self-confidence and a more internal locus of control. The influence of children's health locus of control on treatment compliance is discussed.

  15. [Analysis of allele dropout at TH01 locus in paternity testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li; Shen, Xiao-li; Xue, Shi-jie; Hu, Jie

    2013-10-01

    To analyze allele dropout at TH01 locus in paternity testing in order to determine the accurate genotype. To use a two STR loci genotyping system to verify an abnormal genotype for the TH01 locus with PCR using specific primers, cloning and DNA sequencing. A rare allele at TH01 locus named 5.2, which was undetectable with PowerPlex 21 system, was detected with an Identifiler system. Genetic variations may result in rare alleles and loci loss. To avoid misjudgment, laboratories should have a variety of methods for detecting loci loss.

  16. HPRT gene locus mutation in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced by internal exposure to radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingyong, Zhao; Yongzhong, Xu; Tao, Zhao; Fengmei, Cui; Liuyi, Wang; Qinhua, Lao [Suzhou Univ., Suzhou (China). Radiation Medicine Department

    2001-07-01

    HPRT gene locus mutation in peripheral blood lymphocytes induced by internal exposure to radionuclides was performed and the relationships between mutation frequency and dose were studied. Rats were injected intravenously with radionuclides, the blood was sampled at different time after injection; HPRT gene locus mutation frequency (GMF) were examined by methods of multi-nucleus cell and Brdurd assay, working out the Dose-response function. GMF rose with the increase of dose and dose-rates and were clearly interrelated. The HPRT gene locus mutation is very sensitive to radiation and may be used as a biological dosimeter.

  17. Personal networks and locus of control in large urban centers of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo De Grande

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between locus of control and interpersonal relations structures in Argentina. After a representative sample (n = 1500 of households in seven major urban centers (>200,000 inhabitants, it examines the relationship between the externality of locus of control and different aspects of personal networks of each respondent. The results show that people having more relations experiment lower levels of externality of locus of control. Likewise, lower levels of externality are informed when personal ties outside the neighborhood are available, as well as ties high educational level. In this regard, significant associations are verified between control and personal relations structures.

  18. Molecular studies of deletions at the human steroid sulfatase locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, L.J.; Yen, P.; Pomerantz, D.; Martin, E.; Rolewic, L.; Mohandas, T.

    1989-01-01

    The human steroid sulfatase gene (STS) is located on the distal X chromosome short arm close to the pseudoautosomal region but in a segment of DNA that is unique to the X chromosome. In contrast to most X chromosome-encoded genes, STS expression is not extinguished during the process of X chromosome inactivation. Deficiency of STS activity produced the syndrome of X chromosome-linked ichthyosis, which is one of the most common inborn errors of metabolism in man. Approximately 90% of STS - individuals have large deletions at the STS locus. The authors and others have found that the end points of such deletions are heterogeneous in their location. One recently ascertained subject was observed to have a 40-kilobase deletion that is entirely intragenic, permitting the cloning and sequencing of the deletion junction. Studies of this patient and of other X chromosome sequences in other subjects permit some insight into the mechanism(s) responsible for generating frequent deletions on the short arm of the X chromosome

  19. Characterization of mutations at the mouse phenylalanine hydroxylase locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.D.; Charlton, C.K. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Two genetic mouse models for human phenylketonuria have been characterized by DNA sequence analysis. For each, a distinct mutation was identified within the protein coding sequence of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. This establishes that the mutated locus is the same as that causing human phenylketonuria and allows a comparison between these mouse phenylketonuria models and the human disease. A genotype/phenotype relationship that is strikingly similar to the human disease emerges, underscoring the similarity of phenylketonuria in mouse and man. In PAH{sup ENU1}, the phenotype is mild. The Pah{sup enu1} mutation predicts a conservative valine to alanine amino acid substitution and is located in exon 3, a gene region where serious mutations are rare in humans. In PAH{sup ENU2} the phenotype is severe. The Pah{sup enu2} mutation predicts a radical phenylalanine to serine substitution and is located in exon 7, a gene region where serious mutations are common in humans. In PAH{sup ENU2}, the sequence information was used to devise a direct genotyping system based on the creation of a new Alw26I restriction endonuclease site. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Locus coeruleus and dopaminergic consolidation of everyday memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tomonori; Duszkiewicz, Adrian J.; Sonneborn, Alex; Spooner, Patrick A.; Yamasaki, Miwako; Watanabe, Masahiko; Smith, Caroline C.; Fernández, Guillén; Deisseroth, Karl; Greene, Robert W.; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retention of episodic-like memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after encoding. Using an everyday memory task in mice, we sought the neurons mediating this dopamine-dependent novelty effect, previously thought to originate exclusively from the tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing (TH+) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We report that neuronal firing in the locus coeruleus (LC) is especially sensitive to environmental novelty, LC-TH+ neurons project more profusely than VTA-TH+ neurons to the hippocampus, optogenetic activation of LC-TH+ neurons mimics the novelty effect, and this novelty-associated memory enhancement is unaffected by VTA inactivation. Surprisingly, two effects of LC-TH+ photoactivation are sensitive to hippocampal D1/D5 receptor blockade and resistant to adrenoceptors blockade – memory enhancement and long lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in CA1 ex vivo. Thus, LC-TH+ neurons can mediate post-encoding memory enhancement in a manner consistent with possible co-release of dopamine in hippocampus. PMID:27602521

  1. Vocational interests of adolescents: relationships between self-esteem and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, A K; Mullis, R L

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among scores on vocational interests, self-esteem, and locus of control for high school students. Grade and sex differences were also examined. 1364 high school students ranging in age from 14 to 19 years of age were administered the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale for Children, and the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory. High school students with higher scores on self-esteem and showing an orientation toward internal locus of control expressed more interests in a variety of vocational themes than adolescents with lower scores on self-esteem and scores for external locus of control. Sex and grade differences in vocational interests of adolescents were also noted. The findings were discussed in light of theoretical and practical considerations.

  2. Analysis of an "off-ladder" allele at the Penta D short tandem repeat locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y L; Wang, J G; Wang, D X; Zhang, W Y; Liu, X J; Cao, J; Yang, S L

    2015-11-25

    Kinship testing of a father and his son from Guangxi, China, the location of the Zhuang minority people, was performed using the PowerPlex® 18D System with a short tandem repeat typing kit. The results indicated that both the father and his son had an off-ladder allele at the Penta D locus, with a genetic size larger than that of the maximal standard allelic ladder. To further identify this locus, monogenic amplification, gene cloning, and genetic sequencing were performed. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that the fragment size of the Penta D-OL locus was 469 bp and the core sequence was [AAAGA]21, also called Penta D-21. The rare Penta D-21 allele was found to be distributed among the Zhuang population from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China; therefore, this study improved the range of DNA data available for this locus and enhanced our ability for individual identification of gene loci.

  3. A novel locus for dilated cardiomyopathy maps to canine chromosome 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Petra; Raducha, Michael G; Prociuk, Ulana; Sleeper, Meg M; Van Winkle, Thomas J; Henthorn, Paula S

    2008-06-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), the most common form of cardiomyopathy, often leads to heart failure and sudden death. While a substantial proportion of DCMs are inherited, mutations responsible for the majority of DCMs remain unidentified. A genome-wide linkage study was performed to identify the locus responsible for an autosomal recessive inherited form of juvenile DCM (JDCM) in Portuguese water dogs using 16 families segregating the disease. Results link the JDCM locus to canine chromosome 8 with two-point and multipoint lod scores of 10.8 and 14, respectively. The locus maps to a 3.9-Mb region, with complete syntenic homology to human chromosome 14, that contains no genes or loci known to be involved in the development of any type of cardiomyopathy. This discovery of a DCM locus with a previously unknown etiology will provide a new gene to examine in human DCM patients and a model for testing therapeutic approaches for heart failure.

  4. RAS1, a quantitative trait locus for salt tolerance and ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Zhonghai; Zheng, Zhimin; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Zhu, Jianhua; Cui, Xinping; Iida, Kei; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2010-01-01

    Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for feeding the growing world population. We used natural genetic variation in salt tolerance among different Arabidopsis accessions to map a major quantitative trait locus (QTL

  5. Relationship among prospective parents' locus of control, social desirability, and choice of psychoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windwer, C

    1977-01-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a relationship among locus of control, social desirability, and choice of psychoprophylaxis (PPM). It was hypothesized that internal locus of control and low social desirability would correlate significantly with the choice of PPM by husbands and wives; that externally controlled wives who participated in PPM would have more internally controlled husbands than externally controlled wives who participated in PPM would have more internally controlled husbands than externally controlled wives who did not participate; and that locus of control and social desirability, when taken together, would be better predictors of choice of PPM than either taken separately. Ninety-eight middle-class nulliparous couples, participant and non-participant, were studied in the seventh or eighth month of the wife's pregnancy. Rotter's I-E Scale and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were used to measure locus of control and social desirability. Study findings did not support the hypotheses.

  6. Adult self-esteem and locus of control as a function of familial alcoholism and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, L J; Broida, J P

    1991-05-01

    This study examines self-esteem and locus of control in adult children of alcoholics. We assessed these measures in 195 professional adults in relation to alcoholism and functioning in the family of origin. Although the presence of parental alcoholism was not a predictor of significant differences in adult self-esteem or locus of control, familial dysfunction was reflected in significant differences in self-esteem. This suggests that parental alcoholism does not necessarily result in personality differences in adult children.

  7. Relationship between Dental Anxiety and Health Locus of Control among Physiotherapy Students

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    Pooja Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Materials & Method: A total of 152 students participated in the study. Dental anxiety was assessed using the 5 item Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS and Locus of Control was assessed using the 18 item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC scale. Results: A Statistically significant positive correlation was found between the internal dimension of MHLC and dental anxiety. Conclusions: HLC was found to play an important role in predicting the dental anxiety among physiotherapy students.

  8. Health locus of control: Its relationship with medication adherence and medication wastage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lorna Marie; Borg Theuma, Ruth; Cordina, Maria

    2017-12-09

    Non-adherence is a significant factor contributing to medication wastage. Whilst there is some evidence on the influence of patients' health locus of control in relation to adherence, there has been little inquiry into its relationship with mediation wastage. To determine the relationship between medication adherence and health locus of control as well as medication wastage and health locus of control in patients with chronic conditions. Outpatients having a diagnosis of asthma, cardiovascular conditions, or diabetes participated in a cross-sectional study employing a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire determined presence of unused medication (wastage), adherence using 'Tool for Adherence Behaviour Screening' (TABS), and health locus of control using 'Multidimensional Health Locus of Control' (MHLC) scale Form C. Logistic regression was performed to ascertain the effects of MHLC and demographics in relation to adherence and wastage. MHLC beliefs were divided into 8 types of health locus of control. One-Way ANOVA was used to assess differences between conditions and belief types. P-values ≤ .05 were considered significant. There were 330 patients recruited (58% male; age, mean±(SD): 61 ± 15 years; 110 asthma, 110 cardiovascular, 110 diabetes). In terms of health locus of control, females had higher 'doctors' beliefs (p = .054) and significantly lower 'other people' beliefs (p = control. 'Yea-sayers' had the least presence of unused medication, followed by 'pure internal' believers. 'Pure powerful others external' had the highest presence of unused medication. Healthcare professionals should take into account patients' health locus of control beliefs whilst conducting an intervention with patients; this can impact positively medication adherence and minimisation of medication wastage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of high and low assertiveness on locus of control and health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J M; Stout, J K

    1985-03-01

    The effect of high and low assertiveness on locus of control and health problems was examined with 78 direct-service workers in mental health and mental retardation settings in northeastern Pennsylvania. The direct-service workers completed the Rathus (1973) Assertiveness Schedule, the Rotter (1966) Internal-External Locus of Control Scale, and a health-problems inventory. Highly assertive individuals were found to be more internally controlled and to experience fewer health problems than were individuals low in assertiveness.

  10. Prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis Four rag Locus Genotypes in Patients of Orthodontic Gingivitis and Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yujie; Wang, Lili; Guo, Yang; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2013-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered as a major etiological agent in periodontal diseases and implied to result in gingival inflammation under orthodontic appliance. rag locus is a pathogenicity island found in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Four rag locus variants are different in pathogenicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Moreover, there are different racial and geographic differences in distribution of rag locus genotypes. In this study, we assessed the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genotypes in 102 gingival crevicular fluid samples from 57 cases of gingivitis patients with orthodontic appliances, 25 cases of periodontitis patients and 20 cases of periodontally healthy people through a 16S rRNA-based PCR and a multiplex PCR. The correlations between Porphyromona.gingivalis/rag locus and clinical indices were analyzed. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and rag locus genes in periodontitis group was the highest among three groups and higher in orthodontic gingivitis than healthy people (porthodontic gingivitis and mild-to-moderate periodontitis in Shandong. Porphyromonas.gingivalis carrying rag-1 has the strong virulence and could be associated with severe periodontitis. PMID:23593379

  11. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture.

  12. Social capital, political trust, and health locus of control: a population-based study.

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    Lindström, Martin

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the association between political trust in the Riksdag and lack of belief in the possibility to influence one's own health (external locus of control), taking horizontal trust into account. The 2008 public health survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 55% participation rate. A random sample of 28,198 persons aged 18-80 years participated. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between political trust in the Riksdag (an aspect of vertical trust) and lack of belief in the possibility to influence one's own health (external locus of control). The multiple regression analyses included age, country of birth, education, and horizontal trust in other people. A 33.7% of all men and 31.8% of all women lack internal locus of control. Low (external) health locus of control is more common in higher age groups, among people born outside Sweden, with lower education, low horizontal trust, low political trust, and no opinion concerning political trust. Respondents with not particularly strong political trust, no political trust at all and no opinion have significantly higher odds ratios of external locus of control throughout the multiple regression analyses. Low political trust in the Riksdag seems to be independently associated with external health locus of control.

  13. The stability of locus equation slopes across stop consonant voicing/aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Harvey M.; Modarresi, Golnaz

    2004-05-01

    The consistency of locus equation slopes as phonetic descriptors of stop place in CV sequences across voiced and voiceless aspirated stops was explored in the speech of five male speakers of American English and two male speakers of Persian. Using traditional locus equation measurement sites for F2 onsets, voiceless labial and coronal stops had significantly lower locus equation slopes relative to their voiced counterparts, whereas velars failed to show voicing differences. When locus equations were derived using F2 onsets for voiced stops that were measured closer to the stop release burst, comparable to the protocol for measuring voiceless aspirated stops, no significant effects of voicing/aspiration on locus equation slopes were observed. This methodological factor, rather than an underlying phonetic-based explanation, provides a reasonable account for the observed flatter locus equation slopes of voiceless labial and coronal stops relative to voiced cognates reported in previous studies [Molis et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 2925 (1994); O. Engstrand and B. Lindblom, PHONUM 4, 101-104]. [Work supported by NIH.

  14. Comparing health locus of control in patients with Spasmodic Dysphonia, Functional Dysphonia and Nonlaryngeal Dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselden, Karen; Powell, Theresa; Drinnan, Mike; Carding, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Locus of Control (LoC) refers to an individuals' perception of whether they are in control of life events. Health Locus of Control refers to whether someone feels they have influence over their health. Health Locus of Control has not been studied in any depth in voice-disordered patients. The objective of this study was to examine Health Locus of Control in three patient groups: (1) Spasmodic Dysphonia, (2) Functional Dysphonia and (3) a nondysphonic group with Nonlaryngeal Dystonia. LoC was measured and compared in a total of 57 patients using the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales (diagnostic specific) Form C. Internal, Chance, and Powerful others LoC were measured and comparisons were made using one-way analysis of variance. Contrary to expectations Internal LoC was found to be significantly higher in the Functional Dysphonia group when compared to the other two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in Chance or Powerful others LoC. The two organic groups, Spasmodic Dysphonia and Nonlaryngeal Dystonia, were more alike in Internal Health Locus of Control than the Functional Dysphonia group. The diagnostic nature of the groups was reflected in their LoC scores rather than their voice loss. These results contribute to the debate about the etiology of Spasmodic Dysphonia and will be of interest to those involved in the psychology of voice and those managing voice-disordered patients.

  15. Physical map and one-megabase sequencing of the human immunoglobulin lambda locus

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    Geraldo A.S. Passos Jr.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The human immunoglobulin lambda (IGL locus is located on chromosome 22q11.1-q11.2 and contains the genes responsible for the immunoglobulin lambda light chains. This locus was recently mapped (physical map and its 1-Mb DNA totally sequenced. In this review we focus on the characterization of the v-lambda genes, its chromosomal location, genomics and sequencing of the IGL locus.O locus IGL humano está localizado no cromosomo 22q11.1-q11.2 e contém os genes responsáveis pelas cadeias leves de imunoglobulina tipo lambda. Este locus foi recentemente mapeado (mapa físico e seu 1 Mb DNA totalmente sequenciado. Nesta revisão focamos os principais resultados de caracterização dos genes v-lambda, sua localização cromossômica, a genômica e seqüenciamento do locus IGL.

  16. Identification of a novel locus for a USH3 like syndrome combined with congenital cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dad, S; Østergaard, E; Thykjaer, T; Albrectsen, A; Ravn, K; Rosenberg, T; Møller, L B

    2010-10-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common genetic disease that causes both deafness and blindness. USH is divided into three types, USH1, USH2 and USH3, depending on the age of onset, the course of the disease, and on the degree of vestibular dysfunction. By homozygosity mapping of a consanguineous Danish family of Dutch descent, we have identified a novel locus for a rare USH3-like syndrome. The affected family members have a unique association of retinitis pigmentosa, progressive hearing impairment, vestibular dysfunction, and congenital cataract. The phenotype is similar, but not identical to that of USH3 patients, as congenital cataract has not been reported for USH3. By homozygosity mapping, we identified a 7.3 Mb locus on chromosome 15q22.2-23 with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.0. The locus partially overlaps with the USH1 locus, USH1H, a novel unnamed USH2 locus, and the non-syndromic deafness locus DFNB48. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Fine mapping of the NRG1 Hirschsprung's disease locus.

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    Clara Sze-Man Tang

    Full Text Available The primary pathology of Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR, colon aganglionosis is the absence of ganglia in variable lengths of the hindgut, resulting in functional obstruction. HSCR is attributed to a failure of migration of the enteric ganglion precursors along the developing gut. RET is a key regulator of the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS and the major HSCR-causing gene. Yet the reduced penetrance of RET DNA HSCR-associated variants together with the phenotypic variability suggest the involvement of additional genes in the disease. Through a genome-wide association study, we uncovered a ∼350 kb HSCR-associated region encompassing part of the neuregulin-1 gene (NRG1. To identify the causal NRG1 variants contributing to HSCR, we genotyped 243 SNPs variants on 343 ethnic Chinese HSCR patients and 359 controls. Genotype analysis coupled with imputation narrowed down the HSCR-associated region to 21 kb, with four of the most associated SNPs (rs10088313, rs10094655, rs4624987, and rs3884552 mapping to the NRG1 promoter. We investigated whether there was correlation between the genotype at the rs10088313 locus and the amount of NRG1 expressed in human gut tissues (40 patients and 21 controls and found differences in expression as a function of genotype. We also found significant differences in NRG1 expression levels between diseased and control individuals bearing the same rs10088313 risk genotype. This indicates that the effects of NRG1 common variants are likely to depend on other alleles or epigenetic factors present in the patients and would account for the variability in the genetic predisposition to HSCR.

  18. The 4q27 locus and prostate cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A; Hoang, Hoa N; Southey, Melissa C; English, Dallas R; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Hayes, Vanessa M

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is considered to be implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In this study we are the first to investigate a potential association between variants in an autoimmune related region on chromosome 4q27 and prostate cancer risk. This region harbors two cytokine genes IL-2 and the recently described IL-21. We genotyped six variants previously associated with autoimmune disease (namely rs13151961, rs13119723, rs17388568, rs3136534, rs6822844 and rs6840978) and one functional IL-2 promoter variant (rs2069762) for possible association with prostate cancer risk using the Australian Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer case-control Study. Overall, our results do not support an association between the seven variants at position 4q27 and prostate cancer risk. Per allele odds ratios (ORs) were not significantly different from 1 (all P-values = 0.06). However, we found suggestive evidence for a significant association between the presence of the rs13119723 variant (located in a protein of unknown function) and men with a family history of prostate cancer in first-degree relatives (P-value for interaction 0.02). The per allele OR associated with this variant was significantly higher than 1 (2.37; 95% C.I. = 1.01-5.57). We suggest that genetic variation within the chromosome 4q27 locus might be associated with prostate cancer susceptibility in men with a family history of the disease. Furthermore, our study alludes to a potential role of unknown protein KIAA1109 in conferring this risk

  19. Variants at the 9p21 locus and melanoma risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccioni, Livia; Rachakonda, Panduranga Sivaramakrishna; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Planelles, Dolores; Requena, Celia; Hemminki, Kari; Nagore, Eduardo; Kumar, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    The influence of variants at the 9p21 locus on melanoma risk has been reported through investigation of CDKN2A variants through candidate gene approach as well as by genome wide association studies (GWAS). In the present study we genotyped, 25 SNPs that tag 273 variants on chromosome 9p21 in 837 melanoma cases and 1154 controls from Spain. Ten SNPs were selected based on previous associations, reported in GWAS, with either melanocytic nevi or melanoma risk or both. The other 15 SNPs were selected to fine map the CDKN2A gene region. All the 10 variants selected from the GWAS showed statistically significant association with melanoma risk. Statistically significant association with melanoma risk was also observed for the carriers of the variant T-allele of rs3088440 (540 C>T) at the 3’ UTR of CDKN2A gene with an OR 1.52 (95% CI 1.14-2.04). Interaction analysis between risk associated polymorphisms and previously genotyped MC1R variants, in the present study, did not show any statistically significant association. Statistical significant association was observed for the interaction between phototypes and the rs10811629 (located in intron 5 of MTAP). The strongest association was observed between the homozygous carrier of the A–allele and phototype II with an OR of 15.93 (95% CI 5.34-47.54). Our data confirmed the association of different variants at chromosome 9p21 with melanoma risk and we also found an association of a variant with skin phototypes

  20. Genomic Locus Modulating IOP in the BXD RI Mouse Strains

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    Rebecca King

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP is the primary risk factor for developing glaucoma, yet little is known about the contribution of genomic background to IOP regulation. The present study leverages an array of systems genetics tools to study genomic factors modulating normal IOP in the mouse. The BXD recombinant inbred (RI strain set was used to identify genomic loci modulating IOP. We measured the IOP in a total of 506 eyes from 38 different strains. Strain averages were subjected to conventional quantitative trait analysis by means of composite interval mapping. Candidate genes were defined, and immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR (qPCR were used for validation. Of the 38 BXD strains examined the mean IOP ranged from a low of 13.2mmHg to a high of 17.1mmHg. The means for each strain were used to calculate a genome wide interval map. One significant quantitative trait locus (QTL was found on Chr.8 (96 to 103 Mb. Within this 7 Mb region only 4 annotated genes were found: Gm15679, Cdh8, Cdh11 and Gm8730. Only two genes (Cdh8 and Cdh11 were candidates for modulating IOP based on the presence of non-synonymous SNPs. Further examination using SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant analysis revealed that the SNPs in Cdh8 (Cadherin 8 were predicted to not change protein function; while the SNPs in Cdh11 (Cadherin 11 would not be tolerated, affecting protein function. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that CDH11 is expressed in the trabecular meshwork of the mouse. We have examined the genomic regulation of IOP in the BXD RI strain set and found one significant QTL on Chr. 8. Within this QTL, there is one good candidate gene, Cdh11.

  1. Locus-specific ribosomal RNA gene silencing in nucleolar dominance.

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    Michelle S Lewis

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The silencing of one parental set of rRNA genes in a genetic hybrid is an epigenetic phenomenon known as nucleolar dominance. We showed previously that silencing is restricted to the nucleolus organizer regions (NORs, the loci where rRNA genes are tandemly arrayed, and does not spread to or from neighboring protein-coding genes. One hypothesis is that nucleolar dominance is the net result of hundreds of silencing events acting one rRNA gene at a time. A prediction of this hypothesis is that rRNA gene silencing should occur independent of chromosomal location. An alternative hypothesis is that the regulatory unit in nucleolar dominance is the NOR, rather than each individual rRNA gene, in which case NOR localization may be essential for rRNA gene silencing. To test these alternative hypotheses, we examined the fates of rRNA transgenes integrated at ectopic locations. The transgenes were accurately transcribed in all independent transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines tested, indicating that NOR localization is not required for rRNA gene expression. Upon crossing the transgenic A. thaliana lines as ovule parents with A. lyrata to form F1 hybrids, a new system for the study of nucleolar dominance, the endogenous rRNA genes located within the A. thaliana NORs are silenced. However, rRNA transgenes escaped silencing in multiple independent hybrids. Collectively, our data suggest that rRNA gene activation can occur in a gene-autonomous fashion, independent of chromosomal location, whereas rRNA gene silencing in nucleolar dominance is locus-dependent.

  2. Effectiveness of teaching cognitive-behavioral techniques on locus of control in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrtak, Mohammad; Habibzadeh, Shahram; Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Rjaei-Khiavi, Abdollah

    2017-10-01

    Many of the cognitive behavioral models and therapeutic protocols developed so far for psychological disorders and chronic diseases have proved effective through clinical research. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of teaching cognitive-behavioral techniques on locus of control in hemodialysis patients. This controlled clinical trial study was conducted in 2015 with 76 patients selected by census and treated with a hemodialysis machine in the dialysis department of Vali-Asr Hospital in the city of Meshkinshahr. A total of four patients were excluded because of their critical conditions while the rest, who were recruited, were randomly divided into two equal groups of 36 patients as the intervention and control groups. First, the locus of control was measured in both groups through a pretest, and cognitive-behavioral techniques were then taught to the intervention group during eight 45 to 90-minute sessions. The locus of control in patients of both groups was finally re-measured through a posttest. Data were collected using Rotter's Locus of Control Inventory. The Wilcoxon test and Mann-Whitney U test were respectively used in SPSS18 for data analysis. In the pretest and posttest stages respectively, 4.8% and 14.3% of samples in the control group as well as 14.3% and 33.3% of samples in the intervention group enjoyed internal locus of control. The difference between the pretest and posttest scores of internal locus of control in the intervention group was significant (p=0.004), which indicates the positive effect of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapeutic intervention on internalization of locus of control in this group. Given the external locus of control in most of the study patients and also the positive significant effect of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy on internalization of locus of control in this group of patients, it appears necessary to have a psychology resident present in the hemodialysis department to teach the necessary cognitive

  3. Genetic mapping of the female mimic morph locus in the ruff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ruffs (Aves: Philomachus pugnax) possess a genetic polymorphism for male mating behaviour resulting in three permanent alternative male reproductive morphs: (i) territorial ‘Independents’, (ii) non-territorial ‘Satellites’, and (iii) female-mimicking ‘Faeders’. Development into independent or satellite morphs has previously been shown to be due to a single-locus, two-allele autosomal Mendelian mode of inheritance at the Satellite locus. Here, we use linkage analysis to map the chromosomal location of the Faeder locus, which controls development into the Faeder morph, and draw further conclusions about candidate genes, assuming shared synteny with other birds. Results Segregation data on the Faeder locus were obtained from captive-bred pedigrees comprising 64 multi-generation families (N = 381). There was no evidence that the Faeder locus was linked to the Satellite locus, but it was linked with microsatellite marker Ppu020. Comparative mapping of ruff microsatellite markers against the chicken (Gallus gallus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genomes places the Ppu020 and Faeder loci on a region of chromosome 11 that includes the Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene, which regulates colour polymorphisms in numerous birds and other vertebrates. Melanin-based colouration varies with life-history strategies in ruffs and other species, thus the MC1R gene is a strong candidate to play a role in alternative male morph determination. Conclusion Two unlinked loci appear to control behavioural development in ruffs. The Faeder locus is linked to Ppu020, which, assuming synteny, is located on avian chromosome 11. MC1R is a candidate gene involved in alternative male morph determination in ruffs. PMID:24256185

  4. Identification of a fourth locus (EVR4) for familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomes, Carmel; Downey, Louise M; Bottomley, Helen M; Scott, Sheila; Woodruff, Geoffrey; Trembath, Richard C; Inglehearn, Chris F

    2004-01-15

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a genetically heterogeneous inherited blinding disorder of the retinal vascular system. To date three loci have been mapped: EVR1 on chromosome 11q, EVR2 on chromosome Xp, and EVR3 on chromosome 11p. The gene underlying EVR3 remains unidentified whilst the EVR2 gene, which encodes the Norrie disease protein (NDP), was identified over a decade ago. More recently, FZD4, the gene that encodes the Wnt receptor Frizzled-4, was identified as the mutated gene at the EVR1 locus. The purpose of this study was to screen FZD4 in a large family previously proven to be linked to the EVR1 locus. PCR products were generated using genomic DNA from affected family members with primers designed to amplify the coding sequence of FZD4. The PCR products were screened for mutations by direct sequencing. Genotyping was performed in all available family members using fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers from chromosome 11q. Sequencing of the EVR1 gene, FZD4, in this family identified no mutation. To investigate this family further we performed high-resolution genotyping with markers spanning chromosome 11q. Haplotype analysis excluded FZD4 as the mutated gene in this family and identified a candidate region approximately 10 cM centromeric to EVR1. This new FEVR locus is flanked by markers D11S1368 (centromeric) and D11S937 (telomeric) and spans approximately 15 cM. High-resolution genotyping and haplotype analysis excluded FZD4 as the defective gene in a family previously linked to the EVR1 locus. The results indicate that the gene mutated in this family lies centromeric to the EVR1 gene, FZD4, and is also genetically distinct from the EVR3 locus. This new locus has been designated EVR4 and is the fourth FEVR locus to be described.

  5. Maxwell Strata and Cut Locus in the Sub-Riemannian Problem on the Engel Group

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    Ardentov, Andrei A.; Sachkov, Yuri L.

    2017-12-01

    We consider the nilpotent left-invariant sub-Riemannian structure on the Engel group. This structure gives a fundamental local approximation of a generic rank 2 sub-Riemannian structure on a 4-manifold near a generic point (in particular, of the kinematic models of a car with a trailer). On the other hand, this is the simplest sub-Riemannian structure of step three. We describe the global structure of the cut locus (the set of points where geodesics lose their global optimality), the Maxwell set (the set of points that admit more than one minimizer), and the intersection of the cut locus with the caustic (the set of conjugate points along all geodesics). The group of symmetries of the cut locus is described: it is generated by a one-parameter group of dilations R+ and a discrete group of reflections Z2 × Z2 × Z2. The cut locus admits a stratification with 6 three-dimensional strata, 12 two-dimensional strata, and 2 one-dimensional strata. Three-dimensional strata of the cut locus are Maxwell strata of multiplicity 2 (for each point there are 2 minimizers). Two-dimensional strata of the cut locus consist of conjugate points. Finally, one-dimensional strata are Maxwell strata of infinite multiplicity, they consist of conjugate points as well. Projections of sub-Riemannian geodesics to the 2-dimensional plane of the distribution are Euler elasticae. For each point of the cut locus, we describe the Euler elasticae corresponding to minimizers coming to this point. Finally, we describe the structure of the optimal synthesis, i. e., the set of minimizers for each terminal point in the Engel group.

  6. Detailed mapping of a resistance locus against Fusarium wilt in cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, Koji; Saito, Takeo; Negoro, Satomi; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Nunome, Tsukasa; Ohyama, Akio; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    This is the first report on genetic mapping of a resistance locus against Fusarium wilt caused by the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae in cultivated eggplant. Fusarium wilt, caused by the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae, is a major soil-borne disease threatening stable production in eggplant (Solanum melongena). Although three eggplant germplasms, LS1934, LS174, and LS2436, are known to be highly resistant to the pathogen, their resistance loci have not been mapped. In this study, we performed quantitative trait locus analyses in F2:3 populations and detected a resistance locus, FM1, at the end of chromosome 2, with two alleles, Fm1(L) and Fm1(E), in the F2 populations LWF2 [LS1934 × WCGR112-8 (susceptible)] and EWF2 [EPL-1 (derived from LS174) × WCGR112-8], respectively. The percentage of phenotypic variance explained by Fm1(L) derived from LS1934 was 75.0% [Logarithm of the odds (LOD) = 29.3], and that explained by Fm1(E) derived from EPL-1 was 92.2% (LOD = 65.8). Using backcrossed inbred lines, we mapped FM1 between two simple sequence repeat markers located ~4.881 cM apart from each other. Comparing the location of the above locus to those of previously reported ones, the resistance locus Rfo-sa1 from an eggplant ally (Solanum aethiopicum gr. Gilo) was mapped very close to FM1, whereas another resistance locus, from LS2436, was mapped to the middle of chromosome 4. This is the first report of mapping of a Fusarium resistance locus in cultivated eggplant. The availability of resistance-linked markers will enable the application of marker-assisted selection to overcome problems posed by self-incompatibility and introduction of negative traits because of linkage drag, and will lead to clear understanding of genetic mechanism of Fusarium resistance.

  7. Participation of locus coeruleus in breathing control in female rats.

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    de Carvalho, Débora; Patrone, Luis Gustavo A; Marques, Danuzia A; Vicente, Mariane C; Szawka, Raphael E; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Bícego, Kênia C; Gargaglioni, Luciane H

    2017-11-01

    Several evidences indicate that the locus coeruleus (LC) is involved in central chemoreception responding to CO 2 /pH and displaying a high percentage of chemosensitive neurons (>80%). However, there are no studies about the LC-mediated hypercapnic ventilation performed in females. Therefore, we assessed the role of noradrenergic LC neurons in non-ovariectomized (NOVX), ovariectomized (OVX) and estradiol (E2)-treated ovariectomized (OVX+E2) rats in respiratory response to hypercapnia, using a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) - lesion model. A reduction in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive neurons (51-90% in 3 animals of NOVX group, 20-42% of lesion in 5 animals of NOVX females, 61.3% for OVX and 62.6% for OVX+E2 group) was observed seven days after microinjection of 6-OHDA in the LC. The chemical lesion of the LC resulted in decreased respiratory frequency under normocapnic conditions in OVX and OVX+E2 group. Hypercapnia increased ventilation in all groups as consequence of increases in respiratory frequency (fR) and tidal volume (V T ). Nevertheless, the hypercapnic ventilatory response was significantly decreased in 6-OHDA-NOVX>50% rats compared with SHAM-NOVX group and with females that had 20-42% of LC lesion. In OVX and OVX+E2 lesioned groups, no difference in CO 2 ventilatory response was observed when compared to SHAM-OVX and SHAM-OVX+E2 groups, respectively. Neither basal body temperature (Tb) nor Tb reduction in response to hypercapnia were affected by E2 treatment, ovariectomy or LC lesion. Thus, our data show that LC noradrenergic neurons seem to exert an excitatory role on the hypercapnic ventilatory response in female rats, as evidenced by the results in NOVX animals with LC lesioned more than 50%; however, this modulation is not observed in OVX and OVX+E2 rats. In addition, LC noradrenergic neurons of OVX females seem to provide a tonic excitatory drive to maintain breathing frequency in normocapnia, and this response may not to be

  8. Confirmatory factor analysis and invariance testing between Blacks and Whites of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaNoue, Marianna; Harvey, Abby; Mautner, Dawn; Ku, Bon; Scott, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    The factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale remains in question. Additionally, research on health belief differences between Black and White respondents suggests that the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale may not be invariant. We reviewed the literature regarding the latent variable structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, used confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the three-factor structure of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, and analyzed between-group differences in the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control structure and means across Black and White respondents. Our results indicate differences in means and structure, indicating more research is needed to inform decisions regarding whether and how to deploy the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control appropriately.

  9. The Impact of Locus of Control and Controlling Language on Psychological Reactance and Ad Effectiveness in Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Based on two theoretical models-psychological reactance theory (PRT) and locus of control-this study examines the individual and joint effects of locus of control and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-driving-after-drinking (anti-DAD) and antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) were conducted that were conceptual replications of each other. Both studies afforded evidence that those with external locus of control were more involved in risky behaviors. There was a consistent interaction between locus of control and controlling language, such that those with internal locus of control were more sensitive to this message feature compared to those with external locus of control. Controlling language was found to increase reactance. The theoretical and managerial implications for health communication are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.

  10. The influence of U-2 fraction of a tortoise spleen extract on the formation of ectopic locus of haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turdyev, A.A.; Prus, E.K.; Basova, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    The implantation of a bone marrow fragment of intact mouse donors below the kidney capsule of irradiated (7 Gy) recipients leads to the formation of the haemopoiesis locus that somewhat exceeds, by mass and cellularity, the new-formed locus of control animals. The U-2 fraction of a tortoise spleen extract administered to recipients irradiated with the same dose increases the mass and cellularity of the haemopoiesis locus by 2.2 and 4.9 times respectively

  11. Linkage disequilibrium at the APA insecticidal seed protein locus of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W; Prieto, Sergio; Díaz, Lucy M; Buendía, Héctor F; Cardona, César

    2010-04-29

    An interesting seed protein family with a role in preventing insect herbivory is the multi-gene, APA family encoding the alpha-amylase inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin and arcelin proteins of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Variability for this gene family exists and has been exploited to breed for insect resistance. For example, the arcelin locus has been successfully transferred from wild to cultivated common bean genotypes to provide resistance against the bruchid species Zabrotes subfasciatus although the process has been hampered by a lack of genetic tools for and understanding about the locus. In this study, we analyzed linkage disequilibrium (LD) between microsatellite markers at the APA locus and bruchid resistance in a germplasm survey of 105 resistant and susceptible genotypes and compared this with LD in other parts of the genome. Microsatellite allele diversity was found to vary with each of the eight APA-linked markers analyzed, and two markers within the APA locus were found to be diagnostic for bruchid resistance or susceptibility and for the different arcelin alleles inherited from the wild accessions. Arc1 was found to provide higher levels of resistance than Arc5 and the markers in the APA locus were highly associated with resistance showing that introgression of this gene-family from wild beans provides resistance in cultivated beans. LD around the APA locus was found to be intermediate compared to other regions of the genome and the highest LD was found within the APA locus itself for example between the markers PV-atct001 and PV-ag004. We found the APA locus to be an important genetic determinant of bruchid resistance and also found that LD existed mostly within the APA locus but not beyond it. Moderate LD was also found for some other regions of the genome perhaps related to domestication genes. The LD pattern may reflect the introgression of arcelin from the wild into the cultivated background through breeding. LD and association studies for

  12. Composición del locus de control en dos ciudades latinoamericanas

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    Jesús Francisco Laborín Álvarez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El locus de control es un rasgo de personalidad vinculado con la atribución que hacen los individuos acerca de sus éxitos y fracasos. Los estudios en diferentes naciones y sociedades han demostrado que existen características generales y particulares respecto a la percepción de control y donde la cultura juega un papel importante. Se partió del objetivo de conocer la composición factorial del locus de control en dos poblaciones, Hermosillo, Sonora (México (n=600 y João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brasil (n=600; y establecer las diferencias en cuanto a dicho constructo en ambas poblaciones con respecto a las variables atributivas: edad, escolaridad, ocupación y ciudad. Los resultados revelan tres dimensiones comunes a las dos poblaciones: locus de control interno, locus de control afiliativo y locus de control externo. Los datos en general hacen ver que las muestras poblacionales de las ciudades hacen juicios de control en relación a los esfuerzos y el trabajo personal, en la afiliación a colectivos y grupos de interés como los fundamentos de explicación para éxitos y fracasos.

  13. Locus specificity in the mutability of mouse lymphoma strain LY-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.H.; Mencl, J.; Horng, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse lymphoma L5178Y strains, LY-R and LY-S, are closely related but differ in their sensitivity to the lethal effects of radiation and various chemicals. Strain LY-S was originally isolated in 1961 following a spontaneous change in the sensitivity of cultured LY-R cells to ionizing radiation. The authors previously reported that, although strain LY-S is more sensitive to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and alkylating agents than strain LY-R, it is markedly less mutable than strain LY-R at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus. The isolated sublines of strains LY-R and LY-S which are heterozygous at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. The LY-S TK+/- heterozygote, like its TK+/+ parent, is more sensitive to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation and alkylating agents and less mutable at the HGPRT locus by these agents than the LY-R TK+/- heterozygote. However, the LY-S heterozygote is 100 times more mutable by these agents at the TK locus than at the HGRT locus. In contrast to LY-R, the majority of the spontaneous and induced LY-S TK-/- mutants form small colonies in the presence of trifluorothymidine, indicating that in the LY-S heterozygote, the inactivation of the TK gene is accompanied by damage to, or rearrangement of neighboring genes

  14. Chronically ill patients’ expectations of therapeutic education and their health locus of control

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    Małgorzata Anna Basińska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Beliefs as cognitive components of personality indicate what we consider as true or false and help us to answer questions concerning others, the world surrounding us and situations that we encounter. Beliefs about the health locus of control and their relations with expectations pertaining to therapeutic education seem to be of vital importance in the case of occurrence of a chronic illness. The aim of this paper is to verify whether expectations concerning therapeutic education in chronically ill patients demonstrate a relation with beliefs about the health locus of control and whether they vary according to gender, age and health, and to present the results of research that applies the Polish OE-15 scale for the evaluation of therapeutic education expectations depending on the health condition. Participants and procedure Two hundred and ninety-one persons were examined, including 180 patients and 111 healthy controls (the control group, 187 women and 104 men. The average age of subjects was 45.71 (SD = 13.51 years, ranging from 21 to 80 years. The OE-15 Therapeutic Education Expectations Scale and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale in versions relevant for patients and healthy controls as well as demographics were used. Results Age, gender and beliefs about the health locus of control are related to expectations of therapeutic education. Conclusions When providing therapeutic education for chronically ill patients, one should assess their expectations and pay attention to patients’ beliefs about the health locus of control.

  15. Oscillating Evolution of a Mammalian Locus with Overlapping Reading Frames: An XLalphas/ALEX Relay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available XLalphas and ALEX are structurally unrelated mammalian proteins translated from alternative overlapping reading frames of a single transcript. Not only are they encoded by the same locus, but a specific XLalphas/ALEX interaction is essential for G-protein signaling in neuroendocrine cells. A disruption of this interaction leads to abnormal human phenotypes, including mental retardation and growth deficiency. The region of overlap between the two reading frames evolves at a remarkable speed: the divergence between human and mouse ALEX polypeptides makes them virtually unalignable. To trace the evolution of this puzzling locus, we sequenced it in apes, Old World monkeys, and a New World monkey. We show that the overlap between the two reading frames and the physical interaction between the two proteins force the locus to evolve in an unprecedented way. Namely, to maintain two overlapping protein-coding regions the locus is forced to have high GC content, which significantly elevates its intrinsic evolutionary rate. However, the two encoded proteins cannot afford to change too quickly relative to each other as this may impair their interaction and lead to severe physiological consequences. As a result XLalphas and ALEX evolve in an oscillating fashion constantly balancing the rates of amino acid replacements. This is the first example of a rapidly evolving locus encoding interacting proteins via overlapping reading frames, with a possible link to the origin of species-specific neurological differences.

  16. [Locus of control and self-concept in interpersonal conflict resolution approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisli Sahin, Nesrin; Basim, H Nejat; Cetin, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-concept and locus of control in interpersonal conflict resolution approaches and to determine the predictors of conflict resolution approach choices. The study included 345 students aged between 18 and 28 years that were studying at universities in Ankara. Data were collected using the Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Approaches Scale to measure conflict resolution approaches, the Social Comparison Scale to measure self-concept, and the Internal-External Locus of Control Scale to measure locus of control. It was observed that confrontation approach to interpersonal conflict was predicted by self-concept (beta = 0.396, P resolution approaches. In addition to these findings, it was observed that females used self-disclosure (beta = -0.163, P resolution processes. Self-concept and locus of control were related to the behaviors adopted in the interpersonal conflict resolution process. Individuals with a positive self-concept and an internal locus of control adopted solutions to interpersonal conflict resolution that were more effective and constructive.

  17. Comparing Locus of Control, Assertiveness and General Health among Young Drug Addicts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Shahidi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "nObjective:The aim of this research was to compare the characteristics of assertiveness, locus of control and general health among young drug dependent patients in Iran. "n "nMethods: Three groups of Iranians: were choosed. The first group included drug dependent patients who had volunteered for treatment and had registered in the local Welfare Organization; the second group included dependent patients who were in the prison; and the third group held nondependent patients. All the participants were male and were matched for age and educational level . The following instruments were used in the present study: locus of control  uestionnaire , Assertiveness Scale and the General Health Questionnaire, GHQ. "n "nResults: The results of the present research showed that there were significant differences among the three groups in ssertiveness, locus of control and GHQ scores. It was found that participants in the non addictive group were more assertive and more internal in their locus of control and had higher GHQ scores than the other two groups. The participants in the prison group reported less assertiveness and lower GHQ scores than the non addictive group ; and their locus of control was more external. Conclusion: "n The results this study may be useful in terms of possible strategies for changing an attributive style in young adults in the framework of psychotherapy

  18. LocusTrack: Integrated visualization of GWAS results and genomic annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Renteria, Miguel E; MacGregor, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an important tool for the mapping of complex traits and diseases. Visual inspection of genomic annotations may be used to generate insights into the biological mechanisms underlying GWAS-identified loci. We developed LocusTrack, a web-based application that annotates and creates plots of regional GWAS results and incorporates user-specified tracks that display annotations such as linkage disequilibrium (LD), phylogenetic conservation, chromatin state, and other genomic and regulatory elements. Currently, LocusTrack can integrate annotation tracks from the UCSC genome-browser as well as from any tracks provided by the user. LocusTrack is an easy-to-use application and can be accessed at the following URL: http://gump.qimr.edu.au/general/gabrieC/LocusTrack/. Users can upload and manage GWAS results and select from and/or provide annotation tracks using simple and intuitive menus. LocusTrack scripts and associated data can be downloaded from the website and run locally.

  19. Does cognitive training improve internal locus of control among older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Vander Weg, Mark W; Martin, René; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Willis, Sherry L; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W; Morris, John N; Ball, Karlene K; Tennstedt, Sharon L

    2010-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of cognitive training among 1,534 participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) randomized controlled trial (RCT) on 5-year improvements in 3 cognitive-specific measures of locus of control-internal, chance, and powerful others. ACTIVE was a multisite RCT (age > or = 65), with 4 groups (memory, reasoning, speed of processing, and no-contact control). Complete 5-year follow-up data were available for 1,534 (55%) of the 2,802 participants. A propensity score model was used to adjust for potential attrition bias. Clinically important improvements (and decrements) in the cognitive-specific locus of control scale scores were defined as greater than or equal to 0.5 SD (medium) and greater than or equal to 1.0 SD (large). Multinomial logistic regression was used to simultaneously contrast those who improved and those who declined with those whose locus of control scale score was unchanged. Statistically significant effects reflecting medium-sized (> or = 0.5 SD) improvements in internal locus of control between baseline and the 5-year follow-up were found for the reasoning and speed of processing intervention groups who were 76% (p control group. No improvement effects were found on the chance or powerful others locus of control measures or for the memory intervention group. Cognitive training that targets reasoning and speed of processing can improve the cognitive-specific sense of personal control over one's life in older adults.

  20. Root locus analysis and design of the adaptation process in active noise control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei Ardekani, Iman; Abdulla, Waleed H

    2012-10-01

    This paper applies root locus theory to develop a graphical tool for the analysis and design of adaptive active noise control systems. It is shown that the poles of the adaptation process performed in these systems move on typical trajectories in the z-plane as the adaptation step-size varies. Based on this finding, the dominant root of the adaptation process and its trajectory can be determined. The first contribution of this paper is formulating parameters of the adaptation process root locus. The next contribution is introducing a mechanism for modifying the trajectory of the dominant root in the root locus. This mechanism creates a single open loop zero in the original root locus. It is shown that appropriate localization of this zero can cause the dominant root of the locus to be pushed toward the origin, and thereby the adaptation process becomes faster. The validity of the theoretical findings is confirmed in an experimental setup which is implemented using real-time multi-threading and multi-core processing techniques.

  1. Meiotic drive influences the outcome of sexually antagonistic selection at a linked locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, M M

    2014-11-01

    Most meiotic drivers, such as the t-haplotype in Mus and the segregation distorter (SD) in Drosophila, act in a sex-specific manner, gaining a transmission advantage through one sex although suffering only the fitness costs associated with the driver in the other. Their inheritance is thus more likely through one of the two sexes, a property they share with sexually antagonistic alleles. Previous theory has shown that pairs of linked loci segregating for sexually antagonistic alleles are more likely to remain polymorphic and that linkage disequilibrium accrues between them. I probe this similarity between drive and sexual antagonism and examine the evolution of chromosomes experiencing these selection pressures simultaneously. Reminiscent of previous theory, I find that: the opportunity for polymorphism increases for a sexually antagonistic locus that is physically linked to a driving locus; the opportunity for polymorphism at a driving locus also increases when linked to a sexually antagonistic locus; and stable linkage disequilibrium accompanies any polymorphic equilibrium. Additionally, I find that drive at a linked locus favours the fixation of sexually antagonistic alleles that benefit the sex in which drive occurs. Further, I show that under certain conditions reduced recombination between these two loci is selectively favoured. These theoretical results provide clear, testable predictions about the nature of sexually antagonistic variation on driving chromosomes and have implications for the evolution of genomic architecture. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. PENGARUH TEKANAN ANGGARAN WAKTU, LOCUS OF CONTROL DAN KOMITMEN PROFESIONAL PADA PERILAKU PENURUNAN KUALITAS AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI Wayan Wiwin Intan Wintari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Impact of Time Budget Pressure, Locus of Control and Professional Commitment on the Reduction of Audit Quality Behavior. Reduced audit quality behavior is a serious threat to the auditing profession. Auditing cases, such as Enron Corporation and Worldcom have made the audit rofession to be the public spotlight, which makes the credibility of the auditors increasingly questionable. This study aimed to examine the factors that can cause reduced audit quality behavior such as time budget pressure, locus of control and professional commitment.  The research used questionnaire that was distributed to 70 auditors of BPKP Representative of Bali Province. Method of determining the sample was saturated sampling. The data analysis was conducted by multiple linear regressions, and the results showed that the time budget pressure and external locus of control has a positive influence on reduced audit quality behavior, while internal locus of control and professional commitment have negative effect.   Keywords:  reduced audit quality behavior, time budget pressure, locus of control, professional commitment

  3. Regulated expression of genes inserted at the human chromosomal β-globin locus by homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, A.K.; Roginski, R.S.; Gregg, R.G.; Smithies, O.; Skoultchi, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have examined the effect of the site of integration on the expression of cloned genes introduced into cultured erythroid cells. Smithies et al. reported the targeted integration of DNA into the human β-globin locus on chromosome 11 in a mouse erythroleukemia-human cell hybrid. These hybrid cells can undergo erythroid differentiation leading to greatly increased mouse and human β-globin synthesis. By transfection of these hybrid cells with a plasmid carrying a modified human β-globin gene and a foreign gene composed of the coding sequence of the bacterial neomycin-resistance gene linked to simian virus 40 transcription signals (SVneo), cells were obtained in which the two genes are integrated at the β-globin locus on human chromosome 11 or at random sites. When they examined the response of the integrated genes to cell differentation, they found that the genes inserted at the β-globin locus were induced during differentiation, whereas randomly positioned copies were not induced. Even the foreign SVneo gene was inducible when it had been integrated at the β-globin locus. The results show that genes introduced at the β-globin locus acquire some of the regulatory properties of globin genes during erythroid differentiation

  4. Identification of a novel locus for a USH3 like syndrome combined with congenital cataract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dad, S.; Østergaard, Elsebet; Thykjær, T.

    2010-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is the most common genetic disease that causes both deafness and blindness. USH is divided into three types, USH1, USH2 and USH3, depending on the age of onset, the course of the disease, and on the degree of vestibular dysfunction. By homozygosity mapping of a consanguineous...... Danish family of Dutch descent, we have identified a novel locus for a rare USH3-like syndrome. The affected family members have a unique association of retinitis pigmentosa, progressive hearing impairment, vestibular dysfunction, and congenital cataract. The phenotype is similar, but not identical...... to that of USH3 patients, as congenital cataract has not been reported for USH3. By homozygosity mapping, we identified a 7.3 Mb locus on chromosome 15q22.2-23 with a maximum multipoint LOD score of 2.0. The locus partially overlaps with the USH1 locus, USH1H, a novel unnamed USH2 locus, and the non-syndromic...

  5. Relationships between Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy, Efforts and Academic Achievement among Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alias Maizam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between the affective learning needs namely, self-efficacy and locus of control, learning efforts and academic achievement among engineering students. For this purpose, a survey was conducted on first year engineering students from two technical universities in Malaysia. Self-efficacy and locus of control were assessed using existing instruments while learning efforts were assessed using a specifically designed instrument based on Carbonaro’s model of learning effort. Academic achievement data were based on cumulative grade point average (CGPA obtained from self-report by participants. The findings indicate that females engineering students tend to have higher self-efficacy compared to males while both groups have similar locus of control and invest in similar learning efforts. Only locus of control is found to be related to academic achievement while self-efficacy is found to be related to efforts. In conclusion, locus of control seems to be an important factor in predicting academic achievement among engineering students.

  6. Physical Localization of a Locus from Agropyron cristatum Conferring Resistance to Stripe Rust in Common Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Song, Liqiang; Han, Haiming; Zhou, Shenghui; Zhang, Jinpeng; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

    2017-11-13

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst ), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2 n = 28, PPPP), one of the wild relatives of wheat, exhibits resistance to stripe rust. In this study, wheat- A . cristatum 6P disomic addition line 4844-12 also exhibited resistance to stripe rust. To identify the stripe rust resistance locus from A . cristatum 6P, ten translocation lines, five deletion lines and the BC₂F₂ and BC₃F₂ populations of two wheat- A . cristatum 6P whole-arm translocation lines were tested with a mixture of two races of Pst in two sites during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017, being genotyped with genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and molecular markers. The result indicated that the locus conferring stripe rust resistance was located on the terminal 20% of 6P short arm's length. Twenty-nine 6P-specific sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers mapped on the resistance locus have been acquired, which will be helpful for the fine mapping of the stripe rust resistance locus. The stripe rust-resistant translocation lines were found to carry some favorable agronomic traits, which could facilitate their use in wheat improvement. Collectively, the stripe rust resistance locus from A . cristatum 6P could be a novel resistance source and the screened stripe rust-resistant materials will be valuable for wheat disease breeding.

  7. Hybrid male sterility in rice is due to epistatic interactions with a pollen killer locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Takahiko; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Kurata, Nori

    2011-11-01

    In intraspecific crosses between cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) subspecies indica and japonica, the hybrid male sterility gene S24 causes the selective abortion of male gametes carrying the japonica allele (S24-j) via an allelic interaction in the heterozygous hybrids. In this study, we first examined whether male sterility is due solely to the single locus S24. An analysis of near-isogenic lines (NIL-F(1)) showed different phenotypes for S24 in different genetic backgrounds. The S24 heterozygote with the japonica genetic background showed male semisterility, but no sterility was found in heterozygotes with the indica background. This result indicates that S24 is regulated epistatically. A QTL analysis of a BC(2)F(1) population revealed a novel sterility locus that interacts with S24 and is found on rice chromosome 2. The locus was named Epistatic Factor for S24 (EFS). Further genetic analyses revealed that S24 causes male sterility when in combination with the homozygous japonica EFS allele (efs-j). The results suggest that efs-j is a recessive sporophytic allele, while the indica allele (EFS-i) can dominantly counteract the pollen sterility caused by S24 heterozygosity. In summary, our results demonstrate that an additional epistatic locus is an essential element in the hybrid sterility caused by allelic interaction at a single locus in rice. This finding provides a significant contribution to our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid sterility and microsporogenesis.

  8. An unusual occurrence of repeated single allele variation on Y-STR locus DYS458

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    Pankaj Shrivastava

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Six brothers were accused of gagging and raping a woman. A single male Y-STR profile was obtained from vaginal smear swab and clothes of the victim, which did not match with the DNA profile of the accused brothers. As a reference point, the blood sample of their father (aged 87 years was also analyzed with the same kit. The Y-STR haplotype of all six brothers was found to be the same as that of their father except at locus DYS458. At this locus, while the eldest, second and fourth siblings share allele 18 with their father, a loss of one repeat (allele 17 instead of 18 is observed in the third son while fifth and sixth siblings have allele 19 representing a gain of one repeat. Thus, two changes viz. a gain (twice and loss of one repeat at this locus in one generation is both interesting and unusual.

  9. Dissection of a locus on mouse chromosome 5 reveals arthritis promoting and inhibitory genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvall, Therese; Karlsson, Jenny; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2009-01-01

    with Eae39 congenic- and sub-interval congenic mice, carrying RIIIS/J genes on the B10.RIII genetic background, revealed three loci within Eae39 that control disease and anti-collagen antibody titers. Two of the loci promoted disease and the third locus was protecting from collagen induced arthritis...... development. By further breeding of mice with small congenic fragments, we identified a 3.2 Megabasepair (Mbp) interval that regulates disease. CONCLUSIONS: Disease promoting- and protecting genes within the Eae39 locus on mouse chromosome 5, control susceptibility to collagen induced arthritis. A disease......-protecting locus in the telomeric part of Eae39 results in lower anti-collagen antibody responses. The study shows the importance of breeding sub-congenic mouse strains to reveal genetic effects on complex diseases....

  10. Note on guilt appeals in advertising: covariate effects of self-esteem and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M B; Worobetz, N D

    1992-02-01

    A 1991 study by Pinto and Priest demonstrated the effectiveness of advertisements employing moderate levels of guilt in inducing guilt responses in subjects. Because individuals' responses to guilt are often influenced by their specific personality characteristics, researchers have pointed to the potential moderating effects of individual difference variables such as level of self-esteem and locus of control on individuals' susceptibility to guilt appeals. A study was conducted to evaluate the possibility that self-esteem and locus of control can act as covariates across three treatment levels of guilt advertising. From a sample of 57 working mothers, advertisements stimulating medium and high levels of guilt elicited significantly greater feelings of guilt in subjects than the control advertisement stimulating low guilt. However, the relationship between susceptibility to guilt appeals and self-esteem and locus of control was not observed to covary.

  11. Jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Crystal M; Spray, Beverly J; Pietz, Christina A

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the relationship between jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing. Ninety-eight participants voluntarily served as mock jurors. The authors administered J. B. Rotter's (1966) Internal-External Locus of Control Scale to participants and then randomly assigned them to a group with either an attractive or an unattractive defendant (represented by photographs). Participants read a murder vignette and selected a punishment--either a lifetime jail sentence or the death penalty-for the defendant. Results indicated that neither jurors' locus of control nor defendants' attractiveness influenced sentencing. However, jurors' age and gender significantly influenced sentencing. Men, with the exception of the youngest men, were more likely than women to choose the death penalty. Additionally, young women were more likely than older women to select the death penalty. The authors discuss the implications of these results for the study of jury behavior and bias.

  12. The Limits of the Use of Locus of Control in Industrial Psychology: A Critical Evaluation

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    Emir Üzümçeker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Locus of control is a personality variable that is employed by researchers from diverse disciplines. This article examines the limits of the construct’s usage in industrial and organizational psychology. Although locus of control is documented to predict a wide array of workplace behavior such as job satisfaction, job performance and turnover intention, some important conceptual, methodological and empirical flaws raise suspicions on the explanations proposed by researchers. Considering the shortage of experimental and longitudinal evidence, it is argued that the causal direction of the well-established correlations between locus of control and other organizational behavioral variables might be the opposite of the theory’s expectation. It is also claimed that some related constructs such as self-efficacy and belief in a just world might provide further explanations for observed correlations.

  13. Insertions in the OCL1 locus of Acinetobacter baumannii lead to shortened lipooligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Johanna J.; Holt, Kathryn E.; Pickard, Derek; Dougan, Gordon; Hall, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    Genomes of 82 Acinetobacter baumannii global clones 1 (GC1) and 2 (GC2) isolates were sequenced and different forms of the locus predicted to direct synthesis of the outer core (OC) of the lipooligosaccharide were identified. OCL1 was in all GC2 genomes, whereas GC1 isolates carried OCL1, OCL3 or a new locus, OCL5. Three mutants in which an insertion sequence (ISAba1 or ISAba23) interrupted OCL1 were identified. Isolates with OCL1 intact produced only lipooligosaccharide, while the mutants produced lipooligosaccharide of reduced molecular weight. Thus, the assignment of the OC locus as that responsible for the synthesis of the OC is correct. PMID:24861001

  14. Association of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder With Reduced In Vivo Norepinephrine Availability in the Locus Coeruleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Gallezot, Jean-Dominique; Ding, Yu-Shin; Henry, Shannan; Potenza, Marc N.; Southwick, Steven M.; Krystal, John H.; Carson, Richard E.; Neumeister, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Animal data suggest that chronic stress is associated with a reduction in norepinephrine transporter (NET) availability in the locus coeruleus. However, it is unclear whether such models are relevant to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which has been linked to noradrenergic dysfunction in humans. OBJECTIVES To use positron emission tomography and the radioligand [11C]methylreboxetine to examine in vivo NET availability in the locus coeruleus in the following 3 groups of individuals: healthy adults (HC group), adults exposed to trauma who did not develop PTSD (TC group), and adults exposed to trauma who developed PTSD (PTSD group) and to evaluate the relationship between NET availability in the locus coeruleus and a contemporary phenotypic model of PTSD symptoms. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional positron emission tomography study under resting conditions at academic and Veterans Affairs medical centers among 56 individuals in the following 3 study groups: HC (n = 18), TC (n = 16), and PTSD (n = 22). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The [11C]methylreboxetine-binding potential of NET availability in the locus coeruleus and the severity of PTSD symptoms assessed using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. RESULTS The PTSD group had significantly lower NET availability than the HC group (41% lower, Cohen d = 1.07). NET availability did not differ significantly between the TC and HC groups (31% difference, Cohen d = 0.79) or between the TC and PTSD groups (15% difference, Cohen d = 0.28). In the PTSD group, NET availability in the locus coeruleus was independently positively associated with the severity of anxious arousal (ie, hypervigilance) symptoms (r = 0.52) but not with any of the other PTSD symptom clusters. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE These results suggest that PTSD is associated with significantly reduced NET availability in the locus coeruleus and that greater NET availability in this brain region is associated with increased severity

  15. Correlation between chromosome 9p21 locus deletion and prognosis in clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Érika Aparecida Felix de; Pontes-Junior, José; Reis, Sabrina Thalita; Lima, Amanda Eunice Ramos; Souza, Isida C; Salgueiro, Jose Lucas; Fontes, Douglas; Dellê, Humberto; Coelho, Rafael Ferreira; Viana, Nayara Izabel; Leite, Kátia Ramos Moreira; Nahas, William C; Srougi, Miguel

    2017-05-04

    Some studies have reported that deletions at chromosome arm 9p occur frequently and represent a critical step in carcinogenesis of some neoplasms. Our aim was to evaluate the deletion of locus 9p21 and chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 in localized prostate cancer (PC) and correlate these alterations with prognostic factors and biochemical recurrence after surgery. We retrospectively evaluated surgical specimens from 111 patients with localized PC who underwent radical prostatectomy. Biochemical recurrence was defined as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >0.2 ng/mL and the mean postoperative follow-up was 123 months. The deletions were evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization with centromeric and locus-specific probes in a tissue microarray containing 2 samples from each patient. We correlated the occurrence of any deletion with pathological stage, Gleason score, ISUP grade group, PSA and biochemical recurrence. We observed a loss of any probe in only 8 patients (7.2%). The most common deletion was the loss of locus 9p21, which occurred in 6.4% of cases. Deletions of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 were observed in 2.3%, 1.2% and 1.8% patients, respectively. There was no correlation between chromosome loss and Gleason score, ISUP, PSA or stage. Biochemical recurrence occurred in 83% cases involving 9p21 deletions. Loss of 9p21 locus was significantly associated with time to recurrence (p = 0.038). We found low rates of deletion in chromosomes 3, 7 and 17 and 9p21 locus. We observed that 9p21 locus deletion was associated with worse prognosis in localized PC treated by radical prostatectomy.

  16. Locus of Control and Career Interest of Sophomore Accountancy Students: Basis for Employment Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovielyn Mañibo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This academic undertaking sought to determine the relationship between the locus of control and career interest of the respondents towards their future employment. The objectives of the study were to determine the respondents’ locus of control and career interest; to find if there is a significant relationship between the respondents’ locus of control and career interest and to develop an action plan that will gauge the students’ employment success as to their chosen field. In measuring and finding the relationship between the variables of the study, the researchers employed the quantitative method in the analysis of data using the questionnaires for locus of control (LOC and Career Cluster Interest Survey (CCIS as dominant tools. The participants chosen from this study were 74sophomore Accountancy students for Second Semester, School Year 2012 – 2013. Based from the results, most of the respondents (74 sophomore accountancy students have an external locus of control with career interest on education and training, human services, and finance. The computed rvalues indicates slight positive correlation, however, careers on government services, manufacturing , public administration, health science, human services showed significant correlation to internal (positive and external (negative locus of control. .Likewise, the Counseling and Testing Center of the university should conduct cognitive training targeting reasoning and speed of processing that can improve sense of personal control over one’s life and facilitate career orientation during the student- applicants’ admission as regards to their National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE results. With the findings of the study, a program design was created to gauge students employment path.

  17. Locus of control among spinal cord injury patients with different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Preveza, Eleni; Papandreou, Konstantinos; Prevezas, Nikolaos

    2007-08-30

    Two hypotheses were investigated in the present study: 1) Patients with full posttraumatic stress symptoms following spinal cord injury (SCI) would experience more general health problems than those with partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with no-PTSD and the control group; 2) Patients with full PTSD would endorse the external locus of control more than those with partial PTSD, no-PTSD and the control group. Sixty-two patients were recruited from a specialized rehabilitation clinic for spinal cord injury. The control group comprised 60 participants without SCI. Patients with SCI were assessed using the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC). The control group was assessed using the GHQ-28 and the MHLC. The full PTSD group experienced more somatic problems, anxiety, social dysfunction and depression than the partial PTSD, the no-PTSD and the control groups. The results also showed that the full PTSD group endorsed significantly more external health locus of control than the control group. However, no significant differences were found between the three patient groups in health locus of control. The three PTSD sub-scales were positively correlated with general health problems. Further analyses showed that partial PTSD patients with paraplegia and partial PTSD patients whose SCI had a medically related cause were more likely to report less internal locus of control than other patients. Patients who suffered from full PTSD experienced more general health problems than those with fewer PTSD symptoms and those without SCI. External locus of control was a distinctive strategy that SCI-PTSD patients used in coping with the effects of SCI-PTSD.

  18. Characterization of histone H3K27 modifications in the β-globin locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yea Woon; Kim, AeRi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The β-globin locus control region is hyperacetylated and monomethylated at histone H3K27. → Highly transcribed globin genes are marked by H3K27ac, but H3K27me2 is remarkable at silent globin genes in erythroid K562 cells. → Association of PRC2 subunits is comparable with H3K27me3 pattern. → Modifications of histone H3K27 are established in an enhancer-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Histone H3K27 is acetylated or methylated in the environment of nuclear chromatin. Here, to characterize the modification pattern of H3K27 in locus control region (LCR) and to understand the correlation of various H3K27 modifications with transcriptional activity of genes, we analyzed the human β-globin locus using the ChIP assay. The LCR of the human β-globin locus was enriched by H3K27ac and H3K27me1 in erythroid K562 cells. The highly transcribed globin genes were hyperacetylated at H3K27, but the repressed globin genes were highly dimethylated at this lysine in these cells. However, in non-erythroid 293FT cells, the β-globin locus was marked by a high level of H3K27me3. EZH2 and SUZ12, subunits of polycomb repressive complex 2, were comparably detected with the H3K27me3 pattern in K562 and 293FT cells. In addition, H3K27ac, H3K27me1 and H3K27me3 were established in an enhancer-dependent manner in a model minichromosomal locus containing an enhancer and its target gene. Taken together, these results show that H3K27 modifications have distinctive correlations with the chromatin state or transcription level of genes and are influenced by an enhancer.

  19. Single locus affects embryonic segment polarity and multiple aspects of an adult evolutionary novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saenko Suzanne V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The characterization of the molecular changes that underlie the origin and diversification of morphological novelties is a key challenge in evolutionary developmental biology. The evolution of such traits is thought to rely largely on co-option of a toolkit of conserved developmental genes that typically perform multiple functions. Mutations that affect both a universal developmental process and the formation of a novelty might shed light onto the genetics of traits not represented in model systems. Here we describe three pleiotropic mutations with large effects on a novel trait, butterfly eyespots, and on a conserved stage of embryogenesis, segment polarity. Results We show that three mutations affecting eyespot size and/or colour composition in Bicyclus anynana butterflies occurred in the same locus, and that two of them are embryonic recessive lethal. Using surgical manipulations and analysis of gene expression patterns in developing wings, we demonstrate that the effects on eyespot morphology are due to changes in the epidermal response component of eyespot induction. Our analysis of morphology and of gene expression in mutant embryos shows that they have a typical segment polarity phenotype, consistent with the mutant locus encoding a negative regulator of Wingless signalling. Conclusions This study characterizes the segregation and developmental effects of alleles at a single locus that controls the morphology of a lineage-specific trait (butterfly eyespots and a conserved process (embryonic segment polarity and, specifically, the regulation of Wingless signalling. Because no gene with such function was found in the orthologous, highly syntenic genomic regions of two other lepidopterans, we hypothesize that our locus is a yet undescribed, possibly lineage-specific, negative regulator of the conserved Wnt/Wg pathway. Moreover, the fact that this locus interferes with multiple aspects of eyespot morphology and maps to a

  20. An unusual occurrence of repeated single allele variation on Y-STR locus DYS458

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Pankaj; Trivedi, Veena Ben; Jain, Toshi; Ali, Mehmood

    2016-01-01

    Six brothers were accused of gagging and raping a woman. A single male Y-STR profile was obtained from vaginal smear swab and clothes of the victim, which did not match with the DNA profile of the accused brothers. As a reference point, the blood sample of their father (aged 87 years) was also analyzed with the same kit. The Y-STR haplotype of all six brothers was found to be the same as that of their father except at locus DYS458. At this locus, while the eldest, second and fourth siblings s...

  1. Age differences in coping and locus of control: a study of managerial stress in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, O; Cooper, C L; Spector, P E; Donald, I

    2001-12-01

    The present study involved data collection from 3 samples of Hong Kong managers to examine mechanisms by which age would relate to work well-being. A total of 634 managers was drawn by random sampling and purposive sampling methods. The results showed that age was positively related to well-being (job satisfaction and mental well-being). Furthermore, older managers reported fewer sources of stress, better coping, and a more internal locus of control. Multiple regression analyses suggested that the relations of age with 2 well-being indicators can be attributed to various combinations of coping, work locus of control, sources of stress, managerial level, and organizational tenure.

  2. Self-statements, locus of control, and depression in predicting self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, V D; Holliman, W B; Madonna, S

    1995-06-01

    The contributions of frequency of positive and negative self-statements and their ratio, locus of control, and depression in prediction of self-esteem were examined. Volunteers were 145 college students (100 women and 45 men) who were administered the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory-Adult Form, Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Rotter Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. Intercorrelations suggested significant relationships among variables. The magnitude of the relationship was strongest between the frequency of negative self-statements and self-esteem. These results are consistent with and lend further support to prior studies of Kendall, et al. and Schwartz and Michaelson.

  3. Updated listing of haplotypes at the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisensmith, R.C.; Woo, S.L.C. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Analysis of mutant PAH chromosomes has identified approximately 60 different single-base substitutions and deletions within the PAH locus. Nearly all of these molecular lesions are in strong linkage disequilibrium with specific RFLP haplotypes in different ethnic populations. Thus, haplotype analysis is not only useful for diagnostic purposes but is proving to be a valuable tool in population genetic studies of the origin and spread of phenylketonuria alleles in human populations. PCR-based methods have been developed to detect six of the eight polymorphic restriction sites used for determination of RFLP haplotypes at the PAH locus. A table of the proposed expanded haplotypes is given.

  4. Antagonism between DNA and H3K27 methylation at the imprinted Rasgrf1 locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindroth, Anders M; Park, Yoon Jung; McLean, Chelsea M

    2008-01-01

    At the imprinted Rasgrf1 locus in mouse, a cis-acting sequence controls DNA methylation at a differentially methylated domain (DMD). While characterizing epigenetic marks over the DMD, we observed that DNA and H3K27 trimethylation are mutually exclusive, with DNA and H3K27 methylation limited...... to the paternal and maternal sequences, respectively. The mutual exclusion arises because one mark prevents placement of the other. We demonstrated this in five ways: using 5-azacytidine treatments and mutations at the endogenous locus that disrupt DNA methylation; using a transgenic model in which the maternal...

  5. Immotile cilia syndrome: A recombinant family at HLA-linked gene locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparini, P.; Grifa, A.; Oggiano, N.; Fabbrizzi, E.; Giorgi, P.L. [Univsita di Ancona (Israel)

    1994-02-15

    The immotile-cilia syndrome (ICS) is an autosomal recessive trait of congenital dismobility or even complete immobility of cilia in the ciliated epithelia (MIM 244400). Recurrent upper respiratory infections in early childhood are the most common clinical findings. Recently a disease locus was mapped by sib pair analysis in two unrelated families on 6p tightly linked to HLA class II loci, such as DR and DQ. In order to confirm this assignment and to test the presence of possible heterogeneity, the authors analyzed several ICS families utilizing DNA makers of HLA class II region. Here they report the identification of a recombinant family at this locus. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Sensorineural hearing loss and Mondini dysplasia caused by a deletion at locus DFN3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, B; Ramírez Camacho, R; García Berrocal, J R; Villamar, M; del Castillo, I; Moreno, F

    2000-09-01

    To study a family with inner ear malformations and sensorineural hearing loss. Clinical, radiological, and genetic study of the members of a family with different degrees of sensorineural hearing loss. The males in the family manifested profound congenital hearing loss with severe inner ear malformations, while the only affected female had progressive hearing loss that had begun during puberty. Computed tomography showed inner ear malformations in both males, with enlarged internal auditory meatus and Mondini dysplasia. Genetic analysis disclosed a microdeletion at the locus DFN3 on chromosome X. A familial Mondini dysplasia is associated to a microdeletion at the deafness locus DFN3.

  7. Diferencias individuales y desarrollo de habilidades de liderazgo : el rol del locus de control

    OpenAIRE

    García Hernández, Jorge Alejandro; Guarin Galvis, Stephany

    2015-01-01

    El presente proyecto se ha elaborado con la finalidad de encontrar la relación existente entre el liderazgo y el locus de control, por medio de una revisión documental que permita dar una visión más amplia de estos dos fenómenos. De acuerdo con investigaciones realizadas, existen características individuales que afectan el desarrollo de liderazgo, lo cual a su vez tiene un impacto sobre el comportamiento de los individuos dentro de una sociedad. Uno de estos factores es el locus de contro...

  8. PHIP – a novel candidate breast cancer susceptibility locus on 6q14.1

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, X; Easton, Douglas Frederick

    2017-01-01

    Most non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families have no identified genetic cause. We used linkage and haplotype analyses in familial and sporadic breast cancer cases to identify a susceptibility locus on chromosome 6q. Two independent genome-wide linkage analysis studies suggested a 3 Mb locus on chromosome 6q and two unrelated Swedish families with a LOD >2 together seemed to share a haplotype in 6q14.1. We hypothesized that this region harbored a rare high-risk founder allele contributing to breast...

  9. Nonlinkage of D6S260, a putative schizophrenia locus, to bipolar affective disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, L.J.; Mitchell, P.B. [Univ. of South Wales (Australia); Salmon, J. [Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)] [and others

    1996-09-20

    To examine whether genes that predispose to schizophrenia also confer a predisposition to other psychiatric disorders such as bipolar affective disorder (BAD), we tested for linkage between the recently identified schizophrenia susceptibility locus D6S260 and the inheritance of BAD in 12 large Australian pedigrees. We found no evidence for linkage over a region of 12-27 cM from the D6S260 locus, depending on the model used. Our results therefore do not provide support for the continuum theory of psychosis. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Farsi version of the multidimensional health locus of control and God locus of health control scales: validity and reliability study among Iranian women with a family history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Masoumeh; Aminshokravi, Farkhonde; Hidarnia, Alireza; Lamyian, Minoor; Hassanpour, Kazem; Akaberi, Arash; Moshki, Mahdi

    2014-09-01

    To determine the Persian version's reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control and God Health Locus of Control scales among women with family history of breast cancer. The cross-sectional study was conducted in Sabzevar, Iran, in 2012. It randomly selected women with family members affected by breast cancer. Predesigned questionnaires were completed through interviews. Content and face validity was evaluated using the opinions of a panel of experts, and construct validity was confirmed by applying confirmatory factor analysis.The instruments' reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reliability. There were 200 women in the study with their age ranging between 18 and 69 years and revealed the following; root mean square error of approximation for Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale = 0.013, and God Locus of Health Control Scale = 0.077; comparative fit index = 0.999, 0.998; incremental fit index = 0.999, 0.998;Tucker-Lewis fit index = 0.998, 0.998; and normed fit index = 0.983, 0.997 respectively. Cronbach's alpha was 0.61 for Internal Health Locus of Control, 0.8 for Chance Health Locus of Control, 0.68 for Power Health Locus of Control and 0.9 for God Locus Health Control. The Persian version of the subscales supported the main version.

  11. Positive correlations between the health locus of control and self-management behaviors in hemodialysis patients in Xiamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Li Fan

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study provided evidence that there is a strong relationship between the health locus of control and self-management behaviors in hemodialysis patients. This study provides important information for medical professionals as they design strategies to educate hemodialysis patients on their health locus of control and self-management behaviors.

  12. Integration of least angle regression with empirical Bayes for multi-locus genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-locus genome-wide association studies has become the state-of-the-art procedure to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with traits simultaneously. However, implementation of multi-locus model is still difficult. In this study, we integrated least angle regression with empirical B...

  13. Job Stress and Locus of Control in Teachers: Comparisons between Samples from the United States and Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothers, Laura M.; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Kolbert, Jered B.; Lipinski, John; Kachmar, Steven P.; Koch, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between educators' locus of control and job stress using samples from the US and Zimbabwe. Multiple regression analyses are used to identify significant relationships in the US sample between teachers' external locus of control and the severity of the job stress that they experience, coupled with the perceived…

  14. Investigating Prospective Teachers' Perceived Problem-Solving Abilities in Relation to Gender, Major, Place Lived, and Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakir, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate prospective teachers' perceived personal problem-solving competencies in relation to gender, major, place lived, and internal-external locus of control. The Personal Problem-Solving Inventory and Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale were used to collect data from freshman teacher candidates…

  15. Locus of Control, Interest in Schooling and Science Achievement of Some Deaf and Typical Secondary School Students in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatoye, R. Ademola; Aanu, E. Mosunmola

    2010-01-01

    This study compared locus of control, interest in school and science achievement of typical and deaf secondary school students. The study also investigated influence of students' locus of control and interest in school on general science achievement. Seventy two (72) deaf and 235 typical children were purposively selected from eight secondary…

  16. An Investigation of Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Locus of Control, Self-Regulation, and Motivation in Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Ho

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how students' perceptions of locus of control, self-regulation, and motivation were related in an online learning environment. The participants were 73 preservice teachers enrolled in two online technology courses. Near the end of their online course, the participants completed "Brown's Locus of Control…

  17. Multiple independent variants at the TERT locus are associated with telomere length and risks of breast and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bojesen, Stig E.; Pooley, Karen A.; Johnatty, Sharon E.; Beesley, Jonathan; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Edwards, Stacey L.; Pickett, Hilda A.; Shen, Howard C.; Smart, Chanel E.; Hillman, Kristine M.; Mai, Phuong L.; Lawrenson, Kate; Stutz, Michael D.; Lu, Yi; Karevan, Rod; Woods, Nicholas; Johnston, Rebecca L.; French, Juliet D.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Weischer, Maren; Nielsen, Sune F.; Maranian, Melanie J.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Ahmed, Shahana; Baynes, Caroline; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Healey, Sue; Lush, Michael; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Françis; Vergote, Ignace; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Despierre, Evelyn; Risch, Harvey A.; González-Neira, Anna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Pita, Guillermo; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Alvarez, Nuria; Larson, Melissa C.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Schoof, Nils; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cicek, Mine S.; Peto, Julian; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Broeks, Annegien; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Braaf, Linde M.; Winterhoff, Boris; Nevanlinna, Heli; Konecny, Gottfried E.; Lambrechts, Diether; Rogmann, Lisa; Guénel, Pascal; Teoman, Attila; Milne, Roger L.; Garcia, Joaquin J.; Cox, Angela; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Hein, Rebecca; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Andrulis, Irene L.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Hopper, John L.; Odunsi, Kunle; Lindblom, Annika; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Simard, Jacques; Lurie, Galina; Fasching, Peter A.; Carney, Michael E.; Radice, Paolo; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Goodman, Marc T.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Hillemanns, Peter; Winqvist, Robert; Dürst, Matthias; Devilee, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Butzow, Ralf; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Dörk, Thilo; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Zheng, Wei; Leminen, Arto; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bunker, Clareann H.; Kristensen, Vessela; Ness, Roberta B.; Muir, Kenneth; Edwards, Robert; Meindl, Alfons; Heitz, Florian; Matsuo, Keitaro; du Bois, Andreas; Wu, Anna H.; Harter, Philipp; teo, Soo-Hwang; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Blot, William; Hosono, Satoyo; Kang, Daehee; Nakanishi, Toru; Hartman, Mikael; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hamann, Ute; Karlan, Beth Y.; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Gaborieau, Valerie; Jensen, Allan; Eccles, Diana; Høgdall, Estrid; Shen, Chen-Yang; Brown, Judith; Woo, Yin Ling; Shah, Mitul; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Luben, Robert; Omar, Siti Zawiah; Czene, Kamila; Vierkant, Robert A.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Levine, Douglas A.; Rudolph, Anja; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Iversen, Edwin; Nickels, Stefan; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Silva, Isabel Dos Santos; Cramer, Daniel W.; Gibson, Lorna; Terry, Kathryn L.; Fletcher, Olivia; Vitonis, Allison F.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Liu, Jianjun; Bandera, Elisa V.; Li, Jingmei; Olson, Sara H.; Humphreys, Keith; Orlow, Irene; Blomqvist, Carl; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Salvesen, Helga B.; Muranen, Taru A.; Wik, Elisabeth; Brouwers, Barbara; Krakstad, Camilla; Wauters, Els; Halle, Mari K.; Wildiers, Hans; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Mulot, Claire; Aben, Katja K.; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Altena, Anne Mvan; Truong, Thérèse; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Benitez, Javier; Pejovic, Tanja; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Hoatlin, Maureen; Zamora, M. Pilar; Cook, Linda S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Le, Nhu D.; Sohn, Christof; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Cybulski, Cezary; Henderson, Brian E.; Menkiszak, Janusz; Schumacher, Fredrick; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Le Marchand, Loic; Yang, Hannah P.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Knight, Julia A.; Høgdall, Claus K.; Apicella, Carmel; Gore, Martin; Tsimiklis, Helen; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Jager, Agnes; den Ouweland, Ans M. Wvan; Brown, Robert; Martens, John W. M.; Flanagan, James M.; Kriege, Mieke; Paul, James; Margolin, Sara; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Severi, Gianluca; Whittemore, Alice S.; Baglietto, Laura; McGuire, Valerie; Stegmaier, Christa; Sieh, Weiva; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Labrèche, France; Gao, Yu-Tang; Goldberg, Mark S.; Yang, Gong; Dumont, Martine; McLaughlin, John R.; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Lux, Michael P.; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Peissel, Bernard; Sellers, Thomas A.; Ficarazzi, Filomena; Barile, Monica; Ziogas, Argyrios; Ashworth, Alan; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Jones, Michael; Ramus, Susan J.; Orr, Nick; Menon, Usha; Pearce, Celeste L.; Brüning, Thomas; Pike, Malcolm C.; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Chanock, Stephen J.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Pylkäs, Katri; Bidzinski, Mariusz; Kauppila, Saila; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Long, Jirong; Shrubsole, Martha; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Ditsch, Nina; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tajima, Kazuo; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Stram, Daniel O.; van den Berg, David; Yip, Cheng Har; Ikram, M. Kamran; teh, Yew-Ching; Cai, Hui; Lu, Wei; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Noh, Dong-Young; Yoo, Keun-Young; Miao, Hui; Iau, Philip Tsau-Choong; teo, Yik Ying; McKay, James; Shapiro, Charles; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Fountzilas, George; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Healey, Catherine S.; Luccarini, Craig; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Peterlongo, Paolo; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Friedman, Eitan; Thomassen, Mads; Offit, Kenneth; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Blanco, Ignacio; Garber, Judy; Narod, Steven A.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Montagna, Marco; Olah, Edith; Godwin, Andrew K.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Goldgar, David E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Tihomirova, Laima; Arun, Banu K.; Campbell, Ian; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Roozendaal, Kees E. P.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Collée, J. Margriet; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Rookus, Matti A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Os, Theo A. Mvan; Evans, D. Gareth; Frost, Debra; Fineberg, Elena; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M. John; Platte, Radka; Davidson, Rosemarie; Ellis, Steve D.; Cole, Trevor; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Buecher, Bruno; Damiola, Francesca; Faivre, Laurence; Frenay, Marc; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caron, Olivier; Giraud, Sophie; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Gronwald, Jacek; Byrski, Tomasz; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Giannini, Giuseppe; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Arnold, Norbert; Engel, Christoph; Deissler, Helmut; Rhiem, Kerstin; Niederacher, Dieter; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Sutter, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Borg, Ake; Melin, Beatrice; Rantala, Johanna; Soller, Maria; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Salani, Ritu; Kaulich, Daphne Gschwantler; tea, Muy-Kheng; Paluch, Shani Shimon; Laitman, Yael; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Robson, Mark; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Foretova, Lenka; Savage, Sharon A.; Lester, Jenny; Soucy, Penny; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Olswold, Curtis; Cunningham, Julie M.; Slager, Susan; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Dicks, Ed; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Couch, Fergus J.; Hall, Per; Monteiro, Alvaro N. A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Reddel, Roger R.; Goode, Ellen L.; Greene, Mark H.; Easton, Douglas F.; Berchuck, Andrew; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    TERT-locus SNPs and leukocyte telomere measures are reportedly associated with risks of multiple cancers. Using the Illumina custom genotyping array iCOGs, we analyzed ∼480 SNPs at the TERT locus in breast (n = 103,991), ovarian (n = 39,774) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (n = 11,705) cancer cases and

  18. Quantitative Linkage for Autism Spectrum Disorders Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Significant Locus on Chromosome 7q11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Rommelse, Nanda N.; Altink, Marieke E.; Buschgens, Cathelijne J.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Franke, Barbara; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2014-01-01

    We studied 261 ADHD probands and 354 of their siblings to assess quantitative trait loci associated with autism spectrum disorder symptoms (as measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) using a genome-wide linkage approach, followed by locus-wide association analysis. A genome-wide significant locus for the CSBQ subscale…

  19. 9q31.2-rs865686 as a susceptibility locus for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, Helen; Dudbridge, Frank; Fletcher, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    Our recent genome-wide association study identified a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 9q31.2 (rs865686).......Our recent genome-wide association study identified a novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 9q31.2 (rs865686)....

  20. Evidence that breast cancer risk at the 2q35 locus is mediated through IGFBP5 regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoussaini, Maya; Edwards, Stacey L; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Proje...

  1. Evaluation of two multi-locus sequence typing schemes for commensal Escherichia coli from dairy cattle in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sara; Besser, Thomas E; Call, Douglas R; Weissman, Scott J; Jones, Lisa P; Davis, Margaret A

    2016-05-01

    Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) is a useful system for phylogenetic and epidemiological studies of multidrug-resistant Escherichiacoli. Most studies utilize a seven-locus MLST, but an alternate two-locus typing method (fumC and fimH; CH typing) has been proposed that may offer a similar degree of discrimination at lower cost. Herein, we compare CH typing to the standard seven-locus method for typing commensal E. coli isolates from dairy cattle. In addition, we evaluated alternative combinations of eight loci to identify combinations that maximize discrimination and congruence with standard seven-locus MLST among commensal E. coli while minimizing the cost. We also compared both methods when used for typing uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). CH typing was less discriminatory for commensal E. coli than the standard seven-locus method (Simpson's Index of Diversity=0.933 [0.902-0.964] and 0.97 [0.96-0.979], respectively). Combining fimH with housekeeping gene loci improved discriminatory power for commensal E. coli from cattle but resulted in poor congruence with MLST. We found that a four-locus typing method including the housekeeping genes adk, purA, gyrB and recA could be used to minimize cost without sacrificing discriminatory power or congruence with Achtman seven-locus MLST when typing commensal E. coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Academic Locus of Control, Tendencies Towards Academic Dishonesty and Test Anxiety Levels as the Predictors of Academic Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have focused on finding the level of effect that academic locus of control, tendencies towards academic dishonesty, and test anxiety levels have had on academic self-efficacy, and providing a separate explanation ratio for each. The relationship among the effects of the academic locus of control, tendencies towards academic…

  3. Characterization of Dutch Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis using a Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikawaty, R.; Brouwer, E.C.; Jansen, M.D.; Duijkeren, van E.; Mevius, D.J.; Verhoef, J.; Fluit, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Current typing methods for Staphylococcus aureus have important drawbacks. We evaluated a Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) scheme with 6 loci which lacks most drawbacks on 85 bovine mastitis isolates from The Netherlands. For each locus the number of repeat units (RU) was

  4. Evidence that breast cancer risk at the 2q35 locus is mediated through IGFBP5 regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ghoussaini (Maya); S.L. Edwards (Stacey); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); S. Nord (Silje); R. Cowper-Sal-lari (Richard); K. Desai (Kinjal); S. Kar (Siddhartha); K.M. Hillman (Kristine); S. Kaufmann (Susanne); D.M. Glubb (Dylan); J. Beesley (Jonathan); J. Dennis (Joe); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet); Q. Wang (Qing); E. Dicks (Ed); Q. Guo (Qi); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); M. Shah (Mitul); R.N. Luben (Robert); J. Brown (Judith); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mats); D. Klevebring (Daniel); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); D. Lambrechts (Diether); B. Thienpont (Bernard); P. Neven (Patrick); H. Wildiers (Hans); A. Broeks (Annegien); L.J. van 't Veer (Laura); E.J.T. Rutgers (Emiel); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); B. Hallberg (Boubou); C. Vachon (Celine); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); A. Rudolph (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); L.J. Gibson (Lorna); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); T.A. Muranen (Taru); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); P. Hall (Per); J. Li (Jingmei); J. Liu (Jianjun); M.K. Humphreys (Manjeet); D. Kang (Daehee); J.-Y. Choi (J.); S.K. Park (Sue); D-Y. Noh (Dong-Young); K. Matsuo (Keitaro); H. Ito (Hidemi); H. Iwata (Hisato); Y. Yatabe (Yasushi); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); F. Menegaux (Florence); M. Sanchez (Marie); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); F. Marme (Federick); A. Schneeweiss (Andreas); C. Sohn (Christof); A.H. Wu (Anna H.); C.-C. Tseng (Chiu-Chen); D. Van Den Berg (David); D.O. Stram (Daniel O.); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); P. Menéndez (Primitiva); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); W. Lu (Wei); Y. Gao; Q. Cai (Qiuyin); A. Cox (Angela); S.S. Cross (Simon); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); G. Glendon (Gord); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); E.J. Sawyer (Elinor); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick); L. Le Marchand (Loic); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); S.-H. Teo (Soo-Hwang); C.H. Yip (Cheng Har); D.S.C. Lee (Daphne S.C.); T.Y. Wong (Tien Yin); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); J.W.M. Martens (John W. M.); J.M. Collée (Margriet); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); J.L. Hopper (John); M.C. Southey (Melissa); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); M.K. Kapuscinski (Miroslav K.); C-Y. Shen (Chen-Yang); P.-E. Wu (Pei-Ei); J-C. Yu (Jyh-Cherng); S.-T. Chen; G.G. Alnæs (Grethe); A.-L. Borresen-Dale (Anne-Lise); G.G. Giles (Graham); R.L. Milne (Roger); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); K.R. Muir (K.); A. Lophatananon (Artitaya); S. Stewart-Brown (Sarah); P. Siriwanarangsan (Pornthep); M. Hartman (Mikael); X. Miao; S.A.B.S. Buhari (Shaik Ahmad Bin Syed); Y.Y. Teo (Yik Ying); P.A. Fasching (Peter); L. Haeberle (Lothar); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); H. Brenner (Hermann); A.K. Dieffenbach (Aida Karina); V. Arndt (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Schoemaker (Minouk); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); J. Simard (Jacques); M.S. Goldberg (Mark); F. Labrèche (France); M. Dumont (Martine); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y.-D. Koto (Yon-Dschun); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); S. Volorio (Sara); T. Dörk (Thilo); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); S. Helbig (Sonja); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Toland (Amanda); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); S. Sangrajrang (Suleeporn); V. Gaborieau (Valerie); P. Brennan (Paul); J.D. McKay (James); U. Hamann (Ute); D. Torres (Diana); W. Zheng (Wei); J. Long (Jirong); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); C. Luccarini (Craig); C. Baynes (Caroline); S. Ahmed (Shahana); M. Maranian (Melanie); S. Healey (Sue); A. González-Neira (Anna); G. Pita (Guillermo); M.R. Alonso (Rosario); N. Álvarez (Nuria); D. Herrero (Daniel); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); I. de Santiago (Ines); J. Carroll (Jason); C. Caldas (Carlos); M. Brown (Melissa); M. Lupien (Mathieu); V. Kristensen (Vessela); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J.D. French (Juliet); D.F. Easton (Douglas); A.M. Dunning (Alison); P. Webb (Penny); A. De Fazio (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractGWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000

  5. Multiple independent variants at the TERT locus are associated with telomere length and risks of breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Stig Egil; Pooley, Karen A; Johnatty, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    TERT-locus SNPs and leukocyte telomere measures are reportedly associated with risks of multiple cancers. Using the Illumina custom genotyping array iCOGs, we analyzed ∼480 SNPs at the TERT locus in breast (n = 103,991), ovarian (n = 39,774) and BRCA1 mutation carrier (n = 11,705) cancer cases...

  6. Human γ-globin genes silenced independently of other genes in the β-globin locus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.O. Dillon (Niall); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractErythropoiesis during human development is characterized by switches in expression of beta-like globin genes during the transition from the embryonic through fetal to adult stages. Activation and high-level expression of the genes is directed by the locus control region (LCR), located 5'

  7. Identification of DIO2 as a new susceptibility locus for symptomatic osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Meulenbelt (Ingrid); J. Min (Josine); S.D. Bos (Steffan); N. Riyazi (Naghmeh); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); H.J. van der Wijk; H.M. Kroon (Herman); M. Nakajima; S. Ikegawa (Shiro); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); W.M. van der Deure (Wendy); T.J. Visser (Theo); A.B. Seymour (Albert); N. Lakenberg (Nico); R. van der Breggen (Ruud); D. Kremer (Dennis); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); M. Kloppenburg (Margreet); J. Loughlin (John); P.E. Slagboom (Eline)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOsteoarthritis [MIM 165720] is a common late-onset articular joint disease for which no pharmaceutical intervention is available to attenuate the cartilage degeneration. To identify a new osteoarthritis susceptibility locus, a genome-wide linkage scan and combined linkage association

  8. Deletion of tumor progression locus 2 attenuates alcohol induced hepatic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) involves the interaction of several inflammatory signaling pathways. Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), also known as Cancer Osaka Thyroid (COT) and MAP3K8, is a serine threonine kinase that functions as a critical regulator of inflammator...

  9. Parenting Styles and Bullying at School: The Mediating Role of Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Ioannou, Myria; Stavrinides, Panayiotis

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of children's locus of control in the relation between parenting styles and bully-victim experiences at school. Participants were 447 students aged 10 and 11 years old from 13 different elementary, urban, and rural schools in Cyprus. Analyses using structural equation modeling showed that parenting…

  10. Career Locus of Control and Career Success among Chinese Employees: A Multidimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yanjun; Wang, Zhen; Dong, Zhilin; Liu, Yukun; Yue, Yumeng; Liu, Haiyang; Zhang, Yuqing; Zhou, Wenxia; Liu, Haihua

    2013-01-01

    The current research aimed to develop a multidimensional measure of career locus of control (LOC) and examine its predictive validity on objective and subjective career success among Chinese employees. Items of career LOC were generated based on literature review of the significant predictors of career success, as well as the open-ended responses…

  11. Single-locus complementary sex determination in the inbreeding wasp Euodynerus foraminatus Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlhut, J K; Cowan, D P

    2004-03-01

    The Hymenoptera have arrhenotokous haplodiploidy in which males normally develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, while females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid. Multiple sex determination systems are known to underlie haplodiploidy, and the best understood is single-locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD) in which sex is determined at a single polymorphic locus. Individuals heterozygous at the sex locus develop as females; individuals that are hemizygous (haploid) or homozygous (diploid) at the sex locus develop as males. sl-CSD can be detected with inbreeding experiments that produce diploid males in predictable proportions as well as sex ratio shifts due to diploid male production. This sex determination system is considered incompatible with inbreeding because the ensuing increase in homozygosity increases the production of diploid males that are inviable or infertile, imposing a high cost on matings between close relatives. However, in the solitary hunting wasp Euodynerus foraminatus, a species suspected of having sl-CSD, inbreeding may be common due to a high incidence of sibling matings at natal nests. In laboratory crosses with E. foraminatus, we find that sex ratios and diploid male production (detected as microsatellite heterozygosity) are consistent with sl-CSD, but not with other sex determination systems. This is the first documented example of sl-CSD in a hymenopteran with an apparent natural history of inbreeding, and thus presents a paradox for our understanding of hymenopteran genetics.

  12. Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Predictors of Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the procrastination behaviour of 300 undergraduate students from a Nigerian university. The participants responded to three valid scales (General Perceived Self Efficacy Scale, Locus of Control Scale and the procrastination scale). Data was analyzed using the Pearson product moment correlation and Multiple regression ...

  13. Work-family conflict, locus of control, and women's well-being: tests of alternative pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Noraini M

    2002-10-01

    The author tested for the 3 possible pathways (i.e., direct, moderator, and mediator effects) in which locus of control can influence the relationship between work-family conflict and well-being. The author predicted that work-family conflict would be negatively correlated with well-being. In a sample of 310 Malaysian employed women with families, work-family conflict was a significant predictor of both job satisfaction and distress--negatively related to job satisfaction and positively related to symptoms of distress. More important, the results provided support for the effects of all 3 pathways of control on the relationship between work-family conflict and well-being, depending on the outcome measure: For job satisfaction, locus of control had direct effects, acted as a partial mediator, and played a significant moderating role. In contrast, only the direct effect of locus of control predicted distress. The author discusses those findings with reference to the literature on work-family conflict, locus of control, and the issue of stress-distress specificity.

  14. An Investigation of Academic Procrastination, Locus of Control, and Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, M. Engin; Tras, Zeliha; Aydogan, Didem

    2009-01-01

    In this research, the effects of emotional intelligence on the academic procrastination and locus of control tendencies of a group of university students are investigated. The sample of this study consists of 435 university students including 273 female students and 162 male students who were randomly selected from the population of Selcuk…

  15. Effects of Locus of Control, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Tutoring on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Anthony; Rheinheimer, David C.; Detweiler, Thomas N.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the connection between locus of control (LOC), academic self-efficacy (ASE), and academic performance, and whether these variables are affected by tutoring. Additional variables of interest, including gender, students' Pell Grant status, ethnicity, and class size, were also considered for the research models. The population…

  16. Ancient roots for polymorphism at the HLA-DQ. alpha. locus in primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllensten, U.B.; Erlich, H.A. (Cetus Corp., Emeryville, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The genes encoding the human histocompatibility antigens (HLA) exhibit a remarkable degree of polymorphism as revealed by immunologic and molecular analyses. This extensive sequence polymorphism either may have been generated during the lifetime of the human species or could have arisen before speciation and been maintained in the contemporary human population by selection or, possibly, by genetic drift. These two hypotheses were examined using the polymerase chain reaction method to amplify polymorphic sequences from the DQ{alpha} locus, as well as the DX{alpha} locus, an homologous but nonexpressed locus, in a series of primates that diverged at known times. In general, the amino acid sequence of a specific human DQ{alpha} allelic type is more closely related to its chimpanzee or gorilla counterpart than to other human DQ{alpha} alleles. Phylogenetic analysis of the silent nucleotide position changes shows that the similarity of allelic types between species is due to common ancestry rather than convergent evolution. Thus, most of the polymorphism at the DQ{alpha} locus in the human species was already present at least 5 million years ago in the ancestral species that gave rise to the chimpanzee, gorilla, and human lineages. However, one of the DQ{alpha} alleles may have arisen after speciation by recombination between two ancestral alleles.

  17. Locus of Control and Level of Conflict as Correlates of Immortality Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dowd, William

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the orientation of 14 male professors toward immortality as a psychological motive. Results showed a generally low conscious concern with immortality issues; however, respondents who have accepted some sort of immortality show a more internal locus of control and better adjustment. (JAC)

  18. Parenting Styles Influence on Locus of Control, Self-Efficacy and Academic Adjustment in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kimberly Tracey

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between perceived parenting style, locus of control, self-efficacy, and student outcome (i.e. academic performance, GPA) in a sample of college students. The relationship among gender and ethnicity were also examined across these variables. There were 100 participants in this study,…

  19. The Correlation of Nurses' job Burnout and Their Social Responsibility Considering the Role of Control Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhane Izedi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job burnout is an occupational hazard that reduces physical and mental energy of the staff. This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between the nurses' job burnout and their social responsibility considering the moderating role of control locus. Methods: In an analytical and cross-sectional study we used 3 valid questionnaires including Maslach burnout inventory, Dynson social responsibility and Rotter locus of control in 3 educational hospitals of Yazd, Iran. A total of 246 nurses contributed in the study. Data analysis was done through SPSS19. We used Pearson and Kendall correlation coefficient in data analysis. Findings: The mean scores of job burnout and social responsibility of studied group were 60.75 +8.37 and 71.84+15.47, respectively. Job burnout is negatively correlated with social responsibility statistically (r= -0.250 while locus of control acts as the moderator of this correlation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that creating a supportive work environment for nurses enhances their social responsibility trough affecting their level of job burnout. Also, the approved moderating role of control locus in the relationship of job burnout and social responsibility indicates that the personality traits can be considered as the appropriate criteria for entry to nursing schools.

  20. Locus of Word Frequency Effects in Spelling to Dictation: Still at the Orthographic Level!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Laroche, Betty; Perret, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Are they located at the level of spoken word recognition (Chua & Rickard Liow, 2014) or at the level of the orthographic output lexicon (Delattre, Bonin, & Barry, 2006)? Words that varied on objective word frequency and on phonological…

  1. The temporal locus of the interaction between working memory consolidation and the attentional blink

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akyürek, E.G.; Leszczyński, Marcin; Schubö, Anna

    2010-01-01

    An increase in concurrent working memory load has been shown to amplify the attentional blink. The present study investigated the temporal locus of this phenomenon, by using a dual rapid serial visual presentation paradigm that enabled the measurement of lateralized event-related potentials. The P3

  2. Analysis of fast neutron-generated mutants at the Arabidopsis thaliana HY4 locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggemann, E.; Handwerger, K.; Essex, C.; Storz, G.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is expected to produce mutants with deletions or other chromosomal rearrangements. These mutants are useful for a variety of purposes, such as creating null alleles and cloning genes whose existence is known only from their mutant phenotype; however, only a few mutations generated by ionizing radiation have been characterized at the molecular level in Arabidopsis thaliana. Twenty fast neutron-generated alleles of the Arabidopsis HY4 locus, which encodes a blue light receptor, CRY1, were isolated and characterized. Nine of the mutant alleles displayed normal genetic behavior. The other 11 mutant alleles were poorly transmitted through the male gametophyte and were lethal in homozygous plants. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that alleles of the first group generally contain small or moderate-sized deletions at HY4, while alleles of the second group contain large deletions at this locus. These results demonstrate that fast neutrons can produce a range of deletions at a single locus in Arabidopsis. Many of these deletions would be suitable for cloning by genomic subtraction or representational difference analysis. The results also suggest the presence of an essential locus adjacent to HY4. (author)

  3. Locus of Control, Death Anxiety and Length of Service of Electricity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between locus of control and death anxiety among staff of an electricity company (Power Holding Company of Nigeria, Plc). Enugu. The participants were 80 workers drawn from Power Holding Company of Nigeria, Plc Okpara Avenue, Enugu 40 long serving staff, 40 short serving staff ...

  4. Influence of socioeconomic status on the relationship between locus of control and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy; Singh, Sweta

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between Locus of Control (LoC) and oral health among a group of rural adolescent school children and to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between health, LoC and oral health status. A total of 318 children 15 years of age from a public and private school formed the study population. The children were administered following the Indian translation of the 18-item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale, and subsequently examined for caries and oral hygiene. T tests and correlation analyses showed a significant relationship between higher 'Internal' Locus of Control and dental caries. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of socioeconomic status on LoC and oral health using three interaction models which showed a statistically significant interaction between 'Internal' LoC and socioeconomic status on caries. Socioeconomic stratum-specific estimates of the relationship between the LoC and caries revealed a positive association between Internal LoC and caries in the middle socioeconomic group. The results demonstrated the relationship between Locus of Control and oral health, and the role of socioeconomic status having a strong bearing on this relationship.

  5. LOCUS-COERULEUS PROJECTIONS TO THE DORSAL MOTOR VAGUS NUCLEUS IN THE RAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TERHORST, GJ; TOES, GJ; VANWILLIGEN, JD

    1991-01-01

    The origin of the noradrenergic innervation of the preganglionic autonomic nuclei in the medulla oblongata and spinal cord is still controversial. In this investigation descending connections of the locus coeruleus to the dorsal motor vagus nucleus in the rat are studied with Phaseolus vulgaris

  6. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and health locus of control: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq Mohammad Ali; Lindström, Martin

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and lack of belief in the possibility of influencing one's own health. The 2000 public health survey in Scania is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study with a 59% participation rate. In total, 5180 persons aged 18-64 years who belonged to the workforce and the unemployed were included in this study. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between psychosocial factors at work and unemployment, and lack of belief in the possibility of influencing one's own health (external locus of control). Psychosocial conditions at work were defined according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive, and job strain categories. The multivariate analyses included age, country of birth, education, economic stress, and social participation. In total, 26.6% of all men and 26.9% of all women lack an internal locus of control. The passive, job strain and unemployed categories have significantly higher odds ratios of lack of internal locus of control, as compared to the relaxed reference category. No such significant differences are observed for the active category. These patterns remain in the multivariate models, with the exception of the passive and unemployed categories among men, in which the significant differences disappear. Psychosocial work conditions and unemployment may affect health locus of control. The control dimension in the Karasek-Theorell model seems to be of greatest importance.

  7. Perceived Social Support and Locus of Control as the Predictors of Vocational Outcome Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of vocational outcome expectation to social support which is an environmental factor and locus of control which is a personal factor. With this purpose, using Social Cognitive Career Theory as the theoretical framework, 263 undergraduate students completed Vocational Outcome Expectations…

  8. A Dual Reporter Mouse Model of the Human β-Globin Locus: Applications and Limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Papadopoulos (Petros); L. Gutiérrez (Laura); R. van der Linden (Reinier); J. Kong-a-San (John); A. Maas (Alex); D.D. Drabek (Dubravka); G.P. Patrinos (George); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe human β-globin locus contains the β-like globin genes (i.e. fetal γ-globin and adult β-globin), which heterotetramerize with α-globin subunits to form fetal or adult hemoglobin. Thalassemia is one of the commonest inherited disorders in the world, which results in quantitative

  9. Genomewide scan identifies susceptibility locus for dyslexia on Xq27 in an extended Dutch family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kovel, C G F; Hol, F A; Heister, J G A M; Willemen, J J H T; Sandkuijl, L A; Franke, B; Padberg, G W

    2004-09-01

    Dyslexia is a common disorder with a strong genetic component, but despite significant research effort, the aetiology is still largely unknown. To identify loci contributing to dyslexia risk. This was a genomewide linkage analysis in a single large family. Dutch families with at least two first degree relatives suffering from dyslexia participated in the study. Participants were recruited through an advertisement campaign in papers and magazines. The main outcome measure was linkage between genetic markers and dyslexia phenotype. Using parametric linkage analysis, we found strong evidence for a locus influencing dyslexia on Xq27.3 (multipoint lod = 3.68). Recombinations in two family members flanked an 8 cM region, comprising 11 currently confirmed genes. All four males carrying the risk haplotype had very low scores on the reading tests. The presentation in females was more variable, but 8/9 females carrying the risk haplotype were diagnosed dyslexic by our composite score, so we considered the putative risk allele to be dominant with reduced penetrance. Linkage was not found in an additional collection of affected sibling pairs. A locus influencing dyslexia risk is probably located between markers DXS1227 and DXS8091 on the X chromosome, closely situated to a locus indicated by a published genome scan of English sibling pairs. Although the locus may not be a common cause for dyslexia, the relatively small and gene poor region offers hope to identify the responsible gene.

  10. Impact of Computer Expertise, Locus of Control and Self-Esteem on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study considered the influence of self-esteem, locus of control and computer expertise on computer-induced stress in a cross sectional survey. One hundred and fifty cyber café users drawn from 10 cyber cafes randomly chosen from University of Ibadan and its environs participated in the study. Of the 150 ...

  11. Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement: A Review of the Locus of Control Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanik, Martin B.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of personality, perceptions of internal versus external control of reinforcement, shifts under conditions of change. This review of the literature examines the relationship between planned organizational change and locus of control. The review includes literature from the disciplines of clinical and social psychology, adult development,…

  12. Locus of Control, Psychopathology, and Weight Gain in Juvenile Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strober, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Based on a hypothesized disturbance in personal control and efficacy in anorexia nervosa, locus of control score in female adolescents with anorexia nervosa was compared to scores obtained from depressed and conduct-disordered controls and to adolescent female standardization norms. (Author/CL)

  13. Human obesity associated with an intronic SNP in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in energy balance. In population studies, SNPs of the BDNF locus have been linked to obesity, but the mechanism by which these variants cause weight gain is unknown. Here, we examined human hypothalamic BDNF expression in association with 44 ...

  14. Coping strategies and locus of control in childhood leukemia: a multi-center research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Polizzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a very distressing experience for children and requires a special effort of adjustment. Therefore, it seems to be crucial to explore coping resources for the experienced risk condition. In this sense, the study focuses on coping strategies and locus of control in children with ALL during the treatment phase, and on their possible relation. The correlation between children and maternal coping strategies is also investigated. The participants involved were an experimental group of 40 children with ALL and their mothers, and 30 healthy children as the control group. The tools used were: the Child Behavioral Style Scale and the Monitor-Blunter Style Scale to assess the coping strategies of children and mothers; the locus of Control Scale for Children to analyze the children’s perception of controlling the events. Both children with ALL and their mothers resorted to monitoring coping strategies with a statistically significant rate of occurrence (children: M=17.8, SD=3.8; mothers: M=10.48, SD=3.4. The data concerning the locus of control show this tendency towards internal causes (M=53.1, SD=4.7. There were statistically significant correlations between monitoring coping strategies and external locus of control (r=0.400, P<0.05. The results gained from the control group are almost equivalent. The outcomes show several interesting resources of the psychological functioning of children as well as of their mothers.

  15. A Reliability Generalization Study of Scores on Rotter's and Nowicki-Strickland's Locus of Control Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretvas, S. Natasha; Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Durham, Jennifer A.; Yarnell, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    The most commonly used measures of locus of control are Rotter's Internality-Externality Scale (I-E) and Nowicki and Strickland's Internality-Externality Scale (NSIE). A reliability generalization study is conducted to explore variability in I-E and NSIE score reliability. Studies are coded for aspects of the scales used (number of response…

  16. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control and Various Aspects of Psychopathology of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Paralikas, Theodosis; Barouti, Marialena; Chronopoulou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The exploratory study presented in this article looks into the possible differences in psychosocial aspects (self-esteem and locus of control) and aspects of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, melancholia, asthenia, and mania) amongst sighted adults and adults with visual impairments. Moreover, the study aims to examine the possible…

  17. General self-esteem and locus of control of young sportsmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the relationship between some elements of self-concept (general self-esteem and locus of control and going in for sport in adolescence. The relationship between going in for sport and variables of self-concept (general self-esteem and external locus of control was investigated in a sample of 300 adolescent boys and girls (150 sportsmen and 150 non-sportsmen. Modification of the Rosenberg’s General self-esteem scale and Bezinović-Savčić’s Scale of externality were used to measure variables of self-concept. The significant positive correlation between variables of going in for sport and general selfesteem, as well as negative ones between variables of going in for sport and external locus of control were found in the whole sample of subjects and in the sample of boys, but not of girls. The sex role stereotypes and greater importance that the culture puts on success in sport for boys have contributed to such results. The sex differences in correlations between variables of self-concept and going in for sport suggest that going in for sport influences general self-esteem and locus of control in adolescents through social feedback and social evaluation of sport achievement and physical fitness. .

  18. The Effect of Compensation Studies on Disadvantaged Children's Self Concept Levels and Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadioglu, Ömür

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of "Bir Umut Ol Benim Için" (Be My Hope) project which was prepared for the children who were disadvantaged by being influenced from several risk factors as compared to their peers on the self-concepts and locus of controls of the children. The study group consisted of 33 children who were…

  19. Parental Locus of Control and Psychological Well-Being in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Tracey; Hastings, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychological mechanisms may help to explain the variance observed in parental psychological adjustment in parents of children with intellectual disability (ID). In this study, parental locus of control and its role in relation to maternal psychological well-being was explored. Method: Questionnaires were sent to 91 mothers of children…

  20. Learning to Learn Online: Using Locus of Control to Help Students Become Successful Online Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Susan; Lin, Peiyi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, approximately 600 online high school students were asked to take Rotter's locus of control questionnaire and then reflect on the results, with the goal of helping them think about their ability to regulate their learning in this new environment. In addition, it was hoped that the results could provide a diagnostic for teachers who…

  1. Democratic Teacher Beliefs According to the Teacher's Gender and Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesici, Sahin

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the variations in democratic beliefs among teachers based on gender and locus of control. The study groups comprised of 286 teachers. The results demonstrated that the level of adherence to democratic beliefs on the part of female teachers was significantly higher than those of male teachers, especially in terms of equality and…

  2. Impact of locus of control, religiosity and exercise on depression in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assesses the combined effects of locus of control, religiosity, and physical exercise constructs on the global health outcome in depressed patients at the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Shika,Zaria. A cross-sectional study design was used; fifteen (15) participants were purposively selected from ...

  3. Health locus of control and self-care behaviors in diabetic foot patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abredari, Hamid; Bolourchifard, Fariba; Rassouli, Maryam; Nasiri, Navideh; Taher, Mohammad; Abedi, Ahmadreza

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot affects more than 25% of diabetic patients and finally up to 20% of cases result in amputation. The most important factor resulting in severe complications or even death is lack of self-care. Health locus of control has been introduced as one of health factors and predicting factors of self-care. This research was performed for analyzing the correlation between self-care behaviors and health locus of control in diabetic foot patients. In this descriptive study, 120 patients with diabetic foot were chosen using convenience sampling from endocrine clinic and wards of endocrine and vascular surgery of Teleqani Hospital of Shahid Beheshti Medical University. The data were gathered by demographic, self-care behavior, and health locus of control questionnaires. The t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and spearman coefficient were used to analyze the data. RESULTS of this research showed that there is a direct and significant relation between selfcare behaviors and internal health locus of control (plocus of control (plocus of control improve and strengthen patients' self-care behaviors and their involvement in treatment.

  4. Professional/Career Orientation, Awareness, and Their Relationship to Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algadheeb, Nourah A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the differences in professional/career orientation and awareness while considering a number of variables including locus of control, academic specialization and school backwardness. Several measures were used to achieve the study's goals. The first two, a professional/career orientation measure and a…

  5. Longitudinal Factor Structure of General Self-Concept and Locus of Control among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Su, Ihui

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal factor structure of general self-concept and locus of control among high school students over a 4-year period, with data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study of 1988. Measurement invariance was tested over time and across gender and ethnic groups; second-order piecewise latent growth models were…

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Stillbirth: Trauma Characteristics, Locus of Control, Posttraumatic Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Cheung; Reed, Jacqueline

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the incidence of PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity among women who experienced stillbirth and investigated the relationship between locus of control, trauma characteristics of stillbirth, posttraumatic cognitions, PTSD and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms following stillbirth. Fifty women recorded information on stillbirth experiences, and completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, General Health Questionnaire-28, Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale and the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory. 60, 28 and 12 % met the diagnostic criteria for probable full-PTSD, partial and no-PTSD respectively. Sixty-two percent and 54 % scored at or above the cutoff of the General Health Questionnaire-28 and postnatal depression respectively. Women who experienced stillbirth reported significantly more psychiatric co-morbid and post-natal depressive symptoms than the comparison group. Both groups were similar in locus of control. Women who experienced stillbirth reported negative cognitions about the self the most. After adjusting for postnatal depression, trauma characteristics were significantly correlated with Posttraumatic cognitions which, in turn, were significantly correlated with PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. Locus of control was not significantly correlated with psychological outcomes. Mediational analyses showed that negative cognitions about self mediated the relationship between trauma characteristics and psychiatric co-morbidity only. Women reported a high incidence of probable PTSD and co-morbid psychiatric symptoms following stillbirth. Stillbirth trauma characteristics influenced how they negatively perceived themselves. This then specifically influenced general psychological problems rather than PTSD symptoms.

  7. Predicting the Likelihood of Going to Graduate School: The Importance of Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Cynthia R.; Segrist, Dan J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many undergraduates apply to graduate school, only a fraction will be admitted. A question arises as to what factors relate to the likelihood of pursuing graduate studies. The current research examined this question by surveying students in a Careers in Psychology course. We hypothesized that GPA, a more internal locus of control…

  8. Loneliness among people with HIV in relation to locus of control and negative meta-stereotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, E.H.; Boven, G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relation between locus of control, meta-stereotyping (expectancies about how one's group is stereotyped by another group), and loneliness among people who are HIV-positive. In line with expectations, a survey in the Netherlands among 122 people living with

  9. Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as Predictor of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Muhammad; Ashrafi, Ghulam Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Students' Commitment, Engagement and Locus of Control as predictors of Academic Achievement at Higher Education Level. We used analytical model and conclusive research approach to conduct study and survey method for data collection. We selected 369 students using multistage sampling technique from three…

  10. Caregiver's Health Locus of Control and Medication Adherence in Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Kusum; Swaminathan, Neeraja; Viswanathan, Ramaswamy; Lakkaraja, Madhavi

    2015-03-01

    The authors would like to thank Dr. Morisky for giving us permission to use the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale To explore caregivers' Health Locus of Control's relationship to self-reported adherence to penicillin prophylaxis or hydroxyurea in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). A questionnaire-based study was conducted of caregivers of children with SCD who visited a comprehensive sickle cell center in an inner city hospital, who were either on penicillin prophylaxis or hydroxyurea or both. Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC) and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) questionnaires were used for the study. Caregivers of 43 children (27 on penicillin prophylaxis, 13 on hydroxyurea, and 3 on both) completed the MHLC and the MMAS-8. There was no significant difference in adherence between the penicillin and the hydroxyurea groups. The mean Powerful Others score of caregivers of the hydroxyurea only group (25.5+5.6) was higher than that of the penicillin only group (21.2+6.1, p=0.043). Regression analysis revealed an inverse relationship of Chance Locus of Control to adherence in the entire group (Beta = -0.306, R2=0.093, F[1,40]=4.12, p=0.049). Chance Locus of control may identify caregivers of children with SCD at risk for non-adherence to treatment. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Locus of Control and Learner-Control on Web-Based Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Mei; Ho, Chiung-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The study explored the effects of students' locus of control and types of control over instruction on their self-efficacy and performance in a web-based language learning environment. A web-based interactive instructional program focusing on the comprehension of news articles for English language learners was developed in two versions: learner-…

  12. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Disposition and Locus of Control in Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Aytunga; Sariçam, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current research study was to examine the link between critical thinking dispositions and locus of control in pre-service teachers. The participants of this study were selected via easily accessible sampling technique. The participants consist of 347 pre-service teachers (203 female, 144 male) in Kütahya, Turkey. The Rotter…

  13. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Om; Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Amool R; Sengar, K S; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Ranjan, Jay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    To assess personality disorder (PD), emotional intelligence (EI), and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD) patients and its comparison with normal controls. Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Mangal EI Inventory, and Locus of Control scale. Obtained responses were scored by using standard scoring procedures and subsequently statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test. AD patients have more comorbid pathological personality traits and disorders in comparison to their normal counterparts. Depressive, narcissistic, and paranoid PDs were prominent among AD group; followed by schizotypal, antisocial, negativistic, dependent, schizoid, sadistic, masochistic, and borderline PD. In comparison to normal participants, AD patients were significantly deficient in almost all the areas of EI and their locus of control was externally oriented. Patients with AD have significantly higher PDs, low EI, and an external orientation on the locus of control. Identification and management of these comorbid conditions are likely to improve the management and outcome of AD.

  14. Locus pietatis et vitae II, Vranov u Brna 20.–22. 9. 2010

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Freemanová, Michaela

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2010), s. 407-409 ISSN 0018-7003. [Locus pietatis et vitae II. Vranov u Brna, 20.09.2010–22.09.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : history * monastic orders * conference Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. Effects of Death Education on Nursing Students' Anxiety and Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarber, William L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A study was done to determine the impact of a death education course on the relationship between nursing students' death anxiety and locus of control. No significant changes occurred in death avoidance, death fear, death denial, and the reluctance to interact with the dying after the 15-week course. (JN)

  16. Insertional inactivation of a chromosomal locus that modulates expression of potential virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, A L; Wolz, C; Yeaman, M R; Bayer, A S

    1995-06-01

    A single insertion of transposon Tn551 into a unique chromosomal locus of Staphylococcus aureus ISP479C has resulted in a pleiotropic effect on the expression of both extracellular and cell wall proteins. In particular, the expression of cell wall protein A and clumping activity with fibrinogen were rendered undetectable in the mutant 1E3 compared with the parent. The secretion of alpha-hemolysin in mutant 1E3 was modestly increased. Southern blot and phenotypic analyses indicated that this locus is distinct from agr, xpr, and sar, three previously described global regulatory loci. Transduction experiments demonstrated that the genotype associated with mutant 1E3 could be transferred back into the parental strain ISP479C. The transductant 1E3-2 displayed a phenotypic profile similar to that of the original mutant. Northern (RNA) blot studies showed that this locus may be involved in modulating target genes at the mRNA level. In the rabbit endocarditis model, there was a significant decrease in both the infectivity rate and intravegetation bacterial density with mutant 1E3 compared with the parent at an inoculum of 10(3) CFU. Since protein A and the fibrinogen-binding protein(s) are major surface proteins that may mediate bacterial adhesion to host tissues, this locus may be an important genetic element involved in the expression of virulence determinants in S. aureus.

  17. Sex and Locus of Control as Determinants of Children's Responses to Peer versus Adult Praise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Susan E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Black first graders varying in internal-external control completed digit substitution problems during which performance was praised by a Black boy and girl or a Black man and woman. Boys were most responsive to peer feedback and girls to adult feedback. Predictions involving locus of control were modestly supported. (Author/RD)

  18. Assessing God Locus of Control as a Factor in College Students' Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study explored God locus of control beliefs (ie, God's control over behavior) regarding their influence on alcohol use and sexual behavior as an alternative religiosity measure to religious behaviors, which does not capture perceived influence of religiosity. Additionally, demographic differences in religious beliefs were…

  19. Influence of locus of control on conformity to authority in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of locus of control on conformity to authority in a multicultural organisation - A case of IITA Nigeria. John O Ekore. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.5(2) 2000: 90-96. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  20. High School Students' Career Decision-Making Difficulties According to Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdök, Oguzhan; Harman, Esranur

    2018-01-01

    This study intends to elaborate upon difficulties in career decisions of high school students with different locus of control. 9th, 10th, 11th and 12th grade students aged 14-19, 282 (%55.4) females, 227 (%44.6) males totaling 509 participants involved in research located in the south of Turkey. Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire…

  1. computer-aided root aided root aided root aided root-locus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    m, stability, transient response, root-locus, iteration he means by which any a machine, mechanism or d or altered in accordance. Introduction of feedback has the advantages of f system performance to in system parameters, ponse and minimizing the ignals. However, feedback of components, increases ain and introduces ...

  2. Coarticulation in Early Vocalizations by Children with Hearing Loss: A Locus Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Helen Mccaffrey

    2012-01-01

    Locus equations derived from productions by three children with hearing loss revealed sensory and motor influences on anticipatory coarticulation. Participants who received auditory access to speech via hearing aids and cochlear implants at different ages (5-39 months) were recorded at approximately 6 and 12 months after hearing technology…

  3. Rangewide Genetic Variation in Coast Redwood Populations at a Chloroplast Microsatellite Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Brinegar

    2012-01-01

    Old growth and second growth populations of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) were sampled at 10 locations throughout its range and analyzed at a highly variable chloroplast microsatellite locus. Very low FST values indicated that there was no significant genetic differentiation between adjacent old growth and second growth populations at each location. Genetic...

  4. Health Locus of Control in Indonesian Women with Breast Cancer: a Comparison with Healthy Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskandarsyah, A.; de Klerk, C.; Suardi, D.R.; Sadarjoen, S.S.; Passchier, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Indonesian women with breast cancer havea higher external health locus of control (HLC) than healthy women, and to explore the association between HLC and symptoms of anxiety and depression. In this study, 120 consecutive women with breast cancer were

  5. A simple route to maximum-likelihood estimates of two-locus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 94; Issue 3. A simple route to maximum-likelihood estimates of two-locus recombination fractions under inequality restrictions. Iain L. Macdonald Philasande Nkalashe. Research Note Volume 94 Issue 3 September 2015 pp 479-481 ...

  6. Expression of transgenes targeted to the Gt(ROSA26Sor locus is orientation dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Strathdee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeting transgenes to a chosen location in the genome has a number of advantages. A single copy of the DNA construct can be inserted by targeting into regions of chromatin that allow the desired developmental and tissue-specific expression of the transgene.In order to develop a reliable system for reproducibly expressing transgenes it was decided to insert constructs at the Gt(ROSA26Sor locus. A cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter was used to drive expression of the Tetracycline (tet transcriptional activator, rtTA2(s-M2, and test the effectiveness of using the ROSA26 locus to allow transgene expression. The tet operator construct was inserted into one allele of ROSA26 and a tet responder construct controlling expression of EGFP was inserted into the other allele.Expression of the targeted transgenes was shown to be affected by both the presence of selectable marker cassettes and by the orientation of the transgenes with respect to the endogenous ROSA26 promoter. These results suggest that transcriptional interference from the endogenous gene promoter or from promoters in the selectable marker cassettes may be affecting transgene expression at the locus. Additionally we have been able to determine the optimal orientation for transgene expression at the ROSA26 locus.

  7. Adolescent Parenting: Contrasts in Self-Esteem and Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ann; Troike, Roger

    Pregnant and parenting adolescents represent a unique and challenging problem for educational systems. Of the 17,051 women who become pregnant every day in America, 2,795 or 16% of them are adolescents. The self-esteem and locus of control of 85 pregnant and parenting teens enrolled in the Ohio Graduation, Reality, Dual Role Skills (GRADS) Program…

  8. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N

    1994-06-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control.

  9. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…

  10. Genotyping Sugarcane for the Brown Rust Resistance Locus Bru1 Using Unlabeled Probe Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia melanocephala, is a major disease of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Florida, Louisiana, and other sugarcane growing regions. The Bru1 locus has been used as a durable and effective source of resistance, and markers are available to select for the trait. The...

  11. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess personality disorder (PD, emotional intelligence (EI, and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD patients and its comparison with normal controls. Materials and Methods: Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Mangal EI Inventory, and Locus of Control scale. Obtained responses were scored by using standard scoring procedures and subsequently statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test. Results: AD patients have more comorbid pathological personality traits and disorders in comparison to their normal counterparts. Depressive, narcissistic, and paranoid PDs were prominent among AD group; followed by schizotypal, antisocial, negativistic, dependent, schizoid, sadistic, masochistic, and borderline PD. In comparison to normal participants, AD patients were significantly deficient in almost all the areas of EI and their locus of control was externally oriented. Conclusion: Patients with AD have significantly higher PDs, low EI, and an external orientation on the locus of control. Identification and management of these comorbid conditions are likely to improve the management and outcome of AD.

  12. Heterogeneity at the CETP gene locus. Influence on plasma CETP concentrations and HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivenhoven, J.A.; de Knijff, P.; Boer, J M; Smalheer, H A; Botma, G.J.; Seidell, J C; Kastelein, J.J.; Pritchard, P H

    This study was designed to investigate the association(s) between heterogeneity at the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene locus, CETP plasma concentrations, and HDL cholesterol levels. Healthy men with the lowest, median, and highest deciles of HDL cholesterol were selected from a large

  13. Mothers of Children with Severe Mental Retardation: Maternal Pessimism, Locus of Control and Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmerman, Arie

    1991-01-01

    This study, involving 24 Israeli mothers of children (average age 3.3) with severe mental retardation, found that the mothers' locus of control and perception of social support (belonging, appraisal, tangible support, and self-esteem) serve as buffers against parental pessimism concerning their severely handicapped children. (JDD)

  14. Locus of Control, Self-esteem, Stimulus Appraisal, and Depressive Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyal, Barbara R.

    1977-01-01

    Variables of self-esteem, locus of control, stimulus appraisal, and depressive symptoms, which are related to depression in adults, were investigated in a sample of nonreferred Grade 5 and Grade 6 children. Grade and sex effects were not significant. All other intervariable correlations were significant. (Author)

  15. A genetic map of mouse chromosome 1 near the Lsh-Ity-Bcg disease resistance locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, B; Krall, M; Blackwell, J; O'Brien, A; Schurr, E; Gros, P; Skamene, E; Potter, M

    1990-05-01

    Isozyme and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of backcross progeny, recombinant inbred strains, and congenic strains of mice positioned eight genetic markers with respect to the Lsh-Ity-Bcg disease resistance locus. Allelic isoforms of Idh-1 and Pep-3 and RFLPs detected by Southern hybridization for Myl-1, Cryg, Vil, Achrg, bcl-2, and Ren-1,2, between BALB/cAnPt and DBA/2NPt mice, were utilized to examine the cosegregation of these markers with the Lsh-Ity-Bcg resistance phenotype in 103 backcross progeny. An additional 47 backcross progeny from a cross between C57BL/10ScSn and B10.L-Lshr/s mice were examined for the cosegregation of Myl-1 and Vil RFLPs with Lsh phenotypic differences. Similarly, BXD recombinant inbred strains were typed for RFLPs upon hybridization with Vil and Achrg. Recombination frequencies generated in the different test systems were statistically similar, and villin (Vil) was identified as the molecular marker closest (1.7 +/- 0.8 cM) to the Lsh-Ity-Bcg locus. Two other DNA sequences, nebulin (Neb) and an anonymous DNA fragment (D2S3), which map to a region of human chromosome 2q that is homologous to proximal mouse chromosome 1, were not closely linked to the Lsh-Ity-Bcg locus. This multipoint linkage analysis of chromosome 1 surrounding the Lsh-Ity-Bcg locus provides a basis for the eventual isolation of the disease gene.

  16. Polymorphism in the two-locus Levene model with nonepistatic directional selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Reinhard

    2009-11-01

    For the Levene model with soft selection in two demes, the maintenance of polymorphism at two diallelic loci is studied. Selection is nonepistatic and dominance is intermediate. Thus, there is directional selection in every deme and at every locus. We assume that selection is in opposite directions in the two demes because otherwise no polymorphism is possible. If at one locus there is no dominance, then a complete analysis of the dynamical and equilibrium properties is performed. In particular, a simple necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of an internal equilibrium and sufficient conditions for global asymptotic stability are obtained. These results are extended to deme-independent degree of dominance at one locus. A perturbation analysis establishes structural stability within the full parameter space. In the absence of genotype-environment interaction, which requires deme-independent dominance at both loci, nongeneric equilibrium behavior occurs, and the introduction of arbitrarily small genotype-environment interaction changes the equilibrium structure and may destroy stable polymorphism. The volume of the parameter space for which a (stable) two-locus polymorphism is maintained is computed numerically. It is investigated how this volume depends on the strength of selection and on the dominance relations. If the favorable allele is (partially) dominant in its deme, more than 20% of all parameter combinations lead to a globally asymptotically stable, fully polymorphic equilibrium.

  17. A two-locus model of spatially varying stabilizing or directional selection on a quantitative trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroldinger, Ludwig; Bürger, Reinhard

    2014-06-01

    The consequences of spatially varying, stabilizing or directional selection on a quantitative trait in a subdivided population are studied. A deterministic two-locus two-deme model is employed to explore the effects of migration, the degree of divergent selection, and the genetic architecture, i.e., the recombination rate and ratio of locus effects, on the maintenance of genetic variation. The possible equilibrium configurations are determined as functions of the migration rate. They depend crucially on the strength of divergent selection and the genetic architecture. The maximum migration rates are investigated below which a stable fully polymorphic equilibrium or a stable single-locus polymorphism can exist. Under stabilizing selection, but with different optima in the demes, strong recombination may facilitate the maintenance of polymorphism. However usually, and in particular with directional selection in opposite direction, the critical migration rates are maximized by a concentrated genetic architecture, i.e., by a major locus and a tightly linked minor one. Thus, complementing previous work on the evolution of genetic architectures in subdivided populations subject to diversifying selection, it is shown that concentrated architectures may aid the maintenance of polymorphism. Conditions are obtained when this is the case. Finally, the dependence of the phenotypic variance, linkage disequilibrium, and various measures of local adaptation and differentiation on the parameters is elaborated. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive symptoms facilitatory for diagnoses in neuropsychiatric disorders: executive functions and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Beninger, Richard J; Palomo, Tomas

    2008-10-01

    Cognitive symptoms, considered in conjunction both with their regional brain and biomarkers as well as affective, attributional and neurodevelopmental components, demonstrate ever-increasing complexity to facilitate conceptualization yet, unavoidably, bedevil diagnosis in neuropsychiatry even before considerations of the enigmatic processes in memory, such as executive function and working memory, are drawn into the myriads of equations that await remedial interpretations. Prefrontal and limbic regions of the brain are involved in a diversity of expressions of cognition, normal or dysfunctional, at synaptic, intracellular and molecular levels that mobilize a concatenation of signaling entities. Serotoninergic neurotransission at prefrontal regions directs cognitive-affective entities that mediate decision-making and goal-directed behaviour. Clinical, non-clinical and basic studies challenge attempts to consolidate the multitude of evidence in order to obtain therapeutic notions to alleviate the disordered status of the diagnosed and yet-to-be diagnosed individuals. Locus of control, a concept of some utility in health-seeking procedures, is examined in three self-report studies from the perspective of a cognitive-emotional situation through observations of ordinary, 'healthy' young and middle-aged individuals, to assess the predictors of internal and external locus of control. A notion based on high level executive functioning in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals characterised by internal locus of control is contrasted with a hypofunctional executive DLPFC, characterising individuals that express an external locus of control, is discussed.

  19. Protein quantitative trait locus study in obesity during weight-loss identifies a leptin regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carayol, Jérôme; Chabert, Christian; Di Cara, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    of an organism. Proteome analysis especially can provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of complex traits like obesity. The role of genetic variation in determining protein level variation has not been assessed in obesity. To address this, we design a large-scale protein quantitative trait locus (p...

  20. Transcriptional regulation of the tad locus in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: a termination cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kram, Karin E; Hovel-Miner, Galadriel A; Tomich, Mladen; Figurski, David H

    2008-06-01

    The tad (tight adherence) locus of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans includes genes for the biogenesis of Flp pili, which are necessary for bacterial adhesion to surfaces, biofilm formation, and pathogenesis. Although studies have elucidated the functions of some of the Tad proteins, little is known about the regulation of the tad locus in A. actinomycetemcomitans. A promoter upstream of the tad locus was previously identified and shown to function in Escherichia coli. Using a specially constructed reporter plasmid, we show here that this promoter (tadp) functions in A. actinomycetemcomitans. To study expression of the pilin gene (flp-1) relative to that of tad secretion complex genes, we used Northern hybridization analysis and a lacZ reporter assay. We identified three terminators, two of which (T1 and T2) can explain flp-1 mRNA abundance, while the third (T3) is at the end of the locus. T1 and T3 have the appearance and behavior of intrinsic terminators, while T2 has a different structure and is inhibited by bicyclomycin, indicating that T2 is probably Rho dependent. To help achieve the appropriate stoichiometry of the Tad proteins, we show that a transcriptional-termination cascade is important to the proper expression of the tad genes. These data indicate a previously unreported mechanism of regulation in A. actinomycetemcomitans and lead to a more complete understanding of its Flp pilus biogenesis.

  1. The Relationship among Stress, Burnout, and Locus of Control of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Shana J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how stress, burnout, and locus of control are related for school psychologists providing direct services in the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. This knowledge is essential in providing the needed experience and outlook of working as a school psychologist. The current study provided school…

  2. Health locus of control, acculturation, and health-related Internet use among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Berenson, Abbey B; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2012-01-01

    Among individuals residing in the United States, the Internet is the third most used source for obtaining health information. Little is known, however, about its use by Latinas. To understand health-related Internet use among Latinas, the authors examined it within the theoretical frameworks of health locus of control and acculturation. The authors predicted that acculturation would serve as a mediator between health locus of control and health-related Internet use, age and health-related Internet use, income and health-related Internet use, and education and health-related Internet use. Data were collected via a 25-minute self-report questionnaire. The sample consisted of 932 young (M age = 21.27 years), low-income Latinas. Using structural equation modeling, the authors observed that acculturation partially mediated the relation between health locus of control and health-related Internet use and fully mediated the relations among age, income, and Internet use. An internal health locus of control (p income (p Internet use. The Internet is a powerful tool that can be used to effectively disseminate information to Latinas with limited access to health care professionals. These findings can inform the design of Internet-based health information dissemination studies targeting Latinas.

  3. The MHC locus and genetic susceptibility to autoimmune and infectious diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzaraki, Vasiliki; Kumar, Vinod; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    In the past 50 years, variants in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, also known as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), have been reported as major risk factors for complex diseases. Recent advances, including large genetic screens, imputation, and analyses of non-additive and epistatic

  4. The protective influence of the locus ceruleus on the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harik, S.I.; McGunigal, T. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The functions of the putative noradrenergic innervation of cerebral microvessels from the nucleus locus ceruleus remain ambiguous. Although most evidence indicates that such innervation does not have a major role in the control of cerebral blood flow, there are increasing indications that it modulates transport and permeability functions of the blood-brain barrier. In this study we investigated the effect of unilateral chemical lesioning of the locus ceruleus on the leakage of radioiodinated human serum albumin across the blood-brain barrier. Experiments were performed in awake and restrained rats under steady-state conditions and during drug-induced systemic arterial hypertension, and in anesthetized and paralyzed rats during bicuculline-induced seizures. Both hypertension and seizures are known to be associated with increased leakage of macromolecules across the blood-brain barrier. Albumin leakage into norepinephrine-depleted forebrain structures ipsilateral to the locus ceruleus lesion was compared with that of the contralateral side. There were no side-to-side differences in blood-brain barrier permeability to albumin under steady-state conditions, the stress of restraint, or angiotensin-induced hypertension, or after isoproterenol administration. Norepinephrine-induced hypertension and seizures, however, caused significant increases in albumin leakage into forebrain structures ipsilateral to the lesion. These results suggest that noradrenergic innervation of cerebral microvessels from the locus ceruleus helps preserve the integrity of the blood-brain barrier during pathophysiological states associated with hypertension and increased circulating catecholamines

  5. How attachment style and locus of control influence patients' trust in their oncologist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, Marij A.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Klinkenbijl, Jean H. G.; Eddes, Eric-Hans; Verdam, Mathilde G. E.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer patients need to trust their oncologist. How the oncologist communicates probably contributes to patients' trust. Yet, patient characteristics such as their attachment style and health locus of control may influence how such communication is perceived. We examined how these personality

  6. How attachment style and locus of control influence patients' trust in their oncologist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, M.A.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; Stalpers, L.J.A.; Klinkenbijl, J.H.G.; Eddes, E.-H.; Verdam, M.G.E.; Smets, E.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Cancer patients need to trust their oncologist. How the oncologist communicates probably contributes to patients' trust. Yet, patient characteristics such as their attachment style and health locus of control may influence how such communication is perceived. We examined how these

  7. Effects of Internal Control Training on the Locus of Control of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of internal control training on the locus of control of selected school going adolescents in Benin City. A sample size of 60 was drawn from two of the 27 co-educational schools in Oredo Local government area of Benin City. A table of random number technique was used to select subjects for ...

  8. Assessment of Personality Types and Locus of Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mazaheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with unknown cause. MS is one of the disabling neurologic diseases in adult especially young range that myelin part of central nervous system (CNS is destructed. The aim of this study was assessment of types A and B personality and internal and external locus of control in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and comparison of the results with control group.Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, 30 patients with MS and 30 normal persons as control group evaluated with neurological examination, Rotter locus of control test and Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire for detection of types A and B personality. We employed to analyze the results.Results: 43 percent and 57 percent of MS patients had internal and external locus of control respectively. 63 percent and 37 percent of MS patients had type A and B personality respectively. 60 percent and 40 percent of control group had internal and external locus of control respectively. 20 percent and 80 percent of control group had type A and B personality respectively. Difference between personality type in two groups was significant (P<0.01.Conclusions: In this study, MS patients had more type A personality in comparison to control group.

  9. Genomic structure and evolution of the mating type locus in the green seaweed Ulva partita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Ichihara, Kensuke; Suzuki, Ryogo; Oshima, Kenshiro; Miyamura, Shinichi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Hattori, Masahira; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2017-09-15

    The evolution of sex chromosomes and mating loci in organisms with UV systems of sex/mating type determination in haploid phases via genes on UV chromosomes is not well understood. We report the structure of the mating type (MT) locus and its evolutionary history in the green seaweed Ulva partita, which is a multicellular organism with an isomorphic haploid-diploid life cycle and mating type determination in the haploid phase. Comprehensive comparison of a total of 12.0 and 16.6 Gb of genomic next-generation sequencing data for mt - and mt + strains identified highly rearranged MT loci of 1.0 and 1.5 Mb in size and containing 46 and 67 genes, respectively, including 23 gametologs. Molecular evolutionary analyses suggested that the MT loci diverged over a prolonged period in the individual mating types after their establishment in an ancestor. A gene encoding an RWP-RK domain-containing protein was found in the mt - MT locus but was not an ortholog of the chlorophycean mating type determination gene MID. Taken together, our results suggest that the genomic structure and its evolutionary history in the U. partita MT locus are similar to those on other UV chromosomes and that the MT locus genes are quite different from those of Chlorophyceae.

  10. SAG2 locus genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in meat products of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of SAG2 locus revealed that all of the samples belonged to genotype I. The detection of the parasite in uncooked meat and commercial meat products, and the high ratio of seropositive slaughtered animals, emphasis that the risk still exists for.

  11. Application of multi-locus analytical methods to identify interacting loci in case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Sham, P.; Knight, J.

    2007-01-01

    To identify interacting loci in genetic epidemiological studies the application of multi-locus methods of analysis is warranted. Several more advanced classification methods have been developed in the past years, including multiple logistic regression, sum statistics, logic regression, and the

  12. The Relationships between Positive Thinking Skills, Academic Locus of Control and Grit in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ismail; Sariçam, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the possible relationships between academic locus of control, positive thinking skills and grit in high school students. The participants of the research are composed of 288 adolescents continuing their high school education from 4 different schools in Agri, Turkey, which were selected with convenient…

  13. [Self-esteem, resilience, locus of control and suicide risk in nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Hidalgo, Javier; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Assuming that suicide is the result of a series of factors acting cumulatively, the aim of this paper was to study the association of self-esteem, resilience and locus of control with the risk of suicidal behavior in a sample of nursing students. Observational, cross-sectional and correlational study with 186 nursing students who answered a questionnaire that contained, in addition to demographic data, the Spanish forms of Rosenberg self-esteem scale, the brief resilient coping scale, the Plutchik scale of suicide risk and the Rotter's internal-external locus of control scale. The scores of males and females are very similar on all scales except Locus of Control, where a significantly greater tendency of females attributed to external control. 6.4% of students have scores indicating suicide risk. Suicide risk scores correlated negatively and significantly with self-esteem and resilience and positively with locus of control. The multiple linear regression analysis identified self-esteem as the main variable related to suicide risk. The results suggest that students who have low self-esteem, have difficulty in adjusting to adverse situations and tend to the external attribution of the consequences of their actions may have an increased risk of suicidal behavior. Furthermore, the identification of self-esteem as the important factor involved in suicide risk can help in designing prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of TYK2 in systemic sclerosis susceptibility : a new locus in the IL-12 pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Isac, Elena; Campillo-Davo, Diana; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Guerra, Sandra G; Assassi, Shervin; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Carreira, Patricia; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; García de la Peña, Paloma; Beretta, Lorenzo; Santaniello, Alessandro; Bellocchi, Chiara; Lunardi, Claudio; Moroncini, Gianluca; Gabrielli, Armando; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Witte, Torsten; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Kreuter, Alexander; Distler, Jörg Hw; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; de Vries-Bouwstra, Jeska; Herrick, Ariane; Worthington, Jane; Denton, Christopher P; Fonseca, Carmen; Radstake, Timothy Rdj; Mayes, Maureen D; Martín, Javier

    OBJECTIVES: TYK2 is a common genetic risk factor for several autoimmune diseases. This gene encodes a protein kinase involved in interleukin 12 (IL-12) pathway, which is a well-known player in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Therefore, we aimed to assess the possible role of this locus

  15. The nature of radiation-induced mutations at the white locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastink, A.; Schalet, A.P.; Vreeken, C.; Eeken, J.C.J.; Paradi, E.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray- and neutron-induced mutations at the white locus of Drosophila melanogaster were used to study the nature of radiation-induced genetic damage. Genetic analysis showed the presence of multi-locus deficiencies in 15 out of 31 X-ray mutants and in 26 out of 35 mutants induced by neutrons. The DNA from 11 X-ray and 4 neutron mutants, which were not multi-locus deficiencies, was analyzed by Southern blot-hybridization. Deletions were observed in 2 X-ray and 1 neutron mutant. In combination with cytogenetic techniques, chromosomal rearrangements affecting the white locus (translocations, inversions, etc.) were identified in 3 X-ray and in 2 neutron mutants. A hot-spot for translocation breakpoints was identified in the left arm of the third chromosome. 5 X-ray mutants, which apparently did not contain large deletions, were subjected to further analysis by the nuclease S1 protection method, after cloning of the white gene. In 4 mutants a small deletion could indeed be detected in this way. Thus it seems that by far the main part of X-ray- and neutron-induced white mutants have arisen through large changes in the white gene, especially deletions. (Auth.)

  16. No intra-locus sexual conflict over reproductive fitness or ageing in field crickets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Zajitschek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the ways in which males and females maximize evolutionary fitness can lead to intra-locus sexual conflict in which genes delivering fitness benefits to one sex are costly when expressed in the other. Trade-offs between current reproductive effort and future reproduction and survival are fundamental to the evolutionary biology of ageing. This leads to the prediction that sex differences in the optimization of age-dependent reproductive effort may generate intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing rates. Here we test for intra-locus sexual conflict over age-dependent reproductive effort and longevity in the black field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. Using a half-sib breeding design, we show that the most important components of male and female reproductive effort (male calling effort and the number of eggs laid by females were positively genetically correlated, especially in early adulthood. However, the genetic relationships between longevity and reproductive effort were different for males and females, leading to low genetic covariation between male and female longevity. The apparent absence of intra-locus sexual conflict over ageing suggests that male and female longevity can evolve largely independently of one another.

  17. Cognitive Dysfunction, Locus of Control and Treatment Outcome among Chronic Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max W.

    While alcoholism is no longer regarded as a unitary disorder, conventional measures of congition and personality have yet to be shown capable of consistently predicting clinical outcomes. To investigate cognitive dysfunction and locus of control as predictors of post treatment outcome in a large sample of alcoholics, 106 alcoholics (74 men, 32…

  18. Hubungan antara dukungan sosial dengan resiliensi yang dimoderatori oleh locus of control pada mahasiswa bidikmisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaiya Choiril Mufidah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pendidikan merupakan hal yang sangat penting yang harus diberikan kepada semua orang di dunia, namun kadang berbagai alasan melatar belakangi individu tidak melanjutkan pendidikan pada jenjang yang lebih tinggi. Dan salah satu penyebab tidak melanjutkan pendidikan yakni masalah kurangnya biaya. Mahasiswa bidikmisi merupakan berlatar belakang dari mahasiswa yang mampu dalam segi akademik namun kurang mampu dalam segi ekonomi, sehingga mereka diberikan beasiswa oleh pemerintah untuk bisa melanjutkan ke jenjang pendidikan yang lebih tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan positif antara dukungan sosial dan resiliensi mahasiswa bidikmisi, untuk mengetahui hubungan positif antara locus of control dan resiliensi, dan untuk mengetahui hubungan positif antara dukungan social dan resiliensi dengan Locus of Control sebagai variabel moderator. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif dengan tehnik analisis regresi berganda. Skala Resiliensi adaptasi milik Connor & Davidson (CD-RISC, skala Locus of Control adaptasi milik Levinson (MLCS, dan skala Dukungan Sosial adaptasi tesis Diana Kamilin. Hubungan antara variabel X dan Y dengan LOC sebagai mediator. . Subjek penelitian adalah mahasiswa bidikmisi di UIN Malang sebanyak 80 subjek Hasil dari analisis menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang positif antara dukungan social dan resiliensi dengan locus of control sebagai moderator dengan nilai signifikansi 0.431 (p

  19. Correlations Between Oral Health Knowledge, Locus of Control, and Oral Health Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    18 Theory of Planned Behavior.................................................. 19 Social Learning Theory and Locus of Control...these models have been applied to health behavior, and include the Social Learning Theory (Rotter, 1954), Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1966...Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1982), Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991), and Social Cognitive Theory ( Bandura , 1994). These

  20. High-throughput development of genome-wide locus-specific informative SSR markers in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are not new, they are still useful and often used markers in molecular mapping and marker-assisted breeding, particularly in developing countries. However, locus-specific SSR markers could be more useful and informative in wheat breeding and genetic stud...

  1. Can Locus of Control Compensate for Socioeconomic Adversity in the Transition from School to Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Knight, Terry; Schoon, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Internal locus of control is associated with academic success and indicators of wellbeing in youth. There is however less understanding regarding the role of locus of control in shaping the transition from school to work beyond the more widely studied predictors of socioeconomic background and academic attainment. Guided by a socio-ecological model of agency, the current study examines to which extent internal locus of control, understood as an indicator of individual agency, can compensate for a lack of socioeconomic resources by moderating the association between parental disadvantage and difficulties in the transition from school to work. We draw on data collected from a longitudinal nationally representative cohort of 15,770 English youth (48% female) born in 1989/90, following their lives from age 14 to 20. The results suggest that the influence of agency is limited to situations where socioeconomic risk is not overpowering. While internal locus of control may help to compensate for background disadvantage regarding avoidance of economic inactivity and unemployment to some extent, it does not provide protection against long-term inactivity, i.e. more than 6 months spent not in education, employment or training.

  2. Locus and Nature of Perceptual Phonological Deficit in Spanish Children with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rosario; Jimenez, Juan E.; Miranda, Eduardo Garcia; Rosquete, Remedios Guzman; Hernandez-Valle, Isabel; Rodrigo, Mercedes; Estevez, Adelina; Diaz, Alicia; Exposito, Sergio Hernandez

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to determine whether Spanish children with reading disabilities (RD) show a speech perception deficit and (b) to explore the locus and nature of this perceptive deficit. A group of 29 children with RD, 41 chronological age-matched controls, and 27 reading ability-matched younger controls were tested on tasks of…

  3. Self Esteem, locus of control, self-efficacy and neuroticism as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self Esteem, locus of control, self-efficacy and neuroticism as correlates of job satisfaction among secondary school teachers in Nigeria. Helen O Nwagwu, SO Salami. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.4(1) 1999: 48-61. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  4. Influence of sex, self esteem and locus of control on perceived job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of sex, self esteem and locus of control on perceived job tension. Sunday E Idemudia, Adebayo D Otu, Ilora Chizoba Uchenna. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.5(2) 2000: 227-248. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  5. Locus of Control and Self-Esteem as Predictors of Teacher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individual's perception of self has potential to enhance or impede his or her success at work. In view of this, there is a need to examine the relationship between locus of control and self-esteem as they jointly influence teachers' frustration in Lagos state, Nigeria. The participants were two hundred (200) teachers (100 males ...

  6. Effect of agmatine on locus coeruleus neuron activity: possible involvement of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Durántez, Eduardo; Ruiz-Ortega, José A; Pineda, Joseba; Ugedo, Luisa

    2002-01-01

    To investigate whether agmatine (the proposed endogenous ligand for imidazoline receptors) controls locus coeruleus neuron activity and to elucidate its mechanism of action, we used single-unit extracellular recording techniques in anaesthetized rats. Agmatine (10, 20 and 40 μg, i.c.v.) increased in a dose-related manner the firing rate of locus coeruleus neurons (maximal increase: 95±13% at 40 μg). I1-imidazoline receptor ligands stimulate locus coeruleus neuron activity through an indirect mechanism originated in the paragigantocellularis nucleus via excitatory amino acids. However, neither electrolytic lesions of the paragigantocellularis nucleus nor pretreatment with the excitatory amino acid antagonist kynurenic acid (1 μmol, i.c.v.) modified agmatine effect (10 μg, i.c.v.). After agmatine administration (20 μg, i.c.v.), dose-response curves for the effect of clonidine (0.625 – 10 μg kg−1 i.v.) or morphine (0.3 – 4.8 mg kg−1 i.v.) on locus coeruleus neurons were not different from those obtained in the control groups. Pretreatment with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors Nω-nitro-L-arginine (10 μg, i.c.v.) or Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 μg, i.c.v.) but not with the less active stereoisomer Nω-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (100 μg, i.c.v.) completely blocked agmatine effect (10 and 40 μg, i.c.v.). Similarly, when agmatine (20 pmoles) was applied into the locus coeruleus there was an increase that was blocked by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 μg, i.c.v.) in the firing rate of the locus coeruleus neurons (maximal increase 53±11% and 14±10% before and after nitric oxide synthase inhibition, respectively). This study demonstrates that agmatine stimulates the firing rate of locus coeruleus neurons via a nitric oxide synthase-dependent mechanism located in this nucleus. PMID:11877321

  7. PENGARUH INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL DAN FASILITAS BELAJAR TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR MELALUI DISIPLIN BELAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risnaeni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis pengaruh langsung dan tidak langsung internal locus of control dan fasilitas belajar terhadap hasil belajar melalui disiplin belajar. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas XI SMA N 3 Pemalang tahun ajaran 2015/2016. Sampel yang diambil sebanyak 105 siswa. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan dokumentasi dan angket. Metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif, analisis jalur dan sobel test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan (1 Ada pengaruh internal locus of control terhadap hasil belajar ekonomi sebesar 6,4% (2 Ada pengaruh fasilitas belajar terhadap hasil belajar ekonomi sebesar 4,6% (3 Ada pengaruh disiplin belajar terhadap hasil belajar ekonomi sebesar 9,6% (4 Ada pengaruh internal locus of control terhadap disiplin belajar siswa sebesar 37,2% (5 Ada pengaruh fasilitas belajar terhadap disiplin belajar siswa sebesar 30,2% (6 Ada pengaruh internal locus of control melalui disiplin belajar sebagai variabel intervening terhadap hasil belajar ekonomi sebesar 18,5% (7 Ada pengaruh fasilitas belajar melalui disiplin belajar sebagai variabel intervening terhadap hasil belajar ekonomi sebesar 14%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diatas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh internal locus of control dan fasilitas belajar terhadap hasil belajar ekonomi melalui disiplin belajar sebagai variabel intervening. Saran yang dapat diberikan adalah memperbaiki indikator-indikator yang masih rendah sehingga hasil belajar akan semakin baik. The purpose is this study is to analyze the direct and indirect effect of internal locus of control and learning facilities toward learning outcomes through learning self-discipline. The population of the research is all of the 11th social students class at SMA N 3 Pemalang academic year 2015/2016. The researcher took 105 students as the sample. The researcher collects the data by using documentation and questionnaire. The result of this research shown

  8. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam A Mosing

    Full Text Available Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control. We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of

  9. Evolution of the sex-related locus and genomic features shared in microsporidia and fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Chan Lee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, eukaryotic pathogens that infect a wide range of animals from nematodes to humans, and in some cases, protists. The preponderance of evidence as to the origin of the microsporidia reveals a close relationship with the fungi, either within the kingdom or as a sister group to it. Recent phylogenetic studies and gene order analysis suggest that microsporidia share a particularly close evolutionary relationship with the zygomycetes.Here we expanded this analysis and also examined a putative sex-locus for variability between microsporidian populations. Whole genome inspection reveals a unique syntenic gene pair (RPS9-RPL21 present in the vast majority of fungi and the microsporidians but not in other eukaryotic lineages. Two other unique gene fusions (glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase and ubiquitin-ribosomal subunit S30 that are present in metazoans, choanoflagellates, and filasterean opisthokonts are unfused in the fungi and microsporidians. One locus previously found to be conserved in many microsporidian genomes is similar to the sex locus of zygomycetes in gene order and architecture. Both sex-related and sex loci harbor TPT, HMG, and RNA helicase genes forming a syntenic gene cluster. We sequenced and analyzed the sex-related locus in 11 different Encephalitozoon cuniculi isolates and the sibling species E. intestinalis (3 isolates and E. hellem (1 isolate. There was no evidence for an idiomorphic sex-related locus in this Encephalitozoon species sample. According to sequence-based phylogenetic analyses, the TPT and RNA helicase genes flanking the HMG genes are paralogous rather than orthologous between zygomycetes and microsporidians.The unique genomic hallmarks between microsporidia and fungi are independent of sequence based phylogenetic comparisons and further contribute to define the borders of the fungal kingdom and support the classification of microsporidia as unusual derived fungi. And the sex

  10. Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, Miriam A; Pedersen, Nancy L; Cesarini, David; Johannesson, Magnus; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Nakamura, Jeanne; Madison, Guy; Ullén, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Flow is a psychological state of high but subjectively effortless attention that typically occurs during active performance of challenging tasks and is accompanied by a sense of automaticity, high control, low self-awareness, and enjoyment. Flow proneness is associated with traits and behaviors related to low neuroticism such as emotional stability, conscientiousness, active coping, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Little is known about the genetic architecture of flow proneness, behavioral inhibition and locus of control--traits also associated with neuroticism--and their interrelation. Here, we hypothesized that individuals low in behavioral inhibition and with an internal locus of control would be more likely to experience flow and explored the genetic and environmental architecture of the relationship between the three variables. Behavioral inhibition and locus of control was measured in a large population sample of 3,375 full twin pairs and 4,527 single twins, about 26% of whom also scored the flow proneness questionnaire. Findings revealed significant but relatively low correlations between the three traits and moderate heritability estimates of .41, .45, and .30 for flow proneness, behavioral inhibition, and locus of control, respectively, with some indication of non-additive genetic influences. For behavioral inhibition we found significant sex differences in heritability, with females showing a higher estimate including significant non-additive genetic influences, while in males the entire heritability was due to additive genetic variance. We also found a mainly genetically mediated relationship between the three traits, suggesting that individuals who are genetically predisposed to experience flow, show less behavioral inhibition (less anxious) and feel that they are in control of their own destiny (internal locus of control). We discuss that some of the genes underlying this relationship may include those influencing the function of dopaminergic neural

  11. Natural selection maintains a single-locus leaf shape cline in Ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campitelli, Brandon E; Stinchcombe, John R

    2013-02-01

    Clines in phenotypic traits with an underlying genetic basis potentially implicate natural selection. However, neutral evolutionary processes such as random colonization, spatially restricted gene flow, and genetic drift could also result in similar spatial patterns, especially for single-locus traits because of their susceptibility to stochastic events. One way to distinguish between adaptive and neutral mechanisms is to compare the focal trait to neutral genetic loci to determine whether neutral loci demonstrate clinal variation (consistent with a neutral cline), or not. Ivyleaf morning glory, Ipomoea hederacea, exhibits a latitudinal cline for a Mendelian leaf shape polymorphism in eastern North America, such that lobed genotypes dominate northern populations and heart-shaped genotypes are restricted to southern populations. Here, we evaluate potential evolutionary mechanisms for this cline by first determining the allele frequencies at the leaf shape locus for 77 populations distributed throughout I. hederacea's range and then comparing the geographical pattern at this locus to neutral amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci. We detected both significant clinal variation and high genetic differentiation at the leaf shape locus across all populations. In contrast, 99% of the putatively neutral loci do not display clinal variation, and I. hederacea populations show very little overall genetic differentiation, suggesting that there is a moderate level of gene flow. In addition, the leaf shape locus was identified as a major F(ST) outlier experiencing divergent selection, relative to all the AFLP loci. Together, these data strongly suggest that the cline in leaf shape is being maintained by spatially varying natural selection. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Characterization of the bovine type I IFN locus: rearrangements, expansions, and novel subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Angela M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Type I interferons (IFN have major roles in the innate immune response to viruses, a function that is believed to have led to expansion in the number and complexity of their genes, although these genes have remained confined to single chromosomal region in all mammals so far examined. IFNB and IFNE define the limits of the locus, with all other Type I IFN genes except IFNK distributed between these boundaries, strongly suggesting that the locus has broadened as IFN genes duplicated and then evolved into a series of distinct families. Results The Type I IFN locus in Bos taurus has undergone significant rearrangement and expansion compared to mouse and human, however, with the constituent genes separated into two sub-loci separated by >700 kb. The IFNW family is greatly expanded, comprising 24 potentially functional genes and at least 8 pseudogenes. The IFNB (n = 6, represented in human and mouse by one copy, are also present as multiple copies in Bos taurus. The IFNT, which encode a non-virally inducible, ruminant-specific IFN secreted by the pre-implantation conceptus, are represented by three genes and two pseudogenes. The latter have sequences intermediate between IFNT and IFNW. A new Type I IFN family (IFNX of four members, one of which is a pseudogene, appears to have diverged from the IFNA lineage at least 83 million years ago, but is absent in all other sequenced genomes with the possible exception of the horse, a non-ruminant herbivore. Conclusion In summary, we have provided the first comprehensive annotation of the Type I IFN locus in Bos taurus, thereby providing an insight into the functional evolution of the Type I IFN in ruminants. The diversity and global spread of the ruminant species may have required an expansion of the Type I IFN locus and its constituent genes to provide broad anti-viral protection required for foraging and foregut fermentation.

  13. High-resolution mapping of a fruit firmness-related quantitative trait locus in tomato reveals epistatic interactions associated with a complex combinatorial locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Natalie H; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Lynn, James; Graham, Neil; Smith, Rebecca; Sun, Guiping; Walley, Peter G; Poole, Mervin; Causse, Mathilde; King, Graham J; Baxter, Charles; Seymour, Graham B

    2012-08-01

    Fruit firmness in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is determined by a number of factors including cell wall structure, turgor, and cuticle properties. Firmness is a complex polygenic trait involving the coregulation of many genes and has proved especially challenging to unravel. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fruit firmness was mapped to tomato chromosome 2 using the Zamir Solanum pennellii interspecific introgression lines (ILs) and fine-mapped in a population consisting of 7,500 F2 and F3 lines from IL 2-3 and IL 2-4. This firmness QTL contained five distinct subpeaks, Fir(s.p.)QTL2.1 to Fir(s.p.)QTL2.5, and an effect on a distal region of IL 2-4 that was nonoverlapping with IL 2-3. All these effects were located within an 8.6-Mb region. Using genetic markers, each subpeak within this combinatorial locus was mapped to a physical location within the genome, and an ethylene response factor (ERF) underlying Fir(s.p.)QTL2.2 and a region containing three pectin methylesterase (PME) genes underlying Fir(s.p.)QTL2.5 were nominated as QTL candidate genes. Statistical models used to explain the observed variability between lines indicated that these candidates and the nonoverlapping portion of IL 2-4 were sufficient to account for the majority of the fruit firmness effects. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression of each candidate gene. ERF showed increased expression associated with soft fruit texture in the mapping population. In contrast, PME expression was tightly linked with firm fruit texture. Analysis of a range of recombinant lines revealed evidence for an epistatic interaction that was associated with this combinatorial locus.

  14. Getting to the core of locus of control: Is it an evaluation of the self or the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Russell E; Rosen, Christopher C; Chang, Chu-Hsiang Daisy; Lin, Szu-Han Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Responding to criticisms surrounding the structural validity of the higher order core self-evaluations (CSE) construct, in the current study we examined the appropriateness of including locus of control as an indicator of CSE. Drawing from both theoretical and empirical evidence, we argue that locus of control is more heavily influenced by evaluations of the environment compared with the other CSE traits. Using data from 4 samples, we demonstrate that model fit for the higher order CSE construct is better when locus of control is excluded versus included as a trait indicator and that the shared variance between locus of control and CSE is nominal. This does not mean that locus of control is irrelevant for CSE theory though. We propose that evaluations of the environment moderate the relations that CSE has with its outcomes. To test this proposition, we collected data from 4 unique samples that included a mix of student and employee participants, self- and other-ratings, and cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Our results revealed that locus of control moderated relations of CSE with life and job satisfaction, and supervisor-rated job performance. CSE had stronger, positive relations with these outcomes when locus of control is internal versus external. These findings broaden CSE theory by demonstrating one way in which evaluations of the environment interface with evaluations of the self. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. An examination and appreciation of the dimensions of locus of control in psychosis: issues and relationships between constructs and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, C; Fleming, M P; Martin, C R

    2014-12-01

    Internal locus of control is associated with better psychological outcomes in comparison with external locus of control. Individuals experiencing a psychotic episode have a more external orientation, an externalizing bias for negative events and associations between paranoid delusions and external locus of control. The concept of multidimensional locus of control as measured by the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale may provide important information about the nature and course of psychotic symptoms. This narrative review explored the relationship between the orientation of locus of control and psychosis. Few studies have used the scale in samples with people experiencing psychotic symptoms and so there is limited evidence about the psychometric properties of the MHLC scale within this client group, although the findings from studies that have explored the properties of this tool in other groups suggest it could be a valuable instrument for use in psychosis. Further research is required to determine both the relationship between locus of control and psychosis in terms of therapeutic factors and outcome, and also the veracity of the MHLC scale as an instrument of choice in this group. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Health locus of control in patients with graves-basedow disease and hashimoto disease and their acceptance of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basinska, Malgorzata Anna; Andruszkiewicz, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to a chronic somatic disease depends on a variety of factors, including belief in health locus of control. Correlation between health locus of control and illness acceptance in patients with Graves-Basedow and Hashimoto diseases as well as correlation between health locus of control, illness acceptance, sex, and age. THREE METHODS WERE APPLIED: Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale by K.A. Wallston, B.S. Wallston and R. DeVellis; the Acceptance of Illness Scale by B.J. Felton, T.A. Revenson, and G.A. Hinrichsena; and a personal questionnaire. Two groups were subject to the research: 68 patients with Graves-Basedow disease and 54 patients with Hashimoto disease. Patients with Graves-Basedow disease, women above all, have their health locus of control in other persons (P = 0,001) and are less inclined to accept their illness (P = 0,005) when compared to patients with Hashimoto disease. A statistically significant correlation occurred between the age of patients and external (i.e., in other persons) health locus of control. Beliefs in health locus of control and type of illness in female patient group are predictors of illness acceptance (P = 0,0009).

  17. Self concepts, health locus of control and cognitive functioning associated with health-promoting lifestyles in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shu Ping; Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Wang, Chien Shu; Liu, Chia Hsuan; Pan, Li Hsiang

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the relationship among self concepts, health locus of control, cognitive functioning and health-promoting lifestyles in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. We examined health-promoting lifestyles through self-efficacy, self-esteem, health locus of control and neurocognitive factors. Fifty-six people with schizophrenia were enrolled in the study group. All subjects participated in the self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale), health locus of control (The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales), health-promoting lifestyles (Health Promotion Life-style Profile-II) and a series of neurocognitive measures. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that self-efficacy, internal health locus of control and attentional set-shifting accounted for 42% of the variance in total health-promoting lifestyles scores. Self-efficacy, self-esteem, internal and powerful others health locus of control and attentional set-shifting were significant predictors for domains of health-promoting lifestyles, respectively. Study findings can help mental health professionals maintain and improve health-promoting behaviors through a better understanding of self-esteem, self-efficacy, health locus of control and neurocognitive functioning among people with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Myostatin-deficiency in mice increases global gene expression at the Dlk1-Dio3 locus in the skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitachi, Keisuke; Tsuchida, Kunihiro

    2017-01-24

    Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and development. Myostatin inhibition leads to increased skeletal muscle mass in mammals; hence, myostatin is considered a potential therapeutic target for skeletal muscle wasting. However, downstream molecules of myostatin in the skeletal muscle have not been fully elucidated. Here, we identified the Dlk1-Dio3 locus at the mouse chromosome 12qF1, also called as the callipyge locus in sheep, as a novel downstream target of myostatin. In skeletal muscle of myostatin knockout mice, the expression of mature miRNAs at the Dlk1-Dio3 locus was significantly increased. The increased miRNA levels are caused by the transcriptional activation of the Dlk1-Dio3 locus, because a significant increase in the primary miRNA transcript was observed in myostatin knockout mice. In addition, we found increased expression of coding and non-coding genes (Dlk1, Gtl2, Rtl1/Rtl1as, and Rian) at the Dlk1-Dio3 locus in myostatin-deficient skeletal muscle. Moreover, epigenetic changes, associated with the regulation of the Dlk1-Dio3 locus, were observed in myostatin knockout mice. Taken together, this is the first report demonstrating the role of myostatin in regulating the Dlk1-Dio3 (the callipyge) locus in the skeletal muscle.

  19. The effects of risk perception and flight experience on airline pilots' locus of control with regard to safety operation behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xuqun; Ji, Ming; Han, Haiyan

    2013-08-01

    The primary objective of this paper was to integrate two research traditions, social cognition approach and individual state approach, and to understand the relationships between locus of control (LOC), risk perception, flight time, and safety operation behavior (SOB) among Chinese airline pilots. The study sample consisted of 193 commercial airline pilots from China Southern Airlines Ltd. The results showed that internal locus of control directly affected pilot safety operation behavior. Risk perception seemed to mediate the relationship between locus of control and safety operation behaviors, and total flight time moderated internal locus of control. Thus, locus of control primarily influences safety operation behavior indirectly by affecting risk perception. The total effect of internal locus of control on safety behaviors is larger than that of external locus of control. Furthermore, the safety benefit of flight experience is more pronounced among pilots with high internal loci of control in the early and middle flight building stages. Practical implications for aviation safety and directions for future research are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relación entre locus de control, ira y rendimiento deportivo en jugadores de tenis de mesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higinio González-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron comprobar la relación entre el locus de control y el rendimiento de- portivo, y conocer la relación entre el locus de control y las variables de ira. La muestra de la investigación se compuso de 58 jugadores federados de tenis de mesa de toda la geografía española. Los participantes completa- ron un cuestionario sociodemográfico ad hoc , la Escala de Locus de Control (ELC y el Inventario de Expresión de la Ira Estado-Rasgo (STAXI-2. Los resultados revela- ron que no había diferencias de medias en los niveles de locus de control externo en función de la división de juego y del tipo de práctica deportiva (profesionales vs amateurs. Por otro lado, se confirmó la relación entre el locus de control externo y la expresión externa de la ira, encontrándose diferencias estadísticamente signifi- cativas entre la expresión externa de la ira y los grupos de locus de control externo alto y bajo. Finalmente, se concluyó que el nivel de rendimiento deportivo no in- terfería en los niveles de locus de control y, por otro lado, se confirma la relación del locus de control exter- no en la expresión externa de la ira de los jugadores de tenis de mesa. Por lo tanto, el locus de control interno se muestra como una variable protectora importante para intervenir con jugadores y entrenadores.

  1. Inferring mechanisms of copy number change from haplotype structures at the human DEFA1A3 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Holly A; Khan, Fayeza F; Tyson, Jess; Al Armour, John

    2014-07-21

    The determination of structural haplotypes at copy number variable regions can indicate the mechanisms responsible for changes in copy number, as well as explain the relationship between gene copy number and expression. However, obtaining spatial information at regions displaying extensive copy number variation, such as the DEFA1A3 locus, is complex, because of the difficulty in the phasing and assembly of these regions. The DEFA1A3 locus is intriguing in that it falls within a region of high linkage disequilibrium, despite its high variability in copy number (n = 3-16); hence, the mechanisms responsible for changes in copy number at this locus are unclear. In this study, a region flanking the DEFA1A3 locus was sequenced across 120 independent haplotypes with European ancestry, identifying five common classes of DEFA1A3 haplotype. Assigning DEFA1A3 class to haplotypes within the 1000 Genomes project highlights a significant difference in DEFA1A3 class frequencies between populations with different ancestry. The features of each DEFA1A3 class, for example, the associated DEFA1A3 copy numbers, were initially assessed in a European cohort (n = 599) and replicated in the 1000 Genomes samples, showing within-class similarity, but between-class and between-population differences in the features of the DEFA1A3 locus. Emulsion haplotype fusion-PCR was used to generate 61 structural haplotypes at the DEFA1A3 locus, showing a high within-class similarity in structure. Structural haplotypes across the DEFA1A3 locus indicate that intra-allelic rearrangement is the predominant mechanism responsible for changes in DEFA1A3 copy number, explaining the conservation of linkage disequilibrium across the locus. The identification of common structural haplotypes at the DEFA1A3 locus could aid studies into how DEFA1A3 copy number influences expression, which is currently unclear.

  2. Telomerase reverse transcriptase locus polymorphisms and cancer risk: a field synopsis and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Verdi, Daunia; Pooley, Karen A; Landi, Maria T; Egan, Kathleen M; Baird, Duncan M; Prescott, Jennifer; De Vivo, Immaculata; Nitti, Donato

    2012-06-06

    Several recent studies have provided evidence that polymorphisms in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene sequence are associated with cancer development, but a comprehensive synopsis is not available. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available molecular epidemiology data regarding the association between TERT locus polymorphisms and predisposition to cancer. A systematic review of the English literature was conducted by searching PubMed, Embase, Cancerlit, Google Scholar, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases for studies on associations between TERT locus polymorphisms and cancer risk. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to pool per-allele odds ratios for TERT locus polymorphisms and risk of cancer, and between-study heterogeneity and potential bias sources (eg, publication and chasing bias) were assessed. Because the TERT locus includes the cleft lip and palate transmembrane 1-like (CLPTM1L) gene, which is in linkage disequilibrium with TERT, CLPTM1L polymorphisms were also analyzed. Cumulative evidence for polymorphisms with statistically significant associations was graded as "strong," "moderate," and "weak" according to the Venice criteria. The joint population attributable risk was calculated for polymorphisms with strong evidence of association. Eighty-five studies enrolling 490 901 subjects and reporting on 494 allelic contrasts were retrieved. Data were available on 67 TERT locus polymorphisms and 24 tumor types, for a total of 221 unique combinations of polymorphisms and cancer types. Upon meta-analysis, a statistically significant association with the risk of any cancer type was found for 22 polymorphisms. Strong, moderate, and weak cumulative evidence for association with at least one tumor type was demonstrated for 11, 9, and 14 polymorphisms, respectively. For lung cancer, which was the most studied tumor type, the estimated joint population attributable risk for three polymorphisms (TERT rs2736100, intergenic

  3. [Links between depressive disorders and dependent personality disorders: The important effect of locus of control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versaevel, C; Martin, J-B; Lajugie, C

    2017-05-01

    Empirical researches have proved that there are powerful correlations between dependent personality and depression. Different hypotheses were described to conceptualize links between these two entities. The dysfunction of attributive style seems to be linked to dependency and to depression. Interpersonal dependency can be considered to be a mode of adaptation to the external direction of the locus of control. The self-esteem so subjected to the climate of social interactions can lead, by the discontinuity of its protective relations, to the depression. In a coordinated model, this study explores psychopathological aspects between depressive cognition, self-esteem and interpersonal dependency. This study tries to support the hypothesis that depression and dependency are consequences of an external locus of control, secondary in deterioration of the self-esteem and the main objective is to highlight correlations between external locus of control, interpersonal dependency, hopelessness and depressive affect. The regrouping of 42 patients in a protocol of psychotherapeutic practices allowed the realization of this retrospective study, multicentric within different hospitals or ambulant psychiatric structures of the agglomeration of Lille, during a period of 6 months. The administration of questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory/Dependent Personality Questionnaire by Tyrer, translated by Loas/Hopelessness Scale by Beck/Powerful others and Chance Scale [IPC] of Levenson, translated by Loas) was included into clinical practice. The main results indicate that external locus of control "powerful others" is significantly correlated with pathological dependency (Pcognitive aspect manifests vulnerability in the depression of the patients suffering from pathological dependency. Also, the place of external locus of control ("powerful others" and "chance") seems to be a cognitive dimension more pathogenic than the internal locus of control. It will be necessary to investigate

  4. PENGARUH PENGALAMAN PRAKTIK KERJA INDUSTRI, MOTIVASI BERORGANISASI, DAN LOCUS OF CONTROL TERHADAP SOFT SKILLS SISWA SMK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silfia Pendri Nuryanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengetahui adakah pengaruh pengalaman praktik kerja industri, motivasi berorganisassi dan locus of control terhadap soft skills siswa kelas XI di SMK PGRI 01 Semarang secara siimultan maupun parsial. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh siswa kelas XI di SMK PGRI 01 Semarang yang berjumlah 125 siswa dan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah seluruh populasi yang berjumlah 125 siswa. Teknik analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif persentase dan analisis regresi berganda. Hasil dari regresi ganda penelitian ini yaitu .. Ada pengaruh secara simultan sebesar 33,7%, sedangkan pengaruh secara parsial pengalaman praktik kerja industri sebesar 12,25%, motivasi berorganisasi sebesar 4,04% dan locus of control sebesar 4,7%. Kesimpulan penelitian ini yaitu ada pengaruh antara pengalaman praktik kerja industri, motivasi beroganisasi dan locus of control secara simultan maupun parsial. Saran dalam penelitian yaitu untuk siswa sebaiknya memanfaatkan kegiatan yang diberikan oleh sekolah dalam kegiatan praktik kerja industri dan ektrakurikuler dengan semaksimal mungkin dan kepada pihak sekolah untuk dapat pengembangan soft skills pada kegiatan ektrakurikuler diharapkan adanya reward atau penghargaan berupa tambahan mengenai penilaian yang diberikan kepada siswa sehingga siswa lebih termotivasi dalam kegiatan ektrakurikuler. This research has purpose to find out the presence of effects of industrial practice work, organizational motivation and locus of control toward the soft skills of grade XI students in SMK PGRI 01 Semarang simultaneously or partially.The population of the research is grade XI in SMK PGRI 01 Semarang and Sample in this research, which is the entire population 125 students. The data collected using questionnaire and documentations. The analyzing method used percentage descriptive analysis and double regression analysis.The result of double linier regression analysis in this research are

  5. Large-scale chromatin remodeling at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus: a paradigm for multigene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Daniel J; Wood, Andrew L; Corcoran, Anne E

    2009-01-01

    V(D)J recombination in lymphocytes is the cutting and pasting together of antigen receptor genes in cis to generate the enormous variety of coding sequences required to produce diverse antigen receptor proteins. It is the key role of the adaptive immune response, which must potentially combat millions of different foreign antigens. Most antigen receptor loci have evolved to be extremely large and contain multiple individual V, D and J genes. The immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) and immunoglobulin kappa light chain (Igk) loci are the largest multigene loci in the mammalian genome and V(D)J recombination is one of the most complicated genetic processes in the nucleus. The challenge for the appropriate lymphocyte is one of macro-management-to make all of the antigen receptor genes in a particular locus available for recombination at the appropriate developmental time-point. Conversely, these large loci must be kept closed in lymphocytes in which they do not normally recombine, to guard against genomic instability generated by the DNA double strand breaks inherent to the V(D)J recombination process. To manage all of these demanding criteria, V(D)J recombination is regulated at numerous levels. It is restricted to lymphocytes since the Rag genes which control the DNA double-strand break step of recombination are only expressed in these cells. Within the lymphocyte lineage, immunoglobulin recombination is restricted to B-lymphocytes and TCR recombination to T-lymphocytes by regulation of locus accessibility, which occurs at multiple levels. Accessibility of recombination signal sequences (RSSs) flanking individual V, D and J genes at the nucleosomal level is the key micro-management mechanism, which is discussed in greater detail in other chapters. This chapter will explore how the antigen receptor loci are regulated as a whole, focussing on the Igh locus as a paradigm for the mechanisms involved. Numerous recent studies have begun to unravel the complex and

  6. Pengaruh Locus Of Control terhadap Kinerja dan Kepuasan Kerja Internal Auditor dengan Tri Hita Karana sebagai Variabel Moderasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Adi Kurniawan Saputra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effect of Locus of Control on Performance and Auditor internal Work Satisfaction with Tri Hita Karana Local Culture as Moderating Variable. This study aims to determine the effect of Locus of Control on performance and job satisfaction of internal auditors star hotels in Bali, as well as local culture Tri Hita Karana as a moderation of this influence. There were 62 internal auditors of star hotels involved in this research. The results of this study indicate a significant influence between Locus of Control on performance and job satisfaction of internal auditors with the local culture Tri Hita Karana as a variable moderation.

  7. A comparison of problem-based and traditional education on nursing students' locus of control and problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak; Serçekuş, Pınar; Edeer, Aylin Durmaz

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the locus of control and problem-solving skills of nursing students studying with the problem-based learning method with those of nursing students studying with the traditional method. This is a descriptive and comparative study. For data collection, the Problem-Solving Skills Inventory and the Locus of Control Scale were used. The study sample included 680 nursing students. It was determined that the problem-based learning method was more effective in the development of problem-solving skills and internal locus of control than was the traditional method. © 2014 NANDA International.

  8. Evidence of a major locus for lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in addition to a pleiotropic locus for both LPL and fasting insulin: results from the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Rice, T; Després, J P; Gagnon, J; Nadeau, A; Bergeron, J; Pérusse, L; Bouchard, C; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C

    1999-06-01

    A major gene hypothesis for heparin releasable plasma lipoprotein lipase (PH-LPL) activity was assessed using segregation analyses of data on 495 members in 98 normolipidemic sedentary families of Caucasian descent who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. Segregation analyses were performed on PH-LPL adjusted for age, and on PH-LPL activity adjusted for age and fasting insulin. Prior to adjustment for insulin, neither a major gene effect nor a multifactorial component could be rejected, and support for a major gene was equivocal i.e. neither the Mendelian transmission nor the no transmission (equal tau s) models were rejected. However, after adjusting for the effects of insulin, a major gene effect on PH-LPL activity was unambiguous. The putative locus accounted for 60% of the total phenotypic variance, and the homozygous recessive form affected 10% (q2) of the sample (i.e. gene frequency (q) = 0.31), and led to a low PH-LPL value. The lack of a significant multifactorial effect suggested that the familial etiology of PH-LPL activity adjusted for insulin was likely to be primarily a function of the major locus. In conclusion, the present study is the first to report segregation analyses on PH-LPL activity prior to and after adjusting for insulin, and suggests that there is an indication of a pleiotropic genetic effect on PH-LPL activity and insulin, in addition to a major gene effect on PH-LPL activity alone.

  9. Orexin/hypocretin system modulates amygdala-dependent threat learning through the locus coeruleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Robert M.; Fink, Ann E.; Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Farb, Claudia R.; de Lecea, Luis; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Survival in a dangerous environment requires learning about stimuli that predict harm. Although recent work has focused on the amygdala as the locus of aversive memory formation, the hypothalamus has long been implicated in emotional regulation, and the hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin) is involved in anxiety states and arousal. Nevertheless, little is known about the role of orexin in aversive memory formation. Using a combination of behavioral pharmacology, slice physiology, and optogenetic techniques, we show that orexin acts upstream of the amygdala via the noradrenergic locus coeruleus to enable threat (fear) learning, specifically during the aversive event. Our results are consistent with clinical studies linking orexin levels to aversive learning and anxiety in humans and dysregulation of the orexin system may contribute to the etiology of fear and anxiety disorders. PMID:24277819

  10. MMS control system analysis using automated root-locus plot generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefler, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of the Modular Modeling System (MMS) for control systems improvement has been impeded by the need to plot eigenvalues manually. This problem has been solved by an automatic eigenvalue plotting routine. A practical procedure for control systems analysis based upon automatically generated root-locus plots has been developed using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL)-based version of the Modular Modeling System. Examples are given of typical ACSL run-time statements. Actual root-locus and time history plots are shown for simple models (4 state variables). More complex models are discussed. The plots show the control systems response before and after the determination of tuning parameters using the methods described

  11. Trust in Organizational and Workplace Deviant Behavior The Moderating Effect of Locus of Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman Abdul Rahim

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to investigate the moderating role of locus of control (LOC in the relationship between trust in organization (TiO and workplace deviant behavior (WDB. Three forms of deviant behavior are identified: interpersonal deviance, production deviance, and property deviance. The regression analyses carried out on a sample of 355 employees show mixed results. Trust in organization (TiO demonstrates a negative relationship with production deviance and property deviance. In contrast, trust in organization (TiO is positively related to interpersonal deviance. Furthermore, locus of control (LOC is found to moderate the relationship between trust in organization (TiO and deviant behaviors. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  12. Theoretical determination of transit time locus curves for ultrasonic pulse echo testing - ALOK. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohs, B.

    1983-01-01

    The ALOK-technique allows the simultaneous detection of flaws and their evaluation with respect to type, location and dimension by interpretation of the transit time behaviour during scanning of the reflector. The accuracy of information obtained by means of this technique can be further improved both during interference elimination and reconstruction owing to the ability of exact calculation of possible transit time locus curves of given reflectors. The mathematical solution of transit time locus curve calculations refers here to pulse echo testing in consideration of the refraction of sound on the forward wedge/test object - interface. The method of solving the problem is equivalent to the Fermat's principle in optics. (orig.) [de

  13. Locus of control, hardiness, and emotional intelligence as predictors of waste prevention behaviours

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    Abdollahi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Given that waste generation is an economic and environmental problem for nations and governments, it is necessary that we advance our knowledge on the etiology of waste prevention behaviours. This study aimed to investigate about the relationships between the locus of control, hardiness, emotional intelligence, and waste prevention behaviours. Four hundred and forty participants (226 females and 214 males from Universiti Putra Malaysia completed a survey questionnaire. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM estimated that individuals who were high in emotional intelligence and hardiness showed better waste prevention behaviours as well as those individuals with internal locus of control. Also, the results showed that older students tend to have better waste prevention behaviours. These findings reinforce the importance of personality traits and emotional intelligence in waste prevention behaviours.

  14. Extension of the root-locus method to a certain class of fractional-order systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrikh-Bayat, Farshad; Afshar, Mahdi; Karimi-Ghartemani, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the well-known root-locus method is developed for the special subset of linear time-invariant systems commonly known as fractional-order systems. Transfer functions of these systems are rational functions with polynomials of rational powers of the Laplace variable s. Such systems are defined on a Riemann surface because of their multi-valued nature. A set of rules for plotting the root loci on the first Riemann sheet is presented. The important features of the classical root-locus method such as asymptotes, roots condition on the real axis and breakaway points are extended to the fractional case. It is also shown that the proposed method can assess the closed-loop stability of fractional-order systems in the presence of a varying gain in the loop. Moreover, the effect of perturbation on the root loci is discussed. Three illustrative examples are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  15. Jóvenes y viejos: ¿el cuerpo como locus de identidad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuba Kogan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En el texto se discute acerca de la importancia del cuerpo como locus de la identidad de dos cohortes de edad diferentes: la de los jóvenes y los viejos. Para ello se toma en cuenta las ideas de Baudrillard sobre la falta de profundidad del cuerpo y su conversión en simulacro; contrastándose con los resultados de una investigación empírica cualitativa llevada a cabo en la ciudad Lima en el año 2006 a partir de entrevistas en profundidad con 36 hombres y mujeres de diversas clases sociales y edades. Se encuentra básicamente, que la vivencia de cuerpo como locus de la identidad varía según grupos de edad y según género; por lo que se relativizan los postulados de Baudrillard.

  16. Stressors, locus of control, and social support as consequences of affective psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K; Guppy, A

    1997-04-01

    Tests of the influence of affective psychological well-being on stressors, locus of control, and social support in a 1-month follow-up study of 210 male and 34 female British accountants is reported. There was a marginally significant association between the level of psychological symptoms and subsequent reports of intensity of quantitative workload stressors. A significant interaction between psychological symptoms and a measure of depression-enthusiasm was found to predict subsequent locus of control. The results indicate a differential pattern of associations between aspects of affective well-being and subsequent reports of social support. The results also indicate that initially more frequent stressors are associated with subsequently less intense stressors of the same type. The findings highlight the dynamic and reciprocal nature of the occupational stress process.

  17. Functional Analysis of the Coronary Heart Disease Risk Locus on Chromosome 21q22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Beaney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The coronary heart disease (CHD risk locus on 21q22 (lead SNP rs9982601 lies within a “gene desert.” The aim of this study was to assess if this locus is associated with CHD risk factors and to identify the functional variant(s and gene(s involved. Methods. A phenome scan was performed with UCLEB Consortium data. Allele-specific protein binding was studied using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Dual-reporter luciferase assays were used to assess the impact of genetic variation on expression. Expression quantitative trait analysis was performed with Advanced Study of Aortic Pathology (ASAP and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx consortium data. Results. A suggestive association between QT interval and the locus was observed (rs9982601  p=0.04. One variant at the locus, rs28451064, showed allele-specific protein binding and its minor allele showed 12% higher luciferase expression (p = 4.82 × 10−3 compared to the common allele. The minor allele of rs9982601 was associated with higher expression of the closest upstream genes (SLC5A3 1.30-fold increase p = 3.98 × 10−5; MRPS6 1.15-fold increase p = 9.60 × 10−4 in aortic intima media in ASAP. Both rs9982601 and rs28451064 showed a suggestive association with MRPS6 expression in relevant tissues in the GTEx data. Conclusions. A candidate functional variant, rs28451064, was identified. Future work should focus on identifying the pathway(s involved.

  18. Personality, Academic Self-Efficacy, Academic Locus of Control and Academic Procrastination Among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Yazıcı, Hikmet; Albayrak, Elif; Reisoğlu, Serpil

    2016-01-01

    There are several variables to determine academic procrastination behavior among university students. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among big five personality, academic self-efficacy, academic locus of control and academic procrastination. Research group consisted of 885 university students (Female=496, Male=389) in 2012/2013 academic year in Karadeniz Technical University. Results from study indicated that responsibility and amenability subscales of b...

  19. The Locus of the apices of projectile trajectories under constant drag

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Saldaña, H.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analytical solution for the projectile coplanar motion under constant drag parametrised by the velocity angle. We found the locus formed by the apices of the projectile trajectories. The range and time of flight are obtained numerically and we find that the optimal launching angle is smaller than in the free drag case. This is a good example of problems with constant dissipation of energy that includes curvature, and it is proper for intermediate courses of mechanics.

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUES AND LOCUS OF CONTROL WITH STUDENTS’ CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Fatria, Erian

    2017-01-01

    Needless to say that environmental deterioration is brought about by the people intervention toward a nature. It has been assumed that people personality and intelligent influence the ecosystem. That is why the objective of this study is to find out relationship between knowledge about issues (KAI) and Locus of Control (LOC) with citizenship behavior (CB). In order meet with this objective, a survey method has been applied by involving 110 students as sample. There are three instruments, meas...

  1. Consumer attitudes regarding internet health information and communication: Gender, locus of control, and stress implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Fogel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudiantes universitarios utilizan internet para comunicarse y obtener información sobre salud. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo mediante una encuesta a 227 estudiantes para determinar si había diferencias entre aquellos que utilizan internet y el correo electrónico para informarse sobre salud y aquellos que no. Las variables dependientes fueron la Escala de Estrés Percibido y las subescalas de la Escala Multidimensional de Locus de Control de la Salud. Las variables independientes incluyeron preguntas sobre la utilización de internet para informarse o comunicarse con otros sobre salud. Se realizaron análisis para el total de la muestra y por género. En los tres ítems de comunicación, los que utilizaban internet/correo electrónico mostraron un nivel de estrés percibido significativamente más alto. No hubo diferencias entre los que usaban internet para buscar información sobre salud. Estos resultados se mantuvieron para hombres y se acercaron a la significación para las mujeres. Los que utilizan internet para obtener información sobre salud puntuaron significativamente más alto en la subescala de locus de control interno. Estos resultados se mantuvieron en los varones, mientras que para las mujeres fue significativa la subescala de control por otros poderes. Los hombres con estrés percibido se comunican por correo electrónico o internet sobre salud, mientras que las mujeres no. Respecto al uso de información sobre salud en internet, los hombres utilizan un locus de control interno y las mujeres un locus de control por otros poderes. Estos resultados son útiles para los profesionales que asesoren a universitarios con problemas de salud.

  2. Submicroscopic deletions at the WAGR locus, revealed by nonradioactive in situ hybridization.

    OpenAIRE

    Fantes, J A; Bickmore, W A; Fletcher, J M; Ballesta, F; Hanson, I M; van Heyningen, V

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with biotin-labeled probes mapping to 11p13 has been used for the molecular analysis of deletions of the WAGR (Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation) locus. We have detected a submicroscopic 11p13 deletion in a child with inherited aniridia who subsequently presented with Wilms tumor in a horseshoe kidney, only revealed at surgery. The mother, who has aniridia, was also found to carry a deletion including both the ...

  3. Perspective on sequence evolution of microsatellite locus (CCGn in Rv0050 gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Ruiliang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mycobacterial genome is inclined to polymerase slippage and a high mutation rate in microsatellite regions due to high GC content and absence of a mismatch repair system. However, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying microsatellite variation have not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated mutation events in the hyper-variable trinucleotide microsatellite locus MML0050 located in the Rv0050 gene of W-Beijing and non-W-Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in order to gain insight into the genomic structure and activity of repeated regions. Results Size analysis indicated the presence of five alleles that differed in length by three base pairs. Moreover, nucleotide gains occurred more frequently than loses in this trinucleotide microsatellite. Mutation frequency was not completely related with the total length, though the relative frequency in the longest allele was remarkably higher than that in the shortest. Sequence analysis was able to detect seven alleles and revealed that point mutations enhanced the level of locus variation. Introduction of an interruptive motif correlated with the total allele length and genetic lineage, rather than the length of the longest stretch of perfect repeats. Finally, the level of locus variation was drastically different between the two genetic lineages. Conclusion The Rv0050 locus encodes the bifunctional penicillin-binding protein ponA1 and is essential to mycobacterial survival. Our investigations of this particularly dynamic genomic region provide insights into the overall mode of microsatellite evolution. Specifically, replication slippage was implicated in the mutational process of this microsatellite and a sequence-based genetic analysis was necessary to determine that point mutation events acted to maintain microsatellite size integrity while providing genomic diversity.

  4. New simple algebraic root locus method for design of feedback control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cingara Aleksandar M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New concept of algebraic characteristic equation decomposition method is presented to simplify the design of closed-loop systems for practical applications. The method consists of two decompositions. The first one, decomposition of the characteristic equation into two lower order equations, was performed in order to simplify the analysis and design of closed loop systems. The second is the decomposition of Laplace variable, s, into two variables, damping coefficient, ζ, and natural frequency, ω n. Those two decompositions reduce the design of any order feedback systems to setting of two complex dominant poles in the desired position. In the paper, we derived explicit equations for six cases: first, second and third order system with P and PI. We got the analytical solutions for the case of fourth and fifth order characteristic equations with the P and PI controller; one may obtain a complete analytical solution of controller gain as a function of the desired damping coefficient. The complete derivation is given for the third order equation with P and PI controller. We can extend the number of specified poles to the highest order of the characteristic equation working in a similar way, so we can specify the position of each pole. The concept is similar to the root locus but root locus is implicit, which makes it more complicated and this is simpler explicit root locus. Standard procedures, root locus and Bode diagrams or Nichol Charts, are neither algebraic nor explicit. We basically change controller parameters and observe the change of some function until we get the desired specifications. The derived method has three important advantage over the standard procedures. It is general, algebraic and explicit. Those are the best poles design results possible; it is not possible to get better controller design results.

  5. The Effectiveness of Teaching Intervention Internal Locus of Control on Increasing Marital Adjustment and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askari Asghari-Ganji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Satisfaction with marital life is the most important issue in the joint life, which has the greatest effect on durability and failure of couple’s lives. Based on this, the main goal of the present research is to study the effectiveness of teaching intervention based on internal locus of control in increasing marital adjustment and satisfaction has been investigated. Materials and Methods: The research design was pre- and post-test with control group. Statistical population of this research includes 100 married students of Farhangian University of Babol, Iran. To determine the sample, initially 100 questionnaires of Rotter’s locus of control and Spanier’s marital adjustment were distributed among the married students. Among this population, 42 couples both had external locus of control and suffered marital maladjustment, 20 couples were selected by simple randomized method and were placed into two experimental and control groups, such that 10 couples were placed in the experimental group and 10 couples were placed in control group. Data were analyzed using the independent t-test method. Results: Research results showed that, since effectiveness of training communicational skills based on internal locus of control on increasing marital attachment of couples was calculated t-value (t = 6.04 and (t= 4.71 for women and men, respectively with degree of freedom of 19 is bigger than t-value in the table (t = 2.53 therefore, null hypothesis is rejected and with confidence degree of 99%. Conclusion: Teaching intervention based on internal control can be used as one of the intervention models for couples who suffer from marital dissatisfaction and think of divorce.

  6. Trust in Organizational and Workplace Deviant Behavior The Moderating Effect of Locus of Control

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahman Abdul Rahim; Aizzat Mohd. Nasurdin

    2008-01-01

    This study seeks to investigate the moderating role of locus of control (LOC) in the relationship between trust in organization (TiO) and workplace deviant behavior (WDB). Three forms of deviant behavior are identified: interpersonal deviance, production deviance, and property deviance. The regression analyses carried out on a sample of 355 employees show mixed results. Trust in organization (TiO) demonstrates a negative relationship with production deviance and property deviance. In contrast...

  7. Molecular and Recombinational Mapping of Mutations in the Ace Locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Nagoshi, Rodney N.; Gelbart, William M.

    1987-01-01

    The Ace locus in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase. Ace is located in a region of chromosome arm 3R which has been subjected to intensive genetic and molecular analysis. Previous deletion mapping studies have identified a 40-kb region within which the Ace gene resides. This report focuses on the further localization of Ace within this 40-kb interval. Within this region, selective fine structure recombinational analysis was employed to localize...

  8. Relationship between parental locus of control and caries experience in preschool children - cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencová, Erika; Pikhart, Hynek; Broukal, Zdenek; Tsakos, Georgios

    2008-06-12

    Due to high prevalence and serious impacts, childhood caries represents a public health issue. Behavioural risk factors such as locus of health control have been implicated in the development of the disease; however their association with childhood caries has not been thoroughly studied. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the relationship between parental locus of health control and caries experience and untreated caries of their preschool children in a representative sample in Czech Republic, adjusting for relevant sociodemographic characteristics. A representative sample of 285 preschool children and their parents was recruited. Study data included children's dental status recorded in nurseries and parental questionnaires with 13 attitudinal items regarding locus of control (LoC) in caries prevention. The association between parental locus of control and children's caries experience and level of untreated caries was analysed using logistic regression, adjusting for the effect of key sociodemographic variables. There was a statistically highly significant linear trend between increased parental LoC and higher probability of the children to be free from untreated caries, independent from the effect of sociodemographic variables of children and parents. A similar highly statistically significant trend, although not entirely linear, and independent from sociodemographic variables was observed with respect to the chance of the children to be free from caries experience with increasing strength of parental LoC. After full adjustment, children in the strongest parental LoC quintile were 2.81 (1.23-6.42, pcontrol of both untreated caries and caries experience in their preschool children and highlight that a more internal LoC within the family is advantageous in the prevention of dental caries.

  9. Relationship between Health Locus of Control and Risky Sexual Behaviors among Nigerian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, Jennifer; Enejoh, Victor; Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Olutola, Ayodotun; Karick, Haruna; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2015-06-01

    HIV/AIDS knowledge has been rated as the most important factor for HIV prevention. However, studies have also shown that knowledge alone does not always translate into reduced risky sexual behavior (RSB). Health locus of control (HLC) categorized as perceived control over health status (internal locus of control) or attribution of health status to chance or fate (external health locus of control) is a psychological construct that has been shown to impact health outcomes including RSB. This study thus investigated the relationship between HLC and RSB among Nigerian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey design was employed among 361 adolescents from nine senior secondary schools selected through stratified random sampling from Jos, Plateau State Nigeria. Data were collected between August and October of 2008. Health Locus of Control Scale was used to categorize individuals into having either an internal or external HLC. RSB was assessed using the Brief HIV Screener (BHS). Descriptive statistics were computed and Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine differences in BHS scores by HLC categories. Odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for individual BHS question responses based on HLC. Participants were 169 males (46.8%) and 192 females (53.2%) with a mean age of 16.9. When grouped into HLC categories, 141 were internal and 220 were external. The mean score on the BHS showed statistically significant difference based on HLC (p=0.01). Odds for using a condom during sexual intercourse were higher for adolescents with an internal HLC while adolescents with an external HLC had significantly higher RSB scores. Prevention programs targeted at adolescents should also aim to internalize their HLC.

  10. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Om; Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Amool R.; Sengar, K. S.; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Ranjan, Jay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess personality disorder (PD), emotional intelligence (EI), and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD) patients and its comparison with normal controls. Materials and Methods: Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameter...

  11. DNA locus HLA-DQ alpha polymorphism in human population of the north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepiński, W; Skawrońska, M; Janica, J

    1996-01-01

    Investigations on DNA polymorphism locus HLA-DQ alpha were carried out on a sample of 117 adult unrelated inhabitants from the north-eastern Poland. The polymerase chain reaction and the reverse dot-blot hybridisation were employed to detect 6 different HLA-DQ alpha alleles. Population data on 20 different genotypes served as a basis for statistic evaluation. The results of genotype analysis were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Other population data were compared.

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies a novel canine glaucoma locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saija J Ahonen

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy and one of the leading causes of blindness. Its hereditary forms are classified into primary closed-angle (PCAG, primary open-angle (POAG and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG. Although many loci have been mapped in human, only a few genes have been identified that are associated with the development of glaucoma and the genetic basis of the disease remains poorly understood. Glaucoma has also been described in many dog breeds, including Dandie Dinmont Terriers (DDT in which it is a late-onset (>7 years disease. We designed clinical and genetic studies to better define the clinical features of glaucoma in the DDT and to identify the genetic cause. Clinical diagnosis was based on ophthalmic examinations of the affected dogs and 18 additionally investigated unaffected DDTs. We collected DNA from over 400 DTTs and a genome wide association study was performed in a cohort of 23 affected and 23 controls, followed by a fine mapping, a replication study and candidate gene sequencing. The clinical study suggested that ocular abnormalities including abnormal iridocorneal angles and pectinate ligament dysplasia are common (50% and 72%, respectively in the breed and the disease resembles human PCAG. The genetic study identified a novel 9.5 Mb locus on canine chromosome 8 including the 1.6 Mb best associated region (p = 1.63 × 10(-10, OR = 32 for homozygosity. Mutation screening in five candidate genes did not reveal any causative variants. This study indicates that although ocular abnormalities are common in DDTs, the genetic risk for glaucoma is conferred by a novel locus on CFA8. The canine locus shares synteny to a region in human chromosome 14q, which harbors several loci associated with POAG and PCG. Our study reveals a new locus for canine glaucoma and ongoing molecular studies will likely help to understand the genetic etiology of the disease.

  13. Reversal of behavioral depression by infusion of an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist into the locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, P G; Weiss, J M; Hoffman, L J; Ambrose, M J

    1986-04-01

    This experiment demonstrated that behavioral depression produced by exposure of rats to strong uncontrollable shocks could be reversed by infusion of the alpha-2 adrenergic agonist clonidine into the region of the locus coeruleus (LC). A 20-min infusion, through bilateral cannulae, into the locus coeruleus of clonidine, piperoxane (alpha-2 antagonist) or inactive vehicle (0.85% saline), was given beginning 70 min after the animals were removed from the stress situation. The dose and volume of drug given in the infusion (0.16 microgram/microliter, 0.1 microliter/min) had been previously shown to produce effects specific to the locus coeruleus (Weiss, Simson, Hoffman, Ambrose, Cooper and Webster, 1986; Neuropharmacology 25: 367-384). At the conclusion of the infusion, active behavior of animals was measured in a 15-min swim test. Results showed that stressed animals infused with vehicle exhibited significantly less active behavior in the swim test than did non-stressed animals infused with vehicle, thereby showing the usual behavioral depression seen after exposure to an uncontrollable stress. Stressed animals infused with clonidine showed no difference in active behavior in comparison to non-stressed animals infused with vehicle and showed significantly more activity than did the stressed animals infused with vehicle. Stressed animals infused with piperoxane showed no significant difference in activity in comparison to the stressed animals infused with vehicle and were significantly less active than either the non-stressed animals infused with vehicle or the stressed animals infused with clonidine. Thus, infusion into the locus coeruleus of the alpha-2 agonist clonidine, but not the alpha-2 antagonist piperoxane, eliminated behavioral depression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, Lea G; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Reissmann, Monika; Tetens, Jens; Thaller, Georg; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO) gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans.

  15. Structure, function, and phylogeny of the mating locus in the Rhizopus oryzae complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii P Gryganskyi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rhizopus oryzae species complex is a group of zygomycete fungi that are common, cosmopolitan saprotrophs. Some strains are used beneficially for production of Asian fermented foods but they can also act as opportunistic human pathogens. Although R. oryzae reportedly has a heterothallic (+/- mating system, most strains have not been observed to undergo sexual reproduction and the genetic structure of its mating locus has not been characterized. Here we report on the mating behavior and genetic structure of the mating locus for 54 isolates of the R. oryzae complex. All 54 strains have a mating locus similar in overall organization to Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Mucor circinelloides (Mucoromycotina, Zygomycota. In all of these fungi, the minus (- allele features the SexM high mobility group (HMG gene flanked by an RNA helicase gene and a TP transporter gene (TPT. Within the R. oryzae complex, the plus (+ mating allele includes an inserted region that codes for a BTB/POZ domain gene and the SexP HMG gene. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genes, including the mating loci (HMG, TPT, RNA helicase, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA, RPB2, and LDH genes, identified two distinct groups of strains. These correspond to previously described sibling species R. oryzae sensu stricto and R. delemar. Within each species, discordant gene phylogenies among multiple loci suggest an outcrossing population structure. The hypothesis of random-mating is also supported by a 50:50 ratio of plus and minus mating types in both cryptic species. When crossed with tester strains of the opposite mating type, most isolates of R. delemar failed to produce zygospores, while isolates of R. oryzae produced sterile zygospores. In spite of the reluctance of most strains to mate in vitro, the conserved sex locus structure and evidence for outcrossing suggest that a normal sexual cycle occurs in both species.

  16. Pengaruh Kompleksitas Tugas dan Locus Of Control Terhadap Hubungan Antara Gaya Kepemimpinan dan Kepuasan Kerja Auditor

    OpenAIRE

    Engko, Cecilia; Gudono, Gudono

    2009-01-01

    This research examined the effect of task complexity and locus of control to relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction. This research applies leadership style with contingency approach and Path Goal Theory of Leadership. The sampling technique is purposive sampling. Data collected by sending questionnaire direct to various public accountant offices (KAP). The respondents are junior auditors in Surabaya, Semarang and Yogyakarta. The junior auditors partici¬pated in this resear...

  17. Evidence for balancing selection at the DAB locus in the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, A D; Herrera, G; Reynoso, V H; Méndez, G; Zambrano, L

    2007-12-01

    The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) has been characterized as immunodeficient, and the absence of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II polymorphism has been cited as a possible explanation. Here we present evidence for considerable allelic polymorphism at the MHC class II DAB locus for a sample of wild-caught axolotls. Evidence that these sequences are the product of balancing selection for disease resistance is discussed.

  18. Characterization of a hypoxia-response element in the Epo locus of the pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rashmi P; Tohari, Sumanty; Ho, Adrian; Brenner, Sydney; Venkatesh, Byrappa

    2010-06-01

    Animals respond to hypoxia by increasing synthesis of the glycoprotein hormone erythropoietin (Epo) which in turn stimulates the production of red blood cells. The gene encoding Epo has been recently cloned in teleost fishes such as the pufferfish Takifugu rubripes (fugu) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). It has been shown that the transcription levels of Epo in teleost fishes increase in response to anemia or hypoxia in a manner similar to its human ortholog. However, the cis-regulatory element(s) mediating the hypoxia response of Epo gene in fishes has not been identified. In the present study, using the human hepatoma cell line (Hep3B), we have identified and characterized a hypoxia response element (HRE) in the fugu Epo locus. The sequence of the fugu HRE (ACGTGCTG) is identical to that of the HRE in the human EPO locus. However, unlike the HRE in the mammalian Epo locus, which is located in the 3' region of the gene, the fugu HRE is located in the 5' flanking region and on the opposite strand of DNA. This HRE is conserved in other teleosts such as Tetraodon and zebrafish in a similar location. A 365-bp fragment containing the fugu HRE was able to drive GFP expression in the liver of transgenic zebrafish. However, we could not ascertain if the expression of transgene is induced by hypoxia in vivo due to the low and variable levels of GFP expression in transgenic zebrafish. Our investigations also revealed that the Epo locus has experienced extensive rearrangements during vertebrate evolution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selective WGA uptake in the hippocampus from the locus coeruleus of DBH-WGA transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G eWalling

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We generated transgenic mice in which a transsynaptic tracer, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, was specifically expressed in the locus coeruleus neurons under the control of the dopamine-β-hydroxylase gene promoter. WGA protein was produced in more than 95% of the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive locus coeruleus neurons sampled. Transynaptic transfer of WGA was most evident in CA3 neurons of the hippocampus, but appeared absent in CA1 neurons. Faint but significant WGA immunoreactivity was observed surrounding the nuclei of dentate granule cells. Putative hilar mossy cells, identified by the presence of calretinin in the ventral hippocampus, appeared uniformly positive for transynaptically transferred WGA protein. GAD67-positive interneurons in the hilar and CA3 regions tended to be WGA-positive, although a subset of them did not show WGA co-localization. The same mixed WGA uptake profile was apparent when examining co-localization with parvalbumin. The selective uptake of WGA by dentate granule cells, mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal neurons is consistent with evidence for a large proportion of conventional synapses adjacent to locus coeruleus axonal varicosities in these regions. The lack of WGA uptake in the CA1 region and its relatively sparse innervation by dopamine-β-hydroxylase-positive fibers suggest that a majority of the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive classical synapses revealed by electron microscopy in that region may be producing dopamine. The overall pattern of WGA uptake in these transgenic mice suggests a selective role for the granule cell-mossy cell-CA3 network in processing novelty or the salient environmental contingency changes signaled by locus coeruleus activity.

  20. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter.

  1. Impact of variation at the FTO locus on milk fat yield in Holstein dairy cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea G Zielke

    Full Text Available This study explores the biological role of the Fat Mass and Obesity associated (FTO gene locus on milk composition in German Holstein cattle. Since FTO controls energy homeostasis and expenditure and the FTO locus has repeatedly shown association with obesity in human studies, we tested FTO as a candidate gene in particular for milk fat yield, which represents a high amount of energy secreted during lactation. The study was performed on 2,402 bulls and 860 cows where dense milk composition data were available. Genetic information was taken from a 2 Mb region around FTO. Five SNPs and two haplotype blocks in a 725 kb region covering FTO and the neighboring genes RPGRIP1L, U6ATAC, and 5 S rRNA were associated with milk fat yield and also affected protein yield in the same direction. Interestingly, higher frequency SNP alleles and haplotypes within the FTO gene increased milk fat and protein yields by up to 2.8 and 2.2 kg per lactation, respectively, while the most frequent haplotype in the upstream block covering exon 1 of FTO to exon 15 of RPGRIP1L had opposite effects with lower fat and milk yield. Both haplotype blocks were also significant in cows. The loci accounted for about 1% of the corresponding trait variance in the population. The association signals not only provided evidence for at least two causative mutations in the FTO locus with a functional effect on milk but also milk protein yield. The pleiotropic effects suggest a biological function on the usage of energy resources and the control of energy balance rather than directly affecting fat and protein synthesis. The identified effect of the obesity gene locus on milk energy content suggests an impact on infant nutrition by breast feeding in humans.

  2. Analysis of the albino-locus region of the mouse. II. Mosaic mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    Among 119 mutations involving the c locus that were recovered in the course of mouse specific-locus experiments with external radiations, 16 were found in mosaic, or fractional, mutants. The number of additional c-locus fractionals that could have occurred in these experiments and, for a variety of reasons, might not have been clearly identified, probably does not exceed the present number. There was no evidence for radiation induction of the fractionals, and even those occurring in the irradiated groups may thus be assumed to be of spontaneous origin. Since only two mutations in the control groups were found in whole-body mutants, it appears that the bulk of spontaneous c-locus mutations are fractionals. None of the mutations recovered in fractional mutants was homozygous lethal; 25% were viable intermediate alleles, and the remainder were albino-like mutants, all viable except for one subvital and one not tested. Genetic tests of the fractionals indicated no major selection against the new mutations, either gametically or in the progeny. For the group of fractionals as a whole, about one-half of the germinal tissue carried the mutation, indicating that the fractionals came from an overall blastomere population that was one-half mutant. Such a population could result from mutation in one strand of the gamete DNA, in a daughter chromosome derived from pronuclear DNA synthesis of the zygote, or in one of the first two blastomeres prior to replication. Since the mouse embryo does not stem from all of the cleavage products of the zygote, the frequency of fractionals observeed underestimates the frequency of mutational events that result in two types of blastomeres

  3. Function and Innervation of the Locus Ceruleus in a Macaque Model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Kim, Aaron; Cameron, Judy L

    2012-01-01

    A body of knowledge implicates an increase in output from the locus ceruleus (LC) during stress. We questioned the innervation and function of the LC in our macaque model of Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea, also known as Stress-Induced Amenorrhea. Cohorts of macaques were initially characterized as highly stress resilient (HSR) or stress-sensitive (SS) based upon the presence or absence of ovulation during a protocol involving 2 menstrual cycles with psychosocial and metabolic stress. Afte...

  4. Pengaruh Prestasi, Locus of Control, Resiko, Toleransi Ambiguitas, Percaya Diri, Dan Inovasi Terhadap Minat Berwirausaha Mahasiswa

    OpenAIRE

    Bustan, Jusmawi

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the psychological factors that determine the background for students to become entrepreneur. The purpose of the study to determine the effect of need for achievement, locus of control, risk, tolerance of ambiguity, self-confidence, innovation seeks to interest students. This study used a survey method approach to determine the influence between variables. The sample was students who have exhausted all departments entrepreneurship courses by 93 respondents. The sampling t...

  5. Impact of Journaling on Students’ Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control

    OpenAIRE

    Krista K. Fritson, PsyD

    2008-01-01

    While considerable research has examined the academic and cognitive value of journaling, little has examined the psychological impact of journaling on the personal development of college students. Research on cognitive-behavioral therapy indicates that journaling can have a positive impact on individuals’ self-growth and intrapersonal characteristics. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of classroom-based journaling on students’ self-efficacy and locus of control. Students in t...

  6. The Influence of Congruence between Incentive System and Locus of Control on Team Performance: An Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Mutmainah; Slamet Sugiri

    2017-01-01

    Organizations are increasingly relying upon teamwork; however, little is known about the best fit among incentive system, team composition, and group performance. To further explore this issue this study examines whether the congruence between incentive system and locus of control (LoC) affects team performance. To reconcile opposite lines of argument in literature regarding the best incentive system for a team, this paper uses the social identity perspective and person-environment (P-E) fit ...

  7. Does Congruence Between Incentive System and Locus of Control Affect Team Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Mutmainah Siti; Sugiri Slamet

    2017-01-01

    Teamwork is an essential element in most organizations; however, little is known about the best fit among incentive system, team composition, and team performance. This study examines whether the congruence between incentive system and locus of control (LoC) affects team performance. To reconcile opposite lines of arguments regarding the best incentive system for a team, this paper uses the social identity perspective and person-environment fit theory to understand behavior in a group process...

  8. The Exploration of the Associations between Locus of Control and High School Students’ Language Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Eslami-Rasekh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the relationships between locus of control (LOC orientation and high school students’ language achievement. The popular categorization of internals and externals was taken into account. The participants of this study were 121 high school students in the second, third and pre-university grades in two public high schools of Isfahan, Iran. One of the instruments used in the study was an adopted version of Julian Rotters’ locus of control (1966 which identified internal and external orientations. The participants’ English scores were regarded as the measure of their achievement. Besides, a questionnaire consisting of 29 items was administered to all 121 students. Responses were put into one way and two-way ANOVA, the regression analysis, the independent t-test, chi-square and linear regression analysis to compare the means of two sets of scores. The findings of this study show a significant relationship between locus control and achievement of high school students. The findings can be used by EFL teachers and syllabus designers.

  9. Birth defects and aplastic anemia: differences in polycyclic hydrocarbon toxicity associated with the Ah locus. [Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebert, D.W.; Levitt, R.C.; Jensen, N.M.; Lambert, G.H.; Felton, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The balance between cytochrome(s) P/sub 1/-450 and other forms of P-450 in the liver, and probably many nonhepatic tissues as well, appears to be important in the toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and teratogenicity of numerous compounds. Thus, allelic differences in a single gene--the Ah locus-- can have profound effects on the susceptibility of mice to drug toxicity and cancer. There is evidence for the Ah lous in the human. Striking increases in the incidence of stillborns, reorptions,and malformations caused by 3-methylcholanthrene or 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene were observed in the aromatic hydrocarbon responsive C57BL/6N,C3H/HeN, and BALB/cAnN inbred strains, compared with the genetically nonresponsive AKR/N. These data suggest that an association exists between the Ah locus and teratogenesis. Although numerous teratogenic differences among inbred mouse strains have been previously reported, this study is unique in that the genetic differences in teratogenicity observed were predicted in advance, on the basis of known differences in polycyclic hydrocarbon metabolism regulated by the Ah locus.

  10. Regional mapping of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene and the phenylketonuria locus in the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidsky, A.S.; Law, M.L.; Morse, H.G.; Kao, F.T.; Rabin, M.; Ruddle, F.H.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1985-09-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. To define the regional map position of the disease locus and the PAH gene on human chromosome 12, DNA was isolated from human-hamster somatic cell hybrids with various deletions of human chromosome 12 and was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using the human cDNA PAH clone as a hybridization probe. From these results, together with detailed biochemical and cytogenetic characterization of the hybrid cells, the region on chromosome 12 containing the human PAH gene has been defined as 12q14.3..-->..qter. The PAH map position on chromosome 12 was further localized by in situ hybridization of /sup 125/I-labeled human PAH cDNA to chromosomes prepared from a human lymphoblastoid cell line. Results of these experiments demonstrated that the region on chromosome 12 containing the PAH gene and the PKU locus in man is 12q22..-->..12q24.1. These results not only provide a regionalized map position for a major human disease locus but also can serve as a reference point for linkage analysis with other DNA markers on human chromosome 12.

  11. Regional mapping of the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene and the phenylketonuria locus in the human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidsky, A.S.; Law, M.L.; Morse, H.G.; Kao, F.T.; Rabin, M.; Ruddle, F.H.; Woo, S.L.C.

    1985-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder of amino acid metabolism caused by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. To define the regional map position of the disease locus and the PAH gene on human chromosome 12, DNA was isolated from human-hamster somatic cell hybrids with various deletions of human chromosome 12 and was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using the human cDNA PAH clone as a hybridization probe. From these results, together with detailed biochemical and cytogenetic characterization of the hybrid cells, the region on chromosome 12 containing the human PAH gene has been defined as 12q14.3→qter. The PAH map position on chromosome 12 was further localized by in situ hybridization of 125 I-labeled human PAH cDNA to chromosomes prepared from a human lymphoblastoid cell line. Results of these experiments demonstrated that the region on chromosome 12 containing the PAH gene and the PKU locus in man is 12q22→12q24.1. These results not only provide a regionalized map position for a major human disease locus but also can serve as a reference point for linkage analysis with other DNA markers on human chromosome 12

  12. Molecular and recombinational mapping of mutations in the Ace locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, R.N.; Gelbart, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Ace locus in Drosophila melanogaster is known to be the structural gene for acetylcholinesterase. Ace is located in a region of chromosome arm 3R which has been subjected to intensive genetic and molecular analysis. Previous deletion mapping studies have identified a 40-kb region with which the Ace gene resides. This report focuses on the further localization of Ace within this 40-kb interval. Within this region, selective fine structure recombinational analysis was employed to localize three recessive Ace lethals relative to unselected restriction site variations. These three mutations fall into a segment of 7 kb within the Ace interval. Fine structure recombinational analysis was also used to confirm that the Ace - phenotype of one deletion, Df(3R)Ace/sup HD1/, co-segregated with the molecular deletion. This deletion does not fully remove Ace activity, but it behaves as a recessive Ace lethal. Df(3R)Ace/sup HD1/ is the most distal Ace lesion identified and indicates that the Ace locus must extend at least 16 kb. Several poly(A)transcripts are detectable in the region defined by the Ace lesions. The position and extent of the Ace locus, as well as the types of transcripts found, is consistent with the recent findings which identified Torpedo-AChE homologous cDNA sequences in this region

  13. Two-step activation of meiosis by the mat1 locus in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willer, M; Hoffmann, Ulla-Lisbeth; Styrkársdóttir, U

    1995-01-01

    in which the mat1 locus plays two roles in controlling meiosis. In the first instance, the mat1-Pc and mat1-Mc functions are required to produce the mating pheromones and receptors that allow the generation of a pheromone signal. This signal is required to induce the expression of mat1-Pm and mat1-Mm......The mat1 locus is a key regulator of both conjugation and meiosis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Two alternative DNA segments of this locus, mat1-P and mat1-M, specify the haploid cell types (Plus and Minus). Each segment includes two genes: mat1-P includes mat1-Pc and mat1-Pm....... This appears to be the major pheromone-dependent step in controlling meiosis since ectopic expression of these genes allows meiosis in the absence of mat1-Pc and mat1-Mc. The mat1-Pm and mat1-Mm products complete the initiation of meiosis by activating transcription of the mei3 gene....

  14. Locus of control, minority stress, and psychological distress among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Larry W; Mollen, Debra; Smith, Nathan Grant

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of minority stress theory, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are conceptualized as members of a minority group defined by sexual orientation. Two of the component processes of minority stress hypothesized by Meyer (2003), internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events, were examined in the current study. Both internalized heterosexism and the experience of prejudice events have been associated with increased psychological distress in LGB populations. Researchers have also observed a relationship between external locus of control and increased psychological distress in general population samples. The current study explored whether locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between the overall psychological distress of LGB individuals and both internalized heterosexism and the experience of workplace-based prejudice events (n = 165). Results indicated that locus of control served as a moderator in the relationship between experience of workplace-based prejudice events and overall psychological distress but not for the relationship between internalized heterosexism and distress. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Locus of control and coping strategies in older persons with and without depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørkløf, Guro Hanevold; Engedal, Knut; Selbæk, Geir; Maia, Deborah Bezerra; Coutinho, Evandro Silvia Freire; Helvik, Anne-Sofie

    2016-08-01

    To compare locus of control and coping strategies in older persons with and without depression. This cross-sectional study included 144 depressed in-patients from seven psychogeriatric hospital units, and 106 community-dwelling older persons without depression. All participants were 60 years and older. Locus of control was assessed by a 17-items self-report questionnaire with six response categories. Coping strategies were assessed by a 26-items self-report questionnaire with five response categories. For analytical purposes, age (controlling for demographics, health, and social variables, the depressed in-patients showed a higher external locus of control orientation and a less frequent use of problem-focused coping strategies compared with the non-depressed group. No differences in use of emotion-focused strategies were found between the two groups. Compared with the non-depressed old persons, the depressed hospitalized older persons were characterized by perceptions of less personal control, and less use of problem-focused strategies, what also might have brought positive alterations into their situation.

  16. Motivating contributions to online forums: can locus of control moderate the effects of interface cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyang-Sook; Sundar, S Shyam

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to encourage users to participate rather than lurk, online health forums provide authority badges (e.g., guru) to frequent contributors and popularity indicators (e.g., number of views) to their postings. Studies have shown the latter to be more effective, implying that bulletin-board users are motivated by external validation of their contributions. However, no consideration has yet been given to individual differences in the influence of such popularity indicators. Personality psychology suggests that individuals with external, rather than internal, locus of control are more likely to be other-directed and therefore more likely to be motivated by interface cues showing the bandwagon effect of their online posts. We investigate this hypothesis by analyzing data from a 2 (high vs. low authority cue) × 2 (strong vs. weak bandwagon cue) experiment with an online health community. Results show that strong bandwagon cues promote sense of community among users with internal, rather than external, locus of control. When bandwagon cues are weak, bestowal of high authority serves to heighten their sense of agency. Contrary to prediction, weak bandwagon cues appear to promote sense of community and sense of agency among those with external locus of control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  17. New polymorphisms within the variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) 7 locus of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Ahmad; Zschöck, Michael; Ewers, Christa; Eisenberg, Tobias

    2016-06-01

    Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) is a frequently employed typing method of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates. Based on whole genome sequencing in a previous study, allelic diversity at some VNTR loci seems to over- or under-estimate the actual phylogenetic variance among isolates. Interestingly, two closely related isolates on one farm showed polymorphism at the VNTR 7 locus, raising concerns about the misleading role that it might play in genotyping. We aimed to investigate the underlying basis of VNTR 7-polymorphism by analyzing sequence data for published genomes and field isolates of MAP and other M. avium complex (MAC) members. In contrast to MAP strains from cattle, strains from sheep displayed an "imperfect" repeat within VNTR 7, which was identical to respective allele types in other MAC genomes. Subspecies- and strain-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two novel (16 and 56 bp) repeats were detected. Given the combination of the three existing repeats, there are at least five different patterns for VNTR 7. The present findings highlight a higher polymorphism and probable instability of VNTR 7 locus that needs to be considered and challenged in future studies. Until then, sequencing of this locus in future studies is important to correctly assign the underlying allele types.(1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The renal urate transporter SLC17A1 locus: confirmation of association with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis-Moffatt, Jade E; Phipps-Green, Amanda J; Chapman, Brett; Jones, Gregory T; van Rij, Andre; Gow, Peter J; Harrison, Andrew A; Highton, John; Jones, Peter B; Montgomery, Grant W; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, Tony R

    2012-04-27

    Two major gout-causing genes have been identified, the urate transport genes SLC2A9 and ABCG2. Variation within the SLC17A1 locus, which encodes sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 1, a renal transporter of uric acid, has also been associated with serum urate concentration. However, evidence for association with gout is equivocal. We investigated the association of the SLC17A1 locus with gout in New Zealand sample sets. Five variants (rs1165196, rs1183201, rs9358890, rs3799344, rs12664474) were genotyped across a New Zealand sample set totaling 971 cases and 1,742 controls. Cases were ascertained according to American Rheumatism Association criteria. Two population groups were studied: Caucasian and Polynesian. At rs1183201 (SLC17A1), evidence for association with gout was observed in both the Caucasian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67, P = 3.0 × 10-6) and Polynesian (OR = 0.74, P = 3.0 × 10-3) groups. Meta-analysis confirmed association of rs1183201 with gout at a genome-wide level of significance (OR = 0.70, P = 3.0 × 10-8). Haplotype analysis suggested the presence of a common protective haplotype. We confirm the SLC17A1 locus as the third associated with gout at a genome-wide level of significance.

  19. The relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control across adult age-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent-Cox, Kerry; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2015-01-01

    This study integrates healthy ageing and health psychology theories to explore the mechanisms underlying the relationship between health control expectancies and age-attitudes on the process of ageing well. Specifically, the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control. A population-based survey of 739 adults aged 20-97 years (mean = 57.3 years, SD = 13.66; 42% female) explored attitudes towards ageing and health attitudes. A path-analytical approach was used to investigate moderating effects of age and gender. Higher age-stereotype endorsement was associated with higher chance (β = 2.91, p education and self-rated health. Significant age and gender interactions were found to influence the relationship between age-stereotypes and internal health locus of control. Our findings suggest that the relationship between age-stereotypes and health locus of control dimensions must be considered within the context of age and gender. The findings point to the importance of targeting health promotion and interventions through addressing negative age-attitudes.

  20. Fixation Probability in a Two-Locus Model by the Ancestral Recombination–Selection Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Sabin; Kermany, Amir R.

    2012-01-01

    We use the ancestral influence graph (AIG) for a two-locus, two-allele selection model in the limit of a large population size to obtain an analytic approximation for the probability of ultimate fixation of a single mutant allele A. We assume that this new mutant is introduced at a given locus into a finite population in which a previous mutant allele B is already segregating with a wild type at another linked locus. We deduce that the fixation probability increases as the recombination rate increases if allele A is either in positive epistatic interaction with B and allele B is beneficial or in no epistatic interaction with B and then allele A itself is beneficial. This holds at least as long as the recombination fraction and the selection intensity are small enough and the population size is large enough. In particular this confirms the Hill–Robertson effect, which predicts that recombination renders more likely the ultimate fixation of beneficial mutants at different loci in a population in the presence of random genetic drift even in the absence of epistasis. More importantly, we show that this is true from weak negative epistasis to positive epistasis, at least under weak selection. In the case of deleterious mutants, the fixation probability decreases as the recombination rate increases. This supports Muller’s ratchet mechanism to explain the accumulation of deleterious mutants in a population lacking recombination. PMID:22095080