WorldWideScience

Sample records for scientists find antibody

  1. Chinese, US scientists find new particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Chinese and US scientists have discovered a new particle at the Beijing Electron Position Collider, which is hard to be explained with any known particles, according to scientists from the Institute of High Energy Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences Wednesday" (1/2 page).

  2. Scientists adopt new strategy to find Huntington's disease therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links PubMed Stem Cell Information OppNet NIDB NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Institutes at NIH List of ... Release Friday, August 7, 2015 Scientists adopt new strategy to find Huntington’s disease therapies A skyline view ...

  3. Finding Common Ground Between Earth Scientists and Evangelical Christians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Ludwig, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent decades there has been some tension between earth scientists and evangelical Christians in the U.S., and this tension has spilled over into the political arena and policymaking on important issues such as climate change. From my personal and professional experience engaging with both groups, I find there is much common ground for increasing understanding and communicating the societal relevance of earth science. Fruitful discussions can arise from shared values and principles, and common approaches to understanding the world. For example, scientists and Christians are engaged in the pursuit of truth, and they value moral/ethical decision-making based on established principles. Scientists emphasize the benefits of research "for the common good" while Christians emphasize the value of doing "good works". Both groups maintain a longterm perspective: Christians talk about "the eternal" and geologists discuss "deep time". Both groups understand the importance of placing new observations in context of prior understanding: scientists diligently reference "the literature" while Christians quote "chapter and verse". And members of each group engage with each other in "fellowship" or "meetings" to create a sense of community and reinforce shared values. From my perspective, earth scientists can learn to communicate the importance and relevance of science more effectively by engaging with Christians in areas of common ground, rather than by trying to win arguments or debates.

  4. Finding Meaningful Roles for Scientists in science Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brenda

    Successful efforts to achieve reform in science education require the active and purposeful engagement of professional scientists. Working as partners with teachers, school administrators, science educators, parents, and other stakeholders, scientists can make important contributions to the improvement of science teaching and learning in pre-college classrooms. The world of a practicing university, corporate, or government scientist may seem far removed from that of students in an elementary classroom. However, the science knowledge and understanding of all future scientists and scientifically literate citizens begin with their introduction to scientific concepts and phenomena in childhood and the early grades. Science education is the responsibility of the entire scientific community and is not solely the responsibility of teachers and other professional educators. Scientists can serve many roles in science education reform including the following: (1) Science Content Resource, (2) Career Role Model, (3) Interpreter of Science (4) Validator for the Importance of Learning Science and Mathematics, (5) Champion of Real World Connections and Value of Science, (6) Experience and Access to Funding Sources, (7) Link for Community and Business Support, (8) Political Supporter. Special programs have been developed to assist scientists and engineers to be effective partners and advocates of science education reform. We will discuss the rationale, organization, and results of some of these partnership development programs.

  5. K-12 Students' Perceptions of Scientists: Finding a valid measurement and exploring whether exposure to scientists makes an impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Susan J.; Bloodsworth, Kylie H.; Tilburg, Charles E.; Zeeman, Stephan I.; List, Henrietta E.

    2014-10-01

    This study was launched from a National Science Foundation GK-12 grant in which graduate fellows in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) are placed in classrooms to engage K-12 students in STEM activities. The investigation explored whether the STEM Fellows' presence impacted the K-12 students' stereotypical image of a scientist. Since finding a valid instrument is critical, the study involved (1) determining the validity of the commonly administered Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) against a newly designed six-question survey and (2) using a combination of both instruments to determine what stereotypes are currently held by children. A pretest-posttest design was used on 485 students, grades 3-11, attending 6 different schools in suburban and rural Maine communities. A significant but low positive correlation was found between the DAST and the survey; therefore, it is imperative that the DAST not be used alone, but corroboration with interviews or survey questions should occur. Pretest results revealed that the children held common stereotypes of scientists, but these stereotypes were neither as extensive nor did they increase with the grade level as past research has indicated, suggesting that a shift has occurred with children having a broader concept of who a scientist can be. Finally, the presence of an STEM Fellow corresponded with decreased stereotypes in middle school and high school, but no change in elementary age children. More research is needed to determine whether this reflects resiliency in elementary children's perceptions or limitations in either drawing or in writing out their responses.

  6. Scientists and Faith Communities in Dialogue - Finding Common Ground to Care for our Common Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    World-wide, faith communities are a key place for education and outreach to the general adult population. The sacred responsibility to care for the earth, living sustainability and concern for the poor are nearly universal priorities across faith communities. Scientists and people of faith share in common experiences of awe and wonder and ethical roles as citizens. The majority of faith communities have statements on climate changes, environmental justice, and stewardship, and respond with education, action plans and advocacy. People of faith are increasingly seeking science expertise to better understand the science and best solutions to implement. Transformation of point of view often requires heart-felt motivation (domain of religion) as well as knowledge (science). Scientists can participate in alleviating environmental justice by providing data and education to communities. Expert testimony is a critical service. Pope Francis' environmental encyclical Laudato si, engaged diverse scientists in its writing and outreach. Francis invites our continued dialogue with people of faith and goodwill of all societal sectors and fields to achieve an integral ecology that integrates science, economics, and impacts on the poor. For scientists to be most effective in sharing expertise, and building understanding and trust in scientific findings, skill- building is needed in: communication, finding common ground, intercultural competency, working with diverse populations and religious literacy. Educational initiatives bridging scientists and faith-communities will be highlighted including within: the Ecological Society of America, American Assn for Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, faith-based & Environmental Justice networks, Nature centers, Higher Education (including Seminary) Initiatives and the Hanley Sustainability Institute, and interfaith religious organizations engaged with scientists. Bridge-building and ongoing partnerships of scientists, EJ

  7. Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: neuroradiologic findings in 11 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Choi, Soo Jung; Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul

    2000-01-01

    To describe the neuroradiologic findings of primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS). During a recent two-year period, abnormally elevated antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in a total of 751 patients. In any cases in which risk factors for stroke were detected - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and the presence of SLE or other connective tissue diseases - PAPS was not diagnosed. Neuroradiologic studies were performed in 11 of 32 patients with PAPS. We retrospectively reviewed brain CT (n = 7), MR (n = 8), and cerebral angiography (n = 8) in 11 patients with special attention to the presence of brain parenchymal lesions and cerebral arterial or venous abnormalities. CT or MR findings of PAPS included nonspecific multiple hyper-intensity foci in deep white matter on T2-weighted images (5/11), a large infarct in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (4/11), diffuse cortical atrophy (2/11), focal hemorrhage (2/11), and dural sinus thrombosis (1/11). Angiographic findings were normal (5/8) or reflected either occlusion of a large cerebral artery (2/8) or dural sinus thrombosis (1/8). Neuroradiologic findings of PAPS are nonspecific but in young or middle- aged adults who show the above mentioned CT or MR findings, and in whom risk factors for stroke are not present, the condition should be suspected

  8. Primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: neuroradiologic findings in 11 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Choi, Soo Jung; Lee, Ho Kyu; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    To describe the neuroradiologic findings of primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS). During a recent two-year period, abnormally elevated antiphospholipid antibodies were detected in a total of 751 patients. In any cases in which risk factors for stroke were detected - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and the presence of SLE or other connective tissue diseases - PAPS was not diagnosed. Neuroradiologic studies were performed in 11 of 32 patients with PAPS. We retrospectively reviewed brain CT (n = 7), MR (n = 8), and cerebral angiography (n = 8) in 11 patients with special attention to the presence of brain parenchymal lesions and cerebral arterial or venous abnormalities. CT or MR findings of PAPS included nonspecific multiple hyper-intensity foci in deep white matter on T2-weighted images (5/11), a large infarct in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (4/11), diffuse cortical atrophy (2/11), focal hemorrhage (2/11), and dural sinus thrombosis (1/11). Angiographic findings were normal (5/8) or reflected either occlusion of a large cerebral artery (2/8) or dural sinus thrombosis (1/8). Neuroradiologic findings of PAPS are nonspecific but in young or middle- aged adults who show the above mentioned CT or MR findings, and in whom risk factors for stroke are not present, the condition should be suspected.

  9. Bioanalysis of antibody-drug conjugates: American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Antibody-Drug Conjugate Working Group position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorovits, Boris; Alley, Stephen C; Bilic, Sanela; Booth, Brian; Kaur, Surinder; Oldfield, Phillip; Purushothama, Shobha; Rao, Chetana; Shord, Stacy; Siguenza, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) typically consist of a cytotoxic drug covalently bound to an antibody by a linker. These conjugates have the potential to substantially improve efficacy and reduce toxicity compared with cytotoxic small-molecule drugs. Since ADCs are generally complex heterogeneous mixtures of multiple species, these novel therapeutic products present unique bioanalytical challenges. The growing number of ADCs being developed across the industry suggests the need for alignment of the bioanalytical methods or approaches used to assess the multiple species and facilitate consistent interpretation of the bioanalytical data. With limited clinical data, the current strategies that can be used to provide insight into the relationship between the multiple species and the observed clinical safety and efficacy are still evolving. Considerations of the bioanalytical strategies for ADCs based on the current industry practices that take into account the complexity and heterogeneity of ADCs are discussed.

  10. Leading US nano-scientists' perceptions about media coverage and the public communication of scientific research findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the significant increase in the use of nanotechnology in academic research and commercial products over the past decade, there have been few studies that have explored scientists' perceptions and attitudes about the technology. In this article, we use survey data from the leading U.S. nano-scientists to explore their perceptions about two issues: the public communication of research findings and media coverage of nanotechnology, which serves as one relatively rapid outlet for public communication. We find that leading U.S. nano-scientists do see an important connection between the public communication of research findings and public attitudes about science. Also, there is a connection between the scientists' perceptions about media coverage and their views on the timing of public communication; scientists with positive attitudes about the media are more likely to support immediate public communication of research findings, while others believe that communication should take place only after research findings have been published through a peer-review process. We also demonstrate that journalists might have a more challenging time getting scientists to talk with them about nanotechnology news stories because nano-scientists tend to view media coverage of nanotechnology as less credible and less accurate than general science media coverage. We conclude that leading U.S. nano-scientists do feel a sense of responsibility for communicating their research findings to the public, but attitudes about the timing and the pathway of that communication vary across the group.

  11. Helping students make meaning of authentic investigations: findings from a student–teacher–scientist partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Erin

    2013-01-01

    As student–teacher–scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research about the roles that scientists assume in their interactions with students. Socio-cultural perspectives on learning emphasize social interaction as a means for students to make meaning of scientific ideas. Thus, this naturalistic study of classroom discourse aims to explore the ways scientists and teachers help high school students make meaning during authentic inquiry investigations. Conversational analysis is conducted of video recordings of discussions between students and teachers and students and scientists from two instances of a student–teacher–scientist partnership program. A social semiotic analytic framework is used to interpret the actions of scientists and teachers. The results indicate a range of common and distinct roles for scientists and teachers with respect to the conceptual, social, pedagogical, and epistemological aspects of meaning making. While scientists provided conceptual and epistemological support related to their scientific expertise, such as explaining scientific phenomena or aspects of the nature of science, teachers played a critical role in ensuring students' access to this knowledge. The results have implications for managing the division of labor between scientists and teachers in partnership programs. PMID:23828722

  12. Antithyroperoxidase Antibodies in Encephalopathy : Diagnostic Marker or Incidental Finding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, B.; Van Santen, H. M.; Niermeijer, J. M.; Schonenberg-Meinema, D.; Van Trotsenburg, A. S P

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute encephalopathy who are thoroughly examined for an underlying diagnosis and in whom infectious, metabolic, and malignant causes are excluded can form a true diagnostic dilemma. If antithyroperoxidase antibodies (anti-TPO abs) are present, the diagnosis steroid responsive

  13. Aortitis with antiphospholipid antibodies: CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seror, O.; Dordea, M.; Ghenassia, C.; Coderc, E.; Sellier, N.; Fain, O.

    1998-01-01

    Two cases of aortitis associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) are reported. Only CT and MR imaging were able to show these unusual form of aortitis preferentially affecting the outer aortic tunics. We conclude that aortitis could be a new manifestation of primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and the initial pathological process before the development of aortic thrombosis, reported as a classical complication of APS. (orig.) (orig.)

  14. Aortitis with antiphospholipid antibodies: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seror, O.; Dordea, M.; Ghenassia, C.; Coderc, E.; Sellier, N. [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Paris XIII, Bondy (France); Fain, O. [Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Paris XIII, Bondy (France)

    1998-10-01

    Two cases of aortitis associated with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) are reported. Only CT and MR imaging were able to show these unusual form of aortitis preferentially affecting the outer aortic tunics. We conclude that aortitis could be a new manifestation of primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and the initial pathological process before the development of aortic thrombosis, reported as a classical complication of APS. (orig.) (orig.) With 2 figs., 6 refs.

  15. Examples of Video to Communicate Scientific Findings to Non-Scientists-Bayesian Ecological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, M.; Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T.; Qian, S.

    2011-12-01

    The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used in addition to these publications to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to more general audiences such as resource managers, educational groups, public officials, and the general public. An example of one of the podcasts is a film about the results of modeling the effects urbanization on stream ecology. The film describes some of the results of the EUSE ecological modeling effort and the advantages of the Bayesian and multi-level statistical modeling approaches, while relating the science to fly fishing. The complex scientific discussion combined with the lighter, more popular activity of fly fishing leads to an entertaining forum while educating viewers about a complex topic. This approach is intended to represent the scientists as interesting people with diverse interests. Video can be an effective scientific communication tool for presenting scientific findings to a broad audience. The film is available for access from the EUSE website (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html). Additional films are planned to be released in 2012 on other USGS project results and programs.

  16. Scientists find link between allergic and autoimmune diseases in mouse study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists at the National Institutes of Health, and their colleagues, have discovered that a gene called BACH2 may play a central role in the development of diverse allergic and autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, asthma, Crohn's disease, ce

  17. Finding ways to grow skills, knowledge, and voice in the next generation of interdisciplinary sustainability scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. G.; de Souza, S. P.; McGreavy, B.; Gardner, K.; Hart, D.; Druschke, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    , and conflict. Based on our empirical approach we recommend focusing on three key factors when training future interdisciplinary sustainability scientists: diverse and nested communication, building voice by co-creating the course, and early engagement with stakeholders.

  18. Scientists Find X Rays from Stellar Winds That May Play Significant Role in Galactic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Colorful star-forming regions that have captivated stargazers since the advent of the telescope 400 years ago contain gas thousands of times more energetic than previously recognized, powered by colliding stellar winds. This multimillion-degree gas radiated as X rays is one of the long-sought sources of energy and elements in the Milky Way galaxy's interstellar medium. A team led by Leisa Townsley, a senior research associate in astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State University, uncovered this wind phenomenon in the Rosette Nebula, a stellar nursery. With the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the team found that the most massive stars in the nebula produce winds that slam into each other, create violent shocks, and infuse the region with 6-million-degree gas. The findings are presented in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra." "A ghostly glow of diffuse X-ray emission pervades the Rosette Nebula and perhaps many other similar star-forming regions throughout the Galaxy," said Townsley. "We now have a new view of the engine lighting the beautiful Rosette Nebula and new evidence for how the interstellar medium may be energized." Townsley and her colleagues created a striking X-ray panorama of the Rosette Molecular Cloud from four images with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. This is a swath of the sky nearly 100 light years across sprayed with hundreds of X-ray-emitting young stars. In one corner of the Rosette Molecular Cloud lies the Rosette Nebula, called an "H II region" because the hydrogen gas there has been stripped of its electrons due to the strong ultraviolet radiation from its young stars. This region, about 5,000 light years away in the constellation Monoceros, the Unicorn, has long been a favorite among amateur astronomers. The wispy, colorful display is visible with small telescopes. The Chandra survey reveals, for the first time, 6-million-degree gas at the center of the Rosette Nebula, occupying a

  19. More appropriate information systems and services for the social scientist: time to put our findings to work

    OpenAIRE

    Hunsucker, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    A review of: Line, Maurice B. "The Information Uses and Needs of Social Scientists: An Overview of INFROSS." Aslib Proceedings 23.8 (1971): 412-34. Rpt. in Lines of Thought: Selected Papers. Ed. L.J. Anthony. London: Bingley, 1988. 45-66. Objective - The study reported in this article was conceived in order to answer a question of very large scope: What are the information systems and services requirements of social scientists? Inherent in this question was the correlative question: How do so...

  20. Evaluation of the Enhanced Assessment Grants (EAGs) SimScientists Program: Site Visit Findings. CRESST Report 791

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Joan; Dai, Yunyun; Htut, Aye Mon; Martinez, Marcela; Rivera, Nichole

    2011-01-01

    This evaluation report addresses the implementation, utility, and feasibility of SimScientists' simulation-based assessments for middle school science classrooms, with particular attention to the use of accommodations available in the program. Data were collected from a convenience sample of five schools and eight teachers across three states…

  1. More appropriate information systems and services for the social scientist: time to put our findings to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunsucker, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    A review of: Line, Maurice B. "The Information Uses and Needs of Social Scientists: An Overview of INFROSS." Aslib Proceedings 23.8 (1971): 412-34. Rpt. in Lines of Thought: Selected Papers. Ed. L.J. Anthony. London: Bingley, 1988. 45-66. Objective - The study reported in this article was conceived

  2. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists National Biotechnology Conference Short Course: Translational Challenges in Developing Antibody-Drug Conjugates: May 24, 2012, San Diego, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thudium, Karen; Bilic, Sanela; Leipold, Douglas; Mallet, William; Kaur, Surinder; Meibohm, Bernd; Erickson, Hans; Tibbitts, Jay; Zhao, Hong; Gupta, Manish

    2013-01-01

    The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) National Biotechnology Conference Short Course "Translational Challenges in Developing Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs)," held May 24, 2012 in San Diego, CA, was organized by members of the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Drug Metabolism section of AAPS. Representatives from the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities, and academia in the US and Europe attended this short course to discuss the translational challenges in ADC development and the importance of characterizing these molecules early in development to achieve therapeutic utility in patients. Other areas of discussion included selection of target antigens; characterization of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion; assay development and hot topics like regulatory perspectives and the role of pharmacometrics in ADC development. MUC16-targeted ADCs were discussed to illustrate challenges in preclinical development; experiences with trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1; Genentech) and the recently approved brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris; Seattle Genetics) were presented in depth to demonstrate considerations in clinical development. The views expressed in this report are those of the participants and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliations.

  3. A comparison of the recruitment of antibody forming cells in the nose and lung: Preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King-Herbert, A P; Bice, D E; Harkema, J R

    1988-12-01

    Instillation of a particulate antigen into a selected lung lobe leads to an accumulation of antibody forming cells in the exposed lung lobe. Our goal in this preliminary study was to determine if an immune response could be elicited in the nasal mucosa of Beagle dogs exposed to a particulate antigen, and if so, to compare this immune response with that of the lungs when the nasal mucosa and the lungs are each immunized with a different particulate antigen. An Immune response was observed when the nasal mucosa was exposed to particulate antigen, but numbers of antibody-forming cells and levels of antibody in the nose were much lower than observed in an immunized lung lobe. (author)

  4. A comparison of the recruitment of antibody forming cells in the nose and lung: Preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King-Herbert, A.P.; Bice, D.E.; Harkema, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Instillation of a particulate antigen into a selected lung lobe leads to an accumulation of antibody forming cells in the exposed lung lobe. Our goal in this preliminary study was to determine if an immune response could be elicited in the nasal mucosa of Beagle dogs exposed to a particulate antigen, and if so, to compare this immune response with that of the lungs when the nasal mucosa and the lungs are each immunized with a different particulate antigen. An Immune response was observed when the nasal mucosa was exposed to particulate antigen, but numbers of antibody-forming cells and levels of antibody in the nose were much lower than observed in an immunized lung lobe. (author)

  5. The Need For ``Pleasure in Finding Things Out:'' The Use of History and Our Greatest Scientists for Human Survival and Scientific Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, Joshua

    2011-03-01

    Why Homo sapiens search for interesting things and the methods of which we do so. The use of philosophical, theoretical, and demonstrated processes for exploration of the natural, and not so natural world are presented based on the ideas and wishes of some of History's greatest scientists, with concentration on Richard P. Feynman's lens on scientific discovery and pursuit, for which the abstract gets its title. This talk is presented towards the layman as well as the physicist, and gives insight to the nature of discovery and what it means to have pleasure in finding things out for the betterment of all mankind.

  6. Antibody Banding Patterns of the Enzyme-Linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot and Brain Imaging Findings in Patients With Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Gianfranco; Rodriguez, Silvia; Lescano, Andres G; Alroy, Karen A; Bustos, Javier A; Santivañez, Saul; Gonzales, Isidro; Saavedra, Herbert; Pretell, E Javier; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2018-01-06

    The enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay is the reference serological test for neurocysticercosis (NCC). A positive result on EITB does not always correlate with the presence of active infections in the central nervous system (CNS), and patients with a single viable brain cyst may be EITB negative. Nonetheless, EITB antibody banding patterns appears to be related with the expression of 3 protein families of Taenia solium, and in turn with the characteristics of NCC in the CNS (type, stage, and burden of viable cysts). We evaluated EITB antibody banding patterns and brain imaging findings of 548 NCC cases. Similar banding patterns were grouped into homogeneous classes using latent class analysis. The association between classes and brain imaging findings was assessed. Four classes were identified. Class 1 (patients negative or only positive to the GP50 band, related to the protein family of the same name) was associated with nonviable or single viable parenchymal cysticerci; class 2 (patients positive to bands GP42-39 and GP24, related to the T24-42 protein family, with or without anti-GP50 antibodies) was associated with intraparenchymal viable and nonviable infections; classes 3 and 4 (positive to GP50, GP42-39, and GP24 but also responding to low molecular weight bands GP21, GP18, GP14, and GP13, related to the 8 kDa protein family) were associated with extraparenchymal and intraparenchymal multiple viable cysticerci. EITB antibody banding patterns correlate with brain imaging findings and complement imaging information for the diagnosis of NCC and for staging NCC patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Summary of workshop findings for porcine T-lymphocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalmuller, A.; Kuebart, G.; Hollemweguer, E.

    2001-01-01

    antibodies, 37 data sets were used for the clustering of the respective mAb. Using the LTDB4 program, 19 preliminary clusters could be defined. Two clusters (C3 and C7) with 4 mAb showed no labelling of resting T-lymphocytes. Seven clusters (CI, C2, C4, C5, C6, C11, and C12) contain mAb (in total: 16 mAb...... to recognise CD45R. Cluster C17 is composed of different standards directed against CD2, CD3, CD5 and wCD6. Two additional mAb recognising the CD2a-epitope could be enclosed. CIS contains two mAb directed against SWC2.......Fifty-seven monoclonal antibodies (mAb) selected after the first round analyses in the Third International Swine CD workshop for their possible reactivity with T-lymphocyte specific antigens were further analysed in a second round. As target cells for flow cytometric analyses served peripheral...

  8. CT-SPECT fusion to correlate radiolabeled monoclonal antibody uptake with abdominal CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.L.; Noz, M.E.; Sanger, J.J.; Megibow, A.J.; Maguire, G.Q.

    1989-01-01

    To enhance the information provided by computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed with radiolabeled, anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody (MoAb), the authors performed fusion of these types of images from eight subjects with suspected colorectal adenocarcinoma. Section thickness and pixel size of the two studies were matched, coordinates of corresponding points from each study were identified, and CT sections were translated, rotated, and reprojected to match the corresponding SPECT scans. The CT-SPECT fusion enabled identification of anatomic sites of tumor-specific MoAb accumulation in four cases, showed non-specific MoAb accumulation in two, and helped confirm information only suggested by the two studies separately in one

  9. Scientists Shaping the Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

  10. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  11. Robust Scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Birgitte

    their core i nterests, 2) developing a selfsupply of industry interests by becoming entrepreneurs and thus creating their own compliant industry partner and 3) balancing resources within a larger collective of researchers, thus countering changes in the influx of funding caused by shifts in political...... knowledge", Danish research policy seems to have helped develop politically and economically "robust scientists". Scientific robustness is acquired by way of three strategies: 1) tasting and discriminating between resources so as to avoid funding that erodes academic profiles and push scientists away from...

  12. The Celebrity Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, Declan

    2010-01-01

    This collective case study examines how four contemporary British scientists and popular science writers, Stephen Hawking, Richard Dawkins, Susan Greenfield and James Lovelock, are portrayed in mass media as celebrities. It finds that the scientists’ private and public lives merge in their representations, their images commodified and marketed by the cultural industries, their mediated personae embodying abstract ideas of truth and reason. The celebrity scientists base their authority on thei...

  13. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris: Heritabilities and associations with parasitological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Göring, Harald Heinz Herbert; Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-07-30

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p.i. in a trickle-infected F1-resource-population of crossbred pigs (n=195). Furthermore, we wanted to determine the heritability of these antibody isotypes during the course of infection. Most pigs remained infected with A. suum throughout the experiment while they expelled T. suis between 7 and 14 weeks post infection (p.i.). Parasite specific IgG1 and IgA were significantly (P<0.001) elevated after 7 and 14 weeks of infection, whereas parasite specific IgG2 levels only changed slightly at 14 weeks p.i.. However, the observed association between specific antibody isotype levels and faecal egg counts and macroscopic worm load was weak. The relative heritabilities of the different parasite specific isotypes were assessed and resulted in significant heritability estimates for parasite specific IgG1 and IgA. The highest heritabilities were found for A. suum specific IgG1 (h(2)=0.41 and 0.46 at 7 and 14 weeks p.i., respectively). Thus, the present study demonstrates that host genetic factors influence the IgG1 and IgA antibody isotype responses specific to two of the most common gastrointestinal nematodes of swine whereas specific antibody levels were poorly associated with egg excretion and the presence of macroscopic worms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Localisation of cancer of the ovary and metastases using 123I-labelled monoclonal antibody HMFG-2 compared to surgical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.; Granowska, M.; Shepherd, J.

    1985-01-01

    The value of radioimmunoscintigraphy is investigated in the localization of cancer of the ovary and metastases using 123 I-labelled monoclonal antibody HMFG-2 compared to surgical findings. The results show that the HMFG-2 imaging is good in staging and determining the results of chemotherapy in known ovarian cancer but poor in screening patients presenting with a pelvic mass or those with carcinoma of the ovary. The requirements for improvements in radioimmunoscintigraphy are discussed. (UK)

  15. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    OpenAIRE

    Shugart, Erika C.; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or ?Sagan effect? associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist?s career. There are a varie...

  16. Drawings of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    experiment can be reduplicated. He/she must check and double-check all of his/her work. A scientist is very , environment, nutrition, and other aspects of our daily and future life." . . . Marisa The scientists

  17. Scientists must speak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walters, D. Eric; Walters, Gale Climenson

    2011-01-01

    .... Scientists Must Speak: Bringing Presentations to Life helps readers do just that. At some point in their careers, the majority of scientists have to stand up in front of an inquisitive audience or board and present information...

  18. Forgotten women the scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Tsjeng, Zing

    2018-01-01

    The women who shaped and were erased from our history. The Forgotten Women series will uncover the lost histories of the influential women who have refused over hundreds of years to accept the hand they've been dealt and, as a result, have formed, shaped and changed the course of our futures. The Scientists celebrates 48* unsung scientific heroines whose hugely important, yet broadly unacknowledged or incorrectly attributed, discoveries have transformed our understanding of the scientific world. Mary Anning, the amateur paleontologist whose fossil findings changed scientific thinking about prehistoric life Emmy Noether, dubbed "The Mighty Mathematician You've Never Heard Of" Ynés Mexía, the Mexican-American botanist who discovered over 500 new plant species Wangari Maathai, who started an environmental and ecological revolution in Kenya Margaret Sanger, the maverick nurse who paved the way for the legalization of contraception Chapters including Earth & Universe; Biology & N...

  19. Entrepreneurship for Creative Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dawood; Raghu, Surya; Brooks, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Through patenting and commercialization, scientists today can develop their work beyond a publication in a learned journal. Indeed, universities and governments are encouraging today's scientists and engineers to break their research out of the laboratory and into the commercial world. However, doing so is complicated and can be daunting for those more used to a research seminar than a board room. This book, written by experienced scientists and entrepreneurs, deals with businesses started by scientists based on innovation and sets out to clarify for scientists and engineers the steps necessary to take an idea along the path to commercialization and maximise the potential for success, regardless of the path taken.

  20. Radiolabeled antibodies in cancer. Oncology Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories through the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiolabeled antibodies--labeling and imaging techniques; Radiolabeled antibodies--carcinoembryonic antigen; Radiolabeled antibodies--alpha-fetoprotein; Radiolabeled antibodies--human chorionic gonadotropin; Radiolabeled antibodies--ferritin; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of colorectal tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of malignant melanoma; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of urogenital tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of thyroid tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--other clinical studies; Radiolabeled antibodies--selected preclinical studies; Radiolabeled antibodies--reviews

  1. Frederic Joliot-Curie, a tormented scientist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinault, M.

    2000-01-01

    This article is a short biography of the French scientist Frederic Joliot-Curie. His fight for a peaceful use of atomic energy, his responsibilities as nuclear physicist and as the first director of the French atomic commission (CEA) have led him to face contradictions very difficult to manage. All along his career as a scientist and as a high ranked civil servant, F.Joliot-Curie tried to find an ethical way for scientists in modern societies. (A.C.)

  2. Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen-Oskam, K.H.; van Zundert, Joris J.; Koolen, Corina

    2017-01-01

    Bijdragen scheurkalender Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018. Karina van Dalen-Oskam, Belangrijk woord: Wat is het belangrijkste woord in de Nederlandse taal? In: Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018, 1 september Corina Koolen, Op naar het boekenbal: Hoe wordt je beroemd als schrijver? In:

  3. Making Lists, Enlisting Scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Casper Bruun

    2011-01-01

    was the indicator conceptualised? How were notions of scientific knowledge and collaboration inscribed and challenged in the process? The analysis shows a two-sided process in which scientists become engaged in making lists but which is simultaneously a way for research policy to enlist scientists. In conclusion...

  4. More severe nailfold capillaroscopy findings and anti-endothelial cell antibodies. Are they useful tools for prognostic use in systemic sclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccieri, V; Germano, V; Alessandri, C; Vasile, M; Ceccarelli, F; Sciarra, I; Di Franco, M; Spadaro, A; Valesini, G

    2008-01-01

    Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) have been described in systemic sclerosis (SSc) but their clinical relevance is unclear. Aim of this study was to measure serum levels of AECA in 62 SSc patients, examining the main clinical and laboratory features, including nailfold capillaroscopy (NC) abnormalities and looking for any significant association. Fourteen patients (23%) were AECA positive. An "early" NC pattern was observed in 21 patients (34%), an "active" pattern in 24 (39%) and a "late" pattern in 17 cases (27%). In those patients with AECA, a "late" NC pattern was significantly more frequent respect to the "early" and "late" patterns (p or =15) (p<0.04), while those cases with more aggressive NC patterns ("active" and "late") had a more frequent finding of arterial hypertension (p<0.05) and cardiac involvement (p<0.05) respect to those with "early" NC pattern. Thus, advanced NC findings were more frequently found in those patients with higher levels of AECA and their contemporary presence may consent to identify specific SSc subsets i.e., those with higher skin scores and cardiovascular involvement. These data suggest that AECA may have a role in the progression of the endothelial damage and their presence and titer should be considered as an adjunctive risk factor for a more severe disease. We also confirm the diagnostic and prognostic validity for NC in SSc, underlying the importance for an accurate capillaroscopic assessment. The contemporary assessment of these two diagnostic tools can be useful to better define different subset of SSc patients.

  5. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed.

  6. Birth of prominent scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Gonzalez, Leonardo; Veloso, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence key scientists have in the development of a science and technology system. In particular, this work appraises the influence that star scientists have on the productivity and impact of young faculty, as well as on the likelihood that these young researchers become a leading personality in science. Our analysis confirms previous results that eminent scientist have a prime role in the development of a scientific system, especially within the context of an emerging economy like Mexico. In particular, in terms of productivity and visibility, this work shows that between 1984 and 2001 the elite group of physicists in Mexico (approximate 10% of all scientists working in physics and its related fields) published 42% of all publications, received 50% of all citations and bred 18% to 26% of new entrants. In addition our work shows that scientists that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher increased their productivity on average by 28% and the ones that did it by the hand of a highly visible scientist received on average 141% more citations, vis-à-vis scholars that did not published their first manuscripts with an eminent scientist. Furthermore, scholars that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher were on average 2.5 more likely to also become a star. PMID:29543855

  7. Birth of prominent scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Gonzalez, Leonardo; González Brambila, Claudia N; Veloso, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence key scientists have in the development of a science and technology system. In particular, this work appraises the influence that star scientists have on the productivity and impact of young faculty, as well as on the likelihood that these young researchers become a leading personality in science. Our analysis confirms previous results that eminent scientist have a prime role in the development of a scientific system, especially within the context of an emerging economy like Mexico. In particular, in terms of productivity and visibility, this work shows that between 1984 and 2001 the elite group of physicists in Mexico (approximate 10% of all scientists working in physics and its related fields) published 42% of all publications, received 50% of all citations and bred 18% to 26% of new entrants. In addition our work shows that scientists that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher increased their productivity on average by 28% and the ones that did it by the hand of a highly visible scientist received on average 141% more citations, vis-à-vis scholars that did not published their first manuscripts with an eminent scientist. Furthermore, scholars that enter the system by the hand of a highly productive researcher were on average 2.5 more likely to also become a star.

  8. Antimitochondrial antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003529.htm Antimitochondrial antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are substances ( antibodies ) that form against mitochondria. ...

  9. Scientists planning new internet

    CERN Multimedia

    Cookson, C

    2000-01-01

    British scientists are preparing to build the next generation internet - 'The Grid'. The government is expected to announce about 100 million pounds of funding for the project, to be done in collaboration with CERN (1/2 p).

  10. Scientists must speak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walters, D. Eric; Walters, Gale Climenson

    2011-01-01

    .... This can be a stressful experience for many. For scientists, the experience may be further complicated by the specialist nature of the data and the fact that most self-help books are aimed at business or social situations...

  11. Scientists vs. the administration

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Article denouncing the supposed impartiality of signatories of a report released by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), which accused the Bush administration of systemically suborning objective science to a political agenda (1 page).

  12. Scientists as writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    2002-09-01

    This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre

  13. Halley's Legacy: The Selfless Genius Who Founded Geophysics, Led the Science Community to Solve the Problem of Finding Longitude at Sea, and Whose Work in Areas from Geomagnetism to Planetology Still Has Meaning For Today's Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J.

    2005-12-01

    2005 marks the 300th anniversary of Edmond Halley's publication of his infamous synopsis predicting the accurate return of the comet that would come to bear his name. On this occasion, it is time to remember him not only as the founder of geophysics but for his contributions to the world of science beyond his comet work. Halley's comet-transformed by the first triumph of the Newtonian revolution from a dire supernatural omen to a predictable element of the universe's clockwork-remains a recurring symbol of the scientific age of the Enlightenment. His comet is hurtling through space at some 20,000 miles per hour and won't be back until 2061. But it can remind us of past epochs and everlastingly of Halley's contributions to geophysics and the world of science writ large. For a start, Halley completed a series of little known sea voyages in his effort to solve one of his life-long quests: the problem of determining longitude at sea. On the basis of his earlier theories on magnetism, his approach entailed mapping the magnetic deviation across the test-bed of the Atlantic Ocean. In this paper, his findings from the voyages, which technically comprised the first science mission funded by a government and stand as the forerunner of all big science projects, will be reconsidered and put into the context of today's notions about terrestrial magnetism, including the geodynamo. To this day, scientists remain perplexed about exactly how core's dynamo regenerates its energy. When Halley was sailing his vessel, the Paramore, across the North Atlantic and making the first charts of geomagnetism, little did he ever imagine magnetism would underpin today's stunning advances in information technology and electromagnetic engineering. Magnetism also offers ways to study phase transitions, random disorder, and physics in low dimensions, which looks at particle interactions at ever higher energies in order to essentially study matter at smaller and smaller size scales. The presentation

  14. Marketing for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, Marc J

    2012-01-01

    It's a tough time to be a scientist: universities are shutting science departments, funding organisations are facing flat budgets, and many newspapers have dropped their science sections altogether. But according to Marc Kuchner, this anti-science climate doesn't have to equal a career death knell - it just means scientists have to be savvier about promoting their work and themselves. In "Marketing for Scientists", he provides clear, detailed advice about how to land a good job, win funding, and shape the public debate. As an astrophysicist at NASA, Kuchner knows that "marketing" can seem like a superficial distraction, whether your daily work is searching for new planets or seeking a cure for cancer. In fact, he argues, it's a critical component of the modern scientific endeavour, not only advancing personal careers but also society's knowledge. Kuchner approaches marketing as a science in itself. He translates theories about human interaction and sense of self into methods for building relationships - one o...

  15. Responsability of scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Harigel, G G

    1997-01-01

    This seminar is intended to give some practical help for CERN guides,who are confronted with questions from visitors concerning the purpose of research in general and - in paticular - of the work in our laboratory, its possible application and benefits.The dual use of scientific results will be emphasised by examples across natural sciences. Many investigations were neutral,others aimed at peaceful and beneficial use for humanity, a few were made for destructive purposes. Researchers have no or very little influence on the application of their results. The interplay between natural scientists ,social scientists,politicians,and their dependence on economic factors will be discussed.

  16. Talk Like a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum-Dietrich, Nanette

    2010-01-01

    In the scientific community, the symposium is one formal structure of conversation. Scientists routinely hold symposiums to gather and talk about a common topic. To model this method of communication in the classroom, the author designed an activity in which students conduct their own science symposiums. This article presents the science symposium…

  17. Ethics for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics

  18. Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

  19. The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

  20. Scientists' views of the philosophy of science

    OpenAIRE

    Riesch, H.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies in public understanding of science emphasise that learning how to do science also involves learning about the philosophical issues surrounding the nature of science. This thesis aims to find out how scientists themselves talk and write about these philosophical topics, and how these topics get used in scientific thought. It contrasts scientists' opinions on these issues with how they are portrayed in popular science, and also contrasts them with how philosophers themselves have j...

  1. Photonics4All Crossword: Light Scientist

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Adam, Aurèle

    2015-01-01

    Photonics4All developed the quiz “The Optics Scientist“. It tests our knowledge regarding famous people in optics & photonics. 14 famous scientists you should know, if you consider yourself a photoncis experts, are presented! For instance: Do you know the Dutch scientist who lived in Delft and invented the microscope? …find our more & test yourself, your friends, co-workers, students or family members!

  2. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibody biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-06

    Jul 6, 2009 ... Another milestone in the history of antibodies was the work of Porter and Edelman ... transgenic animals (Lonberg et al., 1994; Green et al.,. 1994) or .... create and to screen human recombinant antibodies libraries, that is ...

  4. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody; Antimicrosomal antibody; Microsomal antibody; Thyroid peroxidase antibody; TPOAb ... Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also been linked with an increased risk ...

  5. Scientists want more children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Howard Ecklund

    Full Text Available Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.

  6. Scientists want more children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows) who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.

  7. On Responsibility of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdyuzha, Vladimir

    The situation of modern world is analised. It is impossible for our Civilization when at least half of the World Scientists are engaged in research intended to solve military problems. Civilization cannot be called reasonable so long as it spends a huge portion of national incomes on armaments. For resolution of our global problems International Scientific Center - Brain Trust of planet must be created, the status of which should be defined and sealed by the UN organization.

  8. Thyroid Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  9. Education and Outreach: Advice to Young Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, R. M. C.

    2005-08-01

    Carl Sagan set an example to all scientists when he encouraged us to reach out to the public and share the excitement of discovery and exploration. The prejudice that ensued did not deter Sagan and, with the passing of years, more and more scientists have followed his example. Although at present scientists at all ranks are encouraged by their institutions to do outreach, the balancing of a successful scientific career with teaching and outreach is often not an easy one. Young scientists, in particular, may worry about how their outreach efforts are viewed in the community and how they will find the time and energy for these efforts. This talk will offer suggestions on how to balance an active science research program with outreach activities, the many different ways to engage in education and public outreach, and how the rewards are truly priceless.

  10. ECNS '99 - Young scientists forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceretti, M.; Janssen, S.; McMorrow, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Young Scientists Forum is a new venture for ECNS and follows the established tradition of an active participation by young scientists in these conferences. At ECNS '99 the Young Scientists Forum brought together 30 young scientists from 13 European countries. In four working groups, they disc......The Young Scientists Forum is a new venture for ECNS and follows the established tradition of an active participation by young scientists in these conferences. At ECNS '99 the Young Scientists Forum brought together 30 young scientists from 13 European countries. In four working groups......, they discussed emerging scientific trends in their areas of expertise and the instrumentation required to meet the scientific challenges. The outcome was presented in the Young Scientists Panel on the final day of ECNS '99. This paper is a summary of the four working group reports prepared by the Group Conveners...

  11. Ernest Rutherford: scientist supreme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.

    1998-01-01

    One hundred years ago this month, Ernest Rutherford a talented young New Zealander who had just spent three years as a postgraduate student in Britain left for Canada, where he was to do the work that won him a Nobel prize. All three countries can justifiably claim this great scientist as their own. Ernest Rutherford is one of the most illustrious scientists that the world has ever seen. He achieved enduring international fame because of an incredibly productive life, during which he altered our view of nature on three separate occasions. Combining brilliantly conceived experiments with much hard work and special insight, he explained the perplexing problem of naturally occurring radioactivity, determined the structure of the atom, and was the world's first successful alchemist, changing nitrogen into oxygen. Rutherford received a Nobel prize for the first discovery, but the other two would have been equally worthy candidates, had they been discovered by someone else. Indeed, any one of his other secondary achievements many of which are now almost forgotten would have been enough to bring fame to a lesser scientist. For example, he invented an electrical method for detecting individual ionizing radiations, he dated the age of the Earth, and briefly held the world record for the distance over which wireless waves could be detected. He predicted the existence of neutrons, he oversaw the development of large-scale particle accelerators, and, during the First World War, he led the allied research into the detection of submarines. In this article the author describes the life and times of Ernest Rutherford. (UK)

  12. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Pilarczyk, A.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later

  13. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Detlev [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Luftchemie und Luftreinhaltung

    2015-07-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  14. Soviet scientists speak out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, Russian bomb designers answer the KGB's claim that espionage, not science, produced the Soviet bomb. Yuli Khariton and Yuri Smirnov wholly reject the argument that Soviet scientists can claim little credit for the first Soviet bomb. In a lecture delivered at the Kurchatov Institute, established in 1943 when Igor Kurchatov became the director of the Soviet nuclear weapons project, Khariton and Smironov point to the work done by Soviet nuclear physicists before 1941 and refute assertions that have been made in Western literature regarding the hydrogen bomb

  15. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  16. Medical laboratory scientist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Qvist, Camilla Christine; Jacobsen, Katja Kemp

    2017-01-01

    Previously, biomarker research and development was performed by laboratory technicians working as craftsmen in laboratories under the guidance of medical doctors. This hierarchical structure based on professional boundaries appears to be outdated if we want to keep up with the high performance...... of our healthcare system, and take advantage of the vast potential of future biomarkers and personalized medicine. We ask the question; does our healthcare system benefit from giving the modern medical laboratory scientist (MLS) a stronger academic training in biomarker research, development...

  17. A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANAMURA Herminia Yohko

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

  18. Single visit rabies pre-exposure priming induces a robust anamnestic antibody response after simulated post-exposure vaccination: results of a dose-finding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Emile F F; Visser, Leonardus G

    2017-09-01

    The current standard 3-dose intramuscular rabies PrEP schedule suffers from a number of disadvantages that severely limit accessibility and availability. The cost of is often prohibitive, it requires 3 visits to the clinic, and there are regular vaccine shortages. Volunteers ( N  = 30) were randomly assigned to 4 study arms: 1 standard dose intramuscular (IM) dose of PVRV (purified Vero cell rabies vaccine, Verorab), and 1/5th, 2/5th or 3/5th- fractional intradermal (ID) dose of PVRV in a single visit. All subjects received a simulated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (D0, D3) 1 year later. Rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) were determined by virus neutralization microtest (FAVN) on D0, D7, D28, Y1 and Y1 + D7. 28 out of 30 subjects (93%) seroconverted 1 month after primary vaccination; 1 subject in the 1-dose IM arm and 1 in the 1/5th-fractional dose ID arm did not. After 1 year, 22 out of 30 subjects (73%) no longer had RVNA above 0.5 IU/ml, with no discernible difference between study groups. After 1 year, all 30 subjects mounted a booster response within 7 days after simulated PEP, with the highest titers found in the single dose IM group ( P  rabies vaccine was sufficient to induce an adequate anamnestic antibody response to rabies PEP in all subjects 1 year later, even in those in whom the RVNA threshold of 0.5 IU/ml was not reached after priming. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Young scientists in the making

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2011-01-01

    Some 700 local primary-school children will be trying out the scientific method for themselves from February to June. After "Draw me a physicist", the latest project "Dans la peau d’un chercheur" ("Be a scientist for a day") is designed to give children a taste of what it's like to be a scientist. Both schemes are the fruit of a partnership between CERN, "PhysiScope" (University of Geneva) and the local education authorities in the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva.   Juliette Davenne (left) and Marie Bugnon (centre) from CERN's Communication Group prepare the mystery boxes for primary schools with Olivier Gaumer (right) of PhysiScope. Imagine a white box that rattles and gives off a strange smell when you shake it… How would you go about finding out what's inside it without opening it? Thirty primary-school teachers from the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva tried out this exercise on Wednesday 26 ...

  20. WFIRST CGI Adjutant Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N.

    One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with

  1. How Scientists Can Become Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Jonathan N; Karlsson, Sven

    2017-05-01

    Translating basic research discoveries through entrepreneurship must be scientist driven and institutionally supported to be successful (not the other way around). Here, we describe why scientists should engage in entrepreneurship, where institutional support for scientist-founders falls short, and how these challenges can be overcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Python for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, John M

    2017-01-01

    Scientific Python is a significant public domain alternative to expensive proprietary software packages. This book teaches from scratch everything the working scientist needs to know using copious, downloadable, useful and adaptable code snippets. Readers will discover how easy it is to implement and test non-trivial mathematical algorithms and will be guided through the many freely available add-on modules. A range of examples, relevant to many different fields, illustrate the language's capabilities. The author also shows how to use pre-existing legacy code (usually in Fortran77) within the Python environment, thus avoiding the need to master the original code. In this new edition, several chapters have been re-written to reflect the IPython notebook style. With an extended index, an entirely new chapter discussing SymPy and a substantial increase in the number of code snippets, researchers and research students will be able to quickly acquire all the skills needed for using Python effectively.

  3. Voices of Romanian scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    As Romania has now become a Member State of CERN, Romanian scientists share their thoughts about this new era of partnership for their community.   Members of ATLAS from Romanian institutes at CERN (from left to right): Dan Ciubotaru, Michele Renda, Bogdan Blidaru, Alexandra Tudorache, Marina Rotaru, Ana Dumitriu, Valentina Tudorache, Adam Jinaru, Calin Alexa. On 17 July 2016, Romania became the twenty-second Member State of CERN, 25 years after the first cooperation agreement with the country was signed. “CERN and Romania already have a long history of strong collaboration”, says Emmanuel Tsesmelis, head of Relations with Associate Members and Non-Member States. “We very much look forward to strengthening this collaboration as Romania becomes CERN’s twenty-second Member State, which promises the development of mutual interests in scientific research, related technologies and education,” he affirms. Romania&...

  4. A Serendipitous Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2018-01-06

    Growing up in a middle-class Jewish home in the Bronx, I had only one professional goal: to become a physician. However, as with most of my Vietnam-era MD colleagues, I found my residency training interrupted by the Doctor Draft in 1968. Some of us who were academically inclined fulfilled this obligation by serving in the US Public Health Service as commissioned officers stationed at the National Institutes of Health. This experience would eventually change the entire trajectory of my career. Here I describe how, over a period of years, I transitioned from the life of a physician to that of a physician-scientist; my 50 years of work on cellular receptors; and some miscellaneous thoughts on subjects as varied as Nobel prizes, scientific lineages, mentoring, publishing, and funding.

  5. Radiation Technician Scientist service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, Enrique; Barrera Gonzalez, Gisela; Guerra Torres, Mercedes; Mora Lopez, Leonor; Altanes Valentin, Sonia; Rapado Paneque, Manuel; Plasencia Gutierrez, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The irradiation service is part of the specialized technician scientist services of the Center of Technological Applications and Nuclear Development it belonging to the Radiobiological Department it provides a self shielded laboratory irradiator, PX y 30 type with Cobalt 60 sources, it destined for searches studies, so much basic as applying, in several branches of the science, like the radiobiology, the radiation chemistry, the solid state physics, the medicine, the agriculture and the Pharmaceutical- Medical Industry and besides offering the irradiation service properly with the which have been gotten significant economical outputs. The radiation processing is controlled by means of the dosimetric systems of Freckle, ceric cerous sulfate, Perspex (red, clear and Amber) and dose indicators

  6. Clinical use of antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Hoer, Gustav; Cox, P.H.; Buraggi, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Use of monoclonal antibodies as tumour specific carrier molecules for therapeutic agents or as in vivo diagnostic reagents when labelled with radionuclides or NMR signal enhancers is attracting more and more attention. The potential is enormous but the technical problems are also considerable requiring the concerted action of many different scientific disciplines. This volume is based upon a symposium organised in Frankfurt in 1990 under the auspices of the European Association of Nuclear Medicines' Specialist Task Groups on Cardiology and the Utility of Labelled Antibodies. It gives a multidisciplinary review of the state of the art and of problems to be solved as well as recording the not inconsiderable successes which have been booked to date. The book will be of value as a reference to both clinicians and research scientists. refs.; figs.; tabs

  7. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    . Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescope

  8. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootla, Bharath; Denic, Aleksandar; Rodriguez, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are heavy plasma proteins, with sugar chains added to amino-acid residues by N-linked glycosylation and occasionally by O-linked glycosylation. The versatility of antibodies is demonstrated by the various functions that they mediate such as neutralization, agglutination, fixation with activation of complement and activation of effector cells. Naturally occurring antibodies protect the organism against harmful pathogens, viruses and infections. In addition, almost any organic chemical induces antibody production of antibodies that would bind specifically to the chemical. These antibodies are often produced from multiple B cell clones and referred to as polyclonal antibodies. In recent years, scientists have exploited the highly evolved machinery of the immune system to produce structurally and functionally complex molecules such as antibodies from a single B clone, heralding the era of monoclonal antibodies. Most of the antibodies currently in the clinic, target components of the immune system, are not curative and seek to alleviate symptoms rather than cure disease. Our group used a novel strategy to identify reparative human monoclonal antibodies distinct from conventional antibodies. In this chapter, we discuss the therapeutic relevance of both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies in clinic.

  9. Antiprothrombin Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Žigon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS, the presence of a group of pathogenic autoantibodies called antiphospholipid antibodies causes thrombosis and pregnancy complications. The most frequent antigenic target of antiphospholipid antibodies are phospholipid bound β2-glycoprotein 1 (β2GPI and prothrombin. The international classification criteria for APS connect the occurrence of thrombosis and/or obstetric complications together with the persistence of lupus anticoagulant, anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL and antibodies against β2GPI (anti-β2GPI into APS. Current trends for the diagnostic evaluation of APS patients propose determination of multiple antiphospholipid antibodies, among them also anti-prothrombin antibodies, to gain a common score which estimates the risk for thrombosis in APS patients. Antiprothrombin antibodies are common in APS patients and are sometimes the only antiphospholipid antibodies being elevated. Methods for their determination differ and have not yet been standardized. Many novel studies confirmed method using phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT ELISA as an antigen on solid phase encompass higher diagnostic accuracy compared to method using prothrombin alone (aPT ELISA. Our research group developed an in-house aPS/PT ELISA with increased analytical sensitivity which enables the determination of all clinically relevant antiprothrombin antibodies. aPS/PT exhibited the highest percentage of lupus anticoagulant activity compared to aCL and anti-β2GPI. aPS/PT antibodies measured with the in-house method associated with venous thrombosis and presented the strongest independent risk factor for the presence of obstetric complications among all tested antiphospholipid antibodies

  10. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Qing Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scientist cooperation networks before. To demonstrate and explain this new finding, we propose a theoretical model for a nature scientist and his/her team innovation ability. The theoretical results are consistent with the empirical studies very well. This research demonstrates that the model has a certain universality and can be extended to estimate innovation ability for any nature scientist and his/her team. It is a better method for evaluating scientist innovation ability and his/her team for the academic profession and is of application potential.

  11. Improving Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    The AGU fall meeting is a time for scientists to share what we have been hard at work on for the past year, to share our trials and tribulations, and of course, to share our science (we hope inspirational). In addition to sharing, the AGU fall meeting is also about collaboration as it brings old and new colleagues together from diverse communities across the planet. By sharing our ideas and findings, we build new relationships with the potential to cross boundaries and solve complex and pressing environmental issues. With ever emerging and intensifying water scarcity, extreme weather, and water quality issues across the plant, it is especially important that scientists like us share our ideas and work together to put these ideas into action. My vision of the future of water sciences embraces this fact. I believe that better training is needed to help early career scientists, like myself, build connections within and outside of our fields. First and foremost, more advanced training in effective storytelling concepts and themes may improve our ability to provide context for our research. Second, training in the production of video for internet-based media (e.g. YouTube) may help us bring our research to audiences in a more personalized way. Third, opportunities to practice presenting at highly visible public events such as the AGU fall meeting, will serve to prepare early career scientists for a variety of audiences. We hope this session, ';Water Sciences Pop-Ups', will provide the first steps to encourage and train early career scientists as they share and collaborate with scientists and non-scientists around the world.

  12. More Appropriate Information Systems and Services for the Social Scientist: Time to Put Our Findings to Work. A review of: Line, Maurice B. “The Information Uses and Needs of Social Scientists: An Overview of INFROSS.” Aslib Proceedings 23.8 (1971: 412‐34. Rpt. in Lines of Thought: Selected Papers. Ed. L.J. Anthony. London: Bingley, 1988. 45‐66.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Laval Hunsucker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The study reported in this article was conceived in order to answer a question of very large scope: What are the information systems and services requirements of social scientists? Inherent in this question was the correlative question: How do social scientists tend to use such systems and services, and what resources and information access approaches do they by choice employ? The choice for such an approach was well‐considered, given that 1 there were at the time almost no research results available in this area; 2 the investigators feared that approaches developed earlier for the natural sciences and technology would be uncritically adopted for the social sciences as well; and 3 “the social science information system was developing anyway, and if it was to develop in appropriate ways, some guidance had to be provided quickly” (412. The Investigation into Information Requirements of the Social Sciences (INFROSS project team believed that there was “no point” (412 in embarking first on a series of more narrowly focused studies. The express intention was to derive findings that would be usable “for the improvement of information systems, or for the design of new ones” (414. For more on the project's conceptual underpinnings, see Line’s “Information Requirements.” Design – Exploratory study employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches over a period of three and a half years, beginning in the autumn of 1967.Setting – The whole of the United Kingdom. The project was funded by that country’s Office for Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI, which had been established in 1965.Subjects – Almost 1,100 randomly selected academic social science researchers, plus a substantial number of government socialscience researchers and social science “practitioners” (“college of education lecturers, schoolteachers, and individuals in social work and welfare” [413]. For the purposes of the study, the

  13. Seven scientists advise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    The Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Atomic Energy Agency held its second series of meetings in Vienna on 4-5 June 1959. The members of the Committee are seven distinguished scientists from different countries: Dr. H.J. Bhabha (India), Sir John Cockcroft (UK), Professor V.S. Emelyanov (USSR), Dr. B. Goldschmidt (France), Dr. B. Gross (Brazil), Dr. W.B. Lewis (Canada) and Professor I.I. Rabi (USA). The function of the Committee is to provide the Director General and through him the Board of Governors with scientific and technical advice on questions relating to the Agency's activities. Subjects for consideration by the Committee can be submitted by the Director General either on his own behalf or on behalf of the Board. At its recent session, the Committee considered several aspects of the Agency's scientific programme, including the proposed conferences, symposia and seminars for 1960, scientific and technical publications, and the research contracts which had been or were to be awarded by the Agency. The programme of conferences for the current year had been approved earlier by the Board of Governors on the recommendation of the Committee. A provisional list of 17 conferences, symposia and seminars for 1960 was examined by the Committee and recommendations were made to the Director General. The Committee also examined the Agency's policy on the award of contracts for research work and studies. An important subject before the Committee was the principles and regulations for the application of Agency safeguards. Another subject considered by the Committee was the possibility of a project for an exchange of knowledge on controlled thermonuclear fusion. The Committee also examined a proposal for the determination of the world-wide distribution of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in water. Exact information on the distribution of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in rain, in rivers, in ground water and in oceans would be important for areas with limited water

  14. Seven scientists advise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    The Scientific Advisory Committee of the International Atomic Energy Agency held its second series of meetings in Vienna on 4-5 June 1959. The members of the Committee are seven distinguished scientists from different countries: Dr. H.J. Bhabha (India), Sir John Cockcroft (UK), Professor V.S. Emelyanov (USSR), Dr. B. Goldschmidt (France), Dr. B. Gross (Brazil), Dr. W.B. Lewis (Canada) and Professor I.I. Rabi (USA). The function of the Committee is to provide the Director General and through him the Board of Governors with scientific and technical advice on questions relating to the Agency's activities. Subjects for consideration by the Committee can be submitted by the Director General either on his own behalf or on behalf of the Board. At its recent session, the Committee considered several aspects of the Agency's scientific programme, including the proposed conferences, symposia and seminars for 1960, scientific and technical publications, and the research contracts which had been or were to be awarded by the Agency. The programme of conferences for the current year had been approved earlier by the Board of Governors on the recommendation of the Committee. A provisional list of 17 conferences, symposia and seminars for 1960 was examined by the Committee and recommendations were made to the Director General. The Committee also examined the Agency's policy on the award of contracts for research work and studies. An important subject before the Committee was the principles and regulations for the application of Agency safeguards. Another subject considered by the Committee was the possibility of a project for an exchange of knowledge on controlled thermonuclear fusion. The Committee also examined a proposal for the determination of the world-wide distribution of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in water. Exact information on the distribution of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in rain, in rivers, in ground water and in oceans would be important for areas with limited water

  15. Monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru

    1987-01-01

    Some aspects of monoclonal antibodies are described, centering on studies made by the author and those presented at the Second International Conference on Monoclonal Antibody Immunoconjugates for Cancer held in March this year (1987). The history of immuno-nuclear medicine and procedures for producing monoclonal antibodies are briefly outlined. Monoclonal antibodies are immunoglobulins. Here, the structure of IgG, which is used most frequently, is described. An IgG is composed of two antigen binding fragments (Fab) and one crystallizable fragment (Fc). The end portion of a Fab reacts with an antigen. One of the major applications of immuno-nuclear medicine is the diagnosis of cancer. As label nucleides, 131 I and 111 I were selected in most cases in the past while 123 I and 99m Tc are currently used more often. Advantages and disadvantages of this diagnosis method is discussed citing studies presented at the First (1986) and Second (1987) International Conference on Monoclonal Antibody Immunoconjugates for Cancer. The present status of the application of monoclonal antibodies to treatment of cancer is also described. (Nogami, K.)

  16. The immoral landscape? Scientists are associated with violations of morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjens, B.T.; Heine, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Do people think that scientists are bad people? Although surveys find that science is a highly respected profession, a growing discourse has emerged regarding how science is often judged negatively. We report ten studies (N = 2328) that investigated morality judgments of scientists and compared

  17. Frontier Scientists use Modern Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connell, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

  18. The physician-scientists: rare species in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefuye, Anthonio Oladele; Adeola, Henry Ademola; Bezuidenhout, Johan

    2018-01-01

    There is paucity of physician-scientists in Africa, resulting in overt dependence of clinical practice on research findings from advanced "first world" countries. Physician-scientists include individuals with a medical degree alone or combined with other advanced degrees (e.g. MD/MBChB and PhD) with a career path in biomedical/ translational and patient-oriented/evaluative science research. The paucity of clinically trained research scientists in Africa could result in dire consequences as exemplified in the recent Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa, where shortage of skilled clinical scientists, played a major role in disease progression and mortality. Here we contextualise the role of physician-scientist in health care management, highlight factors limiting the training of physician-scientist in Africa and proffer implementable recommendations to address these factors.

  19. Scientists' Prioritization of Communication Objectives for Public Engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Dudo

    Full Text Available Amid calls from scientific leaders for their colleagues to become more effective public communicators, this study examines the objectives that scientists' report drive their public engagement behaviors. We explore how scientists evaluate five specific communication objectives, which include informing the public about science, exciting the public about science, strengthening the public's trust in science, tailoring messages about science, and defending science from misinformation. We use insights from extant research, the theory of planned behavior, and procedural justice theory to identify likely predictors of scientists' views about these communication objectives. Results show that scientists most prioritize communication designed to defend science from misinformation and educate the public about science, and least prioritize communication that seeks to build trust and establish resonance with the public. Regression analyses reveal factors associated with scientists who prioritize each of the five specific communication objectives. Our findings highlight the need for communication trainers to help scientists select specific communication objectives for particular contexts and audiences.

  20. Antibody Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out for sure? If antibody tests and/or symptoms suggest celiac disease, the physician needs to establish the diagnosis by ... who is still experiencing symptoms, to establish the diagnosis or to rule out celiac disease as a part of establishing another diagnosis. Find ...

  1. Media and the making of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Moira

    This dissertation explores how scientists and science students respond to fictional, visual media about science. I consider how scientists think about images of science in relation to their own career paths from childhood onwards. I am especially interested in the possibility that entertainment media can inspire young people to learn about science. Such inspiration is badly needed, as schools are failing to provide it. Science education in the United States is in a state of crisis. Studies repeatedly find low levels of science literacy in the U.S. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. How might entertainment media play a role in helping young people engage with science? To grapple with these questions, I interviewed a total of fifty scientists and students interested in science careers, representing a variety of scientific fields and demographic backgrounds, and with varying levels of interest in science fiction. Most respondents described becoming attracted to the sciences at a young age, and many were able to identify specific sources for this interest. The fact that interest in the sciences begins early in life, demonstrates a potentially important role for fictional media in the process of inspiration, perhaps especially for children without access to real-life scientists. One key aspect to the appeal of fiction about science is how scientists are portrayed as characters. Scientists from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences often sought out fictional characters with whom they could identify, and viewers from all backgrounds preferred well-rounded characters to the extreme stereotypes of mad or dorky scientists. Genre is another aspect of appeal. Some respondents identified a specific role for science fiction: conveying a sense of wonder. Visual media introduce viewers to the beauty of science. Special effects, in particular, allow viewers to explore the

  2. Managing scientists leadership strategies in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Sapienza, Alice M

    1995-01-01

    Managing Scientists Leadership Strategies in Research and Development Alice M. Sapienza "I found ...this book to be exciting ...Speaking as someone who has spent 30 years grappling with these issues, I certainly would be a customer." -Robert I. Taber, PhD Senior Vice President of Research & Development Synaptic Pharmaceutical Corporation In today's climate of enormous scientific and technologic competition, it is more crucial than ever that scientists involved in research and development be managed well. Often trained as individual researchers, scientists can find integration into teams difficult. Managers, from both scientific and nonscientific backgrounds, who are responsible for these teams frequently find effective team building a long and challenging process. Managing Scientists offers strategies for fostering communication and collaboration among scientists. It shows how to build cohesive, productive, and focused teams to succeed in the competitive research and development marketplace. This book wil...

  3. Refugee scientists under the spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extance, Andy

    2017-07-01

    Thousands of people are forced to flee war-torn regions every year, but the struggles of scientists who have to leave their homeland often goes under the radar. Andy Extance reports on initiatives to help

  4. Estonian President Appeals to Scientists to Find Answers to Problems

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kutsus presidendi mõttekoja avakoosolekul teadlasi ja arvamusliidreid otsima lahendusi küsimustele, millega tegelemiseks valitsusel ja parlamendil ei jätku aega või poliitilist tahet. Mõttekoja tööd korraldab ajakirja Akadeemia peatoimetaja Toomas Kiho

  5. Impact of a Scientist-Teacher Collaborative Model on Students, Teachers, and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein, Paichi Pat; Tsai, Chun-Yen

    2015-09-01

    Collaborations between the K-12 teachers and higher education or professional scientists have become a widespread approach to science education reform. Educational funding and efforts have been invested to establish these cross-institutional collaborations in many countries. Since 2006, Taiwan initiated the High Scope Program, a high school science curriculum reform to promote scientific innovation and inquiry through an integration of advanced science and technology in high school science curricula through partnership between high school teachers and higher education scientists and science educators. This study, as part of this governmental effort, a scientist-teacher collaborative model (STCM) was constructed by 8 scientists and 4 teachers to drive an 18-week high school science curriculum reform on environmental education in a public high school. Partnerships between scientists and teachers offer opportunities to strengthen the elements of effective science teaching identified by Shulman and ultimately affect students' learning. Mixed methods research was used for this study. Qualitative methods of interviews were used to understand the impact on the teachers' and scientists' science teaching. A quasi-experimental design was used to understand the impact on students' scientific competency and scientific interest. The findings in this study suggest that the use of the STCM had a medium effect on students' scientific competency and a large effect on students' scientific individual and situational interests. In the interviews, the teachers indicated how the STCM allowed them to improve their content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and the scientists indicated an increased knowledge of learners, knowledge of curriculum, and PCK.

  6. Catalytic Antibodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biological processes and is intended to catalyze a reaction for which no real enzyme is ... the reaction. In order to enhance the rates of chemical reactions, enzymes, ..... of such antibodies has already been exploited in the production of a biosensor. ..... tant to the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries for the synthesis ...

  7. An Earth System Scientist Network for Student and Scientist Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.

    2001-05-01

    Successful student and scientist partnerships require that there is a mutual benefit from the partnership. This means that the scientist needs to be able to see the advantage of having students work on his/her project, and the students and teachers need to see that the students contribute to the project and develop the skills in inquiry and the content knowledge in the geosciences that are desired. Through the Earth System Scientist Network (ESSN) for Student and Scientist Partnerships project we are working toward developing scientific research projects for the participation of high school students. When these research projects are developed they will be posted on the ESSN web site that will appear in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). In DLESE teachers and students who are interested in participating in a research program will be able to examine the criteria for each project and select the one that matches their needs and situation. In this paper we will report on how the various ESSN research projects are currently being developed to assure that both the scientist and the students benefit from the partnership. The ESSN scientists are working with a team of scientists and educators to 1) completely define the research question that the students will be addressing, 2) determine what role the students will have in the project, 3) identify the data that the students and teachers will work with, 4) map out the scientific protocols that the students will follow, and 5) determine the background and support materials needed to facilitate students successfully participating in the project. Other issues that the team is addressing include 1) identifying the selection criteria for the schools, 2) identifying rewards and recognition for the students and teacher by the scientist, and 3) identifying issues in Earth system science, relevant to the scientists data, that the students and teachers could use as a guide help develop students investigative

  8. Scientists Involved in K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robigou, V.

    2004-12-01

    The publication of countless reports documenting the dismal state of science education in the 1980s, and the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) report (1996) called for a wider involvement of the scientific community in K-12 education and outreach. Improving science education will not happen without the collaboration of educators and scientists working in a coordinated manner and it requires a long-term, continuous effort. To contribute effectively to K-12 education all scientists should refer to the National Science Education Standards, a set of policies that guide the development of curriculum and assessment. Ocean scientists can also specifically refer to the COSEE recommendations (www.cosee.org) that led to the creation of seven regional Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence. Scientists can get involved in K-12 education in a multitude of ways. They should select projects that will accommodate time away from their research and teaching obligations, their talent, and their interest but also contribute to the education reform. A few examples of effective involvement are: 1) collaborating with colleagues in a school of education that can lead to better education of all students and future teachers, 2) acting as a resource for a national program or a local science fair, 3) serving on the advisory board of a program that develops educational material, 4) speaking out at professional meetings about the value of scientists' involvement in education, 5) speaking enthusiastically about the teaching profession. Improving science education in addition to research can seem a large, overwhelming task for scientists. As a result, focusing on projects that will fit the scientist's needs as well as benefit the science reform is of prime importance. It takes an enormous amount of work and financial and personnel resources to start a new program with measurable impact on students. So, finding the right opportunity is a priority, and stepping

  9. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  10. Differential forms for scientists and engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair Perot, J.; Zusi, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a review of a number of mathematical concepts from differential geometry and exterior calculus that are finding increasing application in the numerical solution of partial differential equations. The objective of the paper is to introduce the scientist/ engineer to some of these ideas via a number of concrete examples in 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. The goal is not to explain these ideas with mathematical precision but to present concrete examples and enable a physical intuition of these concepts for those who are not mathematicians. The objective of this paper is to provide enough context so that scientist/engineers can interpret, implement, and understand other works which use these elegant mathematical concepts.

  11. Young Scientist in Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rosa

    very powerful tool that allows educators to address a diversity of topics ranging from ICT tools to the Exploration of our Universe. Instead of using traditional methods to teach about certain subjects for instance: stellar spectra, extra-solar planets or the classification of galaxies, they can use these powerful tools. Among other advantages a clear benefit of such tool is that teachers can use telescopes during regular classroom hours, provided they choose one located in the opposite part of the planet, where it is night time. Participants will also have the opportunity to use one of the radio antennas devoted for education from the EUHOU Consortium (European Hands-on Universe). A map of the arms of our galaxy will be built during the training session. Image Processing - After acquiring the images participants will be introduced to Salsa J, an image processing software that allows educators to explore the potential of astronomical images. The first example will be a simple measurement task: measuring craters on the Moon. Further exploration will guide them from luminosity studies to the construction of colour images, from making movies exhibiting the circular motion of the Sun to Jupiter Moons dance around the planet. e-learning repositories - In the ICT age it is very important that educators have support and know where to find meaningful and curriculum adapted resources for the construction of modern lessons. Some repositories will be presented in this session. Examples of such repositories are: Discover the Cosmos and EUHOU or a congregator of such repositories with quite advanced possibilities to support the work of teachers, the Open Discovery Space portal. This type of sessions are being successfully implemented by the Galileo Teacher Training Program team in Portugal under the scope of the EC funded GO-LAB project. This is a project devoted to demonstrate innovative ways to involve teachers and students in e-Science through the use of virtual labs, that

  12. Scientists feature their work in Arctic-focused short videos by FrontierScientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L.; O'Connell, E.

    2013-12-01

    Whether they're guiding an unmanned aerial vehicle into a volcanic plume to sample aerosols, or documenting core drilling at a frozen lake in Siberia formed 3.6 million years ago by a massive meteorite impact, Arctic scientists are using video to enhance and expand their science and science outreach. FrontierScientists (FS), a forum for showcasing scientific work, produces and promotes radically different video blogs featuring Arctic scientists. Three- to seven- minute multimedia vlogs help deconstruct researcher's efforts and disseminate stories, communicating scientific discoveries to our increasingly connected world. The videos cover a wide range of current field work being performed in the Arctic. All videos are freely available to view or download from the FrontierScientists.com website, accessible via any internet browser or via the FrontierScientists app. FS' filming process fosters a close collaboration between the scientist and the media maker. Film creation helps scientists reach out to the public, communicate the relevance of their scientific findings, and craft a discussion. Videos keep audience tuned in; combining field footage, pictures, audio, and graphics with a verbal explanation helps illustrate ideas, allowing one video to reach people with different learning strategies. The scientists' stories are highlighted through social media platforms online. Vlogs grant scientists a voice, letting them illustrate their own work while ensuring accuracy. Each scientific topic on FS has its own project page where easy-to-navigate videos are featured prominently. Video sets focus on different aspects of a researcher's work or follow one of their projects into the field. We help the scientist slip the answers to their five most-asked questions into the casual script in layman's terms in order to free the viewers' minds to focus on new concepts. Videos are accompanied by written blogs intended to systematically demystify related facts so the scientists can focus

  13. Antiparietal cell antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    APCA; Anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Atrophic gastritis - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Gastric ulcer - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; Pernicious anemia - anti-gastric parietal cell antibody; ...

  14. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tian; Li, Menghui; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  15. The Local-Cosmopolitan Scientist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to previous discussions in the literature treating cosmopolitan and local as two distinct groups of scientists, this paperi demonstrates the notion of cosmopolitan and local as a dual orientation of highly motivated scientists. This dual orientation is derived from institutional motivation, which is a determinant of both high quality basic research and accomplishment of non-research organizational activities. The dual orientation arises in a context of similarity of the institutional goal of science with the goal of the organization; the distinction between groups of locals and cosmopolitans derives from a conflict between two goals.

  16. Scientists, government, and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Scientists in less-developed countries (LDCs) that undertake nuclear programs become involved in political decisions on manpower and resource allocations that will preclude other options. Controversy over the adoption of sophisticated technology has put those who see science as the servant of society in conflict with those who see the pursuit of science as a social service. The role model which LDC scientists present in this issue has given them increasing power, which can be either in accord with or in conflict with the perceived national interest. 29 references

  17. Learning with Teachers; A Scientist's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past six years, as an Assistant Professor and now as an Associate Professor, I have engaged in educational outreach activities with K-12 teachers and their students. In this presentation I will talk about the successes and failures that I have had as a scientist engaged in K-12 educational outreach, including teaching the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) distance learning course, teaching inquiry-based science to pre-service teachers through the NASA Opportunities for Visionary Academics (NOVA) program, GLOBE, school visits, and research projects with teachers and students. I will reflect on the potential impact this has had on my career, negative and positive. I will present ways that I have been able to engage in educational outreach while remaining a productive scientist, publishing research papers, etc. Obtaining grant funding to support a team of educational experts to assist me perform outreach has been critical to my groups success. However, reporting for small educational grants from state agencies can often be overwhelming. The bottom line is that I find working with teachers and students rewarding and believe that it is a critical part of me being a scientist. Through the process of working with teachers I have learned pedagogy that has helped me be a better teacher in the university classroom.

  18. Introductory mathematics for earth scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2009-01-01

    Any quantitative work in earth sciences requires mathematical analysis and mathematical methods are essential to the modelling and analysis of the geological, geophysical and environmental processes involved. This book provides an introduction to the fundamental mathematics that all earth scientists need.

  19. Web life: The Evil Mad Scientist Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    What is it? Have you ever tried to electrocute a hot dog? Wondered how to make a robot out of a toothbrush, watch battery and phone-pager motor? Seen a cantaloupe melon and thought, "Hmm, I could make this look like the Death Star from the original Star Wars films"? If you have not, but you would like to - preferably as soon as you can find a pager motor - then this is the site for you. The Evil Mad Scientist Project (EMSP) blog is packed full of ideas for unusual, silly and frequently physics-related creations that bring science out of the laboratory and into kitchens, backyards and tool sheds.

  20. Practical Statistics for Environmental and Biological Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Townend, John

    2012-01-01

    All students and researchers in environmental and biological sciences require statistical methods at some stage of their work. Many have a preconception that statistics are difficult and unpleasant and find that the textbooks available are difficult to understand. Practical Statistics for Environmental and Biological Scientists provides a concise, user-friendly, non-technical introduction to statistics. The book covers planning and designing an experiment, how to analyse and present data, and the limitations and assumptions of each statistical method. The text does not refer to a specific comp

  1. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  2. Overcoming the obstacles: Life stories of scientists with learning disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Crista Marie

    beliefs that they developed these special abilities as a result of their learning differences, which made them better than their non-learning disabled peers in certain areas. Finally, the researcher discusses implications of these findings in the light of special accommodations that can be made by teachers, school counselors, and parents to encourage learning disabled children who demonstrate interest in becoming scientists.

  3. Engaging Scientists in NASA Education and Public Outreach: Tools for Scientist Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Meinke, B. K.; Hsu, B.; Shupla, C.; Grier, J. A.; E/PO Community, SMD

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums support the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its education and public outreach (E/PO) community through a coordinated effort to enhance the coherence and efficiency of SMD-funded E/PO programs. The Forums foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. We present tools and resources to support astronomers’ engagement in E/PO efforts. Among the tools designed specifically for scientists are a series of one-page E/PO-engagement Tips and Tricks guides, a sampler of electromagnetic-spectrum-related activities, and NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker). Scientists can also locate resources for interacting with diverse audiences through a number of online clearinghouses, including: NASA Wavelength, a digital collection of peer-reviewed Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels (http://nasawavelength.org), and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), a community website where faculty can find and share teaching resources for the undergraduate Earth and space sciences classroom. Learn more about the opportunities to become involved in E/PO and to share your science with students, educators, and the general public at http://smdepo.org.

  4. Increasing both the public health potential of basic research and the scientist satisfaction. An international survey of bio-scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Carmen; Boggio, Andrea; Confalonieri, Stefano; Hemenway, David; Scita, Giorgio; Ballabeni, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Basic scientific research generates knowledge that has intrinsic value which is independent of future applications. Basic research may also lead to practical benefits, such as a new drug or diagnostic method. Building on our previous study of basic biomedical and biological researchers at Harvard, we present findings from a new survey of similar scientists from three countries. The goal of this study was to design policies to enhance both the public health potential and the work satisfaction and test scientists' attitudes towards these factors. The present survey asked about the scientists' motivations, goals and perspectives along with their attitudes concerning  policies designed to increase both the practical (i.e. public health) benefits of basic research as well as their own personal satisfaction. Close to 900 basic investigators responded to the survey; results corroborate the main findings from the previous survey of Harvard scientists. In addition, we find that most bioscientists disfavor present policies that require a discussion of the public health potential of their proposals in grants but generally favor softer policies aimed at increasing the quality of work and the potential practical benefits of basic research. In particular, bioscientists are generally supportive of those policies entailing the organization of more meetings between scientists and the general public, the organization of more academic discussion about the role of scientists in the society, and the implementation of a "basic bibliography" for each new approved drug.

  5. Poll of radiation health scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A sampling of 210 university-employed radiation health scientists randomly selected from the membership lists of the Health Physics Society and the Radiation Research Society was polled in a secret ballot. The results support the positions that the public's fear of radiation is substantially greater than realistic, that TV, newspapers and magazines substantially exaggerate the dangers of radiation, that the amount of money now being spent on radiation protection is sufficient, and that the openness and honesty of U.S. government agencies about dangers of radiation were below average before 1972 but have been above average since then. Respondents give very high credibility ratings to BEIR, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and NCRP and to the individual scientists associated with their reports, and very low credibility ratings to those who have disputed them

  6. Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    activities. The program provides teachers with a one-week summer professional development workshop, long-term teacher support through classroom visits, teacher access to GLOBE instrumentation, and research opportunities for students. Professional development is centered on student engagement through inquiry, opportunities for collaborative student research, and the GLOBE Program's atmosphere protocols and learning activities. Beyond the training week, teachers receive follow-up specifically addressing current opportunities for student engagement in current research and opportunities for students to present research findings. The first cohort of teachers completed the professional development workshop in July 2012. This session will summarize the planning and implementation details of the summer workshop, including schedule and materials. In addition to these details, we will share our evaluation of follow-up activities and survey results highlighting teachers' perceived barriers to implementing atmosphere investigations. These results will add to the discussion on effective programs aimed at inspiring young scientists.

  7. To Boldly Go: Practical Career Advice for Young Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, P.

    1998-05-01

    Young scientists in nearly every field are finding the job market of the 1990's a confusing and frustrating place. Ph.D. supply is far larger than that needed to fill entry-level positions in "traditional" research careers. More new Ph.D. and Master's degree holders are considering a wider range of careers in and out of science, but feel ill-prepared and uninformed about their options. Some feel their Ph.D. training has led them to a dead-end. I present a thorough and practical overview to the process of career planning and job hunting in the 1990's, from the perspective of a young scientist. I cover specific steps that young scientists can take to broaden their horizons, strengthen their skills, and present their best face to potential employers. An important part of this is the realization that most young scientists possess a range of valuable "transferable skills" that are highly sought after by employers in and out of science. I will summarize the specifics of job hunting in the 90's, including informational interviewing, building your network, developing a compelling CV and resume, cover letters, interviewing, based on my book "To Boldly Go: A Practical Career Guide for Scientists". I will also identify other resources available for young scientists. Finally, I will highlight individual stories of Ph.D.-trained scientists who have found exciting and fulfilling careers outside the "traditional" world of academia.

  8. Scientists' perspectives on consent in the context of biobanking research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Caulfield, Timothy

    2015-05-01

    Most bioethics studies have focused on capturing the views of patients and the general public on research ethics issues related to informed consent for biobanking and only a handful of studies have examined the perceptions of scientists. Capturing the opinions of scientists is important because they are intimately involved with biobanks as collectors and users of samples and health information. In this study, we performed interviews with scientists followed by qualitative analysis to capture the diversity of perspectives on informed consent. We found that the majority of scientists in our study reported their preference for a general consent approach although they do not believe there to be a consensus on consent type. Despite their overall desire for a general consent model, many reported several concerns including donors needing some form of assurance that nothing unethical will be done with their samples and information. Finally, scientists reported mixed opinions about incorporating exclusion clauses in informed consent as a means of limiting some types of contentious research as a mechanism to assure donors that their samples and information are being handled appropriately. This study is one of the first to capture the views of scientists on informed consent in biobanking. Future studies should attempt to generalize findings on the perspectives of different scientists on informed consent for biobanking.

  9. Mathematics for the Student Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauten, A. Darien; Lauten, Gary N.

    1998-03-01

    The Earth Day:Forest Watch Program, introduces elementary, middle, and secondary students to field laboratory, and satellite-data analysis methods for assessing the health of Eastern White Pine ( Pinus strobus). In this Student-Scientist Partnership program, mathematics, as envisioned in the NCTM Standards, arises naturally and provides opportunities for science-mathematics interdisciplinary student learning. School mathematics becomes the vehicle for students to quantify, represent, analyze, and interpret meaningful, real data.

  10. Thermodynamics for scientists and engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Gyeong Hui

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with thermodynamics for scientists and engineers. It consists of 11 chapters, which are concept and background of thermodynamics, the first law of thermodynamics, the second law of thermodynamics and entropy, mathematics related thermodynamics, properties of thermodynamics on pure material, equilibrium, stability of thermodynamics, the basic of compound, phase equilibrium of compound, excess gibbs energy model of compound and activity coefficient model and chemical equilibrium. It has four appendixes on properties of pure materials and thermal mass.

  11. Involving Practicing Scientists in K-12 Science Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Science Teacher Education Program (STEP) offered a unique framework for creating professional development courses focused on Arctic research from 2006-2009. Under the STEP framework, science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) training was delivered by teams of practicing Arctic researchers in partnership with master teachers with 20+ years experience teaching STEM content in K-12 classrooms. Courses based on the framework were offered to educators across Alaska. STEP offered in-person summer-intensive institutes and follow-on audio-conferenced field-test courses during the academic year, supplemented by online scientist mentorship for teachers. During STEP courses, teams of scientists offered in-depth STEM content instruction at the graduate level for teachers of all grade levels. STEP graduate-level training culminated in the translation of information and data learned from Arctic scientists into standard-aligned lessons designed for immediate use in K-12 classrooms. This presentation will focus on research that explored the question: To what degree was scientist involvement beneficial to teacher training and to what degree was STEP scientist involvement beneficial to scientist instructors? Data sources reveal consistently high levels of ongoing (4 year) scientist and teacher participation; high STEM content learning outcomes for teachers; high STEM content learning outcomes for students; high ratings of STEP courses by scientists and teachers; and a discussion of the reasons scientists indicate they benefited from STEP involvement. Analyses of open-ended comments by teachers and scientists support and clarify these findings. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze teacher and scientist qualitative feedback. Comments were coded and patterns analyzed in three databases. The vast majority of teacher open-ended comments indicate that STEP involvement improved K-12 STEM classroom instruction, and the vast majority of scientist open-ended comments

  12. History and Outcomes of 50 Years of Physician-Scientist Training in Medical Scientist Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Clifford V; Akabas, Myles H; Andersen, Olaf S

    2017-10-01

    Physician-scientists are needed to continue the great pace of recent biomedical research and translate scientific findings to clinical applications. MD-PhD programs represent one approach to train physician-scientists. MD-PhD training started in the 1950s and expanded greatly with the Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP), launched in 1964 by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the National Institutes of Health. MD-PhD training has been influenced by substantial changes in medical education, science, and clinical fields since its inception. In 2014, NIGMS held a 50th Anniversary MSTP Symposium highlighting the program and assessing its outcomes. In 2016, there were over 90 active MD-PhD programs in the United States, of which 45 were MSTP supported, with a total of 988 trainee slots. Over 10,000 students have received MSTP support since 1964. The authors present data for the demographic characteristics and outcomes for 9,683 MSTP trainees from 1975-2014. The integration of MD and PhD training has allowed trainees to develop a rigorous foundation in research in concert with clinical training. MSTP graduates have had relative success in obtaining research grants and have become prominent leaders in many biomedical research fields. Many challenges remain, however, including the need to maintain rigorous scientific components in evolving medical curricula, to enhance research-oriented residency and fellowship opportunities in a widening scope of fields targeted by MSTP graduates, to achieve greater racial diversity and gender balance in the physician-scientist workforce, and to sustain subsequent research activities of physician-scientists.

  13. Challenges in translational research: the views of addiction scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Jenny E; Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Koenig, Barbara A; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction. Most scientists described a direct translational route for their research, positing that their research will have significant societal benefits, leading to advances in treatment and novel prevention strategies. However, scientists also pointed to the inherent pressures they feel to quickly translate their research findings into actual clinical or public health use. They stressed the importance of allowing the scientific process to play out, voicing ambivalence about the recent push to speed translation. High expectations have been raised that biomedical science will lead to new prevention and treatment modalities, exerting pressure on scientists. Our data suggest that scientists feel caught in the push for immediate applications. This overemphasis on rapid translation can lead to technologies and applications being rushed into use without critical evaluation of ethical, policy, and social implications, and without balancing their value compared to public health policies and interventions currently in place.

  14. Business planning for scientists and engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servo, J.C.; Hauler, P.D.

    1992-03-01

    Business Planning for Scientists and Engineers is a combination text/workbook intended for use by individuals and firms having received Phase II SBIR funding (Small Business Innovation Research). It is used to best advantage in combination with other aspects of the Commercialization Assistance Project developed by Dawnbreaker for the US Department of Energy. Although there are many books on the market which indicate the desired contents of a business plan, there are none which clearly indicate how to find the needed information. This book focuses on the how of business planning: how to find the needed information; how to keep yourself honest about the market potential; how to develop the plan; how to sell and use the plan.

  15. A systematic identification and analysis of scientists on Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Qing; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.

    2017-01-01

    Metrics derived from Twitter and other social media—often referred to as altmetrics—are increasingly used to estimate the broader social impacts of scholarship. Such efforts, however, may produce highly misleading results, as the entities that participate in conversations about science on these platforms are largely unknown. For instance, if altmetric activities are generated mainly by scientists, does it really capture broader social impacts of science? Here we present a systematic approach to identifying and analyzing scientists on Twitter. Our method can identify scientists across many disciplines, without relying on external bibliographic data, and be easily adapted to identify other stakeholder groups in science. We investigate the demographics, sharing behaviors, and interconnectivity of the identified scientists. We find that Twitter has been employed by scholars across the disciplinary spectrum, with an over-representation of social and computer and information scientists; under-representation of mathematical, physical, and life scientists; and a better representation of women compared to scholarly publishing. Analysis of the sharing of URLs reveals a distinct imprint of scholarly sites, yet only a small fraction of shared URLs are science-related. We find an assortative mixing with respect to disciplines in the networks between scientists, suggesting the maintenance of disciplinary walls in social media. Our work contributes to the literature both methodologically and conceptually—we provide new methods for disambiguating and identifying particular actors on social media and describing the behaviors of scientists, thus providing foundational information for the construction and use of indicators on the basis of social media metrics. PMID:28399145

  16. A systematic identification and analysis of scientists on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Ke

    Full Text Available Metrics derived from Twitter and other social media-often referred to as altmetrics-are increasingly used to estimate the broader social impacts of scholarship. Such efforts, however, may produce highly misleading results, as the entities that participate in conversations about science on these platforms are largely unknown. For instance, if altmetric activities are generated mainly by scientists, does it really capture broader social impacts of science? Here we present a systematic approach to identifying and analyzing scientists on Twitter. Our method can identify scientists across many disciplines, without relying on external bibliographic data, and be easily adapted to identify other stakeholder groups in science. We investigate the demographics, sharing behaviors, and interconnectivity of the identified scientists. We find that Twitter has been employed by scholars across the disciplinary spectrum, with an over-representation of social and computer and information scientists; under-representation of mathematical, physical, and life scientists; and a better representation of women compared to scholarly publishing. Analysis of the sharing of URLs reveals a distinct imprint of scholarly sites, yet only a small fraction of shared URLs are science-related. We find an assortative mixing with respect to disciplines in the networks between scientists, suggesting the maintenance of disciplinary walls in social media. Our work contributes to the literature both methodologically and conceptually-we provide new methods for disambiguating and identifying particular actors on social media and describing the behaviors of scientists, thus providing foundational information for the construction and use of indicators on the basis of social media metrics.

  17. Data sharing by scientists: Practices and perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, C.; Allard, S.; Douglass, K.; Aydinoglu, A.U.; Wu, L.; Read, E.; Manoff, M.; Frame, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers - data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance: Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound

  18. A scientist at the seashore

    CERN Document Server

    Trefil, James S

    2005-01-01

    ""A marvelous excursion from the beach to the ends of the solar system . . . captivating.""-The New York Times""So easy to understand yet so dense with knowledge that you'll never look at waves on a beach the same way again.""-San Francisco Chronicle""One of the best popular science books.""-The Kansas City Star""Perfect for the weekend scientist.""-The Richmond News-LeaderA noted physicist and popular science writer heads for the beach to answer common and uncommon questions about the ocean. James S. Trefil, author of Dover Publications' The Moment of Creation: Big Bang Physics from Before th

  19. Give Young Scientists a Break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    There has been much concern about the impact of tight funding on the careers of young scientists. When only a small percentage of grants are approved, even the smallest problem or error with an application can push it out of the funding range. Unfortunately, the relative lack of grant writing skills by new investigators often has this effect. To avoid a situation where only experienced investigators with polished writing skills are funded, the National Institutes of Health has instituted a more generous ranking scale for new investigators. Not surprisingly, some senior investigators have protested, calling it reverse discrimination. I say that their anger is misplaced. New investigators do deserve a break.

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in ... and more with our Ask a Scientist video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, ...

  1. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  2. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’ ... a scientist? Click to Watch What is an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click ...

  3. Biotechnology awareness study, Part 1: Where scientists get their information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefsheim, S; Franklin, J; Cunningham, D

    1991-01-01

    A model study, funded by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and conducted by the Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library (RML) and the University of Maryland Health Sciences Library, attempted to assess the information needs of researchers in the developing field of biotechnology and to determine the resources available to meet those needs in major academic health sciences centers. Nine medical schools in RML Region 2 were selected to participate in a biotechnology awareness study. A survey was conducted of the nine medical school libraries to assess their support of biotechnology research. To identify the information needs of scientists engaged in biotechnology-related research at the schools, a written survey was sent to the deans of the nine institutions and selected scientists they had identified. This was followed by individual, in-depth interviews with both the deans and scientists surveyed. In general, scientists obtained information from three major sources: their own experiments, personal communication with other scientists, and textual material (print or electronic). For textual information, most study participants relied on personal journal subscriptions. Tangential journals were scanned in the department's library. Only a few of these scientists came to the health sciences library on a regular basis. Further, the study found that personal computers have had a major impact on how biotechnologists get and use information. Implications of these findings for libraries and librarians are discussed. PMID:1998818

  4. The Immoral Landscape? Scientists Are Associated with Violations of Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjens, Bastiaan T; Heine, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Do people think that scientists are bad people? Although surveys find that science is a highly respected profession, a growing discourse has emerged regarding how science is often judged negatively. We report ten studies (N = 2328) that investigated morality judgments of scientists and compared those with judgments of various control groups, including atheists. A persistent intuitive association between scientists and disturbing immoral conduct emerged for violations of the binding moral foundations, particularly when this pertained to violations of purity. However, there was no association in the context of the individualizing moral foundations related to fairness and care. Other evidence found that scientists were perceived as similar to others in their concerns with the individualizing moral foundations of fairness and care, yet as departing for all of the binding foundations of loyalty, authority, and purity. Furthermore, participants stereotyped scientists particularly as robot-like and lacking emotions, as well as valuing knowledge over morality and being potentially dangerous. The observed intuitive immorality associations are partially due to these explicit stereotypes but do not correlate with any perceived atheism. We conclude that scientists are perceived not as inherently immoral, but as capable of immoral conduct.

  5. The Immoral Landscape? Scientists Are Associated with Violations of Morality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastiaan T Rutjens

    Full Text Available Do people think that scientists are bad people? Although surveys find that science is a highly respected profession, a growing discourse has emerged regarding how science is often judged negatively. We report ten studies (N = 2328 that investigated morality judgments of scientists and compared those with judgments of various control groups, including atheists. A persistent intuitive association between scientists and disturbing immoral conduct emerged for violations of the binding moral foundations, particularly when this pertained to violations of purity. However, there was no association in the context of the individualizing moral foundations related to fairness and care. Other evidence found that scientists were perceived as similar to others in their concerns with the individualizing moral foundations of fairness and care, yet as departing for all of the binding foundations of loyalty, authority, and purity. Furthermore, participants stereotyped scientists particularly as robot-like and lacking emotions, as well as valuing knowledge over morality and being potentially dangerous. The observed intuitive immorality associations are partially due to these explicit stereotypes but do not correlate with any perceived atheism. We conclude that scientists are perceived not as inherently immoral, but as capable of immoral conduct.

  6. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  7. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  8. Is evaluation of scientist's objective

    CERN Document Server

    Wold, A

    2000-01-01

    There is ample data demonstrating that female scientists advance at a far slower rate than their male colleagues. The low numbers of female professors in European and North American universities is, thus, not solely an effect of few women in the recruitment pool but also to obstacles specific to the female gender. Together with her colleague Christine Wennerås, Agnes Wold conducted a study of the evaluation process at the Swedish Medical Research Council. Evaluators judged the "scientific competence", "research proposal" and "methodology" of applicants for post-doctoral positions in 1995. By relating the scores for "scientific competence" to the applicants' scientific productivity and other factors using multiple regression, Wennerås and Wold demonstrated that the applicant's sex exerted a strong influence on the "competence" score so that male applicants were perceived as being more competent than female applicants of equal productivity. The study was published in Nature (vol 387, p 341-3, 1997) and inspir...

  9. Refugee scientists and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, E.

    1985-01-01

    The coming together of many of the world's experts in nuclear physics in the 1930's was largely the result of the persecution of Jews in Germany and later in Italy. Initially this meant there were no jobs for young physicists to go into as the senior scientists had been sacked. Later, it resulted in the assembly of many of the world's foremost physicists in the United States, specifically at the Los Alamos Laboratory to work on the Manhattan Project. The rise of antisemitism in Italy (to where many physicists had fled at first) provoked the emigration of Fermi, the leading expert on neutrons at that time. The politics, physics and personalities in the 1930's, relevant to the development of nuclear energy, are discussed. (UK)

  10. LHCb Early Career Scientist Awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrick Koppenburg for the LHCb Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    On 15 September 2016, the LHCb collaboration awarded the first set of prizes for outstanding contributions of early career scientists.   From left to right: Guy Wilkinson (LHCb spokesperson), Sascha Stahl, Kevin Dungs, Tim Head, Roel Aaij, Conor Fitzpatrick, Claire Prouvé, Patrick Koppenburg (chair of committee) and Sean Benson. Twenty-five nominations were submitted and considered by the committee, and 5 prizes were awarded to teams or individuals for works that had a significant impact within the last year. The awardees are: Roel Aaij, Sean Benson, Conor Fitzpatrick, Rosen Matev and Sascha Stahl for having implemented and commissioned the revolutionary changes to the LHC Run-2 high-level-trigger, including the first widespread deployment of real-time analysis techniques in High Energy Physics;   Kevin Dungs and Tim Head for having launched the Starterkit initiative, a new style of software tutorials based on modern programming methods. “Starterkit is a group of ph...

  11. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  12. Data scientist: the sexiest job of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Patil, D J

    2012-10-01

    Back in the 1990s, computer engineer and Wall Street "quant" were the hot occupations in business. Today data scientists are the hires firms are competing to make. As companies wrestle with unprecedented volumes and types of information, demand for these experts has raced well ahead of supply. Indeed, Greylock Partners, the VC firm that backed Facebook and LinkedIn, is so worried about the shortage of data scientists that it has a recruiting team dedicated to channeling them to the businesses in its portfolio. Data scientists are the key to realizing the opportunities presented by big data. They bring structure to it, find compelling patterns in it, and advise executives on the implications for products, processes, and decisions. They find the story buried in the data and communicate it. And they don't just deliver reports: They get at the questions at the heart of problems and devise creative approaches to them. One data scientist who was studying a fraud problem, for example, realized it was analogous to a type of DNA sequencing problem. Bringing those disparate worlds together, he crafted a solution that dramatically reduced fraud losses. In this article, Harvard Business School's Davenport and Greylock's Patil take a deep dive on what organizations need to know about data scientists: where to look for them, how to attract and develop them, and how to spot a great one.

  13. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  14. Maximizing the potential of scientists in Japan: promoting equal participation for women scientists through leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Miwako Kato; Motohashi, Reiko; Ohtsubo, Hisako

    2013-07-01

    In order to examine the current status of gender equality in academic societies in Japan, we inquired about the number of women involved in leadership activities at society conferences and annual meetings, as these activities are critical in shaping scientific careers. Our findings show a clear bias against female scientists, and a need to raise consciousness and awareness in order to move closer to equality for future generations. © 2013 The Authors Genes to Cells © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Educating the Next Generation of Lunar Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    lunar scientists. This panel judges the presentations and selects one team to present their research at the annual NLSI Forum. In addition to research, teams interact with lunar scientists during monthly webcasts in which scientists present information on lunar science and careers. Working with school guidance counselors, the CLSE staff assists interested students in making connections with lunar science faculty across the country. Evaluation data from the pilot program revealed that the program influenced some students to consider a career in science or helped to strengthen their current desire to pursue a career in science. The most common feedback from both teachers and mentors was that they would like more direction from CLSE staff. In light of these findings, a few questions arise when looking ahead. How do we meet the needs of our participants without compromising the program’s open inquiry philosophy? Are our expectations simply not clear? How do we keep students excited once the program ends? Is it feasible, as a community, to support them from the moment the program ends until they enter college? Finally, do we have a responsibility as a community to work together to connect students with university faculty?

  16. Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact a Scientist Find Us On Social Media: Facebook Twitter Google Plus Footer Menu Home About This Site Contact Us Terms Of Use In The News Policies Editorial Review Board Partner | Advertise | License Sponsors and Partners Spread the Word Subscribe ...

  17. Antibodies and Selection of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanack, Katja; Messerschmidt, Katrin; Listek, Martin

    Monoclonal antibodies are universal binding molecules with a high specificity for their target and are indispensable tools in research, diagnostics and therapy. The biotechnological generation of monoclonal antibodies was enabled by the hybridoma technology published in 1975 by Köhler and Milstein. Today monoclonal antibodies are used in a variety of applications as flow cytometry, magnetic cell sorting, immunoassays or therapeutic approaches. First step of the generation process is the immunization of the organism with appropriate antigen. After a positive immune response the spleen cells are isolated and fused with myeloma cells in order to generate stable, long-living antibody-producing cell lines - hybridoma cells. In the subsequent identification step the culture supernatants of all hybridoma cells are screened weekly for the production of the antibody of interest. Hybridoma cells producing the antibody of interest are cloned by limited dilution till a monoclonal hybridoma is found. This is a very time-consuming and laborious process and therefore different selection strategies were developed since 1975 in order to facilitate the generation of monoclonal antibodies. Apart from common automation of pipetting processes and ELISA testing there are some promising approaches to select the right monoclonal antibody very early in the process to reduce time and effort of the generation. In this chapter different selection strategies for antibody-producing hybridoma cells are presented and analysed regarding to their benefits compared to conventional limited dilution technology.

  18. EGU's Early Career Scientists Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts Artal, L.; Rietbroek, R.

    2017-12-01

    The EGU encourages early career scientists (ECS) to become involved in interdisciplinary research in the Earth, planetary and space sciences, through sessions, social events and short courses at the annual General Assembly in April and throughout the year. Through division-level representatives, all ECS members can have direct input into matters of the division. A Union-wide representative, who sits on the EGU Council, ensures that ECS are heard at a higher level in the Union too. After a brief introduction as to how the network is organised and structured, this presentation will discuss how EGU ECS activities have been tailored to the needs of ECS members and how those needs have been identified. Reaching and communicating opportunities to ECS remains an ongoing challenge; they will be discussed in this presentation too, as well as some thoughts on how to make them more effective. Finally, the service offered to EGU ECS members would certainly benefit from building links and collaboration with other early career networks in the geosciences. This presentation will outline some of our efforts in that direction and the challenges that remain.

  19. Scientists' Ethical Obligations and Social Responsibility for Nanotechnology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A

    2016-02-01

    Scientists' sense of social responsibility is particularly relevant for emerging technologies. Since a regulatory vacuum can sometimes occur in the early stages of these technologies, individual scientists' social responsibility might be one of the most significant checks on the risks and negative consequences of this scientific research. In this article, we analyze data from a 2011 mail survey of leading U.S. nanoscientists to explore their perceptions the regarding social and ethical responsibilities for their nanotechnology research. Our analyses show that leading U.S. nanoscientists express a moderate level of social responsibility about their research. Yet, they have a strong sense of ethical obligation to protect laboratory workers (in both universities and industry) from unhealthy exposure to nanomaterials. We also find that there are significant differences in scientists' sense of social and ethical responsibility depending on their demographic characteristics, job affiliation, attention to media content, risk perceptions and benefit perceptions. We conclude with some implications for future research.

  20. Communicating Ecology Through Art: What Scientists Think

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Curtis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many environmental issues facing society demand considerable public investment to reverse. However, this investment will only arise if the general community is supportive, and community support is only likely if the issues are widely understood. Scientists often find it difficult to communicate with the general public. The role of the visual and performing arts is often overlooked in this regard, yet the arts have long communicated issues, influenced and educated people, and challenged dominant paradigms. To assess the response of professional ecologists to the role of the arts in communicating science, a series of constructed performances and exhibitions was integrated into the program of a national ecological conference over five days. At the conclusion of the conference, responses were sought from the assembled scientists and research students toward using the arts for expanding audiences to ecological science. Over half the delegates said that elements of the arts program provided a conducive atmosphere for receiving information, encouraged them to reflect on alternative ways to communicate science, and persuaded them that the arts have a role in helping people understand complex scientific concepts. A sizeable minority of delegates (24% said they would consider incorporating the arts in their extension or outreach efforts. Incorporating music, theatre, and dance into a scientific conference can have many effects on participants and audiences. The arts can synthesize and convey complex scientific information, promote new ways of looking at issues, touch people's emotions, and create a celebratory atmosphere, as was evident in this case study. In like manner, the visual and performing arts should be harnessed to help extend the increasingly unpalatable and urgent messages of global climate change science to a lay audience worldwide.

  1. An example of woman scientist in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A.

    2002-12-01

    Although the presence of women in sciences has been increasing in the past few decades in Europe, it remains incredibly low at the top levels. Recent statistics from the European Commission indicate that now women represent 50 per cent of first degree students in many countries. However, the proportion of women at each stage of the scientific career decreases almost linearly, reaching less than 10 per cent at the highest level jobs. From my own experience, I don't think that this results from sexism nor discrimination. Rather, I think that this is a result of complex cultural factors making women subconsciously persuaded that top level jobs are destined to male scientists only. Many women scientists drop the idea of playing a role at high-level research, considering it is a way of exerting power (a matter reserved to men). Others give up the possibility of combining childcare and high level commitments in research. And too many (married women) still find only natural to sacrifice their own scientific ambitions to the benefit of their spouse's career. In this poster, I briefly present my personal experience. I chose to prioritize scientific productivity and expertise versus hierarchical responsibilities. Besides I tried to keep a satisfactory balance between family demand and research involvement. This was indeed facilitated by the French system, which provides substantial support to women's work (nurseries, recreation centers during school holidays, etc.). To my point of view, the most promising way of increasing the number of women at top levels in research is through education and mentality evolution

  2. Gifted and Talented Students’ Images of Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Camcı-Erdoğan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate gifted students’ images of scientists. The study involved 25 students in grades 7 and 8. The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST (Chamber, 183 was used to collect data. Drawings were eval-uated using certain criterion such as a scien-tist’s appearance and investigation, knowledge and technology symbols and gender and working style, place work, expressions, titles-captions-symbols and alternative images and age. The results showed that gifted students’ perceptions about scientists were stereotypical, generally with glasses and laboratory coats and working with experiment tubes, beakers indoors and using books, technological tools and dominantly lonely males. Most gifted stu-dents drew male scientists. Although females drew male scientists, none of the boys drew female scientist.

  3. Special role of scientists as citizens in a nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masperi, L.

    1999-01-01

    We are living in an age dominated by science and technology. There are probably at present more scientists alive than all those that passed away through the history of humankind. It is certain that science and technology have the possibility of solving the problems of society. However, these problems have not so far been satisfactorily treated and some scientifically ordered society which might be envisaged should hurt the common humanitarian feeling. These are probably the reasons for which a part of the public opinion has lost its trust in science and many people try to find a relief for their anguish in esoteric religions. It seems therefore necessary for a change of attitude on the part of scientists to restore the positive consideration from the society and to be able to contribute to the future evolution of humankind according to a peaceful and harmonious pattern. This short essay will start describing the historical search for solutions through science, will continue by attempting to define the values which should he added to science in the present time, and will end with possible recommendations for scientists in their connection with society, with particular emphasis on the nuclear issue. All that will be considered here refers mainly to natural sciences. Trying to find which are the attitudes of scientists that could contribute to the benefit of society, one may start with the need of feeling love for the scientific achievements they are able to make. Concerning the specific nuclear issue, both civilian and military applications must be considered. The military applications of nuclear energy should be completely prohibited. Scientists may play a relevant role in the elimination of the nuclear weapon possibility in regions of threshold states or with undeclared arsenals. On the way to nuclear-weapon-free world, it will be crucial to convince all or some of the nuclear powers to dismantle their nuclear arsenals. Scientists may make contribution to the

  4. Exploring Scientists' Working Timetable: A Global Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xianwen; Peng, Lian; Zhang, Chunbo; Xu, Shenmeng; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Chuanli; Wang, Xianbing

    2013-01-01

    In our previous study (Wang et al., 2012), we analyzed scientists' working timetable of 3 countries, using realtime downloading data of scientific literatures. In this paper, we make a through analysis about global scientists' working habits. Top 30 countries/territories from Europe, Asia, Australia, North America, Latin America and Africa are selected as representatives and analyzed in detail. Regional differences for scientists' working habits exists in different countries. Besides differen...

  5. Lyme disease antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript. The Lyme disease blood test looks for antibodies in the blood to the bacteria that causes ... needed. A laboratory specialist looks for Lyme disease antibodies in the blood sample using the ELISA test . ...

  6. Antinuclear antibody panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003535.htm Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  7. Acetylcholine receptor antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003576.htm Acetylcholine receptor antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acetylcholine receptor antibody is a protein found in the blood of ...

  8. Nuclear medicine: Monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Sakahara, H.; Koizumi, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Torizuka, K.; Yokoyama, A.

    1986-01-01

    Antitumor monoclonal antibody was successfully labeled with Tc-99m by using dithiosemicarbazone (DTS) as a bifunctional chelating agent. In the first step, DTS was coupled to antibody without loss of immunoreactivity; the compound then efficiently formed a neutral 1:1 chelate with pentavalent or tetravalent Tc-99m. Imaging with Tc-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody to human osteosarcoma (OST-7) clearly displayed a small tumor in nude mice at 6 and 24 hours after intravenous administration. The tumor-to-blood ratio of the Tc-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody was higher than that of a radioiodinated antibody and similar to that of an In-111-labeled antibody. Thus, conjugation of DTS to monoclonal antibody followed by radiometalation is a simple and efficient method of preparing Tc-99m-labeled monoclonal antibody

  9. Platelet antibodies blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    This blood test shows if you have antibodies against platelets in your blood. Platelets are a part of the blood ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Platelet antibody - blood. In: Chernecky ... caused by platelet destruction, hypersplenism, or hemodilution. ...

  10. Chinese Scientists | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian Academy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Chinese Scientists. Chinese Scientists. One third Chinese scientists are women [What about India?] ... scientists, at a young age of 52, after a valiant battle with cancer, today on 29th March 2016 in Delhi.

  11. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen...

  12. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  13. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  14. Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

    2010-08-01

    During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

  15. Preparing Planetary Scientists to Engage Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, C. B.; Shaner, A. J.; Hackler, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    While some planetary scientists have extensive experience sharing their science with audiences, many can benefit from guidance on giving presentations or conducting activities for students. The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) provides resources and trainings to support planetary scientists in their communication efforts. Trainings have included sessions for students and early career scientists at conferences (providing opportunities for them to practice their delivery and receive feedback for their poster and oral presentations), as well as separate communication workshops on how to engage various audiences. LPI has similarly begun coaching planetary scientists to help them prepare their public presentations. LPI is also helping to connect different audiences and their requests for speakers to planetary scientists. Scientists have been key contributors in developing and conducting activities in LPI education and public events. LPI is currently working with scientists to identify and redesign short planetary science activities for scientists to use with different audiences. The activities will be tied to fundamental planetary science concepts, with basic materials and simple modifications to engage different ages and audience size and background. Input from the planetary science community on these efforts is welcome. Current results and resources, as well as future opportunities will be shared.

  16. Tens of Romanian scientists work at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Silian, Sidonia

    2007-01-01

    "The figures regarding the actual number of Romanian scientists working at the European Center for Nuclear Research, or CERN, differ. The CERN data base lists some 30 Romanians on its payroll, while the scientists with the Nuclear Center at Magurele, Romania, say they should be around 50." (1 page)

  17. How Middle Schoolers Draw Engineers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Bethany; Kearn, Jennifer; Thompson, Stephen; Lyons, Jed

    2009-01-01

    The perceptions young students have of engineers and scientists are often populated with misconceptions and stereotypes. Although the perceptions that young people have of engineers and of scientists have been investigated separately, they have not been systematically compared. The research reported in this paper explores the question "How are…

  18. Communicating Like a Scientist with Multimodal Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mark; Kuhn, Mason

    2012-01-01

    If students are to accurately model how scientists use written communication, they must be given opportunities to use creative means to describe science in the classroom. Scientists often integrate pictures, diagrams, charts, and other modes within text and students should also be encouraged to use multiple modes of communication. This article…

  19. Code of conduct for scientists (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of advanced technologies in the last three decades and extraordinary progress in our knowledge on the basic Physical, Chemical and Biological properties of living matter has offered tremendous benefits to human beings but simultaneously highlighted the need of higher awareness and responsibility by the scientists of 21 century. Scientist is not born with ethics, nor science is ethically neutral, but there are ethical dimensions to scientific work. There is need to evolve an appropriate Code of Conduct for scientist particularly working in every field of Science. However, while considering the contents, promulgation and adaptation of Codes of Conduct for Scientists, a balance is needed to be maintained between freedom of scientists and at the same time some binding on them in the form of Code of Conducts. The use of good and safe laboratory procedures, whether, codified by law or by common practice must also be considered as part of the moral duties of scientists. It is internationally agreed that a general Code of Conduct can't be formulated for all the scientists universally, but there should be a set of 'building blocks' aimed at establishing the Code of Conduct for Scientists either as individual researcher or responsible for direction, evaluation, monitoring of scientific activities at the institutional or organizational level. (author)

  20. How Scientists Develop Competence in Visual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Visuals (maps, charts, diagrams and illustrations) are an important tool for communication in most scientific disciplines, which means that scientists benefit from having strong visual communication skills. This dissertation examines the nature of competence in visual communication and the means by which scientists acquire this competence. This…

  1. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series ...

  2. Superheroes and supervillains: reconstructing the mad-scientist stereotype in school science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Background. Reform recommendations around the world call for an understanding about the nature of science and the work of scientists. However, related research findings provide evidence that students hold stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work. Purpose The aim of this case

  3. Anti-insulin antibody test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin antibodies - serum; Insulin Ab test; Insulin resistance - insulin antibodies; Diabetes - insulin antibodies ... Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in your blood. ... different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or ...

  4. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issue Health Capsule Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia En español Send us your comments Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  5. Search, access and dissemination of scientific information from scientists, social scientists and humanists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando César Lima Leite

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of study on the characteristics of search activities, access to and use of information, and dissemination habits of researchers from scientific research institutes. From the methodological point of view, it is a mixed methods study which adopted the concurrent triangulation strategy. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and checklist, and then submitted to statistical and text analysis. The research sphere was consisted of researchers linked to the research units of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, and the sample basis were the researchers of the Brazilian Centre for Physics Research (CBPF and Museum of Astronomy and Related Sciences (MAST. Among other aspects, the findings shows that the safeguarded their disciplinary differences, search, access and communication activities, regardless of the knowledge area, occurring mainly in the digital environment; communication habits are stimulated by motives common to scientists and social scientists and humanists, share knowledge and visibility are the main reasons for the dissemination of research results, physicists are naturally within the open access context.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisma, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The usefulness of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and treatment of human (ovarian) cancer was investigated. A review of tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies is presented. Special attention is given to factors that influence the localization of the antibodies in tumors, isotope choice and methods of radiolabeling of the monoclonal antibodies. Two monoclonal antibodies, OC125 and OV-TL3, with high specificity for human epithelial ovarian cancer are characterized. A simple radio-iodination technique was developed for clinical application of the monoclonal antibodies. The behavior of monoclonal antibodies in human tumor xenograft systems and in man are described. Imaging of tumors is complicated because of high background levels of radioactivity in other sites than the tumor, especially in the bloodpool. A technique was developed to improve imaging of human tumor xenographs in nude mice, using subtraction of a specific and a non-specific antibody, radiolabeled with 111 In, 67 Ga and 131 I. To investigate the capability of the two monoclonal antibodies, to specifically localize in human ovarian carcinomas, distribution studies in mice bearing human ovarian carcinoma xenografts were performed. One of the antibodies, OC125, was used for distribution studies in ovarian cancer patients. OC125 was used because of availability and approval to use this antibody in patients. The same antibody was used to investigate the usefulness of radioimmunoimaging in ovarian cancer patients. The interaction of injected radiolabeled antibody OC125 with circulating antigen and an assay to measure the antibody response in ovarian cancer patients after injection of the antibody is described. 265 refs.; 30 figs.; 19 tabs

  7. Lichen planus, liver kidney microsomal (LKM1) antibodies and hepatitis C virus antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divano, M C; Parodi, A; Rebora, A

    1992-01-01

    No anti-liver kidney microsomal (LKM1) antibodies were detected in 46 patients with LP, 16 of whom had also a chronic liver disease (CLD). In contrast, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies were found in 10% of patients with LP and in 50% of those with LP and CLD. Anti-HCV antibodies may be considered as a false-positive reaction in 56% of cases, especially when anti-LKM1 antibodies are present. Our findings do not support such a hypothesis, but suggest that CLD in LP patients is, at least in Italy, mostly a postviral chronic active hepatitis.

  8. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  9. Radiolabeled antibody imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Radiolabeled antibodies, in particular monoclonal antibodies, offer the potential for the specific nuclear imaging of malignant and benign diseases in man. If this imaging potential is realized, they may also have a large role in cancer treatment. This paper reviews: (1) what monoclonal antibodies are and how they differ from polyclonal antibodies, (2) how they are produced and radiolabeled, (3) the results of preclinical and clinical trials in cancer imaging, including the utility of SPECT and antibody fragments, (4) the role of antibodies in the diagnosis of benign diseases, (5) alternate routes of antibody delivery, (6) the role of these agents in therapy, and (7) whether this technology ''revolutionizes'' the practice of nuclear radiology, or has a more limited complementary role in the imaging department

  10. Radioimmunological proof of thyroglobulin antibodies in humans by the use of a double antibody method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, V.

    1982-01-01

    Thyroid antibodies, especially thyroglobulin antibodies, allow themselves to be proven with the double antibody method, in competitive radio binding assays and with the solid phase technique. These methods offer advantages relative to sensitivity and quantifiability. In this work a sensitive radioimmunoassay as a double antibody method was worked out whereby a 125 I-thyroglobulin/thyroglobulin antibody immune complex was precipitated out using anti-human immunoglobulin. The measured results from the radioimmunoassay show a good correlation with the results of the immune histological findings. A high to very high Tg antibody level occurs with autoimmune thyroiditis (80%), primary hypothyroidism (74%) and hyperthyroidism (70%). The control values with healthy people came to less than 5% specific binding. In correlation with the results of other authors this method is advantageous relative to test start and evaluation procedures. (orig.) [de

  11. Citizen scientist lepidopterists exposed to potential carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Petri J; Vahlberg, Tero; Liesivuori, Jyrki

    2016-05-01

    Lepidopterists use substantial volumes of solvents, such as chloroform, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and xylene, in their traps when collecting faunistic and phenological data. A majority of them are citizen scientists and thus in part not identified by occupational healthcare as being at risk due to solvent handling. We surveyed the extent of solvent use, the frequency and extent of potential exposure and the safety precautions taken in trapping and catch handling by Finnish lepidopterists. Chloroform and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane were the most frequently used anaesthetics. Potential for exposure prevailed during trap maintenance and exploration and catch sorting. Adequate protection against vapours or spills was worn by 17% during trap exploration. Subjects completed a median of 100 trap explorations per season. Dermal or mucosal spills were recorded at a median rate of one spill per ten (chloroform) to 20 (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and xylene) trap explorations. Median annual cumulative durations of 8 and 20 h of exposure to chloroform and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane at levels above odour detection threshold were reported. Subjective adverse findings possibly related solvents had been noticed by 24 (9.8%) lepidopterists. All the events had been mild to moderate. No factor predicting unsafe procedures or adverse reactions was recorded despite thorough statistical testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The mentoring of male and female scientists during their doctoral studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippelli, Laura Ann

    The mentoring relationships of male and female scientists during their doctoral studies were examined. Male and female biologists, chemists, engineers and physicists were compared regarding the importance of doctoral students receiving career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring from their doctoral chairperson and student colleagues. Scientists' satisfaction with their chairperson and colleagues as providers of these mentoring functions was also investigated. In addition, scientists identified individuals other than their chairperson and colleagues who were positive influencers on their professional development as scientists and those who hindered their development. A reliable instrument, "The Survey of Accomplished Scientists' Doctoral Experiences," was developed to assess career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring of doctoral chairpersons and student colleagues based on the review of literature, interviews with scientists and two pilot studies. Surveys were mailed to a total of 400 men and women scientists with earned doctorates, of which 209 were completed and returned. The findings reveal that female scientists considered the doctoral chairperson furnishing career enhancing mentoring more important than did the men, while both were in accordance with the importance of them providing psychosocial mentoring. In addition, female scientists were not as satisfied as men with their chairperson providing most of the career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring functions. For doctoral student colleagues, female scientists, when compared to men, indicated that they considered student colleagues more important in providing career enhancing and psychosocial mentoring. However, male and female scientists were equally satisfied with their colleagues as providers of these mentoring functions. Lastly, the majority of male scientists indicated that professors served as a positive influencer, while women revealed that spouses and friends positively influenced their professional

  13. Opportunities and Resources for Scientist Participation in Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Shipp, S.; Hsu, B.

    2012-10-01

    Active engagement of scientists in Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) activities results in benefits for both the audience and scientists. Most scientists are trained in research but have little formal training in education. The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum helps the Science Mission Directorate support scientists currently involved in E/PO and to help scientists who are interested in becoming involved in E/PO efforts find ways to do so through a variety of avenues. We will present current and future opportunities and resources for scientists to become engaged in education and public outreach. These include upcoming NASA SMD E/PO funding opportunities, professional development resources for writing NASA SMD E/PO proposals (webinars and other online tools), toolkits for scientists interested in best practices in E/PO (online guides for K-12 education and public outreach), EarthSpace (a community web space where instructors can find and share about teaching space and earth sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials news and funding opportunities, and the latest education research), thematic resources for teaching about the solar system (archived resources from Year of the Solar System), and an online database of scientists interested in connecting with education programs. Learn more about the Forum and find resources at http://smdepo.org/.

  14. Interferon gamma-inducible protein 16 (IFI16 and anti-IFI16 antibodies in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: findings in serum and minor salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alunno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interferon (IFN signature, namely the overexpression of IFN-inducible genes is a crucial aspect in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS. The IFN-inducible IFI16 protein, normally expressed in cell nuclei, may be overexpressed, mislocalized in the cytoplasm and secreted in the extracellular milieu in several autoimmune disorders including pSS. This leads to tolerance breaking to this self-protein and development of anti-IFI16 antibodies. The aim of this study was to identify pathogenic and clinical significance of IFI16 and anti-IFI16 autoantibodies in pSS. IFI16 and anti-IFI16 were assessed in the serum of 30 pSS patients and one-hundred healthy donors (HD by ELISA. IFI16 was also evaluated in 5 minor salivary glands (MSGs of pSS patients and 5 MSGs of non-pSS patients with sicca symptoms by immunohistochemistry. Normal MSGs do not constitutively express IFI16. Conversely, in pSS-MSGs a marked expression and cytoplasmic mislocalization of IFI16 by epithelial cells was observed with infiltrations in lymphocytes and peri/ intra-lesional endothelium. pSS patients display higher serum levels of both IFI16 and anti-IFI16 autoantibodies compared to HD. Our data suggest that IFI16 protein may be involved in the initiation and perpetuation of glandular inflammation occurring in pSS.

  15. Web site lets solar scientists inform and inspire students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Karin

    2012-07-01

    Where on the Web can a middle school girl ask a female solar scientist about solar storms, the course and behavior of charged solar particles, and the origin of the Sun's dynamo—and also find out what the scientist was like as a child, whether the scientist has tattoos or enjoys snowboarding, what she likes and dislikes about her career, and how she balances her energy for work and family life? These kinds of exchanges happen at Solar Week (http://www.solarweek.org; see Figure 1). Established in 2000, Solar Week is an online resource for middle and lower high school students about the science of the Sun, sponsored by the Center for Science Education at the Space Sciences Laboratory (CSE@SSL) at the University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley). The Web site's goals are to educate students about the Sun and solar physics and to encourage future careers in science—especially for girls. One way is by giving solar scientists the chance to be relatable role models, to answer students' questions, and to share their experiences in an online forum.

  16. Disparate foundations of scientists' policy positions on contentious biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Achim; Moody, James; Light, Ryan

    2017-06-13

    What drives scientists' position taking on matters where empirical answers are unavailable or contradictory? We examined the contentious debate on whether to limit experiments involving the creation of potentially pandemic pathogens. Hundreds of scientists, including Nobel laureates, have signed petitions on the debate, providing unique insights into how scientists take a public stand on important scientific policies. Using 19,257 papers published by participants, we reconstructed their collaboration networks and research specializations. Although we found significant peer associations overall, those opposing "gain-of-function" research are more sensitive to peers than are proponents. Conversely, specializing in fields directly related to gain-of-function research (immunology, virology) predicts public support better than specializing in fields related to potential pathogenic risks (such as public health) predicts opposition. These findings suggest that different social processes might drive support compared with opposition. Supporters are embedded in a tight-knit scholarly community that is likely both more familiar with and trusting of the relevant risk mitigation practices. Opponents, on the other hand, are embedded in a looser federation of widely varying academic specializations with cognate knowledge of disease and epidemics that seems to draw more heavily on peers. Understanding how scientists' social embeddedness shapes the policy actions they take is important for helping sides interpret each other's position accurately, avoiding echo-chamber effects, and protecting the role of scientific expertise in social policy.

  17. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  18. Meet EPA Physical Scientist Lukas Oudejans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas Oudejans, Ph.D. is a physical scientist working in EPA’s National Homeland Security Research Center. His research focuses on preparing cleanup options for the agency following a disaster incident.

  19. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video below to get answers to questions like these and more with our Ask a Scientist video ... Is perfect vision real? Click to Watch Are these common eye-related myths true or false? Click ...

  1. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> Ask a Scientist Video Series ... can see clearly from 25 feet away. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  2. Elements of ethics for physical scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Greer, Sandra C

    2017-01-01

    This book offers the first comprehensive guide to ethics for physical scientists and engineers who conduct research. Written by a distinguished professor of chemistry and chemical engineering, the book focuses on the everyday decisions about right and wrong faced by scientists as they do research, interact with other people, and work within society. The goal is to nurture readers’ ethical intelligence so that they know an ethical issue when they see one, and to give them a way to think about ethical problems. After introductions to the philosophy of ethics and the philosophy of science, the book discusses research integrity, with a unique emphasis on how scientists make mistakes and how they can avoid them. It goes on to cover personal interactions among scientists, including authorship, collaborators, predecessors, reviewers, grantees, mentors, and whistle-blowers. It considers underrepresented groups in science as an ethical issue that matters not only to those groups but also to the development of scien...

  3. Women scientists reflections, challenges, and breaking boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, Magdolna

    2015-01-01

    Magdolna Hargittai uses over fifteen years of in-depth conversation with female physicists, chemists, biomedical researchers, and other scientists to form cohesive ideas on the state of the modern female scientist. The compilation, based on sixty conversations, examines unique challenges that women with serious scientific aspirations face. In addition to addressing challenges and the unjustifiable underrepresentation of women at the higher levels of academia, Hargittai takes a balanced approach by discussing how some of the most successful of these women have managed to obtain professional success and personal happiness. Women Scientists portrays scientists from different backgrounds, different geographical regions-eighteen countries from four continents-and leaders from a variety of professional backgrounds, including eight Nobel laureate women. The book is divided into three sections: "Husband and Wife Teams," "Women at the Top," and "In High Positions." Hargittai uses her own experience to introduce her fi...

  4. The persistent stereotype: children's images of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens McAdam, Janice

    1990-03-01

    Through their reading children learn to regard scientists as eccentrics. It is shown that this stereotype has persisted for over thirty years and affects many adult attitudes. Some methods of breaking the author-reader cycle are suggested.

  5. CGH Short Term Scientist Exchange Program (STSEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    STSEP promotes collaborative research between established U.S. and foreign scientists from low, middle, and upper-middle income countries (LMICs) by supporting, in part, exchange visits of cancer researchers between U.S. and foreign laboratories.

  6. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? ... Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. ...

  7. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  8. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

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    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ...

  9. Yelavarthy Nayudamma: Scientist, Leader, and Mentor Extraordinary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Yelavarthy Nayudamma: Scientist, Leader, and Mentor Extraordinary. J Raghava Rao T Ramasami. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 887-899 ...

  10. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » Ask a Scientist Video Series ... can see clearly from 25 feet away. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  11. Challenges before Women Scientists, Technologists & Engineers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY. ROURKELA ... oBjectives. To provide a common platform for women scientists, engineers and technologists ... particularly from companies involving women entrepreneurs and managers. expected ...

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  13. K-12 Students' Perceptions of Scientists: Finding a Valid Measurement and Exploring Whether Exposure to Scientists Makes an Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Susan J.; Bloodsworth, Kylie H.; Tilburg, Charles E.; Zeeman, Stephan I.; List, Henrietta E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was launched from a National Science Foundation GK-12 grant in which graduate fellows in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) are placed in classrooms to engage K-12 students in STEM activities. The investigation explored whether the STEM Fellows' presence impacted the K-12 students' stereotypical image of a…

  14. Analyzing prospective teachers' images of scientists using positive, negative and stereotypical images of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Esprívalo Harrell, Pamela; Wojnowski, David

    2013-04-01

    Background and purpose : This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the literature on the images, role and work of scientists. Sample, design and method : One hundred and ninety-six drawings of scientists, generated by prospective teachers, were analyzed using the Draw-A-Scientist-Test Checklist (DAST-C), a binary linear regression and the conceptual framework. Results : The results of the binary linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant difference for two DAST-C elements: ethnicity differences with regard to drawing a scientist who was Caucasian and gender differences for indications of danger. Analysis using the conceptual framework helped to categorize the same drawings into positive, stereotypical, negative and composite images of a scientist. Conclusions : The conceptual framework revealed that drawings were focused on the physical appearance of the scientist, and to a lesser extent on the equipment, location and science-related practices that provided the context of a scientist's role and work. Implications for teacher educators include the need to understand that there is a need to provide tools, like the conceptual framework used in this study, to help prospective teachers to confront and engage with their multidimensional perspectives of scientists in light of the current trends on perceiving and valuing scientists. In addition, teacher educators need to use the conceptual framework, which yields qualitative perspectives about drawings, together with the DAST-C, which yields quantitative measure for drawings, to help prospective teachers to gain a holistic outlook on their drawings of scientists.

  15. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jin-Qing; Liu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN) and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scie...

  16. The Training and Work of Ph.D. Physical Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Schweitzer, A. E.

    2003-05-01

    Doctoral education has often been viewed as the pinnacle of the formal education system. How useful is doctoral training in one's later career? In an NSF-funded project, we set out to perform a study of the training, careers, and work activities of Ph.D. physical scientists. The study included both in-depth interviews and a survey sent out to a sample of Ph.D. holders 4-8 years after graduation. Come and find out the results of this study: What skills are most Ph.D. physical scientists using? What should graduate programs be teaching? Are Ph.D.'s who are working in their specific field of training happier than their counterparts working different jobs? What skills and preparation lead to future job satisfaction, perhaps the most important indicator of the "success" of graduate education? A preprint and further details can be found at the project web site at: spot.colorado.edu/ phdcarer.

  17. Antiphospholipid Antibody Induced by Nivolumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Aburahma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nivolumab is a monoclonal antibody against the programmed death protein 1 and is used for patients with advanced melanoma. It is associated with potentially immune-related adverse events, including disorders of the skin, GI tract, and the thyroid; these disorders were successfully treated with prednisone and infliximab. Other immunotherapeutic agents were observed to induce the formation of antiphospholipid antibody (APA including α-interferon and interleukin-2. We present a case of APA development after the third dose of nivolumab in a 71-year-old male with advanced melanoma. The APA was detected after finding a prolonged aPTT; the lupus anticoagulant assay tested positive. The patient was treated with prednisone but, unfortunately, he expired a few days later.

  18. Science Teachers' Views and Stereotypes of Religion, Scientists and Scientific Research: A call for scientist-science teacher partnerships to promote inquiry-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2015-07-01

    Despite a growing consensus regarding the value of inquiry-based learning (IBL) for students' learning and engagement in the science classroom, the implementation of such practices continues to be a challenge. If science teachers are to use IBL to develop students' inquiry practices and encourage them to think and act as scientists, a better understanding of factors that influence their attitudes towards scientific research and scientists' practices is very much needed. Within this context there is a need to re-examine the science teachers' views of scientists and the cultural factors that might have an impact on teachers' views and pedagogical practices. A diverse group of Egyptian science teachers took part in a quantitative-qualitative study using a questionnaire and in-depth interviews to explore their views of scientists and scientific research, and to understand how they negotiated their views of scientists and scientific research in the classroom, and how these views informed their practices of using inquiry in the classroom. The findings highlighted how the teachers' cultural beliefs and views of scientists and scientific research had constructed idiosyncratic pedagogical views and practices. The study suggested implications for further research and argued for teacher professional development based on partnerships with scientists.

  19. Therapeutic Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Ray

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…

  20. Expression of recombinant Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eFrenzel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with human-like post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

  1. The Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, John; Boninger, Michael; Helkowski, Wendy; Braddom-Ritzler, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Physician scientists are seen as important in healthcare research. However, the number of physician scientists and their success in obtaining NIH funding have been declining for many years. The shortage of physician scientists in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is particularly severe, and can be attributed to many of the same factors that affect physician scientists in general, as well as to the lack of well developed models for research training. In 1995, the Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program (RMSTP) was funded by a K12 grant from the National Center of Medical Rehabilitation Research (NCMRR), as one strategy for increasing the number of research-productive physiatrists. The RMSTP's structure was revised in 2001 to improve the level of preparation of incoming trainees, and to provide a stronger central mentorship support network. Here we describe the original and revised structure of the RMSTP and review subjective and objective data on the productivity of the trainees who have completed the program. These data suggest that RMSTP trainees are, in general, successful in obtaining and maintaining academic faculty positions and that the productivity of the cohort trained after the revision, in particular, shows impressive growth after about 3 years of training. PMID:19847126

  2. Assessing scientists for hiring, promotion, and tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moher, David; Naudet, Florian; Cristea, Ioana A; Miedema, Frank; Ioannidis, John P A; Goodman, Steven N

    2018-03-01

    Assessment of researchers is necessary for decisions of hiring, promotion, and tenure. A burgeoning number of scientific leaders believe the current system of faculty incentives and rewards is misaligned with the needs of society and disconnected from the evidence about the causes of the reproducibility crisis and suboptimal quality of the scientific publication record. To address this issue, particularly for the clinical and life sciences, we convened a 22-member expert panel workshop in Washington, DC, in January 2017. Twenty-two academic leaders, funders, and scientists participated in the meeting. As background for the meeting, we completed a selective literature review of 22 key documents critiquing the current incentive system. From each document, we extracted how the authors perceived the problems of assessing science and scientists, the unintended consequences of maintaining the status quo for assessing scientists, and details of their proposed solutions. The resulting table was used as a seed for participant discussion. This resulted in six principles for assessing scientists and associated research and policy implications. We hope the content of this paper will serve as a basis for establishing best practices and redesigning the current approaches to assessing scientists by the many players involved in that process.

  3. Assessing scientists for hiring, promotion, and tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudet, Florian; Cristea, Ioana A.; Miedema, Frank; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Goodman, Steven N.

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of researchers is necessary for decisions of hiring, promotion, and tenure. A burgeoning number of scientific leaders believe the current system of faculty incentives and rewards is misaligned with the needs of society and disconnected from the evidence about the causes of the reproducibility crisis and suboptimal quality of the scientific publication record. To address this issue, particularly for the clinical and life sciences, we convened a 22-member expert panel workshop in Washington, DC, in January 2017. Twenty-two academic leaders, funders, and scientists participated in the meeting. As background for the meeting, we completed a selective literature review of 22 key documents critiquing the current incentive system. From each document, we extracted how the authors perceived the problems of assessing science and scientists, the unintended consequences of maintaining the status quo for assessing scientists, and details of their proposed solutions. The resulting table was used as a seed for participant discussion. This resulted in six principles for assessing scientists and associated research and policy implications. We hope the content of this paper will serve as a basis for establishing best practices and redesigning the current approaches to assessing scientists by the many players involved in that process. PMID:29596415

  4. Women Young Scientists of INSA | Women in Science | Initiatives ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Women Young Scientists of INSA. Women Young Scientists of INSA. INSA - Indian National Science Academy .... Charusita Chakravarty, one of the stars of our community of women scientists, at a young ...

  5. Amended Final Report - Antibodies to Radionuclides. Engineering by Surface Display for Immunosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, Diane A. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2013-06-14

    The relatively new techniques of antibody display, which permit molecular engineering of antibody structure and function, have the potential to revolutionize the way scientists generate binding proteins for specific applications. However, the skills required to efficiently use antibody display techniques have proven difficult for other laboratories to acquire without hands-on training and exchange of laboratory personnel. This research project is designed bring important expertise in antibody display to the State of Louisiana while pursuing a project with direct relevance to the DOE’s EM program.

  6. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  7. What Is Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Also known as What Is Antiphospholipid (AN-te-fos-fo-LIP-id) antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder. Autoimmune disorders ...

  8. Superheroes and supervillains: reconstructing the mad-scientist stereotype in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    Background. Reform recommendations around the world call for an understanding about the nature of science and the work of scientists. However, related research findings provide evidence that students hold stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work. Purpose The aim of this case study was to examine the impact of an intervention on 15 elementary school students' views of scientists. Sample An urban, fifth-grade, European elementary school classroom defined the context of this study. Design and method The intervention was an 11-week-long investigation of a local problem concerning water quality. In carrying out this investigation the students collaborated with a young metrology scientist to collect and analyse authentic data that would help them to construct a claim about the quality of the water. The students' initial views of scientists were investigated through a drawing activity, classroom discussions and interviews. Results Analysis of these data indicated that all students but one girl held very stereotypical views on scientists and the nature of their work. Analysis of interviews with each student and classroom discussions after the intervention illustrated that they reconstructed their stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work owing to their personal engagement in the investigation and their collaboration with the scientist. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that more in-depth study into project-based approaches, out-of-school learning and school-scientist partnerships is warranted, for the purpose of determining appropriate pedagogies that support students in developing up-to-date understanding about scientists and the nature of their work.

  9. Science communication a practical guide for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Bowater, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Science communication is a rapidly expanding area and meaningful engagement between scientists and the public requires effective communication. Designed to help the novice scientist get started with science communication, this unique guide begins with a short history of science communication before discussing the design and delivery of an effective engagement event. Along with numerous case studies written by highly regarded international contributors, the book discusses how to approach face-to-face science communication and engagement activities with the public while providing tips to avoid potential pitfalls. This book has been written for scientists at all stages of their career, including undergraduates and postgraduates wishing to engage with effective science communication for the first time, or looking to develop their science communication portfolio.

  10. Phobias and underutilization of university scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandra, Y.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that there is an urgent need for a large scale, nationwide education program designed to correct the almost ubiquitous misconceptions that exist because of the public's misinformation about commercial nuclear power. It is suggested that this program use only university professors and that it have a precisely defined target of community colleges. To do this a Distinguished Visiting Scientist Program needs to be established by the Department of Energy. This would be the means by which these visiting scientists could get invited for 2-day visits at community colleges. When on campus the visiting scientist would give lectures in the morning and it the afternoon to student and professors on just two topics dealing with commercial nuclear power: nuclear plants and disposal of the waste. It is suggested that a pilot program be done in California and selected hub-centers, and that it be evaluated by an independent agency so that it can be improved

  11. Scientists warn DOE of dwindling funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Fusion scientists have raised their voices to let the Department of Energy know that they are concerned about the DOE's commitment to fusion research. In a letter dated February 28, 1994, 37 scientists from 21 institutions noted that open-quotes US funding for fusion has steadily decreased: It is now roughly half its level of 1980. This peculiar and painful circumstance has forced the program to contract drastically, losing skilled technical personnel, even as it faces its most exciting opportunities.close quotes The letter was addressed to Martha Krebs, the DOE's director of the Office of Energy Research, and N. Anne Davies, associated director for fusion energy. The scientists wanted to make two points. The first was that fusion energy research, only midway between concept and commercialization, deserves major reinvestment. The second was that basic scientific knowledge in the area of fusion, not just applied engineering, must remain a priority

  12. The Normative Orientations of Climate Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Dennis; von Storch, Hans

    2017-10-01

    In 1942 Robert K. Merton tried to demonstrate the structure of the normative system of science by specifying the norms that characterized it. The norms were assigned the abbreviation CUDOs: Communism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized skepticism. Using the results of an on-line survey of climate scientists concerning the norms of science, this paper explores the climate scientists' subscription to these norms. The data suggests that while Merton's CUDOs remain the overall guiding moral principles, they are not fully endorsed or present in the conduct of climate scientists: there is a tendency to withhold results until publication, there is the intention of maintaining property rights, there is external influence defining research and the tendency to assign the significance of authored work according to the status of the author rather than content of the paper. These are contrary to the norms of science as proposed by Robert K. Merton.

  13. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratani, Michi [Office of Regional Collaboration, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sasagawa, Sumiko

    1999-09-01

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  14. A distant light scientists and public policy

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A collection of essays by a Nobel Prize Laureate on a wide range of critical issues facing the world, and the role of scientists in solving these problems. Kendall has been closely involved with the Union of Concerned Scientists, a group that began as an informal assocation at MIT in 1969 to protest US involvement in Vietnam and is today an organization with an annual budget exceeding $6 million, with 100,000 supporters worldwide. UCD is today a voice of authority in US government science policy, particularly with regard to environment issues, most recently the worldwide initiatives on global warming. Together, these essays represent both the sucessses and failures of science to impact public policy, the challenges facing scientists, and offers practical guidelines for involvement in science policy. The essays are roughly chronological, organized by subject with introductions, beginning with the controversies on nuclear power safety and Three Mile Island,then followed by sections on national security issues, ...

  15. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratani, Michi; Sasagawa, Sumiko

    1999-01-01

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  16. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  17. Perceptions of Fairness: Gender and Attitudes about Opportunity among Scientists in Germany and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Kennelly, Ivy; Fuchs, Stefan

    How do scientists account for their success? In this research, we investigate women scientists' attitudes about getting ahead using data from the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) for former East Germany, West Germany, and the United States in 1987, 1992, and 1999. The three samples provide an interesting contrast given the different contexts within which science structures have developed in these countries. Our findings suggest that both gender and country of residence (and their interactions) have powerful influences on scientists' attitudes. Scientists from former East Germany tend to be the most likely to see the role of structures in opportunity systems, and scientists from the United States tend to be the most likely to see the role of individual effort and ability in opportunity systems. However, women scientists in these three countries often report attitudes that are inconsistent with their male colleagues. On some measures, women from different countries are more similar to each other than they are to male colleagues from the same country. To some degree, women scientists ascribe to both structural and individual views on opportunity. This combination of belief systems is most likely a result of the extra effort required by women scientists in the male domain of science.

  18. Scientific risk communication about controversial issues influences public perceptions of scientists' political orientations and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraga, Emily; Myers, Teresa; Kotcher, John; Beall, Lindsey; Maibach, Ed

    2018-02-01

    Many scientists communicate with the public about risks associated with scientific issues, but such communication may have unintended consequences for how the public views the political orientations and the credibility of the communicating scientist. We explore this possibility using an experiment with a nationally representative sample of Americans in the fall of 2015. We find that risk communication on controversial scientific issues sometimes influences perceptions of the political orientations and credibility of the communicating scientist when the scientist addresses the risks of issues associated with conservative or liberal groups. This relationship is moderated by participant political ideology, with liberals adjusting their perceptions of the scientists' political beliefs more substantially when the scientist addressed the risks of marijuana use when compared with other issues. Conservatives' political perceptions were less impacted by the issue context of the scientific risk communication but indirectly influenced credibility perceptions. Our results support a contextual model of audience interpretation of scientific risk communication. Scientists should be cognizant that audience members may make inferences about the communicating scientist's political orientations and credibility when they engage in risk communication efforts about controversial issues.

  19. Career Management for Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, John K.

    2000-05-01

    This book will be an important resource for both new graduates and mid-career scientists, engineers, and technicians. Through taking stock of existing or desired skills and goals, it provides both general advice and concrete examples to help asses a current job situation or prospect, and to effectively pursue and attain new ones. Many examples of properly adapted resumes and interview techniques, as well as plenty of practical advice about adaptation to new workplace cultural paradigms, such as team-based management, make this book an invaluable reference for the professional scientist in today's volatile job market.

  20. How to Grow Project Scientists: A Systematic Approach to Developing Project Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kea, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The Project Manager is one of the key individuals that can determine the success or failure of a project. NASA is fully committed to the training and development of Project Managers across the agency to ensure that highly capable individuals are equipped with the competencies and experience to successfully lead a project. An equally critical position is that of the Project Scientist. The Project Scientist provides the scientific leadership necessary for the scientific success of a project by insuring that the mission meets or exceeds the scientific requirements. Traditionally, NASA Goddard project scientists were appointed and approved by the Center Science Director based on their knowledge, experience, and other qualifications. However the process to obtain the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities was not documented or done in a systematic way. NASA Goddard's current Science Director, Nicholas White saw the need to create a pipeline for developing new projects scientists, and appointed a team to develop a process for training potential project scientists. The team members were Dr. Harley Thronson, Chair, Dr. Howard Kea, Mr. Mark Goldman, DACUM facilitator and the late Dr. Michael VanSteenberg. The DACUM process, an occupational analysis and evaluation system, was used to produce a picture of the project scientist's duties, tasks, knowledge, and skills. The output resulted in a 3-Day introductory course detailing all the required knowledge, skills and abilities a scientist must develop over time to be qualified for selections as a Project Scientist.

  1. Scientists' coping strategies in an evolving research system: the case of life scientists in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Norma; Rip, Arie

    2006-01-01

    Scientists in academia have struggled to adjust to a policy climate of uncertain funding and loss of freedom from direction and control. How UK life scientists have negotiated this challenge, and with what consequences for their research and the research system, is the empirical entrance point of

  2. A Guide for Scientists Interested in Researching Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn R.; Anbar, Ariel; Semken, Steve; Mead, Chris; Horodyskyj, Lev; Perera, Viranga; Bruce, Geoffrey; Schönstein, David

    2015-11-01

    Scientists spend years training in their scientific discipline and are well versed the literature, methods, and innovations in their own field. Many scientists also take on teaching responsibilities with little formal training in how to implement their courses or assess their students. There is a growing body of literature of what students know in space science courses and the types of innovations that can work to increase student learning but scientists rarely have exposure to this body of literature. For scientists who are interested in more effectively understanding what their students know or investigating the impact their courses have on students, there is little guidance. Undertaking a more formal study of students poses more complexities including finding robust instruments and employing appropriate data analysis. Additionally, formal research with students involves issues of privacy and human subjects concerns, both regulated by federal laws.This poster details the important decisions and issues to consider for both course evaluation and more formal research using a course developed, facilitated, evaluated and researched by a hybrid team of scientists and science education researchers. HabWorlds, designed and implemented by a team of scientists and faculty at Arizona State University, has been using student data to continually improve the course as well as conduct formal research on students’ knowledge and attitudes in science. This ongoing project has had external funding sources to allow robust assessment not available to most instructors. This is a case study for discussing issues that are applicable to designing and assessing all science courses. Over the course of several years, instructors have refined course outcomes and learning objectives that are shared with students as a roadmap of instruction. The team has searched for appropriate tools for assessing student learning and attitudes, tested them and decided which have worked, or not, for

  3. Schmandt Receives 2013 Keiiti Aki Young Scientist Award: Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, Brandon

    2014-09-01

    I appreciate Karen's generous words, and I am sincerely honored to receive this year's Aki Award. I would like to acknowledge that my research has been enabled by excellent mentors and colleagues and by a unique community of scientists. I was particularly lucky to wander into Gene Humphrey's office as a first-year graduate student with a curiosity about western U.S. tectonics and seismology. Gene always matched my energy and enthusiasm and allowed me to find my path. Later, as a postdoc, I benefited from a similarly flexible and supportive environment in the Seismo Lab at Caltech. I also feel fortunate to be part of the seismology community. It is a special community that will strive to collect a world-class data set, such as the EarthScope seismic data, and then openly put those data in the hands of any eager scientist. This unselfish and open-minded perspective is a great motivation for me, and I expect it is for many young scientists. I am excited for the future as a member of the seismology community.

  4. The interface between the phonetic scientist and forensic investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollien, Harry

    2003-10-01

    Many scientists find the interface with criminal/civil investigations and the resulting litigation quite challenging. The great variety found among such cases and their (sometimes) shockingly grim aspects, can be most daunting. Moreover, the aid these scientists can expect when attempting to learn their responsibilities (while good) tends to focus only on the roles they will play in the courts. The reality is that they also must serve in a second domain that of investigator/consultant to law enforcement personnel and attorneys. Since training, structure and guidelines are lacking in this area, the relevant problems must be addressed (and solved) directly by the scientist. To do so, he/she must (1) learn about the parallels between laboratory investigations and forensic investigations and organize links, (2) compensate for the differences between them, (3) organize scientific personnel for collaborations in support of the needs of the practitioners, (4) adapt laboratory procedures for forensic application, (5) establish criteria for these applications and (6) develop and articulate what can and cannot be expected of these procedures. Brief case reviews will be presented to illustrate each of these issues.

  5. The Oratorical Scientist: A Guide for Speechcraft and Presentation for Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Public speaking organizations are highly valuable for individuals seeking to improve their skills in speech development and delivery. The methodology of such groups usually focuses on repetitive, guided practice. Toastmasters International, for instance, uses a curriculum based on topical manuals that guide their members through some number of prepared speeches with specific goals for each speech. I have similarly developed a public speaking manual for scientists with the intention of guiding scientists through the development and presentation of speeches that will help them hone their abilities as public speakers. I call this guide The Oratorical Scientist. The Oratorical Scientist will be a free, digital publication that is meant to guide scientists through five specific types of speech that the scientist may be called upon to deliver during their career. These five speeches are: The Coffee Talk, The Educational Talk, Research Talks for General Science Audiences, Research Talks for Specific Subdiscipline Audiences, and Taking the Big Stage (talks for public engagement). Each section of the manual focuses on speech development, rehearsal, and presentation for each of these specific types of speech. The curriculum was developed primarily from my personal experiences in public engagement. Individuals who use the manual may deliver their prepared speeches to groups of their peers (e.g. within their research group) or through video sharing websites like Youtube and Vimeo. Speeches that are broadcast online can then be followed and shared through social media networks (e.g. #OratoricalScientist), allowing a larger audience to evaluate the speech and to provide criticism. I will present The Oratorical Scientist, a guide for scientists to become better public speakers. The process of guided repetitive practice of scientific talks will improve the speaking capabilities of scientists, in turn benefitting science communication and public engagement.

  6. Radiolabelled antibodies in imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, B.A.; Haber, E.

    1982-01-01

    Recent technological advances make it possible to produce pure (monoclonal) antibodies in unlimited quantities without the need for continuous immunization of animals and to label these antibodies with a variety of radionuclides which can be traced by single-photon computed tomography. An outline review of the state of the art is presented, with particular reference to the imaging of myocardial infarcts and to tumour imaging studies using labelled monoclonal antibodies (sup(99m)Tc and 125 I). Lengthy bibliography. (U.K.)

  7. Access to scientific publications: the scientist's perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegor Voronin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scientific publishing is undergoing significant changes due to the growth of online publications, increases in the number of open access journals, and policies of funders and universities requiring authors to ensure that their publications become publicly accessible. Most studies of the impact of these changes have focused on the growth of articles available through open access or the number of open-access journals. Here, we investigated access to publications at a number of institutes and universities around the world, focusing on publications in HIV vaccine research--an area of biomedical research with special importance to the developing world. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We selected research papers in HIV vaccine research field, creating: 1 a first set of 50 most recently published papers with keywords "HIV vaccine" and 2 a second set of 200 articles randomly selected from those cited in the first set. Access to the majority (80% of the recently published articles required subscription, while cited literature was much more accessible (67% freely available online. Subscriptions at a number of institutions around the world were assessed for providing access to subscription-only articles from the two sets. The access levels varied widely, ranging among institutions from 20% to 90%. Through the WHO-supported HINARI program, institutes in low-income countries had access comparable to that of institutes in the North. Finally, we examined the response rates for reprint requests sent to corresponding authors, a method commonly used before internet access became widespread. Contacting corresponding authors with requests for electronic copies of articles by email resulted in a 55-60% success rate, although in some cases it took up to 1.5 months to get a response. CONCLUSIONS: While research articles are increasingly available on the internet in open access format, institutional subscriptions continue to play an important role. However

  8. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  9. Scientists riff on fabric of the universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Their music may be the scourge of parents, but the thrashing guitars of heavy metal bands like Metallica and Iron Maiden could help explain the mysteries of the universe. The string vibrations from the frantic strumming of rock guitarists form the basis of String Theory, a mathematic theory that seeks to explain what the world is made of, says scientist Mark Lewney.

  10. Do Doctors differ from Medical Laboratory Scientists?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Doctors and laboratory scientists are at risk of infection from blood borne pathogens during routine clinical duties. After over 20 years of standard precautions, health care workers knowledge and compliance is not adequate. Aim: This study is aimed at comparing adherence and knowledge of standard ...

  11. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  12. Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to the NEI Contact Us Visiting the NIH Campus Mission Statement As part ...

  14. Knowledge transfer activities of scientists in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewska-Kurek, Katarzyna; Egedova, Klaudia; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; Roosendaal, Hans E.

    In this paper, we present a theory of strategic positioning that explains scientists’ strategic behavior in knowledge transfer from university to industry. The theory is based on the drivers strategic interdependence and organizational autonomy and entails three modes of behavior of scientists:

  15. A Systematic Identification of Scientists on Twitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Q.; Ahn, Y.Y.; Sugimoto, C.R.

    2016-07-01

    There is an increasing use of Twitter and other social media to estimate the broader social impacts of scholarship. However, without systematic understanding of the entities that participate in conversations about science, efforts to translate altmetrics into impact indicators may produce highly misleading results. Here we present a systematic approach to identifying scientists on Twitter. (Author)

  16. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel: An Engineer Scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 9. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel: An Engineer Scientist. Ananth Ramaswamy. General Article Volume 14 Issue 9 September 2009 pp 840-848. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... Employee Emergency Information NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. ...

  18. Scientists hope collider makes a big bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Nickerson, Colin

    2007-01-01

    "In a 17-ile circular tunnel curving beneath the Swiss-French border, scientists are poised to recreate the universe's first trillionth of a second. The aim of the audacious undertaking is to solve one of the most perturbing puzzles of physics: How did matter attain mass and form the cosmos? (2 pages)

  19. The Political Scientist as Local Campaign Consultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Robert E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During my 45 years as an academic, I have followed the admonition sometimes attributed to the legendary Jedi warrior Obi-Wan Kenobe that political scientists should "use [their] power for good and not for evil." In this spirit, I have devoted substantial portions of my career to public service by providing strategic advice and campaign management…

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search the NEI Website search NEI on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L About NEI NEI Research Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ...

  1. Engineers, scientists to benefit from CERN agreement

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi will later this week sign a memorandum of understanding with the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva (CERN), the largest laboratory of its kind in the world, which will create new opportunities for Maltese engineers and scientists.

  2. Careers in Science: Being a Soil Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    Being a soil scientist is a fascinating and certainly diverse career, which can indeed involve working in a laboratory or diagnosing sick orange trees. However it often involves much, much more. In 2015, as part of the United Nations' "International Year of Soils," Soil Science Australia's (SSA) "Soils in Schools" program…

  3. New initiative links scientists and entertainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The US National Academy of Sciences has teamed up with Hollywood to improve the quality of science portrayed in films, TV shows and video games. The new Science and Entertainment Exchange (SEE) aims to create better links between entertainment-industry professionals and scientists to improve the credibility of programming related to science.

  4. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation boarding school. A total of 133 NA students were asked to draw a picture of a scientist at work and to provide a written explanation as to what the scientist was doing. A content analysis of the drawings indicated that the level of stereotype differed between all NA subgroups, but analysis of variance revealed that these differences were not significant between groups except for students who practised native cultural tradition at home compared to students who did not practise native cultural tradition at home (p educational and career science, technology, engineering, and mathematics paths in the future. The educational implication is that once initial perceptions are identified, researchers and teachers can provide meaningful experiences to combat the stereotypes.

  5. Educational Mismatch and the Careers of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Keith A.; Heywood, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research confirms that many employees work in jobs not well matched to their skills and education, resulting in lower pay and job satisfaction. While this literature typically uses cross-sectional data, we examine the evolution of mismatch and its consequences over a career, by using a panel data set of scientists in the USA. The results…

  6. Life as a Mother-Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Lucille

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the difficulties she faced as she tried to reach a balance between her career as a scientist and her role as a mother. She speaks of how she often found problems in putting her children into day care centers. She also relates that the confidence mothers have in their academic careers is correlated to the quality…

  7. University scientists test Mars probe equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Scientists at Leicester University have spent four years researching and designing the Flight Model Position Adjustable Workbench (PAW) at the university. It will be attached to the Beagle 2 probe before being sent to the Red Planet in the spring (1/2 page).

  8. First interactive conference of young scientists. Posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    This interactive conference of young scientists was realised on the Internet. Conference proceeded in five sections: (1) Cellular metabolism, physiology, molecular biology and genetics; (2) Biotechnology and food technology; (3) The use of instrumental methods in the analysis of biologically important substances; (4) Ecology and environmental science; (5) Open section for students. Relevant posters were included into the database INIS.

  9. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  10. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  11. Facilitating ethical reflection among scientists using the ethical matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Gamborg, Christian; Millar, Kate; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Several studies have indicated that scientists are likely to have an outlook on both facts and values that are different to that of lay people in important ways. This is one significant reason it is currently believed that in order for scientists to exercise a reliable ethical reflection about their research it is necessary for them to engage in dialogue with other stakeholders. This paper reports on an exercise to encourage a group of scientists to reflect on ethical issues without the presence of external stakeholders. It reports on the use of a reflection process with scientists working in the area of animal disease genomics (mainly drawn from the EADGENE EC Network of Excellence). This reflection process was facilitated by using an ethical engagement framework, a modified version of the Ethical Matrix. As judged by two criteria, a qualitative assessment of the outcomes and the participants' own assessment of the process, this independent reflective exercise was deemed to be successful. The discussions demonstrated a high level of complexity and depth, with participants demonstrating a clear perception of uncertainties and the context in which their research operates. Reflection on stakeholder views and values appeared to be embedded within the discussions. The finding from this exercise seems to indicate that even without the involvement of the wider stakeholder community, valuable reflection and worthwhile discourse can be generated from ethical reflection processes involving only scienitific project partners. Hence, the previous assumption that direct stakeholder engagement is necessary for ethical reflection does not appear to hold true in all cases; however, other reasons for involving a broad group of stakeholders relating to governance and social accountability of science remain.

  12. Bridging the Gap Between Scientists and Classrooms: Scientist Engagement in the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers in today s classrooms need to find creative ways to connect students with science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) experts. These STEM experts can serve as role models and help students think about potential future STEM careers. They can also help reinforce academic knowledge and skills. The cost of transportation restricts teachers ability to take students on field trips exposing them to outside experts and unique learning environments. Additionally, arranging to bring in guest speakers to the classroom seems to happen infrequently, especially in schools in rural areas. The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program [1], facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate Education Program at the NASA Johnson Space Center has created a way to enable teachers to connect their students with STEM experts virtually. These virtual connections not only help engage students with role models, but are also designed to help teachers address concepts and content standards they are required to teach. Through EEAB, scientists are able to actively engage with students across the nation in multiple ways. They can work with student teams as mentors, participate in virtual student team science presentations, or connect with students through Classroom Connection Distance Learning (DL) Events.

  13. Production of Mouse Monoclonal Antibody against Morphine without Cross Reactivity with Heroin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kashaninan

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The study findings revealed that the produced antibody against morphine was comparable with other antibodies for specificity and affinity; therefore it is usable in design of diagnostic immunoassay in biologic fluids.

  14. Scientists' Perceptions of Communicating During Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohaney, J. A.; Hudson-Doyle, E.; Brogt, E.; Wilson, T. M.; Kennedy, B.

    2015-12-01

    To further our understanding of how to enhance student science and risk communication skills in natural hazards and earth science courses, we conducted a pilot study to assess the different perceptions of expert scientists and risk communication practitioners versus the perceptions of students. These differences will be used to identify expert views on best practice, and improve the teaching of communication skills at the University level. In this pilot study, a perceptions questionnaire was developed and validated. Within this, respondents (geoscientists, engineers, and emergency managers; n=44) were asked to determine their agreement with the use and effectiveness of specific communication strategies (within the first 72 hours after a devastating earthquake) when communicating to the public. In terms of strategies and information to the public, the respondents were mostly in agreement, but there were several statements which elicited large differences between expert responses: 1) the role and purpose of the scientific communication during crises (to persuade people to care, to provide advice, to empower people to take action); 2) the scientist's delivery (showing the scientists emotions and enthusiasm for scientific concepts they are discussing); and 3) the amount of data that is discussed (being comprehensive versus 'only the important' data). The most disagreed upon dimension was related to whether to disclose any political influence on the communication. Additionally, scientists identified that being an effective communicator was an important part of their job, and agreed that it is important to practice these skills. Respondents generally indicated that while scientists should be accountable for the science advice provided, they should not be held liable.

  15. Monoclonal antibodies in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.Y.T.; Sikora, K.

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MCAs) can be used to differentiate between normal and neoplastic cells and thus exploited for diagnostic and, ultimately, therapeutic gain. The evidence for the existence of human tumour antigens is reviewed. Several areas of diagnosis are already benefiting from the application of the monoclonal technology. Immunohistology can help the pathologist with difficult diagnostic problems. New classifications of lymphoma and leukaemia can be based on specific surface molecules. Similarly, the detection of shed tumour antigens is already established as part of the routine assessment of many patients with common solid tumours. Isotopically labeled monoclonal antibodies have been used to localise primary and metastatic tumours. The use of antibodies in this way is not only a promising diagnostic tool but also the first step in studying the possibility of arming antibodies to provide therapeutic agents. Such trials are currently in progress. (Auth.)

  16. Future of antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Duncan; O'Leary, Rhona; Pujar, Narahari S

    2007-03-15

    Antibody purification seems to be safely ensconced in a platform, now well-established by way of multiple commercialized antibody processes. However, natural evolution compels us to peer into the future. This is driven not only by a large, projected increase in the number of antibody therapies, but also by dramatic improvements in upstream productivity, and process economics. Although disruptive technologies have yet escaped downstream processes, evolution of the so-called platform is already evident in antibody processes in late-stage development. Here we perform a wide survey of technologies that are competing to be part of that platform, and provide our [inherently dangerous] assessment of those that have the most promise.

  17. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital herpes. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ... person has ever been infected with oral or genital herpes . It looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus ...

  18. What scientists want from their research ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith-Spiegel, Patricia; Tabachnick, Barbara

    2006-03-01

    Whereas investigators have directed considerable criticism against Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), the desirable characteristics of IRBs have not previously been empirically determined. A sample of 886 experienced biomedical and social and behavioral scientists rated 45 descriptors of IRB actions and functions as to their importance. Predictions derived from organizational justice research findings in other work settings were generally borne out. Investigators place high value on the fairness and respectful consideration of their IRBs. Expected differences between biomedical and social behavioral researchers and other variables were unfounded. Recommendations are offered for educating IRBs to accord researchers greater respect and fair treatment.

  19. Everyone Knows What a Scientist Looks Like: The Image of a Modern Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.

    2008-11-01

    Children are inspired to follow career paths when they can imagine themselves there. Seeing pictures of adult individuals who look like them working in a given career can provide this spark to children's imaginations. Most (though not all) of the current available posters of scientists are of Einstein, and Einstein-like scientists. This is not representative of the current face of science. To change this, Pacific Science Center will host a photography exhibit: photographs of real, current scientists from all races, genders, beliefs, and walks of life. Photos will be taken and short biographies written by Discovery Corps Interns (Pacific Science Center's youth development program) to increase the amount of direct contact between students and scientists, and to give the exhibit an emotional connection for local teachers and families. We plan to make the photographs from this exhibit available to teachers for use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center during the International Year of Astronomy. The objectives of this project are to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community and to meet two of the goals of the International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by under-represented minorities in scientific and engineering careers.

  20. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  1. Not going it alone: scientists and their work featured online at FrontierScientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, E. A.; Nielsen, L.

    2015-12-01

    Science outreach demystifies science, and outreach media gives scientists a voice to engage the public. Today scientists are expected to communicate effectively not only with peers but also with a braod public audience, yet training incentiives are sometimes scarce. Media creation training is even less emphasized. Editing video to modern standards takes practice; arrangling light and framing shots isn't intuitive. While great tutorials exist, learning videography, story boarding, editing and sharing techniques will always require a commitment of time and effort. Yet ideally sharing science should be low-hanging fruit. FrontierScientists, a science-sharing website funded by the NSF, seeks to let scientists display their breakthroughs and share their excitement for their work with the public by working closely yet non-exhaustively with a professional media team. A director and videographer join scientists to film first-person accounts in the field or lab. Pictures and footage with field site explanations give media creators raw material. Scientists communicate efficiently and retain editorial control over the project, but a small team of media creators craft the public aimed content. A series of engaging short videos with narrow focuses illuminate the science. Written articles support with explanations. Social media campaigns spread the word, link content, welcome comments and keep abreast of changing web requirements. All FrontierScientists featured projects are aggregated to one mobile-friendly site available online or via an App. There groupings of Arctic-focused science provide a wealth of topics and content to explore. Scientists describe why their science is important, what drew them to it, and why the average American should care. When scientists share their work it's wonderful; a team approach is a schedule-friendly way that lets them serve as science communicators without taking up a handful of extra careers.

  2. Attitudes Toward Gender, Work, and Family among Female and Male Scientists in Germany and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Fuchs, Stefan; Aisenbrey, Silke; Kravets, Natalyia

    This research used a comparative approach and an elite framework to look at attitudes toward gender, work, and family among male and female scientists. The data came from the 1994 International Social Survey Program module measuring family and changing gender roles in (the former) East Germany, West Germany, and the United States. Research questions focused on the variation between the three samples in male scientists' attitudes regarding gender, work, and family; women's representation in science occupations; and the relation between the two. Another major concern was the extent to which female scientists express attitudes regarding gender, work, and family that resemble those of male scientists and the implications of these processes for increasing women's access to science. As predicted, male scientists in East Germany tended to have the most progressive attitudes (especially those regarding gender and work), East German women had the greatest access to science occupations, and there were virtually no sex differences in attitudes of East German scientists. West German male scientists were the most traditional on attitudes regarding gender and work, and U. S. male scientists tended to be the most traditional on attitudes regarding family. The attitudes of female scientists in West Germany and the United States reflected this larger trend, but there were sex differences within countries, with female scientists being more progressive than male scientists. Thus, the findings suggest that women s representation in science is related to the attitudes of male scientists regarding gender, work, and family. And although female scientists often hold quite similar attitudes as male scientists, there is considerable cross-country variation in how progressive the attitudes are and how similar men's and women's attitudes are. Implications for women's access to elite science occupations are discussed.

  3. Antibody recognition of Z-DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafer, E.M.; Moeller, A.; Valle, R.P.C.; Nordheim, V.A.; Rich, A.; Stollar, B.D.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge)

    1983-01-01

    To measure serological reactions under physiological ionic strength, we prepared a brominated (Bl) poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC), which forms a stable Z helix in solutions of low salt concentration. Mice and rabbits were immunized with this polymer complexed with the basic protein methylated bovine serum albumin (MBSA), and it was discovered that the Z-DNA helix is a strong immunogen. Various antibody populations were purified from the rabbit serum by quantitative immunoprecipitation. Spleen cells from the mice were used for the preparation of hybridoma cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies. Anti-Z-DNA antibodies were also raised by immunizing animals with poly(dG-dm 5 C).poly(dG-dm 5 C) under conditions where it was reported to be in the left-handed Z conformation as well as unmodified poly(dG-dC).poly(dG-dC) that was in the right-handed B conformation: both were complexed with MBSA. Z-DNA reactive antibodies were found in both murine and human SLE. A Z-DNA-specific as well as a dDNA and Z-DNA cross-reactive antibody population were distinguished by affinity chromatography of the SLE sera. The specificities of the various anti-Z-DNA antibody populations were measured by direct-binding and competitive radioimmunoassays, using synthetic polymers of defined structure under various ionic strengths. These studies allow us to map the possible antigenic sites for these antibodies, which serve as a model for DNA-protein recognition. The findings also established the usefulness of the antibodies as biochemical probes for Z-DNA. 29 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  4. new scientist - singing in the name of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peragine, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    Basically what I am concerned with as composer, musician, film maker etc. is communicating in any way with the resources available the significance behind human civilization's impact on climate change. I accomplish this with the other components of my band, and the song that follows entitled New Scientist is an attempt to do this using the platform of the popular 3 minute rock song format. This Scientific Symposium is important no doubt, being a wonderful way of bringing creativity into science by inviting artists to participate. However time is running out and getting the message out on the scale necessary to start reversing the damage caused by modern man can only effectively be done with mass communication tools, hence broadcast and social media. The lyrics for New Scientist and other compositions we have in our repertoire try to provoke awareness by being set in the future, talking to the egocentric nature of mankind and to the small percentage of those who have the will and insight to attempt the almost supernatural feat of saving some semblance of human habitat either on Earth, or finding a new one elsewhere in the Universe. It is a bit satirical but oddly enough with world governments firmly in the hands of big business be it dirty oil or the factory farming of animals etc.,radical scientific solutions for the Earth seem to be mankind's only hope. It's great that NASA is finally making an attempt to reactivate manned space flights to Mars and deep space. In fact, nobody has ever taken seriously the impact of this research and technology on fighting climate change on Earth. To give an example, the hydrogen fuel cell is a technology not in use in everyday life in the modern world due to the lack of government special interests and subsidies. The good news however is that many of the scientific breakthroughs pioneered by NASA and its contractors have made available the ecologically friendly tools necessary to reverse climate change if only they would be made

  5. Role Models for boosting mobility of women scientists in geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellis, Giovanna; Theodoridou, Magdalini

    2017-04-01

    part in moving in the right direction, because it may take some time to achieve true gender equity in science. The MCAA is committed to the promotion of women scientists and is sensitive to gender issues in science, and thus a Women in Science working group has been established, namely the Gender Equality for Mobile researchers in Science (GEMS). The GEMS working group has been active since September 2014 in order to promote mobility among the women scientists community, provide feedback from the European Community on policy issues regarding mobility in particular, and to collaborate with other associations and organizations active in the same fields. The main goal is to find ways to promote the participation of and motivation for women with regard to science and therefore finding and analyzing reasons why women face problems or give up at the high levels of the science field. The WG GEMS has participated in WiS conferences at the European level and outside of it, including Gender Summit, WIRES, MARIE CURIE CONFERENCES, ESOF2016, and are also applying to HORIZON2020 to study different types of researchers' mobility, such as virtual mobility, Intersectoral mobility between industry and academia, interdisciplinary mobility, and others.

  6. Imaging of colorectal carcinoma with radiolabeled antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, D M; Goldenberg, H; Sharkey, R M; Lee, R E; Higgenbotham-Ford, E; Horowitz, J A; Hall, T C; Pinsky, C M; Hansen, H J

    1989-10-01

    Colorectal cancer has been the tumor type most frequently studied with radiolabeled antibodies. Among the various antibodies, a majority of patients with colorectal cancer have received xenogeneic polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies against carcino-embryonic antigen. This review summarizes the current status of colorectal cancer imaging with radiolabeled antibodies, ie, radioimmunodetection (RAID), and examines the published studies involving carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibodies and 17-1A, 19-9, and B72.3, and other monoclonal antibodies. In order to better address the issue of the current and future clinical usefulness of this emerging technology, particular attention is given to the protocols, methods, and results of the published studies. Despite differences in study parameters, antibodies and forms, labels, administration routes and doses, and scanning instruments and methods, it has been found that (1) almost no adverse reactions have been evident; (2) antibody fragments are preferred over whole immunoglobulin G reagents because they achieve higher tumor-to-background ratios earlier, thus reducing or precluding the need for dual-isotope subtraction methods or long delays before imaging; (3) use of antibody fragments, including the monovalent Fab' form, permits imaging with short-lived radionuclides of excellent photon properties, such as 123I and 99mTc; (4) circulating antigens against which the imaging antibody is directed can complex with the injected antibody, but such complexes have not prevented successful RAID; (5) patients with high serum titers of the appropriate antigen target usually have higher rates of positive RAID; (6) patients who are seronegative for the tumor antigen being studied can have positive RAID findings, which can represent the detection of occult lesions; (7) single photon emission computed tomography appears to provide better image resolution than planar scanning; (8) regardless of the sensitivity reported in any particular

  7. From Local to EXtreme Environments (FLEXE) Student-Scientist Online Forums: hypothesis-based research examining ways to involve scientists in effective science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Carlsen, W.; Fisher, C. R.; Kerlin, S.; Trautmann, N.; Petersen, W.

    2011-12-01

    to students' local environments to deepen students' understanding of earth systems processes. This presentation will provide an overview of the FLEXE project, a partnership between the Ridge2000 research scientists, science learning researchers, and educators, and will report findings from pilot studies implemented in collaboration with the GLOBE program, a worldwide network of scientists, science educators, and their students. FLEXE Forums have been tested with approximately 1400 students in the US, Germany, Australia and Thailand in 2009, and 1100 students in the US, Thailand, England and Costa Rica in 2010. Description of research methods (e.g., educational hypotheses, assessment of student learning and attitudes through analysis of student writing, and "quick question" surveys) and results will be shared, along with current tests examining the transferability of the approach to other scientists/science educator teams.

  8. Conservation beyond science: scientists as storytellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Veríssimo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As scientists we are often unprepared and unwilling to communicate our passion for what we do to those outside our professional circles. Scientific literature can also be difficult or unattractive to those without a professional interest in research. Storytelling can be a successful approach to enable readers to engage with the challenges faced by scientists. In an effort to convey to the public what it means to be a field biologist, 18 Portuguese biologists came together to write a book titled “BIOgraphies: The lives of those who study life”, in the original Portuguese “BIOgrafias: Vidas de quem estuda a vida”. This book is a collection of 35 field stories that became career landmarks for those who lived them. We discuss the obstacles and opportunities of the publishing process and reflect on the lessons learned for future outreach efforts.

  9. Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharlin, H.I.

    1992-09-01

    The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children's natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

  10. Nuclear Targeting Terms for Engineers and Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Ledger, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Department of Defense has a methodology for targeting nuclear weapons, and a jargon that is used to communicate between the analysts, planners, aircrews, and missile crews. The typical engineer or scientist in the Department of Energy may not have been exposed to the nuclear weapons targeting terms and methods. This report provides an introduction to the terms and methodologies used for nuclear targeting. Its purpose is to prepare engineers and scientists to participate in wargames, exercises, and discussions with the Department of Defense. Terms such as Circular Error Probable, probability of hit and damage, damage expectancy, and the physical vulnerability system are discussed. Methods for compounding damage from multiple weapons applied to one target are presented.

  11. Kristian Birkeland the first space scientist

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Alv

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917), a Norwegian scientist of insatiable curiosity, addressed questions that had vexed European scientists for centuries. Why do the northern lights appear overhead when the Earth’s magnetic field is disturbed? How are magnetic storms connected to disturbances on the Sun? To answer these questions Birkeland interpreted his advance laboratory simulations and daring campaigns in the Arctic wilderness in the light of Maxwell’s newly discovered laws of electricity and magnetism. Birkeland’s ideas were dismissed for decades, only to be vindicated when satellites could fly above the Earth’s atmosphere. Faced with the depleting stocks of Chilean saltpeter and the consequent prospect of mass starvation, Birkeland showed his practical side, inventing the first industrial scale method to extract nitrogen-based fertilizers from the air. Norsk Hydro, one of modern Norway’s largest industries, stands as a living tribute to his genius. Hoping to demo...

  12. Parents who influence their children to become scientists: effects of gender and parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we report on testing the 'role-model' and 'opportunity-structure' hypotheses about the parents whom scientists mentioned as career influencers. According to the role-model hypothesis, the gender match between scientist and influencer is paramount (for example, women scientists would disproportionately often mention their mothers as career influencers). According to the opportunity-structure hypothesis, the parent's educational level predicts his/her probability of being mentioned as a career influencer (that is, parents with higher educational levels would be more likely to be named). The examination of a sample of American scientists who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships resulted in rejecting the role-model hypothesis and corroborating the opportunity-structure hypothesis. There were a few additional findings. First, women scientists were more likely than men scientists to mention parental influencers. Second, fathers were more likely than mothers to be mentioned as influencers. Third, an interaction was found between the scientist's gender and parental education when predicting a parent's nomination as influencer.

  13. How scientists view the public, the media and the political process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, John C; Nisbet, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    We review past studies on how scientists view the public, the goals of communication, the performance and impacts of the media, and the role of the public in policy decision-making. We add to these past findings by analyzing two recent large-scale surveys of scientists in the UK and US. These analyses show that scientists believe the public is uninformed about science and therefore prone to errors in judgment and policy preferences. Scientists are critical of media coverage generally, yet they also tend to rate favorably their own experience dealing with journalists, believing that such interactions are important both for promoting science literacy and for career advancement. Scientists believe strongly that they should have a role in public debates and view policy-makers as the most important group with which to engage. Few scientists view their role as an enabler of direct public participation in decision-making through formats such as deliberative meetings, and do not believe there are personal benefits for investing in these activities. Implications for future research are discussed, in particular the need to examine how ideology and selective information sources shape scientists' views.

  14. REVIEW: EXPLORERS AND SCIENTISTS IN CHINA'S BORDERLANDS

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Rohlf

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Denise M Glover, Stevan Harrel, Charles F McKhann, and Margaret Byrne Swain (eds). 2011. Explorers and Scientists in China's Borderlands, 1880-1950. Seattle: University of Washington Press. This collection of eight biographical essays from a 2007 symposium makes for engaging reading and holds together well as a book. The authors, mainly anthropologists, examine the lives of ten explorers who were active primarily in the first half of the twentieth century. Some worked for d...

  15. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensively revised - essentially rewritten - new edition of the 1990 edition (described as ""extremely useful"" by MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS and as ""understandable and comprehensive"" by Scitech) guides readers through the dense array of mathematical information in the International Tables Volume A. Thus, most scientists seeking to understand a crystal structure publication can do this from this book without necessarily having to consult the International Tables themselves. This remains the only book aimed at non-crystallographers devoted to teaching them about crystallogr

  16. Modern physics for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, John C

    2010-01-01

    Intended for a first course in modern physics, following an introductory course in physics with calculus, Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers begins with a brief and focused account of the historical events leading to the formulation of modern quantum theory, while later chapters delve into the underlying physics. Streamlined content, chapters on semiconductors, Dirac Equation and Quantum Field Theory, and a robust pedagogy and ancillary package including an accompanying website with computer applets assists students in learning the essential material.

  17. Opinion: the basic scientist in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, A.F.; Taylor, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology has experienced many scientific and technical advances in the past decade. New imaging methods have allowed diagnostic procedures that have in some cases produced marked advances in treatment of disease. The complexity of the science and technology requires increased knowledge of equipment and techniques on the part of users. This, together with the necessity of exploration of other new developments in science and technology, requires a closer relationship between radiologists on the one hand and basic scientists on the other. (author)

  18. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    OpenAIRE

    Simberloff, Daniel; Vilà, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative Biology, Zurich, Switzerland. Fred Allendorf University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA. James Aronson CEFE/CNRS, Montpellier, France. Pedro M. Antunes Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Onta...

  19. Cultural isolation of third-world scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, A.

    1981-10-01

    The isolation of third world scientists from the modes of production and from the culture of their countries seems to be related to the alienation of the urban culture of these countries from their respective rural backgrounds. It is suggested that this alienation may be overcome by directly interfacing modern science and technology to the corresponding elements in their rural culture through the process of education. (author)

  20. Interactive conference of young scientists 2011. Posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-05-01

    This interactive conference of young scientists was realised on the Internet. Conference proceeded in seven sections: (1) Cellular metabolism, physiology, molecular biology and genetics; (2) Biotechnology and food technology; (3) The use of instrumental methods in the analysis of biologically important substances; (4) Organic, bio-organic and pharmaceuticals chemistry, pharmacology; (5) Ecology and environmental science; (6) Biophysics, mathematic modelling, biostatistics; (7) Open section for students. Relevant posters were included into the database INIS.

  1. The scientist's role in the nuclear debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackstein, F.P.

    1981-01-01

    Until recently the public had little time for, or interest in, studying scientific developments. Details on topics such as medical research, energy developments and communications advances were left to scientific journals and specialist conferences. For the most part the public had faith in science and science was able to maintain that faith through developments which recognizably improved the lot of mankind. But faith is no longer sufficient; scientists must now interact with people if we are to fulfil our obligations in this new theatre of increased public awareness. Scientists and egineers like myself and my colleagues at Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. are communicating with the public as one part of a broad programme of public information. This includes: operation of public information centres, visits to our laboratories, interaction with teachers, distribution of reports and hosting exhibits. Technical people have a lot to learn about communicating with the public, the media and the critics. It is an extremely difficult task, but as concerned scientists it is something we should and must do, openly and constructively

  2. Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Partnerships: Reimagining Scientists in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Terwilliger, Michael; InsightSTEM Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Partnerships Team

    2016-01-01

    We present results of our work to reimagine Teacher-Scientist partnerships to improve relationships and outcomes. We describe our work in implementing Teacher-Scientist partnerships that are expanded to include a communicator, and the learners themselves, as genuine members of the partnership. Often times in Teacher-Scientist partnerships, the scientist can often become more easily described as a special guest into the classroom, rather than a genuine partner in the learning experience. We design programs that take the expertise of the teacher and the scientist fully into account to develop practical and meaningful partnerships, that are further enhanced by using an expert in communications to develop rich experiences for and with the learners. The communications expert may be from a broad base of backgrounds depending on the needs and desires of the partners -- the communicators include, for example: public speaking gurus; journalists; web and graphic designers; and American Sign Language interpreters. Our partnership programs provide online support and professional development for all parties. Outcomes of the program are evaluated in terms of not only learning outcomes for the students, but also attitude, behavior, and relationship outcomes for the teachers, scientists, communicators and learners alike.

  3. Scientists in the public sphere: Interactions of scientists and journalists in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarani, Luisa; Peters, Hans P

    2016-06-07

    In order to map scientists' views on media channels and explore their experiences interacting with journalists, the authors conducted a survey of about 1,000 Brazilian scientists. Results indicate that scientists have clear and high expectations about how journalists should act in reporting scientific information in the media, but such expectations, in their opinion, do not always seem to be met. Nonetheless, the results show that surveyed scientists rate their relation with the media positively: 67% say that having their research covered by media has a positive impact on their colleagues. One quarter of the respondents expressed that talking to the media can facilitate acquisition of more funds for research. Moreover, 38% of the total respondents believe that writing about an interesting topic for release on media channels can also facilitate research publication in a scientific journal. However, 15% of the respondents outright agree that research reported in the media beforehand can threaten acceptance for publication by a scientific journal. We hope that these results can foster some initiatives for improving awareness of the two cultures, scientists and journalists; increasing the access of journalists to Brazilian scientific endeavors; stimulating scientists to communicate with the public via social networks.

  4. Onconeural Antibodies in Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæther, Sverre Georg; Schou, Morten; Stoecker, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    , GLRA1B, DPPX, GRM1, GRM5, DNER, Yo, ZIC4, GAD67, amphiphysin, CV2, Hu, Ri, Ma2, and recoverin. Only one sample was positive (antirecoverin IgG). The present findings suggest that serum onconeural antibody positivity is rare among patients acutely admitted for inpatient psychiatric care. The clinical...

  5. Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by

  6. Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2015-04-01

    What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global warming is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global warming, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed warming. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to warming, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This

  7. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K Fetterman

    Full Text Available Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one's reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one's own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions.

  8. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not) as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one's reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one's own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions.

  9. An attack on science? Media use, trust in scientists, and perceptions of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmielowski, Jay D; Feldman, Lauren; Myers, Teresa A; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Maibach, Edward

    2014-10-01

    There is a growing divide in how conservatives and liberals in the USA understand the issue of global warming. Prior research suggests that the American public's reliance on partisan media contributes to this gap. However, researchers have yet to identify intervening variables to explain the relationship between media use and public opinion about global warming. Several studies have shown that trust in scientists is an important heuristic many people use when reporting their opinions on science-related topics. Using within-subject panel data from a nationally representative sample of Americans, this study finds that trust in scientists mediates the effect of news media use on perceptions of global warming. Results demonstrate that conservative media use decreases trust in scientists which, in turn, decreases certainty that global warming is happening. By contrast, use of non-conservative media increases trust in scientists, which, in turn, increases certainty that global warming is happening. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Radiolabelled antibody imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    A steadily growing number of tumor-associated antigens are used to raise antibodies used for the detection of human tumors by external imaging, a technique termed immunoscintigraphy. The majority of these clinical antibody studies are performed using Iodine-131, which is cheap, readily available and easily attached to protein. It has the disadvantage of having a high energy gamma emission (365 keV) which is poorly detected by modern cameras, so that increasing use is now being made of more appropriate labels with lower energies for imaging, such as Iodine-123, Indium-111 and Technetium-99m. A number of research centres in the United Kingdom are currently involved in the production of tumor-associated monoclonal antibodies, only a small number of which are finally selected for diagnostic use. These developments represent a major area of advancement in Nuclear Medicine and when used for imaging are capable of providing diagnostic information complimentary to other diagnostic techniques

  11. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi

    2014-01-01

    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...... for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  12. NASA's SMD Cross-Forum Resources for Supporting Scientist Engagement in Education and Public Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Cobabe-Ammann, E. A.; Hsu, B. C.; Sharma, M.; Peticolas, L. M.; Schwerin, T. G.; Shipp, S. S.; Smith, D.

    2012-12-01

    Sharing the excitement of ongoing scientific discoveries is an important aspect of scientific activity for researchers. Directly engaging scientists in education and public outreach (E/PO) activities has the benefit of directly connecting the public to those who engage in scientific activities. A shortage of training in education methods, public speaking, and working with various public audiences increases barriers to engaging scientists in these types in E/PO activities. NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Education and Public forums (astrophysics, earth science, heliophysics, and planetary science) support scientists currently involved in E/PO and who are interested in becoming involved in E/PO through a variety of avenues. Over the past three years, the forums have developed a variety of resources to help engage scientists in education and public outreach. We will showcase the following resources developed through the SMD E/PO cross-forum efforts: Professional development resources for writing NASA SMD E/PO proposals (webinars and other online tools), ongoing professional development at scientific conferences to increase scientist engagement in E/PO activities, toolkits for scientists interested in best practices in E/PO (online guides for K-12 education and public outreach), toolkits to inform scientists of science education resources developed within each scientific thematic community, EarthSpace (a community web space where instructors can find and share about teaching space and earth sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials news and funding opportunities, and the latest education research, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/), thematic resources for teaching about SMD science topics, and an online database of scientists interested in connecting with education programs. Learn more about the Forum and find resources at http://smdepo.org/.

  13. Antithyroglobulin Antibodies and Antimicrosomal Antibodies in Various Thyroid Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gwon Jun; Hong, Key Sak; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Park, Sung Hoe; Chi, Je Geun; Lee, Sang Kook

    1979-01-01

    The authors investigated the incidence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antibodies and antimicrosomal antibodies measured by tanned red cell hemagglutination method in subjects suffering from various thyroid disorders. 1) In 15 normal patients, neither suffering from any thyroid diseases nor from any other autoimmune disorders, the antithyroglobulin antibodies were all negative, but the antimicrosomal antibody was positive only in one patient (6.7%). 2) The antithyroglobulin antibodies were positive in 31.5% (34 patients) of 108 patients with various thyroid diseases, and the antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 37.0% (40 patients). 3) of the 25 patients with Graves' diseases, 7 patients (28.0%) showed positive for the antithyroglobulin antibodies, and 9 (36.0%) for the antimicrosomal antibodies. There was no definite differences in clinical and thyroid functions between the groups with positive and negative results. 4) Both antibodies were positive in 16 (88.9%) and 17 (94.4%) patients respectively among 18 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, all of them were diagnosed histologically. 5) Three out of 33 patients with thyroid adenoma showed positive antibodies, and 3 of 16 patients with thyroid carcinoma revealed positive antibodies. 6) TRCH antibodies demonstrated negative results in 2 patients with subacute thyroiditis, but positive in one patient with idiopathic primary myxedema. 7) The number of patients with high titers(>l:802) was 16 for antithyroglobulin antibody, and 62.5% (10 patients) of which was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thirteen (65.0) of 20 patients with high titers (>l:802) for antimicrosomal antibody was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TRCH test is a simple, sensitive method, and has high reliability and reproducibility. The incidences and titers of antithyroglobulin antibody and antimicrosomal antibody are especially high in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  14. Antithyroglobulin Antibodies and Antimicrosomal Antibodies in Various Thyroid Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gwon Jun; Hong, Key Sak; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Park, Sung Hoe; Chi, Je Geun; Lee, Sang Kook [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    The authors investigated the incidence of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antibodies and antimicrosomal antibodies measured by tanned red cell hemagglutination method in subjects suffering from various thyroid disorders. 1) In 15 normal patients, neither suffering from any thyroid diseases nor from any other autoimmune disorders, the antithyroglobulin antibodies were all negative, but the antimicrosomal antibody was positive only in one patient (6.7%). 2) The antithyroglobulin antibodies were positive in 31.5% (34 patients) of 108 patients with various thyroid diseases, and the antimicrosomal antibodies were positive in 37.0% (40 patients). 3) of the 25 patients with Graves' diseases, 7 patients (28.0%) showed positive for the antithyroglobulin antibodies, and 9 (36.0%) for the antimicrosomal antibodies. There was no definite differences in clinical and thyroid functions between the groups with positive and negative results. 4) Both antibodies were positive in 16 (88.9%) and 17 (94.4%) patients respectively among 18 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, all of them were diagnosed histologically. 5) Three out of 33 patients with thyroid adenoma showed positive antibodies, and 3 of 16 patients with thyroid carcinoma revealed positive antibodies. 6) TRCH antibodies demonstrated negative results in 2 patients with subacute thyroiditis, but positive in one patient with idiopathic primary myxedema. 7) The number of patients with high titers(>l:802) was 16 for antithyroglobulin antibody, and 62.5% (10 patients) of which was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thirteen (65.0) of 20 patients with high titers (>l:802) for antimicrosomal antibody was Hashimoto's thyroiditis. TRCH test is a simple, sensitive method, and has high reliability and reproducibility. The incidences and titers of antithyroglobulin antibody and antimicrosomal antibody are especially high in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  15. Prediction of Antibody Epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies recognize their cognate antigens in a precise and effective way. In order to do so, they target regions of the antigenic molecules that have specific features such as large exposed areas, presence of charged or polar atoms, specific secondary structure elements, and lack of similarity...... to self-proteins. Given the sequence or the structure of a protein of interest, several methods exploit such features to predict the residues that are more likely to be recognized by an immunoglobulin.Here, we present two methods (BepiPred and DiscoTope) to predict linear and discontinuous antibody...

  16. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  17. Teenagers as scientist - Learning by doing or doing without learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelari, Suzanne; Carli, Elisabeth; Tappeiner, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    Title: Teenagers as scientist - Learning by doing or doing without learning? Authors: Dr. Suzanne Kapelari* and Elsabeth Carli*, Ulrike Tappeiner** *Science Educaton Center,**Institute of Ecology,University Innsbruck, Austria The PISA (2006-2007) Assessment Framework asks for"…. the development of a general understanding of important concepts and explanatory framework of science, of the methods by which science derives evidence to support claims for its knowledge and of the strength and limitations of science in the real world….". To meet these requirements pupils are eventually asked to engage in "working like scientists learning activities" at school or while visiting informal learning institutions. But what does it mean in a real life situation? An ambitious project call named "Sparkling Science" was launched by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Research in 2008, asking scientists to run their research in tight co-operation with local teachers and pupils. Although this would be enough of a challenge anyway, the ultimate goals of these projects are to achieve publishable scientific results in the particular field. The project design appears to be promising. Pupils and teachers are invited to gain first hand experience as part of a research team investigating current research questions. Pupils experience science research first hand, explore laboratories and research sites, gather data, discuss findings, draw conclusions and finally publish them. They set off on an exciting two years journey through a real scientific project. Teachers have the unique opportunity to get insight into a research project and work closely together with scientists. In addition teachers and pupils have the opportunity to gain first hand knowledge about a particular topic and are invited to discuss science matters on the uppermost level. Sparkling Science promoting agents have high expectations. Their website (www.sparklingscience.at) says: "Forming research teams that

  18. Specificity of anti-phospholipid antibodies in infectious mononucleosis: a role for anti-cofactor protein antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, M; Pittoni, V; Griggi, T; Losardo, A; Leri, O; Magno, M S; Misasi, R; Valesini, G

    2000-01-01

    The antigen specificity of anti-phospholipid antibodies in infectious mononucleosis (IM) was studied using ELISA for the detection of anti-β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI), anti-annexin V, anti-protein S and anti-prothrombin antibodies and TLC immunostaining for the detection of anti-phospholipid antibodies. This technique enabled us to look at antibodies reacting to ‘pure’ phospholipid antigens in the absence of protein contamination. Sera from 46 patients with IM, 18 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 21 with primary anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS), 50 with Helicobacter pylori infection and 30 healthy blood donors were tested. This study highlights anti-phospholipid antibodies in patients with IM as specific ‘pure’ anti-cardiolipin antibodies, while in PAPS and SLE patients anti-phosphatidylserine and anti-phosphatidylethanolamine antibodies were also found. This investigation also shows that the anti-cardiolipin antibodies found in IM can be present with anti-cofactor protein antibodies. The higher prevalence of anti-cofactor antibodies found in IM sera than in Helicobacter pylori sera may be due to the immunostimulatory effect and/or the polyclonal activation often observed in course of Epstein–Barr virus infection. However, anti-β2-GPI and, to a lesser extent, anti-prothrombin antibodies occur with a significantly lower prevalence in IM than in PAPS patients. This finding suggests that these antibodies should be regarded as the expression of the broad autoimmune syndrome involving the phospholipid-binding plasma proteins. PMID:10792380

  19. Detection of LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies with a commercial cell-based assay in patients with very high VGKC-complex antibody levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, T; Chen, Z; Chai, J Y H; Tan, K

    2017-07-15

    The presence of VGKC-complex antibodies, without LGI1/CASPR2 antibodies, as a standalone marker for neurological autoimmunity remains controversial. Additionally, the lack of an unequivocal VGKC-complex antibody cut-off level defining neurological autoimmunity makes it important to test for monospecific antibodies. We aim to determine the performance characteristics of a commercial assay (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) for LGI1/CASPR2 antibody detection in patients with very high VGKC-complex antibody levels and report their clinico-serological associations. We identified 8 patients in our cohort with the highest VGKC-complex antibody levels (median 2663.5pM, range 933-6730pM) with VGKC-complex antibody related syndromes (Group A). Two other groups were identified; 1 group with suspected neuronal surface antibody syndromes and negative for VGKC-complex antibodies (Group B, n=8), and another group with cerebellar ataxia and negative for onconeuronal antibodies (Group C, n=8). Seven out of 8 patients (87.5%) in Group A had LGI1 and/or CASPR2 antibodies. One Group B patient had LGI1 antibodies but was negative on re-testing with a live cell assay. No Group C patients had monospecific antibodies. Inter-rater reliability was high; combining Groups A and B patients, the kappa statistic was 0.87 and 1.0 for LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies respectively. We demonstrated that a high proportion of patients with very high VGKC-complex antibody levels and relevant clinical syndromes have LGI1 and/or CASPR2 antibodies detected by the commercial assay. Our findings lend support to the use of the assay for rapid and reliable detection of LGI1 and CASPR2 antibodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Scientists Reflect on Why They Chose to Study Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Grady; Rennie, Léonie; Hanbury, Colin; Longnecker, Nancy

    2013-12-01

    A concern commonly raised in literature and in media relates to the declining proportions of students who enter and remain in the `science pipeline', and whether many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, have enough budding scientists to fill research and industry positions in the coming years. In addition, there is concern that insufficient numbers of students continue in science to ensure an informed, scientifically literate citizenry. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to survey current Australian and New Zealand scientists to explore their reasons for choosing to study science. An online survey was conducted via a link to SurveyGizmo. The data presented are from 726 respondents who answered 22 forced-choice items and an open-ended question about the reasons they chose to study science. The quantitative data were analysed using t tests and analyses of variance followed by Duncan's multiple range tests, and the qualitative data were analysed thematically. The quantitative data showed that the main reasons scientists reported choosing to study science were because they were interested in science and because they were good at science. Secondary school science classes and one particular science teacher also were found to be important factors. Of much less importance were the prestige of science and financial considerations. The qualitative data expanded on these findings and showed that passion for science and/or curiosity about the world were important factors and also highlighted the importance of recreational pursuits, such as camping when a child. In the words of one respondent, `People don't go into science for the money and glory. It's passion for knowledge and science that always attracted me to the field'.

  1. Compositions, antibodies, asthma diagnosis methods, and methods for preparing antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C.

    2017-01-17

    Methods for preparing an antibody are provided with the method including incorporating 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid into a protein to form an antigen, immunizing a mammalian host with the antigen, and recovering an antibody having an affinity for the antigen from the host. Antibodies having a binding affinity for a monohalotyrosine are provided as well as composition comprising an antibody bound with monohalotyrosine. Compositions comprising a protein having a 3-bromo-4-hydroxy-benzoic acid moiety are also provided. Methods for evaluating the severity of asthma are provide with the methods including analyzing sputum of a patient using an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of antibody bound to protein. Methods for determining eosinophil activity in bodily fluid are also provided with the methods including exposing bodily fluid to an antibody having a binding affinity for monohalotyrosine, and measuring the amount of bound antibody to determine the eosinophil activity.

  2. Imaging spectrum of primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Won, Jong Jin [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Jeong Gon; Ki, Won Woo; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is recognized as one of the most important causes of hypercoagulability. It can be clinically diagnosed if patients have experienced unexplained recurrent venous or arterial thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, or thrombocytopenia in the presence of circulating autoantibodies to phospholipids, such as anticardiolipin antibody or lupus anticoagulant. Approximately half of all patients with this syndrome do not have associated systemic disease, and their condition is described as primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS). In the remainder, the syndrome is accompanied by systemic lupus erythematosus or other connective tissue diseases, and is known as secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (1). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the systemic manifestation of PAPS, focusing on the radiological findings of CT, MR and angiography in clinically proven patients. (author). 8 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Origin and pathogenesis of antiphospholipid antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Celli

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL are a heterogeneous group of antibodies that are detected in the serum of patients with a variety of conditions, including autoimmune (systemic lupus erythematosus, infectious (syphilis, AIDS and lymphoproliferative disorders (paraproteinemia, myeloma, lymphocytic leukemias. Thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, recurrent fetal loss and other clinical complications are currently associated with a subgroup of aPL designating the antiphospholipid syndrome. In contrast, aPL from patients with infectious disorders are not associated with any clinical manifestation. These findings led to increased interest in the origin and pathogenesis of aPL. Here we present the clinical features of the antiphospholipid syndrome and review the origin of aPL, the characteristics of experimentally induced aPL and their historical background. Within this context, we discuss the most probable pathogenic mechanisms induced by these antibodies.

  4. Imaging spectrum of primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwon Ha; Won, Jong Jin; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kim, Jeong Gon; Ki, Won Woo; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho

    1998-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is recognized as one of the most important causes of hypercoagulability. It can be clinically diagnosed if patients have experienced unexplained recurrent venous or arterial thrombosis, recurrent fetal loss, or thrombocytopenia in the presence of circulating autoantibodies to phospholipids, such as anticardiolipin antibody or lupus anticoagulant. Approximately half of all patients with this syndrome do not have associated systemic disease, and their condition is described as primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (PAPS). In the remainder, the syndrome is accompanied by systemic lupus erythematosus or other connective tissue diseases, and is known as secondary antiphospholipid syndrome (1). The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the systemic manifestation of PAPS, focusing on the radiological findings of CT, MR and angiography in clinically proven patients. (author). 8 refs., 10 figs

  5. How Many Women Scientists Does It Take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelikova, T. J.; Ramirez, K. S.; Pendergrass, A. G.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Weintraub, S. R.; Bohon, W.; Bartel, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    Science and activism are not mutually exclusive. In today's political and cultural landscape, scientists must become advocates. But we cannot simply support the scientific enterprise while ignoring marginalized groups in science. We must promote diversity and confront the structural inequalities and discrimination that are prevalent in science today. How do we begin to confront this challenge? 500 Women Scientists is a grassroots organization that formed in the wake of the 2016 US election. We quickly grew to more than 20,000 supporters from across the globe and moved towards a broader mission to serve society by making science open, inclusive, and accessible. Ensuring women's inclusion and an explicit consideration of diversity improves science and spurs innovation. A focus on diversity means that the best minds and talent are in the room and that we implement the most effective solutions to solve the complex global challenges we face. We accomplish our mission by bringing together communities to foster real change that comes from small groups, not large crowds. Across the world, groups of 500 Women Scientists - pods - help create deep roots through strong, personal relationships and focus on issues that resonate in their communities. Pod members meet regularly to carry out our mission through 3 types of activities: 1. Empowering women to succeed in science through mentorship, networking, and support; 2. Advocating for science through participation in marches and efforts like the "#ourEPA" and "Summer of Op-Eds" campaigns; and 3. Local outreach at schools, local community events, and more. We are building a powerful voice in conversations at the intersection of science and our most pressing issues: environmental degradation, gender politics, structural inequalities and cultural diversity. We tell our own story so that we do not remain `hidden figures,' and so that future generations can inherit and advance the knowledge that we work so hard to produce.

  6. Scientist impact factor (SIF): a new metric for improving scientists' evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2017-08-01

    The publication of scientific research is the mainstay for knowledge dissemination, but is also an essential criterion of scientists' evaluation for recruiting funds and career progression. Although the most widespread approach for evaluating scientists is currently based on the H-index, the total impact factor (IF) and the overall number of citations, these metrics are plagued by some well-known drawbacks. Therefore, with the aim to improve the process of scientists' evaluation, we developed a new and potentially useful indicator of recent scientific output. The new metric scientist impact factor (SIF) was calculated as all citations of articles published in the two years following the publication year of the articles, divided by the overall number of articles published in that year. The metrics was then tested by analyzing data of the 40 top scientists of the local University. No correlation was found between SIF and H-index (r=0.15; P=0.367) or 2 years H-index (r=-0.01; P=0.933), whereas the H-index and 2 years H-index values were found to be highly correlated (r=0.57; Particles published in one year and the total number of citations to these articles in the two following years (r=0.62; Pscientists, wherein the SIF reflects the scientific output over the past two years thus increasing their chances to apply to and obtain competitive funding.

  7. The Impact of Scientist-Educator Collaborations: an early-career scientist's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roop, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    A decade ago, a forward-thinking faculty member exposed a group of aspiring scientists to the impacts and career benefits of working directly with K-12 students and educators. Ten years later, as one of those young scientists, it is clear that the relationships born out of this early experience can transform a researcher's impact and trajectory in science. Connections with programs like the NSF-funded PolarTREC program, the teacher-led Scientists in the Classroom effort, and through well-coordinated teacher training opportunities there are clear ways in which these partnerships can a) transform student learning; b) serve as a powerful and meaningful way to connect students to authentic research and researchers; and c) help researchers become more effective communicators by expanding their ability to connect their work to society. The distillation of science to K-12 students, with the expert eye of educators, makes scientists better at their work with tangible benefits to skills that matter in academia - securing funding, writing and communicating clearly and having high-value broader impacts. This invited abstract is submitted as part of this session's panel discussion and will explore in detail, with concrete examples, the mutual benefits of educator-scientist partnerships and how sustained engagement can transform the reach, connection and application of research science.

  8. Refractory disease in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies associated vasculitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Kallenberg, Cornelis

    Purpose of review Induction treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) associated vasculitis (AAV) is not always successful and nonresponding patients are considered refractory. Recent findings Refractory disease should be subdefined to the treatment that was received.

  9. Support for Synchrotron Access by Environmental Scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Michael; Madden, Andrew; Palumbo, Anthony; Qafoku, N.

    2006-01-01

    To support ERSP-funded scientists in all aspects of synchrotron-based research at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This support comes in one or more of the following forms: (1) writing proposals to the APS General User (GU) program, (2) providing time at MRCAT/EnviroCAT beamlines via the membership of the Molecular Environmental Science (MES) Group in MRCAT/EnviroCAT, (3) assistance in experimental design and sample preparation, (4) support at the beamline during the synchrotron experiment, (5) analysis and interpretation of the synchrotron data, and (6) integration of synchrotron experimental results into manuscripts

  10. Vector analysis for mathematicians, scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, S

    1970-01-01

    Vector Analysis for Mathematicians, Scientists and Engineers, Second Edition, provides an understanding of the methods of vector algebra and calculus to the extent that the student will readily follow those works which make use of them, and further, will be able to employ them himself in his own branch of science. New concepts and methods introduced are illustrated by examples drawn from fields with which the student is familiar, and a large number of both worked and unworked exercises are provided. The book begins with an introduction to vectors, covering their representation, addition, geome

  11. Essential Java for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Brian D; Malan, Katherine M

    2003-01-01

    Essential Java serves as an introduction to the programming language, Java, for scientists and engineers, and can also be used by experienced programmers wishing to learn Java as an additional language. The book focuses on how Java, and object-oriented programming, can be used to solve science and engineering problems. Many examples are included from a number of different scientific and engineering areas, as well as from business and everyday life. Pre-written packages of code are provided to help in such areas as input/output, matrix manipulation and scientific graphing. Java source code and

  12. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  13. Scientists Interacting With University Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, B. S.

    2004-12-01

    Scientists with limited time to devote to educating the public about their work will get the greatest multiplier effect for their investment of time by successfully interacting with university science educators. These university professors are the smallest and least publicized group of professionals in the chain of people working to create science literate citizens. They connect to all aspects of formal and informal education, influencing everything from what and how youngsters and adults learn science to legislative rulings. They commonly teach methods of teaching science to undergraduates aspiring to teach in K-12 settings and experienced teachers. They serve as agents for change to improve science education inside schools and at the state level K-16, including what science content courses are acceptable for teacher licensure. University science educators are most often housed in a College of Education or Department of Education. Significant differences in culture exist in the world in which marine scientists function and that in which university science educators function, even when they are in the same university. Subsequently, communication and building relationships between the groups is often difficult. Barriers stem from not understanding each other's roles and responsibilities; and different reward systems, assumptions about teaching and learning, use of language, approaches to research, etc. This presentation will provide suggestions to mitigate the barriers and enable scientists to leverage the multiplier effect saving much time and energy while ensuring the authenticity of their message is maintained. Likelihood that a scientist's message will retain its authenticity stems from criteria for a university science education position. These professors have undergraduate degrees in a natural science (e.g., biology, chemistry, physics, geology), and usually a master's degree in one of the sciences, a combination of natural sciences, or a master's including

  14. Mathematics for natural scientists II advanced methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovich, Lev

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the advanced mathematical techniques useful for physics and engineering students, presented in a form accessible to physics students, avoiding precise mathematical jargon and laborious proofs. Instead, all proofs are given in a simplified form that is clear and convincing for a physicist. Examples, where appropriate, are given from physics contexts. Both solved and unsolved problems are provided in each chapter. Mathematics for Natural Scientists II: Advanced Methods is the second of two volumes. It follows the first volume on Fundamentals and Basics.

  15. Prediction of antibody persistency from antibody titres to natalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Poul Erik H; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients.......In a subgroup of patients with multiple sclerosis natalizumab therapy causes generation of anti-natalizumab antibodies that may be transient or persistent. It is recommended to discontinue natalizumab therapy in persistently antibody-positive patients....

  16. Human monoclonal antibodies: the residual challenge of antibody immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Herman

    2014-01-01

    One of the major reasons for seeking human monoclonal antibodies has been to eliminate immunogenicity seen with rodent antibodies. Thus far, there has yet been no approach which absolutely abolishes that risk for cell-binding antibodies. In this short article, I draw attention to classical work which shows that monomeric immunoglobulins are intrinsically tolerogenic if they can be prevented from creating aggregates or immune complexes. Based on these classical studies two approaches for active tolerization to therapeutic antibodies are described.

  17. ANA (Antinuclear Antibody Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as ratios. For example, the result 1:320 means that one part blood sample was mixed with 320 parts of a diluting ... name "antinuclear". My doctor told me my ANA test is ... normal concentration of these antibodies. This is one of the tools in diagnosing lupus as well ...

  18. Monoclonal antibodies in myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergeld, P.; van de Donk, N. W. C. J.; Richardson, P. G.

    2015-01-01

    The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the treatment of disease goes back to the vision of Paul Ehrlich in the late 19th century; however, the first successful treatment with a mAb was not until 1982, in a lymphoma patient. In multiple myeloma, mAbs are a very recent and exciting add...

  19. Antibodies Targeting EMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    these unusual antibodies can effectively be displayed on the cell surface. 5 Additionally, we successfully prepared cDNA from lymphocytes derived...from cow peripheral blood, spleen, and lymph nodes, amplified this cDNA by PCR with VH gene specific primers, and this “library” has been cloned into

  20. Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MACRA MACRAlerts MACRA FAQs MACRA Glossary MACRA Resources Position Statements Insurance Advocacy Current Issues Tools & Resources Practice Resources ... a medical or health condition. Resources Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA) in Spanish (Español) Download Print-Friendly PDF ... Join Donate © 2018 American College ...

  1. Next Generation Antibody Therapeutics Using Bispecific Antibody Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igawa, Tomoyuki

    2017-01-01

    Nearly fifty monoclonal antibodies have been approved to date, and the market for monoclonal antibodies is expected to continue to grow. Since global competition in the field of antibody therapeutics is intense, we need to establish novel antibody engineering technologies to provide true benefit for patients, with differentiated product values. Bispecific antibodies are among the next generation of antibody therapeutics that can bind to two different target antigens by the two arms of immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecule, and are thus believed to be applicable to various therapeutic needs. Until recently, large scale manufacturing of human IgG bispecific antibody was impossible. We have established a technology, named asymmetric re-engineering technology (ART)-Ig, to enable large scale manufacturing of bispecific antibodies. Three examples of next generation antibody therapeutics using ART-Ig technology are described. Recent updates on bispecific antibodies against factor IXa and factor X for the treatment of hemophilia A, bispecific antibodies against a tumor specific antigen and T cell surface marker CD3 for cancer immunotherapy, and bispecific antibodies against two different epitopes of soluble antigen with pH-dependent binding property for the elimination of soluble antigen from plasma are also described.

  2. Economists, social scientists root for basic income in India | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-06

    Aug 6, 2017 ... Economists and social scientists made a strong pitch for reducing expenditures on ... Economists, social scientists root for basic income in India ... in terms of competing development priorities and limited availability of funds.

  3. The State of Young Scholars and Scientists in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... career decisions and research performance of young scientists in higher education, ... progression Researchers will examine the supporting and limiting factors. ... They will work with scientists, government agencies, and higher education ...

  4. [Standardized indirect immunofluorescence. Differentiation of mitochondrial, microsomal and ribosomal antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, W

    1977-02-15

    By an extensive standardisation of the indirect immunofluorescence for the demonstration espeially of mitochondrial antibodies we succeeded in recognizing atypical fluorescence patterns and in describing their exact localisation. On the basis of absorption studies with mitochondrias, microsomas and ribosomas by comparative observation of sections of liver, stomach and kidneys of rats the preferred sort of reaction and the intensity of fluorescence of antibodies against mitochondria, microsomas and ribosomas were empirically established. Antimitochondrial antibodies react above all with the parietal cells of the stomach and the distal epithelia of the tubulus of the kidney. Antibodies against microsomas of liver and kidney are characterized by a brilliant diffuse cytoplasmatic fluorescence of the hepatocytes and by a comparatively weaker fluorescence of exclusively proximal tubuli of the kidneys of rats. Antibodies against ribosomas lead to a fluorescence especially of the main cells of the stomach. The differentiation of several cytoplasmatic antibodies is among others of interest for the diagnosis of certain autoimmune diseases. Although there are numerous still unclear findings and "overlap" phenomena the existence of high titre antibodies against mitochondrias speaks for a primarily biliary cirrhosis or a pseudo-LE-syndrome, the existence of antibodies against microsomas of kidney and liver of rats for a special form of a chronically active hepatitis and the existence of the very rare antibodies against ribosomas for an active lupus erythematodes disseminatus.

  5. Math for scientists refreshing the essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Maurits, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Accessible and comprehensive, this guide is an indispensable tool for anyone in the sciences – new and established researchers, students and scientists – looking either to refresh their math skills or to prepare for the broad range of math, statistical and data-related challenges they are likely to encounter in their work or studies. In addition to helping scientists improve their knowledge of key mathematical concepts, this unique book will help readers: ·                     Read mathematical symbols ·                     Understand formulas, data or statistical information ·                     Determine medication equivalents ·                     Analyze neuroimaging  Mathematical concepts are presented alongside illustrative and useful real-world scien­tific examples and are further clarified through practical pen-and-paper exercises. Whether you are a student encountering high-level mathematics in your research or...

  6. Kristian Birkeland, The First Space Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, A.; Burke, W. J.

    2005-05-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917), a Norwegian scientist of insatiable curiosity, addressed questions that had vexed European scientists for centuries. Why do the northern lights appear overhead when the Earth's magnetic field is disturbed? How are magnetic storms connected to disturbances on the Sun? To answer these questions Birkeland interpreted his advance laboratory simulations and daring campaigns in the Arctic wilderness in the light of Maxwell's newly discovered laws of electricity and magnetism. Birkeland's ideas were dismissed for decades, only to be vindicated when satellites could fly above the Earth's atmosphere. Faced with the depleting stocks of Chilean saltpeter and the consequent prospect of mass starvation, Birkeland showed his practical side, inventing the first industrial scale method to extract nitrogen-based fertilizers from the air. Norsk Hydro, one of modern Norway's largest industries, stands as a living tribute to his genius. Hoping to demonstrate what we now call the solar wind, Birkeland moved to Egypt in 1913. Isolated from his friends by the Great War, Birkeland yearned to celebrate his 50th birthday in Norway. The only safe passage home, via the Far East, brought him to Tokyo where in the late spring of 1917 he passed away. Link: http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,5-10100-22-39144987-0,00.html?changeHeader=true

  7. Attitudes and norms affecting scientists' data reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gonçalves Curty

    Full Text Available The value of sharing scientific research data is widely appreciated, but factors that hinder or prompt the reuse of data remain poorly understood. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action, we test the relationship between the beliefs and attitudes of scientists towards data reuse, and their self-reported data reuse behaviour. To do so, we used existing responses to selected questions from a worldwide survey of scientists developed and administered by the DataONE Usability and Assessment Working Group (thus practicing data reuse ourselves. Results show that the perceived efficacy and efficiency of data reuse are strong predictors of reuse behaviour, and that the perceived importance of data reuse corresponds to greater reuse. Expressed lack of trust in existing data and perceived norms against data reuse were not found to be major impediments for reuse contrary to our expectations. We found that reported use of models and remotely-sensed data was associated with greater reuse. The results suggest that data reuse would be encouraged and normalized by demonstration of its value. We offer some theoretical and practical suggestions that could help to legitimize investment and policies in favor of data sharing.

  8. A data model for environmental scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapeljushnik, O.; Beran, B.; Valentine, D.; van Ingen, C.; Zaslavsky, I.; Whitenack, T.

    2008-12-01

    Environmental science encompasses a wide range of disciplines from water chemistry to microbiology, ecology and atmospheric sciences. Studies often require working across disciplines which differ in their ways of describing and storing data such that it is not possible to devise a monolithic one-size-fits-all data solution. Based on our experiences with Consortium of the Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science Inc. (CUAHSI) Observations Data Model, Berkeley Water Center FLUXNET carbon-climate work and by examining standards like EPA's Water Quality Exchange (WQX), we have developed a flexible data model that allows extensions without need to altering the schema such that scientists can define custom metadata elements to describe their data including observations, analysis methods as well as sensors and geographical features. The data model supports various types of observations including fixed point and moving sensors, bottled samples, rasters from remote sensors and models, and categorical descriptions (e.g. taxonomy) by employing user-defined-types when necessary. It leverages ADO .NET Entity Framework to provide the semantic data models for differing disciplines, while maintaining a common schema below the entity layer. This abstraction layer simplifies data retrieval and manipulation by hiding the logic and complexity of the relational schema from users thus allows programmers and scientists to deal directly with objects such as observations, sensors, watersheds, river reaches, channel cross-sections, laboratory analysis methods and samples as opposed to table joins, columns and rows.

  9. Anaxagoras and the Scientist/Laity Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, N. J.

    The phenomenon that caused Anaxagoras to develop his model that explained the phases and eclipses of the Moon was a meteorite fall. The model was a turning point for science in explaining more than one phenomenon with a single model. It precipitated the growth of Greek astronomy and the first heliocentric theory. Anaxagoras was also the first scientist to get into trouble for a conflict between science and religion. Contrary to an impression from the title of this conference, scientific literature paid little attention to the meteorite fall phenomenon. Both scientists and the public mainly pay attention to models, and often to the extraneous irrelevant attachments of models, those by which it is placed in memory. Models are artistic creations that are culture dependent. Phenomena are our only solid link to the world of reality. The main issue of this paper is the problems that the individual has with models. The paper discusses the effect of Anaxagoras on scientific thought. It concludes by exploring three areas where relationship of science to society as Anaxagoras set it up, has left unresolved problems.

  10. The Cosmopolitanization of Science: Experience from Chinese Stem Cell Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Joy Yueyue

    2010-09-01

    It is commonly perceived that the 'globalization of science' may result in a 'Westernization of science'. In this paper, however, I use the case of stem cell science in China to demonstrate that developing countries are sometimes able to effectively shape the norms of global/local scientific exchange. Based on interviews with 38 stem cell scientists in six Chinese cities in early 2008, this paper elucidates Chinese scientists' outlook towards cross-border collaborations and the effects that the internationalization of science has had on everyday laboratory operations. Findings suggest that although there still exists an asymmetry of scientific influence, and in many aspects China is still 'catching-up' to the West, there is also a changing nature of communication beyond borders. One key aspect of recent international scientific development is the growing necessity for local stakeholders to acquire a global mindset and to compare, reflect and accommodate diverse interests. This is what I define as the 'cosmopolitanization of science'. The study empirically examines the sociological and methodological implications of the cosmopolitanization process and further develops Ulrich Beck's cosmopolitan theory by delineating four main features of the 'cosmopolitanization of science': shared future benefits, passive ethicization, reflexive negotiation, and continuous performance.

  11. ERA Ranger tailings corridor review. Supervising Scientist report 154

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Sinclair Knight Merz (SKM) were commissioned by the Office of the Supervising Scientist on 25 May 2000 to undertake a review and complete a report on the tailings corridor at the ERA Ranger Mine. The objective of the study was to undertake an 'as is' and to some extent historic and look ahead, review of the corridor system sufficient to: assess the current suitability of key aspects of the design; assess the suitability of current operating, maintenance and system development regimes and responsibilities; and record any recommended actions or further investigations arising out of the review; in order to ensure the adequacy of the design, operation and maintenance. The scope of the study report was limited to the corridor itself, its associated sump and sump contents discharge and the branch corridors carrying pipelines to Pit 1. A representative report contents was discussed and agreed with the Office of the Supervising Scientist prior to commencement of the study and this is included as appendix A to this report. The originally agreed content is, with only minor amendment, reflected in this report. The study methodology comprised a review and assessment by SKM of the design of the existing system and current operations documentation and information obtained from investigations on site and discussions with ERA site personnel. Whilst, a number of modifications affecting the corridor are recommended for further consideration, the main findings of the report relate to operating and maintenance practices which should be adopted for the remainder of the mine/mill life

  12. Helping Scientists Become Effective Partners in Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Sandra L.; Smith, Lesley K.

    2009-01-01

    How does a scientist find herself standing before a group of lively third-graders? She may be personally motivated-seeking to improve public understanding of scientific issues and the nature of science, or to see her own children receive a good science education-or perhaps she simply enjoys this kind of work [Andrews et al., 2005; Kim and Fortner, 2008]. In addition to internal motivating factors, federal funding agencies have begun to encourage scientists to participate in education and outreach (E/O) related to their research, through NASA program requirements for such activities (see ``Implementing the Office of Space Science Education/Public Outreach Strategy,'' at http://spacescience.nasa.gov/admin/pubs/edu/imp_plan.htm) and the U.S. National Science Foundation's increased emphasis on ``broader impacts'' in merit review of research proposals (see http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2003/nsf032/bicexamples.pdf). Universities, laboratories, and large collaboratives have responded by developing E/O programs that include interaction between students, teachers, and the public in schools; after-school and summer programs; and work through science centers, planetaria, aquaria, and museums.

  13. Anti-smooth muscle antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003531.htm Anti-smooth muscle antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anti-smooth muscle antibody is a blood test that detects the presence ...

  14. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization.

    KAUST Repository

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2014-01-01

    for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps of the humanization experiment protocol. AVAILABILITY: http

  15. Antibodies from plants for bionanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Edgue, G.; Twyman, R.M.; Beiss, V.; Fischer, R.; Sack, M.

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies are produced as part of the vertebrate adaptive immune response and are not naturally made by plants. However, antibody DNA sequences can be introduced into plants, and together with laboratory technologies that allow the design of antibodies recognizing any conceivable molecular structure, plants can be used as green factories' to produce any antibody at all. The advent of plant-based transient expression systems in particular allows the rapid, convenient, and safe production of a...

  16. To Crowdfund Research, Scientists Must Build an Audience for Their Work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrett E K Byrnes

    Full Text Available As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one's work is key for successful crowdfunding. For science, to what extent does audience building, via engagement and outreach, increase a scientist's abilities to bring in money via crowdfunding? Here we report on an analysis of the #SciFund Challenge, a crowdfunding experiment in which 159 scientists attempted to crowdfund their research. Using data gathered from a survey of participants, internet metrics, and logs of project donations, we find that public engagement is the key to crowdfunding success. Building an audience or "fanbase" and actively engaging with that audience as well as seeking to broaden the reach of one's audience indirectly increases levels of funding. Audience size and effort interact to bring in more people to view a scientist's project proposal, leading to funding. We discuss how projects capable of raising levels of funds commensurate with traditional funding agencies will need to incorporate direct involvement of the public with science. We suggest that if scientists and research institutions wish to tap this new source of funds, they will need to encourage and reward activities that allow scientists to engage with the public.

  17. To Crowdfund Research, Scientists Must Build an Audience for Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Ranganathan, Jai; Walker, Barbara L E; Faulkes, Zen

    2014-01-01

    As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one's work is key for successful crowdfunding. For science, to what extent does audience building, via engagement and outreach, increase a scientist's abilities to bring in money via crowdfunding? Here we report on an analysis of the #SciFund Challenge, a crowdfunding experiment in which 159 scientists attempted to crowdfund their research. Using data gathered from a survey of participants, internet metrics, and logs of project donations, we find that public engagement is the key to crowdfunding success. Building an audience or "fanbase" and actively engaging with that audience as well as seeking to broaden the reach of one's audience indirectly increases levels of funding. Audience size and effort interact to bring in more people to view a scientist's project proposal, leading to funding. We discuss how projects capable of raising levels of funds commensurate with traditional funding agencies will need to incorporate direct involvement of the public with science. We suggest that if scientists and research institutions wish to tap this new source of funds, they will need to encourage and reward activities that allow scientists to engage with the public.

  18. Forging School-Scientist Partnerships: A Case of Easier Said than Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falloon, Garry

    2013-12-01

    Since the early 1980s, a number of initiatives have been undertaken worldwide which have involved scientists and teachers working together in projects designed to support the science learning of students. Many of these have attempted to establish school-scientist partnerships. In these, scientists, teachers, and students formed teams engaged in mutually beneficial science-based activities founded on principles such as equal recognition and input, and shared vision, responsibility and risk. This article uses two partnership programmes run by a New Zealand Science Research Institute, to illustrate the challenges faced by scientists and teachers as they attempted to forge meaningful and effective partnerships. It argues that achieving the theorised position of a shared partnership space at the intersection of the worlds of scientists and teachers is problematic, and that scientists must instead be prepared to penetrate deeply into the world of the classroom when undertaking any such interactions. Findings indicate epistemological differences, curriculum and school systems and issues, and teacher efficacy and science knowledge significantly affect the process of partnership formation. Furthermore, it is argued that a re-thinking of partnerships is needed to reflect present economic and education environments, which are very different to those in which they were originally conceived nearly 30 years ago. It suggests that technology has an important role to play in future partnership interactions.

  19. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No scientist...

  20. Pathways for impact: scientists' different perspectives on agricultural innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röling, N.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes the viewpoint of a social scientist and looks at agricultural scientists' pathways for science impact. Awareness of these pathways is increasingly becoming part and parcel of the professionalism of the agricultural scientist, now that the pressure is on to mobilize smallholders and

  1. VLBA Scientists Study Birth of Sunlike Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Three teams of scientists have used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope to learn tantalizing new details about how Sun-like stars are formed. Young stars, still growing by drawing in nearby gas, also spew some of that material back into their surroundings, like impatient infants that eat too quickly. The VLBA observations are giving astronomers new insights on both processes -- the accretion of material by the new stars and the outflows of material from them. "For the first time, we're actually seeing what happens right down next to the star in these young systems," said Mark Claussen, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Claussen and other researchers announced their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Chicago. Material attracted by a young star's gravitational pull forms a flat, orbiting disk, called an accretion disk, in which the material circles closer and closer to the star until finally drawn into it. At the same time, material is ejected in "jets" speeding from the poles of the accretion disk. "The VLBA is showing us the first images of the region close to the star where the material in these jets is accelerated and formed into the `beams' of the jet," Claussen said. "We don't understand the details of these processes well," Claussen said. "These VLBA research projects are beginning to help unravel the mysteries of how stars like the Sun form." The teams are observing clumps of water vapor that naturally amplify radio emissions to see details smaller than the orbit of Mercury in young stellar systems as well as track gas motions. The clumps of gas are called masers, and amplify radio emission in much the same way that a laser amplifies light emission. "These images are just fantastic," said Al Wootten of NRAO in Charlottesville, VA. The maser clumps or "spots," emitting radio waves at a specific wavelength, can be tracked as they move over time. In addition

  2. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  3. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  4. Monoclonal antibodies to Pneumocystis carinii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, J A; Halpern, J L; Lundgren, B

    1989-01-01

    To increase understanding of the antigenic structure of Pneumocystis carinii, we developed monoclonal antibodies to rat and human P. carinii. The specificity of the antibodies was demonstrated by immunofluorescence and immunoblot studies. Only one of five monoclonal antibodies to rat P. carinii r...

  5. The discovery of nuclear fission and the responsibility of the scientist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staab, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The history of the discovery of nuclear fission is placed in historical context and the responsibility of the scientists involved for the subsequent military uses is discussed. It is explained that the deep things in science are not found because they are useful; they are found because it is possible to find them. If Otto Hahn and his co-workers had not discovered nuclear fission someone else in the late 1930s or early 1940s would have done so. It was decisions outside science which set the course for the nuclear fission research once the basic principle had been understood. The question how far does the scientists responsibility extend for unknown and unintended consequences of research and for misuses of his findings by others is discussed. Scientists have a duty to understand the applications of their work and to warn of misuse or hazards, as did Otto Hahn. (UK)

  6. Tools for Engaging Scientists in Education and Public Outreach: Resources from NASA's Science Mission Directorate Forums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Grier, J.; Meinke, B. K.; Gross, N. A.; Woroner, M.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forums support the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and its E/PO community by enhancing the coherency and efficiency of SMD-funded E/PO programs. The Forums foster collaboration and partnerships between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise. We will present tools to engage and resources to support scientists' engagement in E/PO efforts. Scientists can get connected to educators and find support materials and links to resources to support their E/PO work through the online SMD E/PO community workspace (http://smdepo.org) The site includes resources for scientists interested in E/PO including one page guides about "How to Get Involved" and "How to Increase Your Impact," as well as the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau to connect scientists to audiences across the country. Additionally, there is a set of online clearinghouses that provide ready-made lessons and activities for use by scientists and educators: NASA Wavelength (http://nasawavelength.org/) and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace/). The NASA Forums create and partner with organizations to provide resources specifically for undergraduate science instructors including slide sets for Earth and Space Science classes on the current topics in astronomy and planetary science. The Forums also provide professional development opportunities at professional science conferences each year including AGU, LPSC, AAS, and DPS to support higher education faculty who are teaching undergraduate courses. These offerings include best practices in instruction, resources for teaching planetary science and astronomy topics, and other special topics such as working with diverse students and the use of social media in the classroom. We are continually soliciting ways that we can better support scientists' efforts in effectively engaging in E/PO. Please contact Sanlyn Buxner (buxner@psi.edu) or Jennifer Grier (jgrier@psi.edu) to

  7. The effects of social identity threat and social identity affirmation on laypersons' perception of scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauroth, Peter; Gollwitzer, Mario; Kozuchowski, Henrik; Bender, Jens; Rothmund, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    Public debates about socio-scientific issues (e.g. climate change or violent video games) are often accompanied by attacks on the reputation of the involved scientists. Drawing on the social identity approach, we report a minimal group experiment investigating the conditions under which scientists are perceived as non-prototypical, non-reputable, and incompetent. Results show that in-group affirming and threatening scientific findings (compared to a control condition) both alter laypersons' evaluations of the study: in-group affirming findings lead to more positive and in-group threatening findings to more negative evaluations. However, only in-group threatening findings alter laypersons' perceptions of the scientists who published the study: scientists were perceived as less prototypical, less reputable, and less competent when their research results imply a threat to participants' social identity compared to a non-threat condition. Our findings add to the literature on science reception research and have implications for understanding the public engagement with science.

  8. Preparing Scientists to be Community Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Many students, especially students from historically under-represented communities, leave science majors or avoid choosing them because scientific careers do not offer enough opportunity to contribute to their communities. Citizen science, or public participation in scientific research, may address these challenges. At its most collaborative, it means inviting communities to partner in every step of the scientific process from defining the research question to applying the results to community priorities. In addition to attracting and retaining students, this level of community engagement will help diversify science, ensure the use and usability of our science, help buttress public support of science, and encourage the application of scientific results to policy. It also offers opportunities to tackle scientific questions that can't be accomplished in other way and it is demonstrably effective at helping people learn scientific concepts and methods. In order to learn how to prepare scientists for this kind of intensive community collaboration, we examined several case studies, including a project on disease and public health in Africa and the professionally evaluated experience of two summer interns in Southern Louisiana. In these and other cases, we learned that scientific expertise in a discipline has to be accompanied by a reservoir of humility and respect for other ways of knowing, the ability to work collaboratively with a broad range of disciplines and people, patience and enough career stability to allow that patience, and a willingness to adapt research to a broader set of scientific and non-scientific priorities. To help students achieve this, we found that direct instruction in participatory methods, mentoring by community members and scientists with participatory experience, in-depth training on scientific ethics and communication, explicit articulation of the goal of working with communities, and ample opportunity for personal reflection were essential

  9. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  10. Finding Sliesthorp?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, Andres S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2003, a hitherto unknown Viking age settlement was discovered at Füsing in Northern Germany close to Hedeby/Schleswig, the largest of the early Scandinavian towns. Finds and building features suggest a high status residence and a seat of some chiefly elite that flourished from around 700 to th...... and the transformation of socio‐political structures in Northern Europe as it transitioned from prehistory into the middle Ages....

  11. Using Videoconferencing in a School-Scientist Partnership: Students' Perceptions and Scientists' Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falloon, Garry

    2012-01-01

    This research studied a series of videoconference teaching workshops and virtual labs, which formed a component of a school-scientist partnership involving a New Zealand science research institute and year 13 students at a Wellington high school. It explored students' perceptions of the effectiveness of the videoconferences as an interactive…

  12. Scientists and science communication: a Danish survey (Danish original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Hvidtfelt Nielsen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes key findings from a web-based questionnaire survey among Danish scientists in the natural sciences and engineering science. In line with the Act on Universities of 2003 enforcing science communication as a university obligation next to research and teaching, the respondents take a keen interest in communicating science, especially through the news media. However, they also do have mixed feeling about the quality of science communication in the news. Moreover, a majority of the respondents would like to give higher priority to science communication. More than half reply that they are willing to allocate up to 2% of total research funding in Denmark to science communication. Further, the respondents indicate that they would welcome a wider variety of science communication initiatives aimed at many types of target groups. They do not see the news media as the one and only channel for current science communication.

  13. Scientists' understanding of public communication of science and technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt; Kjaer, Carsten Rahbæk; Dahlgaard, Jørgen

    Background Research into the field of science communication has tended to focus on public understanding of science or on the processes of science communication itself, e.g. by looking at science in the media. Few studies have explored how scientists understand science communication. At present...... and technical sciences see science communication. We wanted to map their general interest in using different media of science communication as well as their active participation in current science communication. Moreover, we wanted to find out what they think about future of science communication, and what...... science communication. Results Our respondents indicated interest in doing science communication through media aimed at a broader public. In particular, news media surfaced as the most attractive media of public communication. The respondents preferred to be in charge of science communication themselves...

  14. Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap in group psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Mark A; Ogrodniczuk, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Sochting, Ingrid

    2010-04-01

    Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap requires a different clinical research paradigm: participatory research that encourages community agency-academic partnerships. In this context, clinicians help define priorities, determine the type of evidence that will have an impact on their practice (affecting the methods that are used to produce the evidence), and develop strategies for translating, implementing, and disseminating their findings into evidence-based practice. Within this paradigm, different roles are assumed by the partners, and sometimes these roles are blended. This paper will consider the perspectives of people who assume these different roles (clinician, researcher, and clinician-researcher) with group psychotherapy as the specific focus. Finally, the establishment of a practice-research network will be discussed as a potentially promising way to better engage group therapists in research.

  15. Mathematics for natural scientists fundamentals and basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovich, Lev

    2016-01-01

    This book, the first in a two part series, covers a course of mathematics tailored specifically for physics, engineering and chemistry students at the undergraduate level. It is unique in that it begins with logical concepts of mathematics first encountered at A-level and covers them in thorough detail, filling in the gaps in students' knowledge and reasoning. Then the book aids the leap between A-level and university-level mathematics, with complete proofs provided throughout and all complex mathematical concepts and techniques presented in a clear and transparent manner. Numerous examples and problems (with answers) are given for each section and, where appropriate, mathematical concepts are illustrated in a physics context. This text gives an invaluable foundation to students and a comprehensive aid to lecturers. Mathematics for Natural Scientists: Fundamentals and Basics is the first of two volumes. Advanced topics and their applications in physics are covered in the second volume.

  16. LAB building a home for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Fishman, Mark C

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are both monasteries and space stations, redolent of the great ideas of generations past and of technologies to propel the future. Yet standard lab design has changed only little over recent years. Here Mark Fishman describes how to build labs as homes for scientists, to accommodate not just their fancy tools, but also their personalities. This richly illustrated book explores the roles of labs through history, from the alchemists of the Middle Ages to the chemists of the 19th and 20th centuries, and to the geneticists and structural biologists of today, and then turns to the special features of the laboratories Fishman helped to design in Cambridge, Shanghai, and Basel. Anyone who works in, or plans to build a lab, will enjoy this book, which will encourage them to think about how this special environment drives or impedes their important work.

  17. Moments in the Life of a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Bruno

    1990-08-01

    Bruno Rossi has long been an influential figure in diverse areas of physics and in this volume he presents a fascinating account of his life and work as an experimental physicist. He discusses his scientific contributions, from experiments that played a major role in establishing the nature and properties of cosmic rays to those establishing the existence of a solar wind and others that laid the foundations of X-ray astronomy. Rossi provides close insight into his actual experiences as a scientist and the motivations that gave direction to his research, and he recounts the beginning of very significant stages in high energy physics and space research. He writes evocatively of the many places where he worked--of Florence, Arcetri, Padua, and Venice, of the mountains of Colorado and the deserts of New Mexico. His narrative also provides insight into the life of a Jewish family in fascist Italy. The text is accompanied by photographs taken throughout Rossi's career.

  18. Nicholson Medal Lecture: Scientists and Totalitarian Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Zhi

    1997-04-01

    In order to call for support for his policy in China from the scientific community outside of China, Li Peng, China's premier today and at the time of Tiananmen massacre in 1989, published an editorial of ``Science" magazine (July 5, 1996) titled ``Why China needs science ... and partners." This editorial brought a serious problem, which is originally faced by scientists in a totalitarian society, upon the scientific community in free societies outside. It is well known that the current attitude of the Chinese government toward science is what it was during the years of Mao and the Soviet Union: science is limited to provide instruments useful to the rulers, but any degree of freedom, such as to challenge ideas, required by science to change the totalitarian regime itself, is suppressed. Thus, the problem facing us is: how to help your colleagues and promote science in a totalitarian society, without becoming a partner of the injustices of that regime.

  19. Microgravity sciences application visiting scientist program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Martin; Vanalstine, James

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center pursues scientific research in the area of low-gravity effects on materials and processes. To facilitate these Government performed research responsibilities, a number of supplementary research tasks were accomplished by a group of specialized visiting scientists. They participated in work on contemporary research problems with specific objectives related to current or future space flight experiments and defined and established independent programs of research which were based on scientific peer review and the relevance of the defined research to NASA microgravity for implementing a portion of the national program. The programs included research in the following areas: protein crystal growth, X-ray crystallography and computer analysis of protein crystal structure, optimization and analysis of protein crystal growth techniques, and design and testing of flight hardware.

  20. Ozone Gardens for the Citizen Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret; Reilly, Gay; Rodjom, Abbey; Malick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    NASA Langley partnered with the Virginia Living Museum and two schools to create ozone bio-indicator gardens for citizen scientists of all ages. The garden at the Marshall Learning Center is part of a community vegetable garden designed to teach young children where food comes from and pollution in their area, since most of the children have asthma. The Mt. Carmel garden is located at a K-8 school. Different ozone sensitive and ozone tolerant species are growing and being monitored for leaf injury. In addition, CairClip ozone monitors were placed in the gardens and data are compared to ozone levels at the NASA Langley Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, VA. Leaf observations and plant measurements are made two to three times a week throughout the growing season.

  1. Quark Matter 2017: Young Scientist Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evdokimov, Olga [University of Illinois at Chicago

    2017-07-31

    Quark Matter conference series are amongst the major scientific events for the Relativistic Heavy Ion community. With over 30 year long history, the meetings are held about every 1½ years to showcase the progress made in theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The 26th International Conference on Ultra-relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter 2017) was held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in downtown Chicago from Sunday, February 5th through Saturday, February 11th, 2017. The conference featured about 180 plenary and parallel presentations of the most significant recent results in the field, a poster session for additional presentations, and an evening public lecture. Following the tradition of previous Quark Matter meetings, the first day of the conference was dedicated entirely to a special program for young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral researchers). This grant will provided financial support for 235 young physicists facilitating their attendance of the conference.

  2. Strategic career planning for physician-scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimaoka, Motomu

    2015-05-01

    Building a successful professional career in the physician-scientist realm is rewarding but challenging, especially in the dynamic and competitive environment of today's modern society. This educational review aims to provide readers with five important career development lessons drawn from the business and social science literatures. Lessons 1-3 describe career strategy, with a focus on promoting one's strengths while minimizing fixing one's weaknesses (Lesson 1); effective time management in the pursuit of long-term goals (Lesson 2); and the intellectual flexibility to abandon/modify previously made decisions while embracing emerging opportunities (Lesson 3). Lesson 4 explains how to maximize the alternative benefits of English-language fluency (i.e., functions such as signaling and cognition-enhancing capabilities). Finally, Lesson 5 discusses how to enjoy happiness and stay motivated in a harsh, zero-sum game society.

  3. Linear functional analysis for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Limaye, Balmohan V

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise and meticulous introduction to functional analysis. Since the topic draws heavily on the interplay between the algebraic structure of a linear space and the distance structure of a metric space, functional analysis is increasingly gaining the attention of not only mathematicians but also scientists and engineers. The purpose of the text is to present the basic aspects of functional analysis to this varied audience, keeping in mind the considerations of applicability. A novelty of this book is the inclusion of a result by Zabreiko, which states that every countably subadditive seminorm on a Banach space is continuous. Several major theorems in functional analysis are easy consequences of this result. The entire book can be used as a textbook for an introductory course in functional analysis without having to make any specific selection from the topics presented here. Basic notions in the setting of a metric space are defined in terms of sequences. These include total boundedness, c...

  4. Modern physics for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, John C

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers is intended for a first course in modern physics. Beginning with a brief and focused account of the historical events leading to the formulation of modern quantum theory, later chapters delve into the underlying physics. Streamlined content, chapters on semiconductors, Dirac equation and quantum field theory, as well as a robust pedagogy and ancillary package, including an accompanying website with computer applets, assist students in learning the essential material. The applets provide a realistic description of the energy levels and wave functions of electrons in atoms and crystals. The Hartree-Fock and ABINIT applets are valuable tools for studying the properties of atoms and semiconductors.

  5. Ivan Yakovych Gorbachevsky – Scientist, Patriot, Citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Danilova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the facts about life and research activity of Ivan Ya. Gorbachevsky (1854-1942, the prominent scientist, Ukrainian by origin, doctor of medical sciences, professor, dean of the medical faculty and the rector of Charles University in Prague, member of the health board of the Czech Kingdom, a member of the Supreme Council of Health of Austria-Hungary in Vienna, a lifelong member of the House of Lords of the Austrian Parliament, first health minister of Austria-Hungary, rector of the Ukrainian Free University in Prague, professor of chemistry at the Padebradsk Economic Academy and the Ukrainian Pedagogical Dragomanov University, AUAS member in 1925, member of the Shevchenko Scientific Society. His research works were devoted to digestion of proteins, public and food hygiene. He was the first who synthesized uric acid (1882 and discovered xanthine oxidase (1889.

  6. Climate Change: On Scientists and Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2014-01-01

    Last year, I asked a crowd of a few hundred geoscientists from around the world what positions related to climate science and policy they would be comfortable publicly advocating. I presented a list of recommendations that included increased research funding, greater resources for education, and specific emission reduction technologies. In almost every case, a majority of the audience felt comfortable arguing for them. The only clear exceptions were related to geo-engineering research and nuclear power. I had queried the researchers because the relationship between science and advocacy is marked by many assumptions and little clarity. This despite the fact that the basic question of how scientists can be responsible advocates on issues related to their expertise has been discussed for decades most notably in the case of climate change by the late Stephen Schneider.

  7. The Maturation of a Scientist: An Autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizman, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    I was shaped by World War II, years of near starvation as a war refugee, postwar chaos, life in several countries, and relative affluence in later life. The truth is that as I was growing up I wanted to be a writer. My aspirations came to an end when, in order to speed up my graduation from college, I took courses in microbiology. It was my second love at first sight-that of my wife preceded it. I view science as an opportunity to discover the designs in the mosaics of life. What initiates my search of discovery is an observation that makes no sense unless there exists a novel design. Once the design is revealed there is little interest in filling all the gaps. I was fortunate to understand that what lasts are not the scientific reports but rather the generations of scientists whose education I may have influenced.

  8. Quantum Genetic Algorithms for Computer Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lahoz-Beltra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GAs are a class of evolutionary algorithms inspired by Darwinian natural selection. They are popular heuristic optimisation methods based on simulated genetic mechanisms, i.e., mutation, crossover, etc. and population dynamical processes such as reproduction, selection, etc. Over the last decade, the possibility to emulate a quantum computer (a computer using quantum-mechanical phenomena to perform operations on data has led to a new class of GAs known as “Quantum Genetic Algorithms” (QGAs. In this review, we present a discussion, future potential, pros and cons of this new class of GAs. The review will be oriented towards computer scientists interested in QGAs “avoiding” the possible difficulties of quantum-mechanical phenomena.

  9. Delta antibody radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kselikova, M; Urbankova, J

    1985-11-15

    The principle and procedure are described of the radioimmunoassay of delta antibody (delta-Ab) using the ABBOTT ANTI-DELTA kit by Abbott Co. A description is given of the kit, the working procedure and the method of evaluation. The results are reported of the incidence of delta-Ab in sera of patients with viral hepatitis B, in haemophiliacs, carriers of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and blood donors. The presence was detected of delta-Ab in one HBsAg carrier. The necessity is emphasized of delta-Ab determinations in the blood of donors in view of the antibody transfer with blood and blood preparations.

  10. [Antibody therapy for Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabira, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shin-Ei; Jin, Haifeng

    2011-11-01

    In order to avoid Abeta-induced autoimmune encephalitis, several monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are in clinical trials. These are bapineuzumab, solanezumab, ponezumab, gantenerumab, BAN2401, gammaguard and octagam. Since each antibody has a different antigen epitope of Abeta, anti-amyloid activities are different. It is unknown which antibody is effective for Alzheimer disease, and we must wait for the result of clinical trials. Some patients who developed tissue amyloid plaque immuno-reactive (TAPIR) antibody showed slower decline after AN-1792 vaccination. We developed TAPIR-like monoclonal antibody, which was found to react with Abeta oligomers preferentially.

  11. ``They probably aren't named Rachel'': Young children's scientist identities as emergent multimodal narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Varelas, Maria; Pappas, Christine C.; Korzh, Alla; Wentland, Ashley

    2007-02-01

    In this research we put forth a theoretical framework that explores the nature and value of multi-modal narratives as a tool for studying young children's conceptions of themselves as scientists as they exist in relation to scientists out in the world. This framework shapes and is shaped by an empirical study that took place within the context of a year-long program that engaged children in integrated science-literacy experiences around two units -- one on matter and one on a forest ecosystem. Thirty-six children were asked twice to draw and discuss two pictures of times they were scientists. We present our findings in two main ways. First, we use case studies of three students (one each in the first, second, and third grade) to show how the various constructs in the theoretical framework come together in the empirical study, and to explore in depth the various ideas that the children revealed. Second, we share a summative descriptive analysis of the differences between the pre and the post interviews. One of the important findings included the increase in the number of pictures from the pre-interview to the post interview in which children represented themselves as scientists (31 to 61). The children also showed themselves and scientists out in the world as engaging in practices with a range of materials, for a variety of purposes, and with particular kinds of epistemological commitments.

  12. Building the Next Generation of Earth Scientists: the Deep Carbon Observatory Early Career Scientist Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, K.; Fellowes, J.; Giovannelli, D.; Stagno, V.

    2016-12-01

    Building a network of collaborators and colleagues is a key professional development activity for early career scientists (ECS) dealing with a challenging job market. At large conferences, young scientists often focus on interacting with senior researchers, competing for a small number of positions in leading laboratories. However, building a strong, international network amongst their peers in related disciplines is often as valuable in the long run. The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) began funding a series of workshops in 2014 designed to connect early career researchers within its extensive network of multidisciplinary scientists. The workshops, by design, are by and for early career scientists, thus removing any element of competition and focusing on peer-to-peer networking, collaboration, and creativity. The successful workshops, organized by committees of early career deep carbon scientists, have nucleated a lively community of like-minded individuals from around the world. Indeed, the organizers themselves often benefit greatly from the leadership experience of pulling together an international workshop on budget and on deadline. We have found that a combination of presentations from all participants in classroom sessions, professional development training such as communication and data management, and field-based relationship building and networking is a recipe for success. Small groups within the DCO ECS network have formed; publishing papers together, forging new research directions, and planning novel and ambitious field campaigns. Many DCO ECS also have come together to convene sessions at major international conferences, including the AGU Fall Meeting. Most of all, there is a broad sense of camaraderie and accessibility within the DCO ECS Community, providing the foundation for a career in the new, international, and interdisciplinary field of deep carbon science.

  13. [A spectrum of neurological diseases with anti-VGKC antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Watanabe, Osamu; Nagado, Tatsui

    2007-11-01

    Anti-VGKC antibody causing peripheral nerve hyperexcitability is already an established clinical entity. Recently, many patients with non-herpetic limbic encephalitis (NHLE) with anti-VGKC antibody have been reported. The characteristic clinical features are low serum Na+ concentration and good response to immunotherapy. Anti-VGK antibody positive NHLE is relatively frequent among immune-mediated NHLE. It is important to know that this disease is responsive to immunotherapy. Furthermore, anti-VGKC antibody is also positive in some intractable epilepsies. These findings suggest that anti-VGKC is correlated with hyperexcitability in both the peripheral and central nervous system and that the spectrum of anti-VGKC antibody syndrome is now expanding.

  14. Changes to International Nonproprietary Names for antibody therapeutics 2017 and beyond: of mice, men and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parren, Paul W H I; Carter, Paul J; Plückthun, Andreas

    Active pharmaceutical substances require an International Nonproprietary Name (INN) assigned by the World Health Organization (WHO) to obtain market authorization as a medicinal product. INNs are selected to represent a unique, generic name for a drug enabling unambiguous identification by stakeholders worldwide. INNs may be requested after initiating clinical development of an investigational drug. Pharmaceutical classes are indicated by a common stem or suffix. Currently, INNs for monoclonal antibody-based drugs are recognized by the suffix, -mab, preceded by a source infix such as -xi- (chimeric), -zu- (humanized) or -u- (human) designating the species from which the antibody was derived. However, many technological advances have made it increasingly difficult to accurately capture an antibody's source in its name. In 2014, the WHO and the United States Adopted Names (USAN) Council approached this challenge by implementing changes to antibody source infix definitions. Unfortunately, gaps and ambiguities in the definitions and procedures resulted in inconsistent source category assignments and widespread confusion. The Antibody Society, extensively supported by academic and industry scientists, voiced concerns leading to constructive dialog during scheduled consultations with WHO and USAN Council representatives. In June 2017, the WHO announced that use of the source infix will be discontinued for new antibody INNs effective immediately. We fully support this change as it better aligns antibody INNs with current and foreseeable future innovations in antibody therapeutics. Here we review the changes implemented. Additionally, we analyzed antibody INNs recently assigned under the previous 2014 definitions and provide recommendations for further alignment.

  15. A Community of Practice among Educators, Researchers and Scientists for Improving Science Teaching in Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros-Cohernour, Edith J.; Lopez-Avila, Maria T.; Barrera-Bustillos, Maria E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a project aimed to improve the quality of science education in Southeast Mexico by the creation of a community of practice among scientists, researchers and teachers, involved in the design, implementation and evaluation of a professional development program for mathematics, chemistry, biology and physics secondary…

  16. The human fallibility of scientists : Dealing with error and bias in academic research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Coosje

    2017-01-01

    THE HUMAN FALLIBILITY OF SCIENTISTS Dealing with error and bias in academic research Recent studies have highlighted that not all published findings in the scientific lit¬erature are trustworthy, suggesting that currently implemented control mechanisms such as high standards for the reporting of

  17. Quantitative relationship between antibody affinity and antibody avidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between antibody avidity, measured by the dissociation of the antigen-antibody bond in antigen excess, and antibody affinity was studied. Complexes of radiolabelled antigen and antibody of known affinity were prepared in vitro and allowed to stand for seven days to reach equilibrium. Then nonlabelled antigen in one hundred fold excess was added to dissociate the complexes. After an appropriate incubation the fraction of antigen bound to antibody was measured by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method. The dissociation index was the fraction bound in the experimental sample divided by the fraction bound in the control. The correlation coefficient between the dissociation index and the antibody binding constant was 0.92 for early dissociation and 0.98 for late dissociation. The regression equation relating the binding constant to the dissociation index was K = 6.4(DI) + 6.25, where DI is the late dissociation index and K is the logarithm to the base 10 of the binding constant. There is a high correlation between avidity and affinity of antibody. Antibody affinity can be estimated from avidity data. The stability of antigen-antibody complexes can be predicted from antibody affinity

  18. Finding pathways to more equitable and meaningful public-scientist partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela Soleri; Jonathan W. Long; Monica D. Ramirez-Andreotta; Ruth Eitemiller; Rajul Pandyaǁ

    2016-01-01

    For many, citizen science is exciting because of the possibility for more diverse, equitable partnerships in scientific research with outcomes considered meaningful and useful by all, including public participants. This was the focus of a symposium we organized at the 2015 conference of the Citizen Science Association. Here we synthesize points made by symposium...

  19. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students’ Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments (“Scientist Spotlights”) that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week. We analyzed beginning- and end-of-course essays completed by students during each of five courses with Scientist Spotlights and two courses with equivalent homework assignments that lacked connections to the stories of diverse scientists. Students completing Scientist Spotlights shifted toward counterstereotypical descriptions of scientists and conveyed an enhanced ability to personally relate to scientists following the intervention. Longitudinal data suggested these shifts were maintained 6 months after the completion of the course. Analyses further uncovered correlations between these shifts, interest in science, and course grades. As Scientist Spotlights require very little class time and complement existing curricula, they represent a promising tool for enhancing science identity, shifting stereotypes, and connecting content to issues of equity and diversity in a broad range of STEM classrooms. PMID:27587856

  20. [Study of anti-idiotype antibodies to human monoclonal antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, R; Takahashi, N; Owaki, I; Kannagi, R; Endo, N; Morita, N; Inoue, M

    1992-02-01

    A human monoclonal antibody, ll-50 (IgM, lambda), was generated, which reacted specifically with a major of glycolipid present in LS174T colon cancer cells. The glycolipid antigen which reacted with the ll-50 antibody was expected to four sugar residues from its TLC mobility, and it was ascertained that the glycolipid antigen which reacted with ll-50 antibody might be Lc4 antigen [Gal beta 1----3 GLcNAc beta 1----3 Gal beta 1----4 Glc beta 1----1 Cer] judging from TLC immunostaining and ELISA when the reactivity of ll-50 antibody was tested using various pure glycolipids in 3-5 sugar residues as an antigen. Sera in patients with malignant disorders and healthy individuals were analyzed by Sandwich assay of immobilized and biotinylated ll-50 antibody. The serum of the Lc4 antigen recognized by ll-50 antibody was significantly higher in patients with malignant disorders than that in healthy individuals (p less than 0.05). Three mouse monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3 and C5 (all IgG1), were generated by the immunization of BALB/c mice with ll-50 antibody. These anti-idiotype antibodies specifically bound to to human monoclonal antibody, ll-50 and had a significant inhibitory activity towards the binding of ll-50 antibody to the Lc4 antigen. This indicated that these anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3, and C5, were paratope-related anti-idiotype antibodies. G3, B3, and C5 were expected to define the nearest idiotope because they could mutually inhibit ll-50 antibody. Sera in patients with malignant disorders and healthy individuals were analyzed by Sandwich assay of immobilized and biotinylated anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3, and C5. As to the ll-50 like antibodies defined by C5 (Id-C5+), the mean serum level in patients with malignant disorders was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals (p less than 0.05). As to the ll-50 like antibodies defined by B3 (Id-B3+), the mean serum level in patients with malignant disorders was significantly higher

  1. Supervising Scientist, Annual Report 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The year under review has seen the resolution of the major issue that has dominated the work of the Supervising Scientist Division over the past three years the review of scientific uncertainties associated with the environmental assessment of the proposal to mine uranium at Jabiluka. The Supervising Scientist prepared a comprehensive report on the risks associated with mining at Jabiluka, which has been under various stages of peer review by an Independent Science Panel (ISP) appointed by the WHC since May 1999. This process culminated in a visit to Australia by the ISP in July 2000 for detailed discussion and assessment and the submission of the final report of the ISP to the World Heritage Committee in September 2000. The report of the ISP was considered at the meeting of the World Heritage Committee in Cairns in December 2000. The Committee reached the conclusion that 'the currently approved proposal for the mine and mill at Jabiluka does not threaten the health of people or the biological and ecological systems of Kakadu National Park that the Mission believed to be at risk'. As a result, the WHC decided not to register Kakadu National Park on the World Heritage List in Danger. But the people of Kakadu themselves remain to be convinced. A major challenge is to gain the confidence of Aboriginal people in the integrity and independence of our scientific assessments and to reduce the concerns that they have for the future of their people and their country. Monitoring of the Jabiluka project was extensive throughout the reporting period. Chemical and biological monitoring programmes of Energy Resources of Australia (ERA) and the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) demonstrated that no adverse impact occurred in downstream aquatic ecosystems. Similarly, radiological measurements close to the nearest population centre demonstrated that radiation exposure of the public due to current operations at Jabiluka is not detectable

  2. The first Latin American workshop on professional skills for young female scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, A.; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Ponce-Dawson, Silvina

    2015-12-01

    To effectively build capacity for research and training in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) across Latin America and the Caribbean, a gender perspective must be factored in. Working from an awareness of the gender situation as well as of the multiple personal challenges experienced due to gender disparity, a group of Latin American female scientists organized a workshop with the goal of empowering young female scientists and assessing the challenges they face. In this paper we summarize the outcomes of the workshop, highlighting the barriers that are common in the region. Among other aspects, the workshop stressed the need for resource platforms for finding technical and professional networks, jobs, and scholarships.

  3. Microbials for the production of monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadiut, Oliver; Capone, Simona; Krainer, Florian; Glieder, Anton; Herwig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody fragments represent the most important biopharmaceutical products today. Because full length antibodies are glycosylated, mammalian cells, which allow human-like N-glycosylation, are currently used for their production. However, mammalian cells have several drawbacks when it comes to bioprocessing and scale-up, resulting in long processing times and elevated costs. By contrast, antibody fragments, that are not glycosylated but still exhibit antigen binding properties, can be produced in microbial organisms, which are easy to manipulate and cultivate. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the expression systems, strain engineering, and production processes for the three main microbials used in antibody and antibody fragment production, namely Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Drought Information Supported by Citizen Scientists (DISCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, A.; Maskey, M.; Hain, C.; Meyer, P.; Nair, U. S.; Handyside, C. T.; White, K.; Amin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Each year, drought impacts various regions of the United States on time scales of weeks, months, seasons, or years, which in turn leads to a need to document these impacts and inform key decisions on land management, use of water resources, and disaster response. Mapping impacts allows decision-makers to understand potential damage to agriculture and loss of production, to communicate and document drought impacts on crop yields, and to inform water management decisions. Current efforts to collect this information includes parsing of media reports, collaborations with local extension offices, and partnerships with the National Weather Service cooperative observer network. As part of a NASA Citizen Science for Earth Systems proposal award, a research and applications team from Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and collaborators within the NWS have developed a prototype smartphone application focused on the collection of citizen science observations of crop health and drought impacts, along with development of innovative low-cost soil moisture sensors to supplement subjective assessments of local soil moisture conditions. Observations provided by citizen scientists include crop type and health, phase of growth, soil moisture conditions, irrigation status, along with an optional photo and comment to provide visual confirmation and other details. In exchange for their participation, users of the app also have access to unique land surface modeling data sets produced at MSFC such as the NASA Land Information System soil moisture and climatology/percentile products from the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, assessments of vegetation health and stress from NASA and NOAA remote sensing platforms (e.g. MODIS/VIIRS), outputs from a crop stress model developed at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, recent rainfall estimates from the NOAA/NWS network of ground-based weather radars, and other observations made

  5. Expanding Horizons Teachers and Scientists Collabortaing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teres, A.

    2017-12-01

    As a participant in PolarTrec, I joined the crew of NASA's Operation IceBridge in Greenland for the month of April 2017. As an active member of the team I learned the ins and outs of field research, and I learned about the work done by Operation IceBridge. As a result of participating in this project, I grew as a teacher and a scientist. I took my experiences and shared them with my classroom through stories, pictures, videos, and my lesson plans. By seeing the Artic through my experiences the class became enraptured by the subject matter. I was no longer talking about a distant or abstract place instead I was talking about an experience. This enabled my students to take an active part in the discussion and to feel like the cryosphere was part of their life too. Not only did I learn about the science but I leaned about logistics of field research. I reached out to my community and local communications outlets before and after my trip to Greenland to familiarize whomever I could connect with about my experience. I contacted a local news station and they did an interview with me about my trip. I emailed a local newspaper about my trip and was interviewed before I left and after I returned. Due to the newscast, I was contacted by my college sorority and was interviewed for the sorority's national newsletter which is distributed throughout the United States. Each connection helped to spread the word. I'm continuing to spread the word by volunteering to present my experience to schools throughout Broward County in Florida. I've already connected with teachers and schools to set up my presentation in the calendar. Having these types of experiences is critical for teachers to continue their growth within the scientific field and education. Effective teachers are those not constrained by the walls of their classroom. Having the opportunity to work with scientists and do research in the field has expanded my horizons. The people I met I am still in contact with and I am

  6. Neuronal surface antigen antibodies in limbic encephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, F; Saiz, A; Lai, M; Bruna, J; López, F; Sabater, L; Blanco, Y; Rey, M J.; Ribalta, T; Dalmau, J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To report the frequency and type of antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (NSA-ab) in limbic encephalitis (LE). Methods: Analysis of clinical features, neuropathologic findings, and detection of NSA-ab using immunochemistry on rat tissue and neuronal cultures in a series of 45 patients with paraneoplastic (23) or idiopathic (22) LE. Results: NSA-ab were identified in 29 patients (64%; 12 paraneoplastic, 17 idiopathic). Thirteen patients had voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC)-ab, 11 novel NSA (nNSA)-ab, and 5 NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-ab. nNSA-ab did not identify a common antigen and were more frequent in paraneoplastic than idiopathic LE (39% vs 9%; p = 0.03). When compared with VGKC-ab or NMDAR-ab, the nNSA associated more frequently with intraneuronal antibodies (11% vs 73%; p = 0.001). Of 12 patients (9 nNSA-ab, 2 VGKC-ab, 1 NMDAR-ab) with paraneoplastic LE and NSA-ab, concomitant intraneuronal antibodies occurred in 9 (75%). None of these 12 patients improved with immunotherapy. The autopsy of three of them showed neuronal loss, microgliosis, and cytotoxic T cell infiltrates in the hippocampus and amygdala. These findings were compatible with a T-cell mediated neuronal damage. In contrast, 13 of 17 (76%) patients with idiopathic LE and NSA-ab (8 VGKC-ab, 4 NMDAR-ab, 1 nNSA-ab) and 1 of 5 (20%) without antibodies had clinical improvement (p = 0.04). Conclusions: In paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (LE), novel antibodies against neuronal surface antigens (nNSA-ab) occur frequently, coexist with antibodies against intracellular antigens, and these cases are refractory to immunotherapy. In idiopathic LE, the likelihood of improvement is significantly higher in patients with NSA-ab than in those without antibodies. GLOSSARY GAD = glutamic acid decarboxylase; LE = limbic encephalitis; NMDAR = N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor; NSA = neuronal surface antigens; nNSA = novel NSA; SCLC = small-cell lung cancer; VGKC = voltage-gated potassium channels

  7. Radioimmunoassay with heterologous antibody (hetero-antibody RIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasawa, Atsushi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Itoh, Zen; Wakabayashi, Katsumi

    1991-01-01

    To develop a homologous radioimmunoassay (RIA) for a hormone of a small or rare animal often meets difficulty in collecting a large amount of purified antigen required for antibody production. On the other hand, to employ a heterologous RIA to estimate the hormone often gives poor sensitivity. To overcome this difficulty, a 'hetero-antibody' RIA was studied. In a hetero-antibody RIA system, a purified preparation of a hormone is used for radioiodination and standardization and a heterologous antibody to the hormone is used for the first antibody. Canine motilin and rat LH were selected as examples, and anti-porcine motilin and anti-hCG, anti-hCGβ or anti-ovine LHβ was used as the heterologous antibody. The sensitivities of the hetero-antibody RIAs were much higher than those of heterologous RIAs in any case, showing that these hetero-antibody RIA systems were suitable for practical use. To clarify the principle of hetero-antibody RIA, antiserum to porcine motilin was fractionated on an affinity column where canine motilin was immobilized. The fraction bound had greater constants of affinity with both porcine and canine motilins than the rest of the antibody fractions. This fraction also reacted with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the C-terminal sequence common to porcine and canine motilins in a competitive binding test with labeled canine motilin. These results suggest that an antibody population having high affinity and cross-reactivity is present in polyclonal antiserum and indicate that the population can be used in hetero-antibody RIA at an appropriate concentration. (author)

  8. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C antibody in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyams, K C; Phillips, I A; Moran, A Y; Tejada, A; Wignall, F S; Escamilla, J

    1992-06-01

    The prevalence in Peru of antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) was determined in a survey of populations living in the northern jungle region and in groups at high risk of parenterally and sexually transmitted diseases. All sera were initially screened for anti-HCV using commercial first and second generation ELISAs; repeatedly reactive sera were further verified with a second generation immunoblot assay. Serum samples were also tested by ELISA for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc. None of 2,111 sera obtained in the survey of jungle residents was positive for anti-HCV by immunoblot assay. Twelve of 16 HIV-1 antibody positive hemophiliacs, one of 103 HIV-1 antibody positive homosexuals, and three of 602 HIV-1 negative registered female prostitutes were positive for anti-HCV. A high prevalence of total markers of hepatitis B infection was found in all subjects, especially in older subjects and groups at high risk of parenterally and sexually transmitted diseases. The findings of this study indicate that seropositivity for hepatitis C virus antibody is uncommon in Peru except in high risk groups and suggest that the epidemiology of hepatitis C differs substantially from hepatitis B.

  9. Identification of anti-CD98 antibody mimotopes for inducing antibodies with antitumor activity by mimotope immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Misa; Kondo, Masahiro; Ohshima, Motohiro; Deguchi, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hideki; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Tsuji, Daiki; Masuko, Takashi; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2014-04-01

    A mimotope is an antibody-epitope-mimicking peptide retrieved from a phage display random peptide library. Immunization with antitumor antibody-derived mimotopes is promising for inducing antitumor immunity in hosts. In this study, we isolated linear and constrained mimotopes from HBJ127, a tumor-suppressing anti-CD98 heavy chain mAb, and determined their abilities for induction of antitumor activity equal to that of the parent antibody. We detected elevated levels of antipeptide responses, but failed to detect reactivity against native CD98-expressing HeLa cells in sera of immunized mice. Phage display panning and selection of mimotope-immunized mouse spleen-derived antibody Fab library showed that HeLa cell-reactive Fabs were successfully retrieved from the library. This finding indicates that native antigen-reactive Fab clones represented an undetectable minor population in mimotope-induced antibody repertoire. Functional and structural analysis of retrieved Fab clones revealed that they were almost identical to the parent antibody. From these results, we confirmed that mimotope immunization was promising for retrieving antitumor antibodies equivalent to the parent antibody, although the co-administration of adjuvant compounds such as T-cell epitope peptides and Toll-like receptor 4 agonist peptides is likely to be necessary for inducing stronger antitumor immunity than mimotope injection alone. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  10. Human antibody technology and the development of antibodies against cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlin, Mats; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2015-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a virus that causes chronic infections in a large set of the population. It may cause severe disease in immunocompromised individuals, is linked to immunosenescence and implied to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Modulation of the immune system's abilities to manage the virus represent a highly viable therapeutic option and passive immunotherapy with polyclonal antibody preparations is already in clinical use. Defined monoclonal antibodies offer many advantages over polyclonal antibodies purified from serum. Human CMV-specific monoclonal antibodies have consequently been thoroughly investigated with respect to their potential in the treatment of diseases caused by CMV. Recent advances in human antibody technology have substantially expanded the breadth of antibodies for such applications. This review summarizes the fundamental basis for treating CMV disease by use of antibodies, the basic technologies to be used to develop such antibodies, and relevant human antibody specificities available to target this virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Young Earth System Scientists (YESS) Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K. A.; Langendijk, G.; Bahar, F.; Huang-Lachmann, J. T.; Osman, M.; Mirsafa, M.; Sonntag, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Young Earth System Scientists (YESS) community is compiled of early career researchers (including students) coming from a range of scientific backgrounds, spanning both natural and social sciences. YESS unifies young researchers in an influential network to give them a collective voice and leverage within the geosciences community, while supporting career development. The YESS community has used its powerful network to provide a unified perspective on the future of Earth system science (Rauser et al. 2017), to be involved in the organization of international conferences, and to engage with existing international structures that coordinate science. Since its founding in Germany in 2010, the YESS community has grown extensively across the globe, with currently almost 1000 members from over 80 countries, and has become truly interdisciplinary. Recently, the organization has carried elections for Regional Representatives and the Executive Committee as part of its self-sustained governance structure. YESS is ready to continue pioneering crucial areas of research which provide solutions to benefit society for the long-term advancement of Earth system science.

  12. Collaboration and Gender Equity among Academic Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joya Misra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities were established as hierarchical bureaucracies that reward individual attainment in evaluating success. Yet collaboration is crucial both to 21st century science and, we argue, to advancing equity for women academic scientists. We draw from research on gender equity and on collaboration in higher education, and report on data collected on one campus. Sixteen focus group meetings were held with 85 faculty members from STEM departments, separated by faculty rank and gender (i.e., assistant professor men, full professor women. Participants were asked structured questions about the role of collaboration in research, career development, and departmental decision-making. Inductive analyses of focus group data led to the development of a theoretical model in which resources, recognition, and relationships create conditions under which collaboration is likely to produce more gender equitable outcomes for STEM faculty. Ensuring women faculty have equal access to resources is central to safeguarding their success; relationships, including mutual mentoring, inclusion and collegiality, facilitate women’s careers in academia; and recognition of collaborative work bolsters women’s professional advancement. We further propose that gender equity will be stronger in STEM where resources, relationships, and recognition intersect—having multiplicative rather than additive effects.

  13. The first scientist Anaximander and his legacy

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Carlo Rovelli, a leading theoretical physicist, uses the figure of Anaximander as the starting point for an examination of scientific thinking itself: its limits, its strengths, its benefits to humankind, and its controversial relationship with religion. Anaximander, the sixth-century BC Greek philosopher, is often called the first scientist because he was the first to explain that order in the world was due to natural forces, not supernatural ones. He is the first person known to rnunderstand that the Earth floats in space; to believe that the sun, the moon, and the stars rotate around it--seven centuries before Ptolemy; to argue that all animals came from the sea and evolved; and to posit that universal laws rncontrol all change in the world. Anaximander taught Pythagoras, who would build on Anaximander's scientific theories by applying mathematical laws to natural phenomena. rnrnIn the award-winning Anaximander and the Birth of Scientific Thought, Rovelli restores Anaximander to his place in the history of...

  14. Stephen C. Woods: a precocious scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerard P

    2011-04-18

    To investigate the early scientific development of Steve Woods, I reviewed his research during the first decade after he received his doctoral degree in 1970. The main parts of his research program were conditioned insulin secretion and hypoglycemia, Pavlovian conditioning of insulin secretion before a scheduled access to food, and basal insulin as a negative-feedback signal from fat mass to the brain. These topics were pursued with experimental ingenuity; the resulting publications were interesting, clear, and rhetorically effective. Although the theoretical framework for his experiments with insulin was homeostatic, by the end of the decade he suggested that classic negative-feedback homeostasis needed to be revised to include learning acquired by lifestyle. Thus, Woods functioned as a mature scientist from the beginning of his research-he was very precocious. This precocity also characterized his teaching and mentoring as recalled by two of his students during that time, Joseph Vasselli and Paul Kulkosky. The most unusual and exemplary aspect of his precocity is that the outstanding performance of his first decade was maintained during the subsequent 30years. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Scientists' views about attribution of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2014-08-19

    Results are presented from a survey held among 1868 scientists studying various aspects of climate change, including physical climate, climate impacts, and mitigation. The survey was unique in its size, broadness and level of detail. Consistent with other research, we found that, as the level of expertise in climate science grew, so too did the level of agreement on anthropogenic causation. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), explicitly agreed with anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) being the dominant driver of recent global warming. The respondents' quantitative estimate of the GHG contribution appeared to strongly depend on their judgment or knowledge of the cooling effect of aerosols. The phrasing of the IPCC attribution statement in its fourth assessment report (AR4)-providing a lower limit for the isolated GHG contribution-may have led to an underestimation of the GHG influence on recent warming. The phrasing was improved in AR5. We also report on the respondents' views on other factors contributing to global warming; of these Land Use and Land Cover Change (LULCC) was considered the most important. Respondents who characterized human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having had the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change.

  16. Scientists present their design for Einstein Telescope

    CERN Multimedia

    ASPERA Press Release

    2011-01-01

    Plans shape up for a revolutionary new observatory that will explore black holes and the Big Bang. This detector will ‘see’ the Universe in gravitational waves.   A new era in astronomy will come a step closer when scientists from across Europe present their design study today for an advanced observatory capable of making precision measurements of gravitational waves – minute ripples in the fabric of spacetime – predicted to emanate from cosmic catastrophes such as merging black holes and collapsing stars and supernovae. It also offers the potential to probe the earliest moments of the Universe just after the Big Bang, which are currently inaccessible. The Einstein Observatory (ET) is a so-called third-generation gravitational-wave (GW) detector, which will be 100 times more sensitive than current instruments. Like the first two generations of GW detectors, it is based on the measurement of tiny changes (far less than the size of an atomic nucleus) in the le...

  17. Communication Ambassadors-an Australian Social Media Initiative to Develop Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jack T H; Power, Cheryl J; Kahler, Charlene M; Lyras, Dena; Young, Paul R; Iredell, Jonathan; Robins-Browne, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Science communication is a skill set to be developed through ongoing interactions with different stakeholders across a variety of platforms. Opportunities to engage the general public are typically reserved for senior scientists, but the use of social media in science communication allows all scientists to instantaneously disseminate their findings and interact with online users. The Communication Ambassador program is a social media initiative launched by the Australian Society for Microbiology to expand the online presence and science communication portfolios of early-career scientists. Through their participation in the program, a rotating roster of Australian microbiologists have broadened the online reach of the Society's social media channels as well as their own professional networks by attending and live-tweeting microbiology events throughout the year. We present the Communication Ambassador program as a case study of coordinated social media activity in science communication to the general public, and describe the potential for its applications in science education and training.

  18. Writing Like a Scientist: Exploring Elementary Teachers' Understandings and Practices of Writing in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study examined the connections between elementary teachers’ conceptions of how scientists use writing and how the teachers used writing during science lessons. Data collected included lesson observations, interviews, handouts to students, and curriculum resources. The findings revealed that teachers in this study thought scientists write for several purposes: the presentation of data, observations, experiences, procedures, and facts. The teachers used writing tasks that mirrored this with their students. The teachers also had a limited definition of creativity in writing, and when they had students write creatively in science it was to add in fictional elements. Implications of this study include providing teachers with better models for how and why scientists write, including these models in more inquiry-based science lessons, and directly relating concepts of nature of science to elementary science writing.

  19. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are rapidly becoming essential tools in the clinical practice, given their ability to recognize their cognate antigens with high specificity and affinity, and a high yield at reasonable costs in model animals. Unfortunately, when administered to human patients, xenogeneic antibodies can...... elicit unwanted and dangerous immunogenic responses. Antibody humanization methods are designed to produce molecules with a better safety profile still maintaining their ability to bind the antigen. This can be accomplished by grafting the non-human regions determining the antigen specificity...... and time-consuming experiments. Here we present tools for antibody humanization (Tabhu) a web server for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps...

  20. Cancer imaging with radiolabeled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldenberg, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book presents a perspective of the use of antibodies to target diagnostic isotopes to tumors. Antibodies with reasonable specificity can be developed against almost any substance. If selective targeting to cancer cells can be achieved, the prospects for a selective therapy are equally intriguing. But the development of cancer detection, or imaging, with radiolabeled antibodies has depended upon advances in a number of different areas, including cancer immunology and immunochemistry for identifying suitable antigen targets and antibodies to these targets, tumor biology for model systems, radiochemistry for he attachment of radionuclides to antibodies, molecular biology for reengineering the antibodies for safer and more effective use in humans, and nuclear medicine for providing the best imaging protocols and instrumentation to detect minute amounts of elevated radioactivity against a background of considerable noise. Accordingly, this book has been organized to address the advances that are being made in many of these areas

  1. Training scientists as future industry leaders: teaching translational science from an industry executive's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gloria; Kranzler, Jay D; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2018-01-01

    PhDs and post-doctoral biomedical graduates, in greater numbers, are choosing industry based careers. However, most scientists do not have formal training in business strategies and venture creation and may find senior management positions untenable. To fill this training gap, "Biotechnology Industry: Structure and Strategy" was offered at New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM). The course focuses on the business aspects of translational medicine and research translation and incorporates the practice of business case discussions, mock negotiation, and direct interactions into the didactic. The goal is to teach scientists at an early career stage how to create solutions, whether at the molecular level or via the creation of devices or software, to benefit those with disease. In doing so, young, talented scientists can develop a congruent mindset with biotechnology/industry executives. Our data demonstrates that the course enhances students' knowledge of the biotechnology industry. In turn, these learned skills may further encourage scientists to seek leadership positions in the field. Implementation of similar courses and educational programs will enhance scientists' training and inspire them to become innovative leaders in the discovery and development of therapeutics.

  2. Climate Scientists In The Public Arena: Who's Got Our Backs? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Climate scientists have an important role to play in informing the public discourse on human-caused climate change. Our scientific expertise provides us a unique, informed perspective, and despite recent high profile attacks against climate science, the public still affords climate scientists the greatest trust to deliver an honest, unbiased assessment of the potential threats posed by climate changes. Yet, as with all areas of science where powerful special interests perceive themselves as threatened by the findings of science, scientists enter the public fray at our peril. Our efforts to communicate the science are opposed by a well-funded, highly organized disinformation effort that aims to confuse the public about the nature of our scientific understanding. In recent years, the disinformation campaign has demonstrated a willingness to attack individual, climate scientists as a means of achieving a broader end: discrediting climate science itself. These attacks are rarely fought in legitimate scientific circles such as the peer-reviewed scientific literature or other scholarly venues, but rather through rhetorical efforts delivered by nonscientists, using ideologically aligned media outlets, special interest groups, and politicians. Scientists are massively out-funded and outmanned in this battle, and will lose if leading scientific institutions and organizations remain on the sidelines. I will discuss this dilemma, drawing upon my own experiences in the public arena of climate change.

  3. A feeling of flow: exploring junior scientists' experiences with dictation of scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanager, Lene; Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-08-10

    Science involves publishing results, but many scientists do not master this. We introduced dictation as a method of producing a manuscript draft, participating in writing teams and attending a writing retreat to junior scientists in our department. This study aimed to explore the scientists' experiences with this process. Four focus group interviews were conducted and comprised all participating scientists (n = 14). Each transcript was transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two interviewers. The coding structure was discussed until consensus and from this the emergent themes were identified. Participants were 7 PhD students, 5 scholarship students and 2 clinical research nurses. Three main themes were identified: 'Preparing and then letting go' indicated that dictating worked best when properly prepared. 'The big dictation machine' described benefits of writing teams when junior scientists got feedback on both content and structure of their papers. 'Barriers to and drivers for participation' described flow-like states that participants experienced during the dictation. Motivation and a high level of preparation were pivotal to be able to dictate a full article in one day. The descriptions of flow-like states seemed analogous to the theoretical model of flow which is interesting, as flow is usually deemed a state reserved to skilled experts. Our findings suggest that other academic groups might benefit from using the concept including dictation of manuscripts to encourage participants' confidence in their writing skills.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillman, R.O.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the current status of in-vivo use of monoclonal antibodies for treating cancer. Publications appearing between 1980 and 1988 were identified by computer searches using MEDLINE and CANCERLIT, by reviewing the table of contents of recently published journals, and by searching bibliographies of identified books and articles. More than 700 articles, including peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, were identified and selected for analysis. The literature was reviewed and 235 articles were selected as relevant and representative of the current issues and future applications for in-vivo monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy and of the toxicity and efficacy which has been associated with clinical trials. Approaches include using antibody alone (interacting with complement or effector cells or binding directly with certain cell receptors) and immunoconjugates (antibody coupled to radioisotopes, drugs, toxins, or other biologicals). Most experience has been with murine antibodies. Trials of antibody alone and radiolabeled antibodies have confirmed the feasibility of this approach and the in-vivo trafficking of antibodies to tumor cells. However, tumor cell heterogeneity, lack of cytotoxicity, and the development of human antimouse antibodies have limited clinical efficacy. Although the immunoconjugates are very promising, heterogeneity and the antimouse immune response have hampered this approach as has the additional challenge of chemically or genetically coupling antibody to cytotoxic agents. As a therapeutic modality, monoclonal antibodies are still promising but their general use will be delayed for several years. New approaches using human antibodies and reducing the human antiglobulin response should facilitate treatment. 235 references

  5. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists Promotes Professional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Allen; Fugmann, Gerlis; Kruse, Frigga

    2014-06-01

    As a partner organization of AGU, the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS; http://www.apecs.is) fully supports the views expressed in Wendy Gordon's Forum article "Developing Scientists' `Soft' Skills" (Eos, 95(6), 55, doi:10.1002/2014EO060003). Her recognition that beyond research skills, people skills and professional training are crucial to the success of any early-career scientist is encouraging.

  6. Tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisma, H.; Hilgers, J.

    1987-01-01

    Many monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-associated antigens have been identified, but so far none of these are tumor specific. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been used for imaging of a wide variety of tumors with success. Radiolabeling of antibody is usually done with iodine isotopes of which 123 I is the best candidate for radioimmunodetection purposes. The labeling of antibodies through chelates makes it possible to use metal radioisotopes like 111 In, which is the best radioisotope for imaging with monoclonal antibodies due to its favorable half-life of 2.5 days. Usually imaging cannot be performed within 24 h after injection, but clearance of antibody can be increased by using F(ab) 2 of Fab. Another approach is to clear non-bound antibody by a second antibody, directed against the first. The detection limit of immunoimaging is about 2 cm, but will be improved by tomography or SPECT. There is still a high false positive and false negative rate, which makes it impossible to use radioimmunodetection as the only technique for diagnosis of tumors. In combination with other detection techniques, tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies can improve diagnosis. 44 refs.; 3 tabs

  7. Maturation Pathways of Cross-Reactive HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter S. Dimitrov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Several human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs and antibody fragments, including the best characterized in terms of structure-function b12 and Fab X5, exhibit relatively potent and broad HIV-1 neutralizing activity. However, the elicitation of b12 or b12-like antibodies in vivo by vaccine immunogens based on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env has not been successful. B12 is highly divergent from the closest corresponding germline antibody while X5 is less divergent. We have hypothesized that the relatively high degree of specific somatic hypermutations may preclude binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env to closest germline antibodies, and that identifying antibodies that are intermediates in the pathways to maturation could help design novel vaccine immunogens to guide the immune system for their enhanced elicitation. In support of this hypothesis we have previously found that a germline-like b12 (monovalent and bivalent scFv as an Fc fusion protein or IgG lacks measurable binding to an Env as measured by ELISA with a sensitivity in the μM range [1]; here we present evidence confirming and expanding these findings for a panel of Envs. In contrast, a germline-like scFv X5 bound Env with high (nM affinity. To begin to explore the maturation pathways of these antibodies we identified several possible b12 intermediate antibodies and tested their neutralizing activity. These intermediate antibodies neutralized only some HIV-1 isolates and with relatively weak potency. In contrast, germline-like scFv X5 neutralized a subset of the tested HIV-1 isolates with comparable efficiencies to that of the mature X5. These results could help explain the relatively high immunogenicity of the coreceptor binding site on gp120 and the abundance of CD4-induced (CD4i antibodies in HIV-1-infected patients (X5 is a CD4i antibody as well as the maturation pathway of X5. They also can help identify antigens that can bind specifically to b12 germline and

  8. Scientists' perspectives on the ethical issues of stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Holly; Schuppli, Catherine A; Preto, Nina; Lafrenière, Darquise; McDonald, Michael

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes findings from an ethics education project funded by the Canadian Stem Cell Network (SCN). The project is part of a larger research initiative entitled "The Stem Cell Research Environment: Drawing the Evidence and Experience Together". The ethics education study began with a series of focus groups with SCN researchers and trainees as part of a "needs assessment" effort. The purpose of these discussions was to identify the main ethical issues associated with stem cell (SC) research from the perspective of the stem cell community. This paper will focus on five prominent themes that emerged from the focus group data including: (1) the source of stem cells; (2) the power of stem cells; (3) working within a charged research environment; (4) the regulatory context; and (5) ethics training for scientists. Additional discussions are planned with others involved in Canadian stem cell research (e.g., research ethics board members, policy makers) to supplement initial findings. These assessment results combined with existing bioethics literature will ultimately inform a web-based ethics education module for the SCN. We believe that our efforts are important for those analyzing the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) in this area because our in depth understanding of stem cell researcher perspectives will enable us to develop more relevant and effective education material, which in turn should help SC researchers address the important ethical challenges in their area.

  9. [Monoclonal antibodies in diagnosis of acute leukemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyńska, A; Robak, T

    1996-01-01

    Immunophenotyping has become an essential component for the study of acute myeloblastic (AML) and lymphoblastic (ALL) leukaemias. The recent development of highly specific monoclonal antibodies (Mc Ab) to differentiation antigens (CD) of haematopoetic cells have made it readily available to clinical laboratories in most major hospitals. Immunophenotyping complements standard morphology by providing information on lineage, stage of differentiation and clonality. In addition some of the flow cytometry findings have independent prognostic significance. Monoclonal antibodies useful in defining lineage (B-cell versus T-cell) and stages of differentiation of ALL. It can be also used in identifying characteristic feature of AML and aiding in lineage determination in acute leukaemias that are morphologically undifferentiated. Surface immunophenotyping is especially helpful for recognizing mixed lineage acute leukaemia and diagnosing certain rare entities such as erythroleukaemia (M6), acute megakaryocytic leukaemia (M7) and minimally differentiation acute myeloid leukaemia.

  10. Scientists vs. Vesuvius: limits of volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato

    2014-05-01

    Recently, Italian newspapers reported the statements of Japanese and American volcanologists which declared the high hazard related to the future occurrence of catastrophic eruption at Vesuvius. Is this a reliable picture from scientific point of view? The evaluation of volcanic hazard is based on a general statistical law for which the chances of an eruptive event increase when energy decreases. This law is constructed on the basis of empirical data. Thus, the possibility that a plinian-like eruption occurs, for each volcano, is rare and further reduced for worst-case scenario. However, empirical data are not supported by a robust scientific theory, experimentally verifiable through an exact forecast of a long-term eruption, both in time limits and in energy. Today, the lack of paradigms able to predict in a deterministic way such a complex phenomena, limit the field of the scientists that cannot go further evaluations of a purely probabilistic nature. From this point of view volcanology cannot be considered an hard quantitative Science. The declaration according to which Vesuvius, sooner or later, will produce a catastrophic eruption, yet apparently obvious if we consider the very high degree of urbanization, is not supported by any experimentally verifiable theory. Therefore, the statement according to which Vesuvius next eruptive event will be catastrophic is false. In probabilistic terms, it is actually the least possible scenario. Recognizing the cognitive limits in this research field means to encourage research itself towards the determination of more solid paradigms, in order to get more exact forecasts about such complex phenomena. The scientific compromise of defining risk scenarios, rather than deterministic evaluations about future eruptive events, precisely reflects the limits of research that have to be contemplated even by Civil Protection. Having considered these limits, every risk scenario, even the most conservative, will be ineffective in

  11. Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research findings to other scientist and to advance scientific discovery. ... publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 ..... publication and advice policy on the necessary actions to.

  12. The effects of tether placement on antibody stability on surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grawe, Rebecca W.; Knotts, Thomas A.

    2017-06-01

    Despite their potential benefits, antibody microarrays have fallen short of performing reliably and have not found widespread use outside of the research setting. Experimental techniques have been unable to determine what is occurring on the surface of an atomic level, so molecular simulation has emerged as the primary method of investigating protein/surface interactions. Simulations of small proteins have indicated that the stability of the protein is a function of the residue on the protein where a tether is placed. The purpose of this research is to see whether these findings also apply to antibodies, with their greater size and complexity. To determine this, 24 tethering locations were selected on the antibody Protein Data Bank (PDB) ID: 1IGT. Replica exchange simulations were run on two different surfaces, one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic, to determine the degree to which these tethering sites stabilize or destabilize the antibody. Results showed that antibodies tethered to hydrophobic surfaces were in general less stable than antibodies tethered to hydrophilic surfaces. Moreover, the stability of the antibody was a function of the tether location on hydrophobic surfaces but not hydrophilic surfaces.

  13. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic antibody development is one of the fastest growing areas of the pharmaceutical industry. Generating high-quality monoclonal antibodies against a given therapeutic target is very crucial for the success of the drug development. However, due to immune tolerance, some proteins that are highly conserved between mice and humans are not very immunogenic in mice, making it difficult to generate antibodies using a conventional approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the impaired immune tolerance of NZB/W mice was exploited to generate monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved or self-antigens. Using two highly conserved human antigens (MIF and HMGB1 and one mouse self-antigen (TNF-alpha as examples, we demonstrate here that multiple clones of high affinity, highly specific antibodies with desired biological activities can be generated, using the NZB/W mouse as the immunization host and a T cell-specific tag fused to a recombinant antigen to stimulate the immune system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed an efficient and universal method for generating surrogate or therapeutic antibodies against "difficult antigens" to facilitate the development of therapeutic antibodies.

  14. Unravelling the role of allo-antibodies and Transplant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Matsuda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alloimmunity driving rejection in the context of solid organ transplantation can be grossly divided into mechanisms predominantly driven by either T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR or antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR, though the co-existence of both types of rejections can be seen in a variable number of sampled grafts. Acute TCMR can generally be well controlled by the establishment of effective immunosuppression 1, 2. Acute ABMR is a low frequency finding in the current era of blood group and HLA donor/recipient matching and the avoidance of engraftment in the context of high-titer, pre-formed donor specific antibodies. However, chronic ABMR remains a major complication resulting in the untimely loss of transplanted organs 3-10. The close relationship between donor-specific antibodies (DSAs and ABMR has been revealed by the highly sensitive detection of human leukocyte antigen (HLA antibodies 11-16. Injury to transplanted organs by activation of humoral immune reaction in the context of HLA identical transplants and the absence of donor specific antibodies (DSAs, strongly suggest the participation of non HLA (nHLA antibodies in ABMR (17-25. In this review, we discuss the genesis of ABMR in the context of HLA and nHLA antibodies and summarize strategies for ABMR management.

  15. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibodies may or may not be associated with adverse reactions, and identification of the specific type of RBC ... the only things that can cause a transfusion reaction. The recipient's immune ... or to drugs that the donor may have taken. Rarely, antibodies in the plasma ...

  16. Teacher Candidates' Perceptions of Scientists: Images and Attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The masculine image of scientists as elderly men wearing white coats and glasses, working alone in the laboratory has been documented since the 1950s. Because it is important that teacher candidates have a scientifically literate image of scientists due to the impact they have on their future students, this investigation is salient. This study…

  17. Scientist-Image Stereotypes: The Relationships among Their Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçam, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine primary school students' scientist-image stereotypes by considering the relationships among indicators. A total of 877 students attending Grades 6 and 7 in Düzce, Turkey participated in this study. The Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) was implemented during the 2013-2014 academic year to determine students' images…

  18. The Voice of Women Scientists in EU Research Policy (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatkovskienė, Dalia

    2009-04-01

    The European Platform of Women Scientists (www.epws.org) is an umbrella organization bringing together networks of women scientists and organisations committed to gender equality in research in all disciplines all over Europe and the countries associated to the European Union's Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development. The goals of EPWS and its activities are presented.

  19. Russian scientists make desperate plea to save nuclear institute

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Scientists from a Russian nuclear research institute recently held a news conference in Moscow to publicize their work on a revolutionary new type of nuclear reactor. However, it transpired that the scientists were worried about their institute being closed down, and saw the news conference as an opportunity to draw attention to their plight (1 page).

  20. Continuous professional training of medical laboratory scientists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Training and re-training of healthcare workers is pivotal to improved service delivery. Objective. To determine the proportion of practising medical laboratory scientists with in-service training in Benin City, Nigeria and areas covered by these programmes. Methods. Medical laboratory scientists from Benin City ...

  1. NREL Scientists Model Methane-Eating Bacteria | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists Model Methane-Eating Bacteria News Release: NREL Scientists Model Methane-Eating Bacteria February 13, 2018 Nature is full of surprises - not to mention solutions. A research team ) recently explored the possibilities provided by the natural world by researching how the bacteria

  2. The Use of Internet by Academic Scientists in Modibbo Adama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The internet is an important tool for communication and retrieval of information. This study examined the use of internet in communication and retrieval of information by scientists in Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola.The survey method was used for the study. A total of 95 scientists in the school of pure and ...

  3. Thinking like a scientist: innateness as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Samuels, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The concept of innateness appears in systematic research within cognitive science, but it also appears in less systematic modes of thought that long predate the scientific study of the mind. The present studies therefore explore the relationship between the properly scientific uses of this concept and its role in ordinary folk understanding. Studies 1-4 examined the judgments of people with no specific training in cognitive science. Results showed (a) that judgments about whether a trait was innate were not affected by whether or not the trait was learned, but (b) such judgments were impacted by moral considerations. Study 5 looked at the judgments of both non-scientists and scientists, in conditions that encouraged either thinking about individual cases or thinking about certain general principles. In the case-based condition, both non-scientists and scientists showed an impact of moral considerations but little impact of learning. In the principled condition, both non-scientists and scientists showed an impact of learning but little impact of moral considerations. These results suggest that both non-scientists and scientists are drawn to a conception of innateness that differs from the one at work in contemporary scientific research but that they are also both capable of 'filtering out' their initial intuitions and using a more scientific approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Who believes in the storybook image of the scientist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, C.L S; Hartgerink, C.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the 'storybook image of the

  5. "Star Wars" on Campus: Scientists Debate the Wisdom of SDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Jean

    1987-01-01

    President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative is opposed by many university scientists, but government officials have no problem placing research contracts. Specific arrangements and personal opinions are cited, and the text of the Star Wars Petition signed by 6,500 faculty and graduate student scientists is included. (MSE)

  6. Assessing the bibliometric productivity of forest scientists in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giannetti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the Italian Ministry of University and Research issued new evaluation protocols to select candidates for University professorships and assess the bibliometric productivity of Universities and Research Institutes based on bibliometric indicators, i.e. scientific paper and citation numbers and the h-index. Under this framework, the objective of this study was to quantify the bibliometric productivity of the Italian forest research community during the 2002-2012 period. We examined the following productivity parameters: (i the bibliometric productivity under the Forestry subject category at the global level; (ii compared the aggregated bibliometric productivity of Italian forest scientists with scientists from other countries; (iii analyzed publication and citation temporal trends of Italian forest scientists and their international collaborations; and (iv characterized productivity distribution among Italian forest scientists at different career levels. Results indicated the following: (i the UK is the most efficient country based on the ratio between Gross Domestic Spending (GDS on Research and Development (R&D and bibliometric productivity under the Forestry subject category, followed by Italy; (ii Italian forest scientist productivity exhibited a significant positive time trend, but was characterized by high inequality across authors; (iii one-half of the Italian forest scientist publications were written in collaboration with foreign scientists; (iv a strong relationship exists between bibliometric indicators calculated by WOS and SCOPUS, suggesting these two databases have the same potential to evaluate the forestry research community; and (v self-citations did not significantly affect the rank of Italian forest scientists.

  7. Who Believes in the Storybook Image of the Scientist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Hartgerink, Chris H J; van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2017-01-01

    Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the “storybook image of the

  8. Representations of scientists in high school biology textbooks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van M.W.; Roth, W.-M.

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: High school students’ images of scientists are reported as being stereotypic and narrow. We investigated in this study the potential of science textbooks to mediate the emergence of such images. We selected evidence for how ten noted scientists are represented in four widely used high

  9. Attitudes and working conditions of ICES advisory scientists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Wilson, Douglas Clyde

    2009-01-01

    give a fuller picture. One important task is to compare the experience of fisheries scientists who are more involved in the advice generation system with that of their colleagues who are less involved. Most of the tables draw comparisons between scientists who work for different kinds of employers...

  10. Relations between scientists and government: the case of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, J E

    1982-05-01

    This article discusses the role and influence of the scientific communities in less-developed countries (LDC) on national high-technology policy by examining the particular case of nuclear energy. This area has been largely overlooked by other literature on LDC's scientific development. Based on an examination of scientific involvement in nuclear energy policy in selected countries, it becomes clear that the influence of scientists can range from making cardinal decisions about programs to simply legitimating or implementing decisions made by political or bureaucratic leaders. Within governmental structures, there are opportunities for scientists to incrementally shape technology policies, despite the fact that the magnitude of this influence is circumscribed by domestic considerations, not only of physical resources, but also intangibles such as national prestige and security. While a scientist can on rare occasion seize opportunities to dramatically restructure a nation's scientific or nuclear program, the overwhelming majority of scientists never exercise any such power. But even in day-to-day operations of government scientists can exert subtle influence, not only on nuclear energy programs, but also in an indirect way on the fabric of a nation's culture. Despite this significant impact, in any direct contest between the scientist and the politician, the scientist inevitably loses. In conclusion, scientists seem much more aware of their limitations rather than their potential to influence national technology policy, and tend to act in accord with priorities and goals as defined by their nation-state. 18 references.

  11. U.S. Directory of Marine Scientists 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Processes & Engineering. MACLEAN, SHARON A, Fishery Biologist. FINKELSTEIN, KENNETH, Coastal Geologist. Zooplankton; Crustacea. Sedimentology; Stratigraphy... SHARON T, Aszt Scientist. Pasadena, CA 91109 Taxonomy and Systematics; Zooplankton. HOWEY, TERRY W, Scientist. CHELTON, DUDLEY BOYD, JR, Senior...Oceanography. Monterey, CA 93940 Optics; Descriptive Physical Oceanography, Instrumentation Engineering. BOURKE , ROBERT H, Assoc Professor of VON SCHWIND

  12. Of Science and Scientists an Anthology of Anecdotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothare, A. N.

    Although a lot is available in the form of biographies and writings of scientists, very little information is found on what made them not only great discoverers but humane too, blessed with humour, humility and humanism. This book helps to convey this very aspect of scientists who while being involved in their unique adventure are like us, the lesser mortals.

  13. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  14. The Media: The Image of the Scientist is Bad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Many individuals are concerned with the erroneous image of science and scientists that is given to the public by the media. To improve the situation, it is suggested that individuals and organizations protest to movie studios and networks when inaccuracies appear and when scientists are portrayed in a denigrating manner. (Author/MA)

  15. Utilizing Professional Vision in Supporting Preservice Teachers' Learning About Contextualized Scientific Practices. Collaborative Discourse Practices Between Teachers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli

    2018-03-01

    Drawn from the cultural-historical theories of knowing and doing science, this article uses the concept of professional vision to explore what scientists and experienced teachers see and articulate as important aspects of climate science practices. The study takes an abductive reasoning approach to analyze scientists' videotaped lectures to recognize what scientists pay attention to in their explanations of climate science practices. It then analyzes how ideas scientists attended align with experienced teachers' sense-making of scientific practices to teach climate change. The findings show that experienced teachers' and scientists' explanations showed alignment in the focus on scientific practices, but indicated variations in the temporal and spatial reasoning of climate data. Furthermore, the interdisciplinarity of climate science was emphasized in climate scientists' lectures, but was not apparent once scientists and teachers shared the same culture in meetings to provide feedback to preservice teachers. Given the importance of teaching through scientific practices in classrooms, this study provides suggestions to capture the epistemic diversity of scientific disciplines.

  16. Toward inclusive science education: University scientists' views of students,instructional practices, and the nature of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Julie A.; Whitney, David J.; Breton, Therese D.; Hilton-Brown, Bryan A.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions and self-reported practices of 18 scientists participating in a yearlong seminar series designed to explore issues of gender and ethnicity in science. Scientists and seminar were part of the Promoting Women and Scientific Literacy project, a curriculum transformation and professional development initiative undertaken by science, science education, and women's studies faculty at their university. Researchers treated participating scientists as critical friends able to bring clarity to and raise questions about conceptions of inclusion in science education. Through questionnaires and semistructured interviews, we explored their (a) rationales for differential student success in undergraduate science education; (b) self-reports of ways they structure, teach, and assess courses to promote inclusion; and (c) views of androcentric and ethnocentric bias in science. Statistical analysis of questionnaires yielded few differences in scientists' views and reported practices by sex or across time. Qualitative analysis of interviews offered insight into how scientists can help address the problem of women and ethnic minorities in science education; constraints encountered in attempts to implement pedagogical and curricular innovations; and areas of consensus and debate across scientists and science studies scholars' descriptions of science. From our findings, we provided recommendations for other professional developers working with scientists to promote excellence and equity in undergraduate science education.

  17. The images of scientists and science among Hebrew- and Arabic-speaking pre-service teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Edna; Cohen, Ariel

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the image of scientists held by Israeli pre-service teachers, the majority of whom were female. The population consisted of students belonging to two cultures, Hebrew-speaking and Arabic-speaking. The DAST ('Draw-a-Scientist-Test') tool and other tools, some of which were developed specifically for this research, tested the image of the scientist as perceived by the participants. It was found that the image of the scientist is perceived as predominantly male, a physicist or a chemist, working in a laboratory typical of the eighteenth, nineteenth or the early-twentieth century. Students did not differentiate between scientists and inventors. Different images were held in the two cultures. Most of the Arabic-speaking students put Classical Islamic scientists near the top of their lists and thought of the scientist as an Arab male, while the Hebrew-speaking students' was as a typical Western male. Recommendations, resulting from the findings, for developing a new learning unit for the purpose of altering stereotypes are suggested.

  18. Utilizing Professional Vision in Supporting Preservice Teachers' Learning About Contextualized Scientific Practices - Collaborative Discourse Practices Between Teachers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli

    2018-03-01

    Drawn from the cultural-historical theories of knowing and doing science, this article uses the concept of professional vision to explore what scientists and experienced teachers see and articulate as important aspects of climate science practices. The study takes an abductive reasoning approach to analyze scientists' videotaped lectures to recognize what scientists pay attention to in their explanations of climate science practices. It then analyzes how ideas scientists attended align with experienced teachers' sense-making of scientific practices to teach climate change. The findings show that experienced teachers' and scientists' explanations showed alignment in the focus on scientific practices, but indicated variations in the temporal and spatial reasoning of climate data. Furthermore, the interdisciplinarity of climate science was emphasized in climate scientists' lectures, but was not apparent once scientists and teachers shared the same culture in meetings to provide feedback to preservice teachers. Given the importance of teaching through scientific practices in classrooms, this study provides suggestions to capture the epistemic diversity of scientific disciplines.

  19. Structural Characterization of Peptide Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chailyan, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The role of proteins as very effective immunogens for the generation of antibodies is indisputable. Nevertheless, cases in which protein usage for antibody production is not feasible or convenient compelled the creation of a powerful alternative consisting of synthetic peptides. Synthetic peptides...... can be modified to obtain desired properties or conformation, tagged for purification, isotopically labeled for protein quantitation or conjugated to immunogens for antibody production. The antibodies that bind to these peptides represent an invaluable tool for biological research and discovery....... To better understand the underlying mechanisms of antibody-antigen interaction here we present a pipeline developed by us to structurally classify immunoglobulin antigen binding sites and to infer key sequence residues and other variables that have a prominent role in each structural class....

  20. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students' Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week. We analyzed beginning- and end-of-course essays completed by students during each of five courses with Scientist Spotlights and two courses with equivalent homework assignments that lacked connections to the stories of diverse scientists. Students completing Scientist Spotlights shifted toward counterstereotypical descriptions of scientists and conveyed an enhanced ability to personally relate to scientists following the intervention. Longitudinal data suggested these shifts were maintained 6 months after the completion of the course. Analyses further uncovered correlations between these shifts, interest in science, and course grades. As Scientist Spotlights require very little class time and complement existing curricula, they represent a promising tool for enhancing science identity, shifting stereotypes, and connecting content to issues of equity and diversity in a broad range of STEM classrooms. © 2016 J. N. Schinske et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. British scientists and the Manhattan Project: the Los Alamos years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    This is a study of the British scientific mission to Los Alamos, New Mexico, from 1943 to 1947, and the impact it had on the early history of the atomic age. In the years following the Manhattan Project and the production of the world's first atomic explosion in 1945, the British contribution to the Project was played down or completely ignored leaving the impression that all the atomic scientists had been American. However, the two dozen or so British scientists contributed crucially to the development of the atomic bomb. First, the initial research and reports of British scientists convinced American scientists that an atomic weapons could be constructed before the likely end of hostilities. Secondly their contribution insured the bomb was available in the shortest possible time. Also, because these scientists became involved in post-war politics and in post-war development of nuclear power, they also helped forge the nuclear boundaries of the mid-twentieth century. (UK)

  2. The Dilemma of Scientists in the Nuclear Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1982-01-01

    Scientists have made possible the nuclear arms race. The cases of some of the individual scientists are discussed. Most scientists on military work were and are not only justifying their work, but they are enjoying their lives. A general strike of the military scientists against the arms race is an illusion. A pragmatic approach to the problem is need. In any case it is imperative that concerned scientists concentrate on the struggle against the threat of nuclear war. They must interact with the people at large, especially the people in the mass organizations, and help them to judge the situation and to evolve suitable countermeasures. A few words are said about the possibility of world government. (author)

  3. Anticarbohydrate Antibody Repertoires in Patients Transplanted with Fetal Pig Islets Revealed by Glycan Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blixt, Klas Ola; Kumagai-Braesch, A.; Tibell, A.

    2009-01-01

    Ten patients with type I diabetes were transplanted with porcine fetal islet-like cell clusters (ICC) between 1990 and 1993. A significant rise in the anti-a-Gal antibody titers was seen posttransplant, but also non-a-Gal-specific antibodies were detected in some patients. We have reanalyzed...... the carbohydrate specificity of antibodies in the sera from seven of these patients taken before transplantation, 1, 6 and 12 months posttransplantation using a glycan array with 200 structurally defined glycans. The main findings were: (i) prepig ICC transplantation patients had antibodies reactive with terminal...... compounds; (ii) the titers of all carbohydrate-specific antibodies detected before transplantation rose after transplantation; (iii) the kinetics of the antibody responses differed between patients; (iv) in some patients antibodies reacting with Gala1,3Lex and several structures terminated with Neu5Gc...

  4. New perspectives on recombinant human antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Kruif (John); A.-R. van der Vuurst de Vries (Anne); L. Cilenti (L.); E. Boel (E.); W. van Ewijk (Willem); T. Logtenberg (Ton)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe limited potential of murine monoclonal antibodies for human immunotherapy has driven recent progress in recombinant antibody technology. Here, de Kruif and colleagues report on advances in the development and use of phage-antibody-display libraries.

  5. Measurement of antibodies to tubulin by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, G M; Cowin, P; Whitehouse, J M.A. [CRC Medical Oncology Unit, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, U.K.

    1979-07-24

    A solid-phase double antibody radioimmunoassay capable of measuring antibody to tubulin, the principal component of microtubules, is described. This assay is simple, combining sensitivity with specificity and also allowing determination of antibody subclasses.

  6. Evaluation of Gamma Interferon and Antibody Tuberculosis Tests in Alpacas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown herds and TB-free alpacas from geographical areas with no history of bovine TB, respectively. Our results show that while the sensitivities of the IFN-γ and antibody tests were similar (range of 57.7% to 66.7%), the specificity of the IFN-γ test (89.1%) was lower than those of any of the antibody tests (range of 96.4% to 97.4%). This lower specificity of the IFN-γ test was at least in part due to undisclosed Mycobacterium microti infection in the TB-free cohort, which stimulates a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) response. The sensitivity of infection detection could be increased by combining two antibody tests, but even the use of all four antibody tests failed to detect all diseased alpacas. These antibody-negative alpacas were IFN-γ positive. We found that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved only by the combination of the IFN-γ test with two antibody tests in a “test package,” although this resulted in decreased specificity. The data from this evaluation of tests with defined sensitivity and specificity provide potential options for antemortem screening of SAC for TB in herd breakdown situations and could also find application in movement testing and tracing investigations. PMID:22914362

  7. Development and Field Test of the Modified Draw-a-Scientist Test and the Draw-a-Scientist Rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farland-Smith, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Even long before children are able to verbalize which careers may be interesting to them, they collect and store ideas about scientists. For these reasons, asking children to draw a scientist has become an accepted method to provide a glimpse into how children represent and identify with those in the science fields. Years later, these…

  8. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students' Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical…

  9. Reciprocal Engagement Between a Scientist and Visual Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Michelle Maria

    In this study the focus of investigation was the reciprocal engagement between a professional scientist and the visual displays with which he interacted. Visual displays are considered inextricable from everyday scientific endeavors and their interpretation requires a "back-and-forthness" between the viewers and the objects being viewed. The query that drove this study was: How does a scientist engage with visual displays during the explanation of his understanding of extremely small biological objects? The conceptual framework was based in embodiment where the scientist's talk, gesture, and body position were observed and microanalyzed. The data consisted of open-ended interviews that positioned the scientist to interact with visual displays when he explained the structure and function of different sub-cellular features. Upon microanalyzing the scientist's talk, gesture, and body position during his interactions with two different visual displays, four themes were uncovered: Naming, Layering, Categorizing, and Scaling . Naming occurred when the scientist added markings to a pre-existing, hand-drawn visual display. The markings had meaning as stand-alone label and iconic symbols. Also, the markings transformed the pre-existing visual display, which resulted in its function as a new visual object. Layering occurred when the scientist gestured over images so that his gestures aligned with one or more of the image's features, but did not touch the actual visual display. Categorizing occurred when the scientist used contrasting categories, e.g. straight vs. not straight, to explain his understanding about different characteristics that the small biological objects held. Scaling occurred when the scientist used gesture to resize an image's features so that they fit his bodily scale. Three main points were drawn from this study. First, the scientist employed a variety of embodied strategies—coordinated talk, gesture, and body position—when he explained the structure

  10. Peer review of human studies run amok: a break in the fiduciary relation between scientists and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Saitz, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Peer review aims to ensure the quality and credibility of research reporting. Conducted by volunteer scientists who receive no guidance or direction, peer review widely varies from fast and facilitative, to unclear and obstructive. Poor quality is an issue because most science research is publicly funded, whereby scientists must make an effort to quickly disseminate their findings back to the public. An unfortunately not uncommon barrier in this process is ineffective peer review. Most scientists agree that when done well, editors and reviewers drive and maintain the high standards of science. At the same time, ineffective peer review can cause great delay with no introduced improvement in final product. These delays and requests interfere with the path of communication between scientist and public, at a great cost to editors, reviewers, authors and those who stand to benefit from application of the results of the studies. We offer a series of concrete recommendations to improve this process.

  11. Scientists not Sponges: STEM Interest and Inquiry in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jipson, J. L.; Callanan, M. A.; Schultz, G.; Hurst, A.

    2014-07-01

    Young children are fascinated by the natural world. They explore endlessly, with both a sense of wonder and determination, usually in self-directed investigations or informal interactions with peers and adults. Capitalizing on this early period of spontaneous interest and inquiry is critical to efforts to promote lifelong STEM literacy. To inform education and public outreach efforts, it is important to consider common assumptions about how children of this age learn and consider how such assumptions influence the ways we support children's learning. Four metaphors for children learning are investigated in this paper: the young child as sponge, the young child as unlit match, the young child as scientist, and the young child as apprentice. As we critically evaluate these views on learning, we share research findings from developmental psychology that demonstrate that children's engagement with STEM begins well before kindergarten, that children between three and five years of age develop surprisingly sophisticated scientific reasoning capacities and conceptual knowledge, and that parents play an important role in structuring and supporting preschool children's learning.

  12. Educating elementary-aged English learners in science: Scientists and teachers working together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banuelos, Gloria Rodriguez

    , three characteristics of language activities, five instructional practices used by team members to integrate science and language, and three main responsibilities taken on by teachers and/or scientists during the implementation of lessons. For example, generally, science activities were hands-on, incorporated science vocabulary teaching, and required students to keep a science journal. The preliminary findings of the study are used to discuss the limitations and affordances of using scientist-teacher partnerships to educate English learners in science.

  13. Scientists as role models in space science outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D.

    The direct participation of scientists significantly enhances the impact of any E/PO effort. This is particularly true when the scientists come from minority or traditionally under-represented groups and, consequently, become role models for a large number of students while presenting positive counter-examples to the usual stereotypes. In this paper I will discuss the impact of scientists as role models through the successful implementation of a set of space physics games and activities, called Solar Week. Targetted at middle-school girls, the key feature of Solar Week is the "Ask a Scientist" section enabling direct interaction between participating students and volunteer scientists. All of the contributing scientists are women, serving as experts in their field and providing role models to whom the students can relate. Solar Week has completed four sessions with a total of some 140 edcuators and 12,000+ students in over 28 states and 9 countries. A major success of the Solar Week program has been the ability of the students to learn more about the scientists as people, through online biographies, and to discuss a variety of topics ranging from science, to careers and common hobbies.

  14. Mentors, networks, and resources for early career female atmospheric scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallar, A. G.; Avallone, L. M.; Edwards, L. M.; Thiry, H.; Ascent

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric Science Collaborations and Enriching NeTworks (ASCENT) is a workshop series designed to bring together early career female scientists in the field of atmospheric science and related disciplines. ASCENT is a multi-faceted approach to retaining these junior scientists through the challenges in their research and teaching career paths. During the workshop, senior women scientists discuss their career and life paths. They also lead seminars on tools, resources and methods that can help early career scientists to be successful. Networking is a significant aspect of ASCENT, and many opportunities for both formal and informal interactions among the participants (of both personal and professional nature) are blended in the schedule. The workshops are held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, home of a high-altitude atmospheric science laboratory - Storm Peak Laboratory, which also allows for nearby casual outings and a pleasant environment for participants. Near the conclusion of each workshop, junior and senior scientists are matched in mentee-mentor ratios of two junior scientists per senior scientist. An external evaluation of the three workshop cohorts concludes that the workshops have been successful in establishing and expanding personal and research-related networks, and that seminars have been useful in creating confidence and sharing resources for such things as preparing promotion and tenure packages, interviewing and negotiating job offers, and writing successful grant proposals.

  15. Fortran 90 for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Brian

    1994-01-01

    The introduction of the Fortran 90 standard is the first significant change in the Fortran language in over 20 years. this book is designed for anyone wanting to learn Fortran for the first time or or a programmer who needs to upgrade from Fortran 77 to Fortran 90.Employing a practical, problem-based approach this book provides a comprehensive introduction to the language. More experienced programmers will find it a useful update to the new standard and will benefit from the emphasis on science and engineering applications.

  16. Scientist's Perceptions of Uncertainty During Discussions of Global Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanello, S.; Fortner, R.; Dervin, B.

    2003-04-01

    This research examines the nature of disagreements between natural and social scientists during discussions of global climate change. In particular, it explores whether the disagreements between natural and social scientists are related to the ontological, epistemological, or methodological nature of the uncertainty of global climate change during these discussions. A purposeful sample of 30 natural and social scientists recognized as experts in global climate change by the United States Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) and National Academies Committee on Global Change were interviewed to elicit their perceptions of disagreements during their three most troublesome discussions on global climate change. A mixed-method (qualitative plus quantitative research) approach with three independent variables was used to explore nature of uncertainty as a mediating variable in the relationships between academic training, level of sureness, level of knowledge, and position on global climate change, and the nature of disagreements and bridging strategies of natural and social scientists (Patton, 1997; Frechtling et al., 1997). This dissertation posits that it is the differences in the nature of uncertainty communicated by natural and social scientists and not sureness, knowledge, and position on global climate change that causes disagreements between the groups. By describing the nature of disagreements between natural and social scientists and illuminating bridging techniques scientists use during these disagreements, it is hoped that information collected from this research will create a better dialogue between the scientists studying global climate change by providing communication strategies which will allow those versed in one particular area to speak to non-experts whether they be other scientists, media officials, or the public. These tangible strategies can then be used by government agencies to create better communications and education plans, which can

  17. Antibody-linked drug destroys tumor cells and tumor blood vessels in many types of cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A team led by Brad St. Croix, Ph.D., Senior Associate Scientist, Mouse Cancer Genetics Program, has developed an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) that destroys both tumor cells and the blood vessels that nourish them. The drug significantly shrank breast tumors, colon tumors and several other types of cancer and prolonged survival. Learn more...  

  18. Antibody Heavy Chain Variable Domains of Different Germline Gene Origins Diversify through Different Paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Kirik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available B cells produce antibodies, key effector molecules in health and disease. They mature their properties, including their affinity for antigen, through hypermutation events; processes that involve, e.g., base substitution, codon insertion and deletion, often in association with an isotype switch. Investigations of antibody evolution define modes whereby particular antibody responses are able to form, and such studies provide insight important for instance for development of efficient vaccines. Antibody evolution is also used in vitro for the design of antibodies with improved properties. To better understand the basic concepts of antibody evolution, we analyzed the mutational paths, both in terms of amino acid substitution and insertions and deletions, taken by antibodies of the IgG isotype. The analysis focused on the evolution of the heavy chain variable domain of sets of antibodies, each with an origin in 1 of 11 different germline genes representing six human heavy chain germline gene subgroups. Investigated genes were isolated from cells of human bone marrow, a major site of antibody production, and characterized by next-generation sequencing and an in-house bioinformatics pipeline. Apart from substitutions within the complementarity determining regions, multiple framework residues including those in protein cores were targets of extensive diversification. Diversity, both in terms of substitutions, and insertions and deletions, in antibodies is focused to different positions in the sequence in a germline gene-unique manner. Altogether, our findings create a framework for understanding patterns of evolution of antibodies from defined germline genes.

  19. Developmental Scientist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    blood diseases and conditions; parasitic infections; rheumatic and inflammatory diseases; and rare and neglected diseases. CMRP’s collaborative approach to clinical research and the expertise and dedication of staff to the continuation and success of the program’s mission has contributed to improving the overall standards of public health on a global scale. The Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides quality assurance and regulatory compliance support to the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), Surgery Branch (SB). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - THIS POSITION IS CONTINGENT UPON FUNDING APPROVAL The Developmental Scientist will: Provide support and advisement to the development of the T Cell receptor gene therapy protocols. Establishes, implements and maintains standardized processes and assesses performance to make recommendations for improvement. Provides support and guidance to the cellular therapy or vector production facilities at the NIH Clinical Center engaged in the manufacture of patient-specific therapies. Manufactures cellular therapy products for human use. Develops and manufactures lentiviral and/or retroviral vectors. Prepares technical reports, abstracts, presentations and program correspondence concerning assigned projects through research and analysis of information relevant to government policy, regulations and other relevant data and monitor all assigned programs for compliance. Provides project management support with planning and development of project schedules and deliverables, tracking project milestones, managing timelines, preparing status reports and monitoring progress ensuring adherence to deadlines. Facilitates communication through all levels of staff by functioning as a liaison between internal departments, senior management, and the customer. Serves as a leader/mentor to administrative staff and prepares employee performance evaluations. Develops and implements procedures/programs to

  20. Martin Stutzmann: Editor, Teacher, Scientist and Friend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Manuel

    2005-03-01

    On 2 January 1995 Martin Stutzmann became Editor-in-Chief of physica status solidi, replacing Professor E. Gutsche, who had led the journal through the stormy period involving the fall of the Iron Curtain, the unification of Germany and the change in its Eastern part, where physica status solidi was based, from socialism as found in the real world (a German concept) to real world capitalism. In 1995 it was thought that the process had been completed (we should have known better!) and after the retirement of Prof. Gutsche the new owners of physica status solidi (Wiley-VCH) decided that a change in scientific management was desirable to adapt to the new socio-political facts and to insure the scientific continuity of the journal.Martin had moved in 1993 from my department at the Max-Planck-Institute to Munich where he soon displayed a tremendous amount of science man- agement ability during the build-up of the Walter Schottky Institute. The search for a successor as Edi- tor-in-Chief was not easy: the job was not very glamorous after the upheavals which had taken place in the editorial world following the political changes. Somebody in the Editorial Boards must have suggested Martin Stutzmann. I am sure that there was opposition: one usually looks for a well-established person ready to leave his direct involvement in science and take up a new endeavor of a more administrative nature. Nevertheless, the powers that be soon realized that Martin was an excellent, if somewhat unconventional candidate who had enough energy to remain a topnotch scientist and to lead the journal in the difficult times ahead: he was offered the job. In the negotiations that followed, he insisted in getting the administrative structures that would allow him to improve the battered quality of the journal and to continue his scientific productivity. Today we are happy to see that he succeeded in both endeavors. The journal has since grown in size and considerably improved its quality

  1. The Current Situation of Female Scientists in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llois, Ana María; Dawson, Silvina Ponce

    2009-04-01

    We report the changes that have taken place recently regarding the situation of female scientists in Argentina. We comment on the rules for maternity leave that have been passed recently for research scholars doing their PhDs and on the number of women scientists that occupy decision making-positions in science. We also present some evidence that seems to indicate that, among young scientists, women are more willing to occupy leadership positions and that the Argentinean society is more accepting of this new role.

  2. The subjectivity of scientists and the Bayesian approach

    CERN Document Server

    Press, James S

    2001-01-01

    Comparing and contrasting the reality of subjectivity in the work of history's great scientists and the modern Bayesian approach to statistical analysisScientists and researchers are taught to analyze their data from an objective point of view, allowing the data to speak for themselves rather than assigning them meaning based on expectations or opinions. But scientists have never behaved fully objectively. Throughout history, some of our greatest scientific minds have relied on intuition, hunches, and personal beliefs to make sense of empirical data-and these subjective influences have often a

  3. THE TRAINING OF NEXT GENERATION DATA SCIENTISTS IN BIOMEDICINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, Lana X; Gliske, Stephen; Nguyen, Quynh C; Chen, Jonathan H; Nemati, Shamim; VAN Horn, John D; Moore, Jason H; Shreffler, Carol; Dunn, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    With the booming of new technologies, biomedical science has transformed into digitalized, data intensive science. Massive amount of data need to be analyzed and interpreted, demand a complete pipeline to train next generation data scientists. To meet this need, the transinstitutional Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) Initiative has been implemented since 2014, complementing other NIH institutional efforts. In this report, we give an overview the BD2K K01 mentored scientist career awards, which have demonstrated early success. We address the specific trainings needed in representative data science areas, in order to make the next generation of data scientists in biomedicine.

  4. Scientists: Get Involved in Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach! Here’s How!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Dalton, H.; Shipp, S.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.; Scalice, D.; Bleacher, L.; Wessen, A.

    2013-10-01

    The Planetary Science Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) Forum is a team of educators, scientists, and outreach professionals funded by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) that supports SMD scientists currently involved in E/PO - or interested in becoming involved in E/PO efforts - to find ways to do so through a variety of avenues. There are many current and future opportunities and resources for scientists to become engaged in E/PO. The Forum provides tools for responding to NASA SMD E/PO funding opportunities (webinars and online proposal guides), a one-page Tips and Tricks guide for scientists to engage in education and public outreach, and a sampler of activities organized by thematic topic and NASA’s Big Questions in planetary science. Scientists can also locate resources for interacting with diverse audiences through a number of online clearinghouses, including: NASA Wavelength, a digital collection of peer-reviewed Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels (http://nasawavelength.org); the Year of the Solar System website (http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/yss), a presentation of thematic resources that includes background information, missions, the latest in planetary science news, and educational products, for use in the classroom and out, for teaching about the solar system organized by topic - volcanism, ice, astrobiology, etc.; and EarthSpace (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/earthspace), a community website where faculty can find and share resources and information about teaching Earth and space sciences in the undergraduate classroom, including class materials, news, funding opportunities, and the latest education research. Also recently developed, the NASA SMD Scientist Speaker’s Bureau (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker) offers an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects - giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections - with audiences. Learn more about the

  5. Scientists versus regulators: precaution, novelty & regulatory oversight as predictors of perceived risks of engineered nanomaterials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E H Beaudrie

    Full Text Available Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of 'nano experts' to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404 of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches, and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development.

  6. Sustaining Scientist-Community Partnerships that are Just, Equitable, and Trustworthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheats, N.

    2016-12-01

    Communities of color, indigenous people, and low income communities throughout the United States are on the front lines of environmental and health impacts from polluting sources, and yet don't fully benefit from public policies that are intended to reduce or prevent those impacts. Many of the challenges faced by environmental justice communities can and should be addressed, in part, through science-based public policies. Community-relevant scientific information and equal access to this information is needed to protect people from public health and environmental hazards. Too often, however, the scientific community has failed to work collaboratively with environmental justice communities. This session will explore the challenges and opportunities faced by environmental justice advocates and scientists in working with one another. This talk will share findings from a recently-held forum, specifically discussing a formal set of principles and best practices for community-scientist partnerships to guide future collaborations between scientists and communities. When community members and scientists collaborate, they bring together unique strengths and types of knowledge that can help address our most pressing challenges, inform decision making, and develop solutions that benefit all people. The speaker will address institutional and historic barriers that hinder such collaboration, potential pitfalls to avoid, and share how institutional systems of scientific research can incorporate equity analyses into their work to ensure solutions that are truly effective.

  7. SPAGHETTILENS: A software stack for modeling gravitational lenses by citizen scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küng, R.

    2018-04-01

    The 2020s are expected to see tens of thousands of lens discoveries. Mass reconstruction or modeling of these lenses will be needed, but current modeling methods are time intensive for specialists and expert human resources do not scale. SpaghettiLens approaches this challenge with the help of experienced citizen scientist volunteers who have already been involved in finding lenses. A top level description is as follows. Citizen scientists look at data and provide a graphical input based on Fermat's principle which we call a Spaghetti Diagram. This input works as a model configuration. It is followed by the generation of the model, which is a compute intensive task done server side though a task distribution system. Model results are returned in graphical form to the citizen scientist, who examines and then either forwards them for forum discussion or rejects the model and retries. As well as configuring models, citizen scientists can also modify existing model configurations, which results in a version tree of models and makes the modeling process collaborative. SpaghettiLens is designed to be scalable and could be adopted to problems with similar characteristics. It is licensed under the MIT license, released at http://labs.spacewarps.org and the source code is available at https://github.com/RafiKueng/SpaghettiLens.

  8. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies, Autoimmune Neutropenia, and Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Peter C.; Sloan, J. Mark; Niles, John L.; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Reports of an association between antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and autoimmune neutropenia have rarely included cases of proven vasculitis. A case of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with recurrent neutropenia is described and relevant literature on the association between ANCA, neutropenia, and vasculitis is reviewed. Methods Longitudinal clinical assessments and laboratory findings are described in a patient with AAV and recurrent episodes of profound neutropenia from December 2008 – October 2010. A PubMed database search of the medical literature was performed for papers published from 1960 through October 2010 to identify all reported cases of ANCA and neutropenia. Results A 49 year-old man developed recurrent neutropenia, periodic fevers, arthritis, biopsy-proven cutaneous vasculitis, sensorineural hearing loss, epididymitis, and positive tests for ANCA with specificity for antibodies to both proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. Antineutrophil membrane antibodies were detected during an acute neutropenic phase and were not detectable in a post-recovery sample, whereas ANCA titers did not seem to correlate with neutropenia. An association between ANCA and neutropenia has been reported in 74 cases from 24 studies in the context of drug/toxin exposure, underlying autoimmune disease, or chronic neutropenia without underlying autoimmune disease. In these cases, the presence of atypical ANCA patterns and other antibodies were common; however, vasculitis was uncommon and when it occurred was usually limited to the skin and in cases of underlying toxin exposure. Conclusions ANCA is associated with autoimmune neutropenia, but systemic vasculitis rarely occurs in association with ANCA and neutropenia. The interaction between neutrophils and ANCA may provide insight into understanding both autoimmune neutropenia and AAV. PMID:21507463

  9. Thermodynamics for physicists, chemists and materials scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschke, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is the foundation of many-body physics and thus of physical chemistry and material science as well. Today new sources of useful energy, energy storage, transport and conversion, requiring development of novel technology, are of rapidly increasing importance. This development strongly affects modern industry. Thus thermodynamics will have to be given more prominence in the science curriculum in colleges and universities - something that is attempted in this book. The structure of this text is simple and transparent, enabling the easy mapping of the text onto a one-semester course syllabus and the attendant study. There are 8 chapters total and one three-part appendix. Throughout the text the student finds numerous examples (solved problems) reaching from cosmic to molecular evolution or from cloud formation to Bose condensation.

  10. Dissecting Immunogenicity of Monoclonal Antibodies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    The potential of monoclonal antibodies, (mAbs), for use in therapeutic and diagnostic applications has not been fully realized in part due to counter-immune responses that often arise in patient recipients of mAb...

  11. Antibodies to watch in 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplon, Hélène; Reichert, Janice M.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pace of antibody therapeutics development accelerated in 2017, and this faster pace is projected to continue through 2018. Notably, the annual number of antibody therapeutics granted a first approval in either the European Union (EU) or United States (US) reached double-digits (total of 10) for the first time in 2017. The 10 antibodies granted approvals are: brodalumab, dupilumab, sarilumab, guselkumab, benralizumab, ocrelizumab, inotuzumab ozogamicin, avelumab, duvalumab, and emicizumab. Brodalumab, however, had already been approved in Japan in 2016. As of December 1, 2017, nine antibody therapeutics (ibalizumab, burosumab, tildrakizumab, caplacizumab, erenumab, fremanezumab, galcanezumab, romosozumab, mogamulizumab) were in regulatory review in the EU or US, and regulatory actions on their marketing applications are expected by the end of 2018. Based on company announcements and estimated clinical study primary completion dates, and assuming the study results are positive, marketing applications for at least 12 antibody therapeutics that are now being evaluated in late-stage clinical studies may be submitted by the end of 2018. Of the 12 candidates, 8 are for non-cancer indications (lanadelumab, crizanlizumab, ravulizumab, eptinezumab, risankizumab, satralizumab, brolucizumab, PRO140) and 4 are for cancer (sacituzumab govitecan, moxetumomab pasudotox, cemiplimab, ublituximab). Additional antibody therapeutics to watch in 2018 include 19 mAbs undergoing evaluation in late-stage studies with primary completion dates in late 2017 or during 2018. Of these mAbs, 9 are for non-cancer indications (lampalizumab, roledumab, emapalumab, fasinumab, tanezumab, etrolizumab, NEOD001, gantenerumab, anifrolumab) and 10 are for cancer indications (tremelimumab, isatuximab, BCD-100, carotuximab, camrelizumab, IBI308, glembatumumab vedotin, mirvetuximab soravtansine, oportuzumab monatox, L19IL2/L19TNF). Positive clinical study results may enable marketing application

  12. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  13. Science fiction by scientists an anthology of short stories

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This anthology contains fourteen intriguing short stories by active research scientists and other writers trained in science. Science is at the heart of real science fiction, which is more than just westerns with ray guns or fantasy with spaceships. The people who do science and love science best are scientists. Scientists like Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke, and Fred Hoyle wrote some of the legendary tales of golden age science fiction. Today there is a new generation of scientists writing science fiction informed with the expertise of their fields, from astrophysics to computer science, biochemistry to rocket science, quantum physics to genetics, speculating about what is possible in our universe. Here lies the sense of wonder only science can deliver. All the stories in this volume are supplemented by afterwords commenting on the science underlying each story.

  14. Professor Atta invited to attend WSIS as `eminent scientist'

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Ministry of Science and Technology Prof. Atta-ur-Rahman has been nominated as an "eminent scientist" to attend the roundtables during "World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS)" on December 12 (1 paragraph).

  15. Original Research Challenges facing young African scientists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at identifying the challenges that young African scientists face in their career development. Methods ... The research profile of Africans is relatively new, and the .... outside the country because it will support my original ideas.”.

  16. Meet EPA Scientist Marie O'Shea, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Scientist Dr. Marie O'Shea is Region 2's Liaison to the Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD). Marie has a background in research on urban watershed management, focused on characterizing and controlling nutrients in stormwater runoff.

  17. 1HE SCIENTISTS WILL SAVE 1HE WORLD: Environment Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environment Education in An Alienated Society. Jaap Kuiper ... all: is it the input from science and scientists that will deliver the goods .... that the development of school curricula for. Zimbabwe was ..... In the case of informal or adult education,.

  18. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Student Scientist Guidebook. Model Research Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    The Expedition Earth and Beyond Student Scientist Guidebook is designed to help student researchers model the process of science and conduct a research investigation. The Table of Contents listed outlines the steps included in this guidebook

  19. Photo Animation Brings Scientists Back to Life in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara K. Goudsouzian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In biology textbooks and in lecture slides, it is customary to describe the significance of a historical scientific experiment alongside a still photograph of the scientist who performed the work.  This method communicates information about the scientists' works, but can be a dry method to describe an exciting and dynamic historical individual.  I have developed a method to animate still photographs and engravings of historical scientists and narrate them in the first person.  This method is rapid, inexpensive, and does not require more than average technical ability.  The animated historical scientists directly address the students to educate them about their own personal lives, struggles, and achievements.

  20. Facilitating ethical reflection among scientists using the ethical matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Gamborg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that scientists are likely to have an outlook on both facts and values that are different to that of lay people in important ways. This is one significant reason it is currently believed that in order for scientists to exercise a reliable ethical reflection about...... their research it is necessary for them to engage in dialogue with other stakeholders. This paper reports on an exercise to encourage a group of scientists to reflect on ethical issues without the presence of external stakeholders. It reports on the use of a reflection process with scientists working in the area...... of animal disease genomics (mainly drawn from the EADGENE EC Network of Excellence). This reflection process was facilitated by using an ethical engagement framework, a modified version of the Ethical Matrix. As judged by two criteria, a qualitative assessment of the outcomes and the participants' own...