WorldWideScience

Sample records for scientific knowledge diffusion

  1. Diffusing scientific knowledge to innovative experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Sven; Misfeldt, Morten; Boelt, Birte

    2013-01-01

    . We are looking at how to implement Web2.0 technologies to Danish seed scientists communicating to seed consultants, agricultural advisors, and seed growers, and we are met with the challenge of securing effective knowledge diffusion to the community. Our investigation’s focal point is on Rogers...

  2. The Digital Road to Scientific Knowledge Diffusion; A Faster, Better Way to Scientific Progress?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojick, D E; Warnick, W L; Carroll, B C; Crowe, J

    2006-06-01

    With the United States federal government spending billions annually for research and development, ways to increase the productivity of that research can have a significant return on investment. The process by which science knowledge is spread is called diffusion. It is therefore important to better understand and measure the benefits of this diffusion of knowledge. In particular, it is important to understand whether advances in Internet searching can speed up the diffusion of scientific knowledge and accelerate scientific progress despite the fact that the vast majority of scientific information resources continue to be held in deep web databases that many search engines cannot fully access. To address the complexity of the search issue, the term global discovery is used for the act of searching across heterogeneous environments and distant communities. This article discusses these issues and describes research being conducted by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI).

  3. A decade of human genome project conclusion: Scientific diffusion about our genome knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Fernanda; Góes, Andréa

    2016-05-06

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) was initiated in 1990 and completed in 2003. It aimed to sequence the whole human genome. Although it represented an advance in understanding the human genome and its complexity, many questions remained unanswered. Other projects were launched in order to unravel the mysteries of our genome, including the ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE). This review aims to analyze the evolution of scientific knowledge related to both the HGP and ENCODE projects. Data were retrieved from scientific articles published in 1990-2014, a period comprising the development and the 10 years following the HGP completion. The fact that only 20,000 genes are protein and RNA-coding is one of the most striking HGP results. A new concept about the organization of genome arose. The ENCODE project was initiated in 2003 and targeted to map the functional elements of the human genome. This project revealed that the human genome is pervasively transcribed. Therefore, it was determined that a large part of the non-protein coding regions are functional. Finally, a more sophisticated view of chromatin structure emerged. The mechanistic functioning of the genome has been redrafted, revealing a much more complex picture. Besides, a gene-centric conception of the organism has to be reviewed. A number of criticisms have emerged against the ENCODE project approaches, raising the question of whether non-conserved but biochemically active regions are truly functional. Thus, HGP and ENCODE projects accomplished a great map of the human genome, but the data generated still requires further in depth analysis. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:215-223, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 57; US Scientific and Technical Information Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    In fiscal year 1994, the United States government spent about $68 billion for science and technology. Although there is general agreement among policy makers that the results of this expenditure can be used to enhance technological innovation and improve economic competitiveness, there is no coherent scientific and technical information (STI) policy. The absence of a cohesive policy and STI policy framework means that the transfer and utilization of STI goes uncoordinated. This chapter examines the U.S. government's role in funding science and technology, reviews Federal STI activities and involvement in the transfer and use of STI resulting from federally-funded science and technology, presents issues surrounding the use of federally-funded STI, and offers recommendations for improving the transfer and use of STI.

  5. [The diffusion of knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-H, Manuel; Cruz-A, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Between August 19 and 21, the Feria del Libro de las Ciencias de la Salud (Healthcare Book Fair) took place in the Palacio de Medicina in Mexico City. Archives of Medical Research, Revista Médica del IMSS, and Saber IMSS, three of the main instruments of knowledge diffusion of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, assisted to this book fair, which was organized by the Facultad de Medicina of UNAM.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 26: The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the US and Japanese aerospace industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  7. Improving scientific knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; David L. Peterson

    2012-01-01

    Scientific literature on the effects of climatic variability and change on forest ecosystems has increased significantly over the past decade, providing a foundation for establishing forest-climate relationships and projecting the effects of continued warming on a wide range of forest resources and ecosystem services. In addition, certainty about the nature of some of...

  8. The Evolution of Scientific Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Siggaard; Ricard, Lykke Margot; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    The Evolution of Scientific Knowledge aims to reach a unique understanding of science with the help of economic and sociological theories. They use institutional and evolutionary theories and the sociological theories draw from the type of work on social studies of science that have, in recent...

  9. Infusion and diffusion of African scientific information into Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the importance of knowledge as a prerequisite for sustainable development which is contingent on information, its value and ability to be produced, used, reused, and shared. The paper explains the opportunities of Open Access Initiatives (OA) as a tool for infusing and diffusing African scientific ...

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  11. Bridging indigenous and scientific knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mistry, J; Berardi, A

    2016-01-01

    ...s . A prerequisite for such community-owned solutions is indigenous knowledge, which is local and context-specific, transmitted orally or through imitation and demonstration, adaptive to changing...

  12. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXVI - The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the U.S. and Japanese aerospace industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Lahr, Tom; Hoetker, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry, which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  13. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...

  14. African indigenous knowledge: scientific or unscientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meanwhile, the attainment of such a sophisticated status in Western scientific research has been facilitated by its experimental methodology which has made possible the transfer of knowledge from one generation to another. However, other non- Western forms of knowledge that lack these characteristics are regarded as ...

  15. Creativity, Scientific Practice, and Knowledge Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    In this interesting article, Hisham Ghassib (2010) describes the transformation of science from its craft status in a pre-modern era to the major knowledge industry it is today. He then compares the production of scientific knowledge with industrial production, but makes the important distinction between the process of developing scientific…

  16. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 30: The electronic transfer of information and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Bishop, Ann P.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing reliance on and investment in information technology and electronic networking systems presupposes that computing and information technology will play a major role in the diffusion of aerospace knowledge. Little is known, however, about actual information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The authors state that the potential contributions of information technology to increased productivity and competitiveness will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge regarding the information-seeking behavior of the members of the social system - those who are producing, transferring, and using scientific and technical information - is incorporated into a new technology policy framework. Research into the use of information technology and electronic networks by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists, collected as part of a research project designed to study aerospace knowledge diffusion, is presented in support of this assertion.

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 42: An analysis of the transfer of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura F.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. aerospace industry has a long history of federal support for research related to its needs. Since the establishment of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1915, the federal government has provided continuous research support related to flight and aircraft design. This research has contributed to the international preeminence of the U.S. aerospace industry. In this paper, we present a sociological analysis of aerospace engineers and scientists and how their attitudes and behaviors impact the flow of scientific and technical information (STI). We use a constructivist framework to explain the spotty dissemination of federally funded aerospace research. Our research is aimed towards providing federal policymakers with a clearer understanding of how and when federally funded aerospace research is used. This understanding will help policymakers design improved information transfer systems that will aid the competitiveness of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18: Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  19. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18:] Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  20. Modelling the Diffusion of Scientific Publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); D. Fok (Dennis)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper illustrates that salient features of a panel of time series of annual citations can be captured by a Bass type diffusion model. We put forward an extended version of this diffusion model, where we consider the relation between key characteristics of the diffusion process and

  1. Modeling the diffusion of scientific publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper illustrates that salient features of a panel of time series of annual citations can be captured by a Bass type diffusion model. We put forward an extended version of this diffusion model, where we consider the relation between key characteristics of the diffusion process and

  2. High School Biology Students' Knowledge and Certainty about Diffusion and Osmosis Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Arthur L.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students' understanding about scientifically acceptable content knowledge by exploring the relationship between knowledge of diffusion and osmosis and the students' certainty in their content knowledge. Data was collected from a high school biology class with the Diffusion and Osmosis Diagnostic Test…

  3. Diffusion of nanotechnology knowledge in Turkey and its network structure

    OpenAIRE

    Tonta, Yaşar; Darvish, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the diffusion and adoption of nanotechnology knowledge within the Turkish scientific community using social network analysis (SNA) and bibliometrics. We retrieved a total of 10,062 records of nanotechnology papers authored by Turkish researchers between 2000 and 2011 from Web of Science (WoS) and divided the data set into two 6-year periods. We analyzed the most prolific and collaborative authors and universities on individual, institutional and international level...

  4. Scientific collaboration and collective knowledge new essays

    CERN Document Server

    Mayo-Wilson, Conor; Weisberg, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Descartes once argued that, with sufficient effort and skill, a single scientist could uncover fundamental truths about our world. Contemporary science proves the limits of this claim. From synthesizing the human genome to predicting the effects of climate change, some current scientific research requires the collaboration of hundreds (if not thousands) of scientists with various specializations. Additionally, the majority of published scientific research is now co-authored, including more than 80% of articles in the natural sciences, meaning small collaborative teams have become the norm in science. This volume is the first to address critical philosophical questions regarding how collective scientific research could be organized differently and how it should be organized. For example, should scientists be required to share knowledge with competing research teams? How can universities and grant-giving institutions promote successful collaborations? When hundreds of researchers contribute to a discovery, how ...

  5. Producing scientific knowledge in Africa today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Mehmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Mbow, Cheikh

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses a life-history interview with an African climate change researcher, Mbow, to explore the conditions for scientific knowledge production in Africa. Mbow’s history points to three important and intertwined issues that played out differently through the different phases of his...... life: an inherited or colonial curriculum; universality of knowledge, namely the transfer of methods and theories from the Global North; and the cultural production of African researchers. The chapter shows how the post-colonial school system in Senegal was modelled over the French system and thus how...... difficult it was for Mbow to become independent of the colonial heritage. Through a capacity building programme, Mbow gained the competences necessary to question the transfer of theories and methods from the Global North and become an African emancipated researcher producing knowledge of relevance...

  6. Representing scientific knowledge the role of uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chaomei

    2017-01-01

    This book is written for anyone who is interested in how a field of research evolves and the fundamental role of understanding uncertainties involved in different levels of analysis, ranging from macroscopic views to meso- and microscopic ones. We introduce a series of computational and visual analytic techniques, from research areas such as text mining, deep learning, information visualization and science mapping, such that readers can apply these tools to the study of a subject matter of their choice. In addition, we set the diverse set of methods in an integrative context, that draws upon insights from philosophical, sociological, and evolutionary theories of what drives the advances of science, such that the readers of the book can guide their own research with their enriched theoretical foundations. Scientific knowledge is complex. A subject matter is typically built on its own set of concepts, theories, methodologies and findings, discovered by generations of researchers and practitioners. Scientific ...

  7. Two kinds of knowledge in scientific discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridewell, Will; Langley, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Research on computational models of scientific discovery investigates both the induction of descriptive laws and the construction of explanatory models. Although the work in law discovery centers on knowledge-lean approaches to searching a problem space, research on deeper modeling tasks emphasizes the pivotal role of domain knowledge. As an example, our own research on inductive process modeling uses information about candidate processes to explain why variables change over time. However, our experience with IPM, an artificial intelligence system that implements this approach, suggests that process knowledge is insufficient to avoid consideration of implausible models. To this end, the discovery system needs additional knowledge that constrains the model structures. We report on an extended system, SC-IPM, that uses such information to reduce its search through the space of candidates and to produce models that human scientists find more plausible. We also argue that although people carry out less extensive search than SC-IPM, they rely on the same forms of knowledge--processes and constraints--when constructing explanatory models. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Writing practices: scientific diffusion texts in a portuguese course book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Braz da Silva Santos Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to show how the production of scientific diffusion texts from a Portuguese textbook used in high schools is taught. The research questions are: (1 how is the scientific diffusion sphere presented to the student? (2 Which is the linguistic-discursive treatment that the authors offer to lead the student to the production of scientific diffusion texts? (3 How do these procedures help improve writing in the most varied genres in the scientific sphere? A didactic activity involving written production of a text for scientific diffusion from the textbook series Português: contexto, interlocução e sentido was chosen. The analysis is based on the concept of text as postulated by Bakhtin and the Circle, for whom the text is a real unit of discursive communication. The result shows that the activity does not materialize the Bakhtinian theoretical bases adopted in the teacher’s manual. In the dialogic perspective, in order to insert the student in the writing practices of scientific texts, it is necessary to make him/her take on the role of reader of journals and specialized magazines, as well as the role of scientist/researcher.

  9. Gathering and exploring scientific knowledge in pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Pedro; Nunes, Tiago; Campos, David; Furlong, Laura Ines; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Sanz, Ferran; Carrascosa, Maria Carmen; Mestres, Jordi; Kors, Jan; Singh, Bharat; van Mulligen, Erik; Van der Lei, Johan; Diallo, Gayo; Avillach, Paul; Ahlberg, Ernst; Boyer, Scott; Diaz, Carlos; Oliveira, José Luís

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance plays a key role in the healthcare domain through the assessment, monitoring and discovery of interactions amongst drugs and their effects in the human organism. However, technological advances in this field have been slowing down over the last decade due to miscellaneous legal, ethical and methodological constraints. Pharmaceutical companies started to realize that collaborative and integrative approaches boost current drug research and development processes. Hence, new strategies are required to connect researchers, datasets, biomedical knowledge and analysis algorithms, allowing them to fully exploit the true value behind state-of-the-art pharmacovigilance efforts. This manuscript introduces a new platform directed towards pharmacovigilance knowledge providers. This system, based on a service-oriented architecture, adopts a plugin-based approach to solve fundamental pharmacovigilance software challenges. With the wealth of collected clinical and pharmaceutical data, it is now possible to connect knowledge providers' analysis and exploration algorithms with real data. As a result, new strategies allow a faster identification of high-risk interactions between marketed drugs and adverse events, and enable the automated uncovering of scientific evidence behind them. With this architecture, the pharmacovigilance field has a new platform to coordinate large-scale drug evaluation efforts in a unique ecosystem, publicly available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/euadr/.

  10. Gathering and exploring scientific knowledge in pharmacovigilance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lopes

    Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance plays a key role in the healthcare domain through the assessment, monitoring and discovery of interactions amongst drugs and their effects in the human organism. However, technological advances in this field have been slowing down over the last decade due to miscellaneous legal, ethical and methodological constraints. Pharmaceutical companies started to realize that collaborative and integrative approaches boost current drug research and development processes. Hence, new strategies are required to connect researchers, datasets, biomedical knowledge and analysis algorithms, allowing them to fully exploit the true value behind state-of-the-art pharmacovigilance efforts. This manuscript introduces a new platform directed towards pharmacovigilance knowledge providers. This system, based on a service-oriented architecture, adopts a plugin-based approach to solve fundamental pharmacovigilance software challenges. With the wealth of collected clinical and pharmaceutical data, it is now possible to connect knowledge providers' analysis and exploration algorithms with real data. As a result, new strategies allow a faster identification of high-risk interactions between marketed drugs and adverse events, and enable the automated uncovering of scientific evidence behind them. With this architecture, the pharmacovigilance field has a new platform to coordinate large-scale drug evaluation efforts in a unique ecosystem, publicly available at http://bioinformatics.ua.pt/euadr/.

  11. Roles of Illustrators in Visual Communication of Scientific Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Okawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific knowledge is the knowledge accumulated by systematic studies and organized by general principles. Visual, verbal, numeric, and other types of representation are used to communicate scientific knowledge. Scientific illustration is the visual representation of objects and concepts in order to record and to convey scientific knowledge(Ford, 1993. There are some discussions on scientific illustrations in history, philosophy and the sociology of science(Burri & Dumit, 2008, but little has been done on the creation of scientific illustrations by illustrators. This study focuses on the creation of scientific illustrations by illustrators. The purpose is to show how illustrators create the visual messages in communications of scientific knowledge. Through analysis of semi-structured interviews with 6 professional illustrators, creators and art directors, it is showed that illustrators select and edit scientific information, add non-scientific information, and organize information into one visual representation of scientific knowledge. The implication of this research will provide a new perspective to multisensory communication of scientific knowledge.

  12. Diffusion of scientific credits and the ranking of scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Radicchi, Filippo; Fortunato, Santo; Markines, Benjamin; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the abundance of digital data enabled the implementation of graph based ranking algorithms that provide system level analysis for ranking publications and authors. Here we take advantage of the entire Physical Review publication archive (1893-2006) to construct authors' networks where weighted edges, as measured from opportunely normalized citation counts, define a proxy for the mechanism of scientific credit transfer. On this network we define a ranking method based on a diffusion ...

  13. Educational activities for the diffusion of scientific culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlet, Roger

    2015-08-01

    Considering there is a divorce between science and culture, we suggest activities such as trails of mathematical/astronomical knowledge and vision of scientific teaching and education, that are aiming ata global, citizen dialogue, at reviving a truly human culture integrating science, and at answering all kinds of obscurantism/fundamentalism.

  14. Philosophy, Scientific Knowledge, and Concept Formation in Geulincx and Descartes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalderink, M.J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/299320022

    2010-01-01

    Descartes does not have an elaborated theory of scientific knowledge. His academic followers, however, needed that to construct a comprehensive philosophy. One of the more interesting Cartesians was Arnout Geulincx (1624-1669). Unlike Descartes, he extensively discusses scientific knowledge. He

  15. Climate change: linking traditional and scientific knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riewe, R. R. (Roderick R.); Oakes, Jill E. (Jill Elizabeth)

    2006-01-01

    This book includes papers written by over 50 community experts and scientists addressing theoretical concerns, knowledge transfer, adapting to climate change, implications of changing weather, water...

  16. Concept Formation in Scientific Knowledge Discovery from a Constructivist View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Gero, John S.

    The central goal of scientific knowledge discovery is to learn cause-effect relationships among natural phenomena presented as variables and the consequences their interactions. Scientific knowledge is normally expressed as scientific taxonomies and qualitative and quantitative laws [1]. This type of knowledge represents intrinsic regularities of the observed phenomena that can be used to explain and predict behaviors of the phenomena. It is a generalization that is abstracted and externalized from a set of contexts and applicable to a broader scope. Scientific knowledge is a type of third-person knowledge, i.e., knowledge that independent of a specific enquirer. Artificial intelligence approaches, particularly data mining algorithms that are used to identify meaningful patterns from large data sets, are approaches that aim to facilitate the knowledge discovery process [2]. A broad spectrum of algorithms has been developed in addressing classification, associative learning, and clustering problems. However, their linkages to people who use them have not been adequately explored. Issues in relation to supporting the interpretation of the patterns, the application of prior knowledge to the data mining process and addressing user interactions remain challenges for building knowledge discovery tools [3]. As a consequence, scientists rely on their experience to formulate problems, evaluate hypotheses, reason about untraceable factors and derive new problems. This type of knowledge which they have developed during their career is called "first-person" knowledge. The formation of scientific knowledge (third-person knowledge) is highly influenced by the enquirer's first-person knowledge construct, which is a result of his or her interactions with the environment. There have been attempts to craft automatic knowledge discovery tools but these systems are limited in their capabilities to handle the dynamics of personal experience. There are now trends in developing

  17. Attitude in students of Health Sciences toward scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merideidy Plazas Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Educating health professionals implies the challenge of creating and developing an inquiring mind, ready to be in a state of permanent questioning. For this purpose, it is fundamental to generate a positive attitude toward the generation of knowledge and science. Objective: to determine the attitude toward science and the scientific method in undergraduate students of health sciences. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study was made by applying a self-administered survey, excluding those who were transferred from other universities and repeated. The attitude toward science and the scientific method were valued using the scale validated and published by Hren, which contains three domains: value of scientific knowledge, value of scientific methodology, and value of science for health professions. Results: 362 students were included, 86,6% of them graded the attitude toward scientific knowledge above 135 points, neutral scale value. Similar scores were registered in the domains value of scientific knowlede for the human dimension of the students and value of science for health professions. 91,4% of the students graded the value of scientific methodology below 48 points. Conclusions: the favorable attitude of the students can be explained by the contact that they have with the scientific method since the beginning of their studies and its concordance with the evolution of science. The domain value of scientific methodology obtained the lowest grade on the part of the students, which could be related to the lack of knowledge about scientific methodology.

  18. Curiosity Cloning: Neural Analysis of Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Daario; Rossini, Luca; Rucinski, Marek; Ampatzis, Christos; Wilkins, Peter; Healy, Graham; Smeaton, Alan; Ashkan, Yazdani; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2009-09-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are indicators of brain activity related to cognitive processes. They can be detected from EEG signals and thus constitute an attractive non-invasive option to study cognitive information processing. The P300 wave is probably the most celebrated example of an event-related potential and it is classically studied in connection to the odd-ball paradigm experimental protocol, able to consistently provoke the brain wave. We propose the use of P300 detection to extract the scientific interest in a large set of images and train a computer with machine learning algorithms using the subject's responses to the stimuli as the training data set. As a first step, we here describe a number of experiments designed to relate the P300 brain wave to the cognitive processes related to placing a scientific judgment on a picture and to study the number of images per seconds that can be processed by such a system.

  19. Perceptual Structure of Scientific Knowledge. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul E.

    The research contained in this report is directed at the problem of assessing structures of knowledge in science. Toward this end graduate as well as undergraduate students were asked to make judgments of the perceived similarity of expressions that mark or label concepts in the subject matter of physics. An apriori model of the structure of…

  20. The Notion of Scientific Knowledge in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morante, Silvia; Rossi, Giancarlo

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to reconsider and critically discuss the conceptual foundations of modern biology and bio-sciences in general, and provide an epistemological guideline to help framing the teaching of these disciplines and enhancing the quality of their presentation in High School, Master and Ph.D. courses. After discussing the methodological problems that arise in trying to construct a sensible and useful scientific approach applicable to the study of living systems, we illustrate what are the general requirements that a workable scheme of investigation should meet to comply with the principles of the Galilean method. The amazing success of basic physics, the Galilean science of election, can be traced back to the development of a radically " reductionistic" approach in the interpretation of experiments and a systematic procedure tailored on the paradigm of " falsifiability" aimed at consistently incorporating new information into extended models/theories. The development of bio-sciences seems to fit with neither reductionism (the deeper is the level of description of a biological phenomenon the more difficult looks finding general and simple laws), nor falsifiability (not always experiments provide a yes-or-no answer). Should we conclude that biology is not a science in the Galilean sense? We want to show that this is not so. Rather in the study of living systems, the novel interpretative paradigm of " complexity" has been developed that, without ever conflicting with the basic principles of physics, allows organizing ideas, conceiving new models and understanding the puzzling lack of reproducibility that seems to affect experiments in biology and in other modern areas of investigation. In the delicate task of conveying scientific concepts and principles to students as well as in popularising bio-sciences to a wider audience, it is of the utmost importance for the success of the process of learning to highlight the internal logical consistency of

  1. The problem of relativism in the sociology of (scientific) knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schantz, Richard; Seidel, Markus

    2011-01-01

    ... – in the debate around relativism in the sociology of (scientific) knowledge. Its aim has been to bring together several threads from the relevant disciplines and to cover the discussion from historical and systematic points of view...

  2. A Brief Comment on the Surge of Modern Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hisham B. Ghassib's article entitled "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" Ghassib (2010) presents three intriguing and novel ideas which are worth anyone's attention. Firstly, that the constantly increasing amount of scientific knowledge can be…

  3. The epistemic representation: visual production and communication of scientific knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Cantos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite its great influence on the History of Science, visual representations have attracted marginal interest until very recently and have often been regarded as a simple aid for mere illustration or scientific demonstration. However, it has been shown that visualization is an integral element of reasoning and a highly effective and common heuristic strategy in the scientific community and that the study of the conditions of visual production and communication are essential in the development of scientific knowledge. In this paper we deal with the nature of the various forms of visual representation of knowledge that have been happening throughout the history of science, taking as its starting point the illustrated monumental works and three-dimensional models that begin to develop within the scientific community around the fifteenth century. The main thesis of this paper is that any scientific visual representations have common elements that allow us to approach them from epistemic nature, heuristic and communicative dimension.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 6: Aerospace knowledge diffusion in the academic community: A report of phase 3 activities of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    Descriptive and analytical data regarding the flow of aerospace-based scientific and technical information (STI) in the academic community are presented. An overview is provided of the Federal Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, illustrating a five-year program on aerospace knowledge diffusion. Preliminary results are presented of the project's research concerning the information-seeking habits, practices, and attitudes of U.S. aerospace engineering and science students and faculty. The type and amount of education and training in the use of information sources are examined. The use and importance ascribed to various information products by U.S. aerospace faculty and students including computer and other information technology is assessed. An evaluation of NASA technical reports is presented and it is concluded that NASA technical reports are rated high in terms of quality and comprehensiveness, citing Engineering Index and IAA as the most frequently used materials by faculty and students.

  5. Undergraduate honors students' images of science: Nature of scientific work and scientific knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael L.

    This exploratory study assessed the influence of an implicit, inquiry-oriented nature of science (NOS) instructional approach undertaken in an interdisciplinary college science course on undergraduate honor students' (UHS) understanding of the aspects of NOS for scientific work and scientific knowledge. In this study, the nature of scientific work concentrated upon the delineation of science from pseudoscience and the value scientists place on reproducibility. The nature of scientific knowledge concentrated upon how UHS view scientific theories and how they believe scientists utilize scientific theories in their research. The 39 UHS who participated in the study were non-science majors enrolled in a Honors College sponsored interdisciplinary science course where the instructors took an implicit NOS instructional approach. An open-ended assessment instrument, the UFO Scenario, was designed for the course and used to assess UHS' images of science at the beginning and end of the semester. The mixed-design study employed both qualitative and quantitative techniques to analyze the open-ended responses. The qualitative techniques of open and axial coding were utilized to find recurring themes within UHS' responses. McNemar's chi-square test for two dependent samples was used to identify whether any statistically significant changes occurred within responses from the beginning to the end of the semester. At the start of the study, the majority of UHS held mixed NOS views, but were able to accurately define what a scientific theory is and explicate how scientists utilize theories within scientific research. Postinstruction assessment indicated that UHS did not make significant gains in their understanding of the nature of scientific work or scientific knowledge and their overall images of science remained static. The results of the present study found implicit NOS instruction even with an extensive inquiry-oriented component was an ineffective approach for modifying UHS

  6. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1:] The value of Scientific and Technical Information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R&D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Glassman, Myron; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Oliu, Walter E.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace R&D process is examined. Data are presented from studies of the role of STI in the performance and management of R&D activities and the behavior of engineers when using and seeking information. Consideration is given to the information sources used to solve technical problems, the production and use of technical communications, and the use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases.

  7. Scientific knowledge dissemination in Danish seed communities of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Misfeldt, Morten; Boelt, Birte

    2012-01-01

    scientific knowledge communication. Theoretically, we consider these actors participants in different communities of practice relating to the production of seeds (Seed-CoP), and we conclude that strong network collaboration is present among Danish seed-CoP effectuated by the valuable work undertaken...

  8. Integrating indigenous and scientific knowledge on soils: recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    the new paradigm, the project reported here aimed to develop a methodology for integrating scientific soil survey products with indigenous knowledge ... interpretations of indigenous soil classification systems. We conclude that there is ... properly considered and informed decisions are taken on how best to utilise land ...

  9. The Hybridity of Scientific Knowledge : A Response to Leonardo Ambasciano

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Stuckrad, Kocku

    2016-01-01

    This article responds to Leonardo Ambasciano's review of The Scientification of Religion: An Historical Study of Discursive Change, 1800–2000 by Kocku von Stuckrad. It criticizes a narrative that presents naturalism and science as the ultimate system of knowledge. Contesting this rhetoric, the

  10. Scientific knowledge dynamics and relatedness in biotech cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123155541; Heimeriks, Gaston|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/291061664; Balland, Pierre-Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330821369

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of scientific relatedness on knowledge dynamics in biotech at the city level during the period 1989-2008. We assess the extent to which the emergence of new research topics and the disappearance of existing topics in cities are dependent on their degree of

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 1: The value of scientific and technical information (STI), its relationship to Research and Development (R/D), and its use by US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Glassman, Myron; Oliu, Walter E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is based on the premise that scientific and technical information (STI), its use by aerospace engineers and scientists, and the aerospace research and development (R&D) process are related. We intend to support this premise with data gathered from numerous studies concerned with STI, the relationship of STI to the performance and management of R&D activities, and the information use and seeking behavior of engineers in general and aerospace engineers and scientists in particular. We intend to develop and present a synthesized appreciation of how aerospace R&D managers can improve the efficacy of the R&D process by understanding the role and value of STI in this process.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 12: An initial investigation into the production and use of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) at five NASA centers: Results of a telephone survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Nanci A.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide NASA management with an 'initial' look at the production and use of scientific and technical information (STI) at five NASA centers (Ames, Goddard, Langley, Lewis, and Marshall). The 550 respondents who were interviewed by telephone held favorable views regarding the NASA STI system. About 65 percent of the respondents stated that it is either very or somewhat important for them to publish their work through the NASA STI system. About 10 percent of those respondents encountered problems using the NASA STI system services for publication. The most frequently reported problem was 'the process is too time consuming' (8.6 percent). Overall, those respondents using the NASA STI system to publish their work rated the system as excellent (24.6 percent) or good (37.6 percent). About 79 percent of the respondents stated that it is either very or somewhat important for them to use the NASA STI system to access information. The most frequently reported problems were 'the time and effort it takes to locate and obtain information through the system' (14.4 percent). Overall, about 83 percent of the respondents stated that the NASA STI system is important to performing their work. Overall, about 73 percent of the respondents stated that the NASA STI system meets their information needs.

  13. Experience-Oriented Knowledge Organisation for the Transference of Scientific Knowledge from Universities to SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Løkkegaard, Sarai; Jantzen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Transferring scientific knowledge between universities and industry is known to be problematic, specifically for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that have limited resources and absorption capacity. A variety of channels is used for knowledge transfer. These include what is commonly...

  14. A Framework for Creation & Diffusion of Knowledge for Knowledge Management in Enterprise 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha’ban Elahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Certainly in modern organizations knowledge & its management is basic & one of the most important issues. Powerful organizations in knowledge management are pioneer & always are in the first line of competition. It is obvious that rate & quality in creation, dissemination & use of knowledge are competitive advantage for organizations. As regards modern organizations use technology & new tools, enterprise 2.0 is known as a good organization in use of web 2.0 tools & high cooperation of staff. Passing of Enterprise 1.0 to Enterprise 2.0 & try for creation &diffusion of knowledge in Enterprise 2.0 have its own problems that without knowing of them & a certain framework, the probability of success is very low. This Research presents the framework of creation & diffusion of knowledge in Enterprise 2.0 according of library resources & presents learning 2.0, communications 2.0, generated content & collaboration 2.0 as 4 stages of creation &diffusion of knowledge in Enterprise 2.0. Then we investigate any of stages according of human, knowledge & technology. Also this research emphasizes that for creation &diffusion of knowledge in Enterprise 2.0 in addition of web 2.0 tools usage as a good communication tools, Cultural interaction, Consultation & association in a free Environment are very important too.

  15. Construction of scientific knowledge in motor learning: history and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Márcio Oliveira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to inquire the construction of scientific knowledge in the motor learning area. A necessary historical retrospective on this study field considers the epistemology of Francis Bacon, Karl Popper, Paul Feyerabend and Thomas Kuhn. Bacon and Popper’s conceptions show to be inadequate to explain the scientific progress of motor learning. Feyerabend’s ideas are also inadequate as they lack coherency, even though in some aspects they are adequate. The Kuhnian approach, however, seems more satisfactory, particularly with regard to the notion of “crisis of paradigm” between the ecological approach and the information-processing approach. A critique is offered from human and social sciences perspective. This leads us to reflect on the possible growth of a new paradigm and consider scientific practice as a social practice.

  16. Specifics of the capital in scientific knowledge: cultural aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kniazeva Ekaterina Dmitrievna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical reflection on the problems of the capital has not had enough attention from scientists until recently. Increasing of the number of capitals at the end of the 20th century, the processes of globalization and the awareness of the lack of scientific knowledge about the phenomenon of a capital attracted historians, sociologists and economists to work on the modern megalopolis. In this article is made an effort to unlock the potential of cultural aspect at the study of the capitals. In this context especially important is the presentation of the question on the legality of the transfer of the accumulated knowledge about the city on the capital's territorial formation.

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 19: Computer and information technology and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Bishop, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    To remain a world leader in aerospace, the US must improve and maintain the professional competency of its engineers and scientists, increase the research and development (R&D) knowledge base, improve productivity, and maximize the integration of recent technological developments into the R&D process. How well these objectives are met, and at what cost, depends on a variety of factors, but largely on the ability of US aerospace engineers and scientists to acquire and process the results of federally funded R&D. The Federal Government's commitment to high speed computing and networking systems presupposes that computer and information technology will play a major role in the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. However, we know little about information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The use of computer and information technology by US aerospace engineers and scientists in academia, government, and industry is reported.

  18. Quality economies as a direction the development of scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkarina T.Yu.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, more and more professionals in the field of quality management considering economic aspects of quality, and many economists consider quality as the object of study. However, this direction of development of scientific knowledge economy as the quality is not recognized by many economists. The paper attempts to show the development of this promising research area that has its own history, its theory, tools and methods.

  19. Pre-Service Science Teachers in Xinjiang "Scientific Inquiry" - Pedagogical Content Knowledge Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yufeng; Xiong, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific inquiry is one of the science curriculum content, "Scientific inquiry" - Pedagogical Content Knowledge is the face of scientific inquiry and teachers - of course pedagogical content knowledge and scientific inquiry a teaching practice with more direct expertise. Pre-service teacher training phase of acquisition of knowledge is…

  20. [Financing of the scientific publication and protection of the scientific knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Hochman, Bernardo; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2005-01-01

    private companies are more and more concerned with knowledge property. Researchers must understand the need of knowledge property and the financing agencies have to consider the patents achieved as a criteria of evaluation of scientific production.

  1. Using Bibliographic Knowledge for Ranking in Scientific Publication Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Vesely, Martin; Le Meur, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Document ranking for scientific publications involves a variety of specialized resources (e.g. author or citation indexes) that are usually difficult to use within standard general purpose search engines that usually operate on large-scale heterogeneous document collections for which the required specialized resources are not always available for all the documents present in the collections. Integrating such resources into specialized information retrieval engines is therefore important to cope with community-specific user expectations that strongly influence the perception of relevance within the considered community. In this perspective, this paper extends the notion of ranking with various methods exploiting different types of bibliographic knowledge that represent a crucial resource for measuring the relevance of scientific publications. In our work, we experimentally evaluated the adequacy of two such ranking methods (one based on freshness, i.e. the publication date, and the other on a novel index, the ...

  2. Self-presentation of sociology in scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mamedov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers some methodological foundations of social cognition, socio-cultural and theoretical foundations of social science; defines a clear position in the sociology of science, criticizes the positivist’s approach to the analysis of the methods of sociology; epistemologically analyze such theoretical constructs, which formed the basis of modern sociological knowledge. The article posits the importance of theoretical knowledge in sociology and its philosophical and methodological foundations. Author explains the integrity of the science of sociology, it differs from simple empiricism. Here we describe the theory of Comte and Spencer, the theory of the scientific revolution Koyre, Kuhn’s theory of sciense paradigm and influence of these theories on the development of sociology (and their limitations. The author examines the methodological principles of postpositivism in the social sciences and social cognition in general and describes fenomenology and essential theories.

  3. Research article: Watershed management councils and scientific models: Using diffusion literature to explain adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M.D.; Burkardt, N.; Clark, B.T.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature on the diffusion of innovations concentrates either specifically on public adoption of policy, where social or environmental conditions are the dependent variables for adoption, or on private adoption of an innovation, where emphasis is placed on the characteristics of the innovation itself. This article uses both the policy diffusion literature and the diffusion of innovation literature to assess watershed management councils' decisions to adopt, or not adopt, scientific models. Watershed management councils are a relevant case study because they possess both public and private attributes. We report on a survey of councils in the United States that was conducted to determine the criteria used when selecting scientific models for studying watershed conditions. We found that specific variables from each body of literature play a role in explaining the choice to adopt scientific models by these quasi-public organizations. The diffusion of innovation literature contributes to an understanding of how organizations select models by confirming the importance of a model's ability to provide better data. Variables from the policy diffusion literature showed that watershed management councils that employ consultants are more likely to use scientific models. We found a gap between those who create scientific models and those who use these models. We recommend shrinking this gap through more communication between these actors and advancing the need for developers to provide more technical assistance.

  4. Knowledge apartheid in disaster risk management discourse: Is marrying indigenous and scientific knowledge the missing link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundi Mutasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK is a key component of disaster risk management (DRM and development planning, yet it is often overlooked, with practitioners preferring to use scientific knowledge. Critics of IK have termed it archaic, primitive, a constraint to development and inferior to scientific knowledge, which has contributed to its widespread marginalisation. However, smallholder farmers in rural Zimbabwe have utilised IK for generations, especially in predicting rainfall patterns and managing drought conditions, showing that IK can be a useful tool in DRM. This article presents findings from research on drought vulnerability and coping conducted in Zimbabwe’s Buhera and Chikomba districts in 2009, particularly relating to utilisation of IK in smallholder farming communities, and argues that unless IK is documented and preserved, its marginalisation will persist. The research followed a mixed-methods approach whereby both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analysed. Whilst smallholder respondents were randomly selected for household surveys, snowball sampling was employed for key informant interviews. Respondents indicated that they utilised some indigenous rainfall pattern predictions gained from observing and interpreting plant and animal behaviour. Some cultural practices that were critical to development and utilisation of certain IK were also threatened with extinction. The article argues for ’marrying’ IK and scientific knowledge, in the hope that the two will offset each other’s weaknesses, resulting in some kind of hybrid knowledge that will be critical for promoting sustainable agricultural production in Zimbabwe. However, this is not for disregard the challenges associated with knowledge hybridisation, as these two types of knowledge are grounded on differing foundations.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 27: Knowledge diffusion and US government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in simulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  6. Methodological procedures in the construction of scientific knowledge: bibliographic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Cristiane Sasso de Lima

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-49802007000300004 This article concerns bibliographic research in the context of production of knowledge, as a methodological procedure that offers the researcher the possibility of seeking solutions to a research problem. It recognizes the need to present the scientific method chosen by the researcher; to present the forms of construction of the methodological design and the choice of procedures; and demonstrates how the presentation and analysis of the data obtained is configured. It also presents a methodological design of successive approximations, considering that the flexibility in the apprehension of data guarantees the dialectical movement in which the object of study can be constantly revised. That is, it postulates that bibliographic research involves conducting a tireless movement of apprehension of objectives, observance of steps, reading, questioning and critical interlocution with the bibliographic material and this demands epistemological vigilance.

  7. Mapping scientific frontiers : the quest for knowledge visualization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, Kevin W.

    2003-08-01

    - supermassive black holes, cross-domain applications of Pathfinder networks, mass extinction debates, impact of Don Swanson's work, and mad cow disease and vCJD in humans - succeed in explaining how visualization can be used to show the development of, competition between, and eventual acceptance (or replacement) of scientific paradigms. Although not addressed specifically, Chen's work nonetheless makes the persuasive argument that visual maps alone are not sufficient to explain 'the making of science' to a non-expert in a particular field. Rather, expert knowledge is still required to interpret these maps and to explain the paradigms. This combination of visual maps and expert knowledge, used jointly to good effect in the book, becomes a potent means for explaining progress in science to the expert and non-expert alike. Work to extend the GSA technique to explore latent domain knowledge (important work that falls below the citation thresholds typically used in GSA) is also explored here.

  8. Athens Versus Jerusalem? The Attitude Towards Scientific Knowledge in Byzantium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Senina (nun Kassia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There was a considerable shift towards ‘profane’ Hellenistic knowledge in Byzantium during time as Byzantines refrained themselves from complete rejection of the ‘pagan wisdom’, which characterized the early Christianity, and allowed it as an educative and rhetorical tool against heretics. By the 9th century, Christians didnt need to stand the competition with pagan religion any longer and the interest in Hellenistic culture soared. In the 11th century, intellectuals not only studied Greek and Roman authors but also sometimes used their views as the basis of afterlife explanation of the worldview competing with Orthodox ones. The 14th century witnessed the progress of this approach in praising the ‘theoria of beings’ instead of the mystic ‘theoria of God’, which was put as an ideal of an educated man by Byzantine intellectuals. This was a base for fruitful development of science. The worldview of Byzantine humanists based on ancient culture was in strong opposition to the Church, bringing itself from rigid Orthodoxy to experiments with pagan philosophy and scientific research. The Hesychast discussion that arose soon followed by victory of Palamism created different attitudes as Gregory Palama stated that science is useless and, even more, harmful for piety. George Gemistos Plethon confronted this conservatism by his views, which, however radical, were extension of Byzantine philosophy of previous centuries. The highest arete for Plethon was not a complete refusal of everything mundane for God’s sake but was a sort of scientific and philosophical realization of reality: a man is ‘a spectator at a feast’ of life having the vocation to watch the being. All in all, the Plethon’s credo, being free of Christian paradigm, is a real hymn to reason and science.

  9. Knowledge as an Aspect of Scientific Competence for Citizenship: Results of a Delphi Study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    España-Ramos, Enrique; González-García, Francisco José; Blanco-López, Ángel; Franco-Mariscal, Antonio Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on scientific knowledge as one aspect of the scientific competencies that citizens should ideally possess. The analysis is based on a Delphi study we conducted with Spanish experts from different science-related fields. The results showed that although the experts proposed several examples of scientific knowledge, the degree…

  10. Scientific Knowledge and Technology, Animal Experimentation, and Pharmaceutical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinter, Lewis B; DeGeorge, Joseph J

    2016-12-01

    Human discovery of pharmacologically active substances is arguably the oldest of the biomedical sciences with origins >3500 years ago. Since ancient times, four major transformations have dramatically impacted pharmaceutical development, each driven by advances in scientific knowledge, technology, and/or regulation: (1) anesthesia, analgesia, and antisepsis; (2) medicinal chemistry; (3) regulatory toxicology; and (4) targeted drug discovery. Animal experimentation in pharmaceutical development is a modern phenomenon dating from the 20th century and enabling several of the four transformations. While each transformation resulted in more effective and/or safer pharmaceuticals, overall attrition, cycle time, cost, numbers of animals used, and low probability of success for new products remain concerns, and pharmaceutical development remains a very high risk business proposition. In this manuscript we review pharmaceutical development since ancient times, describe its coevolution with animal experimentation, and attempt to predict the characteristics of future transformations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Land use an groundwater quality : How technical instrumentation and scientific knowledge can support groundwater planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, C.

    2009-01-01

    Applied science aims at developing knowledge to solve societal problems. However, scientific knowledge is often not used in management and policy processes in an adequate way. This PhD study treats the question how to improve the use of scientific knowledge in the current societal issue of

  12. The future of scientific knowledge discovery in open networked environments: summary of a workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uhlir, P. F

    2012-01-01

    .... They offer the promise of accelerating the discovery and communication of knowledge, both within the scientific community and in the broader society, as scientific data and information are made openly available online...

  13. Animal experimentation and scientific knowledge: a thought style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales de Astrogildo e Tréz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animal experimentation, besides a research method extensively applied in the production of scientific knowledge, is also considered essential to science and with undeniable historical relevance in advances in human health. In this survey, a questionnaire was applied to a group of researchers involved with research based on non-animal models (n =18, and to another group involved with research based on animal models (n =18. The data analysis was grounded in Ludwik Fleck (1896 -1961 epistemological assumptions. The results suggested that there are at least two thought styles operating in consonance on the same research problem (advances in human health conditions with significantly different conceptions not only concerning the research practices involved, but also the historical conceptions related to the role of animal experimentation.A experimentação animal, além de método amplamente aplicado na produção do conhecimento científico, é considerada como essencial à ciência e com valor histórico inegável no progresso das condições de saúde humana. Neste levantamento, um questionário foi aplicado a um grupo de pesquisadores com trabalhos baseados em modelos não-animais (n =18 e a outro grupo com trabalhos baseados em modelos animais (n =18. A análise de dados se baseou nos pressupostos epitemológicos de Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961. Os dados sugerem que existem pelo menos dois estilos de pensamento operando em consonância sobre o mesmo problema de pesquisa (avanços nas condições de saúde humana, com concepções significativamente diferentes sobre as práticas de pesquisa envolvidas, assim como as concepções históricas relacionadas ao papel da experimentação animal.

  14. The Scientist and the Construction of Scientific Knowledge: Aspects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrary to traditional beliefs of scientific writing as a simple presentation of cold hard facts, recent research by sociologists of science and linguists have shown that scientific writing takes place within specific social contexts and is determined by the social systems which shape the scientists themselves and their perceptions ...

  15. Fostering diffusion of scientific contents of National Society Cardiovascular Journals: The new ESC search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Fernando; Gonçalves, Lino; Pinto, Fausto; Timmis, Adam; Ector, Hugo; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Vardas, Panos

    2015-05-01

    European Society of Cardiology (ESC) National Society Cardiovascular Journals (NSCJs) are high-quality biomedical journals focused on cardiovascular diseases. The Editors' Network of the ESC devises editorial initiatives aimed at improving the scientific quality and diffusion of NSCJ. In this article we will discuss on the importance of the Internet, electronic editions and open access strategies on scientific publishing. Finally, we will propose a new editorial initiative based on a novel electronic tool on the ESC web-page that may further help to increase the dissemination of contents and visibility of NSCJs. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Fostering diffusion of scientific contents of National Society Cardiovascular Journals: The new ESC search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alfonso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available European Society of Cardiology (ESC National Society Cardiovascular Journals (NSCJs are high-quality biomedical journals focused on cardiovascular diseases. The Editors’ Network of the ESC devises editorial initiatives aimed at improving the scientific quality and diffusion of NSCJ. In this article we will discuss on the importance of the Internet, electronic editions and open access strategies on scientific publishing. Finally, we will propose a new editorial initiative based on a novel electronic tool on the ESC web-page that may further help to increase the dissemination of contents and visibility of NSCJs.

  17. The Relationship between Scientific Knowledge and Behaviour: An HIV/AIDS Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnguni, Lindelani; Abrie, Mia; Ebersohn, Liesel

    2016-01-01

    Debates on the role of scientific knowledge to affect behaviour are continuing. The theory of planned behaviour suggests that behaviour is influenced by attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control and not by knowledge. However, a large body of knowledge argues that increased HIV/AIDS-related knowledge leads to the adoption of…

  18. Scientific Knowledge, Popularisation, and the Use of Metaphors: Modern Genetics in Popular Science Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramling, Niklas; Saljo, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The article reports an empirical study of how authors in popular science magazines attempt to render scientific knowledge intelligible to wide audiences. In bridging the two domains of "popular" and "scientific" knowledge, respectively, metaphor becomes central. We ask the empirical question of what metaphors are used when communicating about…

  19. Education for Knowledge Society: Learning and Scientific Innovation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Alexander O.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-active learning research-type environment is the fundamental component of the education system for the knowledge society. The purpose of the research is the development of conceptual bases and a constructional model of a cognitively active learning environment that stimulates the creation of new knowledge and its socio-economic…

  20. The Scientific Import of Symbols in Human Knowledge | Agbanusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work X-Rays the phenomenon of symbolization or symbolism, vis a vis exposing its potentiality as an emerging veritable complement of modern science and the scientific methodology. It also portrays the reality of signs and symbols, showing their areas of convergence and their areas of divergence. Analytic and ...

  1. Metaphor, Multiplicative Meaning and the Semiotic Construction of Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Owyong, Yuet See Monica

    2011-01-01

    Scientific discourse is characterized by multi-semiotic construction and the resultant semantic expansions. To date, there remains a lack of analytical methods to explicate the multiplicative nature of meaning. Drawing on the theories of systemic functional linguistics, this article examines the meaning-making processes across language and…

  2. Holistic scientifically artistic paradigm of education in society of knowledges

    OpenAIRE

    Олена Миколаївна Отич

    2015-01-01

    Human-center measuring of society education are required by claims of new holistic educational paradigm, which becomes the source of conceptual ideas on providing integral influence of education on intellectual and emotional and sensual spheres of personality with the purpose of its harmonious general and professional development, forming of integral worldview which consists of scientific and artistic worldviews, each of which is valuable

  3. Scientific Knowledge Suppresses but Does Not Supplant Earlier Intuitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtulman, Andrew; Valcarcel, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    When students learn scientific theories that conflict with their earlier, naive theories, what happens to the earlier theories? Are they overwritten or merely suppressed? We investigated this question by devising and implementing a novel speeded-reasoning task. Adults with many years of science education verified two types of statements as quickly…

  4. Mapping scientific frontiers the quest for knowledge visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chaomei

    2013-01-01

    In its revised edition, this book examines the history and current developments in knowledge visualization from an interdisciplinary perspective, from theories of invisible colleges and competing paradigms to practical applications of visualization techniques.

  5. Self-presentation of sociology in scientific knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Mamedov

    2016-01-01

    The article considers some methodological foundations of social cognition, socio-cultural and theoretical foundations of social science; defines a clear position in the sociology of science, criticizes the positivist’s approach to the analysis of the methods of sociology; epistemologically analyze such theoretical constructs, which formed the basis of modern sociological knowledge. The article posits the importance of theoretical knowledge in sociology and its philosophical and methodological...

  6. Holistic scientifically artistic paradigm of education in society of knowledges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Миколаївна Отич

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human-center measuring of society education are required by claims of new holistic educational paradigm, which becomes the source of conceptual ideas on providing integral influence of education on intellectual and emotional and sensual spheres of personality with the purpose of its harmonious general and professional development, forming of integral worldview which consists of scientific and artistic worldviews, each of which is valuable

  7. Social psychology of education as a branch of scientific knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    М.Е. Sachkova; O.B. Krushelnitskaya; V.А. Orlov

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the emergence of a new scientific field – social psychology of education. Most of the key phenomena that contemporary social psychology examines, cannot influence training and education success of an individual. Therefore, in addition to traditional general psychological, psycho-pedagogic, developmental, psychophysical and other approaches solving the problems of the education system; the possibility is considered of increasing the efficiency of the educational process b...

  8. SEMI SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES THROUGH PROCESS REPORTING ON KNOWLEDGE PRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian

    2010-01-01

    How can you improve and focus on the knowledge produced through a design project by design students? The range of skills and competencies in design education is not limited to the ability to handle different types of projects themes. In an overall perspective a master education at a university...... is also about acquiring skills and competencies in adapting, producing and reflecting on knowledge in a design process. Using learning theory in a number of cases this paper will unfold the principles, structure and tools used in the process reporting to describe the inherent reflections in the design...

  9. Scientific knowledge acquisition as a representational change process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio Pozo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of science education research throughout many years, and the teaching models resulting fro this research, has been devoted, without much success, to promote the so-called conceptual change. In this paper students' alternative knowledge is interpreted as embodied implicit representations and it is argued that conceptual change must be interpreted as representational change.

  10. Use of Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Scientific Methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to seasonal climate forecasts from the meteorological department hence they depend mostly on their indigenous knowledge systems for forecasting seasons which they make use of to develop crop management adaptive strategies. The study shows that farmers have several indicators for weather forecasting and some of ...

  11. Diversifying Science: Recognizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems as Scientific Worldviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipe, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation I examine Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) and Western science, critically analyzing the underlying values of each, and exploring ways in which both systems can be utilized side by side. In general, Western science has arguably become the worldview utilized in dealing with the many complex multi-level issues of today.…

  12. Community intelligence in knowledge curation: an application to managing scientific nomenclature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Dai

    Full Text Available Harnessing community intelligence in knowledge curation bears significant promise in dealing with communication and education in the flood of scientific knowledge. As knowledge is accumulated at ever-faster rates, scientific nomenclature, a particular kind of knowledge, is concurrently generated in all kinds of fields. Since nomenclature is a system of terms used to name things in a particular discipline, accurate translation of scientific nomenclature in different languages is of critical importance, not only for communications and collaborations with English-speaking people, but also for knowledge dissemination among people in the non-English-speaking world, particularly young students and researchers. However, it lacks of accuracy and standardization when translating scientific nomenclature from English to other languages, especially for those languages that do not belong to the same language family as English. To address this issue, here we propose for the first time the application of community intelligence in scientific nomenclature management, namely, harnessing collective intelligence for translation of scientific nomenclature from English to other languages. As community intelligence applied to knowledge curation is primarily aided by wiki and Chinese is the native language for about one-fifth of the world's population, we put the proposed application into practice, by developing a wiki-based English-to-Chinese Scientific Nomenclature Dictionary (ESND; http://esnd.big.ac.cn. ESND is a wiki-based, publicly editable and open-content platform, exploiting the whole power of the scientific community in collectively and collaboratively managing scientific nomenclature. Based on community curation, ESND is capable of achieving accurate, standard, and comprehensive scientific nomenclature, demonstrating a valuable application of community intelligence in knowledge curation.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 59: Japanese Technological Innovation. Implications for Large Commercial Aircraft and Knowledge Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kotler, Mindy L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores three factors-public policy, the Japanese (national) innovation system, and knowledge-that influence technological innovation in Japan. To establish a context for the paper, we examine Japanese culture and the U.S. and Japanese patent systems in the background section. A brief history of the Japanese aircraft industry as a source of knowledge and technology for other industries is presented. Japanese and U.S. alliances and linkages in three sectors-biotechnology, semiconductors, and large commercial aircraft (LCA)-and the importation, absorption, and diffusion of knowledge and technology are examined next. The paper closes with implications for diffusing knowledge and technology, U.S. public policy, and LCA.

  14. Visually Motivated Knowledge Representation in Digital Libraries of Scientific Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsman, I. M.

    Verbal and visual communicative components of full-text scientific documents that are an information resource of digital libraries are considered. The basic attention is given visual components of documents and their base elementary units, named by visual signs which are offered to be used for indexing the visual in digital libraries, is similar to how words and set expression are used for indexing and search of verbal components of documents. In the paper, the cognitive framework of the indexing problem is considered. It is offered semiotic approach to its statement and principles of the decision for visual components. Potential opportunities of practical application of the offered approach in digital libraries are illustrated by example of geoimage indexing.

  15. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN IPA BERBASIS SETS UNTUK MENINGKATKAN SCIENTIFIC LITERACY DAN FOUNDATIONAL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indras Kurnia Setiawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan produk berupa perangkat pembelajaran IPA berbasis Science, Environment, Technology, and Society (SETS dan mengetahui (1 kelayakan produk, (2 keefektifan produk untuk meningkatkan scientific literacy, serta (3 keefektifan produk untuk meningkatkan foundational knowledge peserta didik kelas VII SMP Muhammadiyah 8 Wedi Klaten. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dan pengembangan dengan 3 tahap prosedur pengembangan yaitu need assesment, development dan reasearch dengan desain nonequivalent control group. Perangkat pembelajaran IPA berbasis SETS terdiri atas silabus, RPP, Lembar Kegiatan Peserta Didik (LKPD, dan instrumen penilaian otentik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kelayakan produk dinyatakan sangat baik dengan rerata skor 4,59 dari rentang 0-5. Semua peserta didik di kelas eksperimen mengalami peningkatan nilai scientific literacy dan foundational knowledge dengan kategori peningkatan tinggi, sedang, dan rendah. Implementasi produk berpengaruh positif terhadap kemampuan scientific literacy dan foundational knowledge yang menunjukkan perbedaan signifikan antara kelas eksperimen dan kontrol dengan kemampuan awal yang sama. Dengan demikian, perangkat pembelajaran IPA berbasis SETS terbukti efektif untuk meningkatkan scientific literacy dan foundational knowledge peserta didik kelas VII SMP Muhammadiyah 8 Wedi Klaten. Kata kunci: perangkat pembelajaran IPA, SETS, scientific literacy, foundational knowledge   DEVELOPING A SETS-BASED SCIENCE TEACHING KIT TO IMPROVE SCIENTIFIC LITERACY AND FOUNDATIONAL KNOWLEDGE Abstract This study aims to produce products such as a Science, Environment, Tecnology, and Society-based science teaching kit and to determine (1 the feasibility of the product, (2 the effectiveness of the product to improve scientific literacy, and (3 the effectiveness of the product to improve foundational knowledge for 7th grade students in SMP Muhammadiyah 8 Wedi Klaten.. This study is a

  16. FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ACROSS EUROPE 15. SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE BASE AND DIFFERENCES IN QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Manuel; CORONADO, Daniel; FERRANDIZ, Esther; LEON, Dolores; Moreno, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes with some insights into scientific knowledge base in food industry at the regional level in Europe 15. We argue that science production by universities is not enough to create a scientific knowledge base. An additional requirement is counting on some standards of quality for being useful to firms. We explore this line of inquiry by first examining the regional distribution of food science across Europe and its relationship with the production of technology in the Europe...

  17. Rethinking the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge: A Case Study of Teaching the Environment in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we argue that scientific literacy ought to be rethought in that it involves ethics as its core element. Considering the fact that science education has addressed ethical dilemmas of Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE) issues, it is worthwhile to question what the ethics of scientific knowledge mean in terms of their…

  18. Framing of scientific knowledge as a new category of health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Fernandez, Ana; Madden, Rosamond; Lukersmith, Sue; Colagiuri, Ruth; Torkfar, Ghazal; Sturmberg, Joachim

    2014-12-01

    The new area of health system research requires a revision of the taxonomy of scientific knowledge that may facilitate a better understanding and representation of complex health phenomena in research discovery, corroboration and implementation. A position paper by an expert group following and iterative approach. 'Scientific evidence' should be differentiated from 'elicited knowledge' of experts and users, and this latter typology should be described beyond the traditional qualitative framework. Within this context 'framing of scientific knowledge' (FSK) is defined as a group of studies of prior expert knowledge specifically aimed at generating formal scientific frames. To be distinguished from other unstructured frames, FSK must be explicit, standardized, based on the available evidence, agreed by a group of experts and subdued to the principles of commensurability, transparency for corroboration and transferability that characterize scientific research. A preliminary typology of scientific framing studies is presented. This typology includes, among others, health declarations, position papers, expert-based clinical guides, conceptual maps, classifications, expert-driven health atlases and expert-driven studies of costs and burden of illness. This grouping of expert-based studies constitutes a different kind of scientific knowledge and should be clearly differentiated from 'evidence' gathered from experimental and observational studies in health system research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Social psychology of education as a branch of scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.Е. Sachkova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the emergence of a new scientific field – social psychology of education. Most of the key phenomena that contemporary social psychology examines, cannot influence training and education success of an individual. Therefore, in addition to traditional general psychological, psycho-pedagogic, developmental, psychophysical and other approaches solving the problems of the education system; the possibility is considered of increasing the efficiency of the educational process by means of a rapidly growing social psychology. The prospects of this approach is evidenced by the results of numerous Russian and international research, including those performed in Moscow State University of Psychology and Education. The article discusses ways to develop the concept of the social psychology of education, approaches to the definition of its subject, goals and objectives, as well as new methods of the discipline. The possibilities of further use of the potential of social psychology are analyzed to address the efficiency of the educational process and the full personal development of students.

  20. Study of Scientific Problem-Solving Abilities Based on Scientific Knowledge about Atmosphere and Weather for Seventh Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoorin Thaengnoi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were: 1 to develop scientific problem-solving abilities test based on scientific knowledge about atmosphere and weather for seventh grade students and 2 to study the scientific problem-solving abilities of seventh grade students. The samples used in this study were 47 students who were studying in seventh grade in academic year 2015 of a school in Chai Nat province, Thailand. Purposive sampling was applied for identifying the samples. The research instrument of this study was the scientific problem-solving abilities test developed by the researcher. The research data was analyzed by comparing students’ scores with the criteria and considering students’ answers in each element of scientific problem-solving abilities. The results of the study were as follows: The scientific problem-solving abilities test composed of 2 parts. The first part was multiple-choice questions which was composed of 4 situations, a total of 20 questions. The Index of Item Objective Congruence of this part was varied in the range between 0.67 – 1.00. The difficulty and the discrimination level were in the range between 0.33 – 0.63 and 0.27 – 0.67, respectively. The reliability levels of this part was equal to 0.81. The second part of the test was subjective questions which composed of 2 situations, a total of 10 questions. The Index of Item Objective Congruence of this part was varied in the range between 0.67 – 1.00. The reliability level of this part was equal to 0.83. Besides, all questions in the test were covered all elements of scientific problem-solving abilities ; 1 identifying the problem 2 making the hypothesis 3 collecting data and knowledge to solve the problem 4 identifying problem-solving method and 5 predicting the characteristics of the results. The problem-solving abilities of the students revealed that 40.43% of students (n=19 were in a moderate level and 59.57% of students (n=28 were in a low level with the

  1. Improvement of Managers’ Safety Knowledge through Scientifically Reasonable Interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paas Õnnela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The safety management system has been analysed in 16 Estonian enterprises using the MISHA method (Method for Industrial Safety and Health Activity Assessment. The factor analysis (principal component analysis and varimax with Kaiser analysis has been implemented for the interpretation of the results on safety performance at the enterprises implementing OHSAS 18001 and the ones that do not implement OHSAS 18001. The division of the safety areas into four parts for a better understanding of the safety level and its improvement possibilities has been proven through the statistical analysis. The connections between the questions aimed to clarify the safety level and performance at the enterprises have been set based on the statistics. New learning package “training through the questionnaires” has been worked out in the current paper for the top and middle-level managers to improve their safety knowledge, where the MISHA questionnaire has been taken as the basis.

  2. USING SCIENTIFIC PAPERS TO STIMULATE THE STUDY OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND THE UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION: THE RESEARCH ON ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Gagianone

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is characterized by mutations in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA peroxisome transporter, leading to VLCFA accumulation in myelin sheath. In the 70’s and 80’s it was hypothesized that X-ALD is caused by enzymatic deficits in FA-coenzyme A connection, VLCFA degradation or FA elongation. The latter enabled Lorenzo’s oil (LO treatment, which became famous by the homonym movie. The apparent initial therapy effectiveness lead to LO administration in many patients, although with biochemical knowledge progress its relevance has been questioned.Objectives Our aim was to discuss X-ALD researches in “Lipids Metabolism” classes during 2014 Biochemistry courses to Biology and Biomedicine undergraduate students at Fluminense Federal University to illustrate how scientific knowledge is constructed.Materials and MethodsIn order to contrast the recent scientific advances with the information spread to society through “Lorenzo’s Oil”, the movie in edited version was presented to students followed by a questionnaire with Likert scale to evaluate the perception of scientific knowledge exposed by the movie. Afterwards, a Guided Study containing a brief history and discursive questions based upon a paper (Wiesingner et.al, J. Biol. Chem. 288:19269, 2013 was applied in class.Results and DiscussionFrom 58 students who filled in the questionnaire,72,4% considered the movie shows that X-ALD biochemical knowledge has been achieved. This notion was confirmed since 84,5% agreed LO is an effective alternative treatment if X-ALD is early detected. The same percentage agreed that based on the movie the biochemical deficiency relies on an enzyme involved in VLCFA degradation. Although the movie transmits the idea that the cure has been found, 67,2% believed X-ALD biochemical mechanisms are not fully comprehended. ConclusionsThe Guided Study/movie application was very effective because allowed the

  3. Everyday knowledge and scientific knowledge in the interpretation of matter properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sagrario Gutiérrez Julián

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study about students’ representations of matter properties. It shows how in order to explain matter discontinuity and intrinsic motion of particles the students frequently use alternative conceptions instead of scientific theories. These conceptions give local consistency centered on the macroscopic perception of matter, while scientific theories give global consistency.

  4. Coupling Visualization and Data Analysis for Knowledge Discovery from Multi-dimensional Scientific Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubel, Oliver; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Biggin, Mark D.; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; DePace, Angela; Eisen, Michael B.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Huang, Min-Yu; Keranen, Soile V. E.; Knowles, David W.; Hendriks, Chris L. Luengo; Malik, Jitendra; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Prabhat,; Ushizima, Daniela; Weber, Gunther H.; Wu, Kesheng

    2010-06-08

    Knowledge discovery from large and complex scientific data is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the growing number of data dimensions and data objects presents tremendous challenges for effective data analysis and data exploration methods and tools. The combination and close integration of methods from scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies"such as efficient data management" supports knowledge discovery from multi-dimensional scientific data. This paper surveys two distinct applications in developmental biology and accelerator physics, illustrating the effectiveness of the described approach.

  5. Coupling visualization and data analysis for knowledge discovery from multi-dimensional scientific data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rübel, Oliver; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Biggin, Mark D.; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; DePace, Angela; Eisen, Michael B.; Fowlkes, Charless C.; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Huang, Min-Yu; Keränen, Soile V. E.; Knowles, David W.; Hendriks, Cris L. Luengo; Malik, Jitendra; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Prabhat; Ushizima, Daniela; Weber, Gunther H.; Wu, Kesheng

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge discovery from large and complex scientific data is a challenging task. With the ability to measure and simulate more processes at increasingly finer spatial and temporal scales, the growing number of data dimensions and data objects presents tremendous challenges for effective data analysis and data exploration methods and tools. The combination and close integration of methods from scientific visualization, information visualization, automated data analysis, and other enabling technologies —such as efficient data management— supports knowledge discovery from multi-dimensional scientific data. This paper surveys two distinct applications in developmental biology and accelerator physics, illustrating the effectiveness of the described approach. PMID:23762211

  6. Knowledge diffusion from FDI and intellectual property rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.; de Vaal, A.

    2011-01-01

    We study the extent to which a country's strength of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protection mediates knowledge spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Following the opposing views in the IPR debate, we propose a negative effect of IPR strength on unintentional horizontal

  7. EFFECT OF INQUIRY LEARNING MODEL TRAINING AND CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS ON SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE CLASS X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Envilwan Harefa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of research were to analize: (1 Student’s skill proccess science by using inquiry training learning model better than direct intruction learning model; (2 Student’s skill process science who had under average better than above average category in scientific knowledge; and (3 the interaction between learning model and the level of scientific knowledge in fluencing student’s skill process science. The research was quasi-experimental research. The population of this research is all of thenth grade students of SMAN 3 Gunungsitoli. The sample of this researchconsist of grade with was taken by cluster random sampling were X2 and X3 class.The research instrument consisted of skill process science essay test and criticalthinking skills test data be analysed by using Two–way ANAVA. Result of theresearch showed that kill of the student science process (1 between inquiry training and direct intruction, where inquiry training better than direct intruction, (2 between group of student in the group of the students scientific knowledgeupon and under of mean, where scientific knowledge upon of mean better then scientific knowledge under of mean, (3 no interaction between inquiry training and scientific knowledge increased skill of student science process.

  8. Integration of indigenous and scientific knowledge in climate adaptation in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basdew Myuri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge has for generations assisted rural subsistence farming communities adapt to climate change and make daily decisions regarding agriculture. This study was conducted in the rural community of Swayimane, uMshwathi Municipality, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The main objective of the research was to determine the indigenous indicators used by rural farmers, identify the means through which seasonal climate information is disseminated and assess the strengths and weaknesses of indigenous and scientific knowledge. The other objective of the research was to evaluate the integration of indigenous and scientific weather forecasting. The research used 100 questionnaires which were administered to the subsistence farmers of the community. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted with small groups of individuals. Results showed that majority of the indigenous indicators related to rainfall and seasonal predictions. Also, seasonal scientific climate information was mainly disseminated via television and radio. Local farmers highlighted that indigenous knowledge was essential in predicting seasonal changes and rainfall and scientific knowledge was not trusted. Indigenous knowledge is transmitted by oral tradition, from generation to generation and mainly among the elderly, and, thinly, to the younger generation. Scientific information was thought to be too technical and difficult to comprehend. It can be concluded that subsistence farmers were open to the integration of scientific and indigenous weather forecasting. They highlighted that it would improve decision making concerning their agricultural activities.

  9. Searching for Synergy: Integrating Traditional and Scientific Ecological Knowledge in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmerer, Robin Wall

    2012-01-01

    Scientific ecological knowledge (SEK) is a powerful discipline for diagnosing and analyzing environmental degradation, but has been far less successful in devising sustainable solutions which lie at the intersection of nature and culture. Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of indigenous and local peoples is rich in prescriptions for the…

  10. Rapid Scientific Promotion of Scientific Productions in Stem Cells According to The Indexed Papers in The ISI (web of knowledge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijani, Rahim

    2015-01-01

    In recent years emphasis has been placed on evaluation studies and the publication of scientific papers in national and international journals. In this regard the publication of scientific papers in journals in the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database is highly recommended. The evaluation of scientific output via articles in journals indexed in the ISI database will enable the Iranian research authorities to allocate and organize research budgets and human resources in a way that maximises efficient science production. The purpose of the present paper is to publish a general and valid view of science production in the field of stem cells. In this research, outputs in the field of stem cell research are evaluated by survey research, the method of science assessment called Scientometrics in this branch of science. A total of 1528 documents was extracted from the ISI database and analysed using descriptive statistics software in Excel. The results of this research showed that 1528 papers in the stem cell field in the Web of Knowledge database were produced by Iranian researchers. The top ten Iranian researchers in this field have produced 936 of these papers, equivalent to 61.3% of the total. Among the top ten, Soleimani M. has occupied the first place with 181 papers. Regarding international scientific participation, Iranian researchers have cooperated to publish papers with researchers from 50 countries. Nearly 32% (452 papers) of the total research output in this field has been published in the top 10 journals. These results show that a small number of researchers have published the majority of papers in the stem cell field. International participation in this field of research unacceptably low. Such participation provides the opportunity to import modern science and international experience into Iran. This not only causes scientific growth, but also improves the research and enhances opportunities for employment and professional development. Iranian

  11. A Connective Ethnography of Peer Knowledge Sharing and Diffusion in a Tween Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Deborah A.; Kafai, Yasmin B.

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies have shown how knowledge diffusion occurs in classrooms and structured small groups around assigned tasks yet have not begun to account for widespread knowledge sharing in more native, unstructured group settings found in online games and virtual worlds. In this paper, we describe and analyze how an insider gaming practice spread…

  12. Teachers' scientific knowledge, teaching practice, and students' learning activities: Cases of three elementary classroom teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shinho

    The purposes of this dissertation study are to better understand what specific types of scientific knowledge and practice three elementary teachers exhibit, and to examine how they use their scientific knowledge in their classroom teaching practice to provide students' opportunities to learn science when teaching condensation in the context of a unit on the water cycle. By comparing and contrasting three cases of elementary classroom teaching, this study discusses what kinds of scientific knowledge and practice are fundamental for teaching elementary science for scientific understanding. The data include structured interviews (content, pre- and post- observation, and stimulated recall), videotaped classroom observations, and collections of teachers' and students' written artifacts. Data were collected prior to, during, and after the three teachers taught condensation to fifth grade students. The data were analyzed in three contexts: interviews, teaching practices, and students' classroom activities. This made it possible to clarify which characteristics of teacher's scientific knowledge influenced which aspects of their teaching practice. Data analysis shows that teachers' scientific knowledge were closely associated with their teaching practice and students' classroom activities. Two characteristics of the teachers' scientific reasoning emerged as especially important. The first concerned how teachers connected observations of condensation with patterns in those observations (e.g., condensation occurs when warm moist air cools) and with explanations for those patterns (e.g., condensation is water vapor that changes to liquid water). Two teachers were careful to connect observations with patterns in their own thinking and in their classroom teaching. One of those teachers also connected the observations and patterns to scientific explanations. In contrast, the third teacher focused on listing scientific terms with little elaboration with specific observations and

  13. Social justice pedagogies and scientific knowledge: Remaking citizenship in the non-science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Jane L.

    This dissertation contributes to efforts to rethink the meanings of democracy, scientific literacy, and non-scientist citizenship in the United States. Beginning with questions that emerged from action research and exploring the socio-political forces that shape educational practices, it shows why non-science educators who teach for social justice must first recognize formal science education as a primary site of training for (future) non-scientist citizens and then prepare to intervene in the dominant model of scientifically literate citizenship offered by formal science education. This model of citizenship defines (and limits) appropriate behavior for non-scientist citizens as acquiescing to the authority of science and the state by actively demarcating science from non-science, experts from non-experts, and the rational from the irrational. To question scientific authority is to be scientifically illiterate. This vision of 'acquiescent democracy' seeks to end challenges to the authority of science and the state by ensuring that scientific knowledge is privileged in all personal and public decision-making practices, producing a situation in which it becomes natural for non-scientist citizens to enroll scientific knowledge to naturalize oppression within our schools and society. It suggests that feminist and equity-oriented science educators, by themselves, are unable or unwilling to challenge certain assumptions in the dominant model of scientifically literate citizenship. Therefore, it is the responsibility of non-science educators who teach for social justice to articulate oppositional models of non-scientist citizenship and democracy in their classrooms and to challenge the naturalized authority of scientific knowledge in all aspects of our lives. It demonstrates how research in the field of Science & Technology Studies can serve as one resource in our efforts to intervene in the dominant model of scientifically literate citizenship and to support a model of

  14. Comparing three knowledge communication strategies - Diffusion, Dissemination and Translation - through randomized controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Joseph P; Stone, Vathsala I

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a series of three randomized controlled case studies comparing the effectiveness of three strategies for communicating new research-based knowledge (Diffusion, Dissemination, Translation), to different Assistive Technology (AT) stakeholder groups. Pre and post intervention measures for level of knowledge use (unaware, aware, interested, using) via the LOKUS instrument, assessed the relative effectiveness of the three strategies. The latter two approaches were both more effective than diffusion but also equally effective. The results question the value added by tailoring research findings to specific audiences, and instead supports the critical yet neglected role for relevance in determining knowledge use by stakeholders.

  15. Geographical imbalances and divides in the scientific production of climate change knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Dalsgaard, Bo; Maruyama, Pietro K.

    2015-01-01

    . Consequently, there is a need to further understand this bias, and, particularly, link it with the exchange of knowledge across borders. We use a world-wide geographical distribution of author affiliations in > 15,000 scientific climate change publications to show that (1) research production mainly takes...... are determined mainly by geographical proximity, common climates, and similar political and economic characteristics. This indicates that political-economic, social and educational-scientific initiatives targeted to enhance local research production and collaborations across geographical-climate module borders......Studies on scientific production of climate change knowledge show a geographical bias against the developing and more vulnerable regions of the world. If there is limited knowledge exchange between regions, this may deepen global knowledge divides and, thus, potentially hamper adaptive capacities...

  16. On the Growth of Scientific Knowledge: Yeast Biology as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xionglei; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2009-01-01

    The tempo and mode of human knowledge expansion is an enduring yet poorly understood topic. Through a temporal network analysis of three decades of discoveries of protein interactions and genetic interactions in baker's yeast, we show that the growth of scientific knowledge is exponential over time and that important subjects tend to be studied earlier. However, expansions of different domains of knowledge are highly heterogeneous and episodic such that the temporal turnover of knowledge hubs is much greater than expected by chance. Familiar subjects are preferentially studied over new subjects, leading to a reduced pace of innovation. While research is increasingly done in teams, the number of discoveries per researcher is greater in smaller teams. These findings reveal collective human behaviors in scientific research and help design better strategies in future knowledge exploration. PMID:19300476

  17. On the growth of scientific knowledge: yeast biology as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionglei He

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tempo and mode of human knowledge expansion is an enduring yet poorly understood topic. Through a temporal network analysis of three decades of discoveries of protein interactions and genetic interactions in baker's yeast, we show that the growth of scientific knowledge is exponential over time and that important subjects tend to be studied earlier. However, expansions of different domains of knowledge are highly heterogeneous and episodic such that the temporal turnover of knowledge hubs is much greater than expected by chance. Familiar subjects are preferentially studied over new subjects, leading to a reduced pace of innovation. While research is increasingly done in teams, the number of discoveries per researcher is greater in smaller teams. These findings reveal collective human behaviors in scientific research and help design better strategies in future knowledge exploration.

  18. Examining elementary teachers' knowledge and instruction of scientific explanations for fostering children's explanations in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke, Heidi Lynn

    This study employed an embedded mixed methods multi-case study design (Creswell, 2014) with six early childhood (grades K-2) teachers to examine a) what changes occurred to their subject matter knowledge (SMK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching scientific explanations while participating in a professional development program, b) how they planned for and implemented scientific explanation instruction within a teacher developed unit on properties of matter, and c) what affordances their instruction of scientific explanations had on fostering their students' abilities to generate explanations in science. Several quantitative and qualitative measures were collected and analyzed in accordance to this studies conceptual framework, which consisted of ten instructional practices teachers should consider assimilating or accommodating into their knowledge base (i.e., SMK & PCK) for teaching scientific explanations. Results of this study indicate there was little to no positive change in the teachers' substantive and syntactic SMK. However, all six teachers did make significant changes to all five components of their PCK for teaching explanations in science. While planning for scientific explanation instruction, all six teachers' contributed some ideas for how to incorporate seven of the ten instructional practices for scientific explanations within the properties of matter unit they co-developed. When enacting the unit, the six teachers' employed seven to nine of the instructional practices to varying levels of effectiveness, as measured by researcher developed rubrics. Given the six teachers' scientific explanation instruction, many students did show improvement in their ability to formulate a scientific explanation, particularly their ability to provide multiple pieces of evidence. Implications for professional developers, teacher educators, researchers, policy makers, and elementary teachers regarding how to prepare teachers for and support students

  19. The gap in scientific knowledge and role of science communication in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Sei-Hill; Kang, Myung-Hyun; Shim, Jae Chul; Ma, Dong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of South Koreans, this study explores the role of science communication in enhancing three different forms of scientific knowledge ( factual, procedural, and subjective). We first assess learning effects, looking at the extent to which citizens learn science from different channels of communication (interpersonal discussions, traditional newspapers, television, online newspapers, and social media). We then look into the knowledge gap hypothesis, investigating how different communication channels can either widen or narrow the gap in knowledge between social classes. Television was found to function as a "knowledge leveler," narrowing the gap between highly and less educated South Koreans. The role of online newspapers in science learning is pronounced in our research. Reading newspapers online indicated a positive relationship to all three measures of knowledge. Contrary to the knowledge-leveling effect of television viewing, reading online newspapers was found to increase, rather than decrease, the gap in knowledge. Implications of our findings are discussed in detail.

  20. From Data to Knowledge to Discoveries: Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Gil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific computing has entered a new era of scale and sharing with the arrival of cyberinfrastructure facilities for computational experimentation. A key emerging concept is scientific workflows, which provide a declarative representation of complex scientific applications that can be automatically managed and executed in distributed shared resources. In the coming decades, computational experimentation will push the boundaries of current cyberinfrastructure in terms of inter-disciplinary scope and integrative models of scientific phenomena under study. This paper argues that knowledge-rich workflow environments will provide necessary capabilities for that vision by assisting scientists to validate and vet complex analysis processes and by automating important aspects of scientific exploration and discovery.

  1. Mobile knowledge and the media: The movement of scientific information in the context of environmental controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocking, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the role of the news media in transnational flows of knowledge. Its focus is on salmon aquaculture, an industry operating in Europe, Canada, and elsewhere. To examine the movement of knowledge from Europe to Canada, a sample of 323 news stories mentioning European aquaculture was drawn from 1261 stories about aquaculture published in Canadian newspapers between 1982 and 2007. Their analysis demonstrates the role of the media in selectively moving and shaping scientific knowledge. This role has been influenced by numerous factors, including journalistic norms, source strategies, and the assertion of trust, relevance and scientific credibility. This analysis corrects the common assumption in the internet era that information flows freely: new technology has not obviated the role of social factors. The media's role in the movement of knowledge also has implications for the geography of science, and for the status of science as a situated practice.

  2. Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy

    2015-02-01

    There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and relationship between scientific and cultural knowledge. Personal meaning maps adapted for small groups were conducted in seven culturally diverse schools, school years 7-9 (with students aged 12-15 years) ( n = 190), with six schools in Western Australia and one school in Malawi, Africa. Of the six Australian school groups, two comprised Australian Aboriginal students in an after-school homework programme and the other four schools had a multicultural mix of students. Students in this study identified connections between scientific and cultural knowledge and constructed connections from particular thematic areas—mainly factual content knowledge as opposed to ideas related to values, attitudes, beliefs and identity. Australian Aboriginal students made fewer connections between the two knowledge domains than Malawian students whose previous science teacher had made explicit connections in her science class. Examples from Aboriginal culture were the most dominant illustrations of cultural knowledge in Australian schools, even in school groups with students from other cultures. In light of our findings, we discuss the construction of common ground between scientific knowledge and cultural knowledge and the role of teachers as cultural brokers and travel agents. We conclude with recommendations on creating learning environments that embrace different cultural knowledges and that promote explicit and enquiring discussions of values, attitudes, beliefs and identity associated with both knowledge domains.

  3. [The nurse's thought for a significant social contribution by the production and use of scientific knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Jacinthe

    2015-06-01

    The social contribution of nurses to the health of the population is mainly defined by the knowledge supporting their actions. Conceptualization in nursing guides the production and utilisation of scientific knowledge within the discipline. The purpose of this paper is to present the recent thoughts on nursing theory and to provide some strategies to integrate them within the activities of knowledge mobilization, in practice, research, and education. When nurses are engaged in mobilizing theoretical and empirical knowledge in answering nursing practice questions and in discussing social health issues, they participate in persons, families, and communities health improvement, while affirming their disciplinary and social identity. Called to be change agents in health care systems, with other professional team members, it is important that nurses be prepared to mobilize knowledge and to engage in critical reasoning, and ethical conduct. Their social contribution will be as strong as the value they assign to nursing knowledge and their participation in producing it.

  4. Scientific Knowledge and Knowledge Needs in Climate Adaptation Policy: A Case Study of Diverse Mountain Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veruska Muccione

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mountain ecosystems around the world are recognized to be among the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The need to develop sound adaptation strategies in these areas is growing. Knowledge from the natural sciences has an important role to play in the development of adaptation strategies. However, the extent of and gaps in such knowledge have not been systematically investigated for mountain areas. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge from natural science disciplines and research needs relevant to the national and subnational climate adaptation policies of 1 US state (Washington and 7 countries (Austria, Bhutan, Colombia, Germany, Nepal, Peru, and Switzerland, in particular the elements of those policies focused on mountain areas. In addition, we asked key individuals involved in drafting those policies to answer a short questionnaire. We found that research needs mainly concern impact and vulnerability assessments at regional and local levels, integrated assessments, and improved climate and socioeconomic data. These needs are often related to the challenges to data coverage and model performance in mountainous areas. In these areas, the base data are often riddled with gaps and uncertainties, making it particularly difficult to formulate adaptation strategies. In countries where data coverage is less of an issue, there is a tendency to explore quantitative forms of impact and vulnerability assessments. We highlight how the knowledge embedded in natural science disciplines is not always useful to address complex vulnerabilities in coupled human and natural systems and briefly refer to alternative pathways to adaptation in the form of no-regret, flexible, and adaptive management solutions. Finally, in recognition of the trans- and interdisciplinary nature of climate change adaptation, we raise the question of which knowledge production paradigms are best able to deliver sustainable adaptations to growing environmental

  5. From Comparison Between Scientists to Gaining Cultural Scientific Knowledge. Leonardo and Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal

    2016-03-01

    Physics textbooks often present items of disciplinary knowledge in a sequential order of topics of the theory under instruction. Such presentation is usually univocal, that is, isolated from alternative claims and contributions regarding the subject matter in the pertinent scientific discourse. We argue that comparing and contrasting the contributions of scientists addressing similar or the same subject could not only enrich the picture of scientific enterprise, but also possess a special appealing power promoting genuine understanding of the concept considered. This approach draws on the historical tradition from Plutarch in distant past and Koyré in the recent history and philosophy of science. It gains a new support in the discipline-culture structuring of the physics curriculum, seeking cultural content knowledge (CCK) of the subject matter. Here, we address two prominent individuals of Italian Renaissance, Leonardo and Galileo, in their dealing with issues relevant for introductory science courses. Although both figures addressed similar subjects of scientific content, their products were essentially different. Considering this difference is educationally valuable, illustrating the meaning of what students presently learn in the content knowledge of mechanics, optics and astronomy, as well as the nature of science and scientific knowledge.

  6. Resistances to Scientific Knowledge Production of Comparative Measurements of Dropout and Completion in European Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlhed, Carina

    2017-01-01

    The article is a critical sociological analysis of current transnational practices on creating comparable measurements of dropout and completion in higher education and the consequences for the conditions of scientific knowledge production on the topic. The analysis revolves around questions of epistemological, methodological and symbolic types…

  7. Teachers' Knowledge Structures for Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry and Their Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Research on nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry (SI) has indicated that a teacher's knowledge of each, however well developed, is not sufficient to ensure that these views necessarily manifest themselves in classroom practice (Lederman & Druger, 1985; Lederman, 2007). In light of the considerable research that has examined teachers'…

  8. Teachers' Knowledge Structures for Nature of Science and Scientific Inquiry: Conceptions and Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Stephen A.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2014-01-01

    Research on nature of science (NOS) and scientific inquiry (SI) has indicated that a teacher's knowledge of each, however well developed, is not sufficient to ensure that these conceptions necessarily manifest themselves in classroom practice (Lederman & Druger, 1985; Lederman, 2007). In light of considerable research that has examined…

  9. From Comparison between Scientists to Gaining Cultural Scientific Knowledge: Leonardo and Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal

    2016-01-01

    Physics textbooks often present items of disciplinary knowledge in a sequential order of topics of the theory under instruction. Such presentation is usually univocal, that is, isolated from alternative claims and contributions regarding the subject matter in the pertinent scientific discourse. We argue that comparing and contrasting the…

  10. Influence of Gender and Knowledge on Secondary School Students' Scientific Creativity Skills in Nakuru District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okere, Mark I. O.; Ndeke, Grace C. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and knowledge on scientific creativity among form three biology students (third year in secondary school cycle) in Nakuru district in Kenya. The cross- sectional survey research was employed. A sample of eight schools with a total of 363 students was selected from the population…

  11. "The architecture of access to scientific knowledge: just how badly we have messed this up"

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In this talk, Professor Lessig will review the evolution of access to scientific scholarship, and evaluate the success of this system of access against a background norm of universal access.While copyright battles involving artists has gotten most of the public's attention, the real battle should be over access to knowledge, not culture. That battle we are losing.

  12. The path- and place-dependent nature of scientific knowledge production in biotech 1986-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimeriks, G.J.; Boschma, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the worldwide spatial evolution of scientific knowledge production in biotechnology in the period 1986–2008. We employ new methodology that identifies new key topics in biotech on the basis of frequent use of title worlds in major biotech journals as an indication of new

  13. The path- and place-dependent nature of scientific knowledge production in biotech 1986-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimeriks, Gaston|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/291061664; Boschma, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123155541

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the worldwide spatial evolution of scientific knowledge production in biotechnology in the period 1986-2008. We employ new methodology that identifies new key topics in biotech on the basis of frequent use of title worlds in major biotech journals as an indication of new

  14. New ways of scientific publishing and accessing human knowledge inspired by transdisciplinary approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Gebeshuber, I C

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by interdisciplinary work touching biology and microtribology, the authors propose a new, dynamic way of publishing research results, the establishment of a tree of knowledge and the localisation of scientific articles on this tree. 'Technomimetics' is proposed as a new method of knowledge management in science and technology: it shall help find and organise information in an era of over-information. Such ways of presenting and managing research results would be accessible by people with different kinds of backgrounds and levels of education, and allow for full use of the ever- increasing number of scientific and technical publications. This approach would dramatically change and revolutionize the way we are doing science, and contribute to overcoming the three gaps between the world of ideas, inventors, innovators and investors as introduced by Gebeshuber, Gruber and Drack in 2009 for accelerated scientific and technological breakthroughs to improve the human condition. Inspiration for the developme...

  15. The Adam and Eve Robot Scientists for the Automated Discovery of Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ross

    A Robot Scientist is a physically implemented robotic system that applies techniques from artificial intelligence to execute cycles of automated scientific experimentation. A Robot Scientist can automatically execute cycles of hypothesis formation, selection of efficient experiments to discriminate between hypotheses, execution of experiments using laboratory automation equipment, and analysis of results. The motivation for developing Robot Scientists is to better understand science, and to make scientific research more efficient. The Robot Scientist `Adam' was the first machine to autonomously discover scientific knowledge: both form and experimentally confirm novel hypotheses. Adam worked in the domain of yeast functional genomics. The Robot Scientist `Eve' was originally developed to automate early-stage drug development, with specific application to neglected tropical disease such as malaria, African sleeping sickness, etc. We are now adapting Eve to work with on cancer. We are also teaching Eve to autonomously extract information from the scientific literature.

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 5: Aerospace librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: A report of phase 2 activities of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The flow of U.S. government-funded and foreign scientific and technical information (STI) through libraries and related facilities to users in government and industry is examined, summarizing preliminary results of Phase 2 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project (NAKDRP). The design and objectives of NAKDRP are reviewed; the NAKDRP model of STI transfer among producers, STI intermediaries, surrogates (technical report repositories or clearinghouses), and users is explained and illustrated with diagrams; and particular attention is given to the organization and operation of aerospace libraries. In a survey of North American libraries it was found that 25-30 percent of libraries regularly receive technical reports from ESA and the UK; the corresponding figures for Germany and for France, Sweden, and Japan are 18 and 5 percent, respectively. Also included is a series of bar graphs showing the librarians' assessments of the quality and use of NASA Technical Reports.

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 7:Summary report to phase 2 respondents including frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 2 of the four phase NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project was undertaken to study the transfer of scientific and technical information (STI) from government to the aerospace industry and the role of librarians and technical information specialists in the transfer process. Data was collected through a self-administered mailback questionnaire. Libraries identified as holding substantial aerospace or aeronautical technical report collections were selected to receive the questionnaires. Within each library, the person responsible for the technical report was requested to answer the questionnaire. Questionnaires were returned from approx. 68 pct. of the libraries. The respondents indicated that scientists and engineer are not aware of the services available from libraries/technical information centers and that scientists and engineers also under-utilized their services. The respondents also indicated they should be more involved in the process.

  18. The Effects of Video Feedback Coaching for Teachers on Scientific Knowledge of Primary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vondel, Sabine; Steenbeek, Henderien; van Dijk, Marijn; van Geert, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of a video feedback coaching intervention for upper-grade primary school teachers on students' cognitive gains in scientific knowledge. This teaching intervention was designed with the use of inquiry-based learning principles for teachers, such as the empirical cycle and the posing of thought-provoking questions. The intervention was put into practice in 10 upper-grade classrooms. The trajectory comprised four lessons, complemented with two premeasures and two postmeasures. The control condition consisted of 11 upper-grade teachers and their students. The success of the intervention was tested using an established standardized achievement test and situated measures. In this way, by means of premeasure and postmeasure questionnaires and video data, an assessment could be made of the change in students' scientific knowledge before, during, and after the intervention. In this study, we primarily focused on the dynamics of students' real-time expressions of scientific knowledge in the classroom. Important indicators of the effect of the intervention were found. Through focusing on the number of explanations and predictions, a significant increase could be seen in the proportion of students' utterances displaying scientific understanding in the intervention condition. In addition, students in the intervention condition more often reasoned on higher complexity levels than students in the control condition. No effect was found for students' scientific knowledge as measured with a standardized achievement test. Implications for future studies are stressed, as well as the importance of enriching the evaluation of intervention studies by focusing on dynamics in the classroom.

  19. Characterizing scientific production and consumption in physics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Qian; Perra, Nicola; Gonçalves, Bruno; Ciulla, Fabio; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    ...) citation networks geolocalized at the level of single urban areas. We define the knowledge diffusion proxy, and scientific production ranking algorithms to capture the spatio-temporal dynamics of Physics knowledge worldwide...

  20. Secondary School Congress on Environment and Sustainable Development (CEMADS): an efficient tool to improve student knowledge on scientific research and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarque, Pilar; García-Paz, Maria; Olivares, Conchi; Fernández-Boán, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    Secondary school students in Spain commonly show little knowledge on the way science is produced and diffused. To familiarize students with the scientific method and scientific communication, we have simulated a scientific congress on Earth Sciences at the secondary school level. Since 2002, the congress takes place yearly and it is attended by teachers and students from high schools of our hometown and beyond. Since its onset, the project follows several phases: (i) In the first phase (First Call), 14- to 18-year-old students are invited to register by means of brochures containing basic information on the congress (terms, conditions and main topics). (ii) Teachers from each participating school explain students the basis of scientific posters and oral presentations and encourage them to participate in the congress. (iii) Students prepare presentations describing the results of small scientific experiments carried out for this purpose and present them to the local organizing committee. (iv) The committee then reviews all presentations and select the best ones for public exposition. (v) In the final phase, the congress takes place. It includes registration, opening ceremony attended by educational authorities, plenary conference delivered by an outstanding local scientist, coffee break, oral presentations and closing ceremony. The project lasts for one day. It has been attended by an average of 250 students and teachers from 4 schools, and has been widely reported in the local media. Post-congress evaluation shows that the project is highly motivating for students and it improves student knowledge on scientific research and communication.

  1. A study of primary science teachers' ability to restructure knowledge in scientific texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh-Yeo, Wan Inn

    The ability of elementary science teachers to restructure knowledge in an unfamiliar scientific text is investigated in this study. Science in schools is said to be characterized by an extensive reliance on textbooks with little evidence of inquiry on the part of students and teachers. The successful implementation of any inquiry science program can only be achieved if teachers can access knowledge in resources such as scientific books and journals which they are able to read critically, and translate and transform that knowledge. Participants were twelve high school graduates undertaking a teacher training course in Singapore. Recalls, problem solving, and ConSAT maps were used as a measure of readers' textbase representation, situational representation and cognitive structures respectively. The target text rewritten for a colleague and for 6sp{th} graders were used as a measure of readers' ability to restructure knowledge. Qualitative and quantitative analyses have shown a difference between able and less able readers on these measures. Able readers recalled more key concepts than less able readers and used the global text structure. Problem solutions of able readers were based on the principles of fermentation with immediate recognition of the variable and its implied consequences and likely solution. The more coherent textbase and situational representations of able readers is reflected in the ConSAT maps of such readers which approximated 44.45% of the criterion map in contrast to less than 25% for less able readers. Not surprisingly, able readers demonstrated to some degree, an ability to restructure knowledge while less able readers did not. Based on the findings of the study the investigator challenges the assumption about reading proficiency of trainee teachers and suggests attention should be paid to literacy requirements and practices. If teachers are unable to restructure knowledge in scientific texts, it is highly unlikely that they would be able to

  2. Making expert knowledge through the image: connections between antiquarian and early modern scientific illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Stephanie

    2014-03-01

    This essay examines drawings of antiquities in the context of the history of early modern scientific illustration. The role of illustrations in the establishment of archaeology as a discipline is assessed, and the emergence of a graphic style for representing artifacts is shown to be closely connected to the development of scientific illustration in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. The essay argues that the production of conventionalized drawings of antiquities during this period represents a fundamental shift in the approach to ancient material culture, signifying the recognition of objects as evidence. As has been demonstrated in other scientific fields, the creation of a visual system for recording objects was central to the acceptance of artifacts as "data" that could be organized into groups, classified as types, and analyzed to gain knowledge of the past.

  3. Scientific reasoning during adolescence: The influence of instruction in science knowledge and reasoning strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, M. C.; Clement, C.; Pulos, S.; Sullivan, P.

    The mechanism linking instruction in scientific topics and instruction in logical reasoning strategies is not well understood. This study assesses the role of science topic instruction combined with logical reasoning strategy instruction in teaching adolescent students about blood pressure problems. Logical reasoning instruction for this study emphasizes the controlling-variables strategy. Science topic instruction emphasizes variables affecting blood pressure. Subjects receiving logical reasoning instruction link their knowledge of blood pressure variables to their knowledge of controlling variables more effectively than those receiving science topic instruction alone - their specific responses show how they attempt to integrate their understanding.Received: 15 April 1988

  4. Challenges of linking scientific knowledge to river basin management policy: AquaTerra as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, A.; Rijnveld, M.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Project AquaTerra generates knowledge about the river-soil-sediment-groundwater system and delivers scientific information of value for river basin management. In this article, the use and ignorance of scientific knowledge in decision making is explored by a theoretical review. We elaborate

  5. A pervasive denigration of natural history misconstrues how biodiversity inventories and taxonomy underpin scientific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Fenton P D; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Embracing comparative biology, natural history encompasses those sciences that discover, decipher and classify unique (idiographic) details of landscapes, and extinct and extant biodiversity. Intrinsic to these multifarious roles in expanding and consolidating research and knowledge, natural history endows keystone support to the veracity of law-like (nomothetic) generalizations in science. What science knows about the natural world is governed by an inherent function of idiographic discovery; characteristic of natural history, this relationship is exemplified wherever an idiographic discovery overturns established wisdom. This nature of natural history explicates why inventories are of such epistemological importance. Unfortunately, a Denigration of Natural History weakens contemporary science from within. It expresses in the prevalent, pervasive failure to appreciate this pivotal role of idiographic research: a widespread disrespect for how natural history undergirds scientific knowledge. Symptoms of this Denigration of Natural History present in negative impacts on scientific research and knowledge. One symptom is the failure to appreciate and support the inventory and monitoring of biodiversity. Another resides in failures of scientiometrics to quantify how taxonomic publications sustain and improve knowledge. Their relevance in contemporary science characteristically persists and grows; so the temporal eminence of these idiographic publications extends over decades. This is because they propagate a succession of derived scientific statements, findings and/or conclusions - inherently shorter-lived, nomothetic publications. Widespread neglect of natural science collections is equally pernicious, allied with disregard for epistemological functions of specimens, whose preservation maintains the veracity of knowledge. Last, but not least, the decline in taxonomic expertise weakens research capacity; there are insufficient skills to study organismal diversity in all

  6. How scientific experiments are designed: Problem solving in a knowledge-rich, error-rich environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lisa M.

    While theory formation and the relation between theory and data has been investigated in many studies of scientific reasoning, researchers have focused less attention on reasoning about experimental design, even though the experimental design process makes up a large part of real-world scientists' reasoning. The goal of this thesis was to provide a cognitive account of the scientific experimental design process by analyzing experimental design as problem-solving behavior (Newell & Simon, 1972). Three specific issues were addressed: the effect of potential error on experimental design strategies, the role of prior knowledge in experimental design, and the effect of characteristics of the space of alternate hypotheses on alternate hypothesis testing. A two-pronged in vivo/in vitro research methodology was employed, in which transcripts of real-world scientific laboratory meetings were analyzed as well as undergraduate science and non-science majors' design of biology experiments in the psychology laboratory. It was found that scientists use a specific strategy to deal with the possibility of error in experimental findings: they include "known" control conditions in their experimental designs both to determine whether error is occurring and to identify sources of error. The known controls strategy had not been reported in earlier studies with science-like tasks, in which participants' responses to error had consisted of replicating experiments and discounting results. With respect to prior knowledge: scientists and undergraduate students drew on several types of knowledge when designing experiments, including theoretical knowledge, domain-specific knowledge of experimental techniques, and domain-general knowledge of experimental design strategies. Finally, undergraduate science students generated and tested alternates to their favored hypotheses when the space of alternate hypotheses was constrained and searchable. This result may help explain findings of confirmation

  7. Integrating Knowledge Generation with Knowledge Diffusion and Utilization: A Case Study Analysis of the Consortium for Applied Research and Evaluation in Mental Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evelyn Vingilis; Kathleen Hartford; Ted Schrecker; Beth Mitchell; Barbara Lent; Joan Bishop

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Knowledge diffusion and utilization (KDU) have become a key focus in the health research community because of the limited success to date of research findings to inform health policies, programs and services...

  8. The importance of knowledge on the evaluation criteria in university scientific research projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Toma

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research is part of any university mission, at least of big universities, as it represents the complementary element required by the learning process. A learning process based on engendering knowledge is much more valuable and competitive than a learning process which is reduced to a mere transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the students. The important universities consider that “the development of scientific research as a fundamental competence is essential for survival in a more and more competitive environment on global level and that is why, research should be part of the university mission”1. This study aims to highlight how important it is for the university members to be aware of the evaluation criteria for the research projects they undertake. For this purpose, I have interviewed a number of 55 persons, project managers and team members in the projects from the “Research for Excellency” program and the National Plan of Research, Development and Innovation PN II 2007 – 2013. Out of the evaluation criteria for research, the most important ones were considered to be the scientific quality of the project and the quality of the human resources involved in the project.

  9. Online Scientific Dissemination of Knowledge Blended with Face-to-Face Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend

    2013-01-01

    with limitations and potentials. However, selecting online communication media as a dissemination tool for a community comes with a challenge – among other things it risks creating a learning divide between fast and slow learners. According to the theoretical framework “Diffusion of Innovation”[1] innovation...... is experienced differently throughout a society due to fast and slow adopters. Blending online learning with face-to-face experience will strengthen the learning curve among the targeted users and ensure a faster dissemination of knowledge and thus learning to the entire community....... between the seed scientists, seed consultants, and the seed growers, and the requirements for a knowledge website for learning new seed science. This paper describes the specification requirements set for the required website including taxonomized hierarchical meta-tagging, RSS, legal matters, together...

  10. Enhancing innovation between scientific and indigenous knowledge: pioneer NGOs in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laplante Julie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, little attention has been paid to local innovation capacity as well as management practices and institutions developed by communities and other local actors based on their traditional knowledge. This paper doesn't focus on the results of scientific research into innovation systems, but rather on how local communities, in a network of supportive partnerships, draw knowledge for others, combine it with their own knowledge and then innovate in their local practices. Innovation, as discussed in this article, is the capacity of local stakeholders to play an active role in innovative knowledge creation in order to enhance local health practices and further environmental conservation. In this article, the innovative processes through which this capacity is created and reinforced will be defined as a process of "ethnomedicine capacity". Methods The field study undertaken by the first author took place in India, in the State of Tamil Nadu, over a period of four months in 2007. The data was collected through individual interviews and focus groups and was complemented by participant observations. Results The research highlights the innovation capacity related to ethnomedical knowledge. As seen, the integration of local and scientific knowledge is crucial to ensure the practices anchor themselves in daily practices. The networks created are clearly instrumental to enhancing the innovation capacity that allows the creation, dissemination and utilization of 'traditional' knowledge. However, these networks have evolved in very different forms and have become entities that can fit into global networks. The ways in which the social capital is enhanced at the village and network levels are thus important to understand how traditional knowledge can be used as an instrument for development and innovation. Conclusion The case study analyzed highlights examples of innovation systems in a developmental context. They demonstrate that

  11. Reflections on 19th-Century Experience with Knowledge Diffusion: The Sixth Annual Howard Davis Memorial Lecture, April 11, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.

    1991-01-01

    Provides the text of the Howard Davis Memorial Lecture, which was presented to the Knowledge Utilization Society in 1991. The lecture describes the work of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, which was active in Great Britain the nineteenth century and compares it with current practices in the field of knowledge utilization. (12…

  12. How can we transfer scientific knowledge to citizens? : Case studies from huge earthquake and tsunami researches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazato, Hiroshi; Kijima, Akihiro; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Fujikura, Katsunori

    2017-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, huge earthquake and tsunamis took place coastal regions of Northeast Japan. Coastal infrastructure collapsed due to high waves of tsunamis. Marine ecosystems were also strongly disturbed by the earthquakes and tsunamis. TEAMS (Tohoku Ecosystem-Associated Marine Sciences) has started for monitoring recovering process of marine ecosystems. The project continues ten years. First five years are mainly monitored recovery process, then we should transfer our knowledge to fishermen and citizens for restoration of fishery and social systems. But, how can we actually transfer our knowledge from science to citizens? This is new experience for us. Socio-technology constructs a "high quality risk communication" model how scientific knowledge or technologies from scientific communities to citizens. They are progressing as follows, "observation, measurements and data", → "modeling and synthesis" → "information process" → "delivery to society" → " take action in society". These steps show detailed transition from inter-disciplinarity to trans-disciplinarity in science and technology. In our presentation, we plan to show a couple of case studies that are going forward from science to society.

  13. When the Periphery Becomes the Center. Forensic Anthropology in Argentina, a Case of Socially Relevant Scientific Knowledge Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano G. Levin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forensic anthropology has had extraordinary scientific success in Argentina. On the one hand, this discipline has developed very well in only 25 years generating scientifically relevant knowledge both locally and internationally. On the other hand, and unlike a large part of scientific knowledge generated in peripheral contexts, it has major social applications. This work describes the different dimensions of the origin and development of this discipline in Argentina, the cognitive condition of the field in 1983 and, briefly, its development until today, its institutional dimension, the existence of other research traditions and certain social dimensions which, we believe, are the basis for the success of this scientific discipline.

  14. Thomson Scientific's expanding Web of Knowledge: beyond citation databases and current awareness services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Sue; Brahmi, Frances A

    2005-01-01

    As end-user demand for easy access to electronic full text continues to climb, an increasing number of information providers are combining that access with their other products and services, making navigating their Web sites by librarians seeking information on a given product or service more daunting than ever. One such provider of a complex array of products and services is Thomson Scientific. This paper looks at some of the many products and tools available from two of Thomson Scientific's businesses, Thomson ISI and Thomson ResearchSoft. Among the items of most interest to health sciences and veterinary librarians and their users are the variety of databases available via the ISI Web of Knowledge platform and the information management products available from ResearchSoft.

  15. How I know that it is true? Students’ intuitive epistemologies about scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidro Pecharromán

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the intuitive epistemologies of university students from two perspectives: their beliefs concerning the nature of knowledge and their beliefs concerning how that knowledge is achieved. We confronted students with a questionnaire in which they had to choose, in a Likert scale, between different epistemological options and afterward we asked them to justify the epistemological positions they had assumed. Results showed that students were epistemologically more sophisticated when they had to select a position than when they had to justify it. Concretely, they choose mainly constructivist beliefs but their justifications were closer to objectivistic positions, showing a kind of “naïve realism” as the epistemological belief from which most students implicitly approach science learning. In fact, our data confirmed that the less instructed students were also the more realists. We compare these results with the data obtained with the same students in two other knowledge domains –moral and social knowledge- in which this trend towards “naïve realism” appears to be less strong. The paper concludes exploring the cognitive and cultural foundations of this intuitive objectivism with regard to the epistemological nature and the acquisition of scientific knowledge, as well as the teaching strategies that should be used in order to improve the complexity of epistemological beliefs in secondary and university students.

  16. Facts, theories and ideologies: Viola Klein and Sociology of Scientific Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Pérez Sedeño

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on history, philosophy and sociology of science have demonstrated that science is not autonomous and value-neutral and its selfless search of truth is an ideal theoretical myth far from the real practice of science, which is an aggregate of social practices. Viola Klein was a pioneer in studying science using the same instruments and categories utilized in any other social practice. The aim of this work is to highlight her contributions to Sociology of Scientific Knowledge at a moment when this discipline was, at the most, incipient.

  17. Knowledge-Based Parallel Performance Technology for Scientific Application Competitiveness Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malony, Allen D; Shende, Sameer

    2011-08-15

    The primary goal of the University of Oregon's DOE "œcompetitiveness" project was to create performance technology that embodies and supports knowledge of performance data, analysis, and diagnosis in parallel performance problem solving. The target of our development activities was the TAU Performance System and the technology accomplishments reported in this and prior reports have all been incorporated in the TAU open software distribution. In addition, the project has been committed to maintaining strong interactions with the DOE SciDAC Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI) and Center for Technology for Advanced Scientific Component Software (TASCS). This collaboration has proved valuable for translation of our knowledge-based performance techniques to parallel application development and performance engineering practice. Our outreach has also extended to the DOE Advanced CompuTational Software (ACTS) collection and project. Throughout the project we have participated in the PERI and TASCS meetings, as well as the ACTS annual workshops.

  18. New languages for the spreading of scientific knowledge: broadening the dialog between science and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Pereira Cavalcanti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is by far the most intensely used communication tool of today and the main channel of interaction in the globalized world. This technology has opened up a whole new area for the interaction of knowledge: cyberspace, where information is always present and continuously changing. The interactivity that characterizes the virtual media together with the interactive modules developed by science centers and museums make the Internet a whole new space for the popularization of science. In order to stimulate dialog between science and society, Espaço Ciência Viva has decided to employ the Internet to divulge and to popularize scientific knowledge by bringing debates about the advances of science to the daily lives of people. To this end, its website was remodeled, which led to an increase of up to 600% in the number of visitors.

  19. Evaluating Scientific Research Knowledge and Attitude among Medical Representative in Jordan: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukattash, Tareq; Alattar, Meys; Farha, Rana Abu; Alsous, Mervat; Jarab, Anan; El-Hajii, Feras; Mukattash, Ibrahim L

    2017-08-28

    Pharmaceutical companies provide a broad range of different mandatory trainings to their medical representatives to keep the business running, however research related training has often been neglected by these companies. Thus, this study was developed to assess the amount of scientific research knowledge and interest among pharmacy medical representatives in Jordan. A cross sectional study was conducted in Jordan in 2016. During the study period, a questionnaire was administered to 250 medical representatives working in pharmaceutical companies to evaluate their scientific research knowledge and attitudes. The majority of medical representatives had positive attitudes towards clinical trials and research communication and believe that it will increase the value of their work, but a considerable number of medical representatives did not detail clinical trials on every visit and found difficulty in answering clinical trials and research related questions asked by health care professionals. Most of the medical representatives did not have a complete understanding of some basic research terminologies. Medical representatives working in multinational companies seemed to have a significantly better understanding of research and terminologies compared to local companies (P-value= 0.000). Also Medical representatives with higher educational degrees seemed to have significantly better understanding of basic research terminologies (P-value= 0.023). The majority of medical representatives had positive attitudes towards clinical trials and research communication and found that it will increase the value of their work, but still there is a gap in their frequency of detailing. Thus, local pharmaceutical companies need to invest more in research and clinical trials knowledge kind of training. Also, universities need to include research related courses and subject in their bachelors' program curriculum in order to make pharmacists equipped in terms of research knowledge

  20. Farmers’ learning and diffusion of farmer field school’s knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Thi Minh; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    of the FFS-introduced innovations and how these innovations are communicated among farmers. Results show that farmers’ cognitive ability to adjust, test, and adopt FFS-introduced innovations in combination with farmers attitude towards these innovations and linkages to the social system and dynamics......As farmers field school (FFS) increases in use in agricultural extension and rural development, understanding how FFS-introduced knowledge retained and diffused among participants and their community is needed. This study aimed to investigate how farmers’ learning determines their adoption...

  1. Professional development in scientifically based reading instruction: teacher knowledge and reading outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhajski, Blanche; Mather, Nancy; Nathan, Jane; Sammons, Janice

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature and presents data from a study that examined the effects of professional development in scientifically based reading instruction on teacher knowledge and student reading outcomes. The experimental group consisted of four first- and second-grade teachers and their students (n = 33). Three control teachers and their students (n = 14), from a community of significantly higher socioeconomic demographics, were also followed. Experimental teachers participated in a 35-hour course on instruction of phonemic awareness, phonics, and fluency and were coached by professional mentors for a year. Although teacher knowledge in the experimental group was initially lower than that of the controls, their scores surpassed the controls on the posttest. First-grade experimental students' growth exceeded the controls in letter name fluency, phonemic segmentation, nonsense word fluency, and oral reading. Second-grade experimental students exceeded controls in phonemic segmentation. Although the teacher sample was small, findings suggest that teachers can improve their knowledge concerning explicit reading instruction and that this new knowledge may contribute to student growth in reading.

  2. The methodological foundations of mutual integration of scientific knowledge in the field of physical education and sports and related sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of application of scientific knowledge in physical education and sport in contiguous scientific directions are considered. The advanced studies of leading specialists in area of physical education and sport are analysed. It is rotined that on the modern stage scientific developments in area of physical education and sport attained a level, when can be utillized in fundamental and applied sciences. Scientific researches in area of physical education and sport to the application scientific areas, such as pedagogics, psychology, design, programming et al are related. One of examples of mutual integration of scientific knowledge in area of physical education and sport there is theoretical conception of individualization of preparation of sportsmen.

  3. Co-Producing Accessible Climate Knowledge: Case Study of a Scientific Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourqui, M.; Charriere, M. K. M.; Bolduc, C.

    2016-12-01

    This talk presents the process of and the lessons learned from a scientific challenge where climate scientists re-framed their research for the general public in interaction with members of the general public. This challenge was organized by Climanosco in the context of its launch in the fall 2015 and is due to end in September 2016. It led to the publication of 11 articles from scientific authors spanning 7 countries and engaged the participation of 24 members of the general public. The process of interaction between scientists and members of the general public took place along an extended peer-review process which included on-line community discussions and non-scientific review reports. Details of this interaction, as perceived by the participants and evaluated by a survey, will be discussed in this talk. On the longer term this co-production of accessible climate knowledge, which represents the main goal of the non-profit association Climanosco, is meant to serve as a reliable, research-based source, the decision makers but also the journalists, teachers and communities around the world.

  4. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  5. Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gierl, Heribert

    1995-01-01

    Diffusion. - In: Handwörterbuch des Marketing / hrsg. von Bruno Tietz ... - 2., völlig neu gestalt. Aufl. - Stuttgart : Schäffer-Poeschel, 1995. - S. 469-477. - (Enzyklopädie der Betriebswirtschaftslehre ; 4)

  6. Developing an Explicit-Reflective Inquiry-Based Professional Development Workshop and Examining the Effects on Nature of Scientific Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    BAYIR, Eylem; Fitnat KÖSEOĞLU

    2010-01-01

    Improving understanding of nature of science and scientific knowledge for individuals has been seen one of the essential objectives for science education for years. Teachers have a critical role in the process of learning nature of science by students. For this reason, we have turned our attentions toward improving science teachers‟ views about nature of science and scientific knowledge. This study focused specifically on introducing the explicit-reflective inquiry-based professional developm...

  7. Interplay of Secondary Pre-Service Teacher Content Knowledge (CK), Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) and Attitudes Regarding Scientific Inquiry Teaching within Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Robbert; Weitzel, Holger; Blank, Robert; Rietz, Florian; Tardent, Josiane; Robin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Beginning teachers encounter several constraints with respect to scientific inquiry. Depending on their prior beliefs, knowledge and understanding, these constraints affect their teaching of inquiry. Purpose: To investigate quantitatively the longitudinal relationship between pre-service teachers' knowledge and attitudes on scientific…

  8. Hazards mapping using local and scientific knowledge. A case in rural Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, B.; Bocco, G.

    2016-12-01

    Natural hazards in rural areas in developing countries usually affect poor peasants and their infrastructure. This poses a problem of social vulnerability that coupled to the risk may cause severe hazards. Research oriented to prevention and adaptation is crucial. Other studies have proved that local knowledge and peasant's perception on hazards is a valuable tool to tackle prevention and mitigation. In the valley of Huahua river, at the Pacific coast of Mexico, landslides have directly affected rural roads hampering communication between villages. In addition some of their deposits have changed the morphology of river channels, resulting in flooding and avalanches threatening rural life and assets. At least 21 landslides are still active in the area. In this research the leading questions are: how do people perceive landslides hazard? What is the knowledge possessed by villagers facing such hazards? Could scientific and local knowledge be coupled in a hybrid format to formulate an adequate hazards map? The investigation used ethnographic techniques (participant observation, semi-structured and structured interviews, and participatory mapping) and multivariate statistical approaches based on empirical data. We will present the preliminary results, based principally on interview data and a first hazard zoning of the lower valley of the Huahua River. Our results suggest that the approach can be used in this and similar areas in developing countries.

  9. Dealing with uncertainty: integrating local and scientific knowledge of the climate and weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniveton, Dominic; Visman, Emma; Tall, Arame; Diop, Mariane; Ewbank, Richard; Njoroge, Ezekiel; Pearson, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    While climate science has made great progress in the projection of weather and climate information, its uptake by local communities remains largely elusive. This paper describes two innovative approaches that strengthen understanding between the providers and users of weather and climate information and support-appropriate application: (1) knowledge timelines, which compare different sources and levels of certainty in community and scientific weather and climate information; and (2) participatory downscaling, which supports users to translate national and regional information into a range of outcomes at the local level. Results from piloting these approaches among flood-prone communities in Senegal and drought-prone farmers in Kenya highlight the importance of co-producing 'user-useful' climate information. Recognising that disaster risk management actions draw on a wide range of knowledge sources, climate information that can effectively support community-based decision-making needs to be integrated with local knowledge systems and based on an appreciation of the inherent uncertainty of weather and climate information. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  10. My Precious! the location and diffusion of scientific research: evidence from the synchrotron diamond light source

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Helmers; Henry G. Overman

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the impact of the establishment of a GBP 380 million basic scientific research facility in the UK on the geographical distribution of related research. We investigate whether the siting of the Diamond Light Source, a 3rd generation synchrotron light source, in Oxfordshire induced a clustering of related research in its geographic proximity. To account for the potentially endogenous location choice of the synchrotron, we exploit the availability of a `runner-up' site near Manchester...

  11. The contribution of the European Society for Soil Conservation (ESSC) to scientific knowledge, education and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazzi, Carmelo; Fullen, Michael A.; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Rickson, Jane; Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Peres, Guenola; Sholten, Thomas; Kertész, Adam; Vasenev, Ivan; Dumitru, Mihail; Cornelis, Wim; Rubio, José L.

    2017-04-01

    Soil is an integral component of the global environmental system that supports the quality and diversity of terrestrial life on Earth. Therefore, it is vital to consider the processes and impacts of soil degradation on society, especially on the provision of environmental goods and services, including food security and climate change mitigation and adaptation. Scientific societies devoted to Soil Science play significant roles in promoting soil security by advancing scientific knowledge, education and environmental sustainability. The European Society for Soil Conservation (ESSC) was founded in Ghent (Belgium) on 4 November 1988 by a group of 23 researchers from several European countries. It is an interdisciplinary, non-political association with over 500 members in 56 countries. The ESSC produces and distributes a hardcopy Newsletter twice a year and maintains both a website and Facebook page: http://www.soilconservation.eu/ https://www.facebook.com/European-Society-for-Soil-Conservation-ESSC-100528363448094/ The ESSC aims to: • Support research on soil degradation, soil protection and soil and water conservation. • Provide a network for the exchange of knowledge about soil degradation processes and soil conservation research and practises. • Produce publications on major issues relating to soil degradation and soil and water conservation. • Advise regulators and policy-makers on soil issues, especially soil degradation, protection and conservation. The ESSC held its First International Congress in Silsoe (UK) in 1992. Further International Congresses were held in Munich (1996), Valencia (2000), Budapest (2004), Palermo (2007), Thessaloniki (2011) and Moscow (2015). The Eighth International Congress will be held in Lleida (Spain) in June 2017: http://www.consowalleida2017.com/ Interspersed between these international congresses, the ESSC organizes annual international conferences on specific topics. These include Imola, Italy (Biogeochemical Processes at

  12. CRITERIA OF TRUTHFULNESS AND THE SCIENTIFIC QUALITY IN POST-MODERN KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Mukha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the criteria of truth in post-modern philosophy, taking into account the ways it is defined in both the classical and non-classical traditions. Specific to post-modern philosophy is the absence of a universal language of narration and the traditional methods in which knowledge is recognized as legitimate. Basing himself on these concepts, the author examines the problem of the ideal of scientific quality and the transformations this idea has undergone in contemporary philosophy. Truth is understood basically through two means which govern our relation to truth: the will to truth and the concern for truth. These also appear as defining factors of truth in various types of post-modern philosophy: social-operative, social-political, and aesthetic

  13. Excellence in the knowledge-based economy: from scientific to research excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter Walter; Young, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    to define it through quantitative indicators can have important implications for research policy and for the conduct of research itself. This paper examines how the EU's understanding of excellence has evolved in recent years, from the presentation of the Lisbon strategy in 2000 to the current Europe 2020......In 2013, the European Union (EU) unveiled its new ‘Composite Indicator for Scientific and Technological Research Excellence’. This is not an isolated occurrence; policy-based interest in excellence is growing all over the world. The heightened focus on excellence and, in particular, attempts...... strategy. We find a distinct shift in the understanding of excellence and how success in the knowledge-based economy should be achieved: in the early period, excellence is a fuzzy concept, intrinsically embedded in research and researchers and revealed by peer review. In the later period, excellence...

  14. THE METHODOLOGICAL UNIT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN TERMS OF CONCEPTUALISATION OF PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfia F. Zakirova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The contents and structure of the methodological unit ofscientific research on educational problems are defined. The present study is the continuation of methodological articles cycle appealed to support the work of newcomer researchers.Methods. The requirements to research justification are disclosed; logicstylistic and language features of the argument while designing the methodological unit are described from the standpoint of complete, panoramic and hermeneutic approaches.Results and scientific novelty. The characteristic of research hypotheses types and the functions realized by them is given. The scientific hypothesis is presented as the instrument of trans-level conceptualization of pedagogical knowledge. The author’s interpretation of a «through» stage-by-stage hypothesis-generating as process of a meaning-making and theoretical organization of research object is offered. Dual character of the hypothesis-generating is presented; it integrates logic-gnoseological and valuable-conceptual, rational and intuitively figurative principles. Typical mistakes in formation of the methodological research unit are analysed. The directions of a multiangle reflection implementation in the course of research activity are designated.Practical significance. The recommendations proposed in the study can by used by teachers-researchers, students, undergraduates, graduate students and doctoral candidates mastering practical methodology of scientific and pedagogical search; and also the materials are designed for research supervisors motivated to increase efficiency and tutorial activity content.

  15. 'Sciencenet'--towards a global search and share engine for all scientific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütjohann, Dominic S; Shah, Asmi H; Christen, Michael P; Richter, Florian; Knese, Karsten; Liebel, Urban

    2011-06-15

    Modern biological experiments create vast amounts of data which are geographically distributed. These datasets consist of petabytes of raw data and billions of documents. Yet to the best of our knowledge, a search engine technology that searches and cross-links all different data types in life sciences does not exist. We have developed a prototype distributed scientific search engine technology, 'Sciencenet', which facilitates rapid searching over this large data space. By 'bringing the search engine to the data', we do not require server farms. This platform also allows users to contribute to the search index and publish their large-scale data to support e-Science. Furthermore, a community-driven method guarantees that only scientific content is crawled and presented. Our peer-to-peer approach is sufficiently scalable for the science web without performance or capacity tradeoff. The free to use search portal web page and the downloadable client are accessible at: http://sciencenet.kit.edu. The web portal for index administration is implemented in ASP.NET, the 'AskMe' experiment publisher is written in Python 2.7, and the backend 'YaCy' search engine is based on Java 1.6.

  16. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar

    2016-01-01

    the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (N=23) and their neighboring farmers (N=47) were analyzed in a follow up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis to a control group of farmers (N=138) introduced in 2009...... variables with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable were trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% CI 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI 10.56-13.38) and control farmers a mean score...... of 9.18 (95% CI 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance...

  17. Do large-scale assessments measure students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-03-01

    Large-scale assessments are used as means to diagnose the current status of student achievement in science and compare students across schools, states, and countries. For efficiency, multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items are pervasively used in large-scale assessments such as Trends in International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). This study investigated how well these items measure secondary school students' ability to integrate scientific knowledge. This study collected responses of 8400 students to 116 multiple-choice and 84 open-ended items and applied an Item Response Theory analysis based on the Rasch Partial Credit Model. Results indicate that most multiple-choice items and dichotomously-scored open-ended items can be used to determine whether students have normative ideas about science topics, but cannot measure whether students integrate multiple pieces of relevant science ideas. Only when the scoring rubric is redesigned to capture subtle nuances of student open-ended responses, open-ended items become a valid and reliable tool to assess students' knowledge integration ability.

  18. Investigating Knowledge and Sources of Scientific Information of University Students and Lifelong Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Impey, Chris; Romine, James; Nieberding, Megan

    2015-08-01

    Using 25 years of data, we have been conducting a long-term study of undergraduate students’ science literacy. Based on questions developed for the National Science Board’s survey of the US public, we have gathered data from students enrolled in astronomy courses to help us understand their basic science knowledge as well as attitudes towards and beliefs about science. Science literacy of students in this study has remained relatively unchanged over a quarter of a century. Additionally, students’ beliefs and attitudes were associated with their overall knowledge in science. Less predictive were their self-reported majors, year in school, and number of college science courses taken. Students in this study consistently outperformed the general public surveyed by the NSB.Three years ago we broadened to our study to include an investigation of where students get their information about science and what sources they believe are the most and least reliable for that information. This past year, we have collected parallel data from lifelong learners from around the globe enrolled in a Massively Open Online Course (MOOC) in astronomy, 70% of this audience lives outside the US and represent 170 countries. We will present results of these new studies of almost 700 undergraduate students and over 2500 lifelong learners. Overall, the lifelong learners possess a greater interest in science and better knowledge in science despite less overall college science course experience. Using online sources of scientific information were prevalent for both traditional college students and lifelong learners, although there were distinct differences between how different groups of learners perceived the reliability of online information. We will discuss the implications of teaching science in both traditional in-person college classes and in online learning environments as sources of scientific information and information literacy.This material is based upon work supported by the

  19. Knowledge engineering tools for reasoning with scientific observations and interpretations: a neural connectivity use case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Thomas A; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Hovy, Eduard H; Bota, Mihail; Burns, Gully A P C

    2011-08-22

    We address the goal of curating observations from published experiments in a generalizable form; reasoning over these observations to generate interpretations and then querying this interpreted knowledge to supply the supporting evidence. We present web-application software as part of the 'BioScholar' project (R01-GM083871) that fully instantiates this process for a well-defined domain: using tract-tracing experiments to study the neural connectivity of the rat brain. The main contribution of this work is to provide the first instantiation of a knowledge representation for experimental observations called 'Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design' (KEfED) based on experimental variables and their interdependencies. The software has three parts: (a) the KEfED model editor - a design editor for creating KEfED models by drawing a flow diagram of an experimental protocol; (b) the KEfED data interface - a spreadsheet-like tool that permits users to enter experimental data pertaining to a specific model; (c) a 'neural connection matrix' interface that presents neural connectivity as a table of ordinal connection strengths representing the interpretations of tract-tracing data. This tool also allows the user to view experimental evidence pertaining to a specific connection. BioScholar is built in Flex 3.5. It uses Persevere (a noSQL database) as a flexible data store and PowerLoom® (a mature First Order Logic reasoning system) to execute queries using spatial reasoning over the BAMS neuroanatomical ontology. We first introduce the KEfED approach as a general approach and describe its possible role as a way of introducing structured reasoning into models of argumentation within new models of scientific publication. We then describe the design and implementation of our example application: the BioScholar software. This is presented as a possible biocuration interface and supplementary reasoning toolkit for a larger, more specialized bioinformatics system: the Brain

  20. Knowledge engineering tools for reasoning with scientific observations and interpretations: a neural connectivity use case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bota Mihail

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We address the goal of curating observations from published experiments in a generalizable form; reasoning over these observations to generate interpretations and then querying this interpreted knowledge to supply the supporting evidence. We present web-application software as part of the 'BioScholar' project (R01-GM083871 that fully instantiates this process for a well-defined domain: using tract-tracing experiments to study the neural connectivity of the rat brain. Results The main contribution of this work is to provide the first instantiation of a knowledge representation for experimental observations called 'Knowledge Engineering from Experimental Design' (KEfED based on experimental variables and their interdependencies. The software has three parts: (a the KEfED model editor - a design editor for creating KEfED models by drawing a flow diagram of an experimental protocol; (b the KEfED data interface - a spreadsheet-like tool that permits users to enter experimental data pertaining to a specific model; (c a 'neural connection matrix' interface that presents neural connectivity as a table of ordinal connection strengths representing the interpretations of tract-tracing data. This tool also allows the user to view experimental evidence pertaining to a specific connection. BioScholar is built in Flex 3.5. It uses Persevere (a noSQL database as a flexible data store and PowerLoom® (a mature First Order Logic reasoning system to execute queries using spatial reasoning over the BAMS neuroanatomical ontology. Conclusions We first introduce the KEfED approach as a general approach and describe its possible role as a way of introducing structured reasoning into models of argumentation within new models of scientific publication. We then describe the design and implementation of our example application: the BioScholar software. This is presented as a possible biocuration interface and supplementary reasoning toolkit for a larger

  1. Local ecological knowledge and scientific data reveal overexploitation by multigear artisanal fisheries in the southwestern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Mariana G; Machado, Gustavo R; Silva, Paulo José de Azevedo; Floeter, Sergio R; Monteiro-Netto, Cassiano; Luiz, Osmar J; Ferreira, Carlos E L

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, a number of studies based on historical records revealed the diversity loss in the oceans and human-induced changes to marine ecosystems. These studies have improved our understanding of the human impacts in the oceans. They also drew attention to the shifting baseline syndrome and the importance of assessing appropriate sources of data in order to build the most reliable environmental baseline. Here we amassed information from artisanal fishermen's local ecological knowledge, fisheries landing data and underwater visual census to assess the decline of fish species in Southeastern Brazil. Interviews with 214 fishermen from line, beach seine and spearfishing revealed a sharp decline in abundance of the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, the groupers Epinephelus marginatus, Mycteroperca acutirostris, M. bonaci and M. microlepis, and large parrotfishes in the past six decades. Fisheries landing data from a 16-year period support the decline of bluefish as pointed by fishermen's local knowledge, while underwater visual census campaigns show reductions in groupers' abundance and a sharp population decline of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus trispinosus. Despite the marked decline of these fisheries, younger and less experienced fishermen recognized fewer species as overexploited and fishing sites as depleted than older and more experienced fishermen, indicating the occurrence of the shifting baseline syndrome. Here we show both the decline of multigear fisheries catches - combining anecdotal and scientific data - as well as changes in environmental perceptions over generations of fishermen. Managing ocean resources requires looking into the past, and into traditional knowledge, bringing historical baselines to the present and improving public awareness.

  2. Local ecological knowledge and scientific data reveal overexploitation by multigear artisanal fisheries in the southwestern Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana G Bender

    Full Text Available In the last decades, a number of studies based on historical records revealed the diversity loss in the oceans and human-induced changes to marine ecosystems. These studies have improved our understanding of the human impacts in the oceans. They also drew attention to the shifting baseline syndrome and the importance of assessing appropriate sources of data in order to build the most reliable environmental baseline. Here we amassed information from artisanal fishermen's local ecological knowledge, fisheries landing data and underwater visual census to assess the decline of fish species in Southeastern Brazil. Interviews with 214 fishermen from line, beach seine and spearfishing revealed a sharp decline in abundance of the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, the groupers Epinephelus marginatus, Mycteroperca acutirostris, M. bonaci and M. microlepis, and large parrotfishes in the past six decades. Fisheries landing data from a 16-year period support the decline of bluefish as pointed by fishermen's local knowledge, while underwater visual census campaigns show reductions in groupers' abundance and a sharp population decline of the Brazilian endemic parrotfish Scarus trispinosus. Despite the marked decline of these fisheries, younger and less experienced fishermen recognized fewer species as overexploited and fishing sites as depleted than older and more experienced fishermen, indicating the occurrence of the shifting baseline syndrome. Here we show both the decline of multigear fisheries catches - combining anecdotal and scientific data - as well as changes in environmental perceptions over generations of fishermen. Managing ocean resources requires looking into the past, and into traditional knowledge, bringing historical baselines to the present and improving public awareness.

  3. Coordination of Cooperative Knowledge Creation for Agricultural Technology Diffusion in China’s “Company Plus Farmers” Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengke Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative knowledge creation is important for the promotion of agricultural technology diffusion in “company plus farmers” alliance organizations in China. A coordination mechanism is necessary to improve cooperative knowledge creation. A game model was developed to explain the mechanism. The model’s equilibrium was analyzed in noncoordination and coordination scenarios. Eight propositions and two corollaries were proposed and then verified by numeric analysis. We found that (1 the coordination of cooperative knowledge creation is valuable for increasing profit in agricultural technology diffusion; (2 companies and farmers are playing a game, and subsidy coefficients and degree of effort mainly influence their decisions; (3 key factors in the game are success probability and profit sharing proportion that influence the profits of a company and the farmers; (4 discount factors also influence profits, but do not influence the total profit in the coordination scenario; and (5 enhancing success probability, choosing a proper profit sharing proportion, and improving other parameters would be beneficial to the development of knowledge creation, as well as agricultural knowledge diffusion. This research provides a novel illustration of the coordination mechanism for cooperative knowledge creation for increasing the efficiency of agricultural technology diffusion in the future.

  4. Examining the pedagogical content knowledge and practice of experienced secondary biology teachers for teaching diffusion and osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, Deanna

    Teachers are the most important factor in student learning (National Research Council, 1996); yet little is known about the specialized knowledge held by experienced teachers. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to make explicit the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching diffusion and osmosis held by experienced biology teachers and, second, to reveal how topic-specific PCK informs teacher practice. The Magnusson et al. (1999) PCK model served as the theoretical framework for the study. The overarching research question was: When teaching lessons on osmosis and diffusion, how do experienced biology teachers draw upon their topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge? Data sources included observations of two consecutive lessons, three semi-structured interviews, lesson plans, and student handouts. Data analysis indicated five of the six teachers held a constructivist orientation to science teaching and engaged students in explorations of diffusion and osmosis prior to introducing the concepts to students. Explanations for diffusion and osmosis were based upon students' observations and experiences during explorations. All six teachers used representations at the molecular, cellular, and plant organ levels to serve as foci for explorations of diffusion and osmosis. Three potential learning difficulties identified by the teachers included: (a) understanding vocabulary terms, (b) predicting the direction of osmosis, and (c) identifying random molecular motion as the driving force for diffusion and osmosis. Participants used student predictions as formative assessments to reveal misconceptions before instruction and evaluate conceptual understanding during instruction. This study includes implications for teacher preparation, research, and policy.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

  6. Earthquake ethics through scientific knowledge, historical memory and societal awareness: the experience of direct internet information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rubeis, Valerio; Sbarra, Paola; Sebaste, Beppe; Tosi, Patrizia

    2013-04-01

    The experience of collection of data on earthquake effects and diffusion of information to people, carried on through the site "haisentitoilterremoto.it" (didyoufeelit) managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), has evidenced a constantly growing interest by Italian citizens. Started in 2007, the site has collected more than 520,000 compiled intensity questionnaires, producing intensity maps of almost 6,000 earthquakes. One of the most peculiar feature of this experience is constituted by a bi-directional information exchange. Every person can record observed effects of the earthquake and, at the same time, look at the generated maps. Seismologists, on the other side, can find each earthquake described in real time through its effects on the whole territory. In this way people, giving punctual information, receive global information from the community, mediated and interpreted by seismological knowledge. The relationship amongst seismologists, mass media and civil society is, thus, deep and rich. The presence of almost 20,000 permanent subscribers distributed on the whole Italian territory, alerted in case of earthquake, has reinforced the participation: the subscriber is constantly informed by the seismologists, through e-mail, about events occurred in his-her area, even if with very small magnitude. The "alert" service provides the possibility to remember that earthquakes are a phenomenon continuously present, on the other hand it shows that high magnitude events are very rare. This kind of information is helpful as it is fully complementary to that one given by media. We analyze the effects of our activity on society and mass media. The knowledge of seismic phenomena is present in each person, having roots on fear, idea of death and destruction, often with the deep belief of very rare occurrence. This position feeds refusal and repression. When a strong earthquake occurs, surprise immediately changes into shock and desperation. A

  7. Support for cooperative experiments in VL-e: from scientific workflows to knowledge sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Z.; Belloum, A.; Bubak, M.; Hertzberger, B.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in Internet and Grid technologies have greatly enhanced processes in scientific experiments; not only computing and data intensive tasks become feasible, but also large scale collaborations between resources and users are now possible. Scientific workflows encode intelligence of

  8. Epidemiologia e saber científico Epidemiology and scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Todo conhecimento, seja ele oriundo do cotidiano ou das interpretações mágicas, religiosas, filosóficas, científicas ou artísticas da realidade, tem sua origem em problemas práticos. Desde a Antigüidade o homem preocupou-se com as doenças e suas causas. Entretanto, os saberes referentes ao processo saúde-doença em sua dimensão coletiva só ultrapassam o limiar de positividade , isto é, só se individualizam como prática discursiva, no século XVII, quando as noções de população, Estado e coletivo ganham significado social. Tais saberes, entretanto, não caracterizam ainda uma disciplina científica com seu conjunto particular de enunciados, normas de verificação e coerência. A superação do limiar de epistemologização só se dará no século XIX, com a incorporação de cálculos estatísticos, formulação de taxas, desenvolvimento de teorias de causalidade e elaboração dos métodos de investigação. Na primeira metade do século XX observa-se a transição da disciplina para a ciência epidemiológica, marcada pela incorporação de instrumentos analíticos da Bioestatística, explicitação do caráter coletivo do objeto e sistematização dos métodos. Atualmente vive-se nova etapa de transição para o limiar de formalização.All knowledge, whether routine or based upon magical, religious, philosophical, scientific or artistic interpretations of reality, originates from practical problems. Since ancient times man has been concerned with diseases and their causes. Nevertheless, knowledge of the health-disease process in its collective sense, only crosses the threshold of positivity, that is to say, it only stands out as a discoursal practice, in the 17th century when the ideas of population, State and collectivity gain social significance. This knowledge, however, does not yet characterize a scientific discipline with its own set of enunciations, rules of investi-gation and coherence. The epistemological threshold

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 66: Emerging Trends in the Globalization of Knowledge: The Role of the Technical Report in Aerospace Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli,Thomas E.; Golich, Vicki L.

    1997-01-01

    Economists, management theorists, business strategists, and governments alike recognize knowledge as the single most important resource in today's global economy. Because of its relationship to technological progress and economic growth, many governments have taken a keen interest in knowledge; specifically its production, transfer, and use. This paper focuses on the technical report as a product for disseminating the results of aerospace research and development (R&D) and its use and importance to aerospace engineers and scientists. The emergence of knowledge as an intellectual asset, its relationship to innovation, and its importance in a global economy provides the context for the paper. The relationships between government and knowledge and government and innovation are used to place knowledge within the context of publicly-funded R&D. Data, including the reader preferences of NASA technical reports, are derived from the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, a ten-year study of knowledge diffusion in the U.S. aerospace industry.

  10. How Historical Experiments Can Improve Scientific Knowledge and Science Education: The Cases of Boiling Water and Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2011-01-01

    I advance some novel arguments for the use of historical experiments in science education. After distinguishing three different types of historical experiments and their general purposes, I define "complementary experiments", which can recover lost scientific knowledge and extend what has been recovered. Complementary experiments can help science…

  11. Targeting the Development of Content Knowledge and Scientific Reasoning: Reforming College-Level Chemistry for Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Justin H.; Jessa, Yasmin; Yezierski, Ellen J.

    2015-01-01

    A liberal education curriculum requires discipline-specific courses that develop intellectual and practical skills. With this promise of development, it is crucial that instruction focuses on content knowledge as well as the thinking patterns associated with the content. In chemistry, scientific reasoning is one such skill that students should…

  12. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicinethrough Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Daniel L.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Mungall, Chris J.; Misra,Sima; Westerfield, Monte; Ashburner, Michael; Sim, Ida; Chute,Christopher G.; Solbrig, Harold; Storey, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry; Day-Richter, John; Noy, Natalya F.; Musen, Mark A.

    2006-01-23

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology (http://bioontology.org) is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists funded by the NIH Roadmap to develop innovative technology and methods that allow scientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information and knowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are: (1) to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology development by promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create, manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create new software tools so that scientists can use ontologies to annotate and analyze biomedical data, (3) to provide a national resource for the ongoing evaluation, integration, and evolution of biomedical ontologies and associated tools and theories in the context of driving biomedical projects (DBPs), and (4) to disseminate the tools and resources of the Center and to identify, evaluate, and communicate best practices of ontology development to the biomedical community. The Center is working toward these objectives by providing tools to develop ontologies and to annotate experimental data, and by developing resources to integrate and relate existing ontologies as well as by creating repositories of biomedical data that are annotated using those ontologies. The Center is providing training workshops in ontology design, development, and usage, and is also pursuing research in ontology evaluation, quality, and use of ontologies to promote scientific discovery. Through the research activities within the Center, collaborations with the DBPs, and interactions with the biomedical community, our goal is to help scientists to work more effectively in the e-science paradigm, enhancing experiment design, experiment execution, data analysis, information synthesis, hypothesis generation and testing, and understand human disease.

  13. From "sit and listen" to "shake it out yourself": Helping urban middle school students to bridge personal knowledge to scientific knowledge through a collaborative environmental justice curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Shamu Fenyvesi

    Science education and environmental education are not meeting the needs of marginalized communities such as urban, minority, and poor communities (Seller, 2001; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 1996). There exists an equity gap characterized by the racial and socioeconomic disparities in: levels of participation in scientific and environmental careers and environmental organizations (Lewis & James, 1995; Sheppard, 1995), access to appropriate environmental education programs (U.S. EPA, 1996), exposure to environmental toxins (Bullard, 1993), access to environmental amenities and legal protections (Bullard, 1993), and in grades and standardized test scores in K-12 science (Jencks & Phillips, 1998; Johnston & Viadero, 2000). Researchers point to the cultural divide between home and school culture as one of the reasons for the equity gap in science education (Barton, 2003; Delpit, 1995; Seiler, 2001). This study is designed to address the equity gap by helping students connect personal/cultural knowledge to scientific knowledge. A collaborative action research study was conducted in 8th-grade science classrooms of low-income African American and Latino students. The participating teacher and the researcher developed, enacted and evaluated a curriculum that elicited students' personal and cultural knowledge in the investigation of local community issues. Using qualitative methods, data were collected through student and teacher interviews, observation, and written documents. Data were analyzed to answer questions on student participation and learning, bridging between personal and scientific knowledge, and student empowerment. The most compelling themes from the data were described as parts of three stories: tensions between the empire of school and the small student nation, bridging between the two nations, and students gaining empowerment. This study found that the bridging the curriculum intended was successful in that many students brought personal

  14. Hybrid regimes of knowledge? Challenges for constructing scientific evidence in the context of the GMO-debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böschen, Stefan

    2009-07-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been a remarkable shift of attention to the scientific and political fundamentals of the precautionary principle. The application of this principle has become a main strategy of coping with the different forms and problems related to non-knowledge. Thus, societies are increasingly confronted with the challenging and hitherto unresolved problem of political and technological decision-making under conditions of diverging framings of non-knowledge. At present, there seems to be no generally accepted scientific or institutional approach. This is why the fundamental question of how different scientific actors define and construct evidence is not answered yet. Hence, this paper is based on the consideration that the conflicts in risk policy concerning genetically modified organisms (GMO) depend on the unresolved conflicts about the diverging scientific strategies and structures of evidence-making between the epistemic cultures involved. Thus, this study investigates two questions: (1) do the epistemic strategies of evidence-making differ systematically with the scientific actors involved in the GMO-debate? (2) What consequences emerge considering institutionalized procedures of decision-making? This article is based on a secondary analysis of findings and perspectives reported in the literature and on the methods of qualitative social empirical research, i.e., interviews with experts. A total number of 34 interviews were conducted to explore the different strategies of handling non-knowledge and constructing evidence. Actors from science, administration, business and NGOs were interviewed. In this way, typical epistemic cultures can be described. An epistemic culture is the constellation of methodological strategies, theoretical assumptions and practical-experimental settings which define in every speciality the ways how we know what we know. There are two main results. Firstly, it was worked out that the epistemic cultures involved

  15. Knowledge as a common good: the societal relevance of scientific research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institutional Management in Higher Education

    2010-01-01

    .... This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and report on them widely...

  16. Obstacles and solutions to the generation and dissemination of scientific knowledge in poor countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Nordstrom

    2012-10-01

    interview methods to gauge what the survey questions mean to people in the target countries (Kitzinger, 1995. If necessary, focus groups can be used to help researchers to modify question wording appropriately. In any case, for many health measures, it is difficult to think of an alternative to self-reports. The recent finding that fewer teenagers in the United States are driving after drinking, for example, comes from risk behavior data collected from thousands of high school students through national surveys (Shults, 2012.3.Due to high subscription fees, many researchers in low- and medium income countries lack access to necessary literature.This is a serious obstacle but it has a partial, temporary solution. In 2002, the Access to Research in Health Programme (HINARI was established by the World Health Organization in partnership with major publishers (http://www.who.int/hinari/en/ accessed 4 Oct 2012. This venture provides free or low cost online access to the major journals in biomedical and related social sciences to local, not-for-profit institutions in developing countries. Some 8,500 journals and 7000 e-books (in 30 different languages are now available to health institutions in more than 100 countries. To move access to global knowledge beyond HINARI, an international team of editors, researchers, and authors has proposed that WHO take the lead in championing the goal of “health information for all” (Godlee, et al., 2004.Besides HINARI, researchers in some developing countries have gained access to scientific literature through partnerships with foreign researchers as, for example, in projects supported by the Fogarty International Center of the US National Institutes of Health (http://www.fic.nih.gov, accessed 4 Oct 2012. For persons interested in tobacco control, an inventory of financial and structural resources to support global tobacco control research and research capacity in developing countries is available (Lando, et al., 2005. 4.Many decisions in low

  17. Excellence in the knowledge-based economy: from scientific to research excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter Walter; Young, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the European Union (EU) unveiled its new ‘Composite Indicator for Scientific and Technological Research Excellence’. This is not an isolated occurrence; policy-based interest in excellence is growing all over the world. The heightened focus on excellence and, in particular, attempts....... This change is evidenced by the ‘Composite Indicator for Scientific and Technological Research Excellence’, its rationale and its components....

  18. The communication of scientific knowledge in society : the role of the media

    CERN Multimedia

    Göpfert, W

    1999-01-01

    In that view the jobe of science journalism is not only to translate scientific speech into everyday language... Why should the media report on science-and how? Increasingly scientific influence is regarded as risky or even dangerous, be informed about these kinds of science. And where science itself is under scrutiny, media have to provide arguments and room or time for discussion. for example nuclear power or genetic engineering. Societies have to decide on such issues and therefore people have to

  19. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...... on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu....

  20. The Primary School Students' Views on Scientists and Scientific Knowledge (Sample of Kırşehir)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Volkan Hasan; AFACAN, Özlem; POLAT, Dilber; URTEKİN, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Following the developments in natural and applied sciences and being acquainted with the evolution of disciplines, scientists' occupational and personality traits can shed light on the issues in teaching natural and applied sciences. For this reason, finding out what students think about scientists is important. Investigating students' views on the scientific knowledge that is produced by scientists might create the opportunity to determine the misconceptions existing in teaching natural and ...

  1. A day of immersive physiology experiments increases knowledge and excitement towards physiology and scientific careers in Native American students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Bryan K; Schiller, Alicia M; Zucker, Irving H; Eager, Eric A; Bronner, Liliana P; Godfrey, Maurice

    2017-03-01

    Underserved minority groups are disproportionately absent from the pursuit of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. One such underserved population, Native Americans, are particularly underrepresented in STEM fields. Although recent advocacy and outreach designed toward increasing minority involvement in health care-related occupations have been mostly successful, little is known about the efficacy of outreach programs in increasing minority enthusiasm toward careers in traditional scientific professions. Furthermore, very little is known about outreach among Native American schools toward increasing involvement in STEM. We collaborated with tribal middle and high schools in South Dakota and Nebraska through a National Institutes of Health Science Education Partnership Award to hold a day-long physiology, activity-based event to increase both understanding of physiology and enthusiasm to scientific careers. We recruited volunteer biomedical scientists and trainees from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Nebraska Wesleyan University, and University of South Dakota. To evaluate the effectiveness of the day of activities, 224 of the ~275-300 participating students completed both a pre- and postevent evaluation assessment. We observed increases in both students self-perceived knowledge of physiology and enthusiasm toward scientific career opportunities after the day of outreach activities. We conclude that activity-based learning opportunities in underserved populations are effective in increasing both knowledge of science and interest in scientific careers. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. ACADEMIC PARTNERSHIP AND GENERATION OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE: THE CASE OF THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF RESEARCHERS ON COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas Hernández

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the objective to demonstrate the contributions achieved by the International Network of Researchers in Competitiveness (INRCO in academic collaboration and scientific knowledge generation. Part of the assumption sustaining that economic globalization processes, information and communication technologies revolution lead to the increasing environmental complexity and uncertainty of a knowledge society. One answer is the study and analysis of competitiveness considered as the strategy to achieve higher levels of economic growth and socio-cultural development in all micro, meso and macro levels. The method used is the analytic-deductive based on the evidence of related data with the activity and results in publications of the International Network of Researchers in Competitiveness. Consequently, it has been adapted certain speculative notions in a theoretical analysis exploring the social dynamics of the scientific activities. It is concluded that the management of the researchers’ dynamic network is capable to generate, apply and recycle the critical knowledge and the assets of academic and scientific talent through a dynamic combination of resources that have a position inside the formal e informal borders and between these borders of participant academics and institutions.

  3. Challenges of scientific knowledge visualization in publication productivity of the university academic staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanova Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that a person, an author particularly, faces the challenges of visualization in the cognitive process. The aim of this study is to consider the forms of thinking process and the changes happened in education process and in scientific activity. It was noted that the challenges connected with information perceiving during the work with the text occur in the process of creating academic papers as well. We conclude that the topical field of visualization covers not only the educative process assuming information transfer from person to person (model “teacher-student”, but the process of scientific activity. Applying the methods of visualization in publication activity is the factor for effective communication in social and cultural space that provides the opportunity for academic society to recognize results. We offer possible ways to promote scientific papers via online resources such as scientific social networks and tools of media corporations. The scientific social network ResearchGate and Thomson Reuters media corporation product as an online tool “Researcher ID” placed at the bibliographic database Web of Science TM Core Collection are used as the examples. We state that information technology allows authors to promote the results of their studies around the world.

  4. Cultural distance between peoples’ worldview and scientific knowledge in the area of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raza Gauhar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is an attempt to measure the public understanding of science in the area of health and hygiene and test the efficacy of “cultural distance model”. A pre-tested open-ended questionnaire was used for administering cross-sectional surveys at a religio-cultural festival in India. 3484 individuals were interviewed and responses were coded and entered to construct computer database. The data was used for determining the cultural distance of five scientific concepts from the quotidian life of the target population. In developing countries, the formal system of modern education operates as a strong determinant in shaping cultural structures of thoughts prevalent among the citizens. There exists a cultural distance between the scientific structure of configuring natural occurrences and peoples’ complexity of thoughts. The distance varies significantly across the concepts that were subjected to the inspection and is a function of the nature of scientific information.

  5. The communication of scientific knowledge in society.The role of the media

    CERN Multimedia

    Göpfert, W

    1999-01-01

    Why should the media report on science - and how? Increasingly scientific influence is regarded as risky or even dangerous, for example nuclear power or genetic engineering. Societies have to decide on such issues and therefore people have to be informed about these kinds of science. And where science itself is under scrutiny, media have to provide arguments and room or time for discussion. In that view the job of science journalism is not only to translate scientific speech into everyday language - as science journalism is often regarded. Science journalism also has to consider the context the man in the street is interested in. These are two different goals science reporting has to address. And it is necessary to distinguish between the two levels of serving readers interests. Science journalists should orient themselves on journalistic rules, not scientific needs. And scientists should know that journalists are not the translators of scientists. The arising conflicts between scientists and Journalists will...

  6. Using web-based technology to deliver scientific knowledge: the Southern Forest Encyclopedia Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; H. Michael Rauscher; Deborah K. Kennard; Patricia A. Flebbe; J. Bryan Jordin; William G. Hubbard; Cynthia Fowler; James. Ward

    2007-01-01

    Forest science, like any science, is a continuous process of discovering new knowledge, reevaluating existing knowledge, and revising our theories and management practices in light of these changes. The forest science community has not yet found the solution to the problem of getting continuously changing science efficiently and effectively into the hands of those who...

  7. Nurses experience of using scientific knowledge in clinical practice: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renolen, Åste; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2015-12-01

    Guidelines recommend the use of evidence-based practice in nursing. Nurses are expected to give patients care and treatment based on the best knowledge available. They may have knowledge and positive attitudes, but this does not mean that they are basing their work on evidence-based practice. Knowledge is still lacking about what is needed to successfully implement evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about what nurses perceive as the most important challenge in implementing evidence-based practice and to explain how they act to face and overcome this challenge. We used classical grounded theory methodology and collected data through four focus groups and one individual interview in different geographical locations in one large hospital trust in Norway. Fourteen registered clinical practice nurses participated. We analysed the data in accordance with grounded theory, using the constant comparative method. Contextual balancing of knowledge emerged as the core category and explains how the nurses dealt with their main concern, how to determine what types of knowledge they could trust. The nurses' main strategies were an inquiring approach, examining knowledge and maintaining control while taking care of patients. They combined their own experienced-based knowledge and the guidelines of evidence-based practice with a sense of control in the actual situation. The grounded theory contextual balancing of knowledge may help us to understand how nurses detect what types of knowledge they can trust in clinical practice. The nurses needed to rely on what they did, and they seemed to rely on their own experience rather than on research. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Knowledge as a Common Good: The Societal Relevance of Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouter, Lex M.

    2010-01-01

    Universities are, to a large extent, publicly funded. It is reasonable to expect that society should benefit as a result. This means that scientific research should at least have a potential societal impact. Universities and individual researchers should therefore give serious thought to the societal relevance of their research activities and…

  9. Using JournalMap to improve discovery and visualization of rangeland scientific knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most of the ecological research conducted around the world is tied to specific places; however, that location information is locked up in the text and figures of scientific articles in myriad forms that are not easily searchable. While access to ecological literature has improved dramatically in the...

  10. Excellence in the Knowledge-Based Economy: From Scientific to Research Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mads P.; Bloch, Carter; Young, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the European Union (EU) unveiled its new "Composite Indicator for Scientific and Technological Research Excellence." This is not an isolated occurrence; policy-based interest in excellence is growing all over the world. The heightened focus on excellence and, in particular, attempts to define it through quantitative indicators…

  11. History and the Relationship between Scientific and Pedagogical Knowledge: Anatomy Lectures Then and Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Friesen, Norm

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, school science has been the target of increasing critique for two reasons. On the one hand, it is said to enforce "epic" images of science that celebrate the heroes and heroic deeds that established the scientific canon and its methods and thereby falsifies the history and nature of science. On the other hand, the…

  12. On scaling of scientific knowledge production in U.S. metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nomaler, Önder; Frenken, Koen; Heimeriks, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Using data on all scientific publications from the Scopus database, we find a superlinear scaling effect for U.S. metropolitan areas as indicated by the increase of per capita publication output with city size. We also find that the variance of residuals is much higher for mid-sized cities (100,000

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace Research and Development (R&D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    The present exploration of the diffusion of federally-funded R&D via the information-seeking behavior of scientists and engineers proceeds under three assumptions: (1) that knowledge transfer and utilization is as important as knowledge production; (2) that the diffusion of knowledge obtained through federally-funded R&D is necessary for the maintenance of U.S. preeminence in the aerospace field; and (3) that federally-funded NASA and DoD technical reports play an important, albeit as-yet undefined, role in aerospace R&D diffusion. A conceptual model is presented for the process of knowledge diffusion that stresses the role of U.S. government-funded technical reports.

  14. The role of scientific knowledge in shaping public attitudes to GM technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Henrik Ole; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Depending on the perceived balance of risk and benefit, and on the perceived unnaturalness, some applications of gene technology appear more acceptable to the public than others. This study asks whether a person’s knowledge of biology affects their assessment of these factors differently. A random...... sample of the Danish population (n = 2000) was presented with questionnaires. The respondent’s knowledge was measured by a number of textbook questions on biology. The results indicated that knowledge increases the likelihood that a person will have differentiated opinions on medical and agricultural...

  15. Summary of the ACAT Round Table Discussion: Open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, Federico; Perret-Gallix, Denis; Riemann, Tord

    2014-06-01

    Round table discussions are in the tradition of ACAT. This year's plenary round table discussion was devoted to questions related to the use of scientific software in High Energy Physics and beyond. The 90 minutes of discussion were lively, and quite a lot of diverse opinions were spelled out. Although the discussion was, in part, controversial, the participants agreed unanimously on several basic issues in software sharing: • The importance of having various licensing models in academic research; • The basic value of proper recognition and attribution of intellectual property, including scientific software; • The user respect for the conditions of use, including licence statements, as formulated by the author. The need of a similar discussion on the issues of data sharing was emphasized and it was recommended to cover this subject at the conference round table discussion of next ACAT. In this contribution, we summarise selected topics that were covered in the introductory talks and in the following discussion.

  16. Summary of the ACAT Round Table Discussion: Open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Carminati, Federico; Riemann, Tord

    2014-01-01

    Round table discussions are in the tradition of ACAT. This year's plenary round table discussion was devoted to questions related to the use of scientific software in High Energy Physics and beyond. The 90 minutes of discussion were lively, and quite a lot of diverse opinions were spelled out. Although the discussion was, in part, controversial, the participants agreed unanimously on several basic issues in software sharing: (i) The importance of having various licensing models in academic research; (ii) The basic value of proper recognition and attribution of intellectual property, including scientific software; (iii) The user respect for the conditions of use, including licence statements, as formulated by the author. The need of a similar discussion on the issues of data sharing was emphasized and it was recommended to cover this subject at the conference round table discussion of next ACAT. In this contribution, we summarise selected topics that were covered in the introductory talks and in the following ...

  17. Knowledge gaps in scientific literature on maternal mortality: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gil González, Diana; Carrasco Portiño, Mercedes; Ruiz Cantero, María Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Issues related to maternal mortality have generated a lot of empirical and theoretical information. However, despite the amount of work published on the topic, maternal mortality continues to occur at high rates and solutions to the problem are still not clear. Scientific research on maternal mortality is focused mainly on clinical factors. However, this approach may not be the most useful if we are to understand the problem of maternal mortality as a whole and appreciate the importance of ec...

  18. Knowledge gaps in scientific literature on maternal mortality: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-González, Diana; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Issues related to maternal mortality have generated a lot of empirical and theoretical information. However, despite the amount of work published on the topic, maternal mortality continues to occur at high rates and solutions to the problem are still not clear. Scientific research on maternal mortality is focused mainly on clinical factors. However, this approach may not be the most useful if we are to understand the problem of maternal mortality as a whole and appreciate the importance of ec...

  19. Knowledge gaps in scientific literature on maternal mortality: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-González, Diana; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2006-11-01

    Issues related to maternal mortality have generated a lot of empirical and theoretical information. However, despite the amount of work published on the topic, maternal mortality continues to occur at high rates and solutions to the problem are still not clear. Scientific research on maternal mortality is focused mainly on clinical factors. However, this approach may not be the most useful if we are to understand the problem of maternal mortality as a whole and appreciate the importance of economical, political and social macrostructural factors. In this paper, we report the number of scientific studies published between 2000 and 2004 about the main causes of maternal death, as identified by WHO, and compare the proportion of papers on each cause with the corresponding burden of each cause. Secondly, we systematically review the characteristics and quality of the papers on the macrostructural determinants of maternal mortality. In view of their burden, obstructed labour, unsafe abortion and haemorrhage are proportionally underrepresented in the scientific literature. In our review, most studies analysed were cross-sectional, and were carried out by developed countries without the participation of researchers in the developing countries where maternal mortality was studied. The main macrostructural factors mentioned were socioeconomic variables. Overall, there is a lack of published information about the cultural and political determinants of maternal mortality. We believe that a high-quality scientific approach must be taken in studies of maternal mortality in order to obtain robust comparative data and that study design should be improved to allow causality between macrostructural determinants and maternal mortality to be shown.

  20. Challenges of scientific knowledge visualization in publication productivity of the university academic staff

    OpenAIRE

    Kabanova Natalia N.; Pankova Natalia M.; Hollenbeck James E.; Prokhorova Kristina E.

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that a person, an author particularly, faces the challenges of visualization in the cognitive process. The aim of this study is to consider the forms of thinking process and the changes happened in education process and in scientific activity. It was noted that the challenges connected with information perceiving during the work with the text occur in the process of creating academic papers as well. We conclude that the topical field of visualization covers not only...

  1. On the methodology and scientific fundamentals of organizing, representing and analysing data, information and knowledge in biomedicine and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, R

    2011-01-01

    This issue of Methods of Information in Medicine celebrates the journal's first 50 years. As the oldest journal in biomedical and health informatics and, being broader in its scope, as the journal dealing with the methodology and scientific fundamentals of organizing, representing and analysing data, information and knowledge in biomedicine and health care, the journal publications during the last five decades also reflect the formation of a scientific field that deals with information in biomedicine and health care. Five papers that arose from a scientific symposium on "biomedical informatics: confluence of multiple disciplines" held in Heidelberg, Germany, in June 2011 are included in this volume. The papers reflect not only the broad interdisciplinary scope of the journal, but also the broad and evolving scope of the field itself. We can also recognise that there is an ongoing need for original and relevant research. As a discipline that has an impact on many other fields and is also influenced by them, scientific exchange and collaborative research continues to be needed.

  2. Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration.

  3. Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Zhavoronkov

    Full Text Available Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP, available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 67: Maximizing the Results of Federally-Funded Research and Development Through Knowledge Management: A Strategic Imperative for Improving US Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1998-01-01

    Federally-funded research and development (R&D) represents a significant annual investment (approximately $79 billion in fiscal year 1996) on the part of U.S. taxpayers. Based on the results of a 10-year study of knowledge diffusion in U.S. aerospace industry, the authors take the position that U.S. competitiveness will be enhanced if knowledge management strategies, employed within a capability-enhancing U.S. technology policy framework, are applied to diffusing the results of federally-funded R&D. In making their case, the authors stress the importance of knowledge as the source of competitive advantage in today's global economy. Next, they offer a practice-based definition of knowledge management and discuss three current approaches to knowledge management implementation-mechanistic, "the learning organization," and systemic. The authors then examine three weaknesses in existing U.S. public policy and policy implementation-the dominance of knowledge creation, the need for diffusion-oriented technology policy, and the prevalence of a dissemination model- that affect diffusion of the results of federally-funded R&D. To address these shortcomings, they propose the development of a knowledge management framework for diffusing the results of federally-funded R&D. The article closes with a discussion of some issues and challenges associated with implementing a knowledge management framework for diffusing the results of federally-funded R&D.

  5. [Evidence-Based Knowledge Translation: From Scientific Evidence to Clinical Nursing Practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kee-Hsin; Kao, Ching-Chiu; Chen, Chiehfeng

    2016-12-01

    In 1992, Gordon Guyatt coined the term "evidence-based medicine", which has since attracted worldwide attention. In 2007, the Institute of Medicine's Roundtable on Evidence-Based Medicine set the goal that 90% of clinical decisions would be supported by accurate, timely, and up-to-date clinical information and would reflect the best available evidence by 2020. However, the chasm between knowing and doing remains palpable. In 2000, the Canadian Institute of Health Research applied the term "knowledge translation" to describe the bridge that is necessary to cross the gap between research knowledge and clinical practice. The present paper outlines the conceptual framework, barriers, and promotion strategies for evidence-based knowledge translation and shares clinical experience related to overcoming the seven layers of leakage (aware, accepted, applicable, able, acted on, agreed, and adhered to). We hope that this paper can enhance the public well-being and strengthen the future health care system.

  6. World Cities of Scientific Knowledge: Systems, Networks and Potential Dynamics. An Analysis Based on Bibliometric Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Schwarz, Annette Winkel; Find, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on identification of the pattern of the upper level of the world city network of knowledge as published in a series of earlier papers. It is our aim to update the findings and relate to the general world city discussion. The structure of the world cities of knowledge network has...... changed over the past decade in favour of south-east Asian and south European cities and in disfavour of the traditional centres of North America and north-western Europe. The analysis is based on bibliometric data on the world’s 100 largest cities measured in terms of research output. The level...

  7. World Cities of Scientific Knowledge: Systems, Networks and Potential Dynamics. An Analysis Based on Bibliometric Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Schwarz, Annette Winkel; Find, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based on identification of the pattern of the upper level of the world city network of knowledge as published in a series of papers.It is our aim to update the findings and relate to the general world city discussion. The structure of the world cities of knowledge network has changed...... over the last decade in favour of south east Asian and south European cities and in disfavour of the traditional centres of North America and north-western Europe. The analysis is based on bibliometric data on the world’s 100 largest cities measured in terms of research output. Then level of co...

  8. Scientific and Cultural Knowledge in Intercultural Science Education: Student Perceptions of Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondwe, Mzamose; Longnecker, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    There is no consensus in the science education research community on the meanings and representations of western science and indigenous knowledge or the relationships between them. How students interpret these relationships and their perceptions of any connections has rarely been studied. This study reports student perceptions of the meaning and…

  9. KNODWAT: A scientific framework application for testing knowledge discovery methods for the biomedical domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Professionals in the biomedical domain are confronted with an increasing mass of data. Developing methods to assist professional end users in the field of Knowledge Discovery to identify, extract, visualize and understand useful information from these huge amounts of data is a huge challenge. However, there are so many diverse methods and methodologies available, that for biomedical researchers who are inexperienced in the use of even relatively popular knowledge discovery methods, it can be very difficult to select the most appropriate method for their particular research problem. Results A web application, called KNODWAT (KNOwledge Discovery With Advanced Techniques) has been developed, using Java on Spring framework 3.1. and following a user-centered approach. The software runs on Java 1.6 and above and requires a web server such as Apache Tomcat and a database server such as the MySQL Server. For frontend functionality and styling, Twitter Bootstrap was used as well as jQuery for interactive user interface operations. Conclusions The framework presented is user-centric, highly extensible and flexible. Since it enables methods for testing using existing data to assess suitability and performance, it is especially suitable for inexperienced biomedical researchers, new to the field of knowledge discovery and data mining. For testing purposes two algorithms, CART and C4.5 were implemented using the WEKA data mining framework. PMID:23763826

  10. The recursive universe cosmic complexity and the limits of scientific knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Poundstone, WIlliam

    2013-01-01

    This fascinating popular science journey explores key concepts in information theory in terms of Conway's ""Game of Life"" program. The author explains the application of natural law to a random system and demonstrates the necessity of limits. Other topics include the limits of knowledge, paradox of complexity, Maxwell's demon, Big Bang theory, and much more. 1985 edition.

  11. Karl Mannheim and the sociology of scientific knowledge : Toward a new agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, D

    In previous decades, a regrettable divorce has arisen between two currents of theorizing and research about knowledge and science: the Mannheimian and Wittgensteinian traditions. The radical impulse of the new social studies of science in the early 1970s was initiated not by followers of Mannheim,

  12. Exploring Elementary Students' Scientific Knowledge of Agriculture Using Evidence-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Molly; Forbes, Cory; Keshwani, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    The public is more disconnected from agriculture than ever. Americans are now two to four generations removed from the farm with a majority of Americans having no direct experience in agriculture. As a result, the public lacks the knowledge and appreciation of the food, fuel, and fiber it demands. The National Agricultural Learning Objectives…

  13. Environmental Education: From the Perspective of Scientific Knowledge for Constructivist Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, Graciela; Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael; López, Juan Sánchez; Bañuelos, Antonio Ayón

    2012-01-01

    Environmental education is not merely a modern form for the didactics of natural science, but is, on the contrary, an educational process that integrates ecological knowledge, philosophy, politics, economics and sociology, among others. This is because its purpose is to change the relationships of production, social structures of economics and…

  14. Divine action in the framework of scientific knowledge: From quantum theory to divine action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameter, Christoph

    During the Enlightenment, many theologians gave up the claim that God could act in the universe because the world was envisioned to be completely describable and governed by scientific laws. Surprisingly the development of quantum theory has resulted in the discovery of limits to causality, the universe is no longer conceived to be a closed system and therefore an account of divine action compatible with scientific theories might be possible now. First, the concept of divine intervention as envisioned in the nineteenth century is investigated and then a survey of the development of quantum theory is provided. The disputed character of the interpretation of quantum theory and of the measurement problem noted. It is suggested that the controversy continues because the straightforward acceptance of quantum theory---as already suggested by von Neumann in 1932---would imply a connection between mind and matter and question the notion of an objective, observer independent universe. It is shown using the literature on quantum theory that other solutions to the measurement problem are questionable on scientific grounds alone. Henry Stapp's recent rearticulation of von Neumann's arguments integrating them with Heisenberg's thinking is then selected as a potential basis for a theory of divine action. Existing theories of divine action are investigated starting with William James's idea of an indeterministic universe and ending with the contemporary approaches by Robert Russell and Nancey Murphy. Contemporary proposals are based on the notion of quantum events. A search is made for a scientific basis for quantum events but it is found that none of the interpretations of quantum theory would be compatible with the proposed idea of quantum events. Finally, a new theory of divine action is proposed understanding divine action as a holistic act, analogous to personal agency, through quantum determination. The universe is creating potentialities that are then collapsed by

  15. Exploring teachers' beliefs and knowledge about scientific inquiry and the nature of science: A collaborative action research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Xavier Eric

    Science curriculum reform goals espouse the need to foster and support the development of scientific literacy in students. Two critical goals of scientific literacy are students' engagement in, and developing more realistic conceptions about scientific inquiry (SI) and the nature of science (NOS). In order to promote the learning of these curriculum emphases, teachers themselves must possess beliefs and knowledge supportive of them. Collaborative action research is a viable form of curriculum and teacher development that can be used to support teachers in developing the requisite beliefs and knowledge that can promote these scientific literacy goals. This research study used a collective case study methodology to describe and interpret the views and actions of four teachers participating in a collaborative action research project. I explored the teachers' SI and NOS views throughout the project as they investigated ideas and theories, critically examined their current curricular practice, and implemented and reflected on these modified curricular practices. By the end of the research study, all participants had uniquely augmented their understanding of SI and NOS. The participants were better able to provide explanatory depth to some SI and NOS ideas; however, specific belief revision with respect to SI and NOS ideas was nominal. Furthermore, their idealized action research plans were not implemented to the extent that they were planned. Explanations for these findings include: impact of significant past educational experiences, prior understanding of SI and NOS, depth of content and pedagogical content knowledge of the discipline, and institutional and instructional constraints. Nonetheless, through participation in the collaborative action research process, the teachers developed professionally, personally, and socially. They identified many positive outcomes from participating in a collaborative action research project; however, they espoused constraints to

  16. [The dissemination of scientific knowledge, social networks and historians creating new histories: an interview with Bruno Leal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Bruno Leal Pastor; Benchimol, Jaime L; Cerqueira, Roberta Cardoso; Papi, Camilo; Lemle, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The interview with historian and journalist Bruno Leal deals with the creation of the Café História blog and the relationship between the internet, communications and the work of historians. His blog has become an important channel to promote historical material, with bibliographical references, helpful information about films, scientific events and videos related to this area. The interviewee stressed the importance of actions that combine communications with history, made criticisms of the current training given to historians and affirmed the need for curricular reform that enables new ways of producing and disseminating historical knowledge.

  17. Open exchange of scientific knowledge and European copyright: The case of biodiversity information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Egloff

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development is helping the European to prepare for an integrative system for intelligent management of biodiversity knowledge. The infrastructure that is envisaged and that will be further developed within the Programme “Horizon 2020” aims to provide open and free access to taxonomic information to anyone with a requirement for biodiversity data, without the need for individual consent of other persons or institutions. Open and free access to information will foster the re-use and improve the quality of data, will accelerate research, and will promote new types of research. Progress towards the goal of free and open access to content is hampered by numerous technical, economic, sociological, legal, and other factors. The present article addresses barriers to the open exchange of biodiversity knowledge that arise from European laws, in particular European legislation on copyright and database protection rights.We present a legal point of view as to what will be needed to bring distributed information together and facilitate its re-use by data mining, integration into semantic knowledge systems, and similar techniques. We address exceptions and limitations of copyright or database protection within Europe, and we point to the importance of data use agreements. We illustrate how exceptions and limitations have been transformed into national legislations within some European states to create inconsistencies that impede access to biodiversity information.Conclusions. The legal situation within the EU is unsatisfactory because there are inconsistencies among states that hamper the deployment of an open biodiversity knowledge management system. Scientists within the EU who work with copyright protected works or with protected databases have to be aware of regulations that vary from country to country. This is a major stumbling block to international collaboration and is an

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace research and development (R/D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D is explored from the perspective of the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The following three assumptions frame this exploration: (1) knowledge production, transfer, and utilization are equally important components of the aerospace R&D process; (2) the diffusion of knowledge resulting from federally funded aerospace R&D is indispensable for the U.S. to remain a world leader in aerospace; and (3) U.S. government technical reports, produced by NASA and DOD, play an important, but as yet undefined, role in the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D. A conceptual model for federally funded aerospace knowledge diffusion, one that emphasizes U.S. goverment technical reports, is presented. Data regarding three research questions concerning the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are also presented.

  19. [TOPICS-MDS: a versatile resource for generating scientific and social knowledge for elderly care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Danielle; Lutomski, Jennifer E; Qin, Li; den Elzen, Wendy P J; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M; Krabbe, Paul F M; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Muntinga, Maaike; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Bleijenberg, Nienke; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Melis, René J F

    2015-04-01

    Developed as part of the National Care for the Elderly Programme (NPO), TOPICS-MDS is a uniform, national database on the health and wellbeing of the older persons and caregivers who participated in NPO-funded projects. TOPICS-MDS Consortium has gained extensive experience in constructing a standardized questionnaire to collect relevant health care data on quality of life, health services utilization, and informal care use. A proactive approach has been undertaken not only to ensure the standardization and validation of instruments but also the infrastructure for external data requests. Efforts have been made to promote scientifically and socially responsible use of TOPICS-MDS; data has been available for secondary use since early 2014. Through this data sharing initiative, researchers can explore health issues in a broader framework which may have not been possible within individual NPO projects; this broader framework is highly relevant for influencing health policy. In this article, we provide an overview of the development and on-going progress of TOPICS-MDS. We further describe how information derived from TOPICS-MDS can be applied to facilitate future scientific innovations and public health initiatives to improve care for frail older persons and their caregivers.

  20. Geoethical implications in the L'Aquila case: scientific knowledge and communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    On October 22nd 2012, three and a half years after the earthquake that destroyed the city of L'Aquila (central Italy), killing more than 300 people and wounding about 1,500, a landmark judgment for the scientific research established the condemnation of six members of the Major Risks Committee of the Italian Government and a researcher of INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia), called to provide information about the evolution of the seismic sequence. The judge held that these Geoscientists were negligent during the meeting of 31st March 2009, convened to discuss the scientific aspects of the seismic risk of this area, affected by a long seismic sequence, also in the light of repeated warnings about the imminence of a strong earthquake, on the base of measurements of radon gas by an Italian independent technician, transmitted to the population by mass-media. Without going into the legal aspects of the criminal proceedings, this judgment strikes for the hardness of the condemnation to be paid by the scientists (six years of imprisonment, perpetual disqualification from public office and legal disqualification during the execution of the penalty, compensation for victims up to several hundred thousands of Euros). Some of them are scientists known worldwide for their proven skills, professionalism and experience. In conclusion, these scientists were found guilty of having contributed to the death of many people, because they have not communicated in an appropriate manner all available information on the seismic hazard and vulnerability of the area of L'Aquila. This judgment represents a watershed in the way of looking at the social role of geoscientists in the defense against natural hazards and their responsibility towards the people. But, in what does this responsibility consist of? It consists of the commitment to conduct an updated and reliable scientific research, which provides for a detailed analysis of the epistemic uncertainty for a more

  1. New languages for the spreading of scientific knowledge: broadening the dialog between science and society (Portuguese original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Pereira Cavalcanti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is by far the most intensely used communication tool of today and the main channel of interaction in the globalized world. This technology has opened up a whole new area for the interaction of knowledge: cyberspace, where information is always present and continuously changing. The interactivity that characterizes the virtual media together with the interactive modules developed by science centers and museums make the Internet a whole new space for the popularization of science. In order to stimulate dialog between science and society, Espaço Ciência Viva has decided to employ the Internet to divulge and to popularize scientific knowledge by bringing debates about the advances of science to the daily lives of people. To this end, its website was remodeled, which led to an increase of up to 600% in the number of visitors.

  2. Interorganizational Diffusion and Transformation of Knowledge in the Process of Product Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Anker Lund

    In the knowledge-based economy interorganizational interaction is regarded as crucial in the process of product innovation. Contributions from Lundvall, Von Hippel and the resource based view of the firm all argue that absorptive capacity is of importance for an efficient use of external knowledge....... The most common and widely used definition in this respect is emphasized by Cohen and Levinthal. They point out that absorptive capacity is determined by the firms? investment in internal knowledge base, i.e. R&D. However, absorptive capacity in the absolute sense is too narrow. In order to absorb external...

  3. FROM FACTORIES TO SHOPS: DECONSTRUCTION OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE WITHOUT A CLIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Braga Rodrigues

    2009-09-01

    Some arguments have been advanced in this paper that has a bearing upon re-definition of which kind of knowledge will be the focus of universities. With new technology, firms and universities are increasingly devoting to the task of changing tacit knowledge into a concrete and distinct product. It is argued that some factors such as globalization, the increasing salience of the market in organizational decisions have promoted commodification of knowledge even in universities. While globalization has worshipped innovation as the solution to upgrade the level of development of a given nation, this has also subverted the social importance of science in innovative processes. Because of the demise of basic science and the increasing external pressures universities, from now on, will tend to pay more attention to solution of problems that are assumed to impact on a country’s relative  position in competitiveness ranks. Thus the market, the State, TNCs or industry, those institutions that have been empowered by new-liberalism will have a stronger voice in defining the worth of research subjects rather than it will be a matter of academics’ own discretion or choice.

  4. The Spanish toxic oil syndrome 20 years after its onset: a multidisciplinary review of scientific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpí, Emilio; de la Paz, Manuel Posada; Terracini, Benedetto; Abaitua, Ignacio; de la Cámara, Agustín Gómez; Kilbourne, Edwin M; Lahoz, Carlos; Nemery, Bénoit; Philen, Rossanne M; Soldevilla, Luis; Tarkowski, Stanislaw

    2002-05-01

    In 1981, in Spain, the ingestion of an oil fraudulently sold as olive oil caused an outbreak of a previously unrecorded condition, later known as toxic oil syndrome (TOS), clinically characterized by intense incapacitating myalgias, marked peripheral eosinophilia, and pulmonary infiltrates. Of the 20,000 persons affected, approximately 300 died shortly after the onset of the disease and a larger number developed chronic disease. For more than 15 years, a scientific committee supported by the World Health Organization's Regional Office for Europe and by the Institute of Health Carlos III in Madrid has guided investigation intended to identify the causal agent(s), to assess toxicity and mode of action, to establish the pathogenesis of the disease, and to detect late consequences. This report summarizes advances in research on this front. No late mortality excess has been detected. Among survivors, the prevalence of some chronic conditions (e.g., sclerodermia, neurologic changes) is high. Attempts to reproduce the condition in laboratory animals have been unsuccessful, and no condition similar to TOS has been reported in the scientific literature. Laboratory findings suggest an autoimmune mechanism for TOS, such as high levels of seric soluble interleukin-2 receptor. Epidemiologic studies integrated with chemical analyses of case-related oils have shown that the disease is strongly associated with the consumption of oils containing fatty acid esters of 3-(N-phenylamino)-1,2-propanediol (PAP). These chemicals have also been found in oils synthesized under conditions simulating those hypothesized to have occurred when the toxic oil was produced in 1981. Whether PAP esters are simply markers of toxicity of oils or have the capability to induce the disease remains to be elucidated.

  5. Role-Playing Game and Learning for Young People About Sustainable Development Stakes: An Experiment in Transferring and Adapting Interdisciplinary Scientific Knowledge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gourmelon, Françoise; Rouan, Mathias; Lefevre, Jean-François; Rognant, Anne

    2011-01-01

    .... This approach provides scientific results and involves interdisciplinarity. In the second phase of the study, we transferred knowledge by adapting the main research output, a role-playing game, to young people...

  6. Sleepwalking in Italian operas: a window on popular and scientific knowledge on sleep disorders in the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Michele Augusto; Sironi, Vittorio Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Lombardi, Carolina; De Vito, Giovanni; Ferrarese, Carlo; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    There is little knowledge on sleepwalking in ancient times even though it is a very common condition. The aim of this report is to describe the backgrounds of medical knowledge on somnambulism in the 19th century, a key period in the development of neurosciences, by analysing its representation in two famous Italian operas: La Sonnambula by Vincenzo Bellini and Macbeth by Giuseppe Verdi. The 19th-century operas may be considered as a crossing point between the popular and intellectual world because they mirror popular answers to phenomena that were still awaiting scientific explanations. Shakespeare's play Macbeth was also considered. In Shakespeare's play and in Verdi's Macbeth, sleepwalking is looked upon as a neuropsychiatric disorder, a manifestation of internal anxiety. In La Sonnambula by Bellini, this condition is considered as common disorder that anticipates scientific theories. The analysed Italian operas provide two different views on sleepwalking, probably because they are based on texts belonging to different periods. Their examination allows one to understand the gradual evolution of theories on sleepwalking, from demoniac possession to mental disorder and sleep disease. At the same time, this analysis throws some light on the history of psychological illnesses. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The Acquisition of Scientific Knowledge: The Influence of Methods of Questioning and Analysis on the Interpretation of Children's Conceptions of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frede, Valerie; Nobes, Gavin; Frappart, Soren; Panagiotaki, Georgia; Troadec, Bertrand; Martin, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Studies of children's knowledge of the Earth have led to very different conclusions: some appear to show that children construct their own, non-scientific "theories" (mental models) of the flat, hollow or dual Earth. Others indicate that many young children have some understanding of the spherical (scientific) Earth, and that their…

  8. Man-made black holes and Big Bangs: Diffusion and integration of scientific information into everyday thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courvoisier, Nelly; Clémence, Alain; Green, Eva G T

    2013-04-01

    Drawing on Social Representations Theory, this study investigates focalisation and anchoring during the diffusion of information concerning the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the particle accelerator at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). We hypothesised that people focus on striking elements of the message, abandoning others, that the nature of the initial information affects diffusion of information, and that information is anchored in prior attitudes toward CERN and science. A serial reproduction experiment with two generations and four chains of reproduction diffusing controversial versus descriptive information about the LHC shows a reduction of information through generations, the persistence of terminology regarding the controversy and a decrease of other elements for participants exposed to polemical information. Concerning anchoring, positive attitudes toward CERN and science increase the use of expert terminology unrelated to the controversy. This research highlights the relevance of a social representational approach in the public understanding of science.

  9. Earth Inquiry: Using Scientific Data to Support Knowledge Acquisition in Physical and Environmental Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridky, R. W.; Keane, C. M.; Alfano, M.

    2001-05-01

    The educational implications of technological developments in data delivery, coupled with new insights into the dynamics of the Earth system, are having a profound influence on geoscience instruction. The geoscience education community is working to find effective ways to provide students with access to first-rate instructional activities for enhanced discipline understanding and competence in using real scientific data. Studies reveal that instructional utilization of Web-based materials present unique challenges. Analysis and evaluation of the enormous geoscience information base, content selection, stability of data sites and the development and use of materials is complex and time consuming. Professors recognize the need for investigations that can maximize geoscience's rich real-time and archived data, but also for ones that can relate fundamental understandings in a structured and developmentally appropriate manner. Many professors have assembled various types of instructional material, but few have developed a set of well-crafted investigations that are representative of the range of topics presented in a beginning physical or environmental geology course. Most existing activities have students accessing a small, selected portion of the available data set with, more often than not, pre-determined outcomes. Such experiences do little in the way of utilizing the larger database and in engaging students with authentic questions and processes of science. Moreover, many of the Web sites are far from stable with access and entry changing frequently. What was developed last semester often does not, nor cannot, work the same way this semester. The American Geological Institute, with the participation of experienced geology professors, is developing a set of instructional activities to facilitate student understanding of fundamental geoscience concepts. All activities of the Earth Inquiry initiative present students with real-life issues, inquiry-based questions, and

  10. Diffusion tensor MR imaging in neurofibromatosis type 1: expanding the knowledge of microstructural brain abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose R.L.; Muniz, Marcos P.; Souza, Antonio S. [Medical School in Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), Radiology Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rocha, Antonio J. da [School Medical Sciences of the Santa Casa de Sao Paulo, Radiology Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Goloni-Bertollo, Eny M.; Pavarino-Bertelli, Erika C. [Center of Research and attendace in Neurofibromatosis (CEPAN) of Medical School in Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary disease with a dominant autosomal pattern. In children and adolescents, it is frequently associated with the appearance of T2-weighted hyperintensities in the brain's white matter. MRI with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used to detect white matter abnormalities by measuring fractional anisotropy (FA). This study employed DTI to evaluate the relationship between FA patterns and the findings of T2 sequences, with the aim of improving our understanding of anatomical changes and microstructural brain abnormalities in individuals with NF1. Forty-four individuals with NF1 and 20 control subjects were evaluated. The comparative analysis of FA between NF1 and control groups was based on four predetermined anatomical regions of the brain hemispheres (basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, thalamus) and related the presence or absence of T2-weighted hyperintensities in the brain, which are called unidentified bright objects (UBOs). The FA values between the groups demonstrated statistically significant differences (P {<=} 0.05) for the cerebellum and thalamus in patients with NF1, independent of the occurrence of UBOs. Diffusion tensor MR imaging confirms the influence of UBOs in the decrease of FA values in this series of patients with NF1. Additionally, this technique allows the characterization of microstructural abnormalities even in some brain regions that appear normal in conventional MR sequences. (orig.)

  11. [Handbook for the preparation of evidence-based documents. Tools derived from scientific knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Camacho, M R; Martínez-Brocca, M A; Paneque-Sánchez-Toscano, I; Valencia-Martín, R; Palomino-García, A; Muñoz-Durán, C; Tamayo-López, M J; González-Eiris-Delgado, C; Otero-Candelera, R; Ortega-Ruiz, F; Sobrino-Márquez, J M; Jiménez-García-Bóveda, R; Fernández-Quero, M; Campos-Pareja, A M

    2013-01-01

    This handbook is intended to be an accessible, easy-to-consult guide to help professionals produce or adapt Evidence-Based Documents. Such documents will help standardize both clinical practice and decision-making, the quality always being monitored in such a way that established references are complied with. Evidence-Based Health Care Committee, a member of "Virgen del Rocío" University Hospital quality structure, proposed the preparation of a handbook to produce Evidence-Based Documents including: a description of products, characteristics, qualities, uses, methodology of production, and application scope of every one of them. The handbook consists of seven Evidence-Based tools, one chapter on critical analysis methodology of scientific literature, one chapter with internet resources, and some appendices with different assessment tools. This Handbook provides general practitioners with a great opportunity to improve quality and as a guideline to standardize clinical healthcare, and managers with a strategy to promote and encourage the development of documents in an effort to reduce clinical practice variability, as well as giving patients the opportunity of taking part in planning their own care. Copyright © 2011 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Constructivist Professional Development on Chemistry Content Knowledge and Scientific Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Fenk, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers’ ( N = 69) participation in constructivist chemistry professional development (PD) and enhancement of content (CK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) (representational thinking and conceptual change strategies) and self-efficacy (PSTE). Quantitative measures assessed CK, PCK, and PSTE. Document analysis focused on PCK. Elementary teachers gained CK, PCK, PSTE, and designed lessons to advance thinking from macroscopic to abstract models. Middle/secondary teachers gained PSTE, PCK, and introduced macroscopic models to develop understanding of previously taught abstract models. All implemented representational thinking and conceptual change strategies. Results suggest that: (1) constructivist PD meets the needs of teachers of varying CK, and (2) instruction should connect representational models with alternative conceptions, integrating radical and social constructivism.

  13. Evaluation of a cartoon-based knowledge dissemination intervention on scientific and ethical challenges raised by nutrigenomics/nutrigenetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafrenière, Darquise; Hurlimann, Thierry; Menuz, Vincent; Godard, Béatrice

    2014-10-01

    The push for knowledge translation on the part of health research funding agencies is significant in Canada, and many strategies have been adopted to promote the conversion of knowledge into action. In recent years, an increasing number of health researchers have been studying arts-based interventions to transform knowledge into action. This article reports on the results of an online questionnaire aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of a knowledge dissemination intervention (KDI) conveying findings from a study on the scientific and ethical challenges raised by nutrigenomics-nutrigenetics (NGx) research. The KDI was based on the use of four Web pages combining original, interactive cartoon-like illustrations accompanied by text to disseminate findings to Canadian Research Ethics Boards members, as well as to NGx researchers and researchers in ethics worldwide. Between May and October 2012, the links to the Web pages were sent in a personal email to target audience members, one thematic Web page at a time. On each thematic Web page, members of the target audience were invited to answer nine evaluation questions assessing the effectiveness of the KDI on four criteria, (i) acquisition of knowledge; (ii) change in initial understanding; (iii) generation of questions from the findings; and (iv) intent to change own practice. Response rate was low; results indicate that: (i) content of the four Web pages did not bring new knowledge to a majority of the respondents, (ii) initial understanding of the findings did not change for a majority of NGx researchers and a minority of ethics respondents, (iii) although the KDI did raise questions for respondents, it did not move them to change their practice. While target end-users may not feel that they actually learned from the KDI, it seems that the findings conveyed encouraged reflection and raised useful and valuable questions for them. Moreover, the evaluation of the KDI proved to be useful to gain knowledge about our

  14. Participatory methods of incorporating scientific with traditional knowledge for volcanic hazard management on Ambae Island, Vanuatu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Shane J.; Gaylord, David R.; Charley, Douglas; Alloway, Brent V.; Wallez, Sandrine; Esau, Job W.

    2004-10-01

    Ambae Island is the largest of Vanuatu’s active volcanoes. It is also one of the nation’s potentially most dangerous, with 60 million m3 of lake-water perched at over 1340 m in the summit caldera and over the active vent. In 1995, small phreatic explosions, earthquake swarms and heightened gas release led to calls for evacuation preparation and community volcanic hazard awareness programs for the ~9500 inhabitants. Differences in perspective or world-view between the island dwellers adhering to traditional beliefs (Kastom) and external scientists and emergency managers led to a climate of distrust following this crisis. In an attempt to address these issues, rebuild dialogue and respect between communities, outside scientists and administrators, and move forward in volcanic hazard education and planning for Ambae, we adapted and applied Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approaches. Initial gender-segregated PRA exercises from two representative communities provided a mechanism for cataloguing local traditional viewpoints and hazard perceptions. Ultimately, by combining elements of these viewpoints and perceptions with science-based management structures, we derived volcanic hazard management guidelines, supported by an alert system and map that were more readily accepted by the test communities than the earlier “top-down” plans imposed by outside governmental and scientific agencies. The strength of PRA approaches is that they permit scientists to understand important local perspective issues, including visualisations of volcanic hazards, weaknesses in internal and external communication systems, and gender and hierarchy conflicts, all of which can hinder community emergency management. The approach we describe has much to offer both developing and industrialised communities that wish to improve their awareness programs and mitigative planning. This approach should also enhance communication and understanding between volcanologists and the communities

  15. The personal is scientific: Women, gender, and the production of sexological knowledge in Germany and Austria, 1900-1931.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    This article addresses the roles women and gender played in the production of sexological knowledge in the early 20th century, particularly in German-speaking Europe. Although existing scholarship focuses almost exclusively on the work of "founding fathers" such as Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Magnus Hirschfeld, women in fact made important contributions to the field. Based on analysis of texts written between 1900 and 1931, this article shows how women were able to successfully mobilize their gender as a privileged form of "situated knowledge," and thereby assert their authority over and superior insights into certain subject areas, namely, female sexualities and sexual difference. At the same time, however, this article also highlights the constraints upon women's gendered standpoint. It shows that women's sexological writing was not just informed by their gender but also by their class and race. Moreover, because gender threatened to cast their work as insufficiently objective and scientific, women cleaved to sexology's rules of evidence and argumentation, and adopted the field's ideological trappings in order to participate in discursive contestations over sexual truths. By interrogating gender, this article introduces much-needed nuance into existing understandings of sexology, and reframes sexology itself as a site wherein new sexual subjectivities were imagined, articulated, and debated. However, it also raises fundamental questions about women sexologists' capacity to create knowledge about women and female sexualities that was truer, more correct, and more authentic than that produced by men. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Drawing on Experience: How Domain Knowledge Is Reflected in Sketches of Scientific Structures and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Benjamin D.; Gentner, Dedre; Uttal, David H.; Sageman, Bradley; Forbus, Kenneth; Manduca, Cathryn A.; Ormand, Carol J.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Tikoff, Basil

    2014-12-01

    Capturing the nature of students' mental representations and how they change with learning is a primary goal in science education research. This can be challenging in spatially intense domains, such as geoscience, architecture, and engineering. In this research, we test whether sketching can be used to gauge level of expertise in geoscience, using new technology designed to facilitate this process. We asked participants with differing levels of geoscience experience to copy two kinds of geoscience images—photographs of rock formations and causal diagrams. To permit studying the process of sketching as well as the structure and content of the sketches, we used the CogSketch system (Forbus et al. 2011, Topics in Cognitive Science 3:648-666) to record the time course of sketching and analyze the sketches themselves. Relative to novices, geoscience students included more geological structures and relational symbols in their sketches of geoscience materials and were more likely to construct their sketches in a sequence consistent with the order of causal events. These differences appear to stem from differences in domain knowledge, because they did not show up in participants' sketches of materials from other fields. The findings and methods of this research suggest new ways to promote and assess science learning, which are well suited to the visual-spatial demands of many domains.

  17. The contribution of action research in the construction of scientific knowledge in Brazilian Production Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gibertoni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main subject of this article is the action research and it has as general objective to describe the construction of knowledge in this field from the uses that Brazilian Production Engineering makes of it, aiming to recognize its contributions, potentials and limits. To achieve this goal, a literature review was carried out for a subsequent contrast with the national academic researches that use action research and show its uses. Identified these similarities, a documentary research was carried out in academic papers published in the National Meeting of Production Engineering (ENEGEP – from 1996 to 2010. The content analysis was the strategy used for data analysis and NVivo® software was used for its treatment. As a conclusion of the research, it can be stated that the use of action research in the Brazilian Production Engineering distances itself from epistemic precepts associated with it. The results of the action are more highlighted than the reflection on the mechanisms that produced it

  18. Database, Knowledge and Scientific Networks : The visibility in the Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Cereser Pezzella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the protection provided personal data, voluntarely given by people and collected in files without their consent, an affront to their confidentiality, confidentiality and privacy rights, affecting the right of personality, also fail to materialize the right to privacy in the Information Society. The Information Society, backed the rule of knowledge, creation, circulation and encumbrance information, is embodied in the current form of promotion of personal interrelationships, and the targeting of economic, political, legal and social, causing significant changes in daily life. Indeed, in the information society, the person is primarily represented by information, therefore known for data, numbers, shopping routines and spending, in the form of text, images, sounds and recorded data. This new perception of the individual, as an informational being, shall claim the protection of privacy, especially because it is a fundamental right of first magnitude, recognized as personality right, unavailability of characters, intransferable, inalienable and imprescriptible. The research was mainly based literature, using the national and international doctrine pondering the various branches of legal science, beyond the historical perspective - key to better understanding the complexity in the contemporary context.

  19. How the Elderly Can Use Scientific Knowledge to Solve Problems While Designing Toys: A Retrospective Analysis of the Design of a Working UFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yung; Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Wong, Wan-Tzu

    2013-01-01

    The venerable aphorism "an old dog cannot learn new tricks" implies that the elderly rarely learn anything new--in particular, scientific knowledge. On the basis of "learning by doing," the present study emphasized knowledge application (KA) as elderly subjects collaborated on the design of a toy flying saucer (UFO). Three…

  20. The Relationship of Science Knowledge, Attitude and Decision Making on Socio-Scientific Issues: The Case Study of Students' Debates on a Nuclear Power Plant in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Hunkoog; Yoon, Hye-Gyoung; Kim, Mijung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of students' understanding of science knowledge, attitude and decision making on socio-scientific issues (SSI), especially on the issues of nuclear energy in Korea. SSI-focused instructions were developed to encourage students to understand and reflect on knowledge, attitude and…

  1. Knowledge Diffusion in ERP Development: The Case of Open Source ERP Downloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Björn

    This paper reports on an investigation of challenges in enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) development. The investigation, conducted as interviews with executives at a major ERP software vendor, identified six challenges when developing future ERPs. The challenges are then related to a question of knowledge sharing in ERP development. The question is, can downloads of open source ERPs be seen as a knowledge sharing activity with the potential to decrease the gap between ERP developers and users of ERPs? From identified challenges and by discussing reasons for the high attention and the high numbers of download of open source ERPs, the article presents some conclusions that could act as input for future research. The paper aims at building a foundation for the basic question: In what way could knowledge sharing in ERP development be improved? The main conclusion is that challenges for future development of ERPs addressed by proprietary ERP software vendors could be one reason for the high attention among developers of open source ERPs.

  2. Combining social policy and scientific knowledge with stakeholder participation can benefit on salted grassland production in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deli; Yang, Zhiming; Wang, Ling; Sun, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Soil salinization is a serious environmental problem across the Eurasian steppes, where millions people have been living for at least five thousand years and will still depend on it in the near future. During the last several decades, ecologists and grassland scientists have done much research on rational grassland utilization avoiding land degradation and reduction in ecological services. Meanwhile, the central and local governments took some attempts of agricultural policy and ecological subsidy to mitigate large scale land salinization in Northeast China. Fortunately, more and more farmers and stakeholders begin to adopt rational grassland management with the guidance of scientists and the help of local governments. However, up to date, there is still a gap between farmers, scientists and governments, which often negatively affect grassland production and remission of soil salinization in these areas. We conducted a case study on sustainable grassland production adapted to steppe salinization funded by EC project from 2011 to 2013. Our goal is trying to establish a mode of adaptive grassland management integrating previous scientific knowledge (grazing and seeding), current agricultural policies (ecological subsidy) and stakeholders' participation or performance. The study showed that: A. Despite of some grassland utilization techniques available for stakeholders (regulating stocking rate and seeding in pastures, or planting high quality forages), they tended to take the simplest action to enhance animal production and prevent grassland salinization; B. Compared to educating or training stakeholders, demonstration of grazing management is the most effective mean for knowledge dissemination or technology transfer; C. Ecological subsidy is absolutely welcome to the local people, and technology transfer became easier when combined with ecological subsidy; D. There was a contrasting effect in grassland production and land degradation mitigation for experimental farm

  3. Bridging the Gap between Scientific and Indigenous knowledge to Better Understand Social Impacts of Changing Rainfall Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, A. H.; Joachim, L.; Zhu, X.; Hammer, C.; Harris, M.; Griggs, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin incorporates Australia's three longest rivers and is important for an agricultural industry worth more than $9 billion per annum, a rich biodiversity of habitat and species, and the very life of its traditional owners. The complex and sometimes enigmatic relationships between modes of variability and Australian regional rainfall distribution means that reliable projections of future water availability remain highly uncertain. Persistent drought, with associated heat stress and high fire danger, and episodic flooding rains present further challenges. Indeed, recent extremes likely herald a tipping point for the communities and ecosystems that rely on the river system. The Barmah-Millewa region in the Murray-Darling Basin is the heart of Yorta Yorta Traditional Tribal Lands. The Yorta Yorta continue to assert their inherent rights to country and have shown through oral, documentary and material evidence, that their social, spiritual, economic and cultural links with country have never been broken. Current water policy and practice, highly contested community consultation processes, cross-border governance issues and a changing social landscape create in this region a microcosm for understanding the complex demands of economic, environmental and cultural security along the Murray-Darling Basin as the climate changes. New approaches to bridging the gap between scientific and Indigenous epistemologies have emerged in recent years, including for example ecosystem-based adaptation (Vignola et al. 2009) and the analysis of cultural water flows (Weir 2010). The potential for innovation using these approaches has informed a study that investigates how the deep knowledge of country of the Yorta Yorta people can be combined with state of the art climate science to develop a better understanding of the competing demands on water resources in the Barmah-Millewa region now and in the future. An important dimension of this collaborative work with the Yorta

  4. Geodiversity and geohazards of the Susa Valley (W-Alps, Italy): combining scientific research and new technologies for enhanced knowledge and proactive management of geoheritage in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardino, Marco; Bacenetti, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Palomba, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    Mountain regions have a range of geological and geomorphological features that make them very attractive for tourism activities. As a consequence, increased human "pressure" causes impacts on geoheritage sites and higher geomorphological risks. These effects are magnified by active geomorphic processes characterizing mountains areas, highly sensitive to climate change. In term of "human sensitivity", several sociological surveys have shown that "perceived risk", not "real risk", influences people's behavior towards natural hazards. The same approach can be applied to geodiversity and geoheritage. Based on these assumptions, we considered the possible strategic roles played by diffusion of scientific research and application of new technologies: 1) to enhance awareness, either of geodiversity or environmental dynamics and 2) to improve knowledge, both on geoheritage management and natural risk reduction. Within the activities of the "ProGEO-Piemonte Project" (Progetti d'Ateneo 2011, cofunded by Universita? degli Studi di Torino and Compagnia di San Paolo Bank Foundation), we performed a systematic review of geodiversity and natural hazards information in the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). Then we focused our attention on the Susa Valley, an area of the Western Alps where the geoheritage is affected by very active morphodynamics, as well as by a growing tourism, after the 2006 winter Olympics. The Susa Valley became one of the 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, each characterized by high potential for enhancement of public understanding of science, and recreation activities supported by local communities. Then we contributed to the awareness-raising communication strategy of the "RiskNat project" (Interreg Alcotra 2007-2013, Action A.4.3) by synthesizing geoscience knowledge on the Susa Valley and information on slope instabilities and models/prevention measures/warning systems. Visual representations

  5. Characterizing scientific production and consumption in Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Qian; Goncalves, Bruno; Ciulla, Fabio; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the entire publication database of the American Physical Society generating longitudinal (50 years) citation networks geolocalized at the level of single urban areas. We define the knowledge diffusion proxy, and scientific production ranking algorithms to capture the spatio-temporal dynamics of Physics knowledge worldwide. By using the knowledge diffusion proxy we identify the key cities in the production and consumption of knowledge in Physics as a function of time. The results from the scientific production ranking algorithm allow us to characterize the top cities for scholarly research in Physics. Although we focus on a single dataset concerning a specific field, the methodology presented here opens the path to comparative studies of the dynamics of knowledge across disciplines and research areas

  6. Science Teacher Educators’ Engagement with Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Scientific Inquiry in Predominantly Paper-Based Distance Learning Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. FRASER

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the dilemmas science educators face when having to introduce Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK to science student teachers in a predominantly paper-based distance learning environment. It draws on the premise that science education is bound by the Nature of Science (NOS, and by the Nature of Scientific Inquiry (NOSI. Furthermore, science educators’ own PCK, and the limitations of a predominantly paper-based distance education (DE model of delivery are challenges that they have to face when introducing PCK and authentic inquiry-based learning experiences. It deprives them and their students from optimal engagement in a science-oriented community of practice, and leaves little opportunity to establish flourishing communities of inquiry. This study carried out a contextual analysis of the tutorial material to assess the PCK that the student teachers had been exposed to. This comprised the ideas of a community of inquiry, a community of science, the conceptualization of PCK, scientific inquiry, and the 5E Instructional Model of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. The analysis confirmed that the lecturers had a good understanding of NOS, NOSI and science process skills, but found it difficult to design interventions to optimize the PCK development of students through communities of inquiry. Paper-based tutorials are ideal to share theory, policies and practices, but fail to monitor the engagement of learners in communities of inquiry. The article concludes with a number of suggestions to address the apparent lack of impact power of the paper-based mode of delivery, specifically in relation to inquiry-based teaching and learning (IBTL.

  7. The IUR Forum: Worldwide Harmonisation of Networks to Support Integration of Scientific Knowledge and Consensus Development in Radioecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréchignac, F; Alexakhin, R; Bollhöfer, A; Frogg, K E; Hardeman, F; Higley, K; Hinton, T G; Kapustka, L A; Kuhne, W; Leonard, K; Masson, O; Nanba, K; Smith, G; Smith, K; Strand, P; Vandenhove, H; Yankovich, T; Yoshida, S

    2017-04-01

    During the past decades, many specialised networks have formed to meet specific radioecological objectives, whether regional or sectorial (purpose-oriented). Regional networks deal with an array of radioecological issues related to their territories. Examples include the South Pacific network of radioecologists, and the European network of excellence in radioecology. The latter is now part of the European platform for radiation protection. Sectorial networks are more problem-oriented, often with wider international representativeness, but restricted to one specific issue, (e.g. radioactive waste, low-level atmospheric contamination, modelling). All such networks, while often working in relative isolation, contribute to a flow of scientific information which, through United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR's) efforts of synthesis, feeds into the radiation protection frameworks of protecting humans and the environment. The IUR has therefore prompted a co-construction process aimed at improving worldwide harmonisation of radioecology networks. An initiative based on an initial set of 15 networks, now called the IUR FORUM, was launched in June 2014. The IUR Forum agreed to build a framework for improved coordination of scientific knowledge, integration and consensus development relative to environmental radioactivity. Three objectives have been collectively assigned to the IUR FORUM: (1) coordination, (2) global integration and construction of consensus and (3) maintenance of expertise. One particular achievement of the FORUM was an improved description and common understanding of the respective roles and functions of the various networks within the overall scene of radioecology R&D. It clarifies how the various networks assembled within the IUR FORUM interface with UNSCEAR and other international regulatory bodies (IAEA, ICRP), and how consensus on the assessment of risk is constructed. All these agencies interact with regional

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper Sixty Eight, Who is Managing Knowledge? The Implications for Knowledge Production and Management of Global Strategic Alliances in Knowledge-Dependent Industries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golich, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    ...). Despite the centrality of knowledge to corporate success, analysts have only recently shown an interest in the "knowledge capital" or "intellectual capital" of the firm, often literally trying...

  9. Knowledge and institutional requirements to promote land degradation neutrality in drylands - An analysis of the outcomes of the 3rd UNCCD scientific conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam; Safriel, Uriel; Abraham, Elena; de Vente, Joris; Essahli, Wafa; Escadafal, Richard; Stringer, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    Achieving land degradation neutrality (LDN) through sustainable land management (SLM) targets the maintenance or restoration of the productivity of land, and therefore has to include decision-makers, knowledge generators and knowledge holders at the different relevant geographic scales. In order to enhance the implementation of the Convention, the Conference of the Parties (COP) of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification therefore decided that each future session of its Committee on Science and Technology (CST) would be organized in a predominantly scientific and technical conference-style format. This contribution will outline the major outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference that will be held in Cancún, Mexico, from 9 to 12 March 2015, on addressing desertification, land degradation and drought issues (DLDD) for poverty reduction and sustainable development. The conference follows an exceptional new round table conference format that will allow the various stakeholders to discuss scientific as well as the contribution of traditional knowledge and practices in combating land degradation. This format should provide two-way communication and enable deeper insight into the availability and contribution of all forms of knowledge for achieving LDN through the assessment of: • the vulnerability of lands to DLDD and climate change and the adaptive capacities of socio-ecosystems; • best examples of adapted, knowledge-based practices and technologies; • monitoring and assessment methods to evaluate the effectiveness of adaptation practices and technologies. The outcomes of UNCCD's 3rd scientific conference will serve as a basis for discussing: • contributions of science to diagnose the status of land; • research gaps that need to be addressed to achieve LDN for poverty reduction; • additional institutional requirements to optimally bridge knowledge generation, knowledge maintenance and knowledge implementation at the science

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 49: Becoming an aerospace engineer: A cross-gender comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Laura M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    We conducted a mail (self-reported) survey of 4300 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) during the spring of 1993 as a Phase 3 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. The survey was designed to explore students' career goals and aspirations, communications skills training, and their use of information sources, products, and services. We received 1723 completed questionnaires for an adjusted response rate of 42%. In this article, we compare the responses of female and male aerospace engineering students in the context of two general aspects of their educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which women and men differ in regard to factors that lead to the choice to study aerospace engineering, their current level of satisfaction with that choice, and their career-related goals and aspirations. Second, we examine students' responses to questions about communications skills training and the helpfulness of that training, and their use of and the importance to them of selected information sources, products, and services. The cross-gender comparison revealed more similarities than differences. Female students appear to be more satisfied than their male counterparts with the decision to major in aerospace engineering. Both female and male student respondents consider communications skills important for professional success, but females place a higher value than males do on oral communications skills. Women students also place a higher value than men do on the roles of other students and faculty members in satisfying their needs for information.

  11. Mediating Scientific Knowledge into Health Care Practice: Evidence from Pre-Registration Programmes in Nursing and Midwifery Education, and Recommendations for Future Curriculum Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraut, Michael; And Others

    This paper summarizes ongoing theoretical work and the findings of a recent research project in nursing and midwifery education to understand the problems encountered with using scientific knowledge in actual health care practice and to address these problems with educational program redesign. Case studies and mini-studies are used to investigate…

  12. Students' Knowledge of Nuclear Science and Its Connection with Civic Scientific Literacy in Two European Contexts: The Case of Newspaper Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Hartzavalos, Sotiris; Nakiboglu, Canan

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science has uses and applications that are relevant and crucial for world peace and sustainable development, so knowledge of its basic concepts and topics should constitute an integral part of civic scientific literacy. We have used two newspaper articles that deal with uses of nuclear science that are directly relevant to life, society,…

  13. Guidelines for incorporating scientific knowledge and practice on rare diseases into higher education: neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses as a model disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismondi, Inés Adriana; Kohan, Romina; Adams, Heather; Bond, Mike; Brown, Rachel; Cooper, Jonathan D; de Hidalgo, Perla K; Holthaus, Sophia-Martha Kleine; Mole, Sara E; Mugnaini, Julia; de Ramirez, Ana María Oller; Pesaola, Favio; Rautenberg, Gisela; Platt, Frances M; Noher de Halac, Inés

    2015-10-01

    This article addresses the educational issues associated with rare diseases (RD) and in particular the Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinoses (NCLs, or CLN diseases) in the curricula of Health Sciences and Professional's Training Programs. Our aim is to develop guidelines for improving scientific knowledge and practice in higher education and continuous learning programs. Rare diseases (RD) are collectively common in the general population with 1 in 17 people affected by a RD in their lifetime. Inherited defects in genes involved in metabolism are the commonest group of RD with over 8000 known inborn errors of metabolism. The majority of these diseases are neurodegenerative including the NCLs. Any professional training program on NCL must take into account the medical, social and economic burdens related to RDs. To address these challenges and find solutions to them it is necessary that individuals in the government and administrative authorities, academia, teaching hospitals and medical schools, the pharmaceutical industry, investment community and patient advocacy groups all work together to achieve these goals. The logistical issues of including RD lectures in university curricula and in continuing medical education should reflect its complex nature. To evaluate the state of education in the RD field, a summary should be periodically up dated in order to assess the progress achieved in each country that signed up to the international conventions addressing RD issues in society. It is anticipated that auditing current practice will lead to higher standards and provide a framework for those educators involved in establishing RD teaching programs world-wide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. NATURAL-SCIENCE EDUCATION: SCIENTIFIC AND RELIGIOUS KNOWLEDGE CORRELATION IN THE VIEW OF A SYMMETRY PRINCIPLE. PART I. THE CONTENT OF A SYMMETRY PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly L. Gapontsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the content of a symmetry principle; to show system hierarchy of its forms, developed in the course of evolution of scientific knowledge, a society and development of individual consciousness of the person. Methods. Based on the analysis of existing scientific sources, comparison, synthesis and generalisation of its content, the role of symmetry was found out in the course of historical formation of scientific disciplines, arrangement of an empirical set of the facts and its subsequent registration in the form of strict deductive systems. Results. It is proved that the concept «a symmetry principle» (V. I. Vernadsky was the first to coin this concept into the circulation objectifies now the highest level of scientific knowledge. Following E. Vigner’s works, it is said that set of forms of symmetry determines structure of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, these forms have got a deep empirical basis and a close connection with figurative perception of the validity; on the other – they have strict mathematical definitions and generate particular principles of symmetry of Mathematics and Physics based on axiomatic constructions of exact disciplines. Stages of formation and development of a number of scientific disciplines such as Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology are compared; the peculiarities and common features of its evolution are designated. Invariants and corresponding symmetries in formation of individual consciousness of the person are allocated. Scientific novelty. Developing V. I. Vernadsky’s idea, as he used only the short characteristic of a general scientific principle of symmetry, the authors of the present study consider symmetry forms in various branches of knowledge as particular displays of the given principle. Based on the principle of symmetry as a set of symmetry forms, this principle allows the authors to take a fresh look at the decision of methodological

  15. How the Contents of a Bachelor's Degree Final Project of Engineering Evolve towards Innovative Scientific Knowledge: Keys to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Cristina; Guinea, Ana; Callau, Sara; Bengoa, Christophe; Basco, Josep; Gavaldà, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    The Bachelor's Degree Final Project (BDFP) of our school aims to develop a real constructive project, enhance cooperative teamwork and increase productivity of students. We present a real case study, related with engineering and scientific innovation results obtained by BDFP, which has led to an innovative scientific study presented at the 7th…

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 68: Who is Managing Knowledge? The Implications for Knowledge Production and Management of Global Strategic Alliances in Knowledge Dependent Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge is the foundation upon which researchers build as they innovate. Innovation lies at the core of a state's or a firm's ability to survive in a competitive world. Indeed, some economic historians ever that technological innovation, not trade, is the engine to economic growth. Despite the centrality of knowledge to corporate success, analysts have only recently shown an interest in the "knowledge capital" or "intellectual capital" of the firm, often literally trying to assign a value to this resource.

  17. Exchanging knowledge and working together in COST Action TU1208: Short-Term Scientific Missions on Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Assuncao, Sonia; De Smedt, Philippe; Giannakis, Iraklis; Matera, Loredana; Pinel, Nicolas; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Giannopoulos, Antonios; Sala, Jacopo; Lambot, Sébastien; Trinks, Immo; Marciniak, Marian; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at presenting the scientific results stemming from six Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 'Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar' (Action Chair: Lara Pajewski, STSM Manager: Marian Marciniak). STSMs are important means to develop linkages and scientific collaborations between participating institutions involved in a COST Action. Scientists have the possibility to go to an institution abroad, in order to undertake joint research and share techniques/equipment/infrastructures that may not be available in their own institution. STSMs are particularly intended for Early Stage Researchers (ESRs), i.e., young scientists who obtained their PhD since no more than 8 years when they started to be involved in the Action. Duration of a standard STSM can be from 5 to 90 days and the research activities carried out during this short stay shall specifically contribute to the achievement of the scientific objectives of the supporting COST Action. The first STSM was carried out by Lara Pajewski, visiting Antonis Giannopoulos at The University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). The research activities focused on the electromagnetic modelling of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) responses to complex targets. A set of test scenarios was defined, to be used by research groups participating to Working Group 3 of COST Action TU1208, to test and compare different electromagnetic forward- and inverse-scattering methods; these scenarios were modelled by using the well-known finite-difference time-domain simulator GprMax. New Matlab procedures for the processing and visualization of GprMax output data were developed. During the second STSM, Iraklis Giannakis visited Lara Pajewski at Roma Tre University (Italy). The study was concerned with the numerical modelling of horn antennas for GPR. An air-coupled horn antenna was implemented in GprMax and tested in a realistically

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 34: How early career-stage US aerospace engineers and scientists produce and use information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the production and use of information by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who had changed their American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) membership from student to professional in the past five years.

  19. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 22: US academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: Results of the phase 3 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. academic librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report number 21: US aerospace industry librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries: Results of the phase 2 survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis U.S. aerospace industry librarians and technical information specialists as information intermediaries.

  1. Conhecimento científico, seu ensino e aprendizagem: atualidade do construtivismo Scientific knowledge, its teaching and learning: constructivism present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Regina Pessôa Campello Queiroz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo parte de uma ilustração acerca da etimologia da palavra construtivismo - semear coletivamente para, em seguida, reunir sementes a serem disponibilizadas aos alunos durante os cursos formação de professores de Física. Entre elas estão argumentos a favor de uma versão sustentável para o Construtivismo, reconhecendo críticas, de origem epistemológica, psicológica ou mesmo pedagógica, a aspectos particulares de versões que têm circulado entre pesquisadores da área de pesquisa em educação em ciências nos últimos anos. Com o compromisso de não nos limitarmos às críticas e diante da complexidade dos sistemas educacionais nos quais o debate sobre o Construtivismo é travado, sua versão pedagógica proposta neste trabalho integra uma visão de realidade mais próxima à aceitável pela comunidade de pesquisadores e professores de Física e ao valioso trabalho de criação de conhecimento científico na escola, que a comunidade de pesquisadores em ensino de Física vem realizando há mais de duas décadas no Brasil.The present article comes from an illustration of the etymology of the word constructivism - to sow together - and then gather the seeds that will be put at the pupils disposal throughout the courses for the development of Physics teachers. Among them there are arguments in favor of a sustainable version of Constructivism, recognizing the critics of epistemological, psychological or even pedagogical origin, to a few aspects of versions that have been circulated by researchers of education in science, in the last years. With the commitment of not being limited to criticism and in light of the complexity of educational systems about which the debate about Constructivism takes place, the pedagogical version proposed in this work integrates a vision of reality closer to that acceptable by the community of researchers and professors of Physics. There is valuable work in constructivist teaching of scientific

  2. ANDRILL: INVOLVING TEACHERS IN FIELD RESEARCH ENHANCES THE TRANSFER OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE TO CLASSROOMS AND TO OTHER EDUCATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, M.; Huffman, L. T.; Trummel, B.

    2009-12-01

    For most educators, the end of a field research experience is truly the beginning. From the knowledge gained and the excitement of living and working in a harsh environment like Antarctica, ARISE (ANDRILL Research Immersion for Science Educators) participants create enhanced learning experiences and resources for their students and for the professional development of other teachers. ANDRILL (Antarctic geological DRILLing) is an multi-national and interdisciplinary research project involving Italy, Germany , New Zealand, and USA. The core concept of its Education and Public Outreach Program is to embed educators as integral members on the science research teams, allowing them to participate in every phase of the mission. Their primary goal is to develop effective and innovative educational approaches for the communication of the scientific and technical aspects of the drilling program. ANDRILL has developed an exemplary teacher research experience model that differs from most by supporting a collaborative team of international educators rather than just one teacher. During the first two years of drilling projects, 2006 and 2007, ANDRILL took 16 educators from 4 countries to Antarctica. From those experiences, a growing collaborative network of polar science educators is nurtured, many valuable resources and examples of professional development have been created, and lessons have been learned and evaluated for future teacher research immersion experiences. An Italian ARISE participant and ANDRILL’s Education and Outreach Coordinator will present how ARISE has been at the core of developing transformational programs and resources in both countries including: [1] Flexhibit, a digital series of climate change materials designed for informal and formal learning environments that have been translated into Italian, German, French, Arabic, Spanish, and New Zealand English, (2) C2S2: Climate Change Student Summits, which provide professional development and resources for

  3. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper Twenty Three. Information Technology and Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion: Exploring the Intermediary-End User Interface in a Policy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Feigenbaum et al., 1988, p. 266). The librarians to make fuller use of information technolo- skills needed by the knowledge engineer include a sol- gies and...impediments skills that would qualify them to work as knowledge before it can be important player in the development engineers. The term " knowledge engineer...and retrieving documents; and enables in- have most of the skills that a knowledge engineer formation scientists to play an active and central role

  4. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report Number 21. U.S. Aerospace Industry Librarians and Technical Information Specialists as Information Intermediaries: Results of the Phase 2 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    present the results of re- search that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-h-vis U.S. aerospace industry librarians and technical...based systems that rely on librarians and technical information specialists to complete the knowledge transfer process. To date, empirical findings on...some thoughts regarding the role of U.S. aerospace industry librarians and technical information in the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. THE U.S

  5. The Influence of Subject Knowledge and Second Language Proficiency on the Reading Comprehension of Scientific and Technical Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tim; Berry, Vivien

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of background knowledge and second language proficiency in relation to two sets of specific reading materials. One came from an IELTS reading module related to science and technology; the other was from a highly-specific popular science text. Results showed that both language proficiency and background knowledge predicted…

  6. Developing a New Teaching Approach for the Chemical Bonding Concept Aligned with Current Scientific and Pedagogical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Tami Levy; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Krajcik, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The traditional pedagogical approach for teaching chemical bonding is often overly simplistic and not aligned with the most up-to-date scientific models. As a result, high-school students around the world lack fundamental understanding of chemical bonding. In order to improve students' understanding of this concept, it was essential to propose a…

  7. Directions of scientific literature in knowledge management from the perspective of their relationships with innovation, information and technology management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria Moura Madeira

    Full Text Available Given the establishment of new journals as a way to fill in gaps and further studies in the area of Knowledge Management and the impact Knowledge Management has had for two decades as a tool for competitive advantage, the aim of the study was to point out tendencies and discuss academic production in Knowledge Management over the years. As the focus of discussion, the article analyzes the relationship of Knowledge Management between Innovation Management, Technology Management and Information Management. The source material for mapping academic output was ten international journals, which were selected from 2006 to 2012, obtaining an initial sample of 2,900 papers. The systematic search was conducted to identify which relationships are more predominant in the journals selected. Through the analysis of relationships in publications within the time interval established, it was found that the relationship between Knowledge Management and Technology Management appears much more frequently in all publications over the years. The relationship between Knowledge Management and Technology Management decreased significantly in recent years. In contrast, there was an increase in papers discussing Knowledge Management and Innovation Management.

  8. The Relationship of Science Knowledge, Attitude and Decision Making on Socio-scientific Issues: The Case Study of Students' Debates on a Nuclear Power Plant in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Hunkoog; Yoon, Hye-Gyoung; Kim, Mijung

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of students' understanding of science knowledge, attitude and decision making on socio-scientific issues (SSI), especially on the issues of nuclear energy in Korea. SSI-focused instructions were developed to encourage students to understand and reflect on knowledge, attitude and decision making on nuclear energy in the current society. Eighty-nine students attended the instruction and participated in pre and post questionnaires to understand their understandings of nuclear energy. In this study, science knowledge was categorized into content and contextual knowledge, attitude consisted of images, safety, risk, potential, benefits and future roles, and decision making section included preference and alternative about lifetime extension of nuclear power plant. The results of questionnaires were analyzed by correlation, cross-tabulation and regression. As a result, while students' understandings of science knowledge were significantly improved throughout the instruction, they maintained similar attitude and decision making on the issue. Regarding the relationship of the three domains, attitude showed some degree of connection to decision making whereas science knowledge did not show a significant relationship to decision making. This finding challenges SSI teaching in content-based science curriculum and classroom. Reflection and implications on the way of teaching SSI in the classroom were discussed further in this paper.

  9. Does it take two to tango? Factors related to the ease of societal uptake of scientific knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olmos-Penuela, Julia; Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Castro-Martinez, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Science policy increasingly focuses on maximising societal benefits from science and technology investments, but often reduces those benefits to activities involving codifying and selling knowledge, thereby idealising best practice academic behaviours around entrepreneurial superstars. This paper

  10. M4FT-16LL080303052-State of Knowledge for Colloid Facilitated Radionuclide Transport and Update on Actinide Diffusion in Bentonite Backfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences; Joseph, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Glenn T. Seaborg Inst.. Physical and Life Sciences

    2016-08-16

    This progress report (Level 4 Milestone Number M4FT-16LL080303052) summarizes research conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) within the Crystalline Disposal R&D Activity Number FT-16LL080303051 and Crystalline International Collaborations Activity Number FT-16LL080303061. The focus of this research is the interaction of radionuclides with Engineered Barrier System (EBS) and host rock materials at various physico-chemical conditions relevant to subsurface repository environments. They include both chemical and physical processes such as solubility, sorption, and diffusion. The colloid-facilitated transport effort focused on preparation of a draft manuscript summarizing the state of knowledge and parameterization of colloid-facilitated transport mechanisms in support of reactive transport and performance assessment models for generic crystalline repositories. This draft manuscript is being submitted as a level 3 milestone with LANL as the primary author. LLNL’s contribution to that effort is summarized only briefly in the present report. A manuscript summarizing long-term U(VI) diffusion experiments through bentonite backfill material was recently accepted for publication; the contents of that manuscript are summarized in the present report. The Np(IV) diffusion experiments were started mid-year and are ongoing. The completion of these experiments is planned for early FY17. Our progress in quantifying Np(IV) diffusion in bentonite backfill is summarized in the present report. Our involvement with the NEA TDB project was summarized in a recent Argillite Disposal activity report. It is not included in this report.

  11. Promoting knowledge integration of scientific principles and environmental stewardship: Assessing an issue-based approach to teaching evolution and marine conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Timothy David

    2005-11-01

    Students and citizens need to apply science to important issues every day. Yet the design of science curricula that foster integration of science and everyday decisions is not well understood. For example, can curricula be designed that help learners apply scientific reasons for choosing only environmentally sustainable seafood for dinner? Learners must develop integrated understandings of scientific principles, prior experiences, and current decisions in order to comprehend how everyday decisions impact environmental resources. In order to investigate how such integrated understandings can be promoted within school science classes, research was conducted with an inquiry-oriented curriculum that utilizes technology and a visit to an informal learning environment (aquarium) to promote the integration of scientific principles (adaptation) with environmental stewardship. This research used a knowledge integration approach to teaching and learning that provided a framework for promoting the application of science to environmental issues. Marine biology, often forsaken in classrooms for terrestrial biology, served as the scientific context for the curriculum. The curriculum design incorporated a three-phase pedagogical strategy and new technology tools to help students integrate knowledge and experiences across the classroom and aquarium learning environments. The research design and assessment protocols included comparisons among and within student populations using two versions of the curriculum: an issue-based version and a principle-based version. These inquiry curricula were tested with sophomore biology students attending a marine-focused academy within a coastal California high school. Pretest-posttest outcomes were compared between and within the curricular treatments. Additionally, comparisons were made between the inquiry groups and seniors in an Advanced Placement biology course who attend the same high school. Results indicate that the inquiry curricula

  12. [Public scientific knowledge distribution in health information, communication and information technology indexed in MEDLINE and LILACS databases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Abel Laerte; Tardelli, Adalberto Otranto; Castro, Regina Célia Figueiredo

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the distribution of international, regional and national scientific output in health information and communication, indexed in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, between 1996 and 2005. A selection of articles was based on the hierarchical structure of Information Science in MeSH vocabulary. Four specific domains were determined: health information, medical informatics, scientific communications on healthcare and healthcare communications. The variables analyzed were: most-covered subjects and journals, author affiliation and publication countries and languages, in both databases. The Information Science category is represented in nearly 5% of MEDLINE and LILACS articles. The four domains under analysis showed a relative annual increase in MEDLINE. The Medical Informatics domain showed the highest number of records in MEDLINE, representing about half of all indexed articles. The importance of Information Science as a whole is more visible in publications from developed countries and the findings indicate the predominance of the United States, with significant growth in scientific output from China and South Korea and, to a lesser extent, Brazil.

  13. Integrating Ethno-Ecological and Scientific Knowledge of Termites for Sustainable Termite Management and Human Welfare in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudeta W. Sileshi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their well-known role as pests, termites also provide essential ecosystem services. In this paper, we undertook a comprehensive review of studies on human-termite interactions and farmers' indigenous knowledge across Sub-Saharan Africa in an effort to build coherent principles for termite management. The review revealed that local communities have comprehensive indigenous knowledge of termite ecology and taxonomy, and apply various indigenous control practices. Many communities also have elaborate knowledge of the nutritional and medicinal value of termites and mushrooms associated with termite nests. Children and women also widely consume termite mound soil for nutritional or other benefits encouraged by indigenous belief systems. In addition, subsistence farmers use termites as indicators of soil fertility, and use termite mound soil in low-risk farming strategies for crop production. In the past, chemical control of termites has been initiated without empirical data on the termite species, their damage threshold, and the social, ecological, or economic risks and trade-offs of the control. This review has provided new insights into the intimate nature of human-termite interactions in Africa and the risks of chemical control of termites to human welfare and the environment. We recommend that management of termites in future should be built on farmers' indigenous knowledge and adequate understanding of the ecology of the local termite species.

  14. Sexuality and Human Reproduction: A Study of Scientific Knowledge, Behaviours and Beliefs of Portuguese Future Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Luisa; Teixeira, Filomena; Martins, Isabel; Melico-Silvestre, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Sex education in Portugal has become a right and an obligation starting in the first years of school. However, despite being required by legislation, this is not easy to achieve, partly because of weaknesses in the training of teachers, which need to be identified. In this study, data were collected about the knowledge, behaviours and beliefs of…

  15. Conceptions of Scientific Knowledge Influence Learning of Academic Skills: Epistemic Beliefs and the Efficacy of Information Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Tom; Peter, Johannes; Mayer, Anne-Kathrin; Krampen, Günter

    2018-01-01

    The present article investigates the effects of epistemic beliefs (i.e. beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing) on the effectiveness of information literacy instruction (i.e. instruction on how to search for scholarly information in academic settings). We expected psychology students with less sophisticated beliefs (especially…

  16. A Breach in the Relationship between Correctness and Scientific Conceptual Knowledge for the Meaningful Solving of a Problem about Osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, June T.

    Expert/novice studies of conceptually rich problem solving have demonstrated a relationship between the correctness of a solution and the extent and organization of the solver's conceptual knowledge. This study examines meaningful problem solving and the relationship between the correctness of a solution and the extent of the solver's scientific…

  17. Towards the Application of Scientific Knowledge for a More Fulfilling Life: Focusing on Students Involved in Late Night Part-Time Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    中島, 千惠; Chie, NAKAJIMA; 京都文教大学臨床心理学部; Kyoto Bunkyo University

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers ways of supporting students who are involved in late night part-time jobs. There are a number of students who have difficulties with college work due to late night part-time jobs. This research paper is based on two hypotheses: (1) Students really want to exert their energy on their part-time job rather than on college work. (2) Students do not have correct scientific knowledge related to desirable sleep and eating habits and/or they are indifferent to making proper use o...

  18. PEASANT AND SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE ON PLANOSOLS AS A SOURCE OF MATERIALS IN THE MAKING OF NON-INDUSTRIAL POTTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiana Lira Cabral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopedological studies have mainly focused on agricultural land uses and associated practices. Nevertheless, peasant and indigenous populations use soil and land resources for a number of additional purposes, including pottery. In the present study, we describe and analyze folk knowledge related to the use of soils in non-industrial pottery making by peasant potters, in the municipality of Altinho, Pernambuco State, semiarid region at Brazil. Ethnoscientific techniques were used to record local knowledge, with an emphasis on describing the soil materials recognized by the potters, the properties they used to identify those soil materials, and the criteria employed by them to differentiate and relate such materials. The potters recognized three categories of soil materials: “terra” (earth, “barro” (clay and, “piçarro” (soft rock. The multi-layered arrangement of these materials within the soil profiles was similar to the arrangement of the soil horizon described by formal pedologists. “Barro vermelho” (red clay was considered by potters as the principal ceramic resource. The potters followed morphological and utilitarian criteria in distinguishing the different soil materials. Soils from all of these sites were sodium-affected Alfisols and correspond to Typic Albaqualf and Typic Natraqualf in the Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 2010.

  19. Big Missing Data: are scientific memes inherited differently from gendered authorship?

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Tanya; Fontainha, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to build upon the previous literature on gender aspects in research collaboration and knowledge diffusion. Our approach adds the meme inheritance notion to traditional citation analysis, as we investigate if scientific memes are inherited differently from gendered authorship. Since authors of scientific papers inherit knowledge from their cited authors, once authorship is gendered we are able to characterize the inheritance process with respect to the frequencies of memes and...

  20. Necessidade, objetividade e o paradoxo metafísico do conhecimento científico Necessity, objectivity, and the metaphysical paradox of scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo de C. M. Ayres

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A racionalidade científica moderna, buscando superar a fundamentação metafísica do conhecimento objetivo, toma a experiência do fato particular como a atualização de leis dadas a priori na mente humana ou na natureza, constituindo, paradoxalmente, uma nova e 'intransparente' metafísica. Entre as críticas contemporâneas a esta forma de pensar e fazer ciência, delineia-se uma compreensão construtivista, segundo a qual o fato particular e seu conhecimento objetivo resultam de relações circunstanciais entre o homem e seu mundo. Revisitando alguns dos principais fundadores da ciência ocidental, como Aristóteles, Bacon, Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Newton e Stuart Mill, este ensaio hermenêutico procura explorar a participação do metaconceito de 'necessidade' nessa dialética do conhecimento, interpretando, em termos epistemológicos, seu papel na construção e hipóstase da racionalidade científica moderna.Modern scientific rationality, seeking to move beyond the metaphysical foundations of objective knowledge, takes the experience of a particular fact to be the actual expression of prior laws of the human mind or of nature, thereby paradoxically constituting a new, 'invisible' metaphysics. Among contemporary critiques of this way of 'thinking and doing science', a constructivist understanding is gaining outline; according to this conception, a particular fact and objective knowledge thereof derive from circumstantial relations between human beings and their world. Revisiting some of the main founders of Western science, such as Aristotle, Bacon, Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Newton, and Stuart Mill, this hermeneutic essay explores the participation of the meta-concept of 'necessity' within this dialectic of knowledge and, in epistemological terms, interprets its role in the construction and hypostatization of modern scientific rationality.

  1. Status of scientific knowledge, recovery progress, and future research directions for the Gulf Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi Vladykov, 1955

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, Kenneth J.; Parauka, F; Slack, W. Todd; Ruth, T; Randall, Michael T.; Luke, K; Mette, M. F; Price, M. E

    2016-01-01

    The Gulf Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi, is an anadromous species of Acipenseridae and native to North America. It currently inhabits and spawns in the upper reaches of seven natal rivers along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico from the Suwannee River, Florida, to the Pearl River, Louisiana, during spring to autumn. Next to the Alligator Gar (Atractosteus spatula), the Gulf Sturgeon is currently the largest fish species occurring in U.S. Gulf Coast rivers, attaining a length of 2.35 m and weights exceeding 135 kg, but historically attained a substantially larger size. Historically, the spawning populations existed in additional rivers from which the species has been wholly or nearly extirpated, such as the Mobile and Ochlockonee rivers, and possibly the Rio Grande River. Most Gulf Sturgeon populations were decimated by unrestricted commercial fishing between 1895–1910. Subsequently most populations remained unrecovered or extirpated due to continued harvest until the 1970s–1980s, and the construction of dams blocking access to ancestral upriver spawning grounds. Late 20th Century harvest bans and net bans enacted by the several Gulf Coast states have stabilized several populations and enabled the Suwannee River population to rebound substantially and naturally. Hatchery supplementation has not been necessary in this regard to date. Sturgeon are resilient and adaptable fishes with a geological history of 150 million years. Research undertaken since the 1970s has addressed many aspects of Gulf Sturgeon life history, reproduction, migration, population biology, habitat requirements, and other aspects of species biology. However, many knowledge gaps remain, prominently including the life history of early developmental stages in the first year of life. Natural population recovery is evident for the Suwannee River population, but seems promising as well for at least four other populations. The Pascagoula and Pearl River populations face a challenging

  2. The hazard of Sea Level Rise (SLR) in Greece: from scientific knowledge towards risk awareness of main actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandoulaki, Miranda; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Yorgos, Melissourgos; Skordili, Sophia; Valkanou, Kanella

    2014-05-01

    A natural hazard that is expected to affect coastal areas in the near future is Sea-Level Rise (SLR) due to climate change. According to recent reports the eustatic sea-level rise caused by global warming will reach approximately 18-59 cm by the year 2100. Potential impacts of future sea-level rise include coastal erosion, frequent and intensified cyclonic activity and associated storm surge flooding that may affect the coastal zones, saltwater intrusion into groundwater aquifers, the inundation of ecologically significant wetlands, and threats to cultural and historical resources, as well as to infrastructure. The identification of sensitive sections of coasts and the assessment of potential impacts of SLR on these is therefore a fundamental, yet initial, step towards their protection. Greece has the most extensive coastline among all Mediterranean countries with most of the socio-economic activities concentrated along the coastal zone. Almost all big urban centres are coastal ones and the same stands for a great part of infrastructure (ports, airports, roads, electricity and telecommunications network etc). As a result, the impacts of a potential rise of the sea level are expected to seriously affect the entire country. The paper examines the vulnerability to SLR of coastal zones in Greece; however its main focus is how knowledge can lead to policy making and the protection of coastal areas. The main actors in respect to protection from SLR in Greece are identified and there is an attempt to pin point how the knowledge is communicated and shared between them. Barriers, bridges and gaps are detected as regards how information and knowledge lead to risk awareness and finally to the implementation of protection policies. A main finding of the paper is that SLR risk is far from becoming a policy priority in Greece, although steps are taken for addressing impacts attributed to SLR such as coastal erosion. In order to address this risk, there are many potential

  3. Diffusion of knowledge and skills through labour markets: Evidence from the furniture cluster in Metro Cebu (the Philippines)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerepoot, N.

    2008-01-01

    A skilled and flexible labour force is often given recognition as one of the key features of industrial clusters of similar enterprises. In clusters of small enterprises, knowledge and skills are not embedded in firms, but in the local labour force and the movements of a skilled and flexible labour

  4. Botany on a plate. Pleasure and the power of pictures in promoting early nineteenth-century scientific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secord, Anne

    2002-03-01

    In early nineteenth-century Britain the use of pictures in introducing novices to the study of science was contentious, leading to debates over the ways in which words and images constituted knowledge and over the role of pleasure in intellectual pursuits. While recent studies have stressed visual representation as a critical element of science and considered its relation to the written word in conveying information, this essay explores the nineteenth-century preoccupation with the mind and mental faculties in relation to corporeal responses to explain concerns over the role of images and the process of recognition. By considering illustration in this way, it argues that popular botany was defined by many expert naturalists as the means by which private individuals could best be encouraged to extend their aesthetic appreciation and love of plants to an active and participatory pursuit of science.

  5. Microbial dark matter investigations: how microbial studies transform biological knowledge and empirically sketch a logic of scientific discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Pathmanathan, Jananan S; Lannes, Romain; Lopez, Philippe; Bapteste, Eric

    2018-02-05

    Microbes are the oldest and most widespread, phylogenetically and metabolically diverse life forms on Earth. However, they have been discovered only 334 years ago, and their diversity started to become seriously investigated even later. For these reasons, microbial studies that unveil novel microbial lineages and processes affecting or involving microbes deeply (and repeatedly) transform knowledge in biology. Considering the quantitative prevalence of taxonomically and functionally unassigned sequences in environmental genomics datasets, and that of uncultured microbes on the planet, we propose that unraveling the microbial dark matter should be identified as a central priority for biologists. Based on former empirical findings of microbial studies, we sketch a logic of discovery with the potential to further highlight the microbial unknowns. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Thematic approach and complex scientific school knowledge: thematic and conceptual organization as proposals of open educational path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Watanabe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional way, the school knowledge of the sciences, especially in high school, is consolidated from a set of conceptual contents that reflects a given historical construction of the referred science, whether Biology, Physics or Chemistry. In this format, textbooks generally present a more deterministic and reductionist view. There are several consequences, in this scheme that impact the formation of students, among them a mechanized learning and little contextual meaning. In an opposing movement to these limitations, the thematic approaches have been proposed and discussed in research of science teaching field, which propose a treatment of a given topic that is considered relevant for the formation of the youth. However, the organization by themes makes it difficult to integrate into the school curricular culture. Facing this question, this article intends to investigate potential ways of dealing with the two mentioned approaches (traditional and thematic methods, identifying possibilities for the building of knowledge with the potential to promote a more critical and reflexive formation. Methodologically, in this perspective, the research proposes a theoretical reflection from the complexity view about the works with themes, but considering the national school reality. From these considerations emerge the proposal of articulation between two forms of organization, conceptual and thematic, which create space for diversified choices by teachers, based on issues of their school daily life and their training goals. These choices are represented by what we call open thematic pathways. From the results, it may be concluded that the proposed strategies can promote an alternative view of science, the complexity idea, to address questions of an open and dynamic nature and, in this way; it may allow reflections about perceptions, attitudes and values. At same time, it aims to ways of acting of teachers with greater autonomy and protagonism

  7. The integration of scientific knowledge on hydrogeomorphological processes in fluvial risk management strategies through the "Freedom space for rivers" concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Simon; Buffin-Bélanger, Thomas; Biron, Pascale; Ruiz, Julie

    2017-04-01

    Extensive knowledge and tools developed by hydrogeomorphologists led to the development of new approaches for fluvial hazards mapping that recognize the diversity of river systems and consider the temporal morphodynamic adjustments. Hydrogeomorphological mapping can be integrated into a management approach by considering distinct processes with specific regulation and management practices. The Freedom space for rivers (FSR) concept promotes the integration of multiple processes into a single space by combining the flooding and the mobility spaces as well as the riparian wetlands. Flooding spaces are delimited by a combination of methods, calling for the use of LiDAR elevation models and geomorphological observations related to past flood events. Mobility spaces are defined by the analysis of historical river positions and the interpretation of landforms associated with morphodynamics. In the FSR approach, fluvial processes can naturally operate, thus limiting risk for citizens and infrastructure, while providing a series of ecological services and socioeconomic benefits. Many methodological and institutional challenges arise for the applicability of the FSR concept in the management of rivers. To investigate these challenges, working groups bringing together different water stakeholders were created in collaboration with local watershed organizations and municipal authorities in three contrasting river environments in Québec (Canada). Stakeholders' engagement help identify local concerns regarding FSR management, collectively set up implementation strategies and transfer knowledge gained on river dynamics and fluvial hazards. The collaborative research approach aims to better understand challenges and opportunities for FSR management concepts. Farmers' reluctance to limit their interventions and practices along watercourses, a lack of political will at local level, the absence of government incentives to support local FSR actions, and the institutional challenge

  8. Young Children's Development of Scientific Knowledge Through the Combination of Teacher-Guided Play and Child-Guided Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliogeris, Marija; Almeida, Sylvia Christine

    2017-09-01

    Play-based approaches to science learning allow children to meaningfully draw on their everyday experiences and activities as they explore science concepts in context. Acknowledging the crucial role of the teacher in facilitating science learning through play, the purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how teacher-guided play, in conjunction with child-guided play, supports children's development of science concepts. While previous research on play-based science learning has mainly focused on preschool settings, this study explores the possibilities of play-based approaches to science in primary school contexts. Using a qualitative methodology grounded in the cultural-historical theoretical perspective, children's learning was examined during a science learning sequence that combined teacher-guided and child-guided play. This study revealed that the teacher-guided play explicitly introduced science concepts which children then used and explored in subsequent child-guided play. However, intentional teaching during the child-guided play continued to be important. Play-based approaches to science allowed children to make sense of the science concepts using familiar, everyday knowledge and activities. It became evident that the expectations and values communicated through classroom practices influenced children's learning through play.

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 8: Summary report to phase 3 faculty and student respondents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 3 of a four part study was undertaken to investigate the use of scientific and technical information (STI) in the academic aerospace community. Three questionnaires that were sent to three groups (i.e., faculty, librarians, and students) in the academic aerospace community were used. Specific attention was paid to the types of STI used and the methods in which academic users acquired STI. The focus is on the responses of two of the three groups: faculty in aerospace departments and students enrolled in the USRA-funded capstone design courses. Respondents in both groups relied heavily upon informal sources of information, although students were less inclined to regard their personal collections of STI as important. Both groups relied upon most formal sources of STI about the same, but students reported more difficulty in using the formal resources.

  10. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 5:] Summary report to phase 1 respondents including frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 1 of a four part study was undertaken to investigate the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Specific attention was paid to institutional and sociometric variables and to the step-by-step process of information gathering used by the respondents. Data were collected by means of three self-administered mail-back questionnaires. The approximately 34,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics served as the study population. More than 65 percent of the randomly selected respondants returned the questionnaires in each of the three groups. Respondants relied more heavily on informal sources of information than formal sources and turned to librarians and other technical information specialists only when they did not obtain results via informal means or their own formal searches. The report includes frequency distributions for the questions.

  11. Effect of Work-Based Learning Approach Genius Scientific Judging of the Physics Learning Achievement of Knowledge Early SMPN 13 Balikpapan in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliyono Suliyono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh Pendekatan Genius Learning Berbasis Kerja Ilmiah terhadap Prestasi Belajar Fisika Ditinjau dari  Pengetahuan Awal Siswa SMPN 13 Balikpapan Tahun 2012 Abstract: student mastery of the concepts of physics would be better if teachers implement instructional strategies that can make students more active and motivated, but still maintain a constructivist. Work-Based Learning Approach Scientific Genius (GLBKI is believed to be able to answer the demands of the development of education and facilitate students in learning physics concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine student achievement studying the Work-Based Learning Approach Genius Scientific and conventional learning. GLBKI approach to the treatment of experimental classes randomly selected and control classes conducted conventional learning. Learning achievement data collected by physics learning achievement tests. Results of the study are:  (1 there is a significant difference between student achievement through conventional learning and work-based learning approach scientific genius, (2 students who studied with GLBKI approach has physics learning achievement higher than the students who studied with conventional learning, ( 3 learning by using the Work-Based Learning Approach Scientific Genius can deliver improved student achievement is higher than the students who studied with conventional learning. Key words: work-based learning strategies genius of scientific, academic achievement, prior knowledge Abstrak: Penguasaan siswa terhadap konsep-konsep fisika akan lebih baik apabila pendidik menerap-kan strategi pembelajaran yang dapat membuat siswa lebih aktif dan termotivasi, namun tetap memper-tahankan konstruktivis. Pendekatan Genius Learning Berbasis Kerja Ilmiah (GLBKI diyakini mampu menjawab tuntutan perkembangan pendidikan dan mempermudah siswa dalam mempelajari konsep-konsep fisika. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji  prestasi belajar siswa yang belajar

  12. Does the Sun revolve around the Earth? A comparison between the general public and online survey respondents in basic scientific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Emily A; Farid, Hany

    2016-02-01

    We conducted an online survey using a set of factual science questions that are commonly administered to assess fact-based scientific literacy. We report that the online population performed substantially better on this standard assessment than the traditional survey population. For example, it has been widely reported that 1 in 4 Americans does not know that the Earth revolves around the Sun, whereas among the online population, this ratio is reduced to 1 in 25. While new online platforms provide researchers with unprecedented ease of access to a large sample population for studying trends in public knowledge and attitudes, generalizing from online population samples to the US population at large poses a considerable challenge. We discuss the potential reasons for this discrepancy and the implications for conducting research online. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Implementing interactive decision support: A case for combining cyberinfrastructure, data fusion, and social process to mobilize scientific knowledge in sustainability problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Geosciences are becoming increasingly data intensive, particularly in relation to sustainability problems, which are multi-dimensional, weakly structured and characterized by high levels of uncertainty. In the case of complex resource management problems, the challenge is to extract meaningful information from data and make sense of it. Simultaneously, scientific knowledge alone is insufficient to change practice. Creating tools, and group decision support processes for end users to interact with data are key challenges to transforming science-based information into actionable knowledge. The ENCOMPASS project began as a multi-year case study in the Atacama Desert of Chile to design and implement a knowledge transfer model for energy-water-mining conflicts in the region. ENCOMPASS combines the use of cyberinfrastructure (CI), automated data collection, interactive interfaces for dynamic decision support, and participatory modelling to support social learning. A pilot version of the ENCOMPASS CI uses open source systems and serves as a structure to integrate and store multiple forms of data and knowledge, such as DEM, meteorological, water quality, geomicrobiological, energy demand, and groundwater models. In the case study, informatics and data fusion needs related to scientific uncertainty around deep groundwater flowpaths and energy-water connections. Users may upload data from field sites with handheld devices or desktops. Once uploaded, data assets are accessible for a variety of uses. To address multi-attributed decision problems in the Atacama region a standalone application with touch-enabled interfaces was created to improve real-time interactions with datasets by groups. The tool was used to merge datasets from the ENCOMPASS CI to support exploration among alternatives and build shared understanding among stakeholders. To date, the project has increased technical capacity among stakeholders, resulted in the creation of both for-profit and non

  14. The diffusion of health economics knowledge in Europe : The EURONHEED (European Network of Health Economics Evaluation Database) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pouvourville, Gérard; Ulmann, Philippe; Nixon, John; Boulenger, Stéphanie; Glanville, Julie; Drummond, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper overviews the EURONHEED (EUROpean Network of Health Economics Evaluation Databases) project. Launched in 2003, this project is funded by the EU. Its aim is to create a network of national and international databases dedicated to health economic evaluation of health services and innovations. Seven centres (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK) are involved covering 17 countries. The network is based on two existing databases, the French CODECS (COnnaissance et Decision en EConomie de la Sante) database, created in 2000 by the French Health Economists Association (College des Economistes de la Sante), and the UK NHS-EED (NHS Economic Electronic Database), run by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, York, England. The network will provide bibliographic records of published full health economic evaluation studies (cost-benefit, cost-utility and cost-effectiveness studies) as well as cost studies, methodological articles and review papers. Moreover, a structured abstract of full evaluation studies will be provided to users, allowing them access to a detailed description of each study and to a commentary stressing the implications and limits, for decision making, of the study. Access will be free of charge. The database features and its ease of access (via the internet: http://www.euronheed.org) should facilitate the diffusion of existing economic evidence on health services and the generalisation of common standards in the field at the European level, thereby improving the quality, generalisability and transferability of results across countries.

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 46: Technical communications in aerospace: A comparison across four countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura Frye; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe the preliminary analysis of four groups of aerospace engineering and science students -- student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and students from universities in Japan, Russia, and Great Britain. We compare: (1) the demographic characteristics of the students; (2) factors that affected their career decision; (3) their career goals and aspirations; (4) their training in technical communication; and (5) their training in techniques for finding and using aerospace scientific and technical information (STI). Many employers in the US aerospace industry think there is a need for increased training of engineering students in technical communication. Engineers in the US and other countries believe that technical communication skills are critical for engineers' professional success. All students in our study agree about the importance of technical communication training for professional success, yet relatively few are happy with the instruction they receive. Overall, we conclude that additional instruction in technical communication and accessing STI would make it easier for students to achieve their career goals.

  16. Students' Knowledge of Nuclear Science and Its Connection with Civic Scientific Literacy in Two European Contexts: The Case of Newspaper Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Hartzavalos, Sotiris; Nakiboğlu, Canan

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear science has uses and applications that are relevant and crucial for world peace and sustainable development, so knowledge of its basic concepts and topics should constitute an integral part of civic scientific literacy. We have used two newspaper articles that deal with uses of nuclear science that are directly relevant to life, society, economy, and international politics. One article discusses a new thermonuclear reactor, and the second one is about depleted uranium and its danger for health. 189 first-year undergraduate physics and primary education Greek students were given one of the two articles each, and asked to answer a number of accompanying questions dealing with knowledge that is part of the Greek high school curriculum. The study was repeated with 272 first-year undergraduate physics, physics education, science education, and primary education Turkish students. Acceptable or partially acceptable answers were provided on average by around 20 % of Greek and 11 % of Turkish students, while a large proportion (on the average, around 50 % of Greek and 27 % of Turkish students) abstained from answering the questions. These findings are disappointing, but should be seen in the light of the limited or no coverage of the relevant learning material in the Greek and the Turkish high-school programs. Student conceptual difficulties, misconceptions and implications for research and high school curricula are discussed.

  17. Fomento à publicação científica e proteção do conhecimento científico Financing of the scientific publication and protection of the scientific knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Santos de Oliveira Filho

    2005-01-01

    . The grants for editing were specifically created for supporting the national scientific and technical publications edited by Brazilians institutions or societies. CNPq can also support Congresses, Symposiums and similar short-term courses. The Plataforma Lattes is also a branch of CNPq on which the Curriculum Lattes is available. This site has the curriculum vitae of the scientific community and is of great value for researchers. FAPESP also finances journal publications, articles and books that bring up original results of studies made by researchers from the state of São Paulo. It finances, partially, the travel expenses of innovative papers authors in meetings within the country or abroad. Brazilian authors are increasing the number of international publications. Universities, research institutes, financing agencies and private companies are more and more concerned with knowledge property. Researchers must understand the need of knowledge property and the financing agencies have to consider the patents achieved as a criteria of evaluation of scientific production.

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 35: The use of computer networks in aerospace engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Ann P.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    This research used survey research to explore and describe the use of computer networks by aerospace engineers. The study population included 2000 randomly selected U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who subscribed to Aerospace Engineering. A total of 950 usable questionnaires were received by the cutoff date of July 1994. Study results contribute to existing knowledge about both computer network use and the nature of engineering work and communication. We found that 74 percent of mail survey respondents personally used computer networks. Electronic mail, file transfer, and remote login were the most widely used applications. Networks were used less often than face-to-face interactions in performing work tasks, but about equally with reading and telephone conversations, and more often than mail or fax. Network use was associated with a range of technical, organizational, and personal factors: lack of compatibility across systems, cost, inadequate access and training, and unwillingness to embrace new technologies and modes of work appear to discourage network use. The greatest positive impacts from networking appear to be increases in the amount of accurate and timely information available, better exchange of ideas across organizational boundaries, and enhanced work flexibility, efficiency, and quality. Involvement with classified or proprietary data and type of organizational structure did not distinguish network users from nonusers. The findings can be used by people involved in the design and implementation of networks in engineering communities to inform the development of more effective networking systems, services, and policies.

  19. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 52: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Japanese and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Holloway, Karen; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the diffusion of aerospace knowledge, it is necessary to understand the communications practices and the information-seeking behaviors of those involved in the production, transfer, and use of aerospace knowledge at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels. In this paper, we report selected results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on communications practices and information-seeking behaviors in the workplace. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communications, use of libraries, the use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. The responses of the survey respondents are placed within the context of the Japanese culture. We assume that differences in Japanese and U.S. cultures influence the communications practices and information-seeking behaviors of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists.

  20. SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF DIDACTICS

    OpenAIRE

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2014-01-01

    The research is aimed at scientific justification of didactics referred to the social and humanitarian field of knowledge. The author deals with the scientific character criteria (verity, inter-subjectivity, systemacity and validity) taking into account different scientific rationality types (classical and nonclassical) and identifying post-modernism influence on didactics. Objectives and results of research. Attempts are made to systematize the didactic knowledge and identify its components ...

  1. The paradox of scientific expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon

    2011-01-01

    Modern societies depend on a growing production of scientific knowledge, which is based on the functional differentiation of science into still more specialised scientific disciplines and subdisciplines. This is the basis for the paradox of scientific expertise: The growth of science leads...... cross-disciplinary research and in the collective use of different kinds of scientific expertise, and thereby make society better able to solve complex, real-world problems....... to a fragmentation of scientific expertise. To resolve this paradox, the present paper investigates three hypotheses: 1) All scientific knowledge is perspectival. 2) The perspectival structure of science leads to specific forms of knowledge asymmetries. 3) Such perspectival knowledge asymmetries must be handled...

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 69: Writing for the Aerospace Industry. Chapter 3; The Practice of Technical and Scientific Communication: Writing in Professional Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The large and complex aerospace industry, which employed approximately 850,000 people in 1994 (Aerospace Facts, 1994-95, p. 11), plays a vital role in the nation's economy. Although only a small percentage of those employed in aerospace are technical communicators, they perform a wide variety of communication duties in government and the private sector.

  3. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Current Knowledge and Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Majchrzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is one of the most common non-Hodgkin lymphomas in adults. The disease is very heterogeneous in its presentation, that is DLBCL patients may differ from each other not only in regard to histology of tissue infiltration, clinical course or response to treatment, but also in respect to diversity in gene expression profiling. A growing body of knowledge on the biology of DLBCL, including abnormalities in intracellular signaling, has allowed the development of new treatment strategies, specifically directed against lymphoma cells. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway plays an important role in controlling proliferation and survival of tumor cells in various types of malignancies, including DLBCL, and therefore it may be a promising target for therapeutic intervention. Currently, novel anticancer drugs are undergoing assessment in different phases of clinical trials in aggressive lymphomas, with promising outcomes. In this review we present a state of art review on various classes of small molecule inhibitors selectively involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and their clinical potential in this disease.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 29: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Japanese and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third; to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists in Japan and at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Japanese and U.S. surveys were 85 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Japanese and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

  5. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 16: A comparison of the technical communications practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), NASA ARC, and NASA LaRC. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. The responses of the Russian and U.S. participants, to selected questions, are presented in this report.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 14: An analysis of the technical communications practices reported by Israeli and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Elazar, David; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two pilot studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their view about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to randomly selected U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who are working in cryogenics, adaptive walls, and magnetic suspension. A slightly modified version was sent to Israeli aerospace engineers and scientists working at Israel Aircraft Industries, LTD. Responses of the Israeli and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 17: A comparison of the technical communication practices of Dutch and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of Dutch and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NLR), and NASA Ames Research Center, and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Dutch and U.S. surveys were 55 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Dutch and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented.

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 18: A comparison of the technical communication practices of aerospace engineers and scientists in India and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communications practices of India and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies have the same seven objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communications to their profession; second, to determine the use and production of technical communications by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line data bases; fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them; sixth, to determine their use of electronic networks; and seventh, to determine their use of foreign and domestically produced technical reports. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to aerospace engineers and scientists at the Indian Institute of Science and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the India and U.S. surveys were 48 and 53 percent, respectively. Responses of the India and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this report.

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 28: The technical communication practices of Russian and US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Flammia, Madelyn; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    As part of Phase 4 of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project, two studies were conducted that investigated the technical communication practices of Russian and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Both studies had the same five objectives: first, to solicit the opinions of aerospace engineers and scientists regarding the importance of technical communication to their professions; second, to determine the use and production of technical communication by aerospace engineers and scientists; third, to seek their views about the appropriate content of the undergraduate course in technical communication; fourth, to determine aerospace engineers' and scientists' use of libraries, technical information centers, and on-line databases; and fifth, to determine the use and importance of computer and information technology to them. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to Russian aerospace engineers and scientists at the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) and to their U.S. counterparts at the NASA Ames Research Center and the NASA Langley Research Center. The completion rates for the Russian and U.S. surveys were 64 and 61 percent, respectively. Responses of the Russian and U.S. participants to selected questions are presented in this paper.

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 27: The technical communication practices of engineering and science students: Results of the phase 3 academic surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hecht, Laura M.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate engineering science students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an engineer or a scientist, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication practices, habits, and training of engineers and science (Physics) students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of students enrolled in the College of Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Bowling Green State University, and Texas A&M University. The survey was undertaken as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance, use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 26: The technical communication practices of aerospace engineering students: Results of the phase 3 AIAA National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate engineering students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an engineer, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication practices, habits, and training of aerospace engineering students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey was undertaken as a phase 3 activity of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance; use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign language technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

  12. Landslide risk assessment and landslide disaster risk management: on the missing link between scientific knowledge, decision making and practice (Sergey Soloviev Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Ayala, Irasema

    2016-04-01

    Different investigations have been developed to address the uncertainty and quality evaluations leading to improve landslide hazard and risk assessment. With no doubt, and by using a wide range of scientific and technical approaches, they have contributed to a major extent to the understanding of the dynamics of landslide processes at different scales. Nonetheless, in a similar fashion than other hazards, it has been rather difficult to assess in a precise manner the multi-dimensions of their associated vulnerability and what is more, to effectively link risk assessments with disaster risk management. Owing to the double-character of landslide events, as natural and socio-natural hazards, mass movements turn out to be very complex processes, as their occurrence is also enhanced by population growth, socio-economic inequality, urbanization processes, land-degradation, unsustainable practices and mounting hazard exposure. Disaster Risk Management rope in the actions to attain Disaster Risk Reduction. The latter aims at decreasing existing hazard, vulnerability, and exposure, in addition to strengthening resilience, and very importantly, avoiding the construction of future disaster risk (UNISDR, 2015a). More specifically, and along the same line of ideas, the new-fangled Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR) 2015-2030 (UNISDR, 2015b) points towards reducing disaster risk and losses by engaging in a series of actions at local, national and global levels. Among them and of utterly significance are those initiatives related to the need of moving from risk assessment into disaster risk management. Consequently, and beyond championing scientific and technical capacity to strengthen landslide knowledge to assess vulnerability, hazard exposure and disaster risks, the challenge remains in the realm of promoting and improving permanent communication, dialogue and partnership among the science and technology communities, policymakers and other stakeholders

  13. Learning To Use Scientific Knowledge in Education and Practice Settings: An Evaluation of the Contribution of the Biological Behavioural and Social Sciences to Pre-Registration Nursing and Midwifery Programmes. Researching Professional Education. Research Reports Series Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraut, Michael; And Others

    A research project evaluated the contribution of biological, behavioral, and social sciences to nursing and midwifery education programs in Britain. The study of scientific knowledge relevant to recently qualified nurses and midwives was confined to six topics: fluids, electrolytes, and renal systems; nutrition; acute pain; shock; stress; and…

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with mild airflow limitation: current knowledge and proposal for future research – a consensus document from six scientific societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi A

    2017-08-01

    of which can be measured by FEV1% predicted: stage 1 defines COPD with mild airflow limitation, which means postbronchodilator FEV1 ≥80% predicted. In recent years, an elegant series of studies has shown that “exclusive reliance on spirometry, in patients with mild airflow limitation, may result in underestimation of clinically important physiologic impairment”. In fact, exercise tolerance, diffusing capacity, and gas exchange can be impaired in subjects at a mild stage of airflow limitation. Furthermore, growing evidence indicates that smokers without overt abnormal spirometry have respiratory symptoms and undergo therapy. This is an essential issue in COPD. In fact, on one hand, airflow limitation, even mild, can unduly limit the patient’s physical activity, with deleterious consequences on quality of life and even survival; on the other hand, particularly in younger subjects, mild airflow limitation might coincide with the early stage of the disease. Therefore, we thought that it was worthwhile to analyze further and discuss this stage of “mild COPD”. To this end, representatives of scientific societies from five European countries have met and developed this document to stimulate the attention of the scientific community on COPD with “mild” airflow limitation. The aim of this document is to highlight some key features of this important concept and help the practicing physician to understand better what is behind “mild” COPD. Future research should address two major issues: first, whether mild airflow limitation represents an early stage of COPD and what the mechanisms underlying the evolution to more severe stages of the disease are; and second, not far removed from the first, whether regular treatment should be considered for COPD patients with mild airflow limitation, either to prevent progression of the disease or to encourage and improve physical activity or both. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, airflow limitation

  15. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  16. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of Older Adults: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-11-01

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults aged 75 and older. Despite the effect of CVD on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, individuals aged 75 and older have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older adults with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in nursing homes and assisted living facilities. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older adults typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision-making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, a detailed review was conducted of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and American Stroke Association (ASA) guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older adults. A pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision-making in older adults with CVD was found, as well as a paucity of data on the effect of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on outcomes that are particularly important to older adults, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older adults representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older adults in the study design. The results of these studies will provide the foundation for

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 40: Technical communications in aerospace education: A study of AIAA student members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary analysis of a survey of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) student members. In the paper we examine (1) the demographic characteristics of the students, (2) factors that affected their career decisions, (3) their career goals and aspirations, and (4) their training in technical communication and techniques for finding and using aerospace scientific and technical information (STI). We determine that aerospace engineering students receive training in technical communication skills and the use of STI. While those in the aerospace industry think that more training is needed, we believe the students receive the appropriate amount of training. We think that the differences between the amount of training students receive and the perception of training needs is related partially to the characteristics of the students and partially to the structure of the aerospace STI dissemination system. Overall, we conclude that the students' technical communication training and knowledge of STI, while limited by external forces, makes it difficult for students to achieve their career goals.

  18. Conocimientos de la ética de la investigación científica Knowledge of the scientific research ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalberto Aguilar Hernández

    2008-09-01

    between 5 and 10 years prevailed. A low index of researches and of scientific production was observed among the professionals that were surveyed. It was found a wide lack of knowledge of the ethics of research with human beings that was evidenced in the demand of theoretical knowledge about the ethical principles and limits ruling every research where the human beings take part, the moral and legal responsability of the professional in these researches, as well as the ethical requirements of evaluation of the research designs.

  19. Visualization in scientific computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nielson, Gregory M; Shriver, Bruce D; Rosenblum, Lawrence J

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to provide a reference source to scientists, engineers, and students who are new to scientific visualization or who are interested in expanding their knowledge in this subject...

  20. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 25: The technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of the phase 4 RAeS mail survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of British aerospace engineers and scientists.

  1. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Report 43: The Technical Communication Practices of U.S. Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 Mail Survey -- Manufacturing and Production Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communication practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were members of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

  2. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report No. 36: The Technical Communications Practices of US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists: Results of the Phase 1 NASA Langley Research Center Mail Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report, and present the results of research that investigated aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the technical communications practices of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists who were assigned to the Research and Technology Group (RTG) at the NASA Langley Research Center in September 1995.

  3. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report number 20: The use of selected information products and services by US aerospace engineers and scientists: Results of two surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development (R&D) are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally, funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reports and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from two surveys of our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report and close with a brief overview of on-going research into aerospace knowledge diffusion focusing on the role of the industry-affiliated information intermediary.

  4. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 1. The Scientific Enterprise - Some Characteristics of Scientific Knowledge. V V Raman. Reflections Volume 14 Issue 1 January 2009 pp 90-98. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Participatory Geographic Information Systems as an organizational platform for the integration of traditional and scientific knowledge in contemporary fire and fuels management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Balauf McBride; Fernando Sanchez-Trigueros; Stephen J Carver; Alan E Watson; Linda Moon Stumpff; Roian Matt; William T. Borrie

    2016-01-01

    Traditional knowledge about fire and its effects held by indigenous people, who are connected to specific landscapes, holds promise for informing contemporary fire and fuels management strategies and augmenting knowledge and information derived from western science. In practice, however, inadequate means to organize and communicate this traditional knowledge with...

  6. Conversing with Pelehonuamea: A workshop combining 1,000+ years of traditional Hawaiian knowledge with 200 years of scientific thought on Kīlauea volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauahikaua, James P.; Babb, Janet L.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Babb, Janet L.

    2017-05-25

    The events surrounding volcanic eruptions and damaging earthquakes in Hawai‘i have often been described in journals, letters, and newspapers articles in the English language; however, the Hawaiian nation was among the most literate of countries in the 19th century, and many Hawaiian-language newspapers were in circulation through all but the earliest decades of the 19th century. Any modern reconstruction of the history of Hawaiian eruptions or earthquakes should take advantage of all available sources, and so we seek to add the Hawaiian-language newspaper articles, journals, stories, and chants to the volcano and earthquake literature. These sources have been used in many recent volcanological studies.Another aspect to the mix of science and traditional Hawaiian values is that many of the volcanic summits in Hawaiʻi are considered sacred to Hawaiians. Hawaiian travelers brought the first Western missionary team to the summit of Kīlauea and advised them of the proper protocols and behaviors while in this sacred area. The missionaries dismissed this advice as native superstition and they began a campaign of aggressively stamping out customs and protocols related to the Hawaiian volcano goddess Pelehonuamea. What has survived as native knowledge of the volcanoes is a few phrases from native guides included in some of the missionaries’ journals, and a few stories. Pualani and Kuʻulei Kanahele provide excellent introductions to the Pelehonuamea chants.In the 21st century, amid a reawakening of Hawaiian culture, modern Hawaiians are demanding protection of their sacred areas, and scientists must be aware of these interests. At the very least, scientists should show respect to Hawaiian values when working in these areas, and should try to minimize disruptions caused by their work. Kaeo Duarte, Peter Mills, and Scott Rowland describe taking this approach in their field work.Traditional knowledge is also contained in place names. It is important not only to preserve

  7. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Both the practice and the research literature on information systems attach great value to the identification and dissemination of information on “best practices”. In the philosophy of science, this type of knowledge is regarded as technological knowledge because it becomes manifest...... in the successful techniques in one context. While the value for other contexts is unproven, knowledge of best practices circulates under an assumption that the practices will usefully self-diffuse through innovation and adoption in other contexts. We study diffusion of best practices using a design science...... approach. The study context is a design case in which an organization desires to diffuse its best practices across different groups. The design goal is embodied in organizational mechanisms to achieve this diffusion. The study used Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a kernel theory. The artifacts...

  8. The Effect of Use of Animations on the Academic Achievements of the Students, Retention of the Knowledge Learned, and the Scientific Process Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasdemir, Ikramettin

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of the use of the animation on the academic achievements of the students, retention of this achievement, and the development of scientific process skills in the unit of force and motion of the science and technology course of the 6th grade basic education and to find out the student's views. The…

  9. Modelling of Innovation Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kijek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the Bass model in 1969, research on the modelling of the diffusion of innovation resulted in a vast body of scientific literature consisting of articles, books, and studies of real-world applications of this model. The main objective of the diffusion model is to describe a pattern of spread of innovation among potential adopters in terms of a mathematical function of time. This paper assesses the state-of-the-art in mathematical models of innovation diffusion and procedures for estimating their parameters. Moreover, theoretical issues related to the models presented are supplemented with empirical research. The purpose of the research is to explore the extent to which the diffusion of broadband Internet users in 29 OECD countries can be adequately described by three diffusion models, i.e. the Bass model, logistic model and dynamic model. The results of this research are ambiguous and do not indicate which model best describes the diffusion pattern of broadband Internet users but in terms of the results presented, in most cases the dynamic model is inappropriate for describing the diffusion pattern. Issues related to the further development of innovation diffusion models are discussed and some recommendations are given. (original abstract

  10. Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stacy Kathryn

    This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems

  11. Road Map For Diffusion Of Innovation In Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, E Andrew; Chapman, Wendy W

    2018-02-01

    New scientific knowledge and innovation are often slow to disseminate. In other cases, providers rush into adopting what appears to be a clinically relevant innovation, based on a single clinical trial. In reality, adopting innovations without appropriate translation and repeated testing of practical application is problematic. In this article we provide examples of clinical innovations (for example, tight glucose control in critically ill patients) that were adopted inappropriately and that caused what we term a malfunction. To address the issue of malfunctions, we review various examples and suggest frameworks for the diffusion of knowledge leading to the adoption of useful innovations. The resulting model is termed an integrated road map for coordinating knowledge transformation and innovation adoption. We make recommendations for the targeted development of practice change procedures, practice change assessment, structured descriptions of tested interventions, intelligent knowledge management technologies, and policy support for knowledge transformation, including further standardization to facilitate sharing among institutions.

  12. Collaboration in scientific practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann

    2014-01-01

    personal trust. Based on my reflections on trust and dependence, I give an account of the relation between individual knowing and collaboratively created knowledge in research groups. Together these investigations contribute to the discussion of philosophical methodology in the study of scientific practice......This monograph investigates the collaborative creation of scientific knowledge in research groups. To do so, I combine philosophical analysis with a first-hand comparative case study of two research groups in experimental science. Qualitative data are gained through observation and interviews......, and I combine empirical insights with existing approaches to knowledge creation in philosophy of science and social epistemology. On the basis of my empirically-grounded analysis I make several conceptual contributions. I study scientific collaboration as the interaction of scientists within research...

  13. NADA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report number 19: The US government technical report and the transfer of federally funded aerospace R/D: An analysis of five studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. government technical report is a primary means by which the results of federally funded research and development are transferred to the U.S. aerospace industry. However, little is known about this information product in terms of its actual use, importance, and value in the transfer of federally funded R&D. To help establish a body of knowledge, the U.S. government technical report is being investigated as part of the 'NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project'. In this report, we summarize the literature on technical reprts and provide a model that depicts the transfer of federally funded aerospace R&D via the U.S. government technical report. We present results from five studies of our investigation of aerospace knowledge diffusion vis-a-vis the U.S. government technical report and close with a brief overview of on-going research into the use of the U.S. government technical report as a rhetorical device for transferring federally funded aerospace R&D.

  14. Shaping a Scientific Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    us to understand how a truth is reproduced, circulating among diverse fields of human knowledge. Also it will show why we accept and reproduce a particular discourse. Finally, we state Euclidean geometry as a truth that circulates in scientific discourse and performs a scientific self. We unfold...... the importance of having students following the path of what schools perceive a real scientist is, no to become a scientist, but to become a logical thinker, a problem solver, a productive citizen who uses reason....

  15. Preperation of Scientific Movies

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent Pekdağ

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to provide information on the preparation of the scientific movies as a part of Information and Communications Technology. The preparation stages of the scientific movies and their visualizations on computer screens were described. For preparing movies, the unit on the "acid-base reactions" on 11th grade French chemistry curriculum was used, and the knowledge presented in the movies was determined by an analysis of the 11th grade chemistry curriculum and the chemistry books. A...

  16. [A scientific reading method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, D

    1999-09-01

    To provide high quality services, nursing professionals must be prepared to update their knowledge constantly. To achieve this, various methods are available such as courses, conferences and research projects. All of these methods share one essential intellectual activity, scientific reading. Scientific reading is a complex and demanding activity that requires more than basic reading skills. Many nurses find it boring and arduous, probably because it gives them no pleasure, but especially because they lack a method. In this article, the author proposes a scientific reading method consisting of three stages: an overview approach to the text, a superficial reading, and an in-depth reading of the text. This method is simple, easy to use, and entirely appropriate for scientific reading. The author hopes that this method will give more nurses the desire to read and use scientific literature in the practice of their profession.

  17. Facilitating Preschoolers' Scientific Knowledge Construction via Computer Games Regarding Light and Shadow: The Effect of the Prediction-Observation-Explanation (POE) Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Liang, Jyh-Chong

    2011-01-01

    Educational researchers have suggested that computer games have a profound influence on students' motivation, knowledge construction, and learning performance, but little empirical research has targeted preschoolers. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of implementing a computer game that integrates the…

  18. THE EFFECT OF USE OF ANIMATIONS ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE STUDENTS, RETENTION OF THE KNOWLEDGE LEARNED, AND THE SCIENTIFIC PROCESS SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    DAŞDEMİR, İkramettin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of the use of the animation on the academic achievements of the students, retention of this achievement, and the development of scientific process skills in the unit of particle structure of matter of the science and technology course of the 6th grade basic education and to find out the student’s views. The sampling of the research was made up of by 40 students studying in a primary school in the city centre in Erzurum who were divided into Ex...

  19. Effects of Scaffolds and Scientific Reasoning Ability on Web-Based Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui-Ling; Weng, Hsiao-Lan; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how background knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, and various scaffolding forms influenced students' science knowledge and scientific inquiry achievements. The students participated in an online scientific inquiry program involving such activities as generating scientific questions and drawing evidence-based conclusions,…

  20. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with mild airflow limitation: current knowledge and proposal for future research – a consensus document from six scientific societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea; Butorac-Petanjek, Bojana; Chilosi, Marco; Cosío, Borja G; Flezar, Matjaz; Koulouris, Nikolaos; Marin, José; Miculinic, Neven; Polese, Guido; Samaržija, Miroslav; Skrgat, Sabina; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Vukić-Dugac, Andrea; Zakynthinos, Spyridon; Miravitlles, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with high and growing prevalence. Its underdiagnosis and hence under-treatment is a general feature across all countries. This is particularly true for the mild or early stages of the disease, when symptoms do not yet interfere with daily living activities and both patients and doctors are likely to underestimate the presence of the disease. A diagnosis of COPD requires spirometry in subjects with a history of exposure to known risk factors and symptoms. Postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity disease. Therefore, we thought that it was worthwhile to analyze further and discuss this stage of “mild COPD”. To this end, representatives of scientific societies from five European countries have met and developed this document to stimulate the attention of the scientific community on COPD with “mild” airflow limitation. The aim of this document is to highlight some key features of this important concept and help the practicing physician to understand better what is behind “mild” COPD. Future research should address two major issues: first, whether mild airflow limitation represents an early stage of COPD and what the mechanisms underlying the evolution to more severe stages of the disease are; and second, not far removed from the first, whether regular treatment should be considered for COPD patients with mild airflow limitation, either to prevent progression of the disease or to encourage and improve physical activity or both. PMID:28919728

  1. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 45: A comparison of the information-seeking behaviors of three groups of US aerospace engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, John M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    To understand the transfer of scientific and technical information (STI) in aerospace, it is necessary to understand the characteristics and behaviors of those who create and use STI. In this paper, we analyze the similarities and differences in the scientific and technical information-seeking behaviors of three groups of US aerospace engineers and scientists. We describe some of their demographic characteristics and their duties and responsibilities as a method of understanding their STI use patterns. There is considerable diversity among aerospace engineers in their use of STI. In general, engineers engaged in research use more STI than those who are in design/development and manufacturing/production. Research engineers also use different standards to determine the STI sources and products that they will use.

  2. The contribution of Japanese Soil Science Societies to scientific knowledge, education and sustainability: Good practices in the International Year of Soils 2015 towards the International Decade of Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Takashi; Matoh, Toru; Inubushi, Kazuyuki; Sakurai, Katsutoshi

    2017-04-01

    The soil science community in Japan includes ca. 15,000 individuals from a variety of sectors, i.e. research, education, extension, business, national and local government, practitioners, non-governmental or non-profit organizations, etc., who have mostly (multi-)membership(s) in some of the academic societies. Among those societies, the Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, the Japanese Society of Soil Microbiology and the Japanese Society of Pedology played a leading role in the promotion of the International Year of Soils 2015. The activities, many of which were jointly organized and executed by the above three, can be summarized as follows; Scientific symposiums/workshops not only within the societies but together with other disciplines such as geosciences, quaternary research, biogeochemistry, ecology, biosciences, geotechnology, etc. in national as well as international gatherings, Symposiums, (mobile) exhibitions, photo contests, science cafes, talk shows, field days, agricultural fairs, edutainment programs for school children, etc. for promoting the public awareness of soil and soil science, Publication of the books and booklets on the topics of soils, soil science, soil and environment (and/or food, life, human security, etc.), targeting the moderately educated public, Articles in selected newspapers, Distribution or sale of the novelty/memorial goods and items, e.g. soil globe, logo stickers, specially brewed Sake wines, etc. Translation of "Vienna Soil Declaration" of the IUSS into Japanese language and its distribution to the public, and Scientific and action proposal and its international dispatch of "The need to reinforce soil science research and the information basis to respond to both gradual and sudden changes in our environment" together with the Science Council of Japan. Scientific forums and gatherings as symposiums and workshops with other disciplines were successful and satisfied by most of the participants. Those for the

  3. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 60: Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    The advent of global markets elevates the role and importance of culture as a mitigating factor in the diffusion of knowledge and technology and in product and process innovation. This is especially true in the Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA) sector where the production and market aspects are becoming increasingly international. As firms expand beyond their national borders, using such methods as risk- sharing partnerships, joint ventures, outsourcing, and alliances, they have to contend with national and corporate cultures. Our focus is on Japan, a 'program participant' in the production of the Boeing Company's 777; the influence of Japanese culture on the diffusion of knowledge and technology in aerospace at the national and international levels; those cultural determinants-the propensity to work together, a willingness to subsume individual interests to a greater good, and an emphasis on consensual decisionmaking-that have a direct bearing on the ability of Japanese firms to form alliances and compete in international markets; and those cultural determinants thought to influence the information- seeking behaviors and workplace communication practices of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists. In this paper, we report selective results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on workplace communications. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communication, use of libraries, use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports.

  4. A study of the effects of English language proficiency and scientific reasoning skills on the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners and native English language-speaking students participating in grade 10 science classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Hector Neftali, Sr.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of English language proficiency and levels of scientific reasoning skills of Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students on their acquisition of science content knowledge as measured by a state-wide standardized science test. The researcher studied a group of high school Hispanic English language learners and native English language speaking students participating in Grade 10 science classes. The language proficiency of the students was to be measured through the use of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) instrument. A Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning developed by Lawson (1978) was administered in either English or Spanish to the group of Hispanic English language learners and in English to the group of native English language-speaking students in order to determine their levels of scientific reasoning skills. The students' acquisition of science content knowledge was measured through the use of statewide-standardized science test developed by the State's Department of Education. This study suggests that the levels of English language proficiency appear to influence the acquisition of science content knowledge of Hispanic English language learners in the study. The results of the study also suggest that with regards to scientific reasoning skills, students that showed high levels or reflective reasoning skills for the most part performed better on the statewide-standardized science test than students with intuitive or transitional reasoning skills. This assertion was supported by the studies conducted by Lawson and his colleagues, which showed that high levels of reasoning or reflective reasoning skills are prerequisite for most high school science courses. The findings in this study imply that high order English language proficiency combined with high levels of reasoning skills enhances students' abilities to learn science content subject matter. This

  5. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Quite unexpectedly, the simple pendulum was also responsible for the discovery of the slight flatness of the earth in the polar regions. (Maurice Daumas, Scientific Instruments of the. Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries and Their Makers, Portman Books, London,1989.) Common knowledge today, but arrived at only ...

  6. The Scientific Outlook

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nature by the observer, and this is scarcely possible if he does not possess the requisite capacity or knowledge of the subject. Rarely indeed are any scientific discoveries made except as the result of a carefully thought-out programme of work. They come, if they do come, as the reward of months or years of systematic study ...

  7. Scientific Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Medical Journal: an official journal of Egyptian Medical Education provides a forum for dissemination of knowledge, exchange of ideas, inform of exchange of ideas, information and experience among workers, investigators and clinicians in all disciplines of medicine with emphasis on its treatment and prevention.

  8. Scientific Crossbreeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Rolf

    . To develop a more adequate way of capturing what is at stake in interdisciplinarity, I suggest drawing inspiration from the contemporary philosophical literature on scientific representation. The development of a representation based approach to the analysis of interdisciplinarity, and the discussion...... of the concept of “scientific discipline” and disciplinary difference. This chapter provides reasons to assume that conventional scientific taxonomies do not provide a good basis for analysing epistemic aspects of interdisciplinary science. On this background it is argued that the concept of “approaches...... accepted arguments against the relevance of philosophy to understanding scientific activities (in general). In chapter 5 and onwards I argue in favour of construing interdisciplinarity and interdisciplinary activities in light of the philosophy of scientific represen- tation. I go through discussions...

  9. An Exploration of School Counselors' Knowledge Sharing Practices Using Diffusion of Innovation Theory, Social Exchange Theory, and Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Adria E.

    2010-01-01

    School counselors are expected to be advocates, collaborators, consultants, and leaders in their work with students, families, administrators, school staff, and community based stakeholders (ASCA, 2005; Shoffner & Briggs, 2001; Rowley, 2000). Underlying these expectations is the belief that school counselors are knowledgeable in the areas that…

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 10: Summary report to phase 3 academic library respondents including frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 3 of a 4 part study was undertaken to study the use of scientific and technical information (STI) in the academic aerospace community. Phase 3 of this project used three questionnaires that were sent to three groups (i.e., faculty, librarians, and students) in the academic aerospace community. Specific attention was paid to the types of STI used and the methods in which academic users acquire STI. The responses of the academic libraries are focussed on herein. Demographic information on academic aerospace libraries is provided. Data regarding NASA interaction with academic aerospace libraries is also included, as is the survey instrument.

  11. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with mild airflow limitation: current knowledge and proposal for future research - a consensus document from six scientific societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea; Butorac-Petanjek, Bojana; Chilosi, Marco; Cosío, Borja G; Flezar, Matjaz; Koulouris, Nikolaos; Marin, José; Miculinic, Neven; Polese, Guido; Samaržija, Miroslav; Skrgat, Sabina; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Vukić-Dugac, Andrea; Zakynthinos, Spyridon; Miravitlles, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with high and growing prevalence. Its underdiagnosis and hence under-treatment is a general feature across all countries. This is particularly true for the mild or early stages of the disease, when symptoms do not yet interfere with daily living activities and both patients and doctors are likely to underestimate the presence of the disease. A diagnosis of COPD requires spirometry in subjects with a history of exposure to known risk factors and symptoms. Postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity societies from five European countries have met and developed this document to stimulate the attention of the scientific community on COPD with "mild" airflow limitation. The aim of this document is to highlight some key features of this important concept and help the practicing physician to understand better what is behind "mild" COPD. Future research should address two major issues: first, whether mild airflow limitation represents an early stage of COPD and what the mechanisms underlying the evolution to more severe stages of the disease are; and second, not far removed from the first, whether regular treatment should be considered for COPD patients with mild airflow limitation, either to prevent progression of the disease or to encourage and improve physical activity or both.

  12. Expectations for a scientific collaboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2003-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of scientific collaboratories have emerged, yet adoption of scientific collaboratories remains limited. Meeting expectations is one factor that influences adoption of innovations, including scientific collaboratories. This paper investigates expectations scientists have...... with respect to scientific collaboratories. Interviews were conducted with 17 scientists who work in a variety of settings and have a range of experience conducting and managing scientific research. Results indicate that scientists expect a collaboratory to: support their strategic plans; facilitate management...... of the scientific process; have a positive or neutral impact on scientific outcomes; provide advantages and disadvantages for scientific task execution; and provide personal conveniences when collaborating across distances. These results both confirm existing knowledge and raise new issues for the design...

  13. Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Zimbabwe Scientific Association was founded in Bulawayo in 1899 (called the Rhodesia Scientific Assocation at the time) to promote the study and advancement of science in Zimbabwe and to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of scientific knowledge. Its journal, Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific ...

  14. SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at scientific justification of didactics referred to the social and humanitarian field of knowledge. The author deals with the scientific character criteria (verity, inter-subjectivity, systemacity and validity taking into account different scientific rationality types (classical and nonclassical and identifying post-modernism influence on didactics. Objectives and results of research. Attempts are made to systematize the didactic knowledge and identify its components and structure. Didactic concepts are classified in accordance with its objects: teaching process by the whole, its individual components or educative process aspects that enable to form definite teaching views, studying it from the specific positions. The author singles out holistic-didactic, component and aspect concepts; and specifies the concept of didactic systems and models with its hierarchy. The author highlights the didactic knowledge increment. Apart from traditional empirical theoretical researches, the author’s attention is drawn to the academic pursuit such as a scientific project based on the didactic object specificity of the teaching process which is fully human controlled and realized and doesn’texist without human being. It is shown that basic theoretical ideas of scientific projects are itemized, concretized and enlarged during co-current educative practice, i.e. an adhesion of theory and practice occurs.It is stressed that there are two special directions of didactic development multidimensionality: 1. extension of its semantic field in the context of modern socio-cultural conditions; 2. increase of scientific status related to a conceptual framework improvement, empirically accumulated information arrangement, new hypotheses, theories and concepts’ development. Scientific novelty. The research findings demonstrate well-reasoned statement of the didactics’ scientific status, its particular components and structure

  15. SCIENTIFIC STATUS OF DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Osmolovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at scientific justification of didactics referred to the social and humanitarian field of knowledge. The author deals with the scientific character criteria (verity, inter-subjectivity, systemacity and validity taking into account different scientific rationality types (classical and nonclassical and identifying post-modernism influence on didactics. Objectives and results of research. Attempts are made to systematize the didactic knowledge and identify its components and structure. Didactic concepts are classified in accordance with its objects: teaching process by the whole, its individual components or educative process aspects that enable to form definite teaching views, studying it from the specific positions. The author singles out holistic-didactic, component and aspect concepts; and specifies the concept of didactic systems and models with its hierarchy. The author highlights the didactic knowledge increment. Apart from traditional empirical theoretical researches, the author’s attention is drawn to the academic pursuit such as a scientific project based on the didactic object specificity of the teaching process which is fully human controlled and realized and doesn’texist without human being. It is shown that basic theoretical ideas of scientific projects are itemized, concretized and enlarged during co-current educative practice, i.e. an adhesion of theory and practice occurs.It is stressed that there are two special directions of didactic development multidimensionality: 1. extension of its semantic field in the context of modern socio-cultural conditions; 2. increase of scientific status related to a conceptual framework improvement, empirically accumulated information arrangement, new hypotheses, theories and concepts’ development. Scientific novelty. The research findings demonstrate well-reasoned statement of the didactics’ scientific status, its particular components and structure

  16. Reply to "Critical assessment of the current state of scientific knowledge, terminology, and research needs concerning the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric nitrogen deposition in China"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fengxue; Zhang, Yuandong; Huang, Mei; Tao, Bo; Yan, Huimin; Guo, Rui; Li, Jie

    2017-03-01

    In their assessment, Pan et al. (2016) criticize that our estimation of 2.32 g N m-2 yr-1 in 2010 underestimates the total nitrogen (N) deposition amounts by a factor around two by comparing with the estimation of Xu et al. (2015). Our paper entitled "Nitrogen deposition and its effect on carbon storage in Chinese forests during 1981-2010" aims to evaluate the influence of elevated N deposition in China on carbon storage in forest ecosystems by using a process-based model. As limited by observed N deposition dataset availability, we developed a simple algorithm to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations in N deposition based on the relationships among N deposition, precipitation, N fertilizer use, and fuel consumption with reference to the method of Lin et al. (2000). Our results show that the rate of N deposition increased by 0.058 g N m-2 yr-1 between 1981 and 2010. The N deposition rate in 2010 was 2.32 g N m-2 yr-1, and it showed a large spatial variation from 0 to 0.25 g N m-2 yr-1 on the northwestern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to over 4.5 g N m-2 yr-1 in the southeastern China. We really underestimated the total N deposition in China because we were lack of dry deposition observation dataset in our research. However, we think Pan et al. (2016) overestimated the difference between our estimation and that in Xu et al. (2015). It should be encouraged to discuss the past and current status of N deposition in China based on both observation and simulation. All comments, assessments and suggestions contribute to promote the scientific understanding of N deposition and its influence on ecosystems.

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 61: The Technical Communications Practices of ESL Aerospace Engineering Students in the United States: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, John R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    When engineering students graduate and enter the world of work, they make the transition from an academic to a professional community of knowledge. The importance of oral and written communication to the professional success and advancement of engineers is well documented. For example, studies such as those conducted by Mailloux (1989) indicate that communicating data, information, and knowledge takes up as much as 80% of an engineer's time. However, these same studies also indicate that many engineering graduates cannot (a) write technical reports that effectively inform and influence decisionmaking, (b) present their ideas persuasively, and (c) communicate with their peers. If these statements are true, how is learning to communicate effectively in their professional knowledge community different for engineering students educated in the United States but who come from other cultures-cultures in which English is not the primary language of communication? Answering this question requires adequate and generalizable data about these students' communications abilities, skills, and competencies. To contribute to the answer, we undertook a national (mail) survey of 1,727 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The focus of our analysis and this paper is a comparison of the responses of 297 student members for whom English is a second language with the responses of 1,430 native English speaking students to queries regarding career choice, bilingualism and language fluency, communication skills, collaborative writing, computer use, and the use of electronic (computer) networks.

  18. Diffusing Best Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Both the practice and the research literature on information systems attach great value to the identification and dissemination of information on “best practices”. In the philosophy of science, this type of knowledge is regarded as technological knowledge because it becomes manifest...... in the successful techniques in one context. While the value for other contexts is unproven, knowledge of best practices circulates under an assumption that the practices will usefully self-diffuse through innovation and adoption in other contexts. We study diffusion of best practices using a design science...... in the presence of two concordant factors. On the context side, the qualities of the selected opinion leader were necessary to provide the subjective norm described in TPB. On the best practice side, the technological qualities of the best practice itself were necessary to instill the ideal attitude (belief...

  19. Scientific Diving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific diving plays an important role in helping EPA protect our oceans and waterways. EPA's divers set a high standard for safety and operational procedures in dangerous polluted water conditions.

  20. O óleo de chaulmoogra como conhecimento científico: a construção de uma terapêutica antileprótica Chaulmoogra oil as scientific knowledge: the construction of a treatment for leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sergio Dumas dos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisa os processos de assimilação e transformação de saberes e práticas terapêuticas que envolvem o uso de plantas medicinais, e destaca o uso, no combate à lepra, do óleo da chaulmoogra. Atenta para os diferentes modos de incorporação e transformação das chaulmoogras em conhecimentos validados cientificamente, tendo em vista a entrada em cena da 'chaulmoogra brasileira'. Privilegia a chegada dos derivados dessa planta à pauta de produção do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC, na década de 1920, estabelecendo nexos entre os diferentes processos produtivos e articulando-os ao contexto científico no período estudado. O óleo de chaulmoogra representou, até a década de 1940, a grande esperança para a tentativa de cura da lepra. Observa ainda que a terapêutica chaulmúgrica durante esse período, consolidou-se como um saber científico graças à realização de diversas pesquisas feitas em laboratórios de todo o mundo ocidental.The article investigates how knowledge of medicinal plants and related treatment practices are assimilated and transformed. Taking as its focus the use of chaulmoogra oil to treat leprosy, it examines how information on this plant was incorporated and transformed into scientifically validated knowledge when 'Brazilian chaulmoogra' came onto the scene. Pointing to the addition of chaulmoogra byproducts to the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz's production agenda in the 1920s, the study establishes links between productive processes and relates these to the period's scientific context. From the late nineteenth century until the 1940s, chaulmoogra oil was the great hope in efforts to cure leprosy. During this period, chaulmoogric treatment earned a place as scientific knowledge thanks to research studies conducted in laboratories throughout the Western world.

  1. Nutrigenomics 2.0: The Need for Ongoing and Independent Evaluation and Synthesis of Commercial Nutrigenomics Tests' Scientific Knowledge Base for Responsible Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Cristiana; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Katsila, Theodora

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nutrigenomics is an important strand of precision medicine that examines the bidirectional interactions of the genome and nutritional exposures, and attendant health and disease outcomes. This perspectives article presents the new concept of “Nutrigenomics 2.0,” so as to cultivate and catalyze the next generation research and funding priorities for responsible and sustainable knowledge-based innovations. We further contextualize our recent study of the 38 genes included in commercially available nutrigenomics tests, and offer additional context in relation to the 2014 American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position. Finally, we make a call in the best interest of the nutrigenomics science community, governments, global society, and commercial nutrigenomics test providers that new evidence evaluation and synthesis platforms are created concerning nutrigenomics tests before they become commercially available. The proposed assessment and synthesis of nutrigenomics data should be carried out on an ongoing dynamic basis with periodic intervals and/or when there is a specific demand for evidence synthesis, and importantly, in ways that are transparent where conflict of interests are disclosed fully by the involved parties, be they scientists, industry, governments, citizens, social scientists, or ethicists. We submit that this will cultivate responsible innovation, and business models that are sustainable, robust, and stand the test of time and context. PMID:26689492

  2. Nutrigenomics 2.0: The Need for Ongoing and Independent Evaluation and Synthesis of Commercial Nutrigenomics Tests' Scientific Knowledge Base for Responsible Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Cristiana; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Katsila, Theodora; Patrinos, George P

    2016-02-01

    Nutrigenomics is an important strand of precision medicine that examines the bidirectional interactions of the genome and nutritional exposures, and attendant health and disease outcomes. This perspectives article presents the new concept of "Nutrigenomics 2.0," so as to cultivate and catalyze the next generation research and funding priorities for responsible and sustainable knowledge-based innovations. We further contextualize our recent study of the 38 genes included in commercially available nutrigenomics tests, and offer additional context in relation to the 2014 American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics position. Finally, we make a call in the best interest of the nutrigenomics science community, governments, global society, and commercial nutrigenomics test providers that new evidence evaluation and synthesis platforms are created concerning nutrigenomics tests before they become commercially available. The proposed assessment and synthesis of nutrigenomics data should be carried out on an ongoing dynamic basis with periodic intervals and/or when there is a specific demand for evidence synthesis, and importantly, in ways that are transparent where conflict of interests are disclosed fully by the involved parties, be they scientists, industry, governments, citizens, social scientists, or ethicists. We submit that this will cultivate responsible innovation, and business models that are sustainable, robust, and stand the test of time and context.

  3. Scientific 'Laws', 'Hypotheses' and 'Theories'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Science endeavours to give a meaningful description of the world of phenomena using what are known as laws, hypotheses and theories. Logicians and students of scientific method analyse the structure of scientific knowledge and try to determine the precise significance of these terms. But it is surprising to note.

  4. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    Does the RBV represent a case of scientific progress? And has it emerged as the dominant approach to the analysis of competitive advantage for this reason? Conventional criteria for scientific progress, notably those of the growth of knowledge literature, are not particularly helpful for understa...

  5. The effect of different types of hypertext annotations on vocabulary recall, text comprehension, and knowledge transfer in learning from scientific texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Erik Stanley

    The instructional uses of hypertext and multimedia are widespread but there are still many questions about how to maximize learning from these technologies. The purpose of this research was to determine whether providing learners with a basic science text in addition to hypertext annotations, designed to support the cognitive processes of selection, organization, and integration (Mayer, 1997), would result in different types of learning. Learning was measured using instruments designed to measure learning corresponding to each of the three processes. For the purposes of this study, selection-level learning was defined analogous to Bloom's (Bloom, 1956) knowledge level of learning and was measured with a recognition test. Organization-level learning was defined analogous to Bloom's (1956) comprehension-level of learning and was measured with a short-answer recall test. Integration-level learning was defined analogous to Bloom's (1956) levels of analysis and synthesis and was measured with a transfer test. In experiment one, participants read a text describing how cell phones work and viewed either no annotations (control), or annotations designed to support the selection, organization, or integration of information. As predicted, participants who viewed the selection-level annotations did significantly better than control participants on the recognition test. Results indicate that, for this group of novice learners, lower-level annotations were the most helpful for all levels of learning. In experiment two, participants read the text and viewed either no annotations (control) or combinations of annotations including selection and organization, organization and integration, or selection and integration. No significant differences were found between groups in these experiments. The results are discussed in terms of both multimedia learning theory and text comprehension theory and a new visualization of the generative theory of multimedia learning is offered.

  6. SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel I. NASTASE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, science and, accordingly, scientific research is widely recognized as the main driving force of production and source of innovation and technology transfer. There are many definitions in this regard that seek to express the concept of scientific research, experimental development (engineering and technical progress. Practically in the developed countries the phenomenon of innovation is being analyzed in relation to the concept of technology transfer, based on the experience and knowledge in science and technology. Innovation has to be addressed systematically, it involving: science, technology, financial and economic principles, management.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 64: Culture and Workplace Communications: A Comparison of the Technical Communications Practices of Japanese and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Sato, Yuko; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    The advent of global markets elevates the role and importance of culture as a mitigating factor in the diffusion of knowledge and technology and in product and process innovation. This is especially true in the large commercial aircraft (LCA) sector where the production and market aspects are becoming increasingly international. As firms expand beyond their national borders, using such methods as risk-sharing partnerships, joint ventures, outsourcing, and alliances, they have to contend with national and corporate cultures. Our focus is on Japan, a program participant in the production of the Boeing Company's 777. The aspects of Japanese culture and workplace communications will be examined: 1.) the influence of Japanese culture on the diffusion of knowledge and technology in aerospace at the national and international levels; 2.) those cultural determinants-the propensity to work together, a willingness to subsume individual interests to a greater good, and an emphasis on consensual decision making-that have a direct bearing on the ability of Japanese firms to form alliances and compete in international markets; 3.) and those cultural determinants thought to influence the information-seeking behaviors and workplace communication practices of Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists. In this article, we report selective results from a survey of Japanese and U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists that focused on workplace communications. Data are presented for the following topics: importance of and time spent communicating information, collaborative writing, need for an undergraduate course in technical communication, use of libraries, use and importance of electronic (computer) networks, and the use and importance of foreign and domestically produced technical reports.

  8. Diffusion and Perfusion: The Keys to Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K. Khouri, Jr, BS

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: These models confirm that initial fat grafting survival is limited by oxygen diffusion. Preoperative expansion increases oxygen diffusion capacity allowing for additional graft retention. These models provide a scientific framework for testing the current fat grafting theories.

  9. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  10. Scientific Creativity: Idealism versus Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Michael D.; Hester, Kimberly S.; Robledo, Issac C.

    2010-01-01

    The need for creativity in the sciences has, from time to time, been questioned. Thus, Ghassib's (2010) argument that creativity is critical to performance in the sciences, and hence organizational effectiveness in a knowledge production economy, is important. Moreover, the proposition that scientific creativity is based on knowledge and…

  11. Eismitte in the Scientific Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    was a setting for scientific knowledge production as well as diplomatic maneuvering, providing new insights into the history of polar exploration and the intertwining of scientific and geopolitical considerations. Author Janet Martin-Nielsen draws on new research in private, government, military......Since the first attempts by Europeans to penetrate Greenland's interior, its geometric center, Eismitte (‘middle ice’), has been one of the most forbidding but scientifically rich locations in the Arctic. Tracing its history from European contact through the Cold War, this study shows how Eismitte......, and institutional archives in many languages in multiple countries to illuminate Eismitte’s place in the scientific imagination....

  12. A knowledge generation model via the hypernetwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Yang, Guang-Yong; Hu, Zhao-Long

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the statistical properties of the network on the knowledge diffusion has been extensively studied. However, the structure evolution and the knowledge generation processes are always integrated simultaneously. By introducing the Cobb-Douglas production function and treating the knowledge growth as a cooperative production of knowledge, in this paper, we present two knowledge-generation dynamic evolving models based on different evolving mechanisms. The first model, named "HDPH model," adopts the hyperedge growth and the hyperdegree preferential attachment mechanisms. The second model, named "KSPH model," adopts the hyperedge growth and the knowledge stock preferential attachment mechanisms. We investigate the effect of the parameters (α,β) on the total knowledge stock of the two models. The hyperdegree distribution of the HDPH model can be theoretically analyzed by the mean-field theory. The analytic result indicates that the hyperdegree distribution of the HDPH model obeys the power-law distribution and the exponent is γ = 2 + 1/m. Furthermore, we present the distributions of the knowledge stock for different parameters (α,β). The findings indicate that our proposed models could be helpful for deeply understanding the scientific research cooperation.

  13. A Knowledge Generation Model via the Hypernetwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Yang, Guang-Yong; Hu, Zhao-Long

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the statistical properties of the network on the knowledge diffusion has been extensively studied. However, the structure evolution and the knowledge generation processes are always integrated simultaneously. By introducing the Cobb-Douglas production function and treating the knowledge growth as a cooperative production of knowledge, in this paper, we present two knowledge-generation dynamic evolving models based on different evolving mechanisms. The first model, named “HDPH model,” adopts the hyperedge growth and the hyperdegree preferential attachment mechanisms. The second model, named “KSPH model,” adopts the hyperedge growth and the knowledge stock preferential attachment mechanisms. We investigate the effect of the parameters on the total knowledge stock of the two models. The hyperdegree distribution of the HDPH model can be theoretically analyzed by the mean-field theory. The analytic result indicates that the hyperdegree distribution of the HDPH model obeys the power-law distribution and the exponent is . Furthermore, we present the distributions of the knowledge stock for different parameters . The findings indicate that our proposed models could be helpful for deeply understanding the scientific research cooperation. PMID:24626143

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Use of Communications Sources: An Intercultural Investigation of Practices in the US and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Anderson, Claire J.; Glassman, Myron

    1997-01-01

    effective innovation diffusion which, according to Fischer (1979), is essentially information exchange. And, third, studies of innovative project management have found that information availability was a critical factor in project success or failure (e.g., Link & Zmud, 1987; Tushman, 1978, 1979). We propose that a gap in the literature exists that centers on whether U.S. paradigms of commnunications behavior apply to other cultures. First, we will explore early findings in the U.S. that held that the choice of an information source was a function of the 'law of least effort' rather than quality (e.g., Allen, 1977; Cuinan, 1983; DeWhirst, 1971; Hardy, 1982; O'Reilly, 1982; Rosenberg, 1967). Second, we will explore the contingency approaches such as that of Tushman (1979) and the later work of Daft and Lengel (1984, 1987), Huber and Daft (1987) and Lengel and Daft (1988) who held that information choice was a function of the nature of the task at hand. A third issue to be addressed is the confounding problem of presumed differences between scientists and engineers in information gathering behavior (Allen, 1977). Finally, we will investigate whether cultural differences cast doubt on the applicability of findings from U.S. situations to other cultures.

  15. Professional scientific blog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Beke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The professional blog is a weblog that on the whole meets the requirements of scientific publication. In my opinion it bear a resemblance to digital notice board, where the competent specialists of the given branch of science can place their ideas, questions, possible solutions and can raise problems. Its most important function can be collectivization of the knowledge. In this article I am going to examine the characteristics of the scientific blog as a genre. Conventional learning counts as a rather solitary activity. If the students have access to the materials of each other and of the teacher, their sense of solitude diminishes and this model is also closer to the constructivist approach that features the way most people think and learn. Learning does not mean passively collecting tiny pieces of knowledge; it much more esembles ‘spinning a conceptual net’ which is made up by the experiences and observations of the individual. With the spreading of the Internet more universities and colleges worldwide gave a try to on-line educational methods, but the most efficient one has not been found yet. The publication of the curriculum (the material of the lectures and the handling of the electronic mails are not sufficient; much more is needed for collaborative learning. Our scholastic scientific blog can be a sufficient field for the start of a knowledge-building process based on cooperation. In the Rocard-report can be read that for the future of Europe it is crucial to develop the education of the natural sciences, and for this it isnecessary to act on local, regional, national and EU-level. To the educational processes should be involved beyond the traditional actors (child, parent, teacher also others (scientists, professionals, universities, local institutions, the actors of the economic sphere, etc.. The scholastic scientific blog answer the purposes, as a collaborative knowledge-sharing forum.

  16. Scientific Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2002-12-01

    These cases provide a good basis for discussions of scientific ethics, particularly with respect to the responsibilities of colleagues in collaborative projects. With increasing numbers of students working in cooperative or collaborative groups, there may be opportunities for more than just discussion—similar issues of responsibility apply to the members of such groups. Further, this is an area where, “no clear, widely accepted standards of behavior exist” (1). Thus there is an opportunity to point out to students that scientific ethics, like science itself, is incomplete and needs constant attention to issues that result from new paradigms such as collaborative research. Finally, each of us can resolve to pay more attention to the contributions we and our colleagues make to collaborative projects, applying to our own work no less critical an eye than we would cast on the work of those we don’t know at all.

  17. The ethical duty to preserve the quality of scientific information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arattano, Massimo; Gatti, Albertina; Eusebio, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    The commitment to communicate and divulge the knowledge acquired during his/her professional activity is certainly one of the ethical duties of the geologist. However nowadays, in the Internet era, the spreading of knowledge involves potential risks that the geologist should be aware of. These risks require a careful analysis aimed to mitigate their effects. The Internet may in fact contribute to spread (e.g. through websites like Wikipedia) information badly or even incorrectly presented. The final result could be an impediment to the diffusion of knowledge and a reduction of its effectiveness, which is precisely the opposite of the goal that a geologist should pursue. Specific criteria aimed to recognize incorrect or inadequate information would be, therefore, extremely useful. Their development and application might avoid, or at least reduce, the above mentioned risk. Ideally, such criteria could be also used to develop specific algorithms to automatically verify the quality of information available all over the Internet. A possible criterion will be here presented for the quality control of knowledge and scientific information. An example of its application in the field of geology will be provided, to verify and correct a piece of information available on the Internet. The proposed criterion could be also used for the simplification of the scientific information and the increase of its informative efficacy.

  18. EPA Scientific Knowledge Management Assessment and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of activities have been conducted by a core group of EPA scientists from across the Agency. The activities were initiated in 2012 and the focus was to increase the reuse and interoperability of science software at EPA. The need for increased reuse and interoperability is linked to the increased complexity of environmental assessments in the 21st century. This complexity is manifest in the form of problems that require integrated multi-disciplinary solutions. To enable the means to develop these solutions (i.e., science software systems) it is necessary to integrate software developed by disparate groups representing a variety of science domains. Thus, reuse and interoperability becomes imperative. This report briefly describes the chronology of activities conducted by the group of scientists to provide context for the primary purpose of this report, that is, to describe the proceedings and outcomes of the latest activity, a workshop entitled “Workshop on Advancing US EPA integration of environmental and information sciences”. The EPA has been lagging in digital maturity relative to the private sector and even other government agencies. This report helps begin the process of improving the agency’s use of digital technologies, especially in the areas of efficiency and transparency. This report contributes to SHC 1.61.2.

  19. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    , in particular with respect to collaboration with the trial sponsor and to analytic pitfalls. The advantages of creating screening databases in conjunction with a given clinical trial are described; and finally, the potential for posttrial database studies to become a platform for training young scientists...

  20. Gathering and exploring scientific knowledge in pharmacovigilance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Lopes (Pedro); T. Nunes (Tiago); D. Campos (David); L.I. Furlong (Laura); A. Bauer-Mehren (Anna); F. Sanz (Ferran); M.C. Carrascosa (Maria); J. Mestres (Jordi); J.A. Kors (Jan); B. Singh (Bharat); E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); J. van der Lei (Johan); G. Diallo (Gayo); P. Avillach (Paul); E. Ahlberg (Ernst); S. Boyer (Scott); C. Diaz (Carlos); J.L. Oliveira (José Luis)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPharmacovigilance plays a key role in the healthcare domain through the assessment, monitoring and discovery of interactions amongst drugs and their effects in the human organism. However, technological advances in this field have been slowing down over the last decade due to

  1. EPA Scientific Knowledge Management Assessment and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of activities have been conducted by a core group of EPA scientists from across the Agency. The activities were initiated in 2012 and the focus was to increase the reuse and interoperability of science software at EPA. The need for increased reuse and interoperability ...

  2. Diffuse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostorz, G. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Angewandte Physik, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    While Bragg scattering is characteristic for the average structure of crystals, static local deviations from the average lattice lead to diffuse elastic scattering around and between Bragg peaks. This scattering thus contains information on the occupation of lattice sites by different atomic species and on static local displacements, even in a macroscopically homogeneous crystalline sample. The various diffuse scattering effects, including those around the incident beam (small-angle scattering), are introduced and illustrated by typical results obtained for some Ni alloys. (author) 7 figs., 41 refs.

  3. Interests diffusion in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.

  4. Unstructured Polyhedral Mesh Thermal Radiation Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, T.S.; Zika, M.R.; Madsen, N.K.

    2000-07-27

    Unstructured mesh particle transport and diffusion methods are gaining wider acceptance as mesh generation, scientific visualization and linear solvers improve. This paper describes an algorithm that is currently being used in the KULL code at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to solve the radiative transfer equations. The algorithm employs a point-centered diffusion discretization on arbitrary polyhedral meshes in 3D. We present the results of a few test problems to illustrate the capabilities of the radiation diffusion module.

  5. Nursing knowledge: women's knowledge. A sociological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagell, E I

    1989-03-01

    As nurses approach the 21st century questions are being raised regarding the direction in which the profession is moving. The majority of leaders and educators in the field of nursing have, to this point, stressed the importance of defining nursing as a science and of developing a scientific knowledge base. Recently, however, there has been a move among some researchers and theorists in the field of nursing to question the ability of science and the scientific method to deal with nursing concerns. Using a variety of perspectives, including feminist theory, they are critiquing many of the basic assumptions about science, scientific method and scientific knowledge. This paper uses sociological and feminist theory to support the idea that nursing, as a discipline, has a distinct knowledge base which is not grounded in empirico-analytic science and its methodology but which stems from the lived experiences of nurses as women and as nurses involved in caring relationships with their clients.

  6. Scientific Communication and the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kristian H.

    2013-01-01

    Communication is an important part of scientific practice and, arguably, may be seen as constitutive to scientific knowledge. Yet, often scientific communication gets cursory treatment in science studies as well as in science education. In Nature of Science (NOS), for example, communication is rarely mentioned explicitly, even though, as will be…

  7. Selected clinically established and scientific techniques of diffusion-weighted MRI. In the context of imaging in oncology; Ausgewaehlte klinisch etablierte und wissenschaftliche Techniken der diffusionsgewichteten MRT. Im Kontext der onkologischen Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, M.T.; Bickelhaupt, S.; Ziener, C.; Mosebach, J.; Schlemmer, H.P. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung fuer Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Meier-Hein, K. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung fuer medizinische Informatik, Heidelberg (Germany); Radtke, J.P. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung fuer Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Urologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Kuder, T.A.; Laun, F.B. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Abteilung fuer Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that was established in the clinical routine primarily for the detection of brain ischemia. In the past 15 years its clinical use has been extended to oncological radiology, as tumor and metastases can be depicted in DWI due to their hypercellular nature. The basis of DWI is the Stejskal-Tanner experiment. The diffusion properties of tissue can be visualized after acquisition of at least two diffusion-weighted series using echo planar imaging and a specific sequence of gradient pulses. The use of DWI in prostate MRI was reported to be one of the first established applications that found its way into internationally recognized clinical guidelines of the European Society of Urological Radiology (ESUR) and the prostate imaging reporting and data system (PI-RADS) scale. Due to recently reported high specificity and negative predictive values of 94 % and 92 %, respectively, its regular use for breast MRI is expected in the near future. Furthermore, DWI can also reliably be used for whole-body imaging in patients with multiple myeloma or for measuring the extent of bone metastases. New techniques in DWI, such as intravoxel incoherent motion imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging and histogram-based analyses represent promising approaches to achieve a more quantitative evaluation for tumor detection and therapy response. (orig.) [German] Die diffusionsgewichtete Bildgebung (''diffusion-weighted imaging'', DWI), ein Verfahren aus der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT), wurde in der klinischen Routine primaer fuer die Detektion von Schlaganfaellen etabliert. Der Einsatz dieser Methode hat in den letzten 15 Jahren auch fuer die onkologische Diagnostik stark zugenommen, da Tumoren und Metastasen aufgrund ihrer hochzellulaeren Zusammensetzung in der DWI sehr gut sichtbar gemacht werden koennen. Basis der diffusionsgewichteten Bildgebung ist das Experiment nach Stejskal-Tanner. Hier

  8. Relativistic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  9. Facts, theories and ideologies: Viola Klein and Sociology of Scientific Knowledge Hechos, teorías e ideología: Viola Klein y la sociología del conocimiento científico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Pérez Sedeño

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Several studies on history, philosophy and sociology of science have demonstrated that science is not autonomous and value-neutral and its selfless search of truth is an ideal theoretical myth far from the real practice of science, which is an aggregate of social practices. Viola Klein was a pioneer in studying science using the same instruments and categories utilized in any other social practice. The aim of this work is to highlight her contributions to Sociology of Scientific Knowledge at a moment when this discipline was, at the most, incipient.

    Diversos estudios en historia, filosofía y sociología de la ciencia han mostrado que el carácter autónomo y valorativamente neutro de la ciencia y su búsqueda desinteresada de la verdad es, en el mejor de los casos, un mito ideal alejado de la práctica científica real, que es un conjunto de prácticas sociales. Viola Klein fue una pionera en estudiar la ciencia con los mismos instrumentos y categorías utilizados para cualquier otra práctica social. El objetivo de este trabajo es sacar a la luz sus aportaciones a la sociología del conocimiento científico, en un momento en el que esa disciplina era, como mucho, incipiente.

  10. Scientific / colonial knowledge logics: a critique of the modest testimony from border territories Lógicas científico / coloniales del conocimiento: una crítica a los testimonios modestos desde territorios de frontera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Vargas Monroy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available According to some definitions, the introduction of a paper, apart from exposing its objectives, should be the stimulant that generates interest in a deeper reading and a wider appraisal. With this definition in mind, I submit for this issue of Athena the text that introduces my discussion on the Scientific/Colonial Logics of Knowledge: Writing, images and borderline issues. The keys and the roadmap which represent the basis of this paper are contained within, as also a simple overview of some of its strongest theses. Hopefully, this introduction will worthily fulfill its task.Según algunas definiciones, la introducción de un trabajo además de plantear los objetivos del mismo, debe ser la incitadora de un interés que conduzca a una lectura más amplia. Con esta definición en mente, presento para esta entrega de la tesiteca de Athena, un texto que introduce mi discusión sobre las Lógicas científico/coloniales del conocimiento: Escritura, imágenes y territorios de frontera. En él se encuentran las claves y el mapa de escritura con el que este trabajo fue construido, así como un sencillo recorrido por algunas de sus tesis más fuertes. Ojala esta introducción cumpla cabalmente su tarea.

     

  11. Scientific Progress in Strategic Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Does the RBV represent a case of scientific progress? And has it emerged as the dominant approach to the analysis of competitive advantage for this reason? Conventional criteria for scientific progress, notably those of the growth of knowledge literature, are not particularly helpful for understa......Does the RBV represent a case of scientific progress? And has it emerged as the dominant approach to the analysis of competitive advantage for this reason? Conventional criteria for scientific progress, notably those of the growth of knowledge literature, are not particularly helpful......, the RBV represents an "unfinished revolution" as there is still considerable potential to dig deeper in the deep structure of competitive advantage. Keywords: Resource-based view, mechanisms, reductionism, competitive advantage, transaction costs, property rights. JEL Code: L2, M1...

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 21: Technological innovation and technical communications: Their place in aerospace engineering curricula. A survey of European, Japanese, and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Holland, Maurita Peterson; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Aerospace engineers and scientists from Western Europe, Japan, and the United States were surveyed as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Questionnaires were used to solicit their opinions regarding the following: (1) the importance of technical communications to their profession; (2) the use and production of technical communications; and (3) their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The ability to communicate technical information effectively was very important to the aerospace engineers and scientists who participated in the study. A considerable portion of their working week is devoted to using and producing technical information. The types of technical communications used and produced varied within and among the three groups. The type of technical communication product used and produced appears to be related to respondents' professional duties. Respondents from the three groups made similar recommendations regarding the principles, mechanics, and on-the-job communications to be included in an undergraduate technical communications course for aerospace majors.

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 28: The technical communication practices of aerospace engineering and science students: Results of the phase 4 cross-national surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate aerospace engineering and science students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an aerospace engineer or a scientist, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication skills, practices, habits, and training of aerospace engineering and science students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of students enrolled in aerospace engineering and science programs at universities in India, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. The surveys were undertaken as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance, use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign language technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

  14. The importance of scientific papers publication: An approach to Animal Science Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno do Amaral Crispim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific production, among the various university activities, deserve outstanding importance because it is through them that the knowledge produced in the university is diffused and democratized to the community/society. Thus, information and/or alternatives for many problems solution are raised, discussed and put into practice within the university that are to be used as future basis for the integrated and sustainable development of a community or region. Scientific writing is also the mirror of teacher and student performance in the inseparable activities of teaching, research and extension, translating the institutional force of own production. Increasingly, academic institutions understand the importance of their scientific production. And to the same disclosure is necessary to practice the scientific writing, which enables academic growth, professional development and growing within a institution. The activities in research fulfill the basic function of the University, such as knowledge generating institution, to meet the everyday demands of the society. According to the Brazilian Society for the Advancement of Science (SBPC in 2013, Brazil is responsible for 2,7% of world scientific output, but still occupies the 58th place among the most innovative countries in the world. Demonstrating that we must strive so we can achieve the best places in the world rankings for the production of knowledge and Science The scientific production in the field of Animal Science is of great importance for improvement in logistics, efficiency and quality of local animal production. Based on this, research related to the area provide meaningful informations to management and production, genetic characterization of native and exotic breeds, thereby contributing significantly to increase production efficiency to farmers. Therefore, scientific production within the academic environment is essential and the existence of efficient dissemination teams so that

  15. Scientific integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2008-01-01

    consent was obtained.Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger......Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee...... well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited...

  16. Diffused Knowledge Immortalizes Itself The LOCKSS Program

    CERN Document Server

    Reich, Victoria A

    2003-01-01

    The LOCKSS model, 'Lots of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe,' creates low-cost, persistent digital 'caches' of authoritative versions of http-delivered content. The LOCKSS software enables institutions to locally collect, store, preserve and archive authorized content, thus safeguarding their community's access to that content. The current version of LOCKSS software is restricted to electronic journals. Accuracy and completeness of LOCKSS caches are assured through a peer-to-peer polling and reputation system (operated through LCAP, LOCKSS' communication protocol), which is both robust and secure. LOCKSS replicas cooperate to detect and repair preservation failures. LOCKSS is designed to run on inexpensive hardware and to require almost no technical administration. The software has been under development since 1999 and is distributed as open source.

  17. La connaissance du climat au Brésil : entre le vernaculaire et le scientifique O conhecimento do clima no Brasil : Entre o vernacular e o científico The knowledge of the climate in Brazil: Between the vernacular and scientific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Mendonça

    2012-06-01

    climatologia brasileira apresentou avanços e originalidade, sendo a analise rítmica dos tipos de tempo e o estudo do clima urbano seus principais destaques. A questão ambiental, o emprego das imagens de satélites e os debates concernentes às mudanças globais são os principais enfoques da climatologia brasileira no presente momento. Alguns estudos relativos à percepção do clima pela população tem reconhecido a importância do saber vernacular sobre os climas do país, inaugurando uma nova oportunidade para esta ciência, mais aberta, mais plural e mais rica que a abordagem estrita da ciência moderna.The knowledge of climate in Brazil is the overlap between the vernacular knowledge and the scientific knowledge, although in the context of the academy the scientific and technical approach is predominant. For the greatest part of the population the vernacular knowledge (or traditional on climate is more important than science. However, in the context of science, the development and consolidation of the brazilian climatology occurred only around the last 70 years. The diffusion of the principle of the dynamic meteorology was one of the main aspects to the development of the study of the brazilian climates. During that period the Brazilian climatology shows advancements and originality, rhythmical analysis of weather and the urban climate studies are the most importants propositions. The environmental question, the satellite images and the debate concerning global changes are the main subjects of interest of the Brazilian climatology in the present time. Some studies related to the perception of climate have recognized the importance of vernacular knowledge about climate in Brazil, inaugurating a new opportunity for science, an approach more open, plural, and richer than strictly modern science.

  18. Scientific Eschatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, H

    2005-03-18

    The future evolution of the universe suggested by the cosmological model proposed earlier at this meeting by the authors is explored. The fundamental role played by the positive ''cosmological constant'' is emphasized. Dyson's 1979 paper entitled ''Time Without End'' is briefly reviewed. His most optimistic scenario requires that the universe be geometrically open and that biology is structural in the sense that the current complexity of human society can be reproduced by scaling up its (quantum mechanical) structure to arbitrary size. If the recently measured ''cosmological constant'' is indeed a fundamental constant of nature, then Dyson's scenario is, for various reasons, ruled out by the finite (De Sitter) horizon due to exponential expansion of the resulting space. However, the finite temperature of that horizon does open other interesting options. If, as is suggested by the cosmology under consideration, the current exponential expansion of the universe is due to a phase transition which fixes a physical boundary condition during the early radiation dominated era, the behavior of the universe after the relevant scale factor crosses the De Sitter radius opens up still other possibilities. The relevance of Martin Rees' apocalyptic eschatology recently presented in his book ''Our Final Hour'' is mentioned. It is concluded that even for the far future, whether or not cultural and scientific descendants of the current epoch will play a role in it, an understanding (sadly, currently lacking) of community and political evolution and control is essential for a preliminary treatment of what could be even vaguely called scientific eschatology.

  19. Scientific Research: Commodities or Commons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeir, Koen

    2013-10-01

    Truth is for sale today, some critics claim. The increased commodification of science corrupts it, scientific fraud is rampant and the age-old trust in science is shattered. This cynical view, although gaining in prominence, does not explain very well the surprising motivation and integrity that is still central to the scientific life. Although scientific knowledge becomes more and more treated as a commodity or as a product that is for sale, a central part of academic scientific practice is still organized according to different principles. In this paper, I critically analyze alternative models for understanding the organization of knowledge, such as the idea of the scientific commons and the gift economy of science. After weighing the diverse positive and negative aspects of free market economies of science and gift economies of science, a commons structured as a gift economy seems best suited to preserve and take advantage of the specific character of scientific knowledge. Furthermore, commons and gift economies promote the rich social texture that is important for supporting central norms of science. Some of these basic norms might break down if the gift character of science is lost. To conclude, I consider the possibility and desirability of hybrid economies of academic science, which combine aspects of gift economies and free market economies. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of these deeper structural challenges faced by science policy. Such theoretical reflections should eventually assist us in formulating new policy guidelines.

  20. The globalization of behavioral science evidence about battered women: a theory of production and diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatowski, S I; Dobbin, S A; Richardson, J T; Ginsburg, G P

    1997-01-01

    A theoretical framework is proposed for understanding how the innovative use of behavioral science evidence is both produced and diffused among members of the global legal community. Using case law analyses and interviews with key individuals involved in selected cases, we examine how battered woman syndrome (BWS) is produced and diffused between and among Australia, Canada, England, and the United States. The following diffusion mechanisms are proposed: (1) The availability and accessibility of credible dissemination sources; (2) characteristics of the overall practice environment operating in each legal culture; (3) the attitudes and knowledge of attorneys and judges about the use of scientific evidence; (4) political and social support for the use of the evidence in the legal culture; and (5) the level of structural equivalence, communication, and "neighbor effects" between and among legal cultures. Each mechanism is discussed and supplemented with information from interviews with individuals involved in key cases involving BWS evidence.

  1. Nature of Science, Scientific Inquiry, and Socio-Scientific Issues Arising from Genetics: A Pathway to Developing a Scientifically Literate Citizenry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Antink, Allison; Bartos, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this article is to illustrate how teachers can use contemporary socio-scientific issues to teach students about nature of scientific knowledge as well as address the science subject matter embedded in the issues. The article provides an initial discussion about the various aspects of nature of scientific knowledge that are…

  2. Scientific Frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, B.J.; Yates, J.R.; Srivastava, S.; Wong, D.T.W.; Melvin, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Saliva, a biofluid historically well-studied biochemically and physiologically, has entered the post-genomic ‘omics’ era, where its proteomic, genomic, and microbiome constituents have been comprehensively deciphered. The translational path of these salivary constituents has begun toward a variety of personalized individual medical applications, including early detection of cancer. Salivary diagnostics is a late-comer, but it is catching up where dedicated resources, like the Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB), now have taken center stage in the dissemination of the diagnostic potentials of salivary biomarkers and other translational and clinical utilities. PMID:21917746

  3. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  4. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  5. A gerontologia como campo do conhecimento científico: conceito, interesses e projeto político Gerontology as a field of scientific knowledge: concept, interests and political project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Donizete Prado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Discutimos a gerontologia em suas pretensões de constituir-se como a ciência do envelhecimento no Brasil. Consideramos o pensamento de Stengers, que defende a idéia de que o desenvolvimento de um conceito e o despertar de interesses em diferentes setores da sociedade, articulados a um projeto político, constituem-se em pilares fundamentais para o estabelecimento de um campo científico. Identificamos limitações conceituais importantes envolvendo a delimitação da velhice e do envelhecimento, bem como problemas referentes a hierarquias entre domínios internos à gerontologia e a outros campos do conhecimento. A despeito dos importantes interesses suscitados quando a velhice está em questão, a gerontologia parece estar num plano muito limitado como parque científico e como massa crítica para a produção de pesquisas de ponta. Parece-nos que o momento atual de elaboração de um projeto político para a gerontologia está situado no espaço da tentativa de incorporação do discurso epistemológico, a partir de uma perspectiva que nos faz pensar na necessidade do aprofundamento da abordagem teórica acerca do conceito que pretende capturar; sob pena de não avançar na constituição de um importante conjunto de pesquisadores brasileiros de ponta, inseridos no cenário internacional da produção de conhecimento sobre o ser que envelhece.The article discusses gerontology's intention to become the science of aging in Brazil. We considered Stengers's idea that the development of a concept and the emergence of interests in different sectors of society concerned with a political project are the foundations for the establishment of a scientific field. We have identified important conceptual limitations involving old age and ageing delimitations, as well as other problems concerning hierarchies between inner spheres in gerontology and in other knowledge fields. Despite the important interests aroused by old age, gerontology seems to be on a

  6. Desafíos en la divulgación del conocimiento científico de Enfermería producido en Brasil Challenges in the dissemination of scientific Nursing knowledge produced in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Palucci Marziale

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El producto y el proceso de la actividad científica son dependientes de la comunicación eficaz y las revistas son importantes vehículos para divulgación del conocimiento. Una estrategia utilizada por las revistas científicas para ganar prestigio y reconocimiento internacional es la indexación en bases de datos, fuente de diseminación y control bibliográfico de la producción científica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar entre las revistas brasileras de enfermería, cuáles están indexadas en bases de datos internacionales e identificar junto a sus editores los problemas encontrados para esas indexaciones. Los resultados mostraron que de 21 revistas evaluadas ninguna está indexada en el ISI ni en el Journal Citation Report, 4,8% está indexada en la SciELO, 4,8% en la PsycINFO, 4,8% en la CAB HEALTH y CAB ABSTRACT, 4,8% en la Linguist and Language Behavior Abstract, 4,8% en Periodicals Tables of American Contents, 19% en CUIDEN, 19% en MEDLINE, 19% en CINAHL, 66,7% en LILACS y 100% en ULRICh'S. Las dificultades encontradas por los editores para la inclusión de revistas en las bases de datos internacionales son: manutención de la puntualidad debido a falta de recursos financieros, adopción de normas nacionales de publicación, déficit de citaciones bibliográficas en inglés y contenido editorial de las revistas. Sin embargo, han sido esfuerzos direccionados para la mejoría de la calidad editorial y la universalización del conocimiento producido por la Enfermería brasilera.The product and process of scientific activity are dependent on an efficacious communication and the journals are important means for the dissemination of knowledge. A strategy used by the scientific journals to meet excellence patterns and to achieve an international visibility is the indexation in data bases. The aim of this investigation was to identify, among the Brazilian Nursing journals, the ones indexed in international data bases and

  7. O conhecimento científico como valor no agir do enfermeiro El conocimiento científico como valor en el actuar del enfermero Knowledge scientific as value in the nurse's acting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Arena Moreira Domingues

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como finalidade conhecer o valor que sustenta o agir do enfermeiro. Optou-se pela pesquisa qualitativa, pautada na hermenêutica. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de entrevistas com oito enfermeiras que atuam em unidades de internação do Hospital São Paulo. Pela análise dos significados apreendidos nos discursos foi possível identificar o conhecimento científico como valor e como meio de obter segurança no agir e assegurar o poder.La finalidad de este estudio fue conocer el valor que sustenta el actuar del enfermero. Se optó por la investigación cualitativa, basada en la hermenéutica. Los datos fueron obtenidos por medio de entrevista grabada a ocho enfermeras actuantes en las unidades de internamiento del Hospital São Paulo. Por el análisis de los significados aprehendidos en los discursos fue posible identificar el conocimiento científico como medio para obtener seguridad en el actuar y asegurar el poder.This study with the objective to know the as values that supports the action of the nurse. It was a qualitative research based on hermeneutic. Data were obtained by means of an interview recorded by eight nurses working at the Hospitalization Units of the Hospital São Paulo. By means of the meaning obtained from speeches, it was possible to identify knowledge scientific a mean to obtain safety in the acting and to assure power.

  8. Scientific notations for the digital era

    CERN Document Server

    Hinsen, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Computers have profoundly changed the way scientific research is done. Whereas the importance of computers as research tools is evident to everyone, the impact of the digital revolution on the representation of scientific knowledge is not yet widely recognized. An ever increasing part of today's scientific knowledge is expressed, published, and archived exclusively in the form of software and electronic datasets. In this essay, I compare these digital scientific notations to the the traditional scientific notations that have been used for centuries, showing how the digital notations optimized for computerized processing are often an obstacle to scientific communication and to creative work by human scientists. I analyze the causes and propose guidelines for the design of more human-friendly digital scientific notations.

  9. Autonomy vs. dependency of scientific collaboration in scientific performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinchilla-Rodriguez, Z.; Miguel, S.; Perianes-Rodriguez, A.; Ovalle-Perandones, M.A.; Olmeda-Gomez, C.

    2016-07-01

    This article explores the capacity of Latin America in the generation of scientific knowledge and its visibility at the global level. The novelty of the contribution lies in the decomposition of leadership, plus its combination with the results of performance indicators. We compare the normalized citation of all output against the leading output, as well as scientific excellence (Chinchilla, et al. 2016a; 2016b), technological impact and the trends in collaboration types and normalized citation. The main goal is to determine to what extent the main Latin American producers of scientific output depend on collaboration to heighten research performance in terms of citation; or to the contrary, whether there is enough autonomy and capacity to leverage its competitiveness through the design of research and development agendas. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study adopting this approach at the country level within the field of N&N. (Author)

  10. Media-Savvy Scientific Literacy: Developing Critical Evaluation Skills by Investigating Scientific Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, Peggy; Gormally, Cara; Francom, Greg; Jardeleza, Sarah E.; Schutte, Virginia G. W.; Jordan, Carly; Kanizay, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Students must learn content knowledge and develop scientific literacy skills to evaluate and use scientific information in real-world situations. Recognizing the accessibility of scientific information to the average citizen, we developed an instructional approach to help students learn how to judge the quality of claims. We describe a…

  11. Building Bridges through Scientific Conferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-01-01

    Getting together to exchange ideas, forge collaborations, and disseminate knowledge is a long-standing tradition of scientific communities. How conferences are serving the community, what their current challenges are, and what is in store for the future of conferences are the topics covered...

  12. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tomassetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

  13. Circulação e produção de saberes e práticas científicas na América meridional no século XVIII: uma análise do manuscrito Materia medica misionera de Pedro Montenegro (1710 Circulation and production of knowledge and scientific practices in southern America in the eighteenth century: an analysis of Materia medica misionera, a manuscript by Pedro Montenegro (1710

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cristina Deckmann Fleck

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisa uma versão manuscrita de 1790, do livro escrito originalmente em 1710 pelo jesuíta Pedro Montenegro, Materia medica misionera. Além da persistência de saberes mágico-religiosos e dos exóticos ingredientes para as receitas, encontram-se na obra a inconfundível presença das concepções hipocráticas e galênicas e o crescente empirismo que marca as transformações científicas do século XVIII. Sua análise permite, ainda, a reflexão sobre difusão, circulação e produção de conhecimentos farmacológicos e médicos na primeira metade do século XVIII, no âmbito das reduções e dos colégios instalados na região Província Jesuítica do Paraguai, na América meridional.The article analyzes a 1790 manuscript copy of Materia medica misionera, a book written in 1710 by a Jesuit, Pedro Montenegro. Alongside knowledge of a magical or religious nature, and exotic ingredients for the recipes, this work also contains the unmistakable presence of Hippocratic and Galenic conceptions and a growing empiricism, characteristic of the scientific transformations seen in the eighteenth century. The analysis of this work also prompts reflections about the diffusion, circulation and production of pharmacological and medical knowledge in the first half of the eighteenth century within the missions and colleges installed in the area that was the Jesuit Province of Paraguay, southern America.

  14. Visões de ciência em desenhos animados: uma alternativa para o debate sobre a construção do conhecimento científico em sala de aula Scientific views in cartoons: an alternative for debating about the construction of scientific knowledge in the classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyuara Araújo da Silva Mesquita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dada a grande influência da televisão na vida dos jovens, a presente pesquisa investigou um dos gêneros televisivos que se destina ao público infanto-juvenil: os desenhos animados. Esta investigação consiste em uma análise documental com base em alguns episódios dos desenhos Jimmy Nêutron e O Laboratório de Dexter, com a intenção de detectar quais visões de ciência são veiculadas por meio destes episódios. Tal análise realiza-se sob a ótica das idéias de alguns pensadores representativos da Filosofia das Ciências, por serem estas idéias importantes para a compreensão de como se desenvolveu e tem se desenvolvido o pensamento científico em nossa sociedade. O presente artigo sugere o uso de desenhos animados como alternativa para motivar debates que privilegiem a construção do conhecimento científico com base em um universo familiar ao estudante.Because of the big influence of TV in youngsters' lives, this research seeks to investigate one kind of TV program for children and teenagers. This investigation consists of a documentary analysis of some episodes of Jimmy Neutron and The Dexter Lab cartoons with the purpose of detecting which science views are broadcast in these episodes. The analysis is made from the point of view of some representative thinkers in the philosophy of science. These ideas are important in understanding how science thinking has developed in our society. This present article shows the use of cartoons as an alternative to motivate debates which will drive the construction of scientific knowledge using an environment familiar to the student.

  15. Knowledge Flow in East Asia and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Guangzhou Hu

    2008-01-01

    East Asia is emerging as a hub of technological innovation. This paper investigates the extent to which East Asia has become a source of international knowledge diffusion and whether such diffusion is localized to the region. Using citations made by U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) granted patents to other USPTO patents as an indicator of knowledge flow and estimating a model of international knowledge diffusion, I find strong evidence corroborating the hypothesis of increasing region...

  16. When we decided to create the Revista Scientific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Antonio Martínez Molina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When we proposed to create the Revista Scientific, we had many doubts about what would be the treatment to be followed for the development of it? On the one hand, we needed to create a common basis for their more ethical and moral aspects so that the authors always applied the same criteria. This is not only to achieve an editorial unit, but to establish guidelines to follow throughout the publication, so as to facilitate the reading and understanding of the contents from the respect to the information, to the sources, but on all to the readers. The rules created are, therefore, the guidelines to be followed by the authors that appear in our publication, which must take into account these basic rules. Another point to be addressed was the selection of a disciplinary and multidisciplinary team at the international level that is in charge of the valuation of scientific productions, high invoice equipment of different Universities and Organizations recognized worldwide. On the basis of the above considerations, the question arises of deciding, what can or should be, and what can not or should not be counted, but rather how to explain and explain information in the most ethically correct way from the deontological perspective of the writer. It should be noted that Scientific tries to serve as a complement and informative tool for both teachers and the general public. We aim to disseminate scientific and technological knowledge, through the original results, the product of scientific research, which represent a contribution to the development of science and technology. It includes works, products of scientific research and theoretical reflections that, due to their relevance, merit publication, and in this way contribute to the visibility of intellectual production in the areas of education and social sciences. Scientific Magazine is aimed at the academic audience in its different levels (Initial, Basic, University as well as the scientific community

  17. "Innovation and Organizational Knowledge: A bibliometric mapping of scientific publications until 2009 Inovação e Conhecimento Organizacional: um mapeamento bibliométrico das publicações científicas até 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Lucia Silva Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Innovation has been acknowledged as a key factor to boost competitiveness in organizations. This subject has raised the concern of many related fields that have tried to add new meanings and constructs in search of a better explanation for this phenomenon, among them, several scholars have pointed out that organizational knowledge might leverage innovation. In this sense, this article has as objective to map out the pool of international publications where innovation and organizational knowledge are intertwined. Thus, we have used Bibliometrics techniques such as citation analysis to identify the key works in the subject. The results show a growing behavior on the amount of published articles reaching 800 approximately for year 2009. It also shows the predominance of US American and British Institutions in the number of articles as well as in the amount of citations. The contribution of this work lies on shedding more light on the scientific structure of innovation research and points out to the path dependency of the field as well as to the future trends.

    A inovação tem sido reconhecida como um fator crítico para a competitividade das organizações. O tema tem despertado o interesse de várias áreas da ciência, as quais têm agregado novos construtos para tentar explicar como se produz esse fenômeno, entre eles, o conhecimento organizacional como elemento alavancador da inovação. Este trabalho tem por objetivo mapear as publicações internacionais da área de inovação que tratam de conhecimento organizacional. Para isto foram utilizadas técnicas bibliométricas como a análise de citações para identificar os trabalhos relevantes da área. Os resultados apontam um crescimento na quantidade de artigos publicados, chegando aproximadamente a 800 (oitocentos no ano de 2009. Tamb

  18. A scientific heritage in plant physiology from an older generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    YUAN Ming

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge passes from generation to generation. The scientific achievements of one generation not only deepen our understanding of nature, but also provide the basis for the research of subsequent generations...

  19. Adsorbate Diffusion on Transition Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    systematically studied adsorption and diffusion of atomic and diatomic species (H, C, N, O, CO, and NO) on nanometer-sized Pt and Cu nanoparticles with...species and two diatomic molecules (H, C, N, O, CO, and NO) as adsorbates and study the adsorption and diffusion of these adsorbates across the edges...DOE-BES, Division of Chemical Sciences (grant DE-FG02-05ER15731), and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under a Basic Research Initiative

  20. Scientific literacy: A systemic functional linguistics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhihui

    2005-03-01

    Scientific writing contains unique linguistic features that construe special realms of scientific knowledge, values, and beliefs. An understanding of the functionality of these features is critical to the development of literacy in science. This article describes some of the key linguistic features of scientific writing, discusses the challenges these features present to comprehension and composition of science texts in school, and argues for greater attention to the specialized language of science in teaching and learning.

  1. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  2. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring — perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data. PMID:27821901

  3. A Center for Research in Scientific Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuelke, L. David; And Others

    The objectives of the Center for Research in Scientific Communication at the University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, are to assist scientists in short-term communication projects; to produce, through research, new knowledge in the area of scientific communicaton; and to provide regular, systematic, and experimental analysis of communication variables…

  4. Scientific Metaphors in the journalistic discourse

    CERN Document Server

    Kinouchi, Osame

    2010-01-01

    Scientific education and divulgation not only amplify people's vocabulary and repertory of scientific concepts but, at the same time, promote the diffusion of certain conceptual and cognitive metaphors. Here we make some hypothesis about this process, proposing a classification in terms of visible, invisible, basic and derived metaphors. We focus our attention in contemporary and classical physics metaphors applied to psychological and socio-economical phenomena, and we study two exemplar cases through an exhaustive exam of the online content of large Brazilian journalistic portals. Finally, we present implications and suggestions from the cognitive metaphor theory for the scientific education and divulgation process.

  5. Designing for diffusion: how can we increase uptake of cancer communication innovations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, James W; Kreuter, Matthew W

    2010-12-01

    The best innovations in cancer communication do not necessarily achieve uptake by researchers, public health and clinical practitioners, and policy makers. This paper describes design activities that can be applied and combined for the purpose of spreading effective cancer communication innovations. A previously developed Push-Pull-Infrastructure Model is used to organize and highlight the types of activities that can be deployed during the design phase of innovations. Scientific literature about the diffusion of innovations, knowledge utilization, marketing, public health, and our experiences in working to spread effective practices, programs, and policies are used for this purpose. Attempts to broaden the reach, quicken the uptake, and facilitate the use of cancer communication innovations can apply design activities to increase the likelihood of diffusion. Some simple design activities hold considerable promise for improving dissemination and subsequent diffusion. Augmenting current dissemination practices with evidence-based concepts from diffusion science, marketing science, and knowledge utilization hold promise for improving results by eliciting greater market pull. Inventors and change agencies seeking to spread cancer communication innovations can experience more success by explicit consideration of design activities that reflect an expanded version of the Push-Pull-Infrastructure Model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Knowledge Growth: Applied Models of General and Individual Knowledge Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkina, Galina Iu.; Bakanova, Svetlana A.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the mathematical models of the growth and accumulation of scientific and applied knowledge since it is seen as the main potential and key competence of modern companies. The problem is examined on two levels--the growth and evolution of objective knowledge and knowledge evolution of a particular individual. Both processes are…

  7. Draft scientific concept of the research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazić Miljojko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Every scientific research involves the systematic study of phenomena and processes that occur in nature and society. Such a systematic study is not possible without the use of objective instruments for collecting, processing and analyzing data and without the application of scientific methods for drawing conclusions, propriety and legality of the researching object properties. That is why all systematic scientific studies require advance planning and design, and that in one scientific, operational and planning document, called the research project is devised a way of acquiring scientific knowledge, which will represent a logical, structured unit, rational and purposeful, mutually compatible and functionally related attitudes, judgments and conclusions of the research subject. The general methodology of scientific research has defined the scientific standards, rules and procedures by which a scientific research project is created. The project of scientific research has a standard structure element of the project which consists of: a draft scientific concept; b research plans; iv research instruments, including a plan of arrangement and data processing. Since numerous difficulties encountered by young researchers in establishing draft scientific ideas in theirs Master's and Doctoral Theses in the last edition of the Megatrend journal, we have offered to scientific and professional public the first three elements of the scientific concept structure draft of the research project: formulation of the research problem, determination of research subject and the formulation of scientific and social research objectives. In this edition of the Megatrend journal, according to the strict requirements of the general methodology of science and special methodology of science, scientific and professional community, we present the following three elements of the draft of the scientific concept of research: a hypothetical framework of the research, the method of

  8. Sanctioning Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brentjes, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss stories about rulers and princes of three dynasties - Abbasid, Norman and Timurid – and their narrative representation as prime knowers of the mathematical sciences, geography and history. I argue that they constitute one set of positive forms of sanctioning or contesting knowledge in those societies by prescribing hierarchies of knowledge forms and hierarchies of people and institutions that decide about the veracity of knowledge. I suggest that these stories share their origin and meaning in an environment of legitimizing propaganda for the various rulers and princes. I also claim that the value and position of scientific knowledge in these stories differ, starting from what apparently were personal interests of a ruler and leading to its integration into what was considered necessary for the education of a prince and the cultured behaviour of a ruler. Hence, these stories about knowledge and rulers present images of knowledge that delineate the status of scholars in those three societies and thus define possibilities and set boundaries for learning and practicing scholarly fields.En este artículo se estudian historias sobre gobernantes y príncipes de tres dinastías - ‛abbāsí, normanda y timurí – y su representación narrativa como conocedores de las ciencias matemáticas, la geografía y la historia. Se argumenta que constituyen un conjunto de formas positivas de aprobar o impugnar el conocimiento en esas sociedades, prescribiendo jerarquías de formas de conocimiento y jerarquías de gentes e instituciones que deciden acerca de la veracidad del conocimiento. Se sugiere que esas historias comparten su origen y significado en un contexto de propaganda legitimadora para varios gobernantes y príncipes. También se afirma que el valor y la posición del conocimiento científico en esas historias difieren, empezando por lo que en apariencia eran los intereses personales de un gobernante hasta su integraci

  9. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonenko, Nikolai N; Meerschaert, Mark M; Sikorskii, Alla

    2013-07-15

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change.

  10. The diffuse ensemble filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new class of ensemble filters, called the Diffuse Ensemble Filter (DEnF, is proposed in this paper. The DEnF assumes that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble are uncorrelated with the latter ensemble and have infinite variance. The assumption of infinite variance corresponds to the limit of "complete lack of knowledge" and differs dramatically from the implicit assumption made in most other ensemble filters, which is that the forecast errors orthogonal to the first guess ensemble have vanishing errors. The DEnF is independent of the detailed covariances assumed in the space orthogonal to the ensemble space, and reduces to conventional ensemble square root filters when the number of ensembles exceeds the model dimension. The DEnF is well defined only in data rich regimes and involves the inversion of relatively large matrices, although this barrier might be circumvented by variational methods. Two algorithms for solving the DEnF, namely the Diffuse Ensemble Kalman Filter (DEnKF and the Diffuse Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (DETKF, are proposed and found to give comparable results. These filters generally converge to the traditional EnKF and ETKF, respectively, when the ensemble size exceeds the model dimension. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the DEnF eliminates filter collapse, which occurs in ensemble Kalman filters for small ensemble sizes. Also, the use of the DEnF to initialize a conventional square root filter dramatically accelerates the spin-up time for convergence. However, in a perfect model scenario, the DEnF produces larger errors than ensemble square root filters that have covariance localization and inflation. For imperfect forecast models, the DEnF produces smaller errors than the ensemble square root filter with inflation. These experiments suggest that the DEnF has some advantages relative to the ensemble square root filters in the regime of small ensemble size, imperfect model, and copious

  11. Lead diffusion in monazite; Diffusion du plomb dans la monazite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardes, E

    2006-06-15

    Proper knowledge of the diffusion rates of lead in monazite is necessary to understand the U-Th-Pb age anomalies of this mineral, which is one of the most used in geochronology after zircon. Diffusion experiments were performed in NdPO{sub 4} monocrystals and in Nd{sub 0.66}Ca{sub 0.17}Th{sub 0.17}PO{sub 4} polycrystals from Nd{sub 0.66}Pb{sub 0.17}Th{sub 0.17}PO{sub 4} thin films to investigate Pb{sup 2+} + Th{sup 4+} {r_reversible} 2 Nd{sup 3+} and Pb{sup 2+} {r_reversible} Ca{sup 2+} exchanges. Diffusion annealings were run between 1200 and 1500 Celsius degrees, at room pressure, for durations ranging from one hour to one month. The diffusion profiles were analysed using TEM (transmission electronic microscopy) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy). The diffusivities extracted for Pb{sup 2+} + Th{sup 4+} {r_reversible} 2 Nd{sup 3+} exchange follow an Arrhenius law with parameters E equals 509 {+-} 24 kJ mol{sup -1} and log(D{sub 0} (m{sup 2}s{sup -1})) equals -3.41 {+-} 0.77. Preliminary data for Pb{sup 2+} {r_reversible} Ca{sup 2+} exchange are in agreement with this result. The extrapolation of our data to crustal temperatures yields very slow diffusivities. For instance, the time necessary for a 50 {mu}m grain to lose all of its lead at 800 Celsius degrees is greater than the age of the Earth. From these results and other evidence from the literature, we conclude that most of the perturbations in U-Th-Pb ages of monazite cannot be attributed to lead diffusion, but rather to interactions with fluids. (author)

  12. Building Scalable Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Maskey, Manil; Gatlin, Patrick; Zhang, Jia; Duan, Xiaoyi; Miller, J. J.; Bugbee, Kaylin; Christopher, Sundar; Freitag, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge Graphs link key entities in a specific domain with other entities via relationships. From these relationships, researchers can query knowledge graphs for probabilistic recommendations to infer new knowledge. Scientific papers are an untapped resource which knowledge graphs could leverage to accelerate research discovery. Goal: Develop an end-to-end (semi) automated methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science.

  13. Introduction to scientific publishing backgrounds, concepts, strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This book is a very concise introduction to the basic knowledge of scientific publishing. It  starts with the basics of writing a scientific paper, and recalls the different types of scientific documents. In gives an overview on the major scientific publishing companies and different business models. The book also introduces to abstracting and indexing services and how they can be used for the evaluation of science, scientists, and institutions. Last but not least, this short book faces the problem of plagiarism and publication ethics.

  14. PREDON Scientific Data Preservation 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconu, C.; Kraml, S.; Surace, C.; Chateigner, D.; Libourel, T.; Laurent, A.; Lin, Y.; Schaming, M.; Benbernou, S.; Lebbah, M.; Boucon, D.; Cérin, C.; Azzag, H.; Mouron, P.; Nief, J.-Y.; Coutin, S.; Beckmann, V.

    Scientific data collected with modern sensors or dedicated detectors exceed very often the perimeter of the initial scientific design. These data are obtained more and more frequently with large material and human efforts. A large class of scientific experiments are in fact unique because of their large scale, with very small chances to be repeated and to superseded by new experiments in the same domain: for instance high energy physics and astrophysics experiments involve multi-annual developments and a simple duplication of efforts in order to reproduce old data is simply not affordable. Other scientific experiments are in fact unique by nature: earth science, medical sciences etc. since the collected data is "time-stamped" and thereby non-reproducible by new experiments or observations. In addition, scientific data collection increased dramatically in the recent years, participating to the so-called "data deluge" and inviting for common reflection in the context of "big data" investigations. The new knowledge obtained using these data should be preserved long term such that the access and the re-use are made possible and lead to an enhancement of the initial investment. Data observatories, based on open access policies and coupled with multi-disciplinary techniques for indexing and mining may lead to truly new paradigms in science. It is therefore of outmost importance to pursue a coherent and vigorous approach to preserve the scientific data at long term. The preservation remains nevertheless a challenge due to the complexity of the data structure, the fragility of the custom-made software environments as well as the lack of rigorous approaches in workflows and algorithms. To address this challenge, the PREDON project has been initiated in France in 2012 within the MASTODONS program: a Big Data scientific challenge, initiated and supported by the Interdisciplinary Mission of the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). PREDON is a study group formed by

  15. High-Throughput Study of Diffusion and Phase Transformation Kinetics of Magnesium-Based Systems for Automotive Cast Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Alan A [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Zhao, Ji-Cheng [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Riggi, Adrienne [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Joost, William [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-10-02

    The objective of the proposed study is to establish a scientific foundation on kinetic modeling of diffusion, phase precipitation, and casting/solidification, in order to accelerate the design and optimization of cast magnesium (Mg) alloys for weight reduction of U.S. automotive fleet. The team has performed the following tasks: 1) study diffusion kinetics of various Mg-containing binary systems using high-throughput diffusion multiples to establish reliable diffusivity and mobility databases for the Mg-aluminum (Al)-zinc (Zn)-tin (Sn)-calcium (Ca)-strontium (Sr)-manganese (Mn) systems; 2) study the precipitation kinetics (nucleation, growth and coarsening) using both innovative dual-anneal diffusion multiples and cast model alloys to provide large amounts of kinetic data (including interfacial energy) and microstructure atlases to enable implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner numerical model to simulate phase transformation kinetics of non-spherical/non-cuboidal precipitates in Mg alloys; 3) implement a micromodel to take into account back diffusion in the solid phase in order to predict microstructure and microsegregation in multicomponent Mg alloys during dendritic solidification especially under high pressure die-casting (HPDC) conditions; and, 4) widely disseminate the data, knowledge and information using the Materials Genome Initiative infrastructure (http://www.mgidata.org) as well as publications and digital data sharing to enable researchers to identify new pathways/routes to better cast Mg alloys.

  16. Teaching for conceptual change: An intervention to promote deeper understanding of diffusion and osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Cheryl

    Emergent processes are distinguished from non-emergent processes on the basis of the qualitative relationships among the agents' interactions and the causal relationships between the agents' interactions and the pattern. Research suggests students often have robust misconceptions about emergent processes (such as diffusion) because they do not have the mental model to interpret these processes This study investigates the extent to which a domain-general understanding of emergent processes can help provide students with an enhanced understanding of diffusion and osmosis This is a quasi-experimental study using non-equivalent groups design to compare the treatment and control groups. Sixty-six community college students enrolled in an introductory biology course comprised the participants. Students' prior knowledge about emergent processes, diffusion, and osmosis were assessed by pre-tests. The treatment group received the intervention -- an instructional module about the differences between scientific processes that are emergent versus processes that are non-emergent. The control group did not receive the intervention but received the process assessment to determine incoming knowledge about scientific processes and any gains in knowledge about scientific processes. Both groups received the same specific content instruction about diffusion and osmosis, which was derived from the regular and established curriculum for the course. Both groups were given post-tests to assess whether they learned the concepts, and whether they were able to achieve a deep understanding that resulted in a comprehension of the transport of substances across cell membranes and how that might be applied in particular health-related situations. Data were analyzed using t-tests and analysis of variance. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups based on the learning measures Limitations include sample restrictions and not taking into account individual ability

  17. Coordinating Scientific Argumentation and the Next Generation Science Standards through Argument Driven Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Jonathon; Enderle, Patrick; Sampson, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Scientific argumentation is an essential activity for the development and refinement of scientific knowledge. Additionally, fostering argumentation related to scientific concepts can help students engage in a variety of essential scientific practices and enhance their science content knowledge. With the increasing prevalence and emphasis on…

  18. Scientific Journal Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite impressive the visibility of online publishing compared to offline. Lawrence (2001 computed the percentage increase across 1,494 venues containing at least five offline and five online articles. Results shown an average of 336% more citations to online articles compared to offline articles published in the same venue. If articles published in the same venue are of similar quality, then they concluded that online articles are more highly cited because of their easier access. Thomson Scientific, traditionally concerned with printed journals, announced on November 28, 2005, the launch of Web Citation Index™, the multidisciplinary citation index of scholarly content from institutional and subject-based repositories (http://scientific.thomson. com/press/2005/8298416/. The Web Citation Index from the abstracting and indexing (A&I connects together pre-print articles, institutional repositories and open access (OA journals (Chillingworth, 2005. Basically all research funds are government granted funds, tax payer’s supported and therefore, results should be made freely available to the community. Free online availability facilitates access to research findings, maximizes interaction among research groups, and optimizes efforts and research funds efficiency. Therefore, Ambi-Água is committed to provide free access to its articles. An important aspect of Ambi-Água is the publication and management system of this journal. It uses the Electronic System for Journal Publishing (SEER - http://www.ibict.br/secao.php?cat=SEER. This system was translated and customized by the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology Information (IBICT based on the software developed by the Public Knowledge Project (Open Journal Systems of the British Columbia University (http://pkp.sfu.ca/ojs/. The big advantage of using this system is that it is compatible with the OAI-PMH protocol for metadata harvesting what greatly promotes published articles

  19. African indigenous knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Holardoughyean

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... natural world and the development of technological equipment directed towards making life worth living. Meanwhile, the attainment of such a sophisticated status in Western scientific research has been facilitated by its experimental methodology which has made possible the transfer of knowledge from one ...

  20. Beyond the knowledge deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus Staffan; Holm, Lotte; Frewer, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among lay...

  1. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  2. Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Zimbabwe Scientific Association was founded in Bulawayo in 1899 to promote the study and advancement of science in Zimbabwe and to facilitate the acquisition and dissemination of scientific knowledge. Its journal, Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association, was first published in 1903 ...

  3. The Mozart effect: tracking the evolution of a scientific legend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerter, Adrian; Heath, Chip

    2004-12-01

    Theories of the diffusion of ideas in social psychology converge on the assumption that shared beliefs (e.g., social representations, rumours and legends) propagate because they address the needs or concerns of social groups. But little empirical research exists demonstrating this link. We report three media studies of the diffusion of a scientific legend as a particular kind of shared belief. We studied the Mozart effect (ME), the idea that listening to classical music enhances intelligence. Study 1 showed that the ME elicited more persistent media attention than other science reports and this attention increased when the ME was manifested in events outside of science. Study 2 suggested that diffusion of the ME may have responded to varying levels of collective anxiety. Study 3 demonstrated how the content of the ME evolved during diffusion. The results provide evidence for the functionality of diffusion of ideas and initial elements for a model of the emergence and evolution of scientific legends.

  4. Quest for Truth: Scientific Progress and Religious Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singham, Mano

    This book attempts to create a model of the nature of knowledge and its evolution. Scholarly research has been used for this purpose. Chapters include: (1) "The Nature of Knowledge"; (2) "The Nature of Scientific Progress"; (3) "Truth and Falsifiability"; (4) "The Problem with Experimental Observations"; (5) "Scientific Reductionism"; (6) "An…

  5. Priority knowledge needs. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the knowledge needs identified during the work on the scientific basis for the management plan. The overview includes knowledge needs identified in: the impact assessments for various sectors; the reports on the vulnerability of particularly valuable areas; proposed indicators for a monitoring system; cumulative environmental effects; conflicting interests and the need for coordination; and the report on analysis of population and, economic activity and ecosystem services. In addition, the working group has identified several additional knowledge needs. The present report summarises the 2010 status report and describes new developments since its publication.(Author)

  6. Spin-diffusions and diffusive molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Brittan; Luskin, Mitchell; Plecháč, Petr; Simpson, Gideon

    2017-12-01

    Metastable configurations in condensed matter typically fluctuate about local energy minima at the femtosecond time scale before transitioning between local minima after nanoseconds or microseconds. This vast scale separation limits the applicability of classical molecular dynamics (MD) methods and has spurned the development of a host of approximate algorithms. One recently proposed method is diffusive MD which aims at integrating a system of ordinary differential equations describing the likelihood of occupancy by one of two species, in the case of a binary alloy, while quasistatically evolving the locations of the atoms. While diffusive MD has shown itself to be efficient and provide agreement with observations, it is fundamentally a model, with unclear connections to classical MD. In this work, we formulate a spin-diffusion stochastic process and show how it can be connected to diffusive MD. The spin-diffusion model couples a classical overdamped Langevin equation to a kinetic Monte Carlo model for exchange amongst the species of a binary alloy. Under suitable assumptions and approximations, spin-diffusion can be shown to lead to diffusive MD type models. The key assumptions and approximations include a well-defined time scale separation, a choice of spin-exchange rates, a low temperature approximation, and a mean field type approximation. We derive several models from different assumptions and show their relationship to diffusive MD. Differences and similarities amongst the models are explored in a simple test problem.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 50: From student to entry-level professional: Examining the role of language and written communications in the reacculturation of aerospace engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.; Hecht, Laura F.

    1995-01-01

    When students graduate and enter the world of work, they must make the transition from an academic to a professional knowledge community. Kenneth Bruffee's model of the social construction of knowledge suggests that language and written communication play a critical role in the reacculturation process that enables successful movement from one knowledge community to another. We present the results of a national (mail) survey that examined the technical communications abilities, skills, and competencies of 1,673 aerospace engineering students, who represent an academic knowledge community. These results are examined within the context of the technical communications behaviors and practices reported by 2,355 aerospace engineers and scientists employed in government and industry, who represent a professional knowledge community that the students expect to join. Bruffee's claim of the importance of language and written communication in the successful transition from an academic to a professional knowledge community is supported by the responses from the two communities we surveyed. Implications are offered for facilitating the reacculturation process of students to entry-level engineering professionals.

  8. The diffusion of innovation: factors influencing the uptake of pharmacogenetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Fuks; Møldrup, Claus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inspired by diffusion research, this paper examines how perceived need, health status, experiences with medicine and testing, consumption of mass media and sociodemography influence the public's familiarity, knowledge, attitudes and intentions regarding pharmacogenetics. The objective....../CONCLUSION: Knowledge of pharmacogenetics, and thus the diffusion of the technology, is influenced by medicine consumption, experienced lack of effect and side effects, use of medical testing and perception of societal need. Increased knowledge is seen in all cases. The general perception of and attitude...

  9. Diffusive light transport in semitransparent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattelli, Lorenzo; Mazzamuto, Giacomo; Wiersma, Diederik S.; Toninelli, Costanza

    2016-10-01

    It is common knowledge that diffusion theory cannot describe light propagation in semitransparent media, i.e., media with a low optical thickness. However, even in an optically thin slab, late-time transport will be eventually determined by a multiple scattering process whose characteristics are still largely unexplored. We numerically demonstrate that, even for an optical thickness as low as 1, after a short transient, propagation along the slab plane becomes diffusive. Nonetheless, we show that such a diffusion process is governed by modified statistical distributions which result from a highly nontrivial interplay with boundary conditions.

  10. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 9. The Scientific Enterprise - Assumptions, Problems, and Goals in the Modern Scientific Framework. V V Raman. Reflections Volume 13 Issue 9 September 2008 pp 885-894 ...

  11. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experts on the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel provide independent scientific advice to the EPA on a wide range of health and safety issues related to pesticides.

  12. Museology and Scientific Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the period of transition and self examination of the museology of science. Defines the main issues and limits of the museum as a means of transmitting a scientific culture and scientific ways. (Author/RT)

  13. The Nature of Scientific Revolutions from the Vantage Point of Chaos Theory: Toward a Formal Model of Scientific Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Rocco J.; Carifio, James

    2005-01-01

    In sharp contrast to the early positivist view of the nature of science and scientific knowledge, Kuhn argues that the scientific enterprise involves states of continuous, gradual development punctuated by comparatively rare instances of turmoil and change, which ultimately brings about a new stability and a qualitatively changed knowledge base.…

  14. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acquisition of Scientific Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noland, Lynn [Director, Sponsored Programs

    2014-05-16

    Whitworth University constructed a 63,00 sq. ft. biology and chemistry building which opened in the Fall of 2011. This project provided for new state-of-the-art science instrumentation enabling Whitworth students to develop skills and knowledge that are directly transferable to practical applications thus enhancing Whitworth student's ability to compete and perform in the scientific workforce. Additionally, STEM faculty undertake outreach programs in the area schools, bringing students to our campus to engage in activities with our science students. The ability to work with insturmentation that is current helps to make science exciting for middle school and high school students and gets them thinking about careers in science. 14 items were purchased following the university's purchasing policy, that benefit instruction and research in the departments of biology, chemistry, and health sciences. They are: Cadaver Dissection Tables with Exhaust Chamber and accessories, Research Microscope with DF DIC, Phase and Fluorescence illumination with DP72 Camera, Microscope with Fluorescence, Microcomputer controlled ultracentrifuge, Ultracentrifuge rotor, Variable Temperature steam pressure sterilizer, Alliance APLC System, DNA Speedvac, Gel Cocumentation System, BioPac MP150, Glovebox personal workstation,Lyophilizer, Nano Drop 2000/2000c Spectrophotometer, C02 Incubator.

  16. What is scientific misconduct?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Selected examples from history are discussed to illustrate the many difficulties in judging scientific behavior. Scientific misconduct is not an a priori given concept but must first be defined. The definitions of scientific misconduct used in the USA and in Denmark are discussed as examples....

  17. Lung diffusion testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003854.htm Lung diffusion testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lung diffusion testing measures how well the lungs exchange gases. This ...

  18. [First warnings of the dangers involved in tobacco use. Medical-scientific knowledge and recommendations for prevention in the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Richard; Walter, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    References to historical aspects of tobacco research and the ensuing recommendations for the prevention of tobacco-associated diseases can only be found rudimentarily in newer studies. This article systematically reviews the historical literature on the subject, with special attention given to selected journals published between 1850 and 1950. The analysis offers a chronological summary of the knowledge about tobacco ingredients and their effects, about tobacco-attributed diseases as well as of the usually non-institutionalized recommendations for their prevention. The report clearly shows the early knowledge about the toxic effects of tobacco and its products, the causation of ophthalmologic diseases and the effects on the cardiovascular system, the respiratory and nervous systems as well as the reproduction system. The knowledge of the pathogenesis of tobacco-attributable mental disorders, addiction and cancer is also reported. From today's view, some former strategies of prevention are regarded as obsolete; some seem to be very topical. In summary, research concentrating on the characteristics of tobacco and tobacco-associated diseases is witness to a continuity spanning different epochs and political systems.

  19. Advances in computational and statistical diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lauren J; Daducci, Alessandro; Wassermann, Demian; Lenglet, Christophe

    2017-11-14

    Computational methods are crucial for the analysis of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Computational diffusion MRI can provide rich information at many size scales, including local microstructure measures such as diffusion anisotropies or apparent axon diameters, whole-brain connectivity information that describes the brain's wiring diagram and population-based studies in health and disease. Many of the diffusion MRI analyses performed today were not possible five, ten or twenty years ago, due to the requirements for large amounts of computer memory or processor time. In addition, mathematical frameworks had to be developed or adapted from other fields to create new ways to analyze diffusion MRI data. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent computational and statistical advances in diffusion MRI and to put these advances into context by comparison with the more traditional computational methods that are in popular clinical and scientific use. We aim to provide a high-level overview of interest to diffusion MRI researchers, with a more in-depth treatment to illustrate selected computational advances. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Scientific culture, multiculturalism and the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugly-Smolska, Eva

    1996-01-01

    One possible way of encouraging underrepresented groups to participate in science is to ensure that science is seen to be inclusionary. To this end a distinction is made between science (as knowledge) and scientific culture. A description of how one obtains membership in that culture is provided. Including the contributions of many different groups to scientific culture, when teaching the history, philosophy and sociology of science, is one way to emphasize that everyone can do science; something critical in multicultural science classrooms.

  1. An emerging view of scientific collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hara, Noriko; Solomon, Paul; Kim, Seung Lye

    2003-01-01

    -disciplinary research groups. Each group had 14 to 34 members, including faculty, postdoctoral fellows and students, at four geographically dispersed universities. To investigate challenges that emerge in establishing scientific collaboration, data were collected about members' previous and current collaborative......Collaboration is often a critical aspect of scientific research, which is dominated by complex problems, rapidly changing technology, dynamic growth of knowledge, and highly specialized areas of expertise. An individual scientist can seldom provide all of the expertise and resources necessary...

  2. Scientific Software Engineering in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2009-01-01

    Writing complex computer programs to study scientific problems requires careful planning and an in-depth knowledge of programming languages and tools. In this chapter the importance of using the right tool for the right problem is emphasized. Common tools to organize computer programs, as well as to debug and improve them are discussed, followed by simple data reduction strategies and visualization tools. Furthermore, some useful scientific libraries such as boost, GSL, LEDA and numerical rec...

  3. SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF NATURE AND SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF CULTURE: INTE-GRATION TREND, PRACTICAL VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokina Zoya Titovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a topic of interest : studying the expanding and deepening trend of integration of natural, technical, social and humanities fields of scientific knowledge. The point of absolute opposition between the sciences dealing with nature and those dealing with culture is subjected to criticism, the forms of integration of scientific knowledge are identified: mathematization, formalization, computerization of knowledge; philosophization/dialectization and environmentalization of the scientific knowledge. It is noted that such areas of scientific knowledge as synergetics, cybernetics, system theory, information technology, sociosynergetics, historical informatics, cliometrics, informatics for economics, evolutionary economics, human ecology, etc. Many scientific fields appear on the border between the science, technology and mathematics, and social and humanities studies, while the sharp borders between the natural sciences and cultural sciences tend to disappear, although specifics of studying the social reality still exists. Within the context of integration of sciences, comprehensive approach, synergetics, cybernetics, and mathematical model approach are analyzed. The philosophy of technology, and environmental problems, which are caused by the development of technological civilization, are studied. Practical value of integration processes in science is identified. The studied data is addressed to the specialists who are interested in the modern processes of integration of sciences, and modern issues of scientific and technical development of humanity, survival of humanity under the conditions of increasing technological understanding of the nature.

  4. A Student Diffusion Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzner, Mickey; Pearson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion is a truly interdisciplinary topic bridging all areas of STEM education. When biomolecules are not being moved through the body by fluid flow through the circulatory system or by molecular motors, diffusion is the primary mode of transport over short distances. The direction of the diffusive flow of particles is from high concentration…

  5. Handbook on atmospheric diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, S.R.; Briggs, G.A.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Basic meteorological concepts are covered as well as plume rise, source effects, and diffusion models. Chapters are included on cooling tower plumes and urban diffusion. Suggestions are given for calculating diffusion in special situations, such as for instantaneous releases over complex terrain, over long distances, and during times when chemical reactions or dry or wet deposition are important. (PSB)

  6. On the Compliance of Women Engineers with a Gendered Scientific System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Ghiasi

    Full Text Available There has been considerable effort in the last decade to increase the participation of women in engineering through various policies. However, there has been little empirical research on gender disparities in engineering which help underpin the effective preparation, co-ordination, and implementation of the science and technology (S&T policies. This article aims to present a comprehensive gendered analysis of engineering publications across different specialties and provide a cross-gender analysis of research output and scientific impact of engineering researchers in academic, governmental, and industrial sectors. For this purpose, 679,338 engineering articles published from 2008 to 2013 are extracted from the Web of Science database and 974,837 authorships are analyzed. The structures of co-authorship collaboration networks in different engineering disciplines are examined, highlighting the role of female scientists in the diffusion of knowledge. The findings reveal that men dominate 80% of all the scientific production in engineering. Women engineers publish their papers in journals with higher Impact Factors than their male peers, but their work receives lower recognition (fewer citations from the scientific community. Engineers-regardless of their gender-contribute to the reproduction of the male-dominated scientific structures through forming and repeating their collaborations predominantly with men. The results of this study call for integration of data driven gender-related policies in existing S&T discourse.

  7. On the Compliance of Women Engineers with a Gendered Scientific System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Gita; Larivière, Vincent; Sugimoto, Cassidy R

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable effort in the last decade to increase the participation of women in engineering through various policies. However, there has been little empirical research on gender disparities in engineering which help underpin the effective preparation, co-ordination, and implementation of the science and technology (S&T) policies. This article aims to present a comprehensive gendered analysis of engineering publications across different specialties and provide a cross-gender analysis of research output and scientific impact of engineering researchers in academic, governmental, and industrial sectors. For this purpose, 679,338 engineering articles published from 2008 to 2013 are extracted from the Web of Science database and 974,837 authorships are analyzed. The structures of co-authorship collaboration networks in different engineering disciplines are examined, highlighting the role of female scientists in the diffusion of knowledge. The findings reveal that men dominate 80% of all the scientific production in engineering. Women engineers publish their papers in journals with higher Impact Factors than their male peers, but their work receives lower recognition (fewer citations) from the scientific community. Engineers-regardless of their gender-contribute to the reproduction of the male-dominated scientific structures through forming and repeating their collaborations predominantly with men. The results of this study call for integration of data driven gender-related policies in existing S&T discourse.

  8. On the Compliance of Women Engineers with a Gendered Scientific System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Gita; Larivière, Vincent; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable effort in the last decade to increase the participation of women in engineering through various policies. However, there has been little empirical research on gender disparities in engineering which help underpin the effective preparation, co-ordination, and implementation of the science and technology (S&T) policies. This article aims to present a comprehensive gendered analysis of engineering publications across different specialties and provide a cross-gender analysis of research output and scientific impact of engineering researchers in academic, governmental, and industrial sectors. For this purpose, 679,338 engineering articles published from 2008 to 2013 are extracted from the Web of Science database and 974,837 authorships are analyzed. The structures of co-authorship collaboration networks in different engineering disciplines are examined, highlighting the role of female scientists in the diffusion of knowledge. The findings reveal that men dominate 80% of all the scientific production in engineering. Women engineers publish their papers in journals with higher Impact Factors than their male peers, but their work receives lower recognition (fewer citations) from the scientific community. Engineers—regardless of their gender—contribute to the reproduction of the male-dominated scientific structures through forming and repeating their collaborations predominantly with men. The results of this study call for integration of data driven gender-related policies in existing S&T discourse. PMID:26716831

  9. Knowledge Brokers, Entrepreneurs and Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswill, Chris; Lyall, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper expands the discussion of knowledge brokerage by connecting it to long-standing debates within the social sciences about the effective transmission of scientifically produced knowledge into the worlds of policy and practice. This longer-term perspective raises some different questions about intermediary roles which are then tested…

  10. Recommendations to write better scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Threlfall (Author

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Disseminate results is one of the functions of the scientists, and we all must have approach to the knowledge to carry it a greater number of people. This is done by writing and publishing scientific articles. But though we all have good intentions and ours goals are the best, not always we get our papers are accepted and published in scientific journals. With the aim of providing assistance to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in our work, in this article the translation of some interesting recommendations for best writing scientific papers is presented.

  11. Knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tayfun Gülle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The book includes detailed information concerning knowledge and knowledge management with current resources in seven chapters uder the titles of “organizational effects of knowlegde management, knowledge management systems, new knowledge discovery: data mining, computer as an information sharing platform, technologies as knowledge management: artificial intelligence and knowledge based systems, future of knowlegde management”. Concepts of knowledge and knowledge management becomes phenomenon for all disciplinaries so global companies, other companies, state sector, epistemologists, experts of innovation and governance, information professionals etc may find informative to it. The book also includes three prefaces which are well-informed and so all of them is summarized in the text.

  12. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  13. Scientific dishonesty and good scientific practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, D; Axelsen, N H; Riis, P

    1993-04-01

    Scientific dishonesty has been the subject of much public interest in recent years. Although the problem has had a low profile in Denmark, there is no reason to believe that it is non-existent. Several preconditions known to be important prevail here as well as in other countries, such as pressure to publish and severe competition for research grants and senior academic positions. The Danish Medical Research Council (DMRC) decided to respond to this problem by preparing a report on scientific dishonesty with suggestions to the research institutions on rules for good scientific practice and procedures for investigation of suspected dishonesty. To this end, an investigatory system was suggested. The system should consist of two regional committees and one national committee. They should be headed by high court judges and experienced health sciences researchers as members. The committees will investigate cases reported to them and conclude on whether dishonesty has been established and on whether the scientific work should be retracted. Sanctions shall remain the task of the institutions. Preventive measures comprise open access to and a long storage period for scientific data.

  14. Fractional diffusion equations and anomalous diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Anomalous diffusion has been detected in a wide variety of scenarios, from fractal media, systems with memory, transport processes in porous media, to fluctuations of financial markets, tumour growth, and complex fluids. Providing a contemporary treatment of this process, this book examines the recent literature on anomalous diffusion and covers a rich class of problems in which surface effects are important, offering detailed mathematical tools of usual and fractional calculus for a wide audience of scientists and graduate students in physics, mathematics, chemistry and engineering. Including the basic mathematical tools needed to understand the rules for operating with the fractional derivatives and fractional differential equations, this self-contained text presents the possibility of using fractional diffusion equations with anomalous diffusion phenomena to propose powerful mathematical models for a large variety of fundamental and practical problems in a fast-growing field of research.

  15. Uso ou abuso em testes de comparações de média: conhecimento científico ou empírico? Use or abuse in mean comparison tests: scientific or empiric knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Garcia Bertoldo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar quais os principais erros e acertos na aplicação de testes de comparação de médias em trabalhos científicos, demonstrando alternativas viáveis no sentido de aumentar a imparcialidade dos resultados obtidos pelos pesquisadores. Um dos maiores desafios do pesquisador é a interpretação dos resultados de forma fidedigna. Apesar da preocupação com a análise dos dados, muitas vezes pode ser observado certo descaso com a interpretação dos resultados, em que a aplicação incorreta de testes estatísticos pode levar à divulgação de informações pouco confiáveis. Foram revisados 226 trabalhos científicos publicados na revista Ciência Rural de 2002 a 2006, somente na área de Fitotecnia, sendo utilizados 148 trabalhos para discussão. A maioria dos trabalhos que estudaram mais de um fator foram classificados como incorretos (72% devido ao abuso dos testes de comparações de médias. Por outro lado, 4 e 24% foram classificados como parcialmente corretos e corretos, respectivamente.The objective of this research was to verify which are the main mistakes and the successes in the application of mean comparison tests in scientific studies, demonstrating viable alternatives in the sense of increasing the impartiality of the results obtained by researchers. One of the researcher's largest challenges is the interpretation of the obtained results in a trustworthy way. In spite of the concern of most researchers with the data analysis, many times certain disregard is observed in the interpretation of the results. Thus, the incorrect application of statistical tests leads the researchers to publish information not completely reliable. One hundred and forty-eight papers dealing with one or more than one factor were evaluated. All of them are related to the crop production major area, published from 2002 to 2006, in the 'Ciência Rural', a Brazilian scientific journal. Most of the studies (72% were

  16. Anisotropy in "isotropic diffusion" measurements due to nongaussian diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Olesen, Jonas Lynge; Ianuş, Andrada

    2017-01-01

    model-free decomposition of diffusion signal kurtosis into terms originating from either ensemble variance of isotropic diffusivity or microscopic diffusion anisotropy. This ability rests on the assumption that diffusion can be described as a sum of multiple Gaussian compartments, but this is often...... dependence of the diffusion tensors, which causes the measured isotropic diffusivity to depend on gradient frame orientation. In turn, this conflates orientation dispersion with ensemble variance in isotropic diffusivity. Second, additional contributions to the apparent variance in isotropic diffusivity...

  17. Scientific Workflow Management in Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Jeroen S.; Deelder, André M.; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Data processing in proteomics can be a challenging endeavor, requiring extensive knowledge of many different software packages, all with different algorithms, data format requirements, and user interfaces. In this article we describe the integration of a number of existing programs and tools in Taverna Workbench, a scientific workflow manager currently being developed in the bioinformatics community. We demonstrate how a workflow manager provides a single, visually clear and intuitive interface to complex data analysis tasks in proteomics, from raw mass spectrometry data to protein identifications and beyond. PMID:22411703

  18. Li diffusion in zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.

    2010-09-01

    Diffusion of Li under anhydrous conditions at 1 atm and under fluid-present elevated pressure (1.0-1.2 GPa) conditions has been measured in natural zircon. The source of diffusant for 1-atm experiments was ground natural spodumene, which was sealed under vacuum in silica glass capsules with polished slabs of zircon. An experiment using a Dy-bearing source was also conducted to evaluate possible rate-limiting effects on Li diffusion of slow-diffusing REE+3 that might provide charge balance. Diffusion experiments performed in the presence of H2O-CO2 fluid were run in a piston-cylinder apparatus, using a source consisting of a powdered mixture of spodumene, quartz and zircon with oxalic acid added to produce H2O-CO2 fluid. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) with the resonant nuclear reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be was used to measure diffusion profiles for the experiments. The following Arrhenius parameters were obtained for Li diffusion normal to the c-axis over the temperature range 703-1.151°C at 1 atm for experiments run with the spodumene source: D_{text{Li}} = 7.17 × 10^{ - 7} { exp }( - 275 ± 11 {text{kJmol}}^{ - 1} /{text{RT}}){text{m}}2 {text{s}}^{ - 1}. Diffusivities are similar for transport parallel to the c-axis, indicating little anisotropy for Li diffusion in zircon. Similar Li diffusivities were also found for experiments run under fluid-present conditions and for the experiment run with the Dy-bearing source. Li diffusion is considerably faster than diffusion of other cations in zircon, with a smaller activation energy for diffusion. Although Li diffusion in zircon is comparatively rapid, zircons will be moderately retentive of Li signatures at mid-crustal metamorphic temperatures, but they are unlikely to retain this information for geologically significant times under high-grade metamorphism.

  19. Knowledge Exchange Between Universities and SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Sarai; Lykke, Marianne

    Exchanging knowledge between university and industry is generally known to be problematic. In this paper we address the situation of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in order to understand their use of knowledge: in particular scientific knowledge. The paper will present data from....... The paper presents new understandings related to industry’s ways of perceiving, accessing and imple- menting scientific knowledge; these include insights into the primary ways in which SMEs appropriate new knowledge; the barriers to acquiring new knowledge; how SMEs understand the university setting...

  20. Jacob's Ladder and Scientific Ontologies

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Julio Michael

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to use the epistemological framework of a specific version of Cognitive Constructivism to address Piaget's central problem of knowledge construction, namely, the re-equilibration of cognitive structures. The distinctive objective character of this constructivist framework is based on Heinz von Foerster's fundamental metaphor of - objects as tokens for eigen-solutions, and is also supported by formal inference methods of Bayesian statistics. This epistemological perspective is illustrated using some episodes in the history of chemistry concerning the definition or identification of chemical elements. Some of von Foerster's epistemological imperatives provide general guidelines of development and argumentation. Keywords: Chemical elements; Cognitive constructivism; Development of cognitive structures; Eigen-solutions; External symbol grounding; Objective knowledge; Ontology alignments; Scientific ontologies.