WorldWideScience

Sample records for sciences digest issue

  1. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor); Radtke, Mike (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    This is the eleventh issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 54 papers recently published in Russian language periodicals and bound collections and of four new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated. Additional features include the translation of a paper presented in Russian to the United Nations, a review of a book on space ecology, and report of a conference on evaluating human functional capacities and predicting health. Current Soviet Life Sciences titles available in English are cited. The materials included in this issue have been identified as relevant to 30 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology. These areas are: adaptation, aviation physiology, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cosmonaut training, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, equipment and instrumentation, gastrointestinal systems, group dynamics, genetics, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, and radiobiology.

  2. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, L. R. (Editor); Radtke, M. (Editor); Garshnek, V. (Editor); Rowe, J. E. (Editor); Teeter, R. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    This is the third issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. Abstracts are included for 46 Soviet periodical articles in 20 areas of aerospace medicine and space biology and published in Russian during the second third of 1985. Selected articles are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. In addition, translated introductions and tables of contents for seven Russian books on six topics related to NASA's life science concerns are presented. Areas covered are adaptation, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, endocrinology, exobiology, gravitational biology, habitability and environmental effects, health and medical treatment, immunology, life support systems, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system; neurophysiology, nutrition, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space physiology. Two book reviews translated from the Russian are included and lists of additional relevant titles available in English with pertinent ordering information are given.

  3. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Lydia Razran (Editor); Donaldson, P. Lynn (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Garshnek, Victoria (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    This is the 19th issue of NASA's USSR Space Life Sciences Digest. It contains abstracts of 47 papers published in Russian language periodicals or presented at conferences and of 5 new Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. Reports on two conferences, one on adaptation to high altitudes, and one on space and ecology are presented. A book review of a recent work on high altitude physiology is also included. The abstracts in this issue have been identified as relevant to 33 areas of space biology and medicine. These areas are: adaptation, biological rhythms, biospherics, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, cytology, developmental biology, endocrinology, enzymology, biology, group dynamics, habitability and environmental effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, man-machine systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, microbiology, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, operational medicine, perception, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, and space biology and medicine.

  4. A Science Fair Companion. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Wendy Sherman

    This digest comments on various aspects of school science fairs. General expectations for science fair projects and participants are discussed, and tips for choosing a topic and completing a project are given. Organizational strategies for teachers charged with conducting science fairs are presented. Guidelines for parents in helping children with…

  5. Educating the Consumer about Advertising: Some Issues. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Providing a basic overview of issues related to advertising and the consumer, this digest discusses the omnipresence of advertisements, suggesting ways for consumers to recognize advertising appeals. Deceptive advertising is discussed, with particular attention paid to financial advertising. (RS)

  6. USSR space life sciences digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C.S.; Donnelly, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Research in exobiology, life sciences technology, space biology, and space medicine and physiology, primarily using data gathered on the Salyut 6 orbital space station, is reported. Methods for predicting, diagnosing, and preventing the effects of weightlessness are discussed. Psychological factors are discussed. The effects of space flight on plants and animals are reported. Bioinstrumentation advances are noted.

  7. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, C. S. (Editor); Donnelly, K. L. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Research in exobiology, life sciences technology, space biology, and space medicine and physiology, primarily using data gathered on the Salyut 6 orbital space station, is reported. Methods for predicting, diagnosing, and preventing the effects of weightlessness are discussed. Psychological factors are discussed. The effects of space flight on plants and animals are reported. Bioinstrumentation advances are noted.

  8. Comparisons between students' learning achievements of their conventional instruction and the science, technology and social conceptual instructional design on digestion system issue of secondary students at the 10th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichalek, Supattra; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Santiboon, Toansakul

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this action research study were 1) to develop learning activities according to the instructional designing model of science, technology, and social (STS) on Digestion Issue, 2) to compare students' learning achievements between their learning activities with the conventional instructional (CIM) and conceptual instructional designing methods of science, technology, and social (STS) on digestion system of secondary students at the 10th grade level with a sample size of 35 experimental student group of their STS learning method, and 91 controlling group in two classes in the first semester in academic year 2016. Using the 4-Instructional Innovative Lesson Plans, the Students' Learning Behaviour Observing Form, the Questionnaire on Teacher Behaviour Interaction (QTBI), the Researcher's Recording Form, the Learning Activity Form, and the Parallel Learning Achievement Test (LAT) were assessed. The results of this research have found that; the Index of Item Objective Congruence (IOC) value ranged from 0.67 to 1.00; the difficulty values were 0.47 and 0.79 for the CIM and STS methods, respectively, the discriminative validity for the LAT was ranged from 0.20 to 0.75. The reliability of the QTBI was 0.79. Students' responses of their learning achievements with the average means scores indicted of the normalized gain values of 0.79 for the STS group, and 0.50 and 0.36 for the CIM groups, respectively. Students' learning achievements of their post-test indicated that of a higher than pre-test, the pre-test and post-test assessments were also differentiated evidence at the 0.05 levels for the STS and CIM groups, significantly. The 22-students' learning outcomes from the STS group evidences at a high level, only of the 9-students' responses in a moderate level were developed of their learning achievements, responsibility.

  9. Instrumentation issues in implementation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ruben G; Lewis, Cara C; Weiner, Bryan J

    2014-09-04

    Like many new fields, implementation science has become vulnerable to instrumentation issues that potentially threaten the strength of the developing knowledge base. For instance, many implementation studies report findings based on instruments that do not have established psychometric properties. This article aims to review six pressing instrumentation issues, discuss the impact of these issues on the field, and provide practical recommendations. This debate centers on the impact of the following instrumentation issues: use of frameworks, theories, and models; role of psychometric properties; use of 'home-grown' and adapted instruments; choosing the most appropriate evaluation method and approach; practicality; and need for decision-making tools. Practical recommendations include: use of consensus definitions for key implementation constructs; reporting standards (e.g., regarding psychometrics, instrument adaptation); when to use multiple forms of observation and mixed methods; and accessing instrument repositories and decision aid tools. This debate provides an overview of six key instrumentation issues and offers several courses of action to limit the impact of these issues on the field. With careful attention to these issues, the field of implementation science can potentially move forward at the rapid pace that is respectfully demanded by community stakeholders.

  10. Student Science Teachers' Ideas of the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardak, Osman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to reveal the levels of understanding of student science teachers regarding the digestive system. In this research, 116 student science teachers were tested by applying the drawing method. Upon the analysis of the drawings they made, it was found that some of them had misconceptions such as "the organs of the…

  11. Moral and Ethical Issues in Teacher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Jacques S.

    This digest addresses two components in the moral and ethical preparation of teachers: identification and assessment of professional ethical concepts and structures in teacher education, and foundations and specific models for the preservice training of teachers of character. A teacher's first moral obligation is to provide excellent instruction.…

  12. Gender: an issue for science?

    CERN Multimedia

    Marina Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    Last week, CERN was invited to participate in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regional review meeting on how to accelerate gender equality in the European region. Representatives from CERN joined the conversation and proposed concrete examples of what needs to happen to enable more active participation by women in science and in decision-making positions.   In September 1995, around 10,000 participants, 30,000 activists, and government representatives from 189 countries all over the world met in Beijing for the Fourth World Conference on Women. The outcome was the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. Almost 20 years later, this document is considered the most progressive declaration for the advancement of women’s rights. In March 2015, the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women will carry out a review and appraisal of the implementation of the declaration with a global summit at United Nations Headquarters, New York. In view of this meeting, ...

  13. Soil Science and Global Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Rattan

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable management of soil is integral to any rational approach to addressing global issues of the 21st century. A high quality soil is essential to: i) advancing food and nutritional security, ii) mitigating and adapting to climate change, iii) improving quality and renewability of water, iv) enriching biodiversity, v) producing biofuel feedstocks for reducing dependence on fossil fuel, and vi) providing cultural, aesthetical and recreational opportunities. Being the essence of all terrestrial life, soil functions and ecosystem services are essential to wellbeing of all species of plants and animals. Yet, soil resources are finite, unequally distributed geographically, and vulnerable to degradation by natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Nonetheless, soil has inherent resilience, and its ecosystem functions and services can be restored over time. However, soil resilience depends on several key soil properties including soil organic carbon (SOC) concentration and pool, plant-available water capacity (PWAC), nutrient reserves, effective rooting depth, texture and clay mineralogy, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) etc. There is a close inter-dependence among these properties. For example, SOC concentration strongly affects, PWAC, nutrient reserve, activity and species diversity of soil flora and fauna, CEC etc. Thus, judicious management of SOC concentration to maintain it above the threshold level (~1.5-2%) in the root zone is critical to sustaining essential functions and ecosystem services. Yet, soils of some agroecosystems (e.g., those managed by resources-poor farmers and small landholders in the tropics and sub-tropics) are severely depleted of their SOC reserves. Consequently. Agronomic productivity and wellbeing of people dependent on degraded soils is jeopardized. The ecosystem C pool of the terrestrial biosphere has been mined by extractive practices, the nature demands recarbonization of its biosphere for maintenance of its functions and

  14. Science Education: Issues, Approaches and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shairose Irfan Jessani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global education system, science education is much more than fact-based knowledge. Science education becomes meaningless and incomprehensible for learners, if the learners are unable to relate it with their lives. It is thus recommended that Pakistan, like many other countries worldwide should adopt Science Technology Society (STS approach for delivery of science education. The purpose of the STS approach lies in developing scientifically literate citizens who can make conscious decisions about the socio-scientific issues that impact their lives. The challenges in adopting this approach for Pakistan lie in four areas that will completely need to be revamped according to STS approach. These areas include: the examination system; science textbooks; science teacher education programs; and available resources and school facilities.

  15. Data issues in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thessen, Anne E; Patterson, David J

    2011-01-01

    We review technical and sociological issues facing the Life Sciences as they transform into more data-centric disciplines - the "Big New Biology". Three major challenges are: 1) lack of comprehensive standards; 2) lack of incentives for individual scientists to share data; 3) lack of appropriate infrastructure and support. Technological advances with standards, bandwidth, distributed computing, exemplar successes, and a strong presence in the emerging world of Linked Open Data are sufficient to conclude that technical issues will be overcome in the foreseeable future. While motivated to have a shared open infrastructure and data pool, and pressured by funding agencies in move in this direction, the sociological issues determine progress. Major sociological issues include our lack of understanding of the heterogeneous data cultures within Life Sciences, and the impediments to progress include a lack of incentives to build appropriate infrastructures into projects and institutions or to encourage scientists to make data openly available.

  16. Science Information Systems Newsletter, issue 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Information Systems Newsletter is to inform the space science and applications research community about information systems development and to promote coordination and collaboration by providing a forum for communication. This quarterly publication focuses on programs sponsored by the Information Systems Branch in support of NASA's Office of Space Science. Articles of interest for other programs and agencies are presented as well. The April 1993 issue is presented.

  17. Science and Society - Problems, issues and dilemmas in science education

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Next in CERN's series of Science and Society speakers is Jonathan Osborne, Senior Lecturer in Science Education at King's College London. On Thursday 26 April, Dr Osborne will speak in the CERN main auditorium about current issues in science education in the light of an ever more science-based society. Jonathan Osborne, Senior Lecturer in Science Education at King's College London. Does science deserve a place at the curriculum high table of each student or is it just a gateway to a set of limited career options in science and technology? This question leads us to an important change in our ideas of what science education has been so far and what it must be. Basic knowledge of science and technology has traditionally been considered as just a starting point for those who wanted to build up a career in scientific research. But nowadays, the processes of science, the analysis of risks and benefits, and a knowledge of the social practices of science are necessary for every citizen. This new way of looking at s...

  18. Informing Science Special Issue on Information Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spink

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The papers in this Special Issue of Informing Science highlight research areas in the interdisciplinary field of Information Science. Key research problems for Information Science include: (1 how to model and effectively support human information behaviors, including information seeking and use behaviors, and interaction with information retrieval (IR technologies, (2 how information should be organized intellectually in IR technologies for more effective human information retrieval, and (3 the organizational, social and policy implications for the information society of human information behaviors. Information Scientists are concerned with how people's information problems can be resolved. In this way, information science is an important part of the "informing sciences". Information Science has largely borrowed theories and approaches from other disciplines - but is now attracting attention from other disciplines as a generator of theory and models that delineate key areas of human information-related endeavors. As humans struggle to seek and use information within the plethora of information sources increasingly available via the Web, Information Science research is taking center stage. Each paper in this special issue is written by an expert in their area of Information Science research.

  19. Contemporary issues in systems science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, M; Weijnen, M

    2015-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive overview of all important areas in systems science and engineering and poses the issues and challenges in these areas in order to deal with ever-increasingly complex systems and newly emergent applications. The topics range from discrete event systems, distributed intelligent systems, grey systems, and enterprise information systems to conflict resolution, robotics and intelligent sensing, smart grids, and system of systems approaches. Individual chapters are written by leading experts in the field.

  20. Science: issues in Illinois (reprints of science columns from Illinois Issues, February 1980-May 1981)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    This report consists of reprints on current public policy issues involving science and technology (S and T) in the State of Illinois. The reprints include monthly science columns from February 1980 - May 1981 Illinois Issues, a magazine of state public affairs. The magazine is an outgrowth of a legislative science research annual --a compilation of S and T-related reports prepared for the Illinois General Assembly. Topics include waste oil recovery, nuclear safety, decontamination of nuclear reactors, sulfur dioxide levels, acid rain, radioactive waste disposal problems, Illinois' legislature's record on S and T, paternity blood testing, DMSO, science issues of the 80's, European solutions to nuclear wastes, Scientific Creationism versus the theory of evolution, drug paraphernalia definition, Reye's Syndrome, and Agent Orange.

  1. Evaluation of a functional medicine approach to treating fatigue, stress, and digestive issues in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutshall, Susanne M; Bergstrom, Larry R; Kalish, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    Fatigue, stress, and digestive disorders are common among adults, especially women. We conducted a 28-week pilot study to assess the efficacy of a functional medicine approach to improving stress, energy, fatigue, digestive issues, and quality of life in middle-aged women. Findings showed significant improvements in many stress, fatigue, and quality-of-life measures. The treatment program increased mean salivary dehydroepiandrosterone levels and the cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone ratio. Stool sample analyses suggested that these treatments reduced Helicobacter pylori infections. This study suggests that functional medicine may be an effective approach to managing stress and gastrointestinal symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Science Education in Bhutan: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Ann; Tenzin, Wangpo; Johnson, David; Ramachandran, Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Science education in a developing country is pivotal in the developmental process. Bhutan, like other developing countries, places great importance in institutionalising a relevant and challenging science curriculum for all of its school-aged children. A number of factors have made the review of the science curriculum in Bhutan a priority…

  3. Learning about the Human Genome. Part 2: Resources for Science Educators. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haury, David L.

    This ERIC Digest identifies how the human genome project fits into the "National Science Education Standards" and lists Human Genome Project Web sites found on the World Wide Web. It is a resource companion to "Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators" (Haury 2001). The Web resources and…

  4. Status on Science and Application of Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1994-01-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic processes are often regarded as less stable than mesophilic processes. In the paper this postulate is examined and disproved based on real operational data from of full-scale mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants. The start-up produce for the thermophilic plants was...... for thermophilic digestion along with the implications for the methanogenic bacteria active at these temperatures....

  5. Digestion, Excretion and Metabolism, Science (Experimental): 5346.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alan; And Others

    This unit of instruction deals with a study of human physiology with emphasis on the process of digestion. The urinary system and urinary disorders are also discussed. The course is for the interested student and requires credit or background in previous biology programs. It is, in part, a second course in biology, but it is well within the range…

  6. Avoiding the Issue of Gender in Japanese Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Baker, Dale; Sugi, Ayumi; Yoshida, Atsushi; Uysal, Sibel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how the patriarchal structure of Japanese society and its notions of women, femininity, and gendered stereotypes produced strong cultural barriers to increasing the participation of females in science education. Baseline data on attitudes toward science and the perceptions of gender issues in science education, academic major…

  7. Gender issues in graduate science success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria M.

    Investigators have developed various explanations for the under-representation of women in science. While some feminist scholars postulate that the Western practices of scientific inquiry make their pursuit by females unattractive, others have investigated various aspects of the education process and their influence in students' interest in science. Research indicates that women continue to drop out of science even after choosing a science major. This trend continues in graduate school. However, few researchers have tried to examine, in a comprehensive manner, the various factors that may contribute to student attrition, particularly female, from graduate science programs. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of graduate students on their work environment in two science departments. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used to determine gender and departmental differences in students' perspectives in four areas: (1) the nature of science, (2) students' relationships with their colleagues, (3) students' relationships with their advisors, and (4) students' perceptions of the overall environment in their departments. Results of the study include: (a) female and male students entered graduate school with comparable levels of self-confidence and undergraduate GPAs; (b) female and male students maintained comparable GPAs during their stay in the program and spent equal number of hours doing research in their laboratories; (c) while in graduate school female students experienced a significantly greater decrease in self-confidence than their male colleagues; (d) the attrition rate among female students was significantly greater than among their male counterparts; (e) in general, female students perceived their working environment more negatively than their male colleagues; and (f) the science department with the highest overall graduate student attrition rate (36% vs. 22%) also had a smaller percentage of female students (30% vs. 43%) and

  8. PHARMACOTHERAPY OF THE DIGESTIVE DISEASES AMONG TEENAGERS. CURRENT STATE OF THE ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Vishneva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Deterioration of the children's health, especially as long as they study in school is one of the key issues today. The article highlights the results of the «Healthy school» program implementation, which was developed by the «Quality of life» charity fund involving Solvay Pharma. Much attention was paid to the pharmacoepidemiological study of the digestive diseases among teenagers — conformance evaluation of the given nosology pharmacotherapy at the outpatient stage to the existing standards of the evidence based medicine. The researcher described in detail nonconformances to the generally accepted recommendations identified during the study — nonprescription and/or unjustified application of the medications. They also provided the structure of the enzymatic drugs application.Key words: pharmacoepidemiology, gastrointestinal disturbances, pharmacotherapy, children.

  9. In this issue | Tumwine | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In light of this, African Health Sciences brings you an update on Ebola haemorrhagic fever in an article by some of the doctors who experienced the last Ebola outbreak in Gulu, northern Uganda last year, first hand1. They give us a glimpse of the epidemic as it affected children and adolescents, a sector of the population ...

  10. Socioscientific issues in science education: labels, reasoning, and transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.

    2009-09-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of some of the issues raised in Simonneaux and Simonneaux's analysis of socioscientific reasoning among a group of university level students negotiating three socioscientific issues. I first discuss the labels used to reference approaches in science education that prioritize socially relevant issues and the science related to these issues. I draw distinctions between approaches labeled science-technology-society (STS), the socioscientific issues framework, and les questions socialement vives (socially acute questions), which Simonneaux and Simonneaux introduce. Next, I discuss ways in which Simonneaux and Simonneaux's use socioscientific reasoning as an analytic construct varies with respect to its initial conceptualization. The primary distinctions include linguistic inconsistencies and the conceptual differences these language choices confer, expansion of the construct to subsume a broader range of practices, and issues related to unit of analysis (i.e., applying socioscientific reasoning as an analytic resource for assessing individual practice vs. group patterns). Finally, the issue of transfer of socioscientific reasoning is addressed. When considering the extent to which and how students leverage experiences and practice relative to the exploration of one socioscientific issue to inform their negotiation of another, I suggest that researchers and practitioners consider the distinction between the content of arguments advanced and underlying reasoning patterns. The tension between embedding science in meaningful, specific contexts and promoting forms of scientific literacy applicable to diverse, socially-relevant issues emerges as an important point of emphasis for educators interested in the socioscientific issues (or socially acute questions) movement.

  11. Should Science Educators Deal with the Science/Religion Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    I begin by examining the natures of science and religion before looking at the ways in which they relate to one another. I then look at a number of case studies that centre on the relationships between science and religion, including attempts to find mechanisms for divine action in quantum theory and chaos theory, creationism, genetic engineering…

  12. Learning about the Human Genome. Part 1: Challenge to Science Educators. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haury, David L.

    This digest explains how to inform high school students and their parents about the human genome project (HGP) and how the information from this milestone finding will affect future biological and medical research and challenge science educators. The sections include: (1) "The Emerging Legacy of the HGP"; (2) "Transforming How…

  13. State of Science: ergonomics and global issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Andrew; Waterson, Patrick; Todd, Andrew; Moray, Neville

    2018-02-01

    In his 1993 IEA keynote address, Neville Moray urged the ergonomics discipline to face up to the global problems facing humanity and consider how ergonomics might help find some of the solutions. In this State of Science article we critically evaluate what the ergonomics discipline has achieved in the last two and a half decades to help create a secure future for humanity. Moray's challenges for ergonomics included deriving a value structure that moves us beyond a Westernised view of worker-organisation-technology fit, taking a multidisciplinary approach which engages with other social and biological sciences, considering the gross cross-cultural factors that determine how different societies function, paying more attention to mindful consumption, and embracing the complexity of our interconnected world. This article takes a socio-historical approach by considering the factors that influence what has been achieved since Moray's keynote address. We conclude with our own set of predictions for the future and priorities for addressing the challenges that we are likely to face. Practitioner Summary: We critically reflect on what has been achieved by the ergonomics profession in addressing the global challenges raised by Moray's 1993 keynote address to the International Ergonomics Association. Apart from healthcare, the response has largely been weak and disorganised. We make suggestions for priority research and practice that is required to facilitate a sustainable future for humanity.

  14. African Health Sciences Vol 9 Special Issue.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Health Sciences Vol 9 Special Issue 1 August 2009. S35. Adaptation of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support in a Ugandan setting. Janet Nakigudde1, Seggane Musisi1, Anna Ehnvall3, Eija Airaksinen4, Hans Agren5. 1Department of Psychiatry, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, ...

  15. Editorial: Special Issue (SI): International Conference on Science Education (ICSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Zhang, BaoHui

    2014-04-01

    In the context of science education globalization, the International Conference on Science Education was held in Nanjing, China, in October 2012. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for science education researchers from China and from the rest of the world to exchange research ideas and best practices in science education. A call for papers for a special issue of the Journal of Science Education and Technology was made to all conference participants, and a set of six articles was resulted from a standard peer review process. This set of six articles provides a snapshot of research in China and in some other countries, and represents a dialogue between Chinese science education researchers and science education researchers from other countries. We call for more exchange and collaboration in science education between China and the rest of the world.

  16. Research trends and issues in informal science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinthong, Tanwarat; Faikhamta, Chatree

    2018-01-01

    Research in informal science education (ISE) become more interesting area in science education for a few decades. The main purpose of this research is to analyse research articles in 30 issues of top three international journals in science education; Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Science Education, and the International Journal of Science Education. The research articles during 2007 and 2016 were reviewed and analysed according to the authors' nationality, informal science education's research topics, research paradigms, methods of data collection and data analysis. The research findings indicated that there were 201 published papers related to informal science education, successfully submitted by 469 authors from 27 different countries. In 2008, there was no article related to informal science education. Statistical analyses showed that authors from USA are the most dominant, followed by UK and Israel. The top three ISE's research topics most frequently investigated by the researchers were regarding students' informal learning, public understanding in science, and informal perspectives, policies and paradigms. It is also found that theoretical framework used in informal science education which is becoming more strongly rooted is in a mix of the sociocultural and constructivist paradigms, with a growing acceptance of qualitative research methods and analyses.

  17. Saudi Science Teachers' Views and Teaching Strategies of Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Aziz S.

    Scientific developments such as cloning and nuclear energy have generated many controversial issues pertain to many political, social, environmental, ethical and cultural values in different societies around the globe. These controversies delimited and encircled the potential of including and teaching some important aspects of science in schools and therefore caused less consideration to the influence of these issues on enhancing the scientific literacy of people in general. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Saudi science teachers in the city of Tabuk in Saudi Arabia view and teach SSI in Saudi Arabia. This study employed semi-structured interviews with Saudi science teachers. Methodologically, this study used a constructivist grounded theory as a method for analysis to generate in-depth descriptive data about Saudi science teachers' views and teaching strategies of socio-scientific issues. Some direct and indirect benefits pertain to teaching science, understanding the relationship between science, religion, and society and some other topics are discussed in this study.

  18. Urban science education: examining current issues through a historical lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions. When the findings from these urban science education studies were consolidated with the historical overview provided, it was revealed that the basic design and regulatory policies of urban schools have not substantively changed since their establishment in the nineteenth century. Teachers in urban science classrooms continue to face issues of inequality, poverty, and social injustice as they struggle to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student population. Furthermore, persistent concerns of conflicting Discourses, cultural dissonance, and oppression create formidable barriers to science learning. Despite the many modifications in structure and organization, urban students are still subjugated and marginalized in systems that emphasize control and order over high-quality science education.

  19. Special Issues | Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Journals ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Special Issues. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Summer Research Fellowship Programme 2018. Dates Extended To ...

  20. Diversity in laboratory animal science: issues and initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne; Ardayfio, Krystal L; Blickman, Andrew; Greenhill, Lisa; Hill, William; Sharp, Patrick; Talmage, Roberta; Plaut, Victoria C; Goren, Matt

    2010-03-01

    Since diversity in the workplace began receiving scholarly attention in the late 1980s, many corporations and institutions have invested in programs to address and manage diversity. We encourage laboratory animal science to address the challenges and to build on the strengths that personal diversity brings to our field and workplaces. Diversity is already becoming increasingly relevant in the workplace and the laboratory animal science field. By addressing issues related to diversity, laboratory animal science could benefit and potentially fulfill its goals more successfully. To date, diversity has received minimal attention from the field as a whole. However, many individuals, workplaces, and institutions in industry, academia, and the uniformed services that are intimately involved with the field of laboratory animal science are actively addressing issues concerning diversity. This article describes some of these programs and activities in industry and academia. Our intention is that this article will provide useful examples of inclusion-promoting activities and prompt further initiatives to address diversity awareness and inclusion in laboratory animal science.

  1. Relating Anaerobic Digestion Microbial Community and Process Function : Supplementary Issue: Water Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Venkiteshwaran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1 hydrolysis rate, (2 direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3 community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4 methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5 bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses.

  2. The Science of Pizza: The Molecular Origins of Cheese, Bread, and Digestion Using Interactive Activities for the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…

  3. Ethical issues across different fields of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Praveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Many commentators have acknowledged the fact that the usual courtroom maxim to "tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth" is not so easy to apply in practicality. In any given situation, what does the whole truth include? In case, the whole truth includes all the possible alternatives for a given situation, what should a forensic expert witness do when an important question is not asked by the prosecutor? Does the obligation to tell the whole truth mean that all possible, all probable, all reasonably probable, all highly probable, or only the most probable alternatives must be given in response to a question? In this paper, an attempt has been made to review the various ethical issues in different fields of forensic science, forensic psychology, and forensic DNA databases. Some of the ethical issues are common to all fields whereas some are field specific. These ethical issues are mandatory for ensuring high levels of reliability and credibility of forensic scientists.

  4. Knowledge acquisition process as an issue in information sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bosančić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of some problems of information science which are explicitly portrayed in literature. It covers the following issues: information explosion, information flood and data deluge, information retrieval and relevance of information, and finally, the problem of scientific communication. The purpose of this paper is to explain why knowledge acquisition, can be considered as an issue in information sciences. The existing theoretical foundation within the information sciences, i.e. the DIKW hierarchy and its key concepts - data, information, knowledge and wisdom, is recognized as a symbolic representation as well as the theoretical foundation of the knowledge acquisition process. Moreover, it seems that the relationship between the DIKW hierarchy and the knowledge acquisition process is essential for a stronger foundation of information sciences in the 'body' of the overall human knowledge. In addition, the history of both the human and machine knowledge acquisition has been considered, as well as a proposal that the DIKW hierarchy take place as a symbol of general knowledge acquisition process, which could equally relate to both human and machine knowledge acquisition. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to modify the existing concept of the DIKW hierarchy. The appropriate modification of the DIKW hierarchy (one of which is presented in this paper could result in a much more solid theoretical foundation of the knowledge acquisition process and information sciences as a whole. The theoretical assumptions on which the knowledge acquisition process may be established as a problem of information science are presented at the end of the paper. The knowledge acquisition process does not necessarily have to be the subject of epistemology. It may establish a stronger link between the concepts of data and knowledge; furthermore, it can be used in the context of scientific research, but on the more primitive level than conducting

  5. Science teachers teaching socioscientific issues (SSI): Four case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju

    Socioscientific issues (SSI) are a class of issues that represent the social, ethical, and moral aspects of science in society. The need for the inclusion of SSI into science curricula has been generally accepted, but relatively few science teachers have incorporated SSI into their courses. Most science teachers feel that their most important task by far is to teach the principles of science, and any substantive pedagogical changes represent a burden. However, there are some teachers who address SSI out of personal initiatives. This dissertation study investigates four high school science teachers who address SSI out of their own initiative and explores their deeper inspirations, values, philosophies, and personal ideals that lead them to teach SSI. The overall approach is based on essentialist methodology (Witz, Goodwin, Hart, & Thomas, 2001; Witz, 2006a) with its focus on "the participant as ally" and "essentialist portraiture." The primary data source is four to six in-depth interviews with individual teachers (about 40-90 minutes for each interview). The interviews are complemented by extensive classroom observations of individual teachers' teaching SSI and by document analysis (including teaching materials, rubrics, student group projects and journals, etc.). There are two major findings. First, the teachers' deeper values and ideals are a source of larger inspiration that plays a significant role in changing their teaching practice. This inspiration may involve higher aspects (e.g., deep concern for students' development, unselfishness, caring, etc.) and commitment. Their teaching represents an integration of their personal experiences, values, concerns, and worldviews, which forms a larger inspiration for teaching. Teaching SSI is a part of this larger process. Second, the current curriculum reforms (STS, SSI, and NOS) only suggest theoretical ideals and do not effectively touch teachers' deeper values and ideals. Basically, the teachers are doing what they

  6. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  7. Piaget's epistemic subject and science education: Epistemological vs. psychological issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1993-06-01

    Many individuals claim that Piaget's theory of cognitive development is empirically false or substantially disconfirmed by empirical research. Although there is substance to such a claim, any such conclusion must address three increasingly problematic issues about the possibility of providing an empirical test of Piaget's genetic epistemology: (1) the empirical underdetermination of theory by empirical evidence, (2) the empirical difficulty of testing competence-type explanations, and (3) the difficulty of empirically testing epistemic norms. This is especially true of a central epistemic construct in Piaget's theory — the epistemic subject. To illustrate how similar problems of empirical testability arise in the physical sciences, I briefly examine the case of Galileo and the correlative difficulty of empirically testing Galileo's laws. I then point out some important epistemological similarities between Galileo and Piaget together with correlative changes needed in science studies methodology. I conclude that many psychologists and science educators have failed to appreciate the difficulty of falsifying Piaget's theory because they have tacitly adopted a philosophy of science at odds with the paradigm-case of Galileo.

  8. Construction informatics - Issues in engineering, computer science and ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eir, Asger

    2004-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis studies issues in the area of construction informatics. Construction informatics is the theoretical study of formal and conceptual aspects in the domain of civil engineering and design. The thesis is a collection of papers which each treat a specific subject within domain analysis...... and conceptual modelling of civil engineering and design. Due to the interdisciplinary content, the first half of the study has been carried out at Department of Civil Engineering (BYG"DTU), The Technical University of Denmark; whereas the second half has been carried out at Informatics and Mathematical....... The issues of the thesis are treated from three angles: from computer science, from civil engineering and design theory, and from philosophy. It is characteristic for the thesis that these angles are all present in analysis and argumentation. The philosophical aspect is a natural ingredient as construction...

  9. Issues in Science Publishing. What's Hot and What's not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Science is in crisis: a crisis of trust, and a crisis of values. Yet, this is an opportune moment for scientists to examine the issues that underly science to discover how they may be of use, beyond their laboratory or field experience, to improve the research and publishing landscapes to create an environment that suits their needs more. Traditionally, the science publishing landscape had been controlled by the science, technology and medicine publishers, who have always taunted their peer review systems as being fail-safe. Yet, considerable moss has been gathered by the post-publication peer review (PPPR movement over the past few years, indicating that the voice of the average scientist now carries more weight, and more value, than ever before. Despite this, most scientists are unaware of their potential power of opinion. Especially when it comes to commenting on, and correcting, the already published literature. Commenting by name, or anonymously, is the new PPPR publishing reality. There needs to also be a concomitant movement away from artificial metrics, such as the impact factor, which serve only as ego-boosting parameters, and which distract the wider readership from the weaknesses of the traditional peer review system currently in place. Increasing cases of the abuse of peer review, such as the creation of fake identities, affiliations or e-mail addresses further highlights the need for scientists to be vigilant, without necessairly being vigilantes. The discovery, within a matter of years, that the literature is more corrupted than was previously thought, in some cases caused by clear cases of editorial cronyism, or abuse, has resulted in a need for scientists to exceed their functions as mere scientists to evolve into whistle-blowers. Some ethical guidelines are in place, such as those by COPE, yet what is being increasingly witnessed, is a discrepancy between preached values by select COPE member journals, and the literature that

  10. Turkish preservice science teachers' socioscientific issues-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genel, Abdulkadir; Sami Topçu, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite a growing body of research and curriculum reforms including socioscientific issues (SSI) across the world, how preservice science teachers (PST) or in-service science teachers can teach SSI in science classrooms needs further inquiry. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the abilities of PSTs to teach SSI in middle school science classrooms, and the research question that guided the present study is: How can we characterize Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms (ages 11-14)? Sample: In order to address the research question of this study, we explored 10 Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices in middle school science classrooms. A purposeful sampling strategy was used, thus, PSTs were specifically chosen because they were ideal candidates to teach SSI and to integrate SSI into the science curricula since they were seniors in the science education program who had to take the field experience courses. Design and method: The participants' SSI teaching practices were characterized in light of qualitative research approach. SSI-based teaching practices were analyzed, and the transcripts of all videotape recordings were coded by two researchers. Results: The current data analysis describes Turkish PSTs' SSI-based teaching practices under five main categories: media, argumentation, SSI selection and presentation, risk analysis, and moral perspective. Most of PSTs did not use media resources in their lesson and none of them considered moral perspective in their teaching. While the risk analyses were very simple and superficial, the arguments developed in the classrooms generally remained at a simple level. PSTs did not think SSI as a central topic and discussed these issues in a very limited time and at the end of the class period. Conclusions: The findings of this study manifest the need of the reforms in science education programs. The present study provides evidence that moral, media

  11. Holistic science: An understanding of science education encompassing ethical and social issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Susan

    Science has often been viewed, by the majority of our educators and the general public, as being objective and emotionless. Based on this view, our educators teach science in the same manner, objectively and in an abstract form. This manner of teaching has hindered our learners' ability for active learning and distanced them from the subject matter. In this action research, I have examined holistic science pedagogy in conjunction with a constructivism theory. In holistic science pedagogy, scientific knowledge is combined with subjective personal experiences and social issues. There is an interaction between student and scientific data when the student's context, relationships, and lived experiences that play a role in the scientific recognition of the world were incorporated into the learning process. In this pedagogical model, the factual content was viewed from the context of social and ethical implications. By empowering learners with this ability, science knowledge will no longer be exclusive to a select group. This process empowers the general population with the ability to understand scientific knowledge and therefore the ability to make informed decisions based on this knowledge. The goal was to make curriculum developers more conscious of factors that can positively influence the learning process and increase student engagement and understanding within the science classroom. The holistic approach to science pedagogy has enlightened and empowered our adult learners more effectively. Learners became more actively engaged in their own process of learning. Teachers must be willing to listen and implement student suggestions on improving the teaching/learning process. Teachers should be willing to make the effort in connecting with their students by structuring courses so the topics would be relevant to the students in relation to real world and social/ethical and political issues. Holistic science pedagogy strives for social change through the empowerment of

  12. Conceptual Metaphor and Embodied Cognition in Science Learning: Introduction to Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tamer G.; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Haglund, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of "International Journal of Science Education" is based on the theme "Conceptual Metaphor and Embodied Cognition in Science Learning." The idea for this issue grew out of a symposium organized on this topic at the conference of the European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) in September 2013.…

  13. Information Fusion Issues in the UK Environmental Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Earth is a complex, interacting system which cannot be neatly divided by discipline boundaries. To gain an holistic understanding of even a component of an Earth System requires researchers to draw information from multiple disciplines and integrate these to develop a broader understanding. But the barriers to achieving this are formidable. Research funders attempting to encourage the integration of information across disciplines need to take into account culture issues, the impact of intrusion of projects on existing information systems, ontologies and semantics, scale issues, heterogeneity and the uncertainties associated with combining information from diverse sources. Culture - There is a cultural dualism in the environmental sciences were information sharing is both rewarded and discouraged. Researchers who share information both gain new opportunities and risk reducing their chances of being first author in an high-impact journal. The culture of the environmental science community has to be managed to ensure that information fusion activities are encouraged. Intrusion - Existing information systems have an inertia of there own because of the intellectual and financial capital invested within them. Information fusion activities must recognise and seek to minimise the potential impact of their projects on existing systems. Low intrusion information fusions systems such as OGC web-service and the OpenMI Standard are to be preferred to whole-sale replacement of existing systems. Ontology and Semantics - Linking information across disciplines requires a clear understanding of the concepts deployed in the vocabulary used to describe them. Such work is a critical first step to creating routine information fusion. It is essential that national bodies, such as geological surveys organisations, document and publish their ontologies, semantics, etc. Scale - Environmental processes operate at scales ranging from microns to the scale of the Solar System and

  14. Professional Development Leadership and the Diverse Learner. Issues in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoton, Jack, Ed.; Bowers, Patricia, Ed.

    This book focuses on the professional development of teachers and discusses issues related to science education reform. The content of the book is divided into two parts. Part 1, Professional Development: Implications for Science Leadership, chapters include: (1) "The Role of the Science Leader in Implementing Standards-Based Science Programs"…

  15. Scientific misconduct: also an issue in nursing science?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierz, K.; Gennaro, S.; Dierickx, K.; Achterberg, T. van; Morin, K.H.; Geest, S. de

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Scientific misconduct (SMC) is an increasing concern in nursing science. This article discusses the prevalence of SMC, risk factors and correlates of scientific misconduct in nursing science, and highlights interventional approaches to foster good scientific conduct. METHODS: Using the

  16. State Of The Science On Cogeneration Of Heat And Power From Anaerobic Digestion Of Municipal Biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation will report on work underway to inventory facilities currently utilizing biogas from anaerobic digestion and speak with practitioners to learn: techniques for preparing residuals for digestion, methods to use for cleaning biogas (e.g., of siloxane), and how gas...

  17. Issues of teaching science to nurses in the tertiary sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strube, Paul

    1991-12-01

    The shift of nurse education from the hospitals to higher education institutions has resulted in a large pool of students within the Universities requiring basic science instruction. Most of these students are female, often mature age, with limited science backgrounds. This paper discusses the type of science education demanded by the nursing profession, the view of science as a subject held by these students, and the key role played by constructivist thinking in dealing with both of these.

  18. HELLENIC NATIONAL DOCUMENTATION CENTER "OPEN SCIENCE: ISSUES AND PERSPECTIVES" CONFERENCE REPORT, JUNE 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Sant-Geronikolou Stavroula

    2017-01-01

    National Documentation Center (NDC) 15th June Day Conference on “Open Science: Issues and Perspectives” Report offering a critical overview of the event's effectiveness in familiarizing a wide variety of professionals with the Open Access (OA)/Open Science (OS) related issues through providing them with an essential baseline knowledge of the technology-driven publication and data management changing landscape.

  19. Library and information science practice in Nigeria: trends and issues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It traces the origin of library and information science education in Nigeria, underscoring the apparent proliferation and its implications. It observes the trend in library and information science practice whereby the advent of new technologies has had a tremendous impact on the traditional service delivery; leading to some ...

  20. Gender Issues and Computers: College Computer Science Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tai-Sheng; Li, Yi-Ching

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences for college computer science majors in Taiwan. Subjects were college students enrolled in five universities offering computer science programs. A total of 940 valid questionnaires were collected, including 796 males (85%) and 144 females (15%). Significant gender differences were not found for most of the…

  1. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  2. Science Teachers' Use of Mass Media to Address Socio-Scientific and Sustainability Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Michelle L.; Sadler, Troy D.; Brown, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The currency, relevancy and changing nature of science makes it a natural topic of focus for mass media outlets. Science teachers and students can capitalize on this wealth of scientific information to explore socio-scientific and sustainability issues; however, without a lens on how those media are created and how representations of science are…

  3. Science Theatre at School: Providing a context to learn about socio-scientific issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, N.F.; Swart, J.A.A.; Maples, T.; Witmondt, L.; Tobi, H.; Windt, v.d. H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Science theatre is recognised as a method for teaching socio-scientific issues (SSI), but is largely under-researched. The essence of science theatre at school is to shape a contextualisation for science and technology and its relationships to individuals and society at large, with the aim to

  4. Developing a science of land change: challenges and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindfuss, Ronald R; Walsh, Stephen J; Turner, B L; Fox, Jefferson; Mishra, Vinod

    2004-09-28

    Land-change science has emerged as a foundational element of global environment change and sustainability science. It seeks to understand the human and environment dynamics that give rise to changed land uses and covers, not only in terms of their type and magnitude but their location as well. This focus requires the integration of social, natural, and geographical information sciences. Each of these broad research communities has developed different ways to enter the land-change problem, each with different means of treating the locational specificity of the critical variables, such as linking the land manager to the parcel being managed. The resulting integration encounters various data, methodological, and analytical problems, especially those concerning aggregation and inference, land-use pixel links, data and measurement, and remote sensing analysis. Here, these integration problems, which hinder comprehensive understanding and theory development, are addressed. Their recognition and resolution are required for the sustained development of land-change science.

  5. The issues and discussion of modern concrete science

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Wenke

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to two primary objectives. The first is to present the errors, inadaptability, and mistakes arising when the current theory on concrete is applied to explaining practical construction of concrete; the second is to put forward viewpoints in modern concrete science. Taking a number of engineering cases as examples, we experimentally studied and theoretically analyzed the errors, inadaptability, and mistakes when the current theory on concrete is applied to explaining practical construction of concrete. Moreover, we investigated the use of mixing ratios, aggregates, cement, high-performance concrete and fibers, as well as the frost resistance, cracking behavior, durability, dry shrinkage and autogenous healing to address and remedy the shortcomings in today’s concrete science, put forward new proposals, and make a number of innovative achievements in the field, particularly in modern theory on concrete science. The results and topics which will be of particular interest to engineers and re...

  6. The issues and discussion of modern concrete science

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Wenke

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to two primary objectives. The first is to present the errors, inadaptability, and mistakes arising when the current theory on concrete is applied to explaining practical construction of concrete; the second is to put forward viewpoints in modern concrete science. Taking a number of engineering cases as examples, we experimentally studied and theoretically analyzed the errors, inadaptability, and mistakes when the current theory on concrete is applied to explaining practical construction of concrete. Moreover, we investigated the use of mixing ratios, aggregates, cement, high-performance concrete and fibers, as well as the frost resistance, cracking behavior, durability, dry shrinkage and autogenous healing to address and remedy the shortcomings in today’s concrete science, put forward new proposals, and make a number of innovative achievements in the field, particularly in modern theory on concrete science. The results and topics which will be of particular interest to engineers and...

  7. Mapping the hinterland: Data issues in open science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Ann; Wilkinson, Clare; Bultitude, Karen; Winfield, Alan F T

    2016-01-01

    Open science is a practice in which the scientific process is shared completely and in real time. It offers the potential to support information flow, collaboration and dialogue among professional and non-professional participants. Using semi-structured interviews and case studies, this research investigated the relationship between open science and public engagement. This article concentrates on three particular areas of concern that emerged: first, how to effectively contextualise and narrate information to render it accessible, as opposed to simply available; second, concerns about data quantity and quality; and third, concerns about the skills required for effective contextualisation, mapping and interpretation of information. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Ethics in science and environmental politics: issues for interdisciplinary teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The quest for sustainable use of the planet will require evidence, analysis and judgment from a wide array of disciplines. In order to produce a systematic and orderly analysis of this information, a synthesis will be essential. This synthesis will be generated most effectively if the individuals designing the research and providing the data interact in a variety of ways. Disciplines are isolated from each other and not accustomed to working together; however, this isolation is changing rapidly. Still, there are many issues not yet satisfactorily resolved. This manuscript illustrates these issues and makes suggestions for improving the situation.

  9. The Feasibility of Educating Trainee Science Teachers in Issues of Science and Religion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on Roussel De Carvalho's paper "Science initial teacher education and superdiversity: educating science teachers for a multi-religious and globalized science classroom" (EJ1102211). It then offers suggestions for making some of the ambitious goals of the science-and-religion components of the science initial teacher…

  10. Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers' Views on Science-Technology-Society Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalvac, Bugrahan; Tekkaya, Ceren; Cakiroglu, Jale; Kahyaoglu, Elvan

    2007-01-01

    The international science education community recognises the role of pre-service science teachers' views about the interdependence of Science, Technology, and Society (STS) in achieving scientific literacy for all. To this end, pre-service science teachers' STS views signal the strengths and the weaknesses of science education reform movements.…

  11. Scientific misconduct: also an issue in nursing science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierz, Katharina; Gennaro, Susan; Dierickx, Kris; Van Achterberg, Theo; Morin, Karen H; De Geest, Sabina

    2014-07-01

    Scientific misconduct (SMC) is an increasing concern in nursing science. This article discusses the prevalence of SMC, risk factors and correlates of scientific misconduct in nursing science, and highlights interventional approaches to foster good scientific conduct. Using the "Fostering Research Integrity in Europe" report of the European Science Foundation as a framework, we reviewed the literature in research integrity promotion. Although little empirical data exist regarding prevalence of scientific misconduct in the field of nursing science, available evidence suggests a similar prevalence as elsewhere. In studies of prospective graduate nurses, 4% to 17% admit data falsification or fabrication, while 8.8% to 26.4% report plagiarizing material. Risk factors for SMC exist at the macro, meso, and micro levels of the research system. Intervention research on preventing scientific misconduct in nursing is limited, yet findings from the wider field of medicine and allied health professions suggest that honor codes, training programs, and clearly communicated misconduct control mechanisms and misconduct consequences improve ethical behavior. Scientific misconduct is a multilevel phenomenon. Interventions to decrease scientific misconduct must therefore target every level of the nursing research systems. Scientific misconduct not only compromises scientific integrity by distorting empirical evidence, but it might endanger patients. Because nurses are involved in clinical research, raising their awareness of scientifically inappropriate behavior is essential. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Flipping the Science Classroom: Exploring Merits, Issues and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wan

    2014-01-01

    Educators are continually being challenged to think about how best to integrate digital technologies meaningfully and effectively in their classrooms. A current trend in educational technology which has the potential to enable this in a pragmatic manner is the flipped classroom concept. This paper aims to explore the idea in Science teaching and…

  13. Urban Science Education: Examining Current Issues through a Historical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews and synthesizes urban science education studies published between 2000 and 2013 with a view to identifying current challenges faced by both teachers and students in urban classrooms. Additionally, this paper considers the historical events that have shaped the conditions, bureaucracies, and interactions of urban institutions.…

  14. University Students' Opinions Concerning Science-Technology-Society Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolu, Gamze

    2016-01-01

    Determining what students think about science, technology, and society (STS) is of great importance. This also provides the basis for scientific literacy. As such, this study was conducted with a total of 102 senior students attending a university located in western Turkey. This study utilized the survey model as a research model and the…

  15. Socioscientific Issues in Science Education: The Case of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami; Mugaloglu, Ebru Zeynep; Guven, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the foci and results of studies on socioscientific issues (SSI) conducted in Turkey. Additionally, the study aimed to compare the results of this study with ones conducted internationally. For this aim, a literary review of empirical studies related to SSI conducted in Turkey was carried out. Four criteria…

  16. Current issues in libraries, information science and related fields

    CERN Document Server

    Woodsworth, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This volume is unusual in that the theme is quite broad in scope yet focused on a specific topic; innovations and boundary-pushing studies in areas not usually found in library literature. It examines the periphery of the field surveyed in previous volumes. The chapters are grouped in two categories: professional issues and transforming services.

  17. Editorial safety science special issue road safety management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Hagezieker, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The articles presented in this Special Issue on Road Safety Management represent an illustration of the growing interest in policy-related research in the area of road safety. The complex nature of this type of research combined with the observation that scientific journals pay limited attention to

  18. Special NSREC 2016 Issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science Comments by the Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleetwood, Daniel M.; Brown, Dennis; Girard, Sylvain; Gerardin, Simone; Quinn, Heather; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Esqueda, Ivan Sanchez; Robinson, William

    2017-01-01

    The January 2017 special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (TNS) contains selected papers from the 53rd annual IEEE International Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference (NSREC) held July 11-15, 2016, in Portland, OR, USA. The 2016 IEEE NSREC was sponsored by the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. 98 of the 104 papers presented in Portland were submitted for consideration for this year's special issue. The papers that appear in this special issue successfully completed the review process before the deadline. A few additional papers may appear in subsequent issues of the Transactions.

  19. Climate Change: Issues in the Science and Its Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. is on the threshold of major changes in how it conducts climate change science research. These changes are being driven by several...imperatives. One driving force is the growing recognition of the role that societal and ecological processes play in climate change . Another is the need to...that the new administration will give new impetus to U.S. climate change research, along with increased Congressional interest also play a role

  20. Advancing animal welfare science: sharing knowledge, debating issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-23

    Established animal welfare scientists and others at the beginning of their career gathered in York last month to discuss recent advances in animal welfare science. Organised by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, the meeting aimed to provide a forum for sharing knowledge and practice, discussion and debate. Rachel Orritt, a PhD researcher at the University of Lincoln, reports on proceedings. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Science and Technology Policy: Issues for the 109th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    well as the Carribean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. The FY2005 emergency appropriations act (P.L. 109-13) provided emergency supplemental appropriations of...domestically and in U.S. territories in the far Pacific Ocean and Carribean Sea. By April 17, 2006, five new tsunami detection buoys and additional coastal...Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL32837 Science and

  2. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  3. Diversity and representation: Key issues for psychophysiological science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    This Special Issue is devoted to the illustration and discussion of three key demographic variables (sex/gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status) that have been shown to moderate associations between psychophysiological processes and behavior. The introduction to the issue discusses the role of phenotypic plasticity in the emergence of different neural processes that achieve the same behavioral outcome, with emphasis on how these relatively stable developmental contexts affect brain/behavior associations without necessarily resulting in difference in behavior. These findings have profound significance for the implications of generalization and call into question the presumption that diverse samples produce an average result that is appropriately reflective of the individuals themselves. Increasing diversity within psychophysiological research is critical in elucidating mechanisms by which the human brain can accomplish cognitive and affective behaviors. This article further examines the logistical and ethical challenges faced in achieving this goal. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Science and technology issues in coastal ecotourism. Background paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    Nature-based tourism, increasingly called 'ecotourism'--one of the fastest growing sectors of tourism worldwide, is fast gaining the attention of developed and developing countries as a potential means to conserve natural resources and support sustainable economic progress. The paper presents information on the ecotourism trends; identifies issues related to resource conservation, ecotourism development and management, and planning; and presents questions for possible further consideration.

  5. Research Trends on Socioscientific Issues: A Content Analysis of Publications in Selected Science Education Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Nurcan; Aslan, Oktay; Yilmaz, Suleyman

    2016-01-01

    Socioscientific issues (SSIs) have gained recently more importance in science education. SSIs are an important component of scientific literacy. SSIs are social dilemmas including conceptual or technological links to science. The present study aims to determine SSIs related research trends via content analyses of the articles published from 2004…

  6. Teaching with Socio-Scientific Issues in Physical Science: Teacher and Students' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talens, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Socio-scientific issues (SSI) are recommended by many science educators worldwide for learners to acquire first hand experience to apply what they learned in class. This investigated experiences of teacher-researcher and students in using SSI in Physical Science, Second Semester, School Year 2012-2013. Latest and controversial news articles on…

  7. Wolves in the Wild: Using Current Issues to Make Science Relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Jennie; Sadler, Troy D.

    2010-01-01

    As teachers, one of our most important responsibilities is to help students develop dynamic and useful views of science. Using current issues to create learning experiences can help generate student interest in science and help students appreciate its significance in both personal and societal contexts. This article presents a lesson based on news…

  8. Students' Arguments on the Science and Religion Issue: The Example of Evolutionary Theory and Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, Nicolai; Harms, Ute; Prechtl, Helmut; Weiß, Thomas; Rothgangel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Treating creationism as a controversial topic within the science and religion issue in the science classroom has been widely discussed in the recent literature. Some researchers have proposed that this topic is best addressed by focusing on sociocognitive conflict. To prepare new learning opportunities for this approach, it is necessary to know…

  9. Science and Social Studies Teachers' Beliefs and Practices about Teaching Controversial Issues: Certain Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Zafer

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate social studies and science teachers' attitudes and classroom practices associated with controversial issues. The study is a qualitative research based on data collected through interviews and observation. Social studies and Science teachers participated in the current study which was conducted in Kirsehir, a…

  10. Moral Sensitivity in the Context of Socioscientific Issues in High School Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Samantha R.; Zeidler, Dana L.; Sadler, Troy D.

    2009-01-01

    This study is a part of a larger study that examined using socioscientific issues (SSI) as a form of effective science teaching. The purpose was to investigate how teaching a year-long curriculum using SSI affects science learning outcomes. In this report, we examine the effects of a SSI-driven curriculum on the development of students' moral…

  11. A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Leonie J.

    2013-01-01

    Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and…

  12. Contextualization of Nature of Science within the Socioscientific Issues Framework: A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisan, Dilek; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the importance of contextualization of Nature of Science (NOS) within the Socioscientific Issues (SSI) framework, because of the importance to science education. The emphasis on advancing scientific literacy is contingent upon a robust understanding and appreciation of NOS, as well as the acquisition of…

  13. Developing Communities of Enquiry: Dealing with Social and Ethical Issues in Science at Key Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lynda; Humes, Gill; Clarke, Linda; Martin, Valerie McKelvey

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive technologies, drug discovery and exploration of the universe are areas of contemporary research that raise issues for individuals and society. Forward Thinking, Northern Ireland uses the development of communities of enquiry to promote discussion of these and other social and ethical issues in science with students aged 11-14 years.…

  14. Defining and Measuring Engagement and Learning in Science: Conceptual, Theoretical, Methodological, and Analytical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Engagement is one of the most widely misused and overgeneralized constructs found in the educational, learning, instructional, and psychological sciences. The articles in this special issue represent a wide range of traditions and highlight several key conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and analytical issues related to defining and measuring…

  15. Communicating the Value of Science--Issues, Imperatives and Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J.; Topousis, D.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last six decades, federal investments in scientific research have led to unquestionable economic and societal advances, while expanding human knowledge. Yet, in the current federal fiscal climate, funding for fundamental research is being challenged in some quarters. This situation has created the need for stakeholders in science to step forward and defend the role that basic research plays in creating the knowledge and workforce necessary to address current and future challenges. Communicating to fellow scientists in this environment is necessary but not sufficient to sustaining, or even expanding, support for fundamental research. A multi-faceted approach will be described for enhancing communication to broader audiences, including policy makers and the general public, increasingly responsible for ensuring the future of scientific progress.

  16. Associations Between Attitudes Towards Science and Children's Evaluation of Information About Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sihan; Sandoval, William A.

    2017-05-01

    Science educators are typically dismayed by the failure of students to use relevant scientific knowledge when reasoning about socioscientific issues. Except for the well-documented association between having more knowledge about a topic and a tendency to use that knowledge, the influences on students' evaluation of information in socioscientific issues are not well understood. This study presents an initial investigation into the associations between upper elementary students' attitudes towards science and their evaluation of information about a socioscientific issue. We surveyed the science attitudes of 49 sixth grade students and then asked them to evaluate information about a socioscientific issue (alternative energy use). Positive attitudes were associated with a more scientific approach to evaluating information in the task. When trying to make judgments, students with generally positive attitudes towards science were more likely to attend to scientific information than other sources. Scientific information, nonetheless, served a variety of socially oriented goals in students' evaluations. These findings warrant further research on the relationship between science attitudes and reasoning about socioscientific issues and support the argument for connecting school science more clearly with everyday concerns.

  17. Spanish Secondary-School Science Teachers' Beliefs about Science-Technology-Society (STS) Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Alonso, Angel; Garcia-Carmona, Antonio; Manassero-Mas, Maria Antonia; Bennassar-Roig, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the beliefs about science-technology-society, and other Nature of Science (NOS) themes, of a large sample (613) of Spanish pre- and in-service secondary education teachers through their responses to 30 items of the Questionnaire of Opinions on Science, Technology and Society. The data were processed by means of a multiple…

  18. Gender issues in US science and technology policy: equality of what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzens, Susan E

    2008-09-01

    Fairness in evaluation processes for women in science and engineering is only one of a set of issues that need to be addressed to reach gender equality. This article uses concepts from Amartya Sen's work on inequality to frame gender issues in science and technology policy. Programs that focus on increasing the number of women in science and engineering careers have not generally addressed a broader set of circumstances that intersect with gender at various economic levels and stages of life. The agendas in research and innovation policies also need to reflect these issues, and fair allocation of resources within both science and technology needs to be on the agenda. Getting women into high-level positions is not enough. Articulating the full research and innovation agendas for women will require broader participatory processes.

  19. Advancing nursing science in vulnerable populations: measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Ora Lea; DiIorio, Colleen; Coverson, Dorothy; Nelson, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This study examined measurement practices of researchers in relation to vulnerable population research published in four general nursing research journals in 2004. The purpose was to identify issues and imperatives in the measurement of research variables with vulnerable populations that warrant attention. A total of 133 articles were eligible for inclusion in the study, and 428 measurement instruments were used in the studies. A content analysis of the 133 eligible articles indicated that most samples included to a greater extent more Whites than predominantly minority populations, and more adults than children. Most of the articles did not specify socioeconomic status of samples. Of the 133 eligible articles, 83 (62.4%) included samples that were comprised of a majority of racial and ethnic minorities; however, percentages of studies that focused predominately on a specific minority group were below 10% in more than 80% of studies. Major findings related to measurement practices indicated inadequate specification of the measurement framework employed; lack of adequate specification of the conceptual base of measurement tools; and, a heavy reliance on the use of self-report data, attitudinal and perceptual measures, and the use of questionnaires and rating scales. There was also inadequate attention to the metric qualities of laboratory physiological measures, and to reliability and validity in general. It was concluded that inadequate attention is given to measurement practices by researchers when studying vulnerable populations.

  20. Issues and trends in science education: the shortage of qualified science teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangrubang, Fred R

    2005-01-01

    Science teachers are leaving their profession. They feel overwhelmed by the expectations and scope of the job and isolated and unsupported in their classrooms. They also feel that expectations are unclear. The statistics on turnover among new teachers are startling. School administrators, science teacher leaders, and teacher education programs can do much more to promote better preparation of science teachers and to recruit new teachers into science teaching. In particular, the author focuses on relevant research and on recommendations for educational researchers and policymakers interested in improving and retaining qualified science teachers in classrooms.

  1. Examining the Sources for Our Understandings about Science: Enduring Conflations and Critical Issues in Research on Nature of Science in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad

    2012-01-01

    This position paper addresses some enduring, as well as emerging issues, associated with the crucial question of benchmarking understandings about nature of science (NOS) for precollege science education. The question of benchmarking NOS understandings is revisited in light of the often cited, continuing debates among historians, philosophers, and…

  2. Science and Technology Policy Issues of Concern to Ohio's Leaders: A Report of the Science Policy Advisory Committee of The Ohio Academy of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Philip A.

    2002-01-01

    Biotechnology, education reform, environmental protection, technology development, and cancer prevention were the leading science and technology policy issues most on the minds of Ohio leaders at the end of 2000 according to a mail-response survey. Biotechnology received the greatest number of mentions (9) out of 108 specific issues identified by…

  3. Key issues in European food science research: a review of the European Food Science Day 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spichtinger, D.; Pongratz, I.; Jonsson, J.; Braun, S.; Colmer, C.; Poms, R.; Smith, R.; Ashwell, M.; Demeneix, B.; Skerfving, S.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Laag, van der P.; Kuck, M.; Warkup, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report on the European Food Science Day (Brussels, 18 November 2009, organized by the CommNet network of food science communicators) and its outcomes. The article presents FP 7 as a key funding mechanism in European food and nutrition research and it puts research in this sector in a

  4. Science textbooks for lower secondary schools in Brunei: issues of gender equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Ann G.

    2004-07-01

    This paper is concerned with issues affecting equity in science education for girls and boys. In the paper the results of an investigation into the recently published (1998-2000) series of textbooks entitled Lower Secondary Science for Brunei Darussalam are presented. In the first part of the paper, background issues of continuing gender inequality in science education and of the nature and scope of textbook analyses are outlined. Then the representation of males and females in both illustrations and text in the Bruneian textbooks is discussed. From this analysis a picture emerges of the extent to which science is portrayed as a pursuit of equal appropriateness for both boys and girls. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of the findings presented within the wider context of gender and education in Brunei.

  5. The intersection of behavioral genetics and political science: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K

    2012-02-01

    The collection of papers in this special edition of Twin Research and Human Genetics represents a major land-mark at the intersection of behavioral genetics and political science. This issue is the fruit of 20 political scientists attending the Behavioral Genetics Association Methods Workshop in Boulder and a hands-on training practicum at the Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, and includes results from the first wave of political science twin surveys.

  6. Impact of STS Issue Oriented Instruction on Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Views and Perceptions of Science, Technology, and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshokoohi, Aidin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of Science, Technology, Society (STS) issue oriented science methods course on pre-service teachers' views and perceptions toward STS issues and instruction as well as their levels of environmental literacy. The STS issue oriented curriculum was designed to help pre-service teachers improve…

  7. To naturalize or not to naturalize? An issue for cognitive science as well as anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenning, Keith

    2012-07-01

    Several of Beller, Bender, and Medin's (2012) issues are as relevant within cognitive science as between it and anthropology. Knowledge-rich human mental processes impose hermeneutic tasks, both on subjects and researchers. Psychology's current philosophy of science is ill suited to analyzing these: Its demand for ''stimulus control'' needs to give way to ''negotiation of mutual interpretation.'' Cognitive science has ways to address these issues, as does anthropology. An example from my own work is about how defeasible logics are mathematical models of some aspects of simple hermeneutic processes. They explain processing relative to databases of knowledge and belief-that is, content. A specific example is syllogistic reasoning, which raises issues of experimenters' interpretations of subjects' reasoning. Science, especially since the advent of understandings of computation, does not have to be reductive. How does this approach transfer onto anthropological topics? Recent cognitive science approaches to anthropological topics have taken a reductive stance in terms of modules. We end with some speculations about a different cognitive approach to, for example, religion. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Spanish Secondary-School Science Teachers' Beliefs About Science-Technology-Society (STS) Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Alonso, Ángel; García-Carmona, Antonio; Manassero-Mas, María Antonia; Bennàssar-Roig, Antoni

    2013-05-01

    This study analyzes the beliefs about science-technology-society, and other Nature of Science (NOS) themes, of a large sample (613) of Spanish pre- and in-service secondary education teachers through their responses to 30 items of the Questionnaire of Opinions on Science, Technology and Society. The data were processed by means of a multiple response model to generate the belief indices used as the bases for subsequent quantitative and qualitative analyses. Other studies have reported a negative profile of teachers' understanding in this area, but the diagnosis emerging from the present work is more complex. There was a mix of appropriate beliefs coexisting with others that are inappropriate on the topics analyzed. The overall assessment, however, is negative since clearly teachers need to have a better understanding of these questions. There were scant differences between the pre- and in-service teachers, and hence no decisive evidence that the practice of teaching contributes to improving the in-service teachers' understanding. These results suggest there is an urgent need to bring the initial and continuing education of science teachers up to date to improve their understanding of these topics of science curricula, and thus improve the teaching of science.

  9. Using online pedagogy to explore student experiences of Science-Technology-Society-Environment (STSE) issues in a secondary science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel Roman

    With the proliferation of 21st century educational technologies, science teaching and learning with digitally acclimatized learners in secondary science education can be realized through an online Science-Technology-Society-Environment (STSE)-based issues approach. STSE-based programs can be interpreted as the exploration of socially-embedded initiatives in science (e.g., use of genetically modified foods) to promote the development of critical cognitive processes and to empower learners with responsible decision-making skills. This dissertation presents a case study examining the online environment of a grade 11 physics class in an all-girls' school, and the outcomes from those online discursive opportunities with STSE materials. The limited in-class discussion opportunities are often perceived as low-quality discussions in traditional classrooms because they originate from an inadequate introduction and facilitation of socially relevant issues in science programs. Hence, this research suggests that the science curriculum should be inclusive of STSE-based issue discussions. This study also examines the nature of students' online discourse and, their perceived benefits and challenges of learning about STSE-based issues through an online environment. Analysis of interviews, offline classroom events and online threaded discussion transcripts draws from the theoretical foundations of critical reflective thinking delineated in the Practical Inquiry (P.I.) Model. The PI model of Cognitive Presence is situated within the Community of Inquiry framework, encompassing two other core elements, Teacher Presence and Social Presence. In studying Cognitive Presence, the online STSE-based discourses were examined according to the four phases of the P.I. Model. The online discussions were measured at macro-levels to reveal patterns in student STSE-based discussions and content analysis of threaded discussions. These analyses indicated that 87% of the students participated in

  10. Science Teachers Taking their First Steps toward Teaching Socioscientific Issues through Collaborative Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Yang, Jung-eun

    2017-06-01

    This study presents two science teachers, Catherine and Jennifer, who took their first steps toward teaching socioscientific issues through collaborative action research. The teachers participated in the collaborative action research project because they wanted to address socioscientific issues but had limited experience in teaching them. The research questions included what kinds of challenges the teachers encountered when implementing socioscientific issues and to what extent they resolved the challenging issues as participating in collaborative action research. The primary data source consisted of audiotapes of regular group meetings containing information on the process of constructing and implementing lesson plans and reflecting on their teaching of socioscientific issues. We also collected classroom videotapes of the teachers' instruction and audiotapes of students' small group discussions and their worksheets. The findings indicated that when addressing socioscientific issues in the classes, the teachers encountered several challenging issues. We categorized them into four: (1) restructuring classroom dynamics and culture, (2) scaffolding students' engagement in socioscientific issues, (3) dealing with values, and (4) finding their niche in schools. However, this study showed that collaborative action research could be a framework for helping the teachers to overcome such challenges and have successful experiences of teaching socioscientific issues. These experiences became good motivation, to gradually develop their understanding of teaching socioscientific issues and instructional strategies for integrating the knowledge and skills that they had accumulated over the years.

  11. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  12. Saudi Science Teachers' Views and Teaching Strategies of Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Aziz S.

    2017-01-01

    Scientific developments such as cloning and nuclear energy have generated many controversial issues pertain to many political, social, environmental, ethical and cultural values in different societies around the globe. These controversies delimited and encircled the potential of including and teaching some important aspects of science in schools…

  13. Advancing Our Understanding of Cross-Cultural Issues in Consumer Science and Consumer Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, H.; Torelli, Carlos J.; van Herk, Hester; Torelli, Carlos J.

    2017-01-01

    Globalization has resulted in a more complex marketplace. Growing multi-culturalism of consumer markets and increased global competition are pushing marketing scholars to better understand cross-cultural issues in consumer science and consumer psychology. The chapters in this book cover the field to

  14. A special issue of the Journal of Forestry - Wilderness science and its role in wilderness stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan F. Fox

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Forestry provides an overview of America’s National Wilderness Preservation System and highlights the important role that science serves in informing wilderness stewardship. The lead authors of the articles in this volume selected the Journal because it is highly respected and widely circulated among foresters and federal...

  15. Re-Examining Test Item Issues in the TIMSS Mathematics and Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    As the largest international study ever taken in history, the Trend in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) has been held as a benchmark to measure U.S. student performance in the global context. In-depth analyses of the TIMSS project are conducted in this study to examine key issues of the comparative investigation: (1) item flaws in mathematics…

  16. Raising Critical Issues in the Analysis of Gender and Science in Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sonya N.; Siry, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    Trevor Owens' paper provides a critique of the role of gender and authority in selected children's books that presented biographies of Albert Einstein and Marie Curie. In the context of discussing Trevor's (2009) article about children's literature, this forum explores issues related to the (a) representation and construction of gender, science,…

  17. Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Regarding a Socioscientific Issue: A Belief System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Ahmet; Kartal, Tezcan; Eroglu, Baris; Demiral, Ümit; Afacan, Özlem; Polat, Dilber; Demirci Guler, Mutlu P.; Görgülü, Özkan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the nature of teaching efficacy beliefs related to a socioscientific issue (SSI). We investigated Turkish preservice science teachers' teaching efficacy beliefs about genetically modified (GM) foods using a belief system approach. We assumed that preservice teachers' beliefs about GM foods (content…

  18. Associations between Attitudes towards Science and Children's Evaluation of Information about Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sihan; Sandoval, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Science educators are typically dismayed by the failure of students to use relevant scientific knowledge when reasoning about socioscientific issues. Except for the well-documented association between having more knowledge about a topic and a tendency to use that knowledge, the influences on students' evaluation of information in socioscientific…

  19. Growing a Diverse Workforce in the Library and Information Science Professions. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippincott, Kate

    The number of minority graduates from accredited graduate library and information science programs has increased in the decade from 1984-85 to 1994-95. However, the percentage of minority graduates of total graduates is small, increasing from 6.79 percent minority graduation in 1984-85 to 10.01 percent minority graduation in 1994-95. The library…

  20. Discourse in science communities: Issues of language, authority, and gender in a life sciences laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conefrey, Theresa Catherine

    Government-sponsored and private research initiatives continue to document the underrepresentation of women in the sciences. Despite policy initiatives, women's attrition rates each stage of their scientific careers remain higher than those of their male colleagues. In order to improve retention rates more information is needed about why many drop out or do not succeed as well as they could. While broad sociological studies and statistical surveys offer a valuable overview of institutional practices, in-depth qualitative analyses are needed to complement these large-scale studies. This present study goes behind statistical generalizations about the situation of women in science to explore the actual experience of scientific socialization and professionalization. Beginning with one reason often cited by women who have dropped out of science: "a bad lab experience," I explore through detailed observation in a naturalistic setting what this phrase might actually mean. Using ethnographic and discourse analytic methods, I present a detailed analysis of the discourse patterns in a life sciences laboratory group at a large research university. I show how language accomplishes the work of indexing and constituting social constraints, of maintaining or undermining the hierarchical power dynamics of the laboratory, of shaping members' presentation of self, and of modeling social and professional skills required to "do science." Despite the widespread conviction among scientists that "the mind has no sex," my study details how gender marks many routine interactions in the lab, including an emphasis on competition, a reinforcement of sex-role stereotypes, and a conversational style that is in several respects more compatible with men's than women's forms of talk.

  1. Digital Archive Issues from the Perspective of an Earth Science Data Producer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Contents include the following: Introduction. A Producer Perspective on Earth Science Data. Data Producers as Members of a Scientific Community. Some Unique Characteristics of Scientific Data. Spatial and Temporal Sampling for Earth (or Space) Science Data. The Influence of the Data Production System Architecture. The Spatial and Temporal Structures Underlying Earth Science Data. Earth Science Data File (or Relation) Schemas. Data Producer Configuration Management Complexities. The Topology of Earth Science Data Inventories. Some Thoughts on the User Perspective. Science Data User Communities. Spatial and Temporal Structure Needs of Different Users. User Spatial Objects. Data Search Services. Inventory Search. Parameter (Keyword) Search. Metadata Searches. Documentation Search. Secondary Index Search. Print Technology and Hypertext. Inter-Data Collection Configuration Management Issues. An Archive View. Producer Data Ingest and Production. User Data Searching and Distribution. Subsetting and Supersetting. Semantic Requirements for Data Interchange. Tentative Conclusions. An Object Oriented View of Archive Information Evolution. Scientific Data Archival Issues. A Perspective on the Future of Digital Archives for Scientific Data. References Index for this paper.

  2. Gender by ethnic equity issues as they pertain to success in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jan David

    Science is traditionally a white-male dominated field. This trend has foundations in beliefs and practices accepted before the Enlightenment period. Sixteenth and seventeenth century writers further promoted perceptions that women lacked intellectual capacity to indulge in science. A similar viewpoint was applied to non-white ethnic groups during the 19th and 20th centuries. Questions over Eurocentric and androcentric aspects of science were first raised publicly in 1869, yet significant change in the proportions of women and minorities in science-related fields remains disproportionately low. Public awareness of this situation extends to education where students demonstrate beliefs that opportunities in science are primarily for white males. This commonly shared belief typically produces negative effects on success rates in science education for females and minorities. The purpose of this study was to determine if gender-by-ethnic factors are culturally specific. Do members of one gender/ethnic subgroup experience deterrents to success in science education not common in other ethnic groups? Contrariwise, are negative factors shared across ethnic groups? An effort is made to identify potential gender/ethnic-related barriers that serve to reduce success rates and potentially generate negative attitudes for students about science. A 74-item Likert scale was developed to reveal students' perceptions of issues relative to science education. This instrument was administered to 30 female and 30 male high school students in each of four ethnic groups (African American, Mexican American, American Indian, and Euro American) from public or tribal schools in a large southwestern (United States) urban community. Randomly selected participants from each subgroup were then interviewed to expound upon relevant issues. A reoccurring pattern of reduced interest and experiences in science activities was noted among male American Indians. These participants most often differed with

  3. Editor profile:Guest editor of special issue “Bile Acids and Nuclear Receptors in Digestive System and Therapy”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Associate Prof.Grace Liejun Guo is a tenured faculty in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology in the School of Pharmacy at the Rutgers University in New Jersey,USA.Dr.Guo graduated from the West China University of Medical Sciences in 1993.In 1997,Dr.Guo obtained a MS degree in

  4. A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2013-02-01

    Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

  5. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parker

    Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  6. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  7. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  8. On the Large-Scaling Issues of Cloud-based Applications for Earth Science Dat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.

    2016-12-01

    Next generation science data systems are needed to address the incoming flood of data from new missions such as NASA's SWOT and NISAR where its SAR data volumes and data throughput rates are order of magnitude larger than present day missions. Existing missions, such as OCO-2, may also require high turn-around time for processing different science scenarios where on-premise and even traditional HPC computing environments may not meet the high processing needs. Additionally, traditional means of procuring hardware on-premise are already limited due to facilities capacity constraints for these new missions. Experiences have shown that to embrace efficient cloud computing approaches for large-scale science data systems requires more than just moving existing code to cloud environments. At large cloud scales, we need to deal with scaling and cost issues. We present our experiences on deploying multiple instances of our hybrid-cloud computing science data system (HySDS) to support large-scale processing of Earth Science data products. We will explore optimization approaches to getting best performance out of hybrid-cloud computing as well as common issues that will arise when dealing with large-scale computing. Novel approaches were utilized to do processing on Amazon's spot market, which can potentially offer 75%-90% costs savings but with an unpredictable computing environment based on market forces.

  9. Issues and recommendations associated with distributed computation and data management systems for the space sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The primary purpose of the report is to explore management approaches and technology developments for computation and data management systems designed to meet future needs in the space sciences.The report builds on work presented in previous reports on solar-terrestrial and planetary reports, broadening the outlook to all of the space sciences, and considering policy issues aspects related to coordiantion between data centers, missions, and ongoing research activities, because it is perceived that the rapid growth of data and the wide geographic distribution of relevant facilities will present especially troublesome problems for data archiving, distribution, and analysis.

  10. Scepticism and Trust: Two Counterpoint Essentials in Science Education for Complex Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    In this response to Tom G. K. Bryce and Stephen P. Day's ("Cult Stud Sci Educ." doi:10.1007/s11422-013-9500-0, 2013) original article, I share with them their interest in the teaching of climate change in school science, but I widen it to include other contemporary complex socio-scientific issues that also need to be discussed. I…

  11. Envisioning equity: Teacher leaders reflect on issues of multiculturalism and school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, William J., IV

    2005-07-01

    This research arose out of both my interest in issues related to multiculturalism and [school] science, and the existing research base, which is relatively robust in relation to both the nature of [school] science and issues of multiculturalism, but more impoverished in its interrogation of the nexus of the two. In light of this, I was interested in examining the understandings' that five teacher leaders have about how issues of multiculturalism relate to school science. Data collection for this study took place over an eighteen month period as we worked together in an action research framework, most notably in a semester-long Masters course entitled 'Diversity and Equity in Science Education.' Methodologically, this work was framed by feminist poststructuralism and a commitment to change via action research. I collected data via interviews, extended writing pieces, group critical conversations, and informally through conversations, field notes and e-mail messages. I analyzed the data corpus using a combination of grounded theorizing to identify themes emerging from the data, and then read those themes through the heuristic of Schwab's commonplaces of teaching---the learner, the teacher, the subject-matter, and the milieu---plus a fifth integrative dimension, curriculum decision-making. The feminist poststructuralist theoretical framework was most helpful in surfacing the problematics, or tensions, which arose in each of the commonplaces. As such, this work documents multiple understandings about the aspects of the reformist slogan "science for all" as interrogated through the five commonplaces. I examine many of these problematics, and then examine what generative possibilities for us as teachers and researchers are fostered by thinking from the resultant complexities and ambiguities.

  12. Using Social Media to Promote Pre-Service Science Teachers' Practices of Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI) - Based Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiporntapin, Sasithep; Lankford, Deanna Marie

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses using social media to promote pre-service science teachers' practices of Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI) based teaching in a science classroom setting. We designed our research in two phases. The first phase examined pre-service science teachers' perceptions about using social media to promote their SSI-based teaching. The…

  13. The Integration of HIV and AIDS as a Socio-Scientific Issue in the Life Sciences Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Eugenie; Mnguni, Lindelani

    2015-01-01

    The potential of science to transform lives has been highlighted by a number of scholars. This means that critical socio-scientific issues (SSIs) must be integrated into science curricula. Development of context-specific scientific knowledge and twenty-first-century learning skills in science education could be used to address SSIs such as…

  14. The Impact of the Issue of Demarcation on Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs on the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Halil; Akcay, Hakan; Irez, Serhat

    2010-01-01

    The arguments about the dimensions of nature of science and the strategies for teaching it are still controversial. In this research, as part of these arguments, a context based on the issue of demarcation of science from pseudoscience was offered and questioned for its effectiveness in nature of science teaching. The research was planned for an…

  15. Confronting Dilemmas Posed by Three-Dimensional Classroom Assessment: Introduction to a Virtual Issue of "Science Education"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtak, Erin Marie

    2017-01-01

    Wide-scale adoption of the "Next Generation Science Standards" has raised new challenges for classroom teachers as they learn not only how to engage students in this new vision of science learning, but also how to assess students' engagement in that learning. This paper introduces a virtual special issue of "Science Education"…

  16. Argumentation in elementary science education: addressing methodological issues and conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ebru

    2017-11-01

    In this review essay I respond to issues raised in Mijung Kim and Wolff-Michael Roth's paper titled "Dialogical argumentation in elementary science classrooms", which presents a study dealing with dialogical argumentation in early elementary school classrooms. Since there is very limited research on lower primary school students' argumentation in school science, their paper makes a contribution to research on children's argumentation skills. In this response, I focus on two main issues to extend the discussion in Kim and Roth's paper: (a) methodological issues including conducting a quantitative study on children's argumentation levels and focusing on children's written argumentation in addition to their dialogical argumentation, and (b) investigating children's conceptual understanding along with their argumentation levels. Kim and Roth emphasize the difficulty in determining the level of children's argumentation through the Toulmin's Argument Pattern and lack of high level arguments by children due to their difficulties in writing texts. Regarding these methodological issues, I suggest designing quantitative research on coding children's argument levels because such research could potentially provide important findings on children's argumentation. Furthermore, I discuss alternative written products including posters, figures, or pictures generated by children in order to trace children's arguments, and finally articulating argumentation and conceptual understanding of children.

  17. [Medical research-ethics applied to social sciences: relevance, limits, issues and necessary adjustments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, A

    2008-04-01

    Social sciences are concretely concerned by the ethics of medical research when they deal with topics related to health, since they are subjected to clearance procedures specific to this field. This raises at least three questions: - Are principles and practices of medical research ethics and social science research compatible? - Are "research subjects" protected by medical research ethics when they participate in social science research projects? - What can social sciences provide to on-going debates and reflexion in this field? The analysis of the comments coming from ethics committees about social science research projects, and of the experience of implementation of these projects, shows that the application of international ethics standards by institutional review boards or ethics committees raises many problems in particular for researches in ethnology anthropology and sociology. These problems may produce an impoverishment of research, pervert its meaning, even hinder any research. They are not only related to different norms, but also to epistemological divergences. Moreover, in the case of studies in social sciences, the immediate and differed risks, the costs, as well as the benefits for subjects, are very different from those related to medical research. These considerations are presently a matter of debates in several countries such as Canada, Brasil, and USA. From another hand, ethics committees seem to have developed without resorting in any manner to the reflexion carried out within social sciences and more particularly in anthropology Still, the stakes of the ethical debates in anthropology show that many important and relevant issues have been discussed. Considering this debate would provide openings for the reflexion in ethics of health research. Ethnographic studies of medical research ethics principles and practices in various sociocultural contexts may also contribute to the advancement of medical ethics. A "mutual adjustment" between ethics of

  18. Introductory animal science-based instruction influences attitudes on animal agriculture issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeck, E A; Combs, D K; Cook, M E

    2014-02-01

    The demographics of incoming university animal science majors have shifted from students with a farm background to urban students with no history of direct livestock contact. Research completed before the Internet was a central source of information indicated that incoming urban students tend to express no opinion or a neutral opinion regarding livestock agriculture issues. Due to the changing background of incoming students enrolled in introductory university-level animal science classes, we sought to determine 1) if livestock background (self-identified as raised in a farm or urban setting), sex, or animal science career interest influenced the opinions of incoming students regarding critical issues involving livestock farming practices and 2) if 15 wk of introductory animal science instruction changed student opinions. A total of 224 students were given 2 identical anonymous surveys (start and end of 15 wk) with 5 demographic questions and 9 animal issue statements. For each statement, students marked their opinion by placing a vertical line on a continuous 130 mm horizontal line, where a vertical line placed at 0 mm = strongly agree and 130 mm = strongly disagree. Data were analyzed by ANOVA to determine any significant effects of instruction, background, sex, and future career preference on survey responses. Before instruction, urban students were less agreeable than farm students that animal farming was moral and humane and that farmers are concerned about animal welfare and livestock are of value to society (P ≤ 0.05). Urban students were more likely than farm students to purchase organic foods or food based on environmental/welfare standards (P ≤ 0.05). Introductory animal science instruction resulted in students becoming more agreeable that animal farming was humane, farmers are concerned about animal welfare, and animal agriculture is a value to society (P ≤ 0.05). Postinstruction, students were more likely to buy food products based on price (P

  19. Minority students in the science classroom: Issues of language, class, race, culture and pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Aldrin Edward

    A considerable proportion of the educationally at-risk students in the K-12 public education system is composed of minority students, either in terms of cultural background, linguistic background, and frequently, both. In particular, satisfactory levels of achievement in science are not being attained by these students. The concerns of this study center on examining and understanding the reasons underlying this situation, with a view to suggesting how these problems of underachievement in science might be addressed. Previous and ongoing educational research concerning these issues suggest that such underachievement may be due to current pedagogical practices which seem to actively discourage these students from achieving any significant measure of academic, educational or professional success. The purpose of this study is thus to explore the beliefs and pedagogical practices of science teachers as they relate to minority students, especially those minority students for whom English is not a first language and who have limited English proficiency (LEP). In the course of this study, the terminology 'minority students' will refer to and be inclusive of cultural and/or language minorities, i.e. those students who differ from the mainstream white American student in terms of cultural background and a native language other than English. Culturally derived usages of non-standard forms of English (e.g. Black English Vernacular) also will be subsumed within this definition of cultural and language minority students. Particular attention will be given to emergent issues relating to current pedagogical practices, also to the science teacher beliefs and epistemological rationales underlying such practices. In exploring these beliefs and pedagogical practices, the study also will seek to delineate and to understand the various problems which are being encountered in the teaching of science to minority students. As the result of exploring the beliefs and pedagogical practices of

  20. Societal and ethical issues in human biomonitoring – a view from science studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human biomonitoring (HBM has rapidly gained importance. In some epidemiological studies, the measurement and use of biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility and disease have replaced traditional environmental indicators. While in HBM, ethical issues have mostly been addressed in terms of informed consent and confidentiality, this paper maps out a larger array of societal issues from an epistemological perspective, i.e. bringing into focus the conditions of how and what is known in environmental health science. Methods In order to analyse the effects of HBM and the shift towards biomarker research in the assessment of environmental pollution in a broader societal context, selected analytical frameworks of science studies are introduced. To develop the epistemological perspective, concepts from "biomedical platform sociology" and the notion of "epistemic cultures" and "thought styles" are applied to the research infrastructures of HBM. Further, concepts of "biocitizenship" and "civic epistemologies" are drawn upon as analytical tools to discuss the visions and promises of HBM as well as related ethical problematisations. Results In human biomonitoring, two different epistemological cultures meet; these are environmental science with for instance pollution surveys and toxicological assessments on the one hand, and analytical epidemiology investigating the association between exposure and disease in probabilistic risk estimation on the other hand. The surveillance of exposure and dose via biomarkers as envisioned in HBM is shifting the site of exposure monitoring to the human body. Establishing an HBM platform faces not only the need to consider individual decision autonomy as an ethics issue, but also larger epistemological and societal questions, such as the mode of evidence demanded in science, policy and regulation. Conclusion The shift of exposure monitoring towards the biosurveillance of human populations involves fundamental

  1. Integrating Bioethics in Sciences’ curricula using values in science and socio-scientific issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The  The main objective of the present work is selection of ethical issues that should be addressed with first year undergraduate and K-12 students. Since K-12 Sciences’ curriculum, in Portugal, does not include bioethics content in any discipline explicitly, teachers need to make an effort to include it. Some online materials are available to use in high school classes and will be discussed. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting the discussion of bioethics issues in accordance to UNESCO Bioethics Core Curriculum already adopted by twenty universities throughout the world (Darwish 2015. Some of the issues that are addressed are: ecology and environment ethics, infectious diseases and vaccination, water for all, intellectual property, genomes and patents, biotechnological advances (genetic modified organisms and synthesis of genomes, future generations, climate hanges and natural resources, biomedical advances and human rights, authorship and contributions in scientific publications, and biobanks. In conclusion, this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by K-12 teachers, of active inquiry strategies, using features of science such as values and socio-scientific issues, and focused on the discussion of concrete ethical issues facing humanity. It also constitutes a proposal of integrating Bioethics in undergraduate sciences’ curricula.

  2. Preservice Science Teachers' Efficacy Regarding a Socioscientific Issue: A Belief System Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Ahmet; Kartal, Tezcan; Eroğlu, Barış; Demiral, Ümit; Afacan, Özlem; Polat, Dilber; Demirci Guler, Mutlu P.; Görgülü, Özkan

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to understand the nature of teaching efficacy beliefs related to a socioscientific issue (SSI). We investigated Turkish preservice science teachers' teaching efficacy beliefs about genetically modified (GM) foods using a belief system approach. We assumed that preservice teachers' beliefs about GM foods (content knowledge, risk perceptions, moral beliefs, and religious beliefs) and their teaching efficacy beliefs about this topic constitute a belief system, and these beliefs are interrelated due to core educational beliefs. We used an exploratory mixed design to test this model. We developed and administered specific questionnaires to probe the belief system model. The sample for the quantitative part of this study included 441 preservice science teachers from eight universities. We randomly selected eight participants in this group for follow-up interviews. The results showed that preservice science teachers held moderately high teaching efficacy beliefs. Learning and teaching experiences, communication skills, vicarious experiences, emotional states, and interest in the topic were sources of this efficacy. In addition, content knowledge and risk perceptions were predictors of teaching efficacy. We believe that epistemologies based on traditional teaching and the values attached to science teaching are the core beliefs that affect the relationship between predictor variables and teaching efficacy.

  3. Issues in undergraduate education in computational science and high performance computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchioro, T.L. II; Martin, D. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The ever increasing need for mathematical and computational literacy within their society and among members of the work force has generated enormous pressure to revise and improve the teaching of related subjects throughout the curriculum, particularly at the undergraduate level. The Calculus Reform movement is perhaps the best known example of an organized initiative in this regard. The UCES (Undergraduate Computational Engineering and Science) project, an effort funded by the Department of Energy and administered through the Ames Laboratory, is sponsoring an informal and open discussion of the salient issues confronting efforts to improve and expand the teaching of computational science as a problem oriented, interdisciplinary approach to scientific investigation. Although the format is open, the authors hope to consider pertinent questions such as: (1) How can faculty and research scientists obtain the recognition necessary to further excellence in teaching the mathematical and computational sciences? (2) What sort of educational resources--both hardware and software--are needed to teach computational science at the undergraduate level? Are traditional procedural languages sufficient? Are PCs enough? Are massively parallel platforms needed? (3) How can electronic educational materials be distributed in an efficient way? Can they be made interactive in nature? How should such materials be tied to the World Wide Web and the growing ``Information Superhighway``?

  4. Introduction to the special issue on recentering science: Replication, robustness, and reproducibility in psychophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappenman, Emily S; Keil, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the psychological and behavioral sciences have increased efforts to strengthen methodological practices and publication standards, with the ultimate goal of enhancing the value and reproducibility of published reports. These issues are especially important in the multidisciplinary field of psychophysiology, which yields rich and complex data sets with a large number of observations. In addition, the technological tools and analysis methods available in the field of psychophysiology are continually evolving, widening the array of techniques and approaches available to researchers. This special issue presents articles detailing rigorous and systematic evaluations of tasks, measures, materials, analysis approaches, and statistical practices in a variety of subdisciplines of psychophysiology. These articles highlight challenges in conducting and interpreting psychophysiological research and provide data-driven, evidence-based recommendations for overcoming those challenges to produce robust, reproducible results in the field of psychophysiology. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Key science issues after MESSENGER and current observation plans of BepiColombo MMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Go; Hayakawa, Hajime; Fujimoto, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Little had been known about the Hermean magnetosphere until MESSENGER explored the region. The region is formed as the weak planetary magnetic field stands against the intense solar wind in the close proximity of the Sun. Various prediction had been given by noting the difference in the parameters from the well-studied terrestiral magnetosphere of a similar setting and scaling the well-knowns to the Hermean environment. MESSENGER results, however, show a wide varieity of phenomena that are out of the scope of what one could have reasonably argued. The micro-magnetosphere of Mercury is much more dynamic than one had predicted. BepiColombo MMO, the JAXA spacecraft of the BepiColombo Mercury exploration mission which will be launched in 2018 and will arrive at Mercury in 2025, is equipped to study the space environment of the planet Mercury. BepiColombo MMO is mainly designed for plasma observations and is expected to extract essential elements of space plasma physics that become visible in the Hermean environment. MMO has large constraints on science operations, such as thermal issue and limited telemetry rate. Due to the thermal issue each science instrument cannot always be turned on. In addition, due to the low telemetry rate in average, only a part ( 20-30%) of science mission data with high resolution can be downlinked. Therefore, in order to maximize the scientific results and outcomes to be achieved by MMO, we are now working to optimize the science observation and downlink plans in detail. Here we review MESSENGER results and how MMO will contribute to deepen our understanding of space plasmas by addressing the puzzles raised by MESSEGNER.

  6. Electronics and telecommunications in Poland, issues and perspectives: Part II. Science, research, development, higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelski, Józef; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2010-09-01

    important role of ET is combined with the existence in the society of an adequate infrastructure which recreates the full development cycle of high technology embracing: people, institutions, finances and logistics, in this also science, higher education, education, continuous training, dissemination and outreach, professional social environment, legal basis, political support and lobbying, innovation structures, applications, industry and economy. The digest of chosen development tendencies in ET was made here from the academic perspective, in a wider scale and on this background the national one, trying to situate this branch in the society, determine its changing role to build a new technical infrastructure of a society based on knowledge, a role of builder of many practical gadgets facilitating life, a role of a big future integrator of today's single bricks into certain more useful unity. This digest does not have a character of a systematic analysis of ET. It is a kind of an arbitrary utterance of the authors inside their field of competence. The aim of this paper is to take an active part in the discussion of the academic community in this country on the development strategy of ET, choice of priorities for cyclically rebuilding economy, in competitive environments. The review paper was initiated by the Committee of Electronics and Telecommunications of Polish Academy of Sciences and was published in Polish as introductory chapter of a dedicated expertise, printed in a book format. This version makes the included opinions available for a wider community.

  7. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment.

  8. Targeting as a Mode of Science Communication: Principles, Issues and a Practical Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; Vigh, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Today's media landscape contains a rich and diverse range of communications opportunities. New media, such as the internet, blogosphere and social networks, are complementing, supplementing and also replacing the traditional mass media communications through print, radio and television. This diversification certainly contains pitfalls and difficulties as has been demonstrated in the Climategate affair. But there are also real opportunities for utilizing the diversity to provide targeted science communications that are framed in the context of the specific group of interest. That such targeting of audience attitudes and beliefs is an important key to effective science communications has been demonstrated by, for example, Leiserowitz, Maibach et al (2009). This approach does require an understanding of the audience and a careful framing of the message in terms familiar to the targeted group. Here many factors come into play, including: including immediacy, economics, culture, community leaders, emotional framing, and ideological filters. In this talk we shall elaborate on the principles, issues and opportunities. A practical example of working with the religious community on communicating the science of climate change will also be presented. This will include the approach adopted, progress to date and the lessons learnt.

  9. Editors' Introduction to the Thematic Issue: Mad about Methods? Teaching Research Methods in Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, Johan; Kerremans, Bart; Slootmaeckers, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The contributors to this special issue all seek to address the challenge of teaching research methods to political science students. This introduction aims to provide a concise framework for the various innovations presented throughout this issue, situating them in the wider literature. Particular emphasis is placed on the factors that distinguish…

  10. To What Extent Do Biology Textbooks Contribute to Scientific Literacy? Criteria for Analysing Science-Technology-Society-Environment Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Florbela M.; Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    Our article proposes a set of six criteria for analysing science-technology-society-environment (STSE) issues in regular textbooks as to how they are expected to contribute to students' scientific literacy. We chose genetics and gene technology as fields prolific in STSE issues. We derived our criteria (including 26 sub-criteria) from a literature…

  11. Developing the conceptual instructional design with inquiry-based instruction model of secondary students at the 10th grade level on digestion system and cellular degradation issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotjanakunnatam, Boonthida; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research study was to develop the conceptual instructional design with the Inquiry-Based Instruction Model (IBIM) of secondary students at the 10th grade level on Digestion System and Cellular Degradation issue using both oxygen and oxygen-degrading cellular nutrients were designed instructional model with a sample size of 45 secondary students at the 10th Grade level. Data were collected by asking students to do a questionnaire pre and post learning processes. The questionnaire consists of two main parts that composed of students' perception questionnaire and the questionnaire that asked the question answer concept for the selected questionnaire. The 10-item Conceptual Thinking Test (CTT) was assessed students' conceptual thinking evaluation that it was covered in two main concepts, namely; Oxygen degradation nutrients and degradation nutrients without oxygen. The data by classifying students' answers into 5 groups and measuring them in frequency and a percentage of students' performances of their learning pre and post activities with the Inquiry-Based Instruction Model were analyzed as a tutorial. The results of this research found that: After the learning activities with the IBIM, most students developed concepts of both oxygen and oxygen-degrading cellular nutrients in the correct, complete and correct concept, and there are a number of students who have conceptual ideas in the wrong concept, and no concept was clearly reduced. However, the results are still found that; some students have some misconceptions, such as; the concept of direction of electron motion and formation of the ATP of bioactivities of life. This cause may come from the nature of the content, the complexity, the continuity, the movement, and the time constraints only in the classroom. Based on this research, it is suggested that some students may take some time, and the limited time in the classroom to their learning activity with content creation content binding and

  12. Preservice Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Informal Reasoning Regarding Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nilay; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated preservice elementary science teachers' (PSTs) informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues (SSI), their epistemological beliefs, and the relationship between informal reasoning and epistemological beliefs. From several SSIs, nuclear power usage was selected for this study. A total of 647 Turkish PSTs enrolled in three large universities in Turkey completed the open-ended questionnaire, which assessed the participants' informal reasoning about the target SSI, and Schommer's (1990) Epistemological Questionnaire. The participants' epistemological beliefs were assessed quantitatively and their informal reasoning was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings revealed that PSTs preferred to generate evidence-based arguments rather than intuitive-based arguments; however, they failed to generate quality evidence and present different types of evidence to support their claims. Furthermore, among the reasoning quality indicators, PSTs mostly generated supportive argument construction. Regarding the use of reasoning modes, types of risk arguments and political-oriented arguments emerged as the new reasoning modes. The study demonstrated that the PSTs had different epistemological beliefs in terms of innate ability, omniscient authority, certain knowledge, and quick learning. Correlational analyses revealed that there was a strong negative correlation between the PSTs' certain knowledge and counterargument construction, and there were negative correlations between the PSTs' innate ability, certain knowledge, and quick learning dimensions of epistemological beliefs and their total argument construction. This study has implications for both science teacher education and the practice of science education. For example, PST teacher education programs should give sufficient importance to training teachers that are skillful and knowledgeable regarding SSIs. To achieve this, specific SSI-related courses should form part of science

  13. Preservice Science Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs and Informal Reasoning Regarding Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nilay; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated preservice elementary science teachers' (PSTs) informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues (SSI), their epistemological beliefs, and the relationship between informal reasoning and epistemological beliefs. From several SSIs, nuclear power usage was selected for this study. A total of 647 Turkish PSTs enrolled in three large universities in Turkey completed the open-ended questionnaire, which assessed the participants' informal reasoning about the target SSI, and Schommer's (1990) Epistemological Questionnaire. The participants' epistemological beliefs were assessed quantitatively and their informal reasoning was assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings revealed that PSTs preferred to generate evidence-based arguments rather than intuitive-based arguments; however, they failed to generate quality evidence and present different types of evidence to support their claims. Furthermore, among the reasoning quality indicators, PSTs mostly generated supportive argument construction. Regarding the use of reasoning modes, types of risk arguments and political-oriented arguments emerged as the new reasoning modes. The study demonstrated that the PSTs had different epistemological beliefs in terms of innate ability, omniscient authority, certain knowledge, and quick learning. Correlational analyses revealed that there was a strong negative correlation between the PSTs' certain knowledge and counterargument construction, and there were negative correlations between the PSTs' innate ability, certain knowledge, and quick learning dimensions of epistemological beliefs and their total argument construction. This study has implications for both science teacher education and the practice of science education. For example, PST teacher education programs should give sufficient importance to training teachers that are skillful and knowledgeable regarding SSIs. To achieve this, specific SSI-related courses should form part of science

  14. Issues in Learning About and Teaching Qualitative Research Methods and Methodology in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Breuer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available For many qualitative researchers in the social sciences, learning about and teaching qualitative research methods and methodology raises a number of questions. This topic was the focus of a symposium held during the Second Berlin Summer School for Qualitative Research Methods in July 2006. In this contribution, some of the issues discussed during the symposium are taken up and extended, and some basic dimensions underlying these issues are summarized. How qualitative research methods and methodology are taught is closely linked to the ways in which qualitative researchers in the social sciences conceptualize themselves and their discipline. In the following, we distinguish between a paradigmatic and a pragmatic view. From a pragmatic point of view, qualitative research methods are considered research strategies or techniques and can be taught in the sense of recipes with specific steps to be carried out. According to a paradigmatic point of view (strongly inspired by constructivism, qualitative research methods and methodology are conceptualized as a craft to be practiced together by a "master" and an "apprentice." Moreover, the teaching of qualitative research methods also depends heavily on the institutional standing of qualitative compared to quantitative research method. Based on these considerations, five basic dimensions of learning about and teaching qualitative research methods are suggested: ways of teaching (ranging from the presentation of textbook knowledge to cognitive apprenticeship and instructors' experience with these; institutional contexts, including their development and the teaching of qualitative research methods in other than university contexts; the "fit" between personality and method, including relevant personal skills and talents; and, as a special type of instructional context that increasingly has gained importance, distance learning and its implications for learning about and teaching qualitative research methods

  15. Ignored Issues in e-Science: Collaboration, Provenance and the Ethics of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourcle, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The issues of collaboration, provenance and the ethics of data are not new, but have existed for quite some time. The issue is in how to change the attitudes of the scientists that theses issues are worth their time to deal with, and how the scientists can easily learn what the necessary steps are to ensure that their data can be used by the greater community. At NASA, there have been changes to the heliophysics data policy which now mentions a need to integrate into the larger data environment [NASA, 2009]. This integration aspect is key, as simple linkages between discrete collections are not enough for effective and efficient reuse of scientific data. As each scientific mission funded by NASA is novel in some way, there is a belief by many scientists that every data system must be rebuilt from the ground up as well. Although there are often needs to tune systems to meet the needs of the primary investigation, there are limited, if any controls to ensure that the data systems can interoperate with the system of virtual observatories and other cross-discipline efforts being designed and implemented. We need to find a way to break the 'not-created-here' mentality, and push for PI teams to consider how to support the general science in their discipline when implementing their interfaces. We need to tell them what the requirements are for interfacing with the community search systems, and give PI teams a way to get advice on designing and implementing their data system in a way that doesn't create roadblocks to the greater community's attempts at using their data. If we had simple requirements checklists to explain the needs of each discipline, we could give scientists and reviewers an easy way to guage how useful and accesible the system would be. We present a generic checklist developed primarily for file-based feature and event catalogs [Hourcle, 2009], in hopes of inspiring others to develop similar requirements documents for each scientific discipline and to

  16. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  17. The Digestive System and Alcohol Use. Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians. Training Unit [and] Participant Booklet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Cecelia; And Others

    The Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians uses the Medicine Circle and the "new science paradigm" to study the science of alcohol through a culturally relevant holistic approach. Intended for teachers and other educational personnel involved with American Indians, this curriculum presents a framework for alcohol education…

  18. The digestive system: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the digestive system, explores the structure and function of the digestive system. It is important that nurses understand how the digestive system works and its role in maintaining health. The article describes the gross structure of the gastrointestinal tract along with relevant physiology. It also outlines several disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and their treatment and nursing management. The second article will explain the liver, pancreas and gall bladder and their digestive functions, and provides a brief overview of the disorders of chronic liver disease, pancreatitis and gallstones.

  19. Examining student understanding of the science of a societal issue in Botswana: Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suping, Shanah Mompoloki

    Science has had such an impact on our way of life that it has been at the centre of discussion for all issues of health, education, development, and the safe stewardship of the Earth's resources. Science has advanced so quickly in the last 50 years that the amount of knowledge generated by scientists is overwhelming. Science teachers who have persistently introduced children to science from a very young age, have been charged with a daunting task of presenting science knowledge to students in ways that not only make it easy to understand, but also make it relevant to them. The methods of how best they should go about this task have been debated from time immemorial. Due to the many concerns and demands placed on science teachers and science education programs in general, there have been a number of efforts to reform and redefine the science curriculum. Science education reform efforts in the US and elsewhere have examined all possible nucleotides in the building up of the reform DNA molecule. Many studies have measured people's level of understanding on given issues that affect their communities, but little attention has been given to conceptions and level of scientific literacy among students in developing countries. This study assessed Botswana school children's knowledge about ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and its effects on human health using a scientific literacy lens. Results show that students do not know as much as one would expect them to know, from public school through the first year in college. Exploratory factor analysis identified four indicators of knowledge about UVR. These are: (a) diseases related to UVR, (b) items that can be used for protections against UVR, (c) misconceptions held about UVR, and (d) general issues surrounding UVR. MANOVA analysis showed that whereas there are no differences in general based on school location, certain groups of students performed differently depending on the school type, type of science pursued at school and or

  20. The cost of Latin American science Introduction for the second issue of CBP-Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Beleboni, René Oliveira; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2007-04-01

    Latin American researchers in science and engineering (S&E), including those in biology and biomedical sciences, are frequently exposed to unstable conditions of financial support, material and human resources, and a limited number of positions at public and private institutions. Such uncertainties impose continuous challenges for the scientific community which, in the best of cases, responds with careful planning and creativity, and in the worst scenario endures the migration of scientists to the USA or Europe. Still, the number of scientific publications from Latin American institutions in the last decade increased at a much faster rate than publications from the USA and Canada. A brief analysis per country of the gross domestic product (GDP) spent in research and development (R&D) and the S&E production reported by the Pascal bibliographic database suggests that the number and quality of S&E publications is directly proportional to the financial support for R&D. However, the investment in R&D in Latin America did not increase at the same rate (from 0.49 to 0.55% of GDP, from 1990 to 2003) at which S&E publications did in the same period (2.9-fold increase, from 1988 to 2001). In Latin America, the traditional financial support for scientific research continues to be from federal and state government funds, associated in some cases with institutional funds that are mostly directed towards administrative costs and infrastructure maintenance. The aim of this introduction is to briefly discuss the production cost of articles published in refereed S&E journals, including the cost of the scientific research behind them, and, at the same time, to increase the awareness of the high quality of scientific research in Latin American institutions despite the many challenges, especially financial constraints, faced by their scientists. The second issue of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology dedicated to Latin America ("The Face of Latin American Comparative Biochemistry

  1. Welcome to the Maiden Issue of International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Shantaram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Today marks the publication date of the inaugural issue of the International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (IJHRS. IJHRS is a publication of Global Network of Health Educators (GNHE, a not-for-profit initiative of Health educators worldwide in a mission to promote the health related awareness across the globe. We would like to take this opportunity to place on record my hearty thanks to all the members of GNHE and editorial board of IJHRS for their invaluable personal and scientific resources for guiding the journal from initial planning to the first steps it is taking now. Our aim is that IJHRS will be the paramount archive of knowledge in the areas of Health and Rehabilitation sciences. IJHRS is in open access format, in our view the only relevant such model in these times where information must be freely available to all. The traditional subscription-based model inherently denies free access to knowledge and seems contrary to the attribute of scientific thought. Our goal is to have a rapid peer review process, and we will make every effort to make an initial decision at the earliest. The peer review process will match scholarly reviewers with submitted manuscripts to produce high quality articles of interest and scientific caliber. The process is confidential so that criticisms and revisions are made in the fairest manner possible. The final decision on publication will be made by the editorial board. We will look for submissions of interesting and important scientific information that hopefully will have clinical application. High quality research of all types will be fostered and published with pride in the journal. IJHRS will be shortly indexed in Index Copernicus and other indexing authorities. We have the opportunity to improve the quality of life of so many people in developing countries and otherwise disadvantaged situations. The talent and determination of our readers is a resource with unlimited potential and we have

  2. Digestibility of the same diet in cattle and sheep | van Rooyen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 3 (1983) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Digestibility of the same diet in cattle and sheep. P van Rooyen, FJ ...

  3. The effect of lipid saturation on nutrient digestibility of layer diets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ernest King

    2013-10-11

    Oct 11, 2013 ... South African Journal of Animal Science 2013, 43 (Issue 5, Supplement 1) ... digestion of lipids in poultry is mainly dependent on bile salt and lipase enzyme secretion, bird age is another aspect that ... increase in the unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) content of lipid sources would consequently result in a higher.

  4. Engaging Students in Modeling as an Epistemic Practice of Science: An Introduction to the Special Issue of the Journal of Science Education and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Oh, Phil Seok

    2015-04-01

    This article provides an introduction for the special issue of the Journal of Science Education and Technology focused on science teaching and learning with models. The article provides initial framing for questions that guided the special issue. Additionally, based on our careful review of each of these articles, some discussion of how selected articles within the issue informed these questions. Specifically, when considering key facets of modeling instruction or design features of modeling curriculum, the studies in the special issue provided insight into productive ways in which teachers engaged students in modeling practices. Further, modeling pedagogies—pedagogies for transforming scientific practices of modeling into students' experience—were reified so that how these pedagogies could be coordinated into classroom instruction was revealed. When characteristic features of students' engagement in modeling were considered, research offered insight into productive model-based learning sequences for K-6 modelers and how students' development of productive epistemologies can evolve differently. Finally, the special issue considered how technology facilitated cognitive processes and/or instructional practices by examining learners' interactions with technology within modeling contexts. In this, instructional sequences using agent-based modeling (ABM) as a central technology are shared. These include the role of ABM in scaling student-modeling experiences beyond individuals to classroom experiences and how ABM can support student investigations of complex phenomenon that is not directly observable, among other affordances. Other articles also investigated some aspects of learners' interactions with technology to inform how technology-enhanced science teaching and learning with models.

  5. Scepticism and Doubt in Science and Science Education: The Complexity of Global Warming as a Socio-Scientific Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Tom G. K.; Day, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    This article looks critically at the complexity of the debate among climate scientists; the controversies in the science of global temperature measurement; and at the role played by "consensus." It highlights the conflicting perspectives figuring in the mass media concerned with climate change, arguing that science teachers should be…

  6. Research issues in the humanities and social sciences in Africa in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper also identifies the challenges faced by researchers in the humanities and social sciences and these include the continued marginalization of such research compared with research in the natural sciences disciplines; the relegation of humanities and social sciences theory and methodology; the lack of funding of ...

  7. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence) Gas Lactose Intolerance Diarrhea Diverticulosis & Diverticulitis Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) More Digestive Disease ... Polyps Constipation Crohn's Disease Cyclic Vomiting ... and Diverticulitis Dumping Syndrome Foodborne Illnesses Gallstones Gas ...

  8. Digesters and demographics: identifying support for anaerobic digesters on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D J; Roberts, M C; Ernst, S C; Thraen, C S

    2010-11-01

    The dairy industry in the United States is amidst a long-running trend toward fewer, larger dairy farms. This development has created a backlash in some communities over concerns such as odor, waste management, and environmental degradation. Separately, anaerobic digestion has advanced as a waste management technology that potentially offers solutions to some of these issues, providing odor control and a combustible biogas among other things. These digesters require significant capital investments. Voluntary consumer premiums for the renewable energy produced have been used in some instances as a means to move adoption of such systems toward financial feasibility. This project employed a survey to measure Ohio consumers' willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy produced by anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. Cluster analysis was used to segment consumers by willingness to pay, age, education, income, self-identified political inclination, and a composite variable that served as a proxy for respondents' environmental stewardship. Four distinctive groups emerged from the data. Older, less educated respondents were found to have the least amount of support for digesters on dairy farms, whereas politically liberal, environmentally proactive respondents demonstrated the strongest support. Well-educated, affluent respondents and young respondents fell between these 2 groups. Most large dairy farms are generally met with fairly negative responses from their local communities; in contrast, this research finds some popular support for anaerobic digestion technology. Going forward, establishing a positive link between support for anaerobic digesters and for their use on large dairies could open up a new route for less-contested large dairy farm developments. Evaluation of community demographics could become an important part of finding an optimal location for a large dairy farm. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Research issues in the humanities and social sciences in Africa in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    moahikh

    knowledge economy as we know it today is very much ICT based. And ICT brings ... The humanities and social sciences are academic disciplines dedicated to the study of society, the economy, business, ... humanities and social sciences are complementary and provide a broad way of considering innovation, its impact and.

  10. Editorial introduction. Special Issue for the European Academy of Forensic Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Meuwly, D.

    2013-01-01

    On behalf of the Editorial Board, I would like to welcome you to this special edition of Forensic Science International. It commemorates the conference of the European Academy of Forensic Science held in The Hague from August 20th to 24th 2012 and reflects the diversity and the scientific level

  11. A Framework for Guiding Future Citizens to Think Critically about Nature of Science and Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoubian, Hagop A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I introduce a framework for guiding future citizens to think critically about nature of science (NOS) and "with" NOS as they engage in socioscientific decision making. The framework, referred to as the critical thinking--nature of science (CT-NOS) framework, explicates and targets both NOS as a learning objective and NOS…

  12. Issue-centered Earth Science undergraduate instruction in U.S. colleges and universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    Semester-long introductory courses in Earth Science at U.S. colleges and universities often contain astronomy, meteorology, oceanography, and geology taught as single entities. My experience teaching Earth Science that way and using a trade Earth Science textbook results in cursory knowledge and poor retention of each topic area. This seems to be especially true for liberal arts students who take Earth Science to satisfy a distribution requirement in the sciences. Instead, my method of teaching Earth Science at the State University of New York is to use two books that together explore consequences of global warming caused by the combustion of fossil fuels by humans. In this way, students who do not intend to major in science are given in-depth information about how and why this challenge to the well-being of life on Earth in the present century and beyond must be addressed in a thoughtful way. The books, Tyler Volk's CO2 Rising - The World's Greatest Environmental Challenge and James Edinger's Watching for the Wind, are inexpensive paperbacks that the students read in their entirety. Besides supplemental information I provide in the lectures, students have weekly examinations that are narrative in form, and there are written assignments for exhibits at science and other museums in NYC that complement some of the topics. The benefit of teaching Earth Science in this non-traditional way is that students seem more interested in the subject because it is relevant to everyday experience and news accounts about a serious global science problem for which an informed public must take a positive role to solve.

  13. Plastics in the Ocean: Engaging Students in Core Competencies Through Issues-Based Activities in the Science Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson-Kolmes, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a critical issue. The high profile of this issue in the popular media makes it an opportune vehicle for promoting deeper understanding of the topic while also advancing student learning in the core competency areas identified in the NSF's Vision and Change document: integration of the process of science, quantitative reasoning, modeling and simulation, and an understanding of the relationship between science and society. This is a challenging task in an introductory non-majors class where the students may have very limited math skills and no prior science background. In this case activities are described that ask students to use an understanding of density to make predictions and test them as they consider the fate of different kinds of plastics in the marine environment. A comparison of the results from different sampling regimes introduces students to the difficulties of carrying out scientific investigations in the complex marine environment as well as building quantitative literacy skills. Activities that call on students to make connections between global issues of plastic pollution and personal actions include extraction of microplastic from personal care products, inventories of local plastic-recycling options and estimations of contributions to the waste stream on an individual level. This combination of hands-on-activities in an accessible context serves to help students appreciate the immediacy of the threat of plastic pollution and calls them to reflect on possible solutions.

  14. Scepticism and doubt in science and science education: the complexity of global warming as a socio-scientific issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Tom G. K.; Day, Stephen P.

    2014-09-01

    This article looks critically at the complexity of the debate among climate scientists; the controversies in the science of global temperature measurement; and at the role played by consensus. It highlights the conflicting perspectives figuring in the mass media concerned with climate change, arguing that science teachers should be familiar with them, particularly given the sharply contested views likely to be brought into classroom discussion and the importance of developing intellectual scepticism and robust scientific literacy in students. We distinguish between rational scepticism and the pejorative meaning of the expression associated with attitudinal opposition to global warming—similar to the way in which Bauer (2006) contrasts micro- scepticism and macro- scepticism in reasoning generally. And we look closely and critically at the approaches which teachers might adopt in practice to teach about global warming at this difficult time.

  15. Software Copyright Interpretation. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, LeRoy

    1985-01-01

    This digest presents a reprint of an article which addresses the issue of the rights of computer software owners to duplicate materials. A conservative approach to software copyright is taken which looks to how the law will likely be interpreted, rather than waiting for the definitive decision by a court. Three major issues involved with software…

  16. [Outlooks of Bogdan Suchodolski on the issue of popularizing the history of science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    The author of the present article proves the veracity of the postulate, which was formulated by Bogdan Suchodolski and concerned the necessity of popularizing the history of science. The stipulation is still greatly important for many fields of human activity. Bogdan Suchodolski was not the first and the only thinker, who revealed the unquestionable significance of disseminating the history of science as scientific branch: For the first time the problem was noticed in 1900 during International Congress of Comparative History in Paris and in 1903 during International Congress of Historical Sciences in Rome, when the idea of universalizing the history of science was put forward, among others, by: Paul Tannery, Carre de Vaux, Gino Ioria and Karl Sudhoff. All the mentioned participants declared then the necessity of teaching the history of science both in the secondary schools and in the universities. In the article was also included a detailed description of conceptions formulated by Paul Tannery and Michel Lhéritier in the inter-war period that concerned popularizing the history of science, and differed much from each other. Unlike Paul Tannery, Michel Lhéritier advised against separating history of science from the whole of history. On the occasion of describing the inter-war period the author is paying a special attention to the role, which was played by International Conference of Teaching History in Hague in 1932. In that time a representative of International Committee on the History of Sciences and International Academy of the History of Sciences--Aldo Mieli--presented the idea of disseminating the history of science, which resulted in a resolution saying that the discussed branch should be taught in the primary and secondary schools, and in the universities as well. Further, the paper includes the description of the detailed conceptions that were put forward after World War II by the members of Committee on Teaching within International Academy of the

  17. Using a Family Science Day Event to Engage Youth in Climate Change Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, C.; Brevik, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    Each fall, Dickinson State University organizes four Family Science Day events for elementary-aged children to increase their engagement in the sciences. Offered on Saturday afternoons, each event focuses on a different science-related theme. Families can attend these events free of charge, and the kids participate in a large variety of hands-on activities which center around the event's theme. This year, the November event focused on climate change and the roles soil plays in the climate system. The timing of this topic was carefully chosen. 2015 has been declared the International Year of Soil by the United Nations, and the Soil Science Society of America theme for the month of November was Soils and Climate. This public outreach event was an amazing opportunity to help the youth in our community learn about climate change and soil in a fun, interactive environment. The activities also helped the children learn how science is a process of discovery that allows them to better understand the world they live in. In addition to the hands-on activities, a planetarium show focusing on climate change was also offered during the event. The fully immersive, 360-degree show allowed the kids and their parents to personally observe phenomena that are otherwise difficult to visualize. All of the activities at the Family Science Day event were staffed by university students, and this proved to be a very valuable experience for them as well. Some of the students who helped are majoring in a science field, and for them, the experience taught public communication. They learned to break complicated concepts down into simpler terms that young kids can understand. Education majors who participated practiced communicating science concepts to children, and students in other majors who helped with this event gained experiences that reinforced various concepts they had learned in their general education science courses.

  18. Issues in Informal Education: Event-Based Science Communication Involving Planetaria and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M.; Gallagher, D. L.; Whitt, A.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    For the past four years the Science Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center has carried out a diverse program of science communication through the web resources on the Internet. The program includes extended stories about NAS.4 science, a curriculum resource for teachers tied to national education standards, on-line activities for students, and webcasts of real-time events. Events have involved meteor showers, solar eclipses, natural very low frequency radio emissions, and amateur balloon flights. In some cases broadcasts accommodate active feedback and questions from Internet participants. We give here, examples of events, problems, and lessons learned from these activities.

  19. Introduction to the special issue on history development of solar terrestrial sciences including auroral sub-storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, N.; Parks, G.; Svalgaard, L.; Kamide, Y.; Lui, T.

    2016-12-01

    Solar terrestrial (ST) sciences started centuries ago and branched into different disciplines. Starting with naked eye to highly sophisticated novel experimental techniques, observations have revealed the secrets of the Sun, heliosphere, magnetosphere, plasmasphere, and ionosphere-atmosphere components of the ST system. Theories and theoretical models have been developed for the different components independently and together. World-wide efforts under different umbrella are being persuaded to understand the challenges of the ST system. The onset problem and role of O+ ions in sub-storm physics are two issues that are hotly debated. The onset problem is whether sub-storm is triggered by magnetic reconnection in the tail region at 15-20 Re or by a current disruption at ~12 Re. The issue on O+ role is whether O+ ions affect the dynamics of sub-storms under magnetic storm and non-storm conditions differently. This special issue of Geoscience Letters contains a collection of 15 papers on the history and development of solar terrestrial sciences including auroral sub-storms. Over half of the papers are based on the presentations in a session on the same topic organized at the AOGS (Asia Oceania geosciences Society) General Assembly held in Singapore during 02-07 August 2015. The rest of the papers from outside the assembly also falls within the theme of the special issue. The papers are organized in the order of history and development of ST coupling, sub-storms, and outer heliosphere.

  20. Theme issue ;State-of-the-art in photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information science;

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heipke, Christian; Madden, Marguerite; Li, Zhilin; Dowman, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Over the past few years, photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information science have witnessed great changes in virtually every stage of information from imagery. Indeed, we have seen, for example, a sharply increased interest in unmanned aerial vehicles,

  1. Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Issues and Legislative Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuenzi, Jeffrey J; Matthews, Christine M; Mangan, Bonnie F

    2006-01-01

    There is growing concern that the United States is not preparing a sufficient number of students, teachers, and practitioners in the areas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM...

  2. Historical issues: the basis of Conservation Science and Conservator-Restorer training

    OpenAIRE

    Yacy-Ara Froner

    2016-01-01

    The gradual integration of science into the museum and the strengthening of the collaboration between the conservators-restorers, the conservation scientists, and the curators describe the early history of the Conservation Science. This paper aims to discuss the First International Conference for the Study of Scientific Methods for the Examination and Preservation of Works of Art, which took place in Rome 1930. It was held under the auspices of the International Museums Office (1926-1946), of...

  3. Controversy as a Blind Spot in Teaching Nature of Science. Why the Range of Different Positions Concerning Nature of Science Should Be an Issue in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Mario; Hammann, Marcus

    2017-07-01

    In this article, the argument is put forth that controversies about the scope and limits of science should be considered in Nature of Science (NOS) teaching. Reference disciplines for teaching NOS are disciplines, which reflect upon science, like philosophy of science, history of science, and sociology of science. The culture of these disciplines is characterized by controversy rather than unified textbook knowledge. There is common agreement among educators of the arts and humanities that controversies in the reference disciplines should be represented in education. To teach NOS means to adopt a reflexive perspective on science. Therefore, we suggest that controversies within and between the reference disciplines are relevant for NOS teaching and not only the NOS but about NOS should be taught, too. We address the objections that teaching about NOS is irrelevant for real life and too demanding for students. First, we argue that science-reflexive meta-discourses are relevant for students as future citizens because the discourses occur publicly in the context of sociopolitical disputes. Second, we argue that it is in fact necessary to reduce the complexity of the above-mentioned discourses and that this is indeed possible, as it has been done with other reflexive elements in science education. In analogy to the German construct Bewertungskompetenz (which means the competency to make informed ethical decisions in scientific contexts), we suggest epistemic competency as a goal for NOS teaching. In order to do so, science-reflexive controversies must be simplified and attitudes toward science must be considered. Discourse on the scientific status of potential pseudoscience may serve as an authentic and relevant context for teaching the controversial nature of reflexion on science.

  4. Proceedings of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases International Symposium on Epidemiologic Issues in Urinary Incontinence in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Jeanette S.; Nyberg, Leroy M.; Kusek, John W.

    2003-01-01

    The Epidemiologic Issues in Urinary Incontinence: Current Databases and Future Collaborations Symposium included an international group of 29 investigators from 10 countries. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the current understanding and knowledge gaps of prevalence, incidence, associa...

  5. Engaging Youth in Climate Change Issues with Family Science Day Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Corinne E.; Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.

    2016-04-01

    Dickinson State University organizes four Family Science Day events each fall during the months of September, October, November, and December. Activities are geared toward elementary-aged children to increase student engagement in the sciences. Offered on Saturday afternoons, each event focuses on a different science-related theme. Families can attend these events free of charge, and the kids participate in a large variety of hands-on activities that center around the event's theme. This year, the November event focused on climate change, including an emphasis on the roles soil plays in the climate system. The timing of this topic was carefully chosen. 2015 has been declared the International Year of Soil by the United Nations, and the Soil Science Society of America theme for the month of November was Soils and Climate. This public outreach event was an amazing opportunity to help the youth in our community learn about climate change in a fun, interactive environment. Climate changes in the past, present, and future were emphasized. Activities including the Farming Game, painting with soils, taking Jello "cores", creating a cloud in a jar, and making a glacier in a bag helped children learn how science is a process of discovery that allows them to better understand the world they live in. In addition to the hands-on activities, a planetarium show focused on climate change was also offered during the event, surrounding the kids and their parents in a fully immersive, 360-degree show that allowed them to personally observe phenomena that are otherwise difficult to visualize. All of the activities at the Family Science Day event were staffed by university students, and this proved to be a very valuable experience for them as well. Some of the students who helped are majoring in a science field, and for them, the experience taught public communication. They learned to break complicated concepts down into simpler terms that young kids could understand. Education

  6. Developing Character and Values for Global Citizens: Analysis of pre-service science teachers' moral reasoning on socioscientific issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunju; Chang, Hyunsook; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Sung-Won; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2012-04-01

    Character and values are the essential driving forces that serve as general guides or points of reference for individuals to support decision-making and to act responsibly about global socioscientific issues (SSIs). Based on this assumption, we investigated to what extent pre-service science teachers (PSTs) of South Korea possess character and values as global citizens; these values include ecological worldview, socioscientific accountability, and social and moral compassion. Eighteen PSTs participated in the SSI programs focusing on developing character and values through dialogical and reflective processes. SSIs were centered on the use of nuclear power generation, climate change, and embryonic stem cell research. The results indicated that PSTs showed three key elements of character and values, but failed to apply consistent moral principles on the issues and demonstrated limited global perspectives. While they tended to approach the issues with emotion and sympathy, they nonetheless failed to perceive themselves as major moral agents who are able to actively resolve large-scale societal issues. This study also suggests that the SSI programs can facilitate socioscientific reasoning to include abilities such as recognition of the complexity of SSIs, examine issues from multiple perspectives, and exhibit skepticism about information.

  7. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Kleter, G A; Brennan, M; Coles, D; Fischer, A R H; Houdebine, L M; Mora, C; Millar, K; Salter, B

    2013-06-25

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing public perception) environmental and economic knowledge regarding GM animals to formulate policy recommendations relevant to new developments and applications. The use of GM in farmed animals (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) was mapped and reviewed. A foresight exercise was conducted to identity future developments. Three case studies (aquatic, terrestrial and pharmaceutical) were applied to identify the issues raised, including the potential risks and benefits of GM animals from the perspectives of the production chain (economics and agri-food sector) and the life sciences (human and animal health, environmental impact, animal welfare and sustainable production). Ethical and policy concerns were examined through application of combined ethical matrix method and policy workshops. The case studies were also used to demonstrate the utility of public engagement in the policy process. The results suggest that public perceptions, ethical issues, the competitiveness of EU animal production and risk-benefit assessments that consider human and animal health, environmental impact and sustainable production need to be considered in EU policy development. Few issues were raised with application in the pharmaceutical sector, assuming ethical and economic issues were addressed in policy, but the introduction of agricultural GM animal applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying the digestibility of dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darragh, A J; Hodgkinson, S M

    2000-07-01

    The current recommendation, when calculating a protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score, is to determine the digestibility of a dietary protein across the entire digestive tract, using the rat as a model animal for humans. This fecal digestibility value is subsequently corrected for endogenous contributions of protein using a metabolic nitrogen value determined by feeding rats a protein-free diet. The limitations inherent with this method are well recognized, however, and determining the digestibility of a dietary protein to the end of the small intestine is the preferred alternative. Unlike the fecal digestibility assay, which has only one basic methodology, ileal digestibility values can be determined in a number of ways. We discuss the various methods available for determining ileal digestibility values and compare results obtained for dietary proteins using both fecal and ileal digestibility assays. The relative value of using individual amino acid digestibility values as opposed to nitrogen digestibility values is reviewed. In addition, we address issues surrounding measurement of endogenous nitrogen flows, and in particular, the relative merits of determining "true" versus "real" digestibility values.

  9. Historical issues: the basis of Conservation Science and Conservator-Restorer training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacy-Ara Froner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The gradual integration of science into the museum and the strengthening of the collaboration between the conservators-restorers, the conservation scientists, and the curators describe the early history of the Conservation Science. This paper aims to discuss the First International Conference for the Study of Scientific Methods for the Examination and Preservation of Works of Art, which took place in Rome 1930. It was held under the auspices of the International Museums Office (1926-1946, of the International Institute of Intellectual Co-operation (1924-1946, and of the Nationals Committees. Also, it must be realised as the landmark in the discussion of the Conservation Science of the Cultural Heritage because of the visibility of the first laboratories, besides of the establishment of the debates about to the conservator-restorer training.

  10. “Which Child Left Behind”: Historical Issues Regarding Equity in Science Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joy Cumming

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of learning plays a dominant role in formal education in the forms of determining features of curriculum that are emphasized, pedagogic methods that teachers use with their students, and parents’ and employers’ understanding of how well students have performed. A common perception is that fair assessment applies the same mode of assessment and content focus for all students—the approach of assessments in international comparative studies of science achievement. This article examines research evidence demonstrating that the act of assessment is not neutral—different forms of assessment advantage or disadvantage groups of students on the basis of family backgrounds, gender, race, or disability. Assessment that implicitly or explicitly captures the social capital of the child serves to consolidate, not address, educational equity. The article provides an overview of ways that science curriculum focus and assessment can introduce bias in the identification of student achievement. It examines the effect of changes to curriculum and assessment approaches in science, and relationships between assessment of science and the cultural context of the student. Recommendations are provided for science–assessment research to address bias for different groups of students.

  11. Literacy and Arts-Integrated Science Lessons Engage Urban Elementary Students in Exploring Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P.; Elser, C. F.; Klein, J. L.; Rule, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined student attitudes, writing skills and content knowledge of urban fourth and fifth graders (6 males, 9 female) during a six-week literacy, thinking skill, and art-integrated environmental science unit. Pre- and post-test questions were used to address knowledge of environmental problems and student environmental…

  12. Dissemination of Medical Information: Organizational and Technological Issues in Health Sciences Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderer, Nancy K.

    1993-01-01

    Describes five programs that have been significant to the evolution of biomedical communications in health sciences libraries over the last twenty years: the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM); Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS); National Research and Education Network (NREN); Unified Medical Language System…

  13. Social Sciences and Cultural Studies--Issues of Language, Public Opinion, Education and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Varela, Asuncion, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This is a unique and groundbreaking collection of questions and answers coming from higher education institutions on diverse fields and across a wide spectrum of countries and cultures. It creates routes for further innovation, collaboration amidst the Sciences (both Natural and Social) and the Humanities and the private and the public sectors of…

  14. Informal Science Education Policy: Issues and Opportunities. A CAISE Inquiry Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenkraft, Arthur; Flatow, Ira; Friedman, Alan J.; Kirsch, Jeffrey W.; Macdonald, Maritza; Marshall, Eric; McCallie, Ellen; Nesbit, Trevor; Prosino, Rebecca Nesbitt; Petit, Charles; Schubel, Jerry R.; Traill, Saskia; Wharton, Dan; Williams, Steven H.; Witte, Joe

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the CAISE "Policy Study Inquiry Group" (PSIG) was to inventory and comment on policies (current or potential, organizational or governmental, explicit or implicit) which affect the capacity of informal science education to have an impact. This group represented a cross-section of organizations and entities that touch upon or play a…

  15. Community-School Collaborations in Science: Towards Improved Outcomes through Better Understanding of Boundary Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, Russell; Symington, David; Cripps Clark, John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest, worldwide, in collaboration between schools and community organisations in contributing to and enriching school science programs, yet such collaborations are inadequately understood. This paper reports data from an Australian study designed to probe the views of members of the community who have participated in a broad…

  16. State Science and Technology Policy Advice: Issues, Opportunities, and Challenges: Summary of a National Convocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The federal government plays the predominant role in supporting research and development (R&D) and in establishing public policies that affect science and technology (S&T) in the United States. However, the federal government is no longer the sole focus of R&D funding and S&T policy making. State and local policy makers are…

  17. PARTNERING WITH DOE TO APPLY ADVANCED BIOLOGICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, AND COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    On February 18, 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Department of Energy signed a Memorandum of Understanding to expand the research collaboration of both agencies to advance biological, environmental, and computational sciences for protecting human health and the ...

  18. Conceptual issues of research methodology for the behavioural, life and social sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellenbergh, G.J.; Adèr, H.J.; Baird, D.; Berger, M.P.F.; Cornell, J.E.; Hagenaars, J.A.P.; Molenaar, P.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Research methodology (RM) must be clearly separated from substantive fields, such as medicine, psychology, education, sociology and economics, and, on the other side, from the philosophy of science and statistics. RM starts from substantive research problems and uses statistical knowledge, but it

  19. Agree-Disagree Activities for Stimulating Student Analysis of Science Related Issues and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Gerald

    This document discusses the need for agree-disagree, consensus science activities for teaching students skills in resolving differences and arriving at positions acceptable to all members of a group. Three activity sets are included, each containing ten exercises. The sets deal with human problems, life style problems, and problems of scientific…

  20. Substantive Conceptual Development in Preschool Science: Contemporary Issues and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael; Kambouri-Danos, Maria

    2017-01-01

    There has been a dearth of published research exploring the scientific ideas that young children construct, particularly in prestigious periodicals in the science education genre. The current article discusses the reasons behind this lack of prominence, and suggests ways forward that may link work from the field of developmental psychology with…

  1. Facts or friction: the evolving role of science in phytosanitary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Allen

    2008-01-01

    With the expansion of global trade, problems with invasive alien pests have also grown. In order to reduce the international movement of plant pests and protect valuable plant resources, national plant protection regulations and international standards continue to be developed. Science is critical to the development of effective national and international plant...

  2. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories....... Understanding these issues and being able to account for them is a prerequisite in digestion engineering and for establishing and running a successful anaerobic digestion facility. Of specific importance is the final use of the digestate. Use in agriculture as a fertilizer is described in Chapter 9.10 and use...... after composting of the digestate as a soil amendment product is analogous to issues presented in Chapter 9.9 for compost....

  3. When [+Native] Is [-Favorable]. Lektos: Interdisciplinary Working Papers in Language Sciences, Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swacker, Marjorie

    This paper discusses the need for foreign language students to develop positive attitudes about regional and social dialect variation, while learning dialectal patterns that will best facilitate their widest acceptance into a community of target language speakers. The latter issue was tested in a study in which native speakers of American English…

  4. Enhancing Students' Communication Skills in the Science Classroom through Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoonsook; Yoo, Jungsook; Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Hyunju; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Communication skills are one of the most important competencies for 21st century global citizens. Our guiding presupposition was that socioscientific issues (SSIs) could be used as an effective pedagogical tool for promoting students' communication skills by increasing peer interactions, stimulating students' reasoning, and in constructing shared…

  5. Phase-change materials for non-volatile memory devices: from technological challenges to materials science issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Pierre; Vallée, Christophe; Hippert, Françoise; Fillot, Frédéric; Raty, Jean-Yves

    2018-01-01

    Chalcogenide phase-change materials (PCMs), such as Ge-Sb-Te alloys, have shown outstanding properties, which has led to their successful use for a long time in optical memories (DVDs) and, recently, in non-volatile resistive memories. The latter, known as PCM memories or phase-change random access memories (PCRAMs), are the most promising candidates among emerging non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies to replace the current FLASH memories at CMOS technology nodes under 28 nm. Chalcogenide PCMs exhibit fast and reversible phase transformations between crystalline and amorphous states with very different transport and optical properties leading to a unique set of features for PCRAMs, such as fast programming, good cyclability, high scalability, multi-level storage capability, and good data retention. Nevertheless, PCM memory technology has to overcome several challenges to definitively invade the NVM market. In this review paper, we examine the main technological challenges that PCM memory technology must face and we illustrate how new memory architecture, innovative deposition methods, and PCM composition optimization can contribute to further improvements of this technology. In particular, we examine how to lower the programming currents and increase data retention. Scaling down PCM memories for large-scale integration means the incorporation of the PCM into more and more confined structures and raises materials science issues in order to understand interface and size effects on crystallization. Other materials science issues are related to the stability and ageing of the amorphous state of PCMs. The stability of the amorphous phase, which determines data retention in memory devices, can be increased by doping the PCM. Ageing of the amorphous phase leads to a large increase of the resistivity with time (resistance drift), which has up to now hindered the development of ultra-high multi-level storage devices. A review of the current understanding of all these

  6. Big Data, IPRs & Competition Law in the Pharma & Life Sciences- future issues in a rapidly evolving field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    While there are numerous particular IPR and regulatory issues to be resolved across the intersection between Big Data and the life sciences there is a growing awareness of the importance of data and specifically Big Data by market authorities. Antitrust enforcement agencies, those in the United...... the merger on the condition that the merged firm would make copies of its database available for purchase by existing and new potential competitors. The previous decision of the European Court of Justice in the IMS Health case has already set out that there are limitations to the extent IPRs can be used......, regulatory or de facto is not a concern and the technology or data owner is in general obliged to license on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms. These are issues that remain unanswered in the antitrust narrative but all indications are that the future holds more application of the antitrust rules...

  7. “Which Child Left Behind”: Historical Issues Regarding Equity in Science Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    J. Joy Cumming; Peter J. Fensham

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of learning plays a dominant role in formal education in the forms of determining features of curriculum that are emphasized, pedagogic methods that teachers use with their students, and parents’ and employers’ understanding of how well students have performed. A common perception is that fair assessment applies the same mode of assessment and content focus for all students—the approach of assessments in international comparative studies of science achievement. This article examine...

  8. The religion-in-the-science-classroom issue: Seeking graduate student conceptual change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Cathleen C.; Foster, Andrea

    2000-07-01

    This study examines the extent to which science education graduate students enjoy a well-articulated position on the compatibility of science and religion and, as a result, are comfortable with their espoused views and plans for the role of religion in science classroom discussions. We were particularly interested in examining changes in student mental states as a legitimate form of conceptual change after a course intervention. This might be evidenced by the depth of understanding, level of reasoning, and degree of comfort with classroom application. The intervention first asked students to write a talk back to the author paper shortly after reading a provocative essay on the topic. This was followed by reading and discussing a variety of alternative views after which they wrote a more formal position paper on the science-religion topic. We first conducted a content analysis of both papers, developing separate concept maps of the overall class response in the first and second papers, noting changes in emphases. Adapting a current multidimensional model of conceptual change, we then developed an individual evaluation form based on categories that emerged in the class analysis, which were strikingly similar to the categories in the multidimensional model. These included ontological, epistemological, and social/affective dimensions of conceptual change. Both papers were scored in these three areas. The conceptual change for each student from talk-back to position paper was subsequently reported using individual graphs and citing text examples. Results showed conceptual change or improved mental state in all three categories for most students.

  9. Copyright issues in the European Union : towards a science- and education-friendly copyright

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhlen, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    This report concentrates on EU copyright regulation since 2001, in particular as far as science, education and memory institutions such as libraries are concerned. The copyright law of the European Union cannot be seen independently from international law and context (Berne Convention, WIPO, TRIPS). Member states´ copyright in the EU is strongly based on the author’s right tradition (droit d´auteur); it does not have a general underlying principle such as the American-style ´fair use`. Theref...

  10. Geoethics and decision science issues in Japan's disaster management system: case study in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Megumi

    2015-04-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and its tsunami killed 18,508 people, including the missing (National Police Agency report as of April 2014) and raise the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station in Japan. The problems revealed can be viewed as due to a combination of risk-management, risk-communication, and geoethics issues. Japan's preparations for earthquakes and tsunamis are based on the magnitude of the anticipated earthquake for each region. The government organization coordinating the estimation of anticipated earthquakes is the "Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion" (HERP), which is under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Japan's disaster mitigation system is depicted schematically as consisting of three layers: seismology, civil engineering, and disaster mitigation planning. This research explains students in geoscience should study geoethics as part of their education related Tohoku earthquake and the Level 7 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Only when they become practicing professionals, they will be faced with real geoethical dilemmas. A crisis such as the 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident, will force many geoscientists to suddenly confront previously unanticipated geoethics and risk-communication issues. One hopes that previous training will help them to make appropriate decisions under stress. We name it "decision science".

  11. Just Roll with It? Rolling Volumes vs. Discrete Issues in Open Access Library and Information Science Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Cirasella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Articles in open access (OA journals can be published on a rolling basis, as they become ready, or in complete, discrete issues. This study examines the prevalence of and reasons for rolling volumes vs. discrete issues among scholarly OA library and information science (LIS journals based in the United States. METHODS A survey was distributed to journal editors, asking them about their publication model and their reasons for and satisfaction with that model. RESULTS Of the 21 responding journals, 12 publish in discrete issues, eight publish in rolling volumes, and one publishes in rolling volumes with an occasional special issue. Almost all editors, regardless of model, cited ease of workflow as a justification for their chosen publication model, suggesting that there is no single best workflow for all journals. However, while all rolling-volume editors reported being satisfied with their model, satisfaction was less universal among discrete-issue editors. DISCUSSION The unexpectedly high number of rolling-volume journals suggests that LIS journal editors are making forward-looking choices about publication models even though the topic has not been much addressed in the library literature. Further research is warranted; possibilities include expanding the study’s geographic scope, broadening the study to other disciplines, and investigating publication model trends across the entire scholarly OA universe. CONCLUSION Both because satisfaction is high among editors of rolling-volume journals and because readers and authors appreciate quick publication times, the rolling-volume model will likely become even more prevalent in coming years.

  12. Forensic sciences and forensic odontology: issues for dental hygienists and therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzolese, E; Lepore, M M; Cukovic-Bagic, I; Montagna, F; Di Vella, G

    2008-12-01

    The scientific literature contains very little about the role of the dental hygienist/therapist in the specific areas of forensic investigations and collection of evidence. The authors examine how the contribution of a highly qualified dental hygienist can be particularly helpful during human forensic identification operations and non-accidental traumas like domestic violence, child abuse, neglect and bitemarks. Forensic dental identification of human remains is a highly complex multidisciplinary challenge. It requires the involvement of several professionals who are expert in forensic science. Among these, one or more adequately trained dental hygienists could be involved. Dental hygienists/therapists may also be asked to record cutaneous lesions in two different situations. The first may be the dental office where she/he may detect oval, elliptic, or semicircular lesions on the skin of the uncovered neck, shoulder and arms of a patient. The second is the crime scene or the morgue (if one is involved), which may require a visit by the forensic odontologist called by the medical examiner or the coroner to perform an odontological autopsy. The purpose of our study is to highlight procedures that should be followed by the dental hygienist/therapist in collecting forensic information in the above-mentioned scenarios. As a valuable resource, the authors recommend training of dental hygienists in the area of forensic sciences, with particular attention to information technology and photography.

  13. Special issue on enabling open and interoperable access to Planetary Science and Heliophysics databases and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The large amount of data generated by modern space missions calls for a change of organization of data distribution and access procedures. Although long term archives exist for telescopic and space-borne observations, high-level functions need to be developed on top of these repositories to make Planetary Science and Heliophysics data more accessible and to favor interoperability. Results of simulations and reference laboratory data also need to be integrated to support and interpret the observations. Interoperable software and interfaces have recently been developed in many scientific domains. The Virtual Observatory (VO) interoperable standards developed for Astronomy by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) can be adapted to Planetary Sciences, as demonstrated by the VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) team within the Europlanet-H2020-RI project. Other communities have developed their own standards: GIS (Geographic Information System) for Earth and planetary surfaces tools, SPASE (Space Physics Archive Search and Extract) for space plasma, PDS4 (NASA Planetary Data System, version 4) and IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) for planetary mission archives, etc, and an effort to make them interoperable altogether is starting, including automated workflows to process related data from different sources.

  14. Proceedings of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases International Symposium on Epidemiologic Issues in Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeanette S; Nyberg, Leroy M; Kusek, John W; Burgio, Kathryn L; Diokno, Ananias C; Foldspang, Anders; Fultz, Nancy H; Herzog, A Regula; Hunskaar, Steinar; Milsom, Ian; Nygaard, Ingrid; Subak, Leslee L; Thom, David H

    2003-06-01

    The Epidemiologic Issues in Urinary Incontinence: Current Databases and Future Collaborations Symposium included an international group of 29 investigators from 10 countries. The purpose of the symposium was to discuss the current understanding and knowledge gaps of prevalence, incidence, associated risk factors, and treatment outcomes for incontinence in women. During the symposium, investigators identified existing large databases and ongoing studies that provide substantive information on specific incontinence research questions. The investigators were able to form an international collaborative research working group and identify potential collaborative projects to further research on the epidemiology of urinary incontinence and bladder dysfunction.

  15. Engaging Elementary School Pre-Service Teachers in Modeling a Socioscientific Issue as a Way to Help Them Appreciate the Social Aspects of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evagorou, Maria; Mauriz, Blanca Puig

    2017-01-01

    Socioscientific issues are ill-structured problems that involve moral, ethical, and financial aspects, and lack clear-cut solutions. Teaching socioscientific issues necessarily puts a demand on teachers to draw on knowledge stemming from other domains, and to also appreciate, and present to the students the societal aspects of science. For new…

  16. Nature of Science, Scientific Inquiry, and Socio-Scientific Issues Arising from Genetics: A Pathway to Developing a Scientifically Literate Citizenry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Antink, Allison; Bartos, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this article is to illustrate how teachers can use contemporary socio-scientific issues to teach students about nature of scientific knowledge as well as address the science subject matter embedded in the issues. The article provides an initial discussion about the various aspects of nature of scientific knowledge that are…

  17. The Relationship of Science Knowledge, Attitude and Decision Making on Socio-Scientific Issues: The Case Study of Students' Debates on a Nuclear Power Plant in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Hunkoog; Yoon, Hye-Gyoung; Kim, Mijung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of students' understanding of science knowledge, attitude and decision making on socio-scientific issues (SSI), especially on the issues of nuclear energy in Korea. SSI-focused instructions were developed to encourage students to understand and reflect on knowledge, attitude and…

  18. Ethical issues surrounding the use of images from donated cadavers in the anatomical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Callahan, David; Wee, Richman

    2016-01-01

    Body donor programs rely on the generosity and trust of the public to facilitate the provision of cadaver resources for anatomical education and research. The uptake and adoption of emerging technologies, including those allowing the acquisition and distribution of images, are becoming more widespread, including within anatomical science education. Images of cadavers are useful for research and education, and their supply and distribution have commercial potential for textbooks and online education. It is unclear whether the utilization of images of donated cadavers are congruent with donor expectations, societal norms and boundaries of established public understanding. Presently, no global "best practices" or standards exist, nor is there a common model requiring specific image-related consent from body donors. As ongoing success of body donation programs relies upon the ethical and institutional governance of body utilization to maintain trust and a positive relationship with potential donors and the community, discussions considering the potential impact of image misuse are important. This paper discusses the subject of images of donated cadavers, commenting on images in non-specific use, education, research, and commercial applications. It explores the role and significance of such images in the context of anatomical science and society, and discusses how misuse - including unconsented use - of images has the potential to affect donor program success, suggesting that informed consent is currently necessary for all images arising from donated cadavers. Its purpose is to encourage discussion to guide responsible utilization of cadaver images, while protecting the interests of body donors and the public. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evaluation of the pepsin digestibility assay for predicting amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T M; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Kirstein, D

    2015-05-01

    Sixteen meat and bone meal (MBM) samples were obtained and selected from various company plants to provide a wide range in pepsin nitrogen digestibility values. Pepsin digestibility was determined using either 0.02 or 0.002% pepsin. Amino acid (AA) digestibility of the 16 MBM samples was then determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. The 0.02% pepsin digestibility values were numerically higher than the 0.002% pepsin values. The values varied from 77 to 93% for 0.02% pepsin and from 67 to 91% for 0.002% pepsin. The rooster AA digestibility results showed a wide range of values among MBM samples mostly due to the 4 samples having lowest and highest AA digestibility. A precision-fed broiler chick ileal AA digestibility assay confirmed that there were large differences in AA digestibility among the MBM samples having the lowest and highest rooster digestibility values. Correlation analyses between pepsin and AA digestibility values showed that the correlation values (r) were highly significant (P values were not included in the correlation analyses, the correlation coefficient values (r) were generally very low and not significant (P > 0.05). The results indicated that the pepsin nitrogen digestibility assay is only useful for detecting large differences in AA digestibility among MBM. There also was no advantage for using 0.02 versus 0.002% pepsin. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Critical Issues in Sensor Science To Aid Food and Water Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahi, R. H.; Passian, A.; Tetard, L.; Thundat, T.

    2012-06-26

    The stability of food and water supplies is widely recognized as a global issue of fundamental importance. Sensor development for food and water safety by nonconventional assays continues to overcome technological challenges. The delicate balance between attaining adequate limits of detection, chemical fingerprinting of the target species, dealing with the complex food matrix, and operating in difficult environments are still the focus of current efforts. While the traditional pursuit of robust recognition methods remains important, emerging engineered nanomaterials and nanotechnology promise better sensor performance but also bring about new challenges. Both advanced receptor-based sensors and emerging non-receptor-based physical sensors are evaluated for their critical challenges toward out-of-laboratory applications.

  1. Summary of the Geocarto International Special Issue on "NASA Earth Science Satellite Data for Applications to Public Health" to be Published in Early 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2013-01-01

    At the 2011 Applied Science Public Health review held in Santa Fe, NM, it was announced that Dr. Dale Quattrochi from the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, John Haynes, Program Manager for the Applied Sciences Public Health program at NASA Headquarters, and Sue Estes, Deputy Program Manager for the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program located at the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL, would edit a special issue of the journal Geocarto International on "NASA Earth Science Satellite Data for Applications to Public Health". This issue would be focused on compiling research papers that use NASA Earth Science satellite data for applications to public health. NASA's Public Health Program concentrates on advancing the realization of societal and economic benefits from NASA Earth Science in the areas of infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health (e.g., air quality). This application area as a focus of the NASA Applied Sciences program, has engaged public health institutions and officials with research scientists in exploring new applications of Earth Science satellite data as an integral part of public health decision- and policy-making at the local, state and federal levels. Of interest to this special issue are papers submitted on are topics such as epidemiologic surveillance in the areas of infectious disease, environmental health, and emergency response and preparedness, national and international activities to improve skills, share data and applications, and broaden the range of users who apply Earth Science satellite data in public health decisions, or related focus areas.. This special issue has now been completed and will be published n early 2014. This talk will present an overview of the papers that will be published in this special Geocarto International issue.

  2. Starch digestion capacity of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B

    2014-09-01

    Starch is quantitatively the most important nutrient in poultry diets and will to a large extent be present as intact starch granules due to very limited extent of gelatinization during pelleting. Although native starch is difficult to digest due to a semi-crystalline structure, even fast-growing broiler chickens appears to be able to digest this starch more or less completely during passage through the jejunum. However, reduced starch digestibility has been observed, particularly in pelleted diets containing large quantities of wheat. Although properties of the starch granule such as size and components on the granule surface may affect digestibility, the entrapment of starch granules in cell walls and a protein matrix may be even more important factors impeding starch digestion. In that case, this and the fact that amylase secretion is normally very high in poultry may explain the lack of convincing effects of exogenous α-amylase added to the diet. However, few well-designed experiments assessing mechanisms of starch digestion and the effect of α-amylase supplementation have been carried out, and thus more research is needed in this important area. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Single Sex Education. WEEA Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Diane S.

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance. This digest focuses on the theme of single-sex education. Articles featured in this issue include: (1) "Single-Sex Education" (Diane S. Pollard); (2) "A Legal Framework for Single-Sex…

  4. Genetic research and testing in sport and exercise science: a review of the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackerhage, Henning; Miah, Andy; Harris, Roger C; Montgomery, Hugh E; Williams, Alun G

    2009-09-01

    This review is based on the BASES position stand on "Genetic Research and Testing in Sport and Exercise Science". Our aims are first to introduce the reader to research in sport and exercise genetics and then to highlight ethical problems arising from such research and its applications. Sport and exercise genetics research in the form of transgenic animal and human association studies has contributed significantly to our understanding of exercise physiology and there is potential for major new discoveries. Researchers starting out in this field will have to ensure an appropriate study design to avoid, for example, statistically underpowered studies. Ethical concerns arise more from the applications of genetic research than from the research itself, which is assessed by ethical committees. Possible applications of genetic research are genetic performance tests or genetic tests to screen, for example, for increased risk of sudden death during sport. The concerns are that genetic performance testing could be performed on embryos and could be used to select embryos for transplantation or abortion. Screening for risk of sudden death may reduce deaths during sporting events but those that receive a positive diagnosis may suffer severe psychological consequences. Equally, it will be almost impossible to keep a positive diagnosis confidential if the individual tested is an elite athlete.

  5. Models, validation, and applied geochemistry: Issues in science, communication, and philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Models have become so fashionable that many scientists and engineers cannot imagine working without them. The predominant use of computer codes to execute model calculations has blurred the distinction between code and model. The recent controversy regarding model validation has brought into question what we mean by a ‘model’ and by ‘validation.’ It has become apparent that the usual meaning of validation may be common in engineering practice and seems useful in legal practice but it is contrary to scientific practice and brings into question our understanding of science and how it can best be applied to such problems as hazardous waste characterization, remediation, and aqueous geochemistry in general. This review summarizes arguments against using the phrase model validation and examines efforts to validate models for high-level radioactive waste management and for permitting and monitoring open-pit mines. Part of the controversy comes from a misunderstanding of ‘prediction’ and the need to distinguish logical from temporal prediction. Another problem stems from the difference in the engineering approach contrasted with the scientific approach. The reductionist influence on the way we approach environmental investigations also limits our ability to model the interconnected nature of reality. Guidelines are proposed to improve our perceptions and proper utilization of models. Use of the word ‘validation’ is strongly discouraged when discussing model reliability.

  6. The issues that class teachers encounter during application of science and technology teaching curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ugras

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the challenges class teachers face in the curriculum implementation and whether these challenges differ in relation to teachers’ gender, level of education, department they graduated from and teaching experience. For this purpose; a questionnaire was developed by the researcher. Items of the questionnaire were selected from the related literature and validated by a group of expert in the field. A pilot study was conducted to assess the clarity of the questionnaire items. The internal reliability of the final version of questionnaire was calculated by using Cronbach’s Alpha Formula and found be high (α=0.85. The participants of this research included 342 class teachers who were teaching 4th and 5th class in 57 different elementary schools in 2010-2011 academic years in Bingol and Diayrbakir cities. The results of the survey were considered by using SPSS packet program. In the analyzing of data obtained from this study, frequency, arithmetic average, t-test and variance analysis were used. From the obtained data, it was determined that the 4th and 5th class teachers encounter different problems in science and technology teaching program, especially in performance homework, sourcing and lesson time topics.

  7. Digestive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Digestive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Digestive System Print A A ... of the body as feces. About the Digestive System Every morsel of food we eat has to ...

  8. Operators in Nature, Science, Technology, and Society: Mathematical, Logical, and Philosophical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burgin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an operator is used in a variety of practical and theoretical areas. Operators, as both conceptual and physical entities, are found throughout the world as subsystems in nature, the human mind, and the manmade world. Operators, and what they operate, i.e., their substrates, targets, or operands, have a wide variety of forms, functions, and properties. Operators have explicit philosophical significance. On the one hand, they represent important ontological issues of reality. On the other hand, epistemological operators form the basic mechanism of cognition. At the same time, there is no unified theory of the nature and functions of operators. In this work, we elaborate a detailed analysis of operators, which range from the most abstract formal structures and symbols in mathematics and logic to real entities, human and machine, and are responsible for effecting changes at both the individual and collective human levels. Our goal is to find what is common in physical objects called operators and abstract mathematical structures, with the name operator providing foundations for building a unified but flexible theory of operators. The paper concludes with some reflections on functionalism and other philosophical aspects of the ‘operation’ of operators.

  9. The implementation of integrated science teaching materials based socio-scientific issues to improve students scientific literacy for environmental pollution theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenni, Rita; Hernani, Widodo, Ari

    2017-05-01

    The study aims to determine the increasing of students' science literacy skills on content aspects and competency of science by using Integrated Science teaching materials based Socio-scientific Issues (SSI) for environmental pollution theme. The method used in the study is quasi-experiment with nonequivalent pretest and posttest control group design. The students of experimental class used teaching materials based SSI, whereas the students of control class were still using the usual textbooks. The result of this study showed a significant difference between the value of N-gain of experimental class and control class, whichalso occurred in every indicator of content aspects and competency of science. This result indicates that using of Integrated Science teaching materials based SSI can improve content aspect and competency of science and can be used as teaching materials alternative in teaching of Integrated Science.

  10. Reshaping clinical science: Introduction to the Special Issue on Psychophysiology and the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Hajcak, Greg

    2016-03-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health's (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative seeks to establish new dimensional conceptions of mental health problems, through the investigation of clinically relevant "process" constructs that have neurobiological as well as psychological referents. This special issue provides a detailed overview of the RDoC framework by NIMH officials Michael Kozak and Bruce Cuthbert, and spotlights RDoC-oriented investigative efforts by leading psychophysiological research groups as examples of how clinical science might be reshaped through application of RDoC principles. Accompanying commentaries highlight key aspects of the work by each group, and discuss reported methods/findings in relation to promises and challenges of the RDoC initiative more broadly. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  12. The Science and Issues of Human DNA Polymorphisms: A Training Workshop for High School Biology Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklos, David A.

    2006-10-30

    This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms â which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, and computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrée to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nationâÂÂs oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales of human

  13. The Science and Issues of Human DNA Polymoprhisms: A Training Workshop for High School Biology Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David. A Micklos

    2006-10-30

    This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms – which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, and computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrée to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nation’s oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales of human polymorphism

  14. Erratum to JEMS (Journal of ETA Maritime Science, Volume 4, Issue 2 (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    .

    2016-09-01

    ., Zhang F., Huang Y., Zhao C. (2014. Determination of TDC in a hydraulic free-piston engine by a novel approach. Applied Thermal Engineering, 70:524-530. [12] Pipitone E., Beccari A. (2010. Determination of TDC in internal combustion engines by a newly developed thermodynamic approach. Applied Thermal Engineering, 30:1914-1926. [13] Pipitone E., Beccari A., Beccari S. (2007. The Experimental Validation of a New Thermodynamic Method for TDC Determination. SAE Paper:2007-24-0052. [14] Miao R., Li J., Shi L., Deng K. (2013. Study of Top Dead Center Measurement and Correction Method in a Diesel Engine, Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 6(6:1101-1105. [15] ISO 3046-1:2002 (2008. Reciprocating internal combustion engines-Performance, Part 1: Declarations of power, fuel and lubricating oil consumptions, and test methods - Additional requirements for engines for general use. The editorial board of JEMS apologizes for any inconvenience that may result from this oversight.

  15. Anaerobic Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inform visitors about the science of AD, the environmental and economic benefits that can be realized through AD projects, and direct visitors to appropriate regulatory information, feasibility tools and technical resources from related EPA programs.

  16. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Exploring Ivorian Perspectives on the Effectiveness of the Current Ivorian Science Curriculum in Addressing Issues Related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    2014-01-01

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the…

  18. The Relationship of Science Knowledge, Attitude and Decision Making on Socio-scientific Issues: The Case Study of Students' Debates on a Nuclear Power Plant in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Hunkoog; Yoon, Hye-Gyoung; Kim, Mijung

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of students' understanding of science knowledge, attitude and decision making on socio-scientific issues (SSI), especially on the issues of nuclear energy in Korea. SSI-focused instructions were developed to encourage students to understand and reflect on knowledge, attitude and decision making on nuclear energy in the current society. Eighty-nine students attended the instruction and participated in pre and post questionnaires to understand their understandings of nuclear energy. In this study, science knowledge was categorized into content and contextual knowledge, attitude consisted of images, safety, risk, potential, benefits and future roles, and decision making section included preference and alternative about lifetime extension of nuclear power plant. The results of questionnaires were analyzed by correlation, cross-tabulation and regression. As a result, while students' understandings of science knowledge were significantly improved throughout the instruction, they maintained similar attitude and decision making on the issue. Regarding the relationship of the three domains, attitude showed some degree of connection to decision making whereas science knowledge did not show a significant relationship to decision making. This finding challenges SSI teaching in content-based science curriculum and classroom. Reflection and implications on the way of teaching SSI in the classroom were discussed further in this paper.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9.......6 addresses the mass balances and environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion....

  20. Media Ethics: Some Specific Problems. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    This digest identifies some of the ethical issues which appeared in the mass media in the 1980s and discusses the implications which these issues have for the law and for those who already work in or study the mass media, as well as for those college students contemplating a career in journalism or broadcasting. (NKA)

  1. Transfer student and gender issues within the Department of Animal Science at Texas A&M University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleer, J J; Minney, B A; Johnson, B H; Murano, P S; Briers, G E; Greathouse, T R

    2000-12-01

    Graduates with a B.S. or graduate degree from the Department of Animal Science (1986 to 1996) of Texas A&M University were surveyed by mail to gather opinions on the curriculum and satisfaction with their degrees. The survey contained five Likert questions (1 = excellent, 4 = poor) regarding satisfaction with major, educational results, personal growth, professional development, and skills important for employment. Multiple-choice questions (n = 9) addressed education, background, job status, and gender. Surveys (n = 2,192) were sent to students, and 470 responded. The undergraduate respondents (n = 396) comprised 71.2% (n = 282) nontransfer students and 28.8% (n = 114) transfer students. Transfer students reported a mean grade point ratio (GPR) of 3.05 +/- 0.43 at Texas A&M University in comparison to a nontransfer student mean GPR of 3.03 +/- 0.45 for hours completed at Texas A&M University (P = 0.83). The results for time from graduation to full-time employment for transfer students were similar to those of nontransfer students (P = 0.95). Differences in current annual salary between transfer students and nontransfer students were apparent (P job search time (P job. Males and females responded similarly that courses were valuable (P = 0.16) and were taught effectively (P = 0.37) and that teaching assistants made positive contributions (P = 0.43). Females felt a lesser contribution to critical thinking ability, leadership ability, and technical expertise. Results suggest the continuance of current educational practices, but changes to specific issues should be initiated.

  2. Mainstream Issues of Education and Public Awareness of Space Activities and Sciences among universities and Scientific Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir

    This paper is an effort to study and analyze several constraints and issues of space technology and education that organizations other than governmental organizations face in awareness program. In recent years, advancements in technologies have made it possible for Volunteer and Technical Communities, non-government organizations, private agencies and academic research institutions to provide increasing support to space education management and emphasis on response efforts. Important cornerstones of this effort and support are the possibility to access and take advantage of satellite imagery as well as the use of other space-based technologies such as telecommunications satellites and global navigation satellite systems included in main curriculum plus the implementation of programs for use of high class sophisticated technologies used by industries to the students and researchers of non-space faring nations. The authors recognize the importance of such new methodologies for education and public Awareness. This paper demonstrates many hurdles universities and scientific institutions face including lack of access in terms of financial and technical resources for better support. A new model for coordinated private sector partnership in response to space sciences and education has been discussed. In depth analysis and techniques need to connect these pioneering communities with the space industry as well as the space governmental agencies, with special emphasis on financial constraints. The paper mandates its role to promote the use of space-based information; its established networks bringing together national institutions responsible for these space based activities, as well as other end users, and space solution experts; and its technical foundation, particularly in the area of information technologies. To help building a tighter cooperation and further understanding among all these communities, paper delivers an intensive report and solutions for future

  3. Adults' decision-making about the electronic waste issue: The role of the nature of science conceptualizations and moral concerns in socio-scientific decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuqing

    Socio-scientific issues have become increasingly important in Science-Technology-Society (STS) education as a means to make science learning more relevant to students' lives. This study used the e-waste issue as a context to investigate two aspects of socio-scientific decision-making: (1) the relationship between the nature of science (NOS) conceptualizations and decision-making; and (2) moral concerns involved in the process of decision-making. This study contributes to the field of socio-scientific issue research and STS education in the following ways. First, it is the first study that performed meta-analysis to seek the relationship between the NOS understanding and decision-making. This study concludes that valuable NOS conceptualizations that are highly related to the socio-scientific issue under investigation, rather than general NOS understanding, exert statistically significant influences on decision-making. Second, this study empirically examined the Multiple Responses Model (MRM), which enables the transfer of qualitative NOS responses into quantitative data, and hence, inferential statistics. The current study justifies the significance of unidimensionality to the application of the MRM. It addresses the limitations associated with the MRM and provides implications for future use of the MRM in other contexts. Finally, the study explores the role of moral concerns in socio-scientific decision-making. Eight participants engaged in interviews that were designed to elicit their reactions and feelings regarding the issue of exporting e-waste to poor countries. Qualitative analyses demonstrated that moral considerations were significant influences on decision-making. In addition, participants' action responses revealed that they were motivated to take action to help the environment. The study has implications for socio-scientific issue studies in other contexts and for teacher education programs that use socio-scientific issues to advance teachers' reasoning

  4. Building Nationally-Focussed, Globally Federated, High Performance Earth Science Platforms to Solve Next Generation Social and Economic Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, Lesley; Evans, Ben; Foster, Clinton; Pugh, Timothy; Uhlherr, Alfred

    2015-04-01

    Digital geoscience data and information are integral to informing decisions on the social, economic and environmental management of natural resources. Traditionally, such decisions were focused on regional or national viewpoints only, but it is increasingly being recognised that global perspectives are required to meet new challenges such as predicting impacts of climate change; sustainably exploiting scarce water, mineral and energy resources; and protecting our communities through better prediction of the behaviour of natural hazards. In recent years, technical advances in scientific instruments have resulted in a surge in data volumes, with data now being collected at unprecedented rates and at ever increasing resolutions. The size of many earth science data sets now exceed the computational capacity of many government and academic organisations to locally store and dynamically access the data sets; to internally process and analyse them to high resolutions; and then to deliver them online to clients, partners and stakeholders. Fortunately, at the same time, computational capacities have commensurately increased (both cloud and HPC): these can now provide the capability to effectively access the ever-growing data assets within realistic time frames. However, to achieve this, data and computing need to be co-located: bandwidth limits the capacity to move the large data sets; the data transfers are too slow; and latencies to access them are too high. These scenarios are driving the move towards more centralised High Performance (HP) Infrastructures. The rapidly increasing scale of data, the growing complexity of software and hardware environments, combined with the energy costs of running such infrastructures is creating a compelling economic argument for just having one or two major national (or continental) HP facilities that can be federated internationally to enable earth and environmental issues to be tackled at global scales. But at the same time, if

  5. Persistent digestive disorders in the tropics: causative infectious pathogens and reference diagnostic tests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, S.L.; de Vogt, J.; Knopp, S.; Panning, M.; Warhurst, D.C.; Polman, K.; Marti, H.; Muller, L.; Yansouni, C.P.; Jacobs, J.; Bottieau, E.; Sacko, M.; Rijal, S.; Meyanti, F.; Miles, M.A.; Boelaert, M.; Lutumba, P.; Lieshout, L.; N'Goran, E.K.; Chappuis, F.; Utzinger, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Persistent digestive disorders account for considerable disease burden in the tropics. Despite advances in understanding acute gastrointestinal infections, important issues concerning epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and control of most persistent digestive symptomatologies remain to

  6. Memoirs of law, sciences and technologies - Law and climate thematic issue; Cahiers droit, sciences et technologies - Dossier thematique droit et climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre-Schaub, M. [CNRS, IDHE ENS-Cachan (France); Jouzel, J. [IPSL-LSCE, CEA-CNRS, UVSQ, CE Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boisson de Chazournes, L. [Faculte de droit, Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Sadeleer, N. de; Denis, B. [Saint-Louis Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Godard, O. [CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Dep. Humanites et Sciences Sociales (France); Le Prestre, P. [Laval univ. (Canada); Maljean-Dubois, S. [CNRS, CERIC, Paul Cezanne Univ., Aix-en-Provence (France); Wemaere, M. [IDDRI, Dep. Climat et Energie (France); Rousseaux, S. [CNRS, Droit et Changement Social, Association Climaterre (France); Louchard, O. [Reseau Action Climat (France)

    2009-07-01

    extraordinary process of standards elaboration devoted to mitigate the difficulties generated by the global warming in various domains, like the building industry, the transports or the energy sectors. This book is organized in two parts. Part one deals with climate as a scientific question between science and governance: the inter-disciplinary nature in the center of the problem, the law and the universality of the fight against climatic change, the precaution principle and the fight against climatic change, the economy of climatic change, the civil society and the international climate policy. The second part treats of the globalization of the climate issue: regional climate geopolitics and international cooperation, the post-Kyoto perspectives of the international legal framework of fight against climatic change, the legal architecture of a future international agreement of fight against climatic change, the climate governance between old notions and new stakes, the legal stakes of the implementation of emissions trading markets, the emissions trading system in the European Communities, and the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' experience feedback. (J.S.)

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Research for Energy Management. Part 1; Overview of Energy Issues and an Assessment of the Potential for Application of NASA Earth Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, E.; Engel-Cox, J.

    2005-01-01

    Effective management of energy resources is critical for the U.S. economy, the environment, and, more broadly, for sustainable development and alleviating poverty worldwide. The scope of energy management is broad, ranging from energy production and end use to emissions monitoring and mitigation and long-term planning. Given the extensive NASA Earth science research on energy and related weather and climate-related parameters, and rapidly advancing energy technologies and applications, there is great potential for increased application of NASA Earth science research to selected energy management issues and decision support tools. The NASA Energy Management Program Element is already involved in a number of projects applying NASA Earth science research to energy management issues, with a focus on solar and wind renewable energy and developing interests in energy modeling, short-term load forecasting, energy efficient building design, and biomass production.

  8. [Volcanoes: A Compilation of Four Articles Appearing in Issues of "Instructor,""Science and Children," and "Science Teacher" Magazines in September 1980 and March 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. SMERC Information Center.

    This compilation of four journal articles (Instructor, September 1980; Science and Children, September 1980; and Science Teacher, September 1980 and March 1981) focuses on volcanoes, particularly Mount St. Helens in Oregon. The first article, "The Earth is Alive!" describes the eruptions of Mount St. Helens, provides basic information on…

  9. Radiant research prospects? A review of nuclear waste issues in social science research; Straalande forskningsutsikter? En oeversikt om kaernavfallsfraagor inom samhaellsvetenskaplig forskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin [Umeaa universitet, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    The present report has been put together on behalf of KASAM and constitutes a review of social science research and literature that been produced on the nuclear waste issue in Sweden, with focus on recent research. The aim with the investigation has been to map the scope of and the direction of the independent research about nuclear waste in Sweden, in relation to the research that has been initiated and financed by the stakeholders that are participating in the decision-making process in the nuclear waste issue. Another aim has been to point out areas that have not been taken into consideration.

  10. The Climate Change Crisis as an International Civil Rights Issue: Forging an Alliance Between Science, Activism, and Progressive Social Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, B. J.; Driver, S.

    2011-12-01

    If our scientific community wants to make real progress on the climate change and environmental crisis we must be willing to side with and fight for the oppressed. The national and international communities most ready to act - those hit hardest by the real impact of climate change in their day-to-day lives - need the political leadership of and a living, organic connection with scientists who are prepared to tell the truth and act on the truth of our science. A new generation of scientist-activist leaders and this strategic and mutually beneficial alliance with the oppressed will be necessary to wage an international, intransigent fight to enact and implement the social, political, and economic policies needed to mitigate the damage already done and prevent future environmental and human catastrophe. In the statement BAMN distributed to last year's Fall AGU conference we said, "there will be no shortage of mass struggle in the next period of history." This spring we saw the absolutely awe-inspiring social upheavals in North Africa and the Middle East in the form of waves of mass demonstrations in country after country. Many of those struggles, with demands for real democracy, for jobs and economic opportunities, for improved living conditions, continue to this day. In virtually every instance, these popular and progressive social movements have been led by youth: middle school, high school and college students. In the US and Europe we have seen the spread of student-led struggle around the defense of K-12 public education and on college campuses in defense of various programs, opportunities, and the character of the educational experience. The most dynamic force in these struggles has been the Latina/o, black, other underrepresented minority and immigrant youth who refuse to accept permanent second-class citizenship and a future devoid of hope and opportunity. We will discuss our experience as a youth-led civil rights organization presenting the issues of climate

  11. The Potential Impact of Social Science Research on Legal Issues Surrounding Single-Sex Classrooms and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne Elizabeth; McCall, Stephanie D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the role social science has played in litigation involving public single-sex educational programs. It also explores a body of social science research related to gender and education that we believe could assist the courts and school leaders in better examining the possibilities and the limitations of single-sex…

  12. Science in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  13. Committing to creating time for integrating contemporary environmental issues into a traditional introduction to Earth Science course, one topic at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    I teach an Earth Science course, designed as an introductory science class that also fulfills the Earth Science requirement for pre-service teachers preparing to take their state content exam. This course provides an introduction to astronomy, geology, oceanography, and meteorology. By design, the class is content-heavy. Despite this, with so many current environmental and societal issues directly tied to the Earth Sciences, it is essential to address contemporary problems and to educate students about the changes and challenges in the world around them. I have made a commitment to doing this by incorporating relevant societal and environmental issues into every topic and every class session. While this may sound basic, doing so requires diligence and research. For example, when teaching about weathering and erosion, I discuss soils, soil quality and erosion, and the impact this has on our global food supply. A hands-on mineral activity lends itself to looking at the energy and waste involved in ore extraction. A lecture on ocean circulation results in an opportunity to analyze the consequences of the interruption of this pattern due to global warming. Through this approach, students are provided with necessary content; furthermore, by linking traditional content to modern issues on a regular basis, students see the relevance of what they are learning and become more aware of the environmental issues facing society today. Student evaluations indicate that this approach has been successful: 100% of students reported that they learned a great deal from the course, and 100% of students agreed that the quality of the course was high. In addition, prior to the class 55.8% of the students indicated interested in the content; whereas, after the course 88.6% indicated interest, with strong interest in the content increasing from 16.3% to 41%.

  14. Social Issue Entertainment 2.0: How pop culture, behavioral science and impact evaluation can motivate social and environmental change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shome, D.

    2010-12-01

    Mainstream entertainment’s influence on our cognition, emotions, and behavior is often profound. Mass media permeates both the public and private spheres of society, saturating communities with messages from a diverse range of sources. While advertisers regularly take advantage of the extensive reach and influence of the media, social scientists, policy makers, and nonprofits have seen little success in incorporating social and environmental messaging into entertainment. Harmony Institute’s goal is to harness the power of mainstream media to provide US audiences with entertainment that educates on social and environmental issues and increases both individual and community action. The entertainment the Institute helps to produce connects with viewers on both a cognitive and emotional level. The Institute uses innovative methods across disciplines in order to measure entertainment’s impact and influence. Since its founding two years ago, the Institute has worked on a wide range of projects that have helped to establish its methodology for measured impact that applies behavioral science theory and entertainment to social and environmental issues. Projects spanning media platforms and social/environmental issues have included a web serial drama incorporating issues of water conservation and ocean stewardship into the narrative and a fotonovela for Hispanic youth in Houston focused on local environmental issues. In summer 2010, the Harmony Institute released FTW! Net Neutrality For The Win: How Entertainment and the Science of Influence Can Save Your Internet, an issue-specific communications guide about open Internet access that explains how to craft a communications strategy that connects with audiences using behavioral science research findings. In 2010-2011, the Institute will focus on measuring the impact and influence that media can have on social and environmental issues. The Institute has developed a comprehensive media evaluation methodology that employs

  15. Effects of chromium supplementation on growth, nutrient digestibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of chromium supplementation on growth, nutrient digestibility and meat quality of growing pigs. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of chromium picolinate (CrPic) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and protein and lipid quality of five anatomical parts ...

  16. Biochemical composition and in vitro digestibility of cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical composition and in vitro digestibility of cocoa ( Theobroma cacao ) pod husk, cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) peel and plantain ( Musa paradisiacal ) peel. ... Treatment of residues with NaOH resulted in a marked increase in the rate of digestion of starch in cassava peels. Ghana Journal of Science Vol. 44, 2004: ...

  17. Foreign bodies of the upper digestive tract in Komfo Anokye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign bodies of the upper digestive tract in Komfo Anokye teaching hospital. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... the foreign body, the management and the outcome of foreign body impaction in the upper digestive tract, in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) between January 2007 and December 2012.

  18. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volumes & Issues. Volume 130. Issue 1. Jan 2018; Issue 2. Feb 2018. Volume 129. Issue 1. Jan 2017; Issue 2. Feb 2017; Issue 3. Mar 2017; Issue 4. Apr 2017; Issue 5. May 2017; Issue 6. Jun 2017; Issue 7. Jul 2017; Issue 8. Aug 2017; Issue 9

  19. The worst enemy of science: clarifying polemics issues on Paul Feyerabend’s Epistemology in teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Damasio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the objections to Feyerabend's epistemology arise from misinterpretations of ideas by this author. Terms and expressions as epistemological anarchism, irrationality, control of science and anything goes can give the false impression that the author's arguments are chaotic and unsustainable. This paper discusses these concepts, opposing the misconceptions about them. In initial and continuing teacher education, this reflection can be useful both for the deconstruction of certain misleading images about the nature of science and for the upbringing of critical citizens acquaintated to the concepts of modern philosophy of science.

  20. Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics at AGU - Strategies and Actions to Impact Sexual Harassment in Science and other Work Climate Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael; Davidson, Eric; McEntee, Christine; Williams, Billy

    2017-04-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. More recently AGU has undertaken strategies and actions to help address the issue of harassment in the sciences and other work climate issues. This presentation will provide an overview of the role of scientific societies in helping to address these important issues, as well as specific strategies and actions underway at AGU and other societies. Progress to date and remaining challenges of this effort will be discussed, including AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.

  1. The challenges of anaerobic digestion and the role of biochar in optimizing anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Ibeto, Cynthia N; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-03-01

    Biochar, like most other adsorbents, is a carbonaceous material, which is formed from the combustion of plant materials, in low-zero oxygen conditions and results in a material, which has the capacity to sorb chemicals onto its surfaces. Currently, research is being carried out to investigate the relevance of biochar in improving the soil ecosystem, digestate quality and most recently the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates provides both a sustainable source of energy and a digestate with the potential to enhance plant growth and soil health. In order to ensure that these benefits are realised, the anaerobic digestion system must be optimized for process stability and high nutrient retention capacity in the digestate produced. Substrate-induced inhibition is a major issue, which can disrupt the stable functioning of the AD system reducing microbial breakdown of the organic waste and formation of methane, which in turn reduces energy output. Likewise, the spreading of digestate on land can often result in nutrient loss, surface runoff and leaching. This review will examine substrate inhibition and their impact on anaerobic digestion, nutrient leaching and their environmental implications, the properties and functionality of biochar material in counteracting these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Extended School Year (ESY). ERIC Digest #E471.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Dianna

    This digest defines the term "extended school year" (ESY) and notes the issues of regression and recoupment which have led to development of ESY services for students with disabilities. The digest then provides answers to the following questions: (1) When is ESY needed? (2) How is eligibility for ESY determined? (3) What are some factors…

  3. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Houdebine, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing

  4. Exploring Ivorian perspectives on the effectiveness of the current Ivorian science curriculum in addressing issues related to HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave Firmin

    School-based HIV/AIDS science education has the potential to impact students when integrated into the science curriculum. However, this mixed method study shows that school-based HIV/AIDS science education is often not infused into career subjects such as science education but integrated into civics education and taught by teachers who lack the skills, knowledge, and the training in the delivery of effective school HIV/AIDS education. Since science is where biological events take place, it is suggested that HIV/AIDS science merits being taught in the science education classroom. This study took place in nine public middle schools within two school districts in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one major urban city in the southern region. The study utilized triangulation of multiple data sources---both qualitative and quantitative. To substantiate the claims made in this study, a range of qualitative methods such as field notes and individual interviews with 39 teachers, 63 sixth grade students, 8 school administrators, and 20 community elders were used. For the quantitative portion 140 teachers and 3510 sixth grade students were surveyed. The findings from the study prioritize science education that includes HIV/AIDS science education for all, with emphasis on HIV/AIDS prevention in Ivory Coast. The factors that influence the implementation of HIV/AIDS curricula within the Ivorian sixth grade classrooms are discussed. Interview and survey data from students, teachers, school administrators, and community elders indicate that in the Ivorian school setting, "gerontocratic" cultural influences, religious beliefs, personal cultural beliefs, and time spent toward the discourse on HIV/AIDS have led to HIV/AIDS education that is often insufficient to change either misconceptions about HIV/AIDS or risky practices. It was also found that approaches to teaching HIV/AIDS does not connect with youth cultures. By reframing and integrating current HIV/AIDS curricula into the science

  5. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  6. Pathology of rabbit’s digestive system

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobčiukas, Edgaras

    2017-01-01

    Research: was carried at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, the Academy of Veterinary, department of Veterinary Pathobiology Pathology Center. Thesis consists of 50 pages. It contains 2 tables, 22 images, 58 references were used. The research objective: perform of rabbit digestive system diseases pathomorphological and questionnaire analysis. Research tasks: 1. Perform rabbit pathological - anatomical and histopathological analysis, evaluate factors that influence rabbits ...

  7. Dietary fiber and digestive health in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Renee; Kamil, Alison; Fleige, Lisa; Donovan, Sharon M; Slavin, Joanne L

    2017-04-01

    Digestive health is an expanding area in nutrition research due to the interest in how food components such as fiber affect gastrointestinal tolerance, stool form, defecation frequency, transit time, and gut microbial composition and metabolic activity. In children, however, digestive health studies that intervene with dietary fiber are limited due to legal and ethical concerns. To better understand if fiber improves digestive health in children, a literature review was conducted to answer the following research question: What are the effect(s) of fiber-containing foods and/or supplements on digestive health outcomes in children? A search of the PubMed database identified a total of 12 studies that fit the inclusion criteria established for this review. Most of the evidence in children shows beneficial effects of partially hydrolyzed guar gum, glucomannan, and bran on digestive health outcomes; however, the existing evidence is not conclusive. Furthermore, limited data exists on the effect of whole-grain sources of dietary fiber, such as oats. Additional well-designed intervention trials are needed to determine whether outcomes of digestive health such as stool form, gastrointestinal tolerance, and stool frequency are improved by increasing the fiber content of children's diets with whole-grain sources. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 22, Issue 12. Current Issue Volume 22 | Issue 12. December 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  9. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  10. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  11. Power of Your Pancreas: Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 Print this issue The Power of Your Pancreas Keep Your Digestive Juices Flowing En español Send ... Check Your Bowels Your Liver Delivers Wise Choices Pancreas Problems? Talk to your doctor if you have ...

  12. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science. Journal of Earth System Science. Volumes & Issues. Volume 126. Issue 1. Feb 2017; Issue 2. Mar 2017; Issue 3. Apr 2017; Issue 4. Jun 2017; Issue 5. Jul 2017; Issue 6. Aug 2017; Issue 7. Oct 2017; Issue 8. Dec 2017. Volume 125. Issue 1. Feb 2016; Issue 2. Mar 2016 ...

  13. Problems of the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS FAQ120 WOMEN’S HEALTH Problems of the Digestive System • What are some common digestive problems? • What is ... hormones during pregnancy can slow down the digestive system. How can constipation be treated? If constipation continues, ...

  14. Final Report for the ZERT Project: Basic Science of Retention Issues, Risk Assessment & Measurement, Monitoring and Verification for Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Lageson, David; Melick, Jesse; Gardner, Mike; Dobeck, Laura; Repasky, Kevin; Shaw, Joseph; Bajura, Richard; McGrail, B Peter; Oldenburg, Curtis M; Wagoner, Jeff; Pawar, Rajesh

    2011-03-31

    ZERT has made major contributions to five main areas of sequestration science: improvement of computational tools; measurement and monitoring techniques to verify storage and track migration of CO{sub 2}; development of a comprehensive performance and risk assessment framework; fundamental geophysical, geochemical and hydrological investigations of CO{sub 2} storage; and investigate innovative, bio-based mitigation strategies.

  15. Zeitschrift fur erziehungs--und sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung (Journal for Education and Social Sciences Research), 1984-1988 (11 issues).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitschrift fur erziehungs--und socialwissenschaftliche Forschung (Journal for Education and Social Sciences Research), 1984

    1984-01-01

    Recognizing a growing globalization of nations and cultures, "Zeitschrift fur erziehungs--und sozialwissenchaftliche Forschung" brings together educational and social science research topics that address the interactions between education and society in their pedagogical, social, physical, economic, legal, and administrative dimensions.…

  16. Developing Low-Cost Solutions to Improve Public Policy: The Work of MDRC's Center for Applied Behavioral Science. Issue Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    MDRC, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many social policy and education programs start from the assumption that people act in their best interest. But behavioral science shows that people often weigh intuition over reason, make inconsistent choices, and put off big decisions. The individuals and families who need services and the staff who provide them are no exception. From city…

  17. Digestibility of the same

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question is posed of the applicability to cattle feeding, of digestibility data obtained with sheep. An experiment is described where the same high concentrate diet was fed at three levels, equalised per kg body mass between species. In energy and crude fibre cattle showed consistently lower digestibilities than sheep ...

  18. Digestibility of the same

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be of great value for cattle (Moe, Tyrell and Flatt, L974). There are indications that sheep ruminate more effectively and therefore digest grain more efficiently than cattle, while cattle are more efficient in digesting long roughages. In their comprehensive overview of the subject Schneider and Flatt (1975) found published data ...

  19. GRASS GERMPLASM FOR DIGESTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One procedure involved digesting grass samples in prepared cellulase solution without any pre-treatment (CSD), and the other procedure used an acid pepsin pre-treatment prior to digestion in the prepared cellulase solution (APCS). The CSD procedure in comparison to APCS generally underestimated in vitro dry matter ...

  20. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  1. Co-producing resilient solutions to climate change: Bridging the gap between science and decision-making around nexus issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, C.

    2016-12-01

    The nexus represents a multi-dimensional means of scientific enquiry encapsulating the complex and non-linear interactions between water, energy, food, environment with the climate, and wider implications for society. These resources are fundamental for human life but are negatively affected by climate change. Methods of analysis, which are currently used, were not built to represent complex systems and are insufficiently equipped to understand positive and negative externalities generated by interactions among different stakeholders involved in the nexus. In addition misalignment between the science that scientists produce and the evidence decision-makers need leads to a range of complexities within the science-policy interface. Adopting a bottom-up, participative approach, the results of five themed workshops organized in the UK (focusing on: shocks and hazards, infrastructure, local economy, governance and governments, finance and insurance) featuring 80 stakeholders from academia, government and industry allow us to map perceptions of opportunities and challenges of better informing decision making on climate change when there is a strong disconnect between the evidence scientists provide and the actions decision makers take. The research identified key areas where gaps could be bridged between science and action and explores how a knowledge co-production approach can help identify opportunities for building a more effective and legitimate policy agenda to face climate risks. Concerns, barriers and opportunities to better inform decision making centred on four themes: communication and collaboration, decision making processes, social and cultural dimensions, and the nature of responses to nexus shocks. In so doing, this analysis provides an assessment of good practice on climate decision-making and highlights opportunities for improvement to bridge gaps in the science-policy interface

  2. The issue of the arrangement of new environments for science education through collaborative actions between schools, museums and science centres in the Brazilian context of teacher training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Bruno Andrade Pinto; Martins, Isabel; de Souza Janerine, Aline; de Carvalho, Fabiana Cristina

    2016-06-01

    We present, in this article, an investigation about the potential of the relationship between formal and non-formal educational environments. Therefore it is not an empirical research, but an essay on the topic. This paper demonstrates the concept that science education and science outreach can be privileged by actions that are developed by closer relations between formal and non-formal places. Currently, non-formal environments such as museums and science and technology centres are considered potential educational resources within the reach of schools. Educators from museums have conducted studies which demonstrate a predominant model of the utilization of these institutions by teachers, which consists of illustrative visits during the exhibitions, but does not feature a collaborative relationship or partnership between schools and these institutions. In Brazil, the main examples of approaches to collaboration between these places and schools have been taking place through the initiatives of teachers or through projects developed by the educational sector, aiming to broaden the dialogue between their institutions and the school community. Another approach mechanism relates to research and extension projects developed by university researchers, sponsored by state and federal funding agencies. In this case, the universities and university museums appear as new social actors that stand in the way of the schools and the cultural environments, complicating the relationship and, at the same time, bringing new questions to the field of educational research. We believe that the discourse in this paper should bring about further discussions in the initial teacher training courses to contribute to the understanding of practices related to the extension of the field of activity of the school.

  3. Uses of biogas produced by digestion of wastewater sludge. The SIAAP's experience feedback and projects; Utilisation du biogaz issu de la digestion des boues d'epuration des eaux residuaires urbaines. Retour d'experience et projets du SIAAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amosse, S. [SIAAP - Dir. du Site Seine Aval, 78 - Maisons Laffite (France); Nedelec, R. [SIAAP, Dir. du Developpement et de la Prospective, 92 - Colombes (France)

    2010-07-01

    The SIAAP, in charge of the purification of the Great Paris wastewaters (8 M inhabitants), handles 2.7 Mm{sup 3}/day. Five wastewater treatment plants permit to dean these wastewaters before they are discharged into the receiving environment: 'Seine Aval' (Acheres, 1,7 Mm{sup 3}/day), 'Seine Amont' (Valenton, 600 000 m{sup 3}/day), 'Seine Centre' (Colombes, 240 000 m{sup 3}/day), 'Seine Gresillons' (Triel-sur-Seine, 100 000 m{sup 3}/day) and 'Marne Aval' (Noisy-Le-Grand, 40 000 m{sup 3}/day). Biogas produced by digestion of sludge provides a part of the energy required by the five sewage treatment works. Energy recovered from biogas have been used by the SAV site since 1940. As soon as the first part of this plant started up, biogas was used as fuel to heat digester, to produce power through biogas engines and to drive blowers. In the 60's and 70's, dual-fuel engines were brought into service, and then in 1992, a gas turbine was installed. Nowadays, a combined heat and power (cogeneration) project is in progress with the installation of two gas turbines, each generating 5 MW. All of these installations had allowed a 70% energetic autonomy ratio on 'Seine Aval' site. Then, new treatment units were introduced. Thus, energy consumption has increased, with only 60 % of energy demands being covered. By 2020, a complete make-over of the 'Seine Aval' plant will be done. This should allow to cover about 70% of energy demands, partly thanks to biogas reuse. New plants are currently being constructed. All of them will include sludge digestion process providing biogas. With the 'Seine Gresillons' plant upgrading, digestion process will occur on site. Biogas will be used in a cogeneration system to produce both electricity (that would be either used on site or sold commercially, this has not been decided by now) and heat for digesters heating. The new 'Seine Moree' plant will be

  4. A great pioneer of clinical science remembered: introduction to the special issue in honor of Paul E. Meehl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Waller, Niels G

    2005-10-01

    In this special issue, the seminal contributions to clinical psychology of Paul E. Meehl, who passed away in 2003, are commemorated. The nine articles comprising this special issue chronicle Meehl's remarkable intellectual biography and examine his influence on diverse domains of psychology, including the clinical versus actuarial prediction debate, the cognitive activity of the clinician, personality assessment and trait theory, the etiology of schizophrenia, the shortcomings of statistical significance testing, and the use of metascientific methods to evaluate competing models of human nature. These articles illustrate not only Meehl's legendary brilliance but also his pivotal role in forcing clinical psychologists to think more clearly and incisively about their subject matter. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. East European Studies, No. 4, Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013, 163pp. / Csab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weiner, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013

  6. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mixes food with digestive juice Stomach acid and digestive enzymes Proteins Small intestine Peristalsis Small intestine digestive juice ... these digestive juices. Pancreas. Your pancreas makes a digestive juice that has enzymes that break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The ...

  7. JPRS Report (Erratum), Science & Technology, Japan, Selections from MITI White Paper on Industrial Technology Trends and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-30

    is the budding of a new industry--let us call it the " research industry "--which is made up of the "research support industry" and the "R&D...industry" (Figure 2-2-2-37). According to MITI calculations, the importance of the "intellectual areas of industry"--which include the " research industry "--is...Science & Technology (May 1988). 124 Research Industry Research Support Industry Industries Engaged in R&D Work Testing, Evaluation, Inspection

  8. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Volumes & Issues. Volume 127. Issue 1. Feb 2017; Issue 2. Apr 2017; Issue 3. Jun 2017; Issue 4. Sep 2017; Issue 5. Nov 2017. Volume 126. Issue 1. Feb 2016; Issue 2. May 2016; Issue 3. Aug 2016; Issue 4. Oct 2016. Volume ...

  9. Issues surrounding the administration of a credit course for medical students: survey of US academic health sciences librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jolene Michelle

    2004-07-01

    For librarians developing a credit course for medical students, the process often involves trial and error. This project identified issues surrounding the administration of a credit course, so that librarians nationally can rely more upon shared knowledge of common practices and less upon trial and error. A questionnaire was sent to the education services librarian at each medical school listed in the 2000 AAMC Data Book. A second questionnaire was sent to those librarians who did not return the first one. Of the 125 librarians surveyed, 82 returned the questionnaire. Of those 82, only 11 offered a credit course for medical students, though 19 more were in the process of developing one. Data were gathered on the following aspects of course administration: credit course offerings, course listing, information learned to administer the course, costs associated with the course, relationships with other departments on campus, preparation for teaching and grading, and evaluation of the course. Because of small number of respondents offering a credit course and institutional variations, making generalizations about issues surrounding the administration of a credit course is difficult. The article closes with a list of recommendations for librarians planning to develop a course.

  10. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  11. Steam Digest 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-11-01

    Steam Digest 2002 is a collection of articles published in the last year on steam system efficiency. DOE directly or indirectly facilitated the publication of the articles through it's BestPractices Steam effort. Steam Digest 2002 provides a variety of operational, design, marketing, and program and program assessment observations. Plant managers, engineers, and other plant operations personnel can refer to the information to improve industrial steam system management, efficiency, and performance.

  12. Digestive ripening of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzhak, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    A relatively new method of regulating the size distribution function of nanoparticles—digestive ripening— was described. A hypothetical mechanism of dissolution of nanoparticles was proposed. It includes the effect of the ligand layer on the internal stability of the nanoparticle nucleus: the change in the structure of the ligand layer caused by a decrease in the nanoparticle size determines the kinetics of digestive ripening.

  13. The Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire: a new methodology for science and practice in criminology and forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Marc A; Fugett, April; Lounder, Lindsay

    2014-10-01

    Most modern theories suggest that interpersonal relationships are of central importance in the development of criminal behavior. We tested the parent attachment scales of a new research and clinical measure, the Attachment and Clinical Issues Questionnaire (ACIQ). It is a 29-scale battery assessing attachments to mother, father, partner, and peers, which also includes several related clinical scales. Sixty-one (18-20 years of age) male offenders from a maximum security detention center and 131 contrasts completed the ACIQ. ANOVA demonstrated that mother and father attachments displayed different patterns. The attachment scales also predicted the numbers of crimes within the population of juvenile offenders. Thus, the parent attachment scales of the ACIQ showed promise as an instrument to test dynamic systems approaches to developmental models of criminal behavior. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Biomedical Science, Unit II: Nutrition in Health and Medicine. Digestion of Foods; Organic Chemistry of Nutrients; Energy and Cell Respiration; The Optimal Diet; Foodborne Diseases; Food Technology; Dental Science and Nutrition. Student Text. Revised Version, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    This student text presents instructional materials for a unit of science within the Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project (BICP), a two-year interdisciplinary precollege curriculum aimed at preparing high school students for entry into college and vocational programs leading to a career in the health field. Lessons concentrate on…

  15. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Bagnold Dunes Campaign, Phase I: Overview and introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Nathan T.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.

    2018-01-01

    The Bagnold dunes in Gale Crater, Mars, are the first active aeolian dune field explored in situ on another planet. The Curiosity rover visited the Bagnold dune field to understand modern winds, aeolian processes, rates, and structures; to determine dune material composition, provenance, and the extent and type of compositional sorting; and to collect knowledge that informs the interpretation of past aeolian processes that are preserved in the Martian sedimentary rock record. The Curiosity rover conducted a coordinated campaign of activities lasting 4 months, interspersed with other rover activities, and employing all of the rover's science instruments and several engineering capabilities. Described in 13 manuscripts and summarized here, the major findings of the Bagnold Dunes Campaign, Phase I, include the following: the characterization of and explanation for a distinctive, meter-scale size of sinuous aeolian bedform formed in the high kinetic viscosity regime of Mars' thin atmosphere; articulation and evaluation of a grain splash model that successfully explains the occurrence of saltation even at wind speeds below the fluid threshold; determination of the dune sands' basaltic mineralogy and crystal chemistry in comparison with other soils and sedimentary rocks; and characterization of chemically distinctive volatile reservoirs in sand-sized versus dust-sized fractions of Mars soil, including two volatile-bearing types of amorphous phases.

  16. The case for establishing a board of review for resolving environmental issues: The science court in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesy, John P; Solomon, Keith R; Kacew, Sam; Mackay, Donald; Stobo, Gerald; Kennedy, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Technology and scientific advancements are accelerating changes in society at a pace that is challenging the abilities of government regulatory agencies and legal courts to understand the benefits and costs of these changes to humans, wildlife, and their environments. The social, economic, and political facets of concern, such as the potential effects of chemicals, complicate the preparation of regulatory standards and practices intended to safeguard the public. Court judges and attorneys and, in some cases, lay juries are tasked with interpreting the data and implications underlying these new advancements, often without the technical background necessary to understand complex subjects and subsequently make informed decisions. Here, we describe the scientific-quasi-judicial process adopted in Canada under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999, which could serve as a model for resolving conflicts between regulatory agencies and the regulated community. An example and process and lessons learned from the first Board of Review, which was for decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5; CAS# 541-02-06), are provided. Notable among these lessons are: 1) the need to apply state-of-the-science insights into the regulatory process, 2) to encourage agencies to continuously review and update their assessment processes, criteria, and models, and 3) provide these processes in guidance documents that are transparent and available to all stakeholders and generally foster closer cooperation between regulators, the academic community, industry, and nongovernment organizations (NGOs). Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:572-579. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Perceptions of Latin American scientists about science and post-graduate education: Introduction to the 5th issue of CBP-Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Polcheira, Cássia; Trigueiro, Michelangelo; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    Although science and engineering (S&E) publications and doctoral degree awards in Latin America had experienced an impressive growth in the past decades, a qualitative evaluation of this increased output must be performed. Previous studies have indicated that growth in visibility of Latin American science - determined by ratio of citations per paper - has not kept pace with the increase in number of publications. In the present editorial, we analyzed - by means of a 12-item questionnaire - the individual perceptions of forty senior researchers involved in CBP-Latin America (29 Brazilians and 11 non-Brazilians) plus a special group composed by six extraordinary Latin American scientists (the "masters"). The questionnaire - using 6-point Likert-like scale for quantification of perception - focused on issues surrounding doctoral educational system as well as the governmental educational policies and publication pressure from funding agencies. In general, the most striking result was the perception (by 82% of respondents) of lack of job opportunities for people holding a PhD diploma in the field of comparative biochemistry and physiology. Other major trends include (i) lack of satisfaction with governmental policies for science and post-graduate education due to policies promoting mass production for papers and PhD diplomas (65-77% of respondents felt that way) (ii) that current PhD students are doing an adequate job, but have not improved in quality as compared to those from 10 years ago (the same was observed for PhD thesis in terms of present versus past), and (iii) that research infrastructure and the curricula of post-graduate courses do not constitute a problem, but (iv) recent-PhDs are not as fit as they should be in paper-writing skills, especially as perceived by Brazilian respondents. The general perceptions were very similar among Brazilians, non-Brazilians and "masters". The use of a larger study-population, with scientists of more diverse fields is the

  18. Current issues in species identification for forensic science and the validity of using the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Norman, Janette; Robertson, James; Sarre, Stephen; Georges, Arthur

    2010-09-01

    Species identification techniques commonly utilized in Australian Forensic Science laboratories are gel immunodifussion antigen antibody reactions and hair comparison analysis. Both of these techniques have significant limitations and should be considered indicative opinion based tests. The Barcode of Life Initiative aims to sequence a section of DNA (~648 base pairs) for the Cytochrome Oxidase I mitochondrial gene (COI) in all living species on Earth, with the data generated being uploaded to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) which can then be used for species identification. The COI gene therefore offers forensics scientists an opportunity to use the marker to analyze unknown samples and compare sequences generated in BOLD. Once sequences from enough species are on the database, it is anticipated that routine identification of an unknown species may be possible. However, most forensic laboratories are not yet suited to this type of analysis and do not have the expertise to fully interpret the implications of matches and non matches involving a poorly sampled taxa (for example where there are cryptic species) and in providing the required opinion evidence. Currently, the use of BOLD is limited by the number of relevant species held in the database and the quality assurance and regulation of sequences that are there. In this paper, the COI methodology and BOLD are tested on a selection of introduced and Australian mammals in a forensic environment as the first step necessary in the implementation of this approach in the Australian context. Our data indicates that the COI methodology performs well on distinct species but needs further exploration when identifying more closely related species. It is evident from our study that changes will be required to implement DNA based wildlife forensics using the BOLD approach for forensic applications and recommendations are made for the future adoption of this technology into forensic laboratories.

  19. Science-based decision-making on complex issues: Marcellus shale gas hydrofracking and New York City water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, Timothy T., E-mail: Timothy.Eaton@qc.cuny.edu

    2013-09-01

    Complex scientific and non-scientific considerations are central to the pending decisions about “hydrofracking” or high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) to exploit unconventional natural gas resources worldwide. While incipient plans are being made internationally for major shale reservoirs, production and technology are most advanced in the United States, particularly in Texas and Pennsylvania, with a pending decision in New York State whether to proceed. In contrast to the narrow scientific and technical debate to date, focused on either greenhouse gas emissions or water resources, toxicology and land use in the watersheds that supply drinking water to New York City (NYC), I review the scientific and technical aspects in combination with global climate change and other critical issues in energy tradeoffs, economics and political regulation to evaluate the major liabilities and benefits. Although potential benefits of Marcellus natural gas exploitation are large for transition to a clean energy economy, at present the regulatory framework in New York State is inadequate to prevent potentially irreversible threats to the local environment and New York City water supply. Major investments in state and federal regulatory enforcement will be required to avoid these environmental consequences, and a ban on drilling within the NYC water supply watersheds is appropriate, even if more highly regulated Marcellus gas production is eventually permitted elsewhere in New York State. - Highlights: • Analyses of hydrofracking for natural gas production worldwide are too focused. • Energy benefits are great but so are environmental/public health liabilities. • Current dependence on even more damaging coal-fired power can be reduced. • Protecting watersheds for NYC and other municipality water supply is paramount. • Strengthening of regulation is needed for reducing potential adverse impacts.

  20. A proposal for the continuing education of science and mathematics teachers at the interface of the communicative Action and the socio-scientific issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bortoletto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a theoretical proposal  for the training of teachers of mathematics and science at the interface of communicative action and socio-scientific issues. In  this  paper  we  argue  for  the  need  for  a  continuous training of teachers if we are to be interested in developing  the scientific training of students from the public school system. To form communicatively competent students,  by the  end of  schooling, becomes necessary the training  of  argumentatively  competent  teachers.  Therefore, we believe that the theory of communicative action by Jurgen Habermas, will cooperate to this end.

  1. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Search. Search. Bulletin of Materials Science. Title. Author. Keywords. Fulltext. Submit. Bulletin of Materials Science. Current Issue : Vol. 41, Issue 1. Current Issue Volume 41 | Issue 1. February 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Issue · Forthcoming ...

  2. The Milieu and the MESSAGE: Talking to Researchers about Data Curation Issues in a Large and Diverse e-Science Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Donnelly

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available MESSAGE (Mobile Environmental Sensing System Across Grid Environments was an ambitious, multi-partner, interdisciplinary e-Science research project, jointly funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC and the UK Department for Transport (DfT between 2006 and 2009. It aimed to develop and demonstrate the potential of diverse, low cost sensors to provide heterogeneous data for the planning, management and control of the environmental impacts of transport activity at urban, regional and national level. During the last year of the project, the Digital Curation Centre (DCC interviewed and observed members of the project team in order to identify and analyse key aspects of their data-related activities, recording attitudes towards the data that they create and/or re-use. This paper describes the major issues identified over the course of the case study, which are presented in parallel with the perspectives of the project team in order to demonstrate the multiplicity of views that may be projected onto a single dataset. It concludes with a contextualisation of the case study's themes with those of a number of contemporary reports.

  3. University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koker, John [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States); Lizotte, Michael [Univ. of Wisconsin, Oshkosh, WI (United States)

    2017-02-08

    The University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Anaerobic Dry Digestion Facility is a demonstration project that supported the first commercial-scale use in the United States of high solids, static pile technology for anaerobic digestion of organic waste to generate biogas for use in generating electricity and heat. The research adds to the understanding of startup, operation and supply chain issues for anaerobic digester technology. Issues and performance were documented for equipment installation and modifications, feedstock availability and quality, weekly loading and unloading of digestion chambers, chemical composition of biogas produced, and energy production. This facility also demonstrated an urban industrial ecology approach to siting such facilities near sewage treatment plants (to capture and use excess biogas generated by the plants) and organic yard waste collection sites (a source of feedstock).

  4. Public-policy issues associated with the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Chapter M in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laurie; Real, Chuck

    2013-01-01

    The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario simulates a tsunami generated by a hypothetical magnitude 9.1 earthquake that occurs offshore of the Alaska Peninsula (Kirby and others, 2013). In addition to the work performed by the authors on public-policy issues associated with the SAFRR tsunami scenario, this section of the scenario also reflects the policy discussions of the State of California’s Tsunami Policy Work Group, a voluntary advisory body formed in October 2011, which operates under the California Natural Resources Agency (CNRA), Department of Conservation, and is charged with identifying, evaluating, and making recommendations to resolve issues that are preventing full and effective implementation of tsunami hazard mitigation and risk reduction throughout California’s coastal communities. It also presents the analyses of plans and hazard policies of California’s coastal counties, incorporated cities, and major ports performed by the staff of the California Geological Survey (CGS) and Lauren Prehoda, Office of Environmental and Government Affairs, California Department of Conservation. It also draws on the policy framework and assessment prepared for the ARkStorm Pacific Coast winter storm and catastrophic flooding (Topping and others, 2010).

  5. Elevers møte med komplekse utfordringer i digitale spill i naturfagStudents’ dealing with complex issues in video gaming in school science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Nordby

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this design-based study we have examined students’ encounters with a computer game, Energispillet.no, in school. How do students deal with complex issues related to energy and environment in a digital simulation-based video game? How does the meetings between the gaming arena and the school arena unfold? The study was conducted in a vocational class (electricity, two groups with respectively 3 and 4 pupils. We have analyzed spoken and written student texts with selected elements from Halliday’s systemic functional grammar. In our material, we saw two different encounters between the gaming arena and the school arena. One group that predominantly interpreted Energispillet in a gaming frame and one group that drew on working methods associated with both gaming- and school arena. In the game the students encounter “texts” that do not convey facts or certain knowledge, but on the contrary entrusts the players to do their own considerations. Based on their own values ​​and attitudes students must jointly make use of knowledge from different disciplines such as natural science, social studies, economics and ethics to make ongoing assessments, argue points of view, and make informed choices during gameplay. One group explored the game extremely and one-sided and reflected on the complex issues in the game once they left the game world. The other group did more joint reflection, both during and after gaming.

  6. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth A

    2006-04-01

    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  7. Aquaporins in Digestive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuai; Ran, Jianhua; Yang, Baoxue; Mei, Zhechuan

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we mainly discuss the expression and function of aquaporins (AQPs ) expressed in digestive system . AQPs in gastrointestinal tract include four members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP4, AQP5 and AQP8, and a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP3. In the digestive glands, especially the liver, we discuss three members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP5 and AQP8, a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP9. AQP3 is involved in the diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease; AQP5 is relevant to gastric carcinoma cell proliferation and migration; AQP9 plays considerable role in glycerol metabolism , urea transport and hepatocellular carcinoma. Further investigation is necessary for specific locations and functions of AQPs in digestive system.

  8. Digestate from anaerobic reactor as a potential fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navodita Bhatnagar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biogas is one of the most promising sources of renewable energy in today’s world. Liquid and the solid digestates are the byproducts of anaerobic digestion of various kinds of wastes to produce biogas. Disposal of liquid digestate is one of the major issues faced by the existing biogas plant facilities worldwide. In this study, liquid digestate from anaerobic digestion of food waste is examined for its potential as an organic fertilizer for food crops. Coconut peat is used as a matrix to hold the digestate and also to grow plants in a soil-less culture. Three plants from the family- Solanaceae were chosen viz. tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, green chilli (Capsicum annum and eggplant or brinjal (Solanum melogena. The plants were grown in trays as control (coconut peat and water and slurry (coconut peat and digestate. Digestate sets showed an increase in growth parameters as compared to control by a factor of 60.8% in tomato, 48.6% in chilli and 97% in brinjal for plant height, 86% in tomato, 82.4% in chilli and 63.8% in brinjal for leaf length, and 66.3% in tomato, 87.3% in chilli for number of leaves. The final yield for chilli plants was 2.5 fruits/plant in 70 days while for brinjal it was 2 fruits/plant after 74 days of growth.

  9. Anaerobic digestion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.

    2002-01-01

    Centralized biogas plants (CBP) in Denmark codigest mainly manure, together with other organic waste such as industrial organic waste, source sorted household waste and sewage sludge. Today 22 large scale CBP's are in operation in Denmark and in 2001 they treated approx. 1.2 mio tonnes of manure ...... comprises about 80% of this potential. Special emphasis has been paid to establish good sanitation and pathogen reduction of the digested material, to avoid risk of spreading pathogens when applying the digested manure as fertilizer to agricultural soils....

  10. Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Upper GI Disorders Lower GI Disorders Other Disorders Kids & Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive ... Upper GI Disorders Lower GI Disorders Other Disorders Kids & Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive ...

  11. Controversy in science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M G Narasimhan1. Science and Society Unit, National Institute of Advanced Studies, Indian Institute of Science Campus, Bangalore 560 012, India. Journal of Biosciences. Current Issue : Vol. 42, Issue 4 · Current Issue Volume 42 | Issue 4. December 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles ...

  12. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  13. Anaerobic digestion without biogas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleerebezem, R.; Joosse, B.; Rozendaal, R.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion for the production of methane containing biogas is the classic example of a resource recovery process that combines stabilization of particulate organic matter or wastewater treatment with the production of a valuable end-product. Attractive features of the process include the

  14. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  15. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  16. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acids absorbed into the circulation of the animal. Ideally, therefore, the biological value of a feed protein should be determined from the amount and type of amino acid appearing in the portal circulation of the animal, and not simplythe dissappearance of amino acids from the tract. Ruminant digestion may be more easily ...

  17. Bibliotherapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mardziah Hayati

    This digest suggests that bibliotherapy is a potentially powerful method for school teachers and counselors to use on many levels and in every school grade. It begins with a brief review of the history of bibliotherapy; continues with a discussion of some approaches to bibliotherapy (interactive, clinical, and developmental); then addresses the…

  18. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a ... this issue in accounting and financial literature is earnings ..... Jensen M-C, “Agency Costs of the Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance and Takeovers”,.

  19. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Search. Search. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Title. Author. Keywords. Fulltext. Submit. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 5. Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 5. November 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues ...

  20. Political Psychology in Russia: Current Issues in International Studies (Interview with Nikolay Kosolapov, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Andreevna Chmyreva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interview with Professor N. Kosolapov is devoted to the most urgent and complex problems of modern international relations and world politics, reveals the current state of political psychology in Russia and abroad, as well as the evolution of the science. As estimated by N. Kosolapov, the viability of political-psychological projects in Russia has fallen sharply compared to 1990's. They are not fully used in the development of political strategies, as well as in the process of operational decision making and its realization. In the interview are marked the obstacles to the emergence of theoretical and applied research in Russia, as well as key milestones for future development of political psychology. It also touches upon the most important questions of psychology of leadership within the framework of modern Russian and international practice, the political process as a whole, shows the differences in the approaches of European and Russian scientific schools in the analysis of political leadership. The author’s vision of key issues of contemporary international relations is of particular interest: we are witnessing the fact that American global leadership is experiencing an acute crisis, which contributes to the escalation of inter-state conflicts. However, the positive effect of the international crisis for our country is that it led the elites to reconsider their own ideological guidance with respect to Russia's role in world politics and forced to fight for the «new position».

  1. Science Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0094-0095 ...

  2. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus......, the first models were very simple and consisted of a limited number of equations. During the past thirty years much research has been conducted on the peculiarities of the process and on the factors that influence it on the one hand while an enormous progress took place in computer science on the other....... The combination of both parameters resulted in the development of more and more concise and complex models. In this chapter the most important models found in the literature are described starting from the simplest and oldest to the more recent and complex ones....

  3. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavala, Hariklia N; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte K

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus, the first models were very simple and consisted of a limited number of equations. During the past thirty years much research has been conducted on the peculiarities of the process and on the factors that influence it on the one hand while an enormous progress took place in computer science on the other. The combination of both parameters resulted in the development of more and more concise and complex models. In this chapter the most important models found in the literature are described starting from the simplest and oldest to the more recent and complex ones.

  4. Results of an international phosphorus digestibility ring test with broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodehutscord, Markus; Adeola, O; Angel, R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this ring test was to investigate the prececal phosphorus (P) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chickens using the trial protocol proposed by the World's Poultry Science Association. It was hypothesized that prececal P digestibility of SBM determined in the collabora......The objective of this ring test was to investigate the prececal phosphorus (P) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chickens using the trial protocol proposed by the World's Poultry Science Association. It was hypothesized that prececal P digestibility of SBM determined...... among stations. These factors were probably related to the feeding and housing conditions (floor pens or cages) of the birds in the pre-experimental phase. Therefore, we suggest that the World's Poultry Science Association protocol for the determination of digestible P be should extended...

  5. Editorial: Special issue on education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masal Ercan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue consists of selected proceedings presented in ERPA International Congresses on Education 2017 which was held in Budapest / Hungary, 18-21 May 2017. Studies are related to educational sciences, science and mathematics education, social sciences education, health and sports science education, music and fine arts education, computer education and instructional technology, language education and management of education. There are eighty valuable studies in this special issue. In sum the results of studies will contribute to the field.

  6. Mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion processes: applications and future needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Puyol, Daniel; Flores Alsina, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    of the role of the central carbon catabolic metabolism in anaerobic digestion, with an increased importance of phosphorous, sulfur, and metals as electron source and sink, and consideration of hydrogen and methane as potential electron sources. The paradigm of anaerobic digestion is challenged by anoxygenic...... phototrophism, where energy is relatively cheap, but electron transfer is expensive. These new processes are commonly not compatible with the existing structure of anaerobic digestion models. These core issues extend to application of anaerobic digestion in domestic plant-wide modelling, with the need......Anaerobic process modelling is a mature and well-established field, largely guided by a mechanistic model structure that is defined by our understanding of underlying processes. This led to publication of the IWA ADM1, and strong supporting, analytical, and extension research in the 15 years since...

  7. Comparative Digestive Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, William H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). The expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional adjustments mediate phenotypic changes in the expression of hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Fermentative processes by symbiotic microorganisms are important for cellulose degradation but are relatively slow, so animals that rely on those processes typically possess special enlarged compartment(s) to maintain a microbiota and other GI structures that slow digesta flow. The taxon richness of the gut microbiota, usually identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, is typically an order of magnitude greater in vertebrates than invertebrates, and the interspecific variation in microbial composition is strongly influenced by diet. Many of the nutrient transporters are orthologous across different animal phyla, though functional details may vary (e.g., glucose and amino acid transport with K+ rather than Na+ as a counter ion). Paracellular absorption is important in many birds. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption PMID:23720328

  8. Effect of sow age on the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sow age on the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients in the diet. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Sows in the fourth pregnancy had greater digestibility coefficients of dry matter (4.1 percentage units), organic matter (3.4 percentage units), crude protein (5.5 percentage units) and crude fibre (6.2 ...

  9. Effect of cyadox on growth and nutrient digestibility in weanling pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of cyadox on growth and nutrient digestibility in weanling pigs. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... The apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, nitrogen free extract, calcium, phosphorus and gross energy was significantly increased in the cyadox-fed pigs above the control. Inclusion of ...

  10. Apparent and true amino acid digestibility of artemia meal in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent and true amino acid digestibility of artemia meal in broiler chicks (Short communication) ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... to determine the amino acid digestibility of artemia meal, five-week old male broiler chicks were given a semi-purified diet in which artemia meal was the sole source of protein.

  11. From Science Reserves to Sustainable Multiple Uses beyond Earth orbit: Evaluating Issues on the Path towards Balanced Environmental Management on Planetary Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret

    Over the past five decades, our understanding of space beyond Earth orbit has been shaped by a succession of mainly robotic missions whose technologies have enabled scientists to answer diverse science questions about celestial bodies across the solar system. For all that time, exploration has been guided by planetary protection policies and principles promulgated by COSPAR and based on provisions in Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty of 1967. Over time, implementation of the various COSPAR planetary protection policies have sought to avoid harmful forward and backward contamination in order to ensure the integrity of science findings, guide activities on different celestial bodies, and appropriately protect Earth whenever extraterrestrial materials have been returned. The recent increased interest in extending both human missions and commercial activities beyond Earth orbit have prompted discussions in various quarters about the need for updating policies and guidelines to ensure responsible, balanced space exploration and use by all parties, regardless whether activities are undertaken by governmental or non-governmental entities. Already, numerous researchers and workgroups have suggested a range of different ways to manage activities on celestial environments (e.g, wilderness parks, exclusion zones, special regions, claims, national research bases, environmental impact assessments, etc.). While the suggestions are useful in thinking about how to manage future space activities, they are not based on any systematically applied or commonly accepted criteria (scientific or otherwise). In addition, they are borrowed from terrestrial approaches for environmental protection, which may or may not have direct applications to space environments. As noted in a recent COSPAR-PEX workshop (GWU 2012), there are no clear definitions of issues such as harmful contamination, the environment to be protected, or what are considered reasonable activity or impacts for particular

  12. Societal Issues and Their Importance for Contemporary Science Education--A Pedagogical Justification and the State-of-the-Art in Israel, Germany, and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstein, Avi; Eilks, Ingo; Bybee, Rodger

    2011-01-01

    One common theme underlying recent reports on science education is that the content of school science and its related pedagogical approaches are not aligned with the interests and needs of both society and the majority of the students. Most students do not find their science classes interesting and motivating. These claims are especially valid…

  13. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    jcsc/129/01/0000a-0000c. Abstract. Dates. Manuscript received: Manuscript revised: Accepted. Journal of Chemical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 129, Issue 8. Current Issue Volume 129 | Issue 8. August 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues ...

  14. [Opinion of undergraduate health sciences students towards ethical issues related to HIV-positive persons in schools, workplaces and health centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apellaniz, Alfonso; Manzanaro, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    To describe the opinion of undergraduate health sciences students in the Basque Country universities (UPV/EHU) regarding ethical issues related to HIV-positive persons in schools, workplaces and health centers. Our population consisted of medical, nursing and dental undergraduate students attending UPV/EHU. An opinion survey was conducted among students attending lectures, on a randomly selected date in 2002-2003. The questionnaire included several items on ethical conflicts related to HIV-positive persons in different settings. Item responses consisted of a Likert-type scale with five possible levels of agreement (from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree"), as well as the option "I do not want to answer/I have no opinion about this". 529 completed questionnaires were collected. 69% of respondents reported total disagreement with refusing to admit HIV+ students to primary schools, and 77% with dismissal of HIV+ workers. Approximately 90% of respondents felt managers should be aware of the HIV+ status of their employees. 78% of the students did not report disagreement with having HIV+ schoolmates in classrooms. Respondents generally disagreed with employment limitations for HIV+ health care workers, 60% strongly disagreed with health workers refusing to treat HIV+ persons, 69% considered that HIV testing should be compulsory for health workers, and 55% that health workers should know their patients' HIV status. In general terms, our students are against social and employment limitations targeting HIV+ persons, but favor disclosure of HIV status in schools and health centres. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  15. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  16. EFFECT OF MALTING ON PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY OF SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences: Vol. 2 No. 2 July 2002. INTRODUCTION. Digestibility of sorghum protein is of immense interest, particularly to communities in Kenya and elsewhere who depend on sorghum as their staple food. In such situations, the cereal is often also the main source of dietary protein.

  17. Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Useni , Alain

    sajas.v42i5.9. Digestion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep as affected by exogenous fibrolytic enzymes. W.F.J. van de Vyver. #. & B.A. Useni. Department of Animal Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, South ...

  18. Effects of enzyme Additive on Nutrient intake, Digestibility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of enzyme Additive on Nutrient intake, Digestibility and Rumen metabolites of yearling Cattle fed Grass-hay based diet. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Science ... There were no significant differences among other levels of inclusion for total dry matter intake, Crude protein intake and Acid Detergent Fibre intake.

  19. Digestibility of nutrients and aspects of the digestive physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An insight in its digestive physiology will enhance our understanding of its feeding habits. Digestibility coefficients of the food were determined during two seasons before the animals were euthanased. The distribution and concentrations of nutrients and energy in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract were determined at ...

  20. Children and Grief. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as…

  1. Ciências sociais e saúde coletiva: novas questões, novas abordagens Social sciences and public health: new issues, new approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Cele de A. Bodstein

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar criticamente o paradigma ainda dominante na análise das políticas de saúde, no interior da produção acadêmica do campo da saúde coletiva. Nesse sentido, parte-se da recuperação do debate em torno da chamada crise dos modelos clássicos nas ciências sociais. Este debate, inspirado em diversas revisões e críticas dos esquemas teóricos consagrados na sociologia, é responsável tanto pelo alargamento dos esquemas explicativos quanto pela diversificação das questões e objetos de investigação. Assim, torna-se fundamental, nessa discussão, atentar para os limites do alcance explicativo dos modelos teóricos excessivamente generalizantes e, por outro lado, dar maior ênfase ao processo de formação e de ação de sujeitos e atores coletivos, em detrimento de abordagens estruturalizantes. O que se pretende, então, é mostrar a importância desse debate e seus possíveis e necessários desdobramentos para a produção acadêmica na área das políticas sociais e de saúde.This paper seeks to critically evaluate the paradigm that is still prevalent in the analysis of Health Policies within the academic production in the field of public health. In this sense, it starts from resuming the debate about the so-called crisis of the classic models in Social Sciences. This debate, influenced by several reviews of and criticisms to well-known theoretical schemes in sociology, accounts for both the enlargement of explanatory models and for the diversification of investigation issues and objects. It is therefore fundamental to consider the limits of the explanatory power of too generalizing theoretical models and, on the other hand, to give emphasis to the formation and action of collective subjects and actors, neglecting structuralizing approaches. This paper aims at showing the importance of this debate and its possible and necessary contributions for the academic production in the field of Social and

  2. Biogas Digester Hydraulic Retention Time Affects Oxygen Consumption Patterns and Greenhouse Gas Emissions after Application of Digestate to Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nguyen, Quan; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Bol, Roland; Wu, Di; Triolo, Jin Mi; Vazifehkhoran, Ali Heidarzadeh; Bruun, Sander

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge about environmental impacts associated with the application of anaerobic digestion residue to agricultural land is of interest owing to the rapid proliferation of biogas plants worldwide. However, virtually no information exists concerning how soil-emitted NO is affected by the feedstock hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the biogas digester. Here, the O planar optode technique was used to visualize soil O dynamics following the surface application of digestates of the codigestion of pig slurry and agro-industrial waste. We also used NO isotopomer analysis of soil-emitted NO to determine the NO production pathways, i.e., nitrification or denitrification. Two-dimensional images of soil O indicated that anoxic and hypoxic conditions developed at 2.0- and 1.5-cm soil depth for soil amended with the digestate produced with 15-d (PO15) and 30-d (PO30) retention time, respectively. Total NO emissions were significantly lower for PO15 than PO30 due to the greater expansion of the anoxic zone, which enhanced NO reduction via complete denitrification. However, cumulative CO emissions were not significantly different between PO15 and PO30 for the entire incubation period. During incubation, NO emissions came from both nitrification and denitrification in amended soils. Increasing the HRT of the biogas digester appears to induce significant NO emissions, but it is unlikely to affect the NO production pathways after application to soil. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  3. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated....... In the system, the threshold methanogenic biomass concentration existed because of inhibition by high VFA concentration. High methanogenic biomass concentration is required for efficient anaerobic digestion of MSW in order to avoid possible inhibition due to high VFA build-up. Thus, CSTR configuration might...... have unstable dynamics at high organic loading as shown in earlier experiments carried out by Stroot et al. (2001). A gradual increase of organic loading during the start up of a completely mixed digester causing an accumulation of methanogenic biomass is a solution to prevent a probable digester...

  4. Staff Report to the Senior Department Official on Recognition Compliance Issues. Recommendation Page: National Accrediting Commission Of Cosmetology Arts and Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Accrediting Commission of Cosmetology Arts and Sciences (NACCAS) is a national accreditor whose scope of recognition is for the accreditation throughout the United States of postsecondary schools and departments of cosmetology arts and sciences and massage therapy. The agency accredits approximately 1,300 institutions offering…

  5. Exploring Freshwater Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 1. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 1. January 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  6. Challenging the One-Way Paradigm for More Effective Science Communication: A Critical Review of Two Public Campaigns Addressing Contentious Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, Marie; Mortimer, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article examines two large-scale public communication campaigns to explore the appropriateness and effectiveness of using one-way communication in contentious environmental issues. The findings show while one-way communication can be successfully employed in contentious issues, it is not appropriate for all contexts and may contribute to…

  7. Food Digest : 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech. Food Science and Technology Department

    2014-01-01

    Message from the Department Head: Greetings. December 10, 2013, is a date that should be recorded as part of the Food Science and Technology history. On this date we received a Temporary Certificate of Occupancy for the Human and Agricultural Biosciences Building 1 (HABB1). Almost exactly two years after breaking ground, we have moved into the new 93,860-square-foot building with research and office space for the Food Science and Technology and Biological Systems Engineering Departments. Movi...

  8. Food microstructure and starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaspreet; Kaur, Lovedeep; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural characteristics of starch-based natural foods such as parenchyma or cotyledon cell shape, cell size and composition, and cell wall composition play a key role in influencing the starch digestibility during gastrointestinal digestion. The stability of cell wall components and the arrangement of starch granules in the cells may affect the free access of amylolytic enzymes during digestion. Commonly used food processing techniques such as thermal processing, extrusion cooking, and post-cooking refrigerated storage alter the physical state of starch (gelatinization, retrogradation, etc.) and its digestibility. Rheological characteristics (viscosity) of food affect the water availability during starch hydrolysis and, consequently, the absorption of digested carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. The nonstarch ingredients and other constituents present in food matrix, such as proteins and lipids interact with starch during processing, which leads to an alteration in the overall starch digestibility and physicochemical characteristics of digesta. Starch digestibility can be controlled by critically manipulating the food microstructure, processing techniques, and food composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  10. Speaking of Science and for Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 12. Speaking of Science and for Science. G Baskaran. Article-in-a-Box Volume 7 Issue 12 December 2002 pp 47-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/12/0047-0047 ...

  11. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castellucci, Sonia; Cocchi, Silvia; Allegrini, Elena; Vecchione, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    .... In the present work, the case of slaughterhouse wastes (SHWs) has been investigated. Anaerobic digestion is nowadays considered as one of the most important and sustainable conversion technology exploiting organic matter and biodegradable wastes...

  12. A Special Issue: Geomathematics in practice: Case studies from earth- and environmental sciences – Proceedings of the Croatian-Hungarian Geomathematical Congress, Hungary 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatvani István Gábor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to introduce the current problems of geomathematics along with giving on overview on the papers published in the special issue covering the Croatian-Hungarian Geomathematical Congress of 2015 in Hungary.

  13. Transforming anaerobic digestion with the Model T of digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.F.; Ciotola, R.; Castano, J.; Eger, C.; Schlea, D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ecological Engineering Program

    2010-07-01

    Most livestock farmers in the United States do not take advantage of anaerobic digester technology because of the high cost and large scale. These limitations therefore reduce the production of renewable energy from farmlands. In order to expand anaerobic digestion methods and improve environmental quality, affordable and smaller-scale digesters should be developed to enable most livestock farmers to convert manure to methane. Doing so would improve their economic efficiency and environmental sustainability. This paper provided an analogy to the development of the Model T to better explain the need and potential for this technology. A modified fixed-dome digester was installed on the Ohio State University dairy in Columbus, Ohio. The digester was unheated, buried, had a volume of 1 m{sup 3} and received diluted dairy manure as feedstock. Biogas was produced at digester temperatures as low 10 degrees C during colder ambient temperatures. Water quality also improved. Results from the first year of operation will be analyzed to improve performance and enable future development of this technology.

  14. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  15. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 54(4):753–759. [11] Lakatos PL. Environmental factors affecting inflammatory bowel disease: have we made progress? Digestive ... Contacts Human Subjects Research Funding Process Research Training & Career Development Funded Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at ...

  16. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  17. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal publishes original research articles dealing with all aspects of marine science and coastal manage- ment. ... Science (WIOJMS), as a special issue entitled “Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate”. ...... 2014) with the highest disaster risk exposed to natural hazards, including storms and floods.

  18. Heavy metals in source-separated compost and digestates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Thomas; Bürge, Diane; Bachmann, Hans Jörg; Güsewell, Sabine; Mayer, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    The production of compost and digestate from source-separated organic residues is well established in Europe. However, these products may be a source of pollutants when applied to soils. In order to assess this issue, composts, solid and liquid digestates from Switzerland were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) addressing factors which may influence the concentration levels: the treatment process, the composition, origin, particle size and impurity content of input materials, the season of input materials collection or the degree of organic matter degradation. Composts (n=81) showed mean contents being at 60% or less of the legal threshold values. Solid digestates (n=20) had 20-50% lower values for Cd, Co, Pb and Zn but similar values for Cr, Cu and Ni. Liquid digestates (n=5) exhibited mean concentrations which were approximately twice the values measured in compost for most elements. Statistical analyses did not reveal clear relationships between influencing factors and heavy metal contents. This suggests that the contamination was rather driven by factors not addressed in the present study. According to mass balance calculations related to Switzerland, the annual loads to agricultural soils resulting from the application of compost and digestates ranged between 2% (Cd) and 22% (Pb) of total heavy metal loads. At regional scale, composts and digestates are therefore minor sources of pollution compared to manure (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn), mineral fertilizer (Cd, Cr) and aerial deposition (Pb). However, for individual fields, fertilization with compost or digestates results in higher heavy metal loads than application of equivalent nutrient inputs through manure or mineral fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical methods (Pearson correlation coefficient, ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. ISSN 1112-9867. Available online at http://www.jfas.info. Research Article. Special Issue ... institutionalized relationships among those with membership in a group.

  20. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-16

    Jul 16, 2016 ... Special Issue. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons .... Literature review of researches done in and out of country ... In first part, the quality service variable is with components ... aspects of service quality based on the customers' expectations and impression.

  1. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Special Issue 1/ 2017 | Jul 2017 | ISSN: 0856-860X. Western ... Sweden. Johan GROENEVELD. South Africa. Issufo HALO. South Africa/Mozambique. Christina HICKS. Australia/UK. Johnson KITHEKA. Kenya. Kassim KULINDWA .... WIO Journal of Marine Science Special Issue 1 / 2017 31-41 | D. Kaullysing et al. sediment ...

  2. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The special issues aim to contribute for advancing marine science in the WIO by focusing on specific themes, geographical areas or assembling contributions from scientific meetings. The editorial processes are exactly the same as for regular issues, with double peer-review, and guest editors are considered. José Paula.

  3. Issue-Specific Barriers to Addressing Environmental Issues in the Classroom: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chankook; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    2006-01-01

    To explore issue-specific barriers to teaching environmental issues, the authors investigated secondary science teachers' perceived current and preferred teaching levels for 23 environmental issues and perceived barriers to teaching the selected issues. Subjects in this graduate project were 41 secondary science teachers self-selected to answer a…

  4. PAH exposure through soil ingestion: Combining digestion models and bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Verstraete, W. [Ghent University (BE).Laboratory Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET); Siciliano, S.D. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). Department of Soil Science

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants through soil ingestion is an important issue in current health risk assessment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or their metabolites pose risks to humans due to their toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic or even (anti)estrogenic properties. PAH mobilization from a soil matrix (49.1{+-}1.5 mg PAH/kg DW) was assessed using a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). PAH GC-MS analysis was performed on the pellet and supernatant of SHIME digests and gave 101, 92, 89 and 97% recovery for water, stomach, duodenal and colon digests, respectively. PAH release was highest for the water extract (0.51%) and the stomach digestion (0.44%). Lower mobilized fractions in the duodenum (0.13%) and colon (0.30%) digests could be attributed to PAH complexation with bile salts, dissolved organic matter or colon microbiota. The digestion model provides us with relevant information to what extent soil bound PAHs are mobilized in the gastrointestinal tract and thus reach the gut wall, prior to absorption. (orig.)

  5. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Nutrition, Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Irene, 1675Republic of South Africa. Although the protein requirement of domestic ruminants may be calculated from a simple one-compartment model, this approach ignores factors such as microbial fermentation in the rumen and the non-equality of feed.

  6. Teaching Archaeology. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail William

    How could handchipped stones, ancient ruins, old broken dishes, and antiquated garbage help students learn about the world and themselves? Within archaeology, these seemingly irrelevant items can enlighten students about the world around them through science, culture, and history. When teaching archaeology in the classroom, educators can lead…

  7. Methodological issues in cohort studies that relate sodium intake to cardiovascular disease outcomes: a science advisory from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Laura K; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Elliott, Paul; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Kiang; Neaton, James D; Whelton, Paul K; Woodward, Mark; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-03-11

    The results of cohort studies relating sodium (Na) intake to blood pressure-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) are inconsistent. To understand whether methodological issues account for the inconsistency, we reviewed the quality of these studies. We reviewed cohort studies that examined the association between Na and CVD. We then identified methodological issues with greatest potential to alter the direction of association (reverse causality, systematic error in Na assessment), some potential to alter the direction of association (residual confounding, inadequate follow-up), and the potential to yield false null results (random error in Na assessment, insufficient power). We included 26 studies with 31 independent analyses. Of these, 13 found direct associations between Na and CVD, 8 found inverse associations, 2 found J-shaped associations, and 8 found null associations only. On average there were 3 to 4 methodological issues per study. Issues with greater potential to alter the direction of association were present in all but 1 of the 26 studies (systematic error, 22; reverse causality, 16). Issues with lesser potential to alter the direction of association were present in 18 studies, whereas those with potential to yield false null results were present in 23. Methodological issues may account for the inconsistent findings in currently available observational studies relating Na to CVD. Until well-designed cohort studies in the general population are available, it remains appropriate to base Na guidelines on the robust body of evidence linking Na with elevated blood pressure and the few existing general population trials of the effects of Na reduction on CVD.

  8. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Castellucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy is becoming increasingly necessary in order to address the global warming problem and, as a consequence, has become an high priority for many countries. Biomass is a clean and renewable energy source with growing potential to replace conventional fossil fuels. Among biomass, residual and waste ones represent a great resource for energy generation since they permit both to eliminate a possible waste and to produce energy. In the present work, the case of slaughterhouse wastes (SHWs has been investigated. Anaerobic digestion is nowadays considered as one of the most important and sustainable conversion technology exploiting organic matter and biodegradable wastes. Biogas results from this bio-chemical process and mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide, leading to produce thermal energy and/or electricity. In this paper, the European Regulations on animal by-products (ABPs are described, and some previous study on anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of ABPs - more precisely SHWs - are considered and compared in order to fix a starting point for future tests on their co-digestion in a micro-scale pilot digester. This is to define optimal feed ratio values which ensure an increasing content of methane in the outgoing biogas.

  9. MEDIA BARU DAN WACANA SAINS: ISU PENGKLONAN MELALUI BLOG DAN AKHBAR DI MALAYSIA (NEW MEDIA AND SCIENCE DISCOURSE: CLONING ISSUE THROUGH WEBLOGS AND PRESS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Abd. Aziz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The developments of latest communication technology, especially web-based applications such as weblogs, have changed the media landscape. In countries with controlled media system, the emergence of weblogs provides an alternative medium to those who want to disseminate views normally suppressed by the mainstream media. Issues deemed sensitive by the local media seldom get due coverage. Even if there is coverage, it is presented from the perspective that is consistent with the views and ideology of the elite and the government.Hence, this paper examines and discusses the coverage, the discussion and the debates about scientific issues, especially cloning, through weblogs. Departing on the premise that blogging offers a relatively wider public sphere than the print media; discourses on cloning issues in the two media will take on different forms. This paper evaluates how bloggers on cloning issues use the openness and freedom of weblogs to voice and disseminate their views and compares it to similar discourse in Malaysian print media.

  10. Neogene Amazonia: Introduction to the special issue Journal of South American Earth Sciences, New contributions on Neogene geography and depositional environments in Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Vonhof, H.B.

    2006-01-01

    The paleontological data presented in this special issue provide a new insight into species migration and radiation in Amazonia during the Miocene. At the time, Amazonia was characterized by a very extensive, long-lived, semi-isolated, freshwater wetland ecosystem that was supplied with water and

  11. Mediating equity in shared water between community and industry: The effects of an after school program that addresses adolescents' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of water science and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Mary Chandler

    This critical ethnography deconstructs how one participant researcher came to understand young adults' changing knowledge about water science and environmental issues in an after school program in Colombia. The program intended to empower self-identified young community leaders by teaching participants to engage community members in discourse related to how environmental factors impact one's level of health and quality of life. The data presented in this study illustrate how student participants responded to long-term teacher engagement and to particular curricular components that included hands-on science teaching and social justice coaching. I assessed how student interest in and knowledge of local water ecology and sanitation infrastructure changed throughout the program. Students' responses to the use of technology and digital media were also included in the analysis. The data demonstrates a dramatic change in student's attitudes and perceptions related to their environment and how they feel about their ability to make positive changes in their community.

  12. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payer, Joe H. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Scully, John R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2003-07-29

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”. The workshop was held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD, and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments, with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca Mountain Project-specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  13. The Distribution of Macro- and Micronutrients in Maize Within Separated Digestate Fertilizing (Digestate Fibre and Digestate Luquor: Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodymová Jana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with the current increase in the number of biogas plants, huge amounts of digestate, i.e. waste products, are being generated. The common practice in the Czech Republic is to plough the digestate into the land. In our field trial, we compared the fertilizing effects of standard fertilizers applied in the Czech Republic with digestate as the only fertilizer (e.g. digestate fibre and digestate liquor in real agricultural conditions to find out whether a comparable amount of nitrogen is used in accordance with European legislation. The impact of separated digestate fibre and separated liquor on the soil fertility and quality was observed on the basis of the distribution of macro- and micronutrients in maize. The evaluation of growth increments in maize suggests that the fertilizing effects of digestate liquor or digestate fibre do not match the standard fertilizer in agriculture, but especially digestate liquor is comparable with other mineral fertilizers. Our field trial also shows that digestate liquor is a better fertilizer than digestate fibre, which may be explained by more appropriate ratios of available nutrients in digestate liquor. Digestate fibre may be recommended mainly for the aeration of clayey soil, but is not sustainable as fertilizer.

  14. Assessing amendment and fertilizing properties of digestates from anaerobic digestion through a comparative study with digested sludge and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Scaglia, Barbara; D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Schievano, Andrea; Orzi, Valentina; Salati, Silvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2010-10-01

    Digestate, with biogas represents the final products of anaerobic digestion (AD). The methane-rich biogas is used to produce electricity and heat, whereas the digestate could be valorized in agriculture. Contrarily to well-recognized biomasses such as digested sludge and compost, the properties of the digestate are not well known and its agricultural use remains unexplored. In this work, a first attempt to study the agronomic properties of digestates was performed by comparing the chemical, spectroscopic, and biological characteristics of digestates with those of compost and digested sludge, used as reference organic matrices. A total of 23 organic matrices were studied, which include eight ingestates and relative digestates, three composts, and four digested sludges. The analytical data obtained was analyzed using principal component analysis to better show in detail similarities or differences between the organic matrices studied. The results showed that digestates differed from ingestates and also from compost, although the starting organic mix influenced the digestate final characteristics. With respect to amendment properties, it seems that biological parameters, more than chemical characteristics, were more important in describing these features. In this way, amendment properties could be ranked as follows: compost≅digestate>digested sludge≫ingestate. As to fertilizer properties, AD allowed getting a final product (digestate) with very good fertilizing properties because of the high nutrient content (N, P, K) in available form. In this way, the digestate appears to be a very good candidate to replace inorganic fertilizers, also contributing, to the short-term soil organic matter turnover. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Science Academies Summer Research Fellowship

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 11. Science Academies Summer Research Fellowship. Information and Announcements Volume 13 Issue 11 November 2008 pp 1091-1094. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Science and Technology of Ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Science and Technology of Ceramics - Advanced Ceramics: Structural Ceramics and Glasses. Sheela K Ramasesha. Series Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 4-11 ...

  17. Digestive Kinetics Determines Bloavailability of Pollutants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Findlay, Robert

    1998-01-01

    (1) Determine digestive physiology of deposit feeders; (2) Determine the fraction of total pollutants in sediments released during incubation of polluted sediments with digestive fluid of deposit feeders; (3...

  18. IMPLEMETATION OF MODEL SAVI (SOMATIC, AUDIOTORY, VISUALIZATION, INTELLECTUAL TO INCREASE CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY IN CLASS IV OF SOCIAL SCIENCE LEARNING ON SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Iskandar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the lack of critical thinking skills of fourth grade students of SDN Tanjung III, Subang district. On the basis of the need for repairs done either by applying the model of SAVI (Somatic, Auditory, Visualization, Intellectual. So the purpose of this study was to determine the increase critical thinking skills of students in Social Science before and after applying the model SAVI, the performance of teachers in applying the model SAVI, activities and students' response to the model SAVI. The method used in this research is the CAR (Classroom Action Research. Subject of research that fourth grade students of SDN Tanjung III by the number of students as many as 23 people. The instrument used was LKS (Student Worksheet, observation sheet of students and teachers as well as student questionnaire responses. From these results, it can be concluded that by applying the model in study SAVI social science with social problems in the local environment can enhance students' critical thinking skills. The result can be seen from the percentage of the overall level of mastery learning increased from 52.2% in the first cycle, 78.3% in the second cycle and 100% in the third cycle. The average grade class of students increased from 44.3 prasiklus of data with less criteria, up to the third cycle, which reached 91.3 with the criteria very well. With the improvement of students' critical thinking skills that are calculated based on the n-gain of 0.53 with the criteria of being in the first cycle, and 0.65 with the criteria of being on the second cycle, and 0.81 with the high criteria of the third cycle. The results of observations also showed that the ability of teachers and students' activity in applying the model of SAVI increased. Based on questionnaire responses, 100% of students showed interest in learning social science model with SAVI. Therefore, it is suggested that teachers use models SAVI  to enhance the critical thinking

  19. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    OpenAIRE

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL

    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion of cow manure. Optimization of the digestion process for energy production on dairy farms.
    2. Digestion of manure at lower temperatures.

    The goal of the first mentioned research w...

  20. Medically assisted procreation and fast-moving developments in science and law: ethical and legal issues in heterologous procreation in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Delbon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, a law on Medically Assisted Procreation was passed in 2004. In 2014 the Constitutional Court declared section 4 para. 3 of this Law to be unconstitutional in the part where it prohibits couples from accessing heterologous medically assisted procreation techniques if a condition which causes complete, irreversible sterility or infertility has been diagnosed. The fast-moving developments in science and law, and the deep implications that the application of new techniques − which involve in the context of procreation a third person − can have in terms of protection of health and not only, makes it appropriate to keep under review this area, taking into account the pronouncements of the European Court of Human Rights and regulations in European countries.

  1. Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series. Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series. Volumes & Issues. Volume 1. Issue 1. Dec 2017. Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series. Current Issue : Vol. 1, Issue 1 · Current Issue Volume 1 | Issue 1. December 2017. Home; Volumes & Issues ...

  2. Anaerobic digestion of piggery waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes

  3. Leadership. ERIC Digest No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Sydney J.

    An ERIC digest provides general information to help educators, students, and others evaluate their own capacities for leadership. Material is divided into six substantive sections. "What is leadership?" provides definitions of the concept, discusses differences between leadership and management and considers requisites for effective…

  4. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  5. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, B.K.; Macarie, H.; Moletta, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern

  6. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  7. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bulletin of Materials Science. Current Issue : Vol. 40, Issue 6. Current Issue Volume 40 | Issue 6. October 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Online submission at ematersci · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  8. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Chemical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 130, Issue 1. Current Issue Volume 130 | Issue 1. January 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  9. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Earth System Science. Current Issue : Vol. 126, Issue 8. Current Issue Volume 126 | Issue 8. December 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  10. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 127, Issue 5 · Current Issue Volume 127 | Issue 5. November 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  11. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Chemical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 129, Issue 8. Current Issue Volume 129 | Issue 8. August 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  12. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Earth System Science. Current Issue : Vol. 126, Issue 5 · Current Issue Volume 126 | Issue 5. July 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  13. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Chemical Sciences. Current Issue : Vol. 129, Issue 10 · Current Issue Volume 129 | Issue 10. October 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  14. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bulletin of Materials Science. Current Issue : Vol. 40, Issue 5 · Current Issue Volume 40 | Issue 5. September 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Online submission at ematersci · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  15. 76 FR 38430 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology... interoperability issues identified in the National Academy of Sciences 2009 report: ``Strengthening Forensic... ). SUMMARY: The Subcommittee on Forensic Science (SoFS) of the National Science and Technology Council's...

  16. Effect of heat and homogenization on in vitro digestion of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Michael H; Ren, Daxi X; Van Hekken, Diane L; Bonnaillie, Laetitia; Paul, Moushumi; Kwoczak, Raymond; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2016-06-01

    during intestinal digestion. Stearic and oleic acids were broken down faster than other fatty acids due to their positions on the outside of the triglyceride molecule. Five different casein phosphopeptide sequences were observed after gastric digestion, and 31 sequences were found after intestinal digestion, with activities yet to be explored. Processing affects milk structure and thus digestion and is an important factor to consider in design of foods that affect health and nutrition. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frances; Pan, Xiaoyan; Bellido, Vincent; Toole, Geraldine A; Gates, Fred K; Wickham, Martin S J; Shewry, Peter R; Bakalis, Serafim; Padfield, Philip; Mills, E N Clare

    2015-10-01

    Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac-toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten-starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Perinatal and pediatric issues in palliative and end-of-life care from the 2011 Summit on the Science of Compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, Jonne M; Brooten, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    More than 25,000 infants and children die in US hospitals annually; 86% occur in the NICU or PICU. Parents see the child's pain and suffering and, near the point of death, must decide whether to resuscitate, limit medical treatment, and/or withdraw life support. Immediately after the death, parents must decide whether to see and/or hold the infant/child, donate organs, agree to an autopsy, make funeral arrangements, and somehow maintain functioning. Few children and their families receive pediatric palliative care services, especially those from minority groups. Barriers to these programs include lack of services, difficulty identifying the dying point, discomfort in withholding or withdrawing treatments, communication problems, conflicts in care among providers and between parents and providers, and differences in cultural beliefs about end-of-life care. The 2011 NIH Summit on the Science of Compassion provided recommendations in family involvement, end-of-life care, communication, health care delivery, and transdisciplinary participation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An Examination of Computer Attitudes, Anxieties, and Aversions Among Diverse College Populations: Issues Central to Understanding Information Sciences in the New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Burkett

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying the impact of computer attitudes on the production of knowledge is central to the understanding of information sciences in the new millennium. The major results from a survey of diverse college populations suggest that Liberal Arts College (LAC students, in this demographic, have somewhat more ambivalence toward computers than students in a Community College (CC or a nontraditional Business College (BC environment. The respondents generally agreed that computers were an important part of daily life and not particularly frustrating. In addition, it appears that today's students like computers, know at least something about them, feel competent when using one, and are not tired of hearing about computers as a matter of daily discourse. The participants generally agreed, although not strongly so, that they would like to learn more about computers. The surveyed students generally expressed an interest in on-line courses, although students from the LAC were more neutral about on-line courses. On-line courses were generally considered somewhat inferior to traditional classes. Most of the respondents feel that they have a reasonable amount of computer-related experiences and, as a result, have considerable competence and success when using one, and believed that they could successfully master new software. The majority of the students expressed at least some degree of enjoyment from computer and non-computer games. Last, students at the LAC and BC appeared to possess greater knowledge about computer operation, a fact that may in part be due to the age of the respondents.

  20. Low-digestible carbohydrates in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabitske, Hollie A; Slavin, Joanne L

    2008-10-01

    Low-digestible carbohydrates are carbohydrates that are incompletely or not absorbed in the small intestine but are at least partly fermented by bacteria in the large intestine. Fiber, resistant starch, and sugar alcohols are types of low-digestible carbohydrates. Given potential health benefits (including a reduced caloric content, reduced or no effect on blood glucose levels, non-cariogenic effect), the prevalence of low-digestible carbohydrates in processed foods is increasing. Low-digestible carbohydrate fermentation in the gut causes gastrointestinal effects, especially at higher intakes. We review the wide range of low-digestible carbohydrates in food products, offer advice on identifying low-digestible carbohydrates in foods and beverages, and make suggestions for intakes of low-digestible carbohydrates.

  1. The decline in digestive efficiency of US dairy cows from 1970 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Shaughness, M; Erdman, R A

    2017-07-01

    Since the year 1970, US milk production per cow has more than doubled, in part because of large increases in feed intake. It is well established that increasing feed intake reduces diet digestibility in dairy cattle. Our objective was to determine whether the digestive efficiency of US dairy cows had also changed. We assembled a data set consisting of diet digestibility measured either by total collection of feces or by use of indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in lactating dairy cow studies published in the Journal of Dairy Science from July 1970 to July 2014. The data set contained 575 treatment means from 154 individual research trials conducted at 26 US institutions. Based on regression analysis, mean milk yield and dry matter intake (DMI) between 1970 and 2014 increased by 19.7 and 10.3 kg/d, respectively. Temporal effects on digestibility [dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and NDF] were determined using the regression model Yi = YEAR1970i + CPi + NDFi + ei, where YEAR1970i is the publication year minus 1970, CPi and NDFi are diet constituents (% of diet DM) that were included to account for their known effects on digestibility, and ei is the residual error. Dry matter digestibility decreased 0.07 percentage units/yr for a total reduction of 3.08 percentage units since 1970. Furthermore, CP and NDF digestibilities decreased 0.04 and 0.17 percentage units/yr, respectively. To account for the potential effect of feed intake on digestibility, DMI as a percentage of body weight was added to the regression model. With DMI as a percentage of body weight in the model, temporal changes in DM, CP, and NDF digestibilities were no longer significant. This suggested that the apparent decline in DM digestibility could be mostly accounted for by simultaneous increases in level of feed intake. Despite lower apparent digestive efficiency, the modern dairy cow has greater production efficiency than the 1970s dairy cow because she produces more milk per unit of feed

  2. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  3. Low intensity surplus activated sludge pretreatment before anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suschka Jan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sewage sludge (municipal, or industrial treatment is still a problem in so far that it is not satisfactorily resolved in terms of cost and final disposal. Two common forms of sludge disposal are possible; the first being direct disposal on land (including agriculture and the second being incineration (ash production, although neither of these methods are universally applied. Simplifying the issue, direct sludge disposal on land is seldom applied for sanitary and environmental reasons, while incineration is not popular for financial (high costs reasons. Very often medium and large wastewater treatment plants apply anaerobic digestion for sludge hygiene principles, reducing the amount to be disposed and for biogas (energy production. With the progress in sewage biological treatment aiming at nutrient removal, primary sludge has been omitted in the working processes and only surplus activated sludge requires handling. Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS is more difficult due to the presence of microorganisms, the decomposition of which requires a relatively long time for hydrolysis. In order to upgrade the hydrolysis effects, several different pre-treatment processes have already been developed and introduced. The additional pre-treatment processes applied are aimed at residual sludge bulk mass minimization, shortening of the anaerobic digestion process or higher biogas production, and therefore require additional energy. The water-energy-waste Nexus (treads of of the benefits and operational difficulties, including energy costs are discussed in this paper. The intensity of pre-treatment processes to upgrade the microorganism’s hydrolysis has crucial implications. Here a low intensity pre-treatment process, alkalisation and hydrodynamic disintegration - hybrid process - were presented in order to achieve sufficient effects of WAS anaerobic digestion. A sludge digestion efficiency increase expressed as 45% biogas additional

  4. Animal Experimentation: Issues for the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zola, Judith C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines the extent to which issues related to animal experimentation are in conflict and proposes choices that might least comprise them. These issues include animal well-being, human well-being, self-interest of science, scientific validity and responsibility, progress in biomedical and behavioral science, and the future quality of medical care.…

  5. Contribution of socio-scientific issues to development of critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbes, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to justify that socio-scientific issues can help to develop critical thinking of students, based on the science education and history of science. These considerations of the history of science can be transformed into socio-scientific issues (SSI, which can be used in science classes.

  6. Exploring the application of an evolutionary educational complex systems framework to teaching and learning about issues in the science and technology classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan Anne

    Understanding the world through a complex systems lens has recently garnered a great deal of interest in many knowledge disciplines. In the educational arena, interactional studies, through their focus on understanding patterns of system behaviour including the dynamical processes and trajectories of learning, lend support for investigating how a complex systems approach can inform educational research. This study uses previously existing literature and tools for complex systems applications and seeks to extend this research base by exploring learning outcomes of a complex systems framework when applied to curriculum and instruction. It is argued that by applying the evolutionary dynamics of variation, interaction and selection, complexity may be harnessed to achieve growth in both the social and cognitive systems of the classroom. Furthermore, if the goal of education, i.e., the social system under investigation, is to teach for understanding, conceptual knowledge of the kind described in Popper's (1972; 1976) World 3, needs to evolve. Both the study of memetic processes and knowledge building pioneered by Bereiter (cf. Bereiter, 2002) draw on the World 3 notion of ideas existing as conceptual artifacts that can be investigated as products outside of the individual mind providing an educational lens from which to proceed. The curricular topic addressed is the development of an ethical understanding of the scientific and technological issues of genetic engineering. 11 grade 8 students are studied as they proceed through 40 hours of curricular instruction based on the complex systems evolutionary framework. Results demonstrate growth in both complex systems thinking and content knowledge of the topic of genetic engineering. Several memetic processes are hypothesized to have influenced how and why ideas change. Categorized by factors influencing either reflective or non-reflective selection, these processes appear to have exerted differential effects on students

  7. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Protein digestion in ruminants | van der Walt | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 1 (1988) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Intestinal digestibility of enriched-protein fodders measured by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 43, No 4 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  10. Left-Right Asymmetric Morphogenesis in the Xenopus Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jennifer K.; Prather, D.R.; Nascone-Yoder, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The morphogenetic mechanisms by which developing organs become left-right asymmetric entities are unknown. To investigate this issue, we compared the roles of the left and right sides of the Xenopus embryo during the development of anatomic asymmetries in the digestive system. Although both sides contribute equivalently to each of the individual digestive organs, during the initial looping of the primitive gut tube, the left side assumes concave topologies where the right side becomes convex. Of interest, the concave surfaces of the gut tube correlate with expression of the LR gene, Pitx2, and ectopic Pitx2 mRNA induces ectopic concavities in a localized manner. A morphometric comparison of the prospective concave and convex surfaces of the gut tube reveals striking disparities in their rate of elongation but no significant differences in cell proliferation. These results provide insight into the nature of symmetry-breaking morphogenetic events during left-right asymmetric organ development. ?? 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Growth of three microalgae strains and nutrient removal from an agro-zootechnical digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchino, Marta; Comino, Elena; Bona, Francesca; Riggio, Vincenzo A

    2013-07-01

    In this paper three microalgae strains (Neochloris oleoabundans, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus) were cultivated on an agro-zootechnical digestate in comparable conditions. The material used as growth media was obtained from a pilot plant anaerobic digestor used to digest several mixes of cattle slurry and raw cheese whey. The main aims were to compare the algae growth, their tolerance with respect to the various dilutions of digestate, their nutrient removal efficiency and their role in the transformation of nitrogen compounds. C. vulgaris presented the highest elimination capacity of ammonium in 1:10 digestate sample; it was also observed that only 4% of ammonia was removed with stripping, microalgal and bacterial consortium recovered the remaining 96%. The three strains almost completely removed different nitrogen forms and phosphate in 11d. The results show that microalgal biomass production offers real opportunities for addressing issues such CO2 sequestration, biofuel production and wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Special Issue 1/ 2017 | Jul 2017 | ISSN: 0856-860X. Western Indian Ocean. J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate .... of coral diseases, and Stylophora pistillata-like morphotypes occurring around Mauritius Island, respec- tively. .... (2013) assumed that the life cycle of.

  13. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johan GROENEVELD. South Africa. Issufo HALO. South Africa/Mozambique. Christina HICKS. Australia/UK. Johnson KITHEKA. Kenya. Kassim KULINDWA ... Science (WIOJMS), as a special issue entitled “Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate”. ..... This is due to important inputs of groundwater at La.

  14. Building a Small Scale Anaerobic Digester in Quelimane

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Silja

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a process where biogas is generated from organic substance in the absence of oxygen. The most common application of the anaerobic digestion technology in developing countries is small-scale household digesters producing biogas for cooking purposes. These systems are usually fed with cattle dung or organic household waste. The typical small-scale digester models are fixed-dome digester, floating-drum digester and rubber-balloon digester. Biogas systems contribute to self...

  15. A standardised static in vitro digestion method suitable for food - an international consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minekus, M; Alminger, M; Alvito, P; Ballance, S; Bohn, T; Bourlieu, C; Carrière, F; Boutrou, R; Corredig, M; Dupont, D; Dufour, C; Egger, L; Golding, M; Karakaya, S; Kirkhus, B; Le Feunteun, S; Lesmes, U; Macierzanka, A; Mackie, A; Marze, S; McClements, D J; Ménard, O; Recio, I; Santos, C N; Singh, R P; Vegarud, G E; Wickham, M S J; Weitschies, W; Brodkorb, A

    2014-06-01

    Simulated gastro-intestinal digestion is widely employed in many fields of food and nutritional sciences, as conducting human trials are often costly, resource intensive, and ethically disputable. As a consequence, in vitro alternatives that determine endpoints such as the bioaccessibility of nutrients and non-nutrients or the digestibility of macronutrients (e.g. lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) are used for screening and building new hypotheses. Various digestion models have been proposed, often impeding the possibility to compare results across research teams. For example, a large variety of enzymes from different sources such as of porcine, rabbit or human origin have been used, differing in their activity and characterization. Differences in pH, mineral type, ionic strength and digestion time, which alter enzyme activity and other phenomena, may also considerably alter results. Other parameters such as the presence of phospholipids, individual enzymes such as gastric lipase and digestive emulsifiers vs. their mixtures (e.g. pancreatin and bile salts), and the ratio of food bolus to digestive fluids, have also been discussed at length. In the present consensus paper, within the COST Infogest network, we propose a general standardised and practical static digestion method based on physiologically relevant conditions that can be applied for various endpoints, which may be amended to accommodate further specific requirements. A frameset of parameters including the oral, gastric and small intestinal digestion are outlined and their relevance discussed in relation to available in vivo data and enzymes. This consensus paper will give a detailed protocol and a line-by-line, guidance, recommendations and justifications but also limitation of the proposed model. This harmonised static, in vitro digestion method for food should aid the production of more comparable data in the future.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of different uses of biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste in France. Final report; Analyse du Cycle de Vie des modes de valorisation energetique du biogaz issu de methanisation de la Fraction Fermentescible des Ordures Menageres collectee selectivement en France. Rapport Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In the first part of the study, Gaz de France (GdF) and the French Environment Energy Management Agency (ADEME) wished to identify the best method to use the biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste (bio-waste). Secondly, GdF and ADEME wished to evaluate the strength and weaknesses of the two main different organic recycling: anaerobic digestion (methanization) and composting. The study is based on the life cycle assessment method. The life cycle assessment used for this study consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of all of the activities which are related to the chosen use method. This methodology involves compiling a detailed account of all substances and energy flows removed or emitted from or into the environment at each stage of the life cycle. These flows are then translated into indicators of potential environment impacts. This methodology is based on the international standards ISO14040 and ISO 14044. The life cycle assessment was performed by RDC Environnement. In this study, two questions were treated: - Which is the best valorisation method for biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste: fuel, heat or electricity? ('Biogas' question); - Which is the best treatment for the separately collected biodegradable waste: anaerobic digestion (methanization) or industrial composting? ('Composting' question). The field of the study includes the arrival of the separately collected biodegradable waste at the anaerobic unit as well as the utilisation of the biogas energy and the agricultural use of the digestate from anaerobic digestion. For each biogas utilisation, the environmental impacts of each life cycle stage were considered as well as the impacts that were avoided due to the substitution of the use of non-renewable energy ('conventional' procedures). The modelling of the direct composting of the biodegradable waste was realised taking into

  17. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 10. Dawn of Science - The Healing Art. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 15 Issue 10 October 2010 pp 870-874. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/10/0870-0874. Keywords.

  18. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 2. Dawn of Science - The Conquest of the Seas. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 2 February 2011 pp 110-115. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/02/0110-0115 ...

  19. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 5. Dawn of Science - The Quest for Power. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 17 Issue 5 May 2012 pp 436-440. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/05/0436-0440. Keywords.

  20. Is Psychology a Science?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/11/0059-0066. Author Affiliations.

  1. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Dawn of Science - The Invisible Weight. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 854-859. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/09/0854-0859 ...

  2. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 9. Dawn of Science - Archimedes. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 15 Issue 9 September 2010 pp 774-778. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/09/0774-0778. Keywords.

  3. Workshops on Writing Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 7. Workshops on Writing Science. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 7 July 2017 pp 718-718. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/022/07/0718-0718. Abstract ...

  4. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 8. Dawn of Science - The Affairs of the Heart. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 8 August 2011 pp 770-775. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/08/0770-0775 ...

  5. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 1. Dawn of Science - Measuring the Heavens. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 17 Issue 1 January 2012 pp 6-10. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/01/0006-0010 ...

  6. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 11. Dawn of Science - The Questions of Life. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 11 ... Keywords. Francesco Redi; Antony Van Leeuwenhoek; Marcello Malphigi; Lazzaro Spallanzani; John Ray; Carl Linnaeus; microscopes.

  7. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 7. Dawn of Science-The Galilean World. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 7 July 2011 pp 663-669. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/07/0663-0669. Keywords.

  8. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 11. Dawn of Science - The Arab Legacy. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 15 Issue 11 November 2010 pp 1009-1015. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/11/1009-1015 ...

  9. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 1. Dawn of Science - The Printed Page. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 1 January 2011 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/01/0006-0011. Keywords.

  10. Nuclear Science Centre

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. Nuclear Science Centre. N Madhavan. Information and Announcements Volume 2 Issue 10 October 1997 pp 92-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/10/0092-0096 ...

  11. Science and Technology Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  12. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 3. Dawn of Science - The Role of Modern Medicine. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 3 March 2011 pp 274-278. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/03/0274-0278 ...

  13. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 10. Dawn of Science - Geometry Without Figures. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 10 October 2011 pp 950-955. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/10/0950-0955 ...

  14. 7. Emerging Applications and Some legal Issues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 8. Electronic Commerce - Emerging Applications and Some Legal Issues. V Rajaraman. Series Article Volume 6 Issue 8 August ... Author Affiliations. V Rajaraman1. IBM Professor of Information Technology JNCASR Bangalore 560 064, India.

  15. Digestive Enzyme Supplementation in Gastrointestinal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Pecere, Silvia; Giorgio, Valentina; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Cammarota, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Digestive enzymes are able to break down proteins and carbohydrates and lipids, and their supplementation may play a role in the management of digestive disorders, from lactose intolerance to cystic fibrosis. To date, several formulations of digestive enzymes are available on the market, being different each other in terms of enzyme type, source and origin, and dosage. Methods: This review, performed through a non-systematic search of the available literature, will provide an over...

  16. Modifying crops to increase cell wall digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Samac, Deborah A; Sarath, Gautam

    2012-04-01

    Improving digestibility of roughage cell walls will improve ruminant animal performance and reduce loss of nutrients to the environment. The main digestibility impediment for dicotyledonous plants is highly lignified secondary cell walls, notably in stem secondary xylem, which become almost non-digestible. Digestibility of grasses is slowed severely by lignification of most tissues, but these cell walls remain largely digestible. Cell wall lignification creates an access barrier to potentially digestible wall material by rumen bacteria if cells have not been physically ruptured. Traditional breeding has focused on increasing total dry matter digestibility rather than cell wall digestibility, which has resulted in minimal reductions in cell wall lignification. Brown midrib mutants in some annual grasses exhibit small reductions in lignin concentration and improved cell wall digestibility. Similarly, transgenic approaches down-regulating genes in monolignol synthesis have produced plants with reduced lignin content and improved cell wall digestibility. While major reductions in lignin concentration have been associated with poor plant fitness, smaller reductions in lignin provided measurable improvements in digestibility without significantly impacting agronomic fitness. Additional targets for genetic modification to enhance digestibility and improve roughages for use as biofuel feedstocks are discussed; including manipulating cell wall polysaccharide composition, novel lignin structures, reduced lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking, smaller lignin polymers, enhanced development of non-lignified tissues, and targeting specific cell types. Greater tissue specificity of transgene expression will be needed to maximize benefits while avoiding negative impacts on plant fitness.cauliflower mosiac virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Apparent seed digestibility and germination of seeds after passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited information is available regarding the digestibility or germination of seed after the passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), especially of plants associated with the sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-mixed prairie community. Thus, our objectives...

  18. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  19. Digestive oncologist in the gastroenterology training curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Chris Jacob Johan; Peeters, Marc; Cats, Annemieke; Dahele, Anna; Droste, Jochim Terhaar sive

    2011-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, gastroenterology (GE) was considered a subspecialty of Internal Medicine. Today, GE also incorporates Hepatology. However, Digestive Oncology training is poorly defined in the Hepatogastroenterology (HGE)-curriculum. Therefore, a Digestive Oncology curriculum should be developed and this document might be a starting point for such a curriculum. HGE-specialists are increasingly resisting the paradigm in which they play only a diagnostic and technical role in the management of digestive tumors. We suggest minimum end-points in the standard HGE-curriculum for oncology, and recommend a focus year in the Netherlands for Digestive Oncology in the HGE-curriculum. To produce well-trained digestive oncologists, an advanced Digestive Oncology training program with specific qualifications in Digestive Oncology (2 years) has been developed. The schedule in Belgium includes a period of at least 6 mo to be spent in a medical oncology department. The goal of these programs remains the production of well-trained digestive oncologists. HGE specialists are part of the multidisciplinary oncological teams, and some have been administering chemotherapy in their countries for years. In this article, we provide a road map for the organization of a proper training in Digestive Oncology. We hope that the World Gastroenterology Organisation and other (inter)national societies will support the necessary certifications for this specific training in the HGE-curriculum. PMID:21556128

  20. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  1. Digestive ripening: a synthetic method par excellence for core–shell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Digestive ripening: a synthetic method par excellence for core–shell, alloy, and composite nanostructured materials. SRILAKSHMI P BHASKAR and BALAJI R JAGIRDAR. ∗. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India e-mail: jagirdar@ipc.iisc.ernet.in. Abstract.

  2. A standardised static in vitro digestion method suitable for food-an international consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.; Alminger, M.; Alvito, P.; Ballance, S.; Bohn, T.; Bourlieu, C.; Carrière, F.; Boutrou, R.; Corredig, M.; Dupont, D.; Dufour, C.; Egger, L.; Golding, M.; Karakaya, S.; Kirkhus, B.; Le Feunteun, S.; Lesmes, U.; MacIerzanka, A.; MacKie, A.; Marze, S.; McClements, D.J.; Ménard, O.; Recio, I.; Santos, C.N.; Singh, R.P.; Vegarud, G.E.; Wickham, M.S.J.; Weitschies, W.; Brodkorb, A.

    2014-01-01

    Simulated gastro-intestinal digestion is widely employed in many fields of food and nutritional sciences, as conducting human trials are often costly, resource intensive, and ethically disputable. As a consequence, in vitro alternatives that determine endpoints such as the bioaccessibility of

  3. Inhibition of Growth and Nutrient Digestibility in the Cichlid, Tilapia zilli

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... protein and carbohydrate were poorly utilised in the groups exposed to 15.63 mL/L and above. The implications of used automobile lubricating oil as it affects growth and nutrient digestibility by fish in polluted aquatic environment are discussed. Journal of Aquatic Sciences Volume 16, April 2001, pp. 25-28. KEY WORDS:

  4. Co-digestion of municipal organic wastes with night soil and cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB. African Journal of Biotechnology. Review. Co-digestion of municipal organic wastes with night soil and cow dung for biogas production: A Review. Alemayehu Gashaw. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, Bule Hora University, Bule Hora, Ethiopia.

  5. The effect of low-level kelp supplementation on digestive enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Marine Science ... We suggest that the presence of dietary kelp modulates the abalone's gut bacteria and their nutrient exchange. Proteomic identification of proteins in abalone gut sections showed that exogenous enzymes associated with the gut microbiome aid in bacterial utilisation of digested ...

  6. Deploying anaerobic digesters: Current status and future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P. [International Energy Agency, Paris (France); Wheeler, P. [ETSU (United Kingdom); Rivard, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Unmanaged pollutants from putrescible farm, industrial, and municipal wastes degrade in the environment, and methane emitted from their decomposition may contribute to global climate change. Under modern environmental regulations, these wastes are becoming difficult to dispose of using traditional means. One waste management system, anaerobic digestion or AD, not only provides pollution prevention but can also convert a disposal problem into a new profit center. This report is drawn from a special session of the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Agricultural reuse of the digestate from low-cost tubular digesters in rural Andean communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfí, Marianna; Gelman, Pau; Comas, Jordi; Carrasco, William; Ferrer, Ivet

    2011-12-01

    This research aimed at assessing the properties of guinea pig manure digestate from low-cost tubular digesters for crops fertilization in rural Andean communities. To this end, field trials were carried out to evaluate the effect of the digestate on two common Andean crops: potato (Solanum tuberosum) and forage (Lolium multiflorum and Trifolium pratense L.). The potato yield (20-25 tha(-1)) increased by 27.5% with digestate, by 15.1% with pre-compost and by 10.3% with the mixture, compared to the control. The forage yield (20-21 tha(-1)) increased by 1.4% with digestate - 50% dose, and by 8.8% with digestate - 100% dose and digestate - 150% dose, compared to the control. The results suggest that the digestate is an appropriate substitute of manure pre-compost for potato fertilization. The results with forage indicate that it can be applied in a range of doses, according to the amount produced by the digester. Currently, manure is either used for cooking or as fertilizer. With low-cost tubular digesters implementation, it could be used to feed the digester, using the digestate for crops fertilization and biogas for cooking; improving household living conditions and protecting the environment. Since soil properties in rural Andean communities differ from experimental layouts, the effect of fertilizers should be re-evaluated in-situ in future research studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van der P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in

  9. Digestate and ash as alternatives to conventional fertilisers: Benefits and threats to soil biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rachel; Lag-Brotons, Alfonso J.; Herbert, Ben; Hurst, Lois; Ostle, Nick; Dodd, Ian C.; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; Aiouache, Farid; Semple, Kirk T.

    2017-04-01

    Recovering energy and nutrients from waste offers opportunities to tackle issues of energy and food security whilst simultaneously improving waste management. Waste materials from the bioenergy industry potentially contain valuable resources for use in agriculture and there is growing evidence to suggest that the use of digestate, from anaerobic digestion, and biomass ash from incineration processes could contribute to improving soil health and nutrition. The work presented here is part of the Adding Value to Ash and Digestate (AVAnD) project which looks at the impacts of digestate and ash blends on soil fertility, crop yields and soil health. Whilst increased crop productivity is one of the essential indicators of the success of these alternative soil amendments; it is important that the impacts on soil biological function is understood. Field and lab experiments were conducted with a number of different fertiliser treatments, including conventional fertiliser (urea and superphosphate), digestate from two contrasting feedstocks, ash material and ash-digestate blends. Looking across different biological scales from soil microbe to soil macro-fauna, this work examines the benefits and threats to soil biota arising from the use of ash-digestate fertilisers in agriculture. Measurements of microbial respiration and biomass (by chloroform fumigation) and community composition (by phospholipid fatty acid analysis) were made at different timescales (days/weeks). Data from these studies demonstrates that none of the soil amendments decreased microbial activity or biomass in the short term (t= 1 month). Additions of both conventional fertilisers and the fertilisers derived from waste stimulated microbial activity with significantly higher respiration observed from the digestate based treatments. Digestate-based treatments also resulted in higher soil microbial biomass and differential effects were observed between digestate amendments with and without ash. These results

  10. Information science in transition

    CERN Document Server

    Gilchrist, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Are we at a turning point in digital information? The expansion of the internet is unprecedented. Will information science become part of computer science and does rise of the term informatics demonstrate convergence of information science and information technology - a convergence that must surely develop? This work reflects on such issues.

  11. Boundary issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine

  12. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 12 ... REGULAR ARTICLE Volume 129 Issue 12 December 2017 pp 1893-1903 ... Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, People's Republic of China; Faculty of Chemical ...

  13. Science teaching in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  14. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Forthcoming articles. Forthcoming Issue - Volume , Issue. Journal of Earth System Science. Please note that these full text PDF files contain the unedited and unformatted versions of the accepted papers scheduled to be published in the forthcoming issues.

  15. Bulletin of Materials Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 26; Issue 1. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 26, Issue 1. January 2003, pages 1-205. Proceedings of the first conference of the “Asian Consortium for Computational Materials Science (ACCMS-1)”, Bangalore, 2001. pp 1-2. Foreword · G P Das V Kumar S ...

  16. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 4. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 125, Issue 4. July 2013, pages 705-958. pp 705-705. Team Change at the Journal of Chemical Sciences · R Ramaswamy · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 707-714. NO2-induced synthesis of nitrato-iron(III) porphyrin ...

  17. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 121; Issue 1. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 121, Issue 1. January 2009, pages 5-106. pp 5-5. Editor's Note % Instance of plagiarism in Journal of Chemical Sciences · S S Krishnamurthy · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 7-21 Perspective Article. The role of specific ...

  18. Ruminant physiology: digestion, metabolism and impact of nutrition on gene expression, immunology and stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sejrsen, K; Hvelplund, T; Nielsen, M. O

    2006-01-01

    ... principles set up by the guidance committee in Pretoria. The chapters cover a wide range of topics spanning from digestion and absorption over metabolism, reproduction and lactation. Progress in knowledge within important issues related to rumen fermentation, absorption mechanisms and splanchnic metabolism is treated in nine chapters. A number of chapters...

  19. Alignment of Standards and Assessments as an Accountability Criterion. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Paul M.

    This digest provides an overview of the concept of alignment and the role it plays in assessment and accountability systems. It also discusses methodological issues affecting the study of alignment and explores the relationship between alignment and test score interpretation. Alignment refers to the degree of match between test content and subject…

  20. Nanoscale Molecules Under Thermodynamic Control:" Digestive Ripening" or " Nanomachining"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-06-04

    Overall Research Goals and Specific Objectives: Nanoscale materials are becoming ubiquitous in science and engineering, and are found widely in nature. However, their formation processes and uniquely high chemical reactivities are not understood well, indeed are often mysterious. Over recent years, a number of research teams have described nanoparticle synthesis, and aging, thermal treatment, or etching times have been mentioned. We have used the terms “digestive ripening” and “nanomachining” and have suggested that thermodynamics plays an important part in the size adjustment to monodisperse arrays being formed. Since there is scant theoretical understanding of digestive ripening, the overall goal in our research is to learn what experimental parameters (ligand used, temperature, solvent, time) are most important, how to control nanoparticle size and shape after initial crude nanoparticles have been synthesized, and gain better understanding of the chemical mechanism details. Specific objectives for the past twentynine months since the grant began have been to (1) Secure and train personnel;as of 2011, a postdoc Deepa Jose, female from the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, India; Yijun Sun, a second year graduate student, female from China; and Jessica Changstrom, female from the USA, GK12 fellow (program for enhancing teaching ability) are actively carrying out research. (2) Find out what happens to sulfur bound hydrogen of thiol when it interacts with gold nanoparticles. Our findings are discussed in detail later. (3) Determine the effect of particle size, shape, and temperature on dodecyl thiol assited digestive ripening of gold nanoparticles. See our discussions later. (4) To understand in detail the ligand interaction in molecular clusters and nanoparticles (5) Determine the effect of chain length of amines on Au nanoparticle size under digestive ripening conditions (carbon chain length varied from 4-18). (6) Determine the catalytic activity

  1. Nutrient Losses during Winter and Summer Storage of Separated and Unseparated Digested Cattle Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzolo, Francesca; Mattachini, Gabriele; Riva, Elisabetta; Provolo, Giorgio

    2017-07-01

    Management factors affect nutrient loss during animal manure slurry storage in different ways. We conducted a pilot-scale study to evaluate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses from unseparated and digested dairy slurry during winter and summer storage. In addition to season, treatments included mechanical separation of digestate into liquid and solid fractions and bimonthly mixing. Chemical analyses were performed every 2 wk for the mixed materials and at the start and end of storage for unmixed materials. The parameters examined allowed us to estimate C and N losses and examine the factors that determine these losses as well as emission patterns. Gas measurements were done every 2 wk to determine the main forms in which gaseous losses occurred. To evaluate the effect of separation, measured losses and emissions of separated liquid and solid fractions were mathematically combined using the mass separation efficiency of the mechanical separator. Nutrient losses were mainly affected by climatic conditions. Losses of C (up to 23%) from unseparated, unmixed digestate and of N (38% from combined separated fractions and from unseparated digestate) were much greater in summer than in winter, when C and N losses were digestate. Results indicate that to maximize the fertilizer value of digested slurry, dairy farmers must carefully choose management practices, especially in summer. For separated digestates, practices should focus on storage of the liquid fraction, the major contributor of C and N losses (up to 64 and 90% of total losses, respectively) in summer. Moreover, management practices should limit NH, the main form of N losses (up to 99.5%). Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Chemically modified, immobilized trypsin reactor with improved digestion efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freije, J.R.; Mulder, P.P.; Werkman, W.; Rieux, L.; Niederlander, H.A G; Verpoorte, Sabeth; Bischoff, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Tryptic digestion followed by identification using mass spectrometry is an important step in many proteomic studies. Here, we describe the preparation of immobilized, acetylated trypsin for enhanced digestion efficacy in integrated protein analysis platforms. Complete digestion of cytochrome c was

  3. This Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors / Herausgeber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the last issue of DIEGESIS (4.1 was dedicated to “Narrative and Lies”, the current volume’s focus shifts to “Narrative and Truth”. Is there a correlation between a narrative’s truth claim and its form? Does the form of narrative allow for the possibility of certain types of truth-oriented discourses in the first place? Or does it, on the contrary, prove an impediment to authentic truthful speech?Johannes Stephan distinguishes two kinds of travelogues: those reproducing received knowledge and those attempting to present the traveller’s experiences. One example of the latter type is the Arabic ‘Travel Book’ (1764 by the Syrian author Ḥanna Dyāb, in which focalization is used not only to witness but also to visualise the experiences of the traveller.Evelyn Chew and Alex Mitchell discuss a similar problem with application to contemporary texts. They investigate the construction of truth claims in three interactive nonfiction life stories in different genres. In the three case studies, of an autobiography, a biographical docugame and a video-based web documentary respectively, subjective and objective legitimation strategies are investigated.Against a backdrop of philosophical discussions of the epistemic value of narration and with specific reference to Aristotle’s Poetics, Malte Dreyer distinguishes three forms of generating coherence in narrative texts: the causal, the teleological and the holistic. He goes on to apply these concepts to social contract theories and to discuss the validity claims of the different types of narrative explanation.In this issue’s “My Narratology” section, James Phelan responds to our questions about his personal ideas of narratology. He describes his own approach as “theorypractice” and argues in favour of conceptualising narrative as “rhetorical action”.We wish you an interesting read!

  4. Low cost digester monitoring under realistic conditions: Rural use of biogas and digestate quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L; Escalante, H; Jaimes-Estévez, J; Díaz, L J; Vecino, K; Rojas, G; Mantilla, L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the behaviour of anaerobic digestion of cattle manure in a rural digester under realistic conditions, and estimate the quality and properties of the digestate. The data obtained during monitoring indicated that the digester operation was stable without risk of inhibition. It produced an average of 0.85Nm3biogas/d at 65.6% methane, providing an energy savings of 76%. In addition, the digestate contained high nutrient concentrations, which is an important feature of fertilizers. However, this method requires post-treatment due to the presence of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The prognostic significance of UCA1 for predicting clinical outcome in patients with digestive system malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-Teng; Dong, Qing; Gao, Hui; Zhu, Zheng-Ming

    2017-06-20

    Urothelial Carcinoma Associated 1 (UCA1) was an originally identified lncRNA in bladder cancer. Previous studies have reported that UCA1 played a significant role in various types of cancer. This study aimed to clarify the prognostic value of UCA1 in digestive system cancers. The meta-analysis of 15 studies were included, comprising 1441 patients with digestive system cancers. The pooled results of 14 studies indicated that high expression of UCA1 was significantly associated with poorer OS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR: 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.52-2.26). In addition, UCA1 could be as an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS of patients (HR: 1.85, 95 % CI: 1.45-2.25). The pooled results of 3 studies indicated a significant association between UCA1 and DFS in patients with digestive system cancers (HR = 2.50; 95 % CI = 1.30-3.69). Statistical significance was also observed in subgroup meta-analysis. Furthermore, the clinicopathological values of UCA1 were discussed in esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. A comprehensive retrieval was performed to search studies evaluating the prognostic value of UCA1 in digestive system cancers. Many databases were involved, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang database. Quantitative meta-analysis was performed with standard statistical methods and the prognostic significance of UCA1 in digestive system cancers was qualified. Elevated level of UCA1 indicated the poor clinical outcome for patients with digestive system cancers. It may serve as a new biomarker related to prognosis in digestive system cancers.

  6. Measurement of true ileal phosphorus digestibility in meat and bone meal for broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutucumarana, R K; Ravindran, V; Ravindran, G; Cowieson, A J

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate true ileal phosphorus (P:) digestibility of 3 meat and bone meal samples (MBM-1, MBM-2: , and MBM-3:) for broiler chickens. Four semipurified diets were formulated from each sample to contain graded concentrations of P. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design with 6 replicates (6 birds per replicate) per dietary treatment. A total of 432 Ross 308 broilers were assigned at 21 d of age to the 12 test diets. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P was determined by the indicator method, and the linear regression method was used to determine the true P digestibility coefficient. The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed diets containing MBM-1 and MBM-2 was unaffected by increasing dietary concentrations of P (P > 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficient of P in birds fed the MBM-3 diets decreased with increasing P concentrations (linear, P birds fed the MBM-1 and MBM-2 diets, ileal endogenous P losses were estimated to be 0.049 and 0.142 g/kg DM intake (DMI:), respectively. In birds fed the MBM-3 diets, endogenous P loss was estimated to be negative (-0.370 g/kg DMI). True ileal P digestibility of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 was determined to be 0.693, 0.608, and 0.420, respectively. True ileal P digestibility coefficients determined for MBM-1 and MBM-2 were similar (P < 0.05), but were higher (P < 0.05) than that for MBM-3. Total P and true digestible P contents of MBM-1, MBM-2, and MBM-3 were determined to be 37.5 and 26.0; 60.2 and 36.6; and 59.8 and 25.1 g/kg, respectively, on an as-fed basis. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  8. Wheat starch digestion rate affects broiler performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.; Perez de Ayala, P.; Villamide, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the differences in starch digestion rate (KDS) among wheats from different cultivars and origins and to verify if chickens would benefit from a certain digestion rate of starch. In the first experiment, 192 chickens (21 d) were assigned to 4 diets

  9. Daily food intake and digestibility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T; Ostergård, K; Hansen, I; Bach Knudsen, K E; Eggum, B O

    1991-01-01

    The present work with growing rats was undertaken to study the effect of daily food intake (DFI) on true protein digestibility (TD), and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), energy (DE), starch, soluble dietary fibre (SDF) and insoluble dietary fibre (IDF). The design involved two different dietary combinations, barley + rapeseed meal (diet 1) and oats + wheat bran (diet 2). A slight but significantly negative relationship was seen between DFI and TD on diet 1 while no such relationship was found on diet 2. Although significant, DFI influenced DM digestibility of both diets only slightly. A similar situation could also be seen for the effect of DFI on DE. The digestibility of starch was significantly affected by DFI on both diets even though the lowest values were as high as 0.994. SDF digestibility (fermentability) was not influenced by DFI when the rats were given diet 1, while there was a significant negative effect of DFI on digestibility of SDF when diet 2 was given. The digestibility (fermentability) of IDF was not affected by DFI on either of the two diets. The results confirm the existence of a weak negative relationship between DFI and digestibility of a range of nutrients although the effect seems to be only marginal and of no importance under practical feeding conditions.

  10. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL

    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion

  11. Simulating Dinosaur Digestion in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peczkis, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity for use with a chapter on dinosaurs, prehistoric life, or digestion in which children make simulated dinosaur stomachs to gain hands-on experience about the theory of gastroliths, or stomach stones. Presents teacher information about the digestive processes in birds and dinosaurs. Discusses materials needed, objectives,…

  12. Trends in Peace Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia L.

    This ERIC Digest reviews the development and current status of peace education in the United States. After briefly surveying the peace education movement from its origins with a small group of educators in New England in the 1800s through its stigmatization as being anti-American during periods of hot and cold war, the Digest devotes more…

  13. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co...

  14. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE DIGESTIBILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Science

    The effect of environment on digestibility and intake is of concern considering global warming. Temperature decreased digestibility by 4.4% and intake by 15% for every degree rise in temperature. The implications on livestock production are considerable, reducing potential milk yields by approximately 36% for one degree ...

  15. Digestive strategies in two sympatrically occurring lagomorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, D.P.J.; Wieren, van S.E.; Bakker, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Separation of low digestible fibres and fermentation of the digestible part of the food in the caecum is an adaptation of some small herbivores to cope with low-quality forage. The caecum content is later re-ingested as soft faeces so that the herbivore can benefit from this protein-rich material.

  16. Severe Disabilities. ERIC Digest #311. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest defines the term "severe disabilities"; lists some typical behavioral characteristics of individuals with severe disabilities, such as self-mutilation and lack of self-care skills; and outlines the educational implications of severe disabilities. The digest stresses the need for a multidisciplinary approach to education; the…

  17. Inquiring into the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Teaching science by means of inquiry-based projects has the potential to transform the science lab into a place of debate and discovery, but teachers run the risk of either leaving students to work too independently or forcing them to be too dependent on our guidance. To counter these challenges, the author implemented changes in the way topics…

  18. Introduction to December 2013 issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wendy A

    2013-12-01

    In this introduction to the December 2013 issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, the editor discusses her goals to get the Journal back on track. She gives thanks for the research that continues to advance both science and practice in experimental psychology. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic co-digestion of forage radish and dairy manure in complete mix digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Ashley J; Lansing, Stephanie; Mulbry, Walter; Weil, Ray R

    2015-02-01

    Pilot-scale digesters (850 L) were used to quantify CH4 and H2S production when using forage radish cover crops as a co-digestion feedstock in dairy manure-based digesters. During two trials, triplicate mixed digesters were operated in batch mode with manure-only or radish+manure (27% and 13% radish by wet weight in Trial 1 and 2, respectively). Co-digestion increased CH4 production by 11% and 39% in Trial 1 and 2, respectively. As H2S production rapidly declined in the radish+manure digesters, CH4 production increased reaching high levels of CH4 (⩾67%) in the biogas. Over time, radish co-digestion lowered the H2S concentration in the biogas (0.20%) beyond that of manure-only digestion (0.34-0.40%), although cumulative H2S production in the radish+manure digesters was higher than manure-only. Extrapolated to a farm-scale (200 cows) continuous mixed digester, co-digesting with radish could generate 3150 m(3) CH4/month, providing a farmer additional revenue up to $3125/month in electricity sales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of animal waste: waste strength versus impact of mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Khursheed; Hoffmann, Rebecca; Klasson, Thomas; Al-Dahhan, M H

    2005-11-01

    We studied the effect of mode of mixing (biogas recirculation, impeller mixing, and slurry recirculation) and waste strength on the performance of laboratory scale digesters. The digesters were fed with 5% and 10% manure slurry, at a constant energy supply per unit volume (8 W/m3). The experiments were conducted in eight laboratory scale digesters, each having a working volume of 3.73 L, at a controlled temperature of 35+/-2 degrees C. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) was kept constant at 16.2 days, resulting in a total solids (TS) loading rate of 3.08 g/Ld and 6.2 g/Ld for 5% and 10% manure slurry feeds, respectively. Results showed that the unmixed and mixed digesters performed quite similarly when fed with 5% manure slurry and produced biogas at a rate of 0.84-0.94 L/Ld with a methane yield of 0.26-0.31 L CH4/g volatile solids (VS) loaded. This was possibly because of the low solids concentration in the case of 5% manure slurry, where mixing created by the naturally produced gas might be sufficient to provide adequate mixing. However, the effect of mixing and the mode of mixing became prominent in the case of the digesters fed with thicker manure slurry (10%). Digesters fed with 10% manure slurry and mixed by slurry recirculation, impeller, and biogas recirculation produced approximately 29%, 22% and 15% more biogas than unmixed digester, respectively. Deposition of solids inside the digesters was not observed in the case of 5% manure slurry, but it became significant in the case of 10% manure slurry. Therefore, mixing issue becomes more critical with thicker manure slurry.

  1. Integrating accelerated tryptic digestion into proteomics workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slysz, Gordon W; Schriemer, David C

    2009-01-01

    An accelerated protein digestion procedure is described that features a microscale trypsin cartridge operated under aqueous-organic conditions. High sequence coverage digestions obtained in seconds with small amounts of enzyme are possible with the approach, which also supports online integration of digestion with reversed-phase protein separation. The construction and operation of effective digestor cartridges for rapid sample processing are described. For workflows involving chromatographic protein separation an easily assembled fluidic system is presented, which inserts the digestion step after column-based separation. Successful integration requires dynamic effluent titration immediately prior to transmission through the digestor. This is achieved through the co-ordination of the column gradient system with an inverse gradient system to produce steady pH and organic solvent levels. System assembly and operation sufficient for achieving digestion and identification of subnanogram levels of protein are described.

  2. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  3. Digestive Processes of Haematophagous Insects. I. A Literature Review,

    Science.gov (United States)

    INSECTS , *DIGESTIVE SYSTEM), (*ARTHROPODA, DIGESTIVE SYSTEM), ENTOMOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY, BLOOD, INGESTION(PHYSIOLOGY), CULICIDAE, TICKS, ENZYMES, SALIVARY GLANDS, AEDES, ANOPHELES, DISEASE VECTORS, CULEX, DIPTERA

  4. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Partial Differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 4. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Partial Differential Equations and their Applications (PDEA-2017). Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 4 April 2017 pp 429-429 ...

  5. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Bioresources ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 8. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Bioresources: Prospecting, Utilization, and Conservation. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 8 August 2017 pp 814-814 ...

  6. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Bioprospection of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 11. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Bioprospection of Bioresources: Land to Lab Approach. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 11 November 2017 pp 1101-1101 ...

  7. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for Students and Teachers - 2017. Information and Announcements Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 861-861 ...

  8. Science Academies Summer Research Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 10. Science Academies Summer Research Fellowship Programme for Students and Teachers. Information and Announcements Volume 16 Issue 10 October 2011 pp 999-999 ...

  9. Science Academies Summer Refresher Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 10. Science Academies Summer Refresher Fellowship Programme for Students and Teachers - 2012. Information and Announcements Volume 17 Issue 10 October 2012 pp 1015-1018 ...

  10. Science Academies Refresher Course on Crustal Strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Science Academies Refresher Course on Crustal Strength Rheology and Seismicity (CSRS-2017). Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 3 March 2017 pp 328-328 ...

  11. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 10. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Chemistry. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 10 October 2017 pp 972-972. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Experimental Approaches ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 10. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Experimental Approaches to Molecular Microbiology and Cell Biology. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 10 October 2017 pp 971-971 ...

  13. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 11. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for Students and Teachers - 2018. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 11 November 2017 pp 1100-1100 ...

  14. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Theoretical Structural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 8. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Theoretical Structural Geology, Crystallography, Mineralogy, Thermodynamics, Experimental Petrology and Theoretical Geophysics. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 8 August 2017 ...

  15. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 9. Science Academies' Summer Research Fellowship Programme for Students and Teachers - 2015. Information and Announcements Volume 19 Issue 9 September 2014 pp 877-877 ...

  16. Trans: Issue 18 Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Murphie, Adrian Mackenzie, Mitchell Whitelaw

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is now perhaps a commonplace that digital, networked and informational media are extremely transient. They diversify in form and function at a dizzying rate. At the same time, they transit and fuse “social” and “natural” differences in a manner which reconfigures all the worlds involved. It is also perhaps a commonplace to suggest that some established powers have found it difficult to come to grips with this (although this is perhaps beginning to change. For many, from seriously challenged newspaper proprietors to established media disciplines, it might be time to pause for breath, if only for a moment—to regroup and adapt established practices and ideas, to count the survivors from among the old media worlds of just a few years ago.While occasionally sympathetic, this issue of the Fibreculture Journal questions this approach. If we pause for breath, it is to take in the new air. This issue draws on the accelerated evolutions of media forms and processes, the microrevolutions in the social (and even the natural sciences that dynamic media foster, even the way in which “new” media lead us to reconsider the diversity of “old” media species. Summed up simply here under the sign/event of the “trans,” this issue catalyzes new concepts, accounts of and suggestions for new practices for working with all these processes.

  17. [Starch digestion and glycemic indexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu; Yang, Yuexin; Wang, Guodong; Bian, Lihua

    2003-11-01

    After determined carbohydrate classification, two biscuits products, were evaluated glycemic indexes (GI) and insulin indexes (II). The analytical results showed that the two biscuits were with lower water content and higher lipid than bread. In term of carbohydrate (CHO), the ratio of slow digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) to total CHO for two biscuits (> 60%) were higher than bread (18.3%), although the sugar content were also higher. Contrast to GI and II value of glucose (as 100%), the GI and II for bread was 96.2% and 105.2%, respectively. The GIs for both biscuits were lower than 55%, as well as the IIs lower than 73%. It was showed that carbohydrate classification determination is a good way for food industry to produce products with ideal GI value.

  18. Collagenase isoforms for pancreas digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzi, Federico; Cainarca, Silvia; Marzorati, Simona; Bachi, Angela; Antonioli, Barbara; Nano, Rita; Verzaro, Roberto; Ricordi, Camillo

    2009-01-01

    The available information concerning the characteristics and composition of collagenase batches, which are effective in the digestion of human pancreas for islet transplants, is scarce and incomplete. A large inter- and intrabatched variability in activity and efficiency of blend enzymes available for isolation has been observed. The aim of this study was to characterize enzyme blend components. Liberase batches were characterized by SDS-PAGE analyses, microelectrophoresis, and then by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Three main bands were detected by SDS-PAGE analysis and submitted to MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Two bands were found to correspond to class I (isoform beta and another of 106 kDa) and one to class II (isoform delta) collagenase. These results represent an important step towards a complete characterization of enzymes, with the final aim of identifying key components for a standardized product.

  19. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Advances in Chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 9. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Advances in Chemical Sciences and Sustainable Development. Information and Announcements Volume 19 Issue 9 September 2014 pp 876-876 ...

  20. Amylase addition increases starch ruminal digestion in first-lactation cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozière, P; Steinberg, W; Silberberg, M; Morgavi, D P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an exogenous amylase preparation on digestion of low- and high-starch diets in dairy cattle. Rumen and total-tract nutrient digestibility were measured in a 4×4 Latin square design with 28-d periods using 4 first-lactation cows cannulated at the rumen and duodenum. Corn silage-based diets had 20 or 30% starch, attained by changing the composition of concentrate, with or without addition of an exogenous amylase preparation. Effects of the enzyme additive were observed on ruminal digestibility but not at the total-tract level. Ruminal digestibility of starch increased from 75% in control to 81% with amylase supplementation. This difference in ruminal starch digestion was compensated postruminally, so that the total-tract digestibility of starch was almost complete and did not differ between treatments. The amylase supplement also increased the true ruminal digestibility of organic matter but did not affect microbial N flow to the duodenum. Amylase supplement reduced the proportion of acetate and butyrate and increased that of propionate, particularly in the high-starch diet, where it tended to increase the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Other effects were a higher amylase activity in the solid-associated microbial community and a tendency for lower numbers of protozoa. In contrast, we observed no changes in intake, production, dry matter and fiber (neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber) digestibility, or ruminal digestion, and no or small changes on selected fibrolytic and amylolytic bacteria and on the microbial community in general. We conclude that the exogenous amylase improved starch digestion in the rumen in first-lactation cows with moderate intake and production levels. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.