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Sample records for sciences conventional x-ray

  1. In-Line Phase-Contrast X-ray Imaging and Tomography for Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Sheridan C; Stevenson, Andrew W; Wilkins, Stephen W

    2012-05-24

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography make use of the refraction of X-rays by the sample in image formation. This provides considerable additional information in the image compared to conventional X-ray imaging methods, which rely solely on X-ray absorption by the sample. Phase-contrast imaging highlights edges and internal boundaries of a sample and is thus complementary to absorption contrast, which is more sensitive to the bulk of the sample. Phase-contrast can also be used to image low-density materials, which do not absorb X-rays sufficiently to form a conventional X-ray image. In the context of materials science, X-ray phase-contrast imaging and tomography have particular value in the 2D and 3D characterization of low-density materials, the detection of cracks and voids and the analysis of composites and multiphase materials where the different components have similar X-ray attenuation coefficients. Here we review the use of phase-contrast imaging and tomography for a wide variety of materials science characterization problems using both synchrotron and laboratory sources and further demonstrate the particular benefits of phase contrast in the laboratory setting with a series of case studies.

  2. Differences of X-ray exposure between X-ray diagnostics with a conventional X-ray screen-system and with an image-intensifier-television-unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehr, H.; Vogel, H.; Reinhart, J.; Jantzen, R.

    1977-01-01

    During X-ray diagnostics of patients in the II. Medizinische Poliklinik the X-ray exposure was determined. It corresponded to the data described in literature. Two groups were compared: 518 patients examined with a conventional X-ray screen-system and 642 patients examined with an image-intensifier-television-system. The results demonstrated that with exception of thoracical X-ray examination the replacing of the old system by the television system brought a remarkable increase of the X-ray exposure. The doses depended of the patients constitution to a high degree. (orig.) [de

  3. Applications of Novel X-Ray Imaging Modalities in Food Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Schou

    science for understanding and designing food products. In both of these aspects, X-ray imaging methods such as radiography and computed tomography provide a non-destructive solution. However, since the conventional attenuation-based modality suers from poor contrast in soft matter materials, modalities...... with improved contrast are needed. Two possible candidates in this regard are the novel X-ray phase-contrast and X-ray dark-eld imaging modalities. The contrast in phase-contrast imaging is based on dierences in electron density which is especially useful for soft matter materials whereas dark-eld imaging....... Furthermore, the process of translating the image in image analysis was addressed. For improved handling of multimodal image data, a multivariate segmentation scheme of multimodal X-ray tomography data was implemented. Finally, quantitative data analysis was applied for treating the images. Quantitative...

  4. Constancy check of beam quality in conventional diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Alessandro M.; Badin, Romulo S.; Leite, Marina S.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2008-01-01

    A tandem ionization chamber was developed for quality control programs of X-ray equipment used in conventional radiography and mammography. A methodology for the use of the tandem chamber in the constancy check of diagnostic X-ray beam qualities was established. The application at a medical X-ray imaging facility of this established methodology is presented. The use of the tandem chamber in the constancy check of diagnostic X-ray beam qualities is a useful method to control the performance of the X-ray equipment

  5. Quasimonochromatic x-ray computed tomography by the balanced filter method using a conventional x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2004-01-01

    A quasimonochromatic x-ray computed tomography (CT) system utilizing balanced filters has recently been developed for acquiring quantitative CT images. This system consisted of basic components such as a conventional x-ray generator for radiography, a stage for mounting and rotating objects, and an x-ray line sensor camera. Metallic sheets of Er and Yb were used as the balanced filters for obtaining quasimonochromatic incident x rays that include the characteristic lines of the W Kα doublet from a tungsten target. The mean energy and energy width of the quasimonochromatic x rays were determined to be 59.0 and 1.9 keV, respectively, from x-ray spectroscopic measurements using a high-purity Ge detector. The usefulness of the present x-ray CT system was demonstrated by obtaining spatial distributions of the linear attenuation coefficients of three selected samples--a 20 cm diameter cylindrical water phantom, a 3.5 cm diameter aluminum rod, and a human head phantom. The results clearly indicate that this apparatus is surprisingly effective for estimating the distribution of the linear attenuation coefficients without any correction of the beam-hardening effect. Thus, implementing the balanced filter method on an x-ray CT scanner has promise in producing highly quantitative CT images

  6. Combined optic system based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics for focusing X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xuepeng; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Yi, Longtao; Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Fangzuo; Jiang, Bowen [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Two combined optic systems based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics (SBMO) were designed for focusing the X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source. One was based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) and a single-bounce ellipsoidal capillary (SBEC), in which the output focal spot with the size of tens of micrometers of the PFXRL was used as the “virtual” X-ray source for the SBEC. The other system was based on a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) and a single-bounce parabolic capillary (SBPC), in which the PPXRL transformed the divergent X-ray beam from an X-ray source into a quasi-parallel X-ray beam with the divergence of sever milliradians as the incident illumination of the SBPC. The experiment results showed that the combined optic systems based on PFXRL and SBEC with a Mo rotating anode X-ray generator with the focal spot with a diameter of 300 μm could obtain a focal spot with the total gain of 14,300 and focal spot size of 37.4 μm, and the combined optic systems based on PPXRL and SBPC with the same X-ray source mentioned above could acquire a focal spot with the total gain of 580 and focal spot size of 58.3 μm, respectively. The two combined optic systems have potential applications in micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption near edge structure, full field X-ray microscopes and so on.

  7. Radiographic techniques adaptation for any conventional X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, Diana R.; Ghilardi Netto, Thomaz; Martinez, Alexandre S.; Duarte, Sergio B.; Trad, Clovis S.; Brochi, Marco Aurelio C.

    2001-01-01

    In order to obtain a better risk-benefice relation in diagnostic radiology it turns out to be essential the control and optimization of the radiographic techniques used to reduce the absorbed doses until its minimum, keeping or adjusting the diagnostic image at any X-ray equipment. The present work deals with the standardization of radiographic techniques of chest, skull and pelvis, which is more suitable for obtaining a safe diagnostic with smaller doses, for a standard patient, at any conventional X-ray equipment. (author)

  8. The importance of conventional X-ray thorax examination for heart diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    In the case that a deseased heart changes its shape or size, typical X-ray signs are generated that can be monitored with conventional X-ray diagnostic like: thorax-overview, images, cymography, tomography. They allow a conclusion towards the pathoanatomy of the particular heart-chambers and the corresponding change in hemodynamics with respect to usual topography. The large vessels and the lungs usually offer additional X-ray signs that extend those of the heart and this way help to assure diagnoses. The usual X-ray findings at the heart, the coronary vessels and the lungs are represented comprehensively and traced back to their origins. (orig.) [de

  9. Submicron x-ray diffraction and its applications to problems in materials and environmental science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, N.; Celestre, R. S.; MacDowell, A. A.; Padmore, H. A.; Spolenak, R.; Valek, B. C.; Meier Chang, N.; Manceau, A.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-03-01

    The availability of high brilliance third generation synchrotron sources together with progress in achromatic focusing optics allows us to add submicron spatial resolution to the conventional century-old x-ray diffraction technique. The new capabilities include the possibility to map in situ, grain orientations, crystalline phase distribution, and full strain/stress tensors at a very local level, by combining white and monochromatic x-ray microbeam diffraction. This is particularly relevant for high technology industry where the understanding of material properties at a microstructural level becomes increasingly important. After describing the latest advances in the submicron x-ray diffraction techniques at the Advanced Light Source, we will give some examples of its application in material science for the measurement of strain/stress in metallic thin films and interconnects. Its use in the field of environmental science will also be discussed.

  10. Submicron X-Ray Diffraction and its Applications to Problems in Materials and Environmental Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J. R.

    2002-08-16

    The availability of high brilliance 3rd generation synchrotron sources together with progress in achromatic focusing optics allow to add submicron spatial resolution to the conventional century-old X-ray diffraction technique. The new capabilities include the possibility to map in-situ, grain orientations, crystalline phase distribution and full strain/stress tensors at a very local level, by combining white and monochromatic X-ray microbeam diffraction. This is particularly relevant for high technology industry where the understanding of material properties at a microstructural level becomes increasingly important. After describing the latest advances in the submicron X-ray diffraction techniques at the ALS, we will give some examples of its application in material science for the measurement of strain/stress in metallic thin films and interconnects. Its use in the field of environmental science will also be discussed.

  11. Submicron X-ray diffraction and its applications to problems in materials and environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; MacDowell, A.A.; Padmore, H.A.; Spolenak, R.; Valek, B.C.; Meier Chang, N.; Manceau, A.; Patel, J.R.

    2002-03-26

    The availability of high brilliance 3rd generation synchrotron sources together with progress in achromatic focusing optics allow to add submicron spatial resolution to the conventional century-old X-ray diffraction technique. The new capabilities include the possibility to map in-situ, grain orientations, crystalline phase distribution and full strain/stress tensors at a very local level, by combining white and monochromatic X-ray microbeam diffraction. This is particularly relevant for high technology industry where the understanding of material properties at a microstructural level becomes increasingly important. After describing the latest advances in the submicron X-ray diffraction techniques at the ALS, we will give some examples of its application in material science for the measurement of strain/stress in metallic thin films and interconnects. Its use in the field of environmental science will also be discussed.

  12. Performance of X-ray equipment used for conventional radiographic examinations of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Marco A.S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da; Khoury, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of X-ray equipment that are used for conventional X-ray examinations of children in four hospitals of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was evaluated. The methodology proposed by the Brazilian authority for radiation protection in diagnostic radiology was adopted. The performance tests were carried out in six X-ray machines and they consisted of measurements and determination of the X-ray tube output, linearity and constancy of radiation output, accuracy and reproducibility of the exposure time and tube potential, half-value layer (HVL), light field / X-ray field alignment and accuracy of the X-ray field indicator. It was observed that only one hospital had the suitable equipment for X-ray examinations of children. Results showed that all six equipment of the four hospitals presented unsatisfactory performance in some quality control tests. Only for some combinations of the exposure parameters, generally employed in pediatric X-ray examinations, some equipment complied with the authority requirements. (author)

  13. Deviation Value for Conventional X-ray in Hospitals in South Sulawesi Province from 2014 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, Ilham; Abdullah, Bualkar; Tahir, Dahlan

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the conventional X-ray machine parameters tested in the region of South Sulawesi from 2014 to 2016. The objective of this research is to know deviation of every parameter of conventional X-ray machine. The testing parameters were analyzed by using quantitative methods with participatory observational approach. Data collection was performed by testing the output of conventional X-ray plane using non-invasive x-ray multimeter. The test parameters include tube voltage (kV) accuracy, radiation output linearity, reproducibility and radiation beam value (HVL) quality. The results of the analysis show four conventional X-ray test parameters have varying deviation spans, where the tube voltage (kV) accuracy has an average value of 4.12%, the average radiation output linearity is 4.47% of the average reproducibility of 0.62% and the averaged of the radiation beam (HVL) is 3.00 mm.

  14. X-ray polarimetry with a conventional gas proportional counter through rise-time analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashida, K; Tsunemi, H; Torii, K; Murakami, H; Ohno, Y; Tamura, K

    1999-01-01

    We have performed an experiment on the signal rise time of a Xe gas proportional counter using a polarized X-ray beam of synchrotron orbital radiation with energies from 10 to 40 keV. When the counter anode is perpendicular to the electric vector of the incident X-ray photons, the average rise time becomes significantly longer than that for the parallel case. This indicates that the conventional gas proportional counters are useful for X-ray polarimetry. The moderate modulation contrast of this rise-time polarimeter (M=0.1 for 10 keV X-rays and M=0.35 for 40 keV X-rays), with capability of the simultaneous measuring X-ray energies and the timing, would be useful for applications in X-ray astronomy and in other fields.

  15. X-ray phase contrast imaging: From synchrotrons to conventional sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivo, A.; Castelli, E.

    2014-01-01

    Phase-based approaches can revolutionize X-ray imaging and remove its main limitation: poor image contrast arising from low attenuation differences. They exploit the unit decrement of the real part of the refractive index, typically 1000 times larger than the imaginary part driving attenuation. This increases the contrast of all details, and enables the detection of features classically considered 'X-ray invisible'. Following pioneering experiments dating back to the mid-sixties, X-ray phase contrast imaging 'exploded' in the mid-nineties, when third generation synchrotron sources became more widely available. Applications were proposed in fields as diverse as material science, palaeontology, biology, food science, cultural heritage preservation, and many others. Among these applications, medicine has been constantly considered the most important; among medical applications, mammography is arguably the one that attracted most attention. Applications to mammography were pioneered by the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) group in Trieste, which was already active in the area through a combination of innovative ways to do imaging at synchrotrons and development of novel X-ray detectors. This pioneering phase led to the only clinical experience of phase contrast mammography on human patients, and spawned a number of ideas as to how these advances could be translated into clinical practice.

  16. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis in environmental and earth sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other microscopic analytical tools X-ray microscopy techniques have the advantage that the large penetration depth of X-rays in matter allows one to investigate the interior of an object without destructive sample preparation. In combination with X-ray fluorescence tomography, analytical information from inside of a specimen can be obtained. Different X-ray analytical techniques can be used to produce contrast, X-ray absorption, fluorescence, and diffraction, to yield chemical, elemental, and structural information about the sample. Scanning microscopy on the basis of various lens systems in synchrotron radiation sources provides a routine spatial resolution of now about 100 nanometer but in the foreseeable future a 10–20 nanometer spatial resolution can be expected. X-ray absorption spectrometry can also provide chemical (speciation information on the sample. All this makes X-ray microscopy attractive to many fields of science. In this paper the techniques are briefly reviewed and a number of applications in the earth, planetary and cosmos sciences are illustrated with state-of-the art examples, while applications in the environmental sciences and biology are also briefly discussed.

  17. Diagnostic imaging of gout: comparison of high-resolution US versus conventional X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettenbacher, Thomas; Ennemoser, Sybille; Weirich, Harald [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ulmer, Hanno [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Health Economics, Innsbruck (Austria); Hartig, Frank; Klotz, Werner; Herold, Manfred [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2008-03-15

    The aim was to compare X-ray and ultrasound (US) in diagnosing gout. In a prospective study, 105 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of gout underwent conventional X-ray und high-resolution US in order to help in arriving at a definite diagnosis. X-ray findings suggestive of gout included soft-tissue opacifications with densities between soft tissue and bone, articular and periarticular bone erosions, and osteophytes at the margins of opacifications or erosions. US findings suggestive of gout included bright stippled foci and hyperechoic soft-tissue areas. Fifty-five patients had a definite diagnosis of gout (102 involved sites), 31 patients were diagnosed as having another disease (59 involved sites), and 19 patients were excluded from the study because a definite diagnosis could not be established. X-ray suggested gout with a sensitivity of 31% (32/102) and a specificity of 93% (55/59), whereas US suggested gout with a sensitivity of 96% (98/102) and a specificity of 73% (43/59). US was much more sensitive than conventional X-ray but less specific. Our data show that US often provided additional diagnostic information in patients with clinical suspicion of gout when laboratory findings and X-ray results were negative or inconclusive and should therefore be used in these cases. (orig.)

  18. Diagnostic imaging of gout: comparison of high-resolution US versus conventional X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettenbacher, Thomas; Ennemoser, Sybille; Weirich, Harald; Ulmer, Hanno; Hartig, Frank; Klotz, Werner; Herold, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to compare X-ray and ultrasound (US) in diagnosing gout. In a prospective study, 105 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of gout underwent conventional X-ray und high-resolution US in order to help in arriving at a definite diagnosis. X-ray findings suggestive of gout included soft-tissue opacifications with densities between soft tissue and bone, articular and periarticular bone erosions, and osteophytes at the margins of opacifications or erosions. US findings suggestive of gout included bright stippled foci and hyperechoic soft-tissue areas. Fifty-five patients had a definite diagnosis of gout (102 involved sites), 31 patients were diagnosed as having another disease (59 involved sites), and 19 patients were excluded from the study because a definite diagnosis could not be established. X-ray suggested gout with a sensitivity of 31% (32/102) and a specificity of 93% (55/59), whereas US suggested gout with a sensitivity of 96% (98/102) and a specificity of 73% (43/59). US was much more sensitive than conventional X-ray but less specific. Our data show that US often provided additional diagnostic information in patients with clinical suspicion of gout when laboratory findings and X-ray results were negative or inconclusive and should therefore be used in these cases. (orig.)

  19. Materials Science and X-ray Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, J.; Sutton, M.

    2008-01-01

    Many novel synchrotron-based X-ray techniques directly address the core questions of modern materials science but are not yet at the stage of being easy to use because of the lack of dedicated beamlines optimized for specific measurements. In this article, we highlight a few of these X-ray techniques and discuss why, with ongoing upgrades of existing synchrotrons and with new linear-accelerator-based sources under development, now is the time to ensure that these techniques are readily available to the larger materials research community.

  20. Low-dose phase contrast tomography with conventional x-ray sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, C. K., E-mail: charlotte.hagen.10@ucl.ac.uk; Endrizzi, M.; Diemoz, P. C.; Olivo, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Munro, P. R. T. [Optical + Biomedical Engineering Laboratory, School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia and Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation, and Analysis, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The edge illumination (EI) x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCi) method has been recently further developed to perform tomographic and, thus, volumetric imaging. In this paper, the first tomographic EI XPCi images acquired with a conventional x-ray source at dose levels below that used for preclinical small animal imaging are presented. Methods: Two test objects, a biological sample and a custom-built phantom, were imaged with a laboratory-based EI XPCi setup in tomography mode. Tomographic maps that show the phase shift and attenuating properties of the object were reconstructed, and analyzed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and quantitative accuracy. Dose measurements using thermoluminescence devices were performed. Results: The obtained images demonstrate that phase based imaging methods can provide superior results compared to attenuation based modalities for weakly attenuating samples also in 3D. Moreover, and, most importantly, they demonstrate the feasibility of low-dose imaging. In addition, the experimental results can be considered quantitative within the constraints imposed by polychromaticity. Conclusions: The results, together with the method's dose efficiency and compatibility with conventional x-ray sources, indicate that tomographic EI XPCi can become an important tool for the routine imaging of biomedical samples.

  1. Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone: conventional X-ray and MR imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, T.M.; Haeussler, M.D.; Poppek, S.; Woertler, K.; Rummeny, E.J.; Blasius, S.; Lindner, N.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the conventional X-ray and MR imaging features of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) of bone. Design. MRI examinations and conventional radiographs were reviewed in 39 patients with biopsy-proven MFH. Imaging characteristics were analyzed and the differential diagnoses assessed in a masked fashion by two experienced radiologists. Results. Typical X-ray features included aggressive, destructive tumor growth centrally located in the metaphysis of long bones. Periosteal reactions and expansive growth were rarely seen. On MR images extraosseous tumor spread was frequently noted. On T2-weighted images and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images most of the tumors displayed an inhomogeneous, nodular signal pattern with peripheral Gd-DTPA enhancement. Conclusions. Although several MR imaging criteria were typical for MFH none of them was specific. X-ray diagnosis of MFH may also prove difficult, with the main differential diagnosis being metastasis in the older and osteosarcoma in the younger population. (orig.)

  2. Construction of x-ray Kβ filters to monochromatize the radiation of a conventional x-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, M.V.B.; Oliveira, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The construction of Zr and Nb Kβ filters to produce monochromatic radiation of a conventional X-ray Mo-tube (λK a = 0.7107 A) is described. Disks of NB and Zr, 6.4 mm in diameter and 0.03 to 0.06 mm thick, were prepared. The filters performance was tested by means of NaCl powder difraction patterns. (author) [pt

  3. New Worlds / New Horizons Science with an X-ray Astrophysics Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Randall K.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Bandler, Simon; Brandt, W. N.; Hughes, John P.; McCammon, Dan; Matsumoto, Hironori; Mushotzky, Richard; Osten, Rachel A.; hide

    2014-01-01

    In 2013 NASA commenced a design study for an X-ray Astrophysics Probe to address the X-ray science goals and program prioritizations of the Decadal Survey New World New Horizons (NWNH) with a cost cap of approximately $1B. Both the NWNH report and 2011 NASA X-ray mission concept study found that high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy performed with an X-ray microcalorimeter would enable the most highly rated NWNH X-ray science. Here we highlight some potential science topics, namely: 1) a direct, strong-field test of General Relativity via the study of accretion onto black holes through relativistic broadened Fe lines and their reverberation in response to changing hard X-ray continuum, 2) understanding the evolution of galaxies and clusters by mapping temperatures, abundances and dynamics in hot gas, 3) revealing the physics of accretion onto stellar-mass black holes from companion stars and the equation of state of neutron stars through timing studies and time-resolved spectroscopy of X-ray binaries and 4) feedback from AGN and star formation shown in galaxy-scale winds and jets. In addition to these high-priority goals, an X-ray astrophysics probe would be a general-purpose observatory that will result in invaluable data for other NWNH topics such as stellar astrophysics, protostars and their impact on protoplanetary systems, X-ray spectroscopy of transient phenomena such as high-z gamma-ray bursts and tidal capture of stars by massive black holes, and searches for dark matter decay.

  4. Dose levels in conventional X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra M, J. A.; Gonzalez G, J. A.; Pinedo S, A.; Salas L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R.; Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.

    2009-10-01

    There were a series of measures in the General Hospital of Fresnillo in the X-ray Department in the areas of X-1 and X-2-ray rooms and in the neonatal intensive care unit 2, was determined the dose surface entry in eyes, thyroid and gonads for patients undergoing to X-ray study of chest Tele by thermoluminescent dosimetry. Five dosemeters were used in each one of the scans; so find the following dose ranges 20 + - 23 mGy to 350 + - 41 mGy. With the results obtained we can conclude that the procedures used and the equipment calibration is adequate. (Author)

  5. Time-resolved materials science opportunities using synchrotron x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Tischler, J.Z.

    1995-06-01

    The high brightness, high intensity, and pulsed time-structure of synchrotron sources provide new opportunities for time-resolved x-ray diffraction investigations. With third generation synchrotron sources coming on line, high brilliance and high brightness are now available in x-ray beams with the highest flux. In addition to the high average flux, the instantaneous flux available in synchrotron beams is greatly enhanced by the pulsed time structure, which consists of short bursts of x-rays that are separated by ∼tens to hundreds of nanoseconds. Time-resolved one- and two-dimensional position sensitive detection techniques that take advantage of synchrotron radiation for materials science x-ray diffraction investigations are presented, and time resolved materials science applications are discussed in terms of recent diffraction and spectroscopy results and materials research opportunities

  6. Head injury in childhood: comparison of sonography with the conventional X-ray and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, S.; Riebel, T.; Nazarenko, O.; Bassir, C.; Steger, W.; Vogl, T.; Felix, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to compare the value of ultrasound, conventional X-ray diagnosis and CT in detecting skull fractures and intracranial haemorrhage in children suffering from a head injury. Material and methods: We examined 210 children who had a head injury. In all cases the calvarium was investigated by ultrasound using a 7.0 MHz linear transducer. In children with an open fontanel (n=190) the cerebrum was screened additionally by ultrasound following a standard protocol. The sonographic findings were correlated to the X-ray examination (n=21) and CT (n=13). Results: Ultrasound enabled diagnosis of linear calvarial fractures (n=29), depressed fratures (n=6) and intracranial haemorrhage (n=8). X-Ray and XT examination confirmed the diagnosis of linear calvarial fractures in 16 cases, of depressed fractures in 6 cases. CT confirmed the sonographic diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage in 8 cases. Conclusion: Ultrasound as a primary method can replace the conventional X-ray in detecting calvarial fracture and posttraumatic sequelae. Additional CT examination depends on the sonographic and neurological status. (orig.) [de

  7. Long-term stability of beam quality and output of conventional X-ray units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Matsubara, Kosuke; Miyati, Tosiaki

    2015-01-01

    Conventional diagnostic X-ray units are used for radiographic imaging in many countries. For obtaining entrance surface doses, a numerical dose determination method has been applied in Japan. Although this technique is effective, it has to account for errors, particularly fluctuations, due to the beam quality and output of X-ray tubes. As a part of our quality control procedures, we recorded the entrance surface air kerma, tube voltage, and half-value layer measurements made for four diagnostic X-ray tubes over a 103-week period. The entrance surface air kerma for one of the four X-ray tubes had increased significantly by 11.4 % over 1 year from its initial setting, whereas the tube voltages and half-value layers did not deviate significantly from their initial values. Medical physicists and radiological technologists should be aware of this fluctuation for diagnostic X-ray tubes and take it into consideration when calculating the entrance surface air kerma.

  8. Long-term stability of beam quality and output of conventional X-ray units

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Matsubara, Kosuke; Miyati, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Conventional diagnostic X-ray units are used for radiographic imaging in many countries. For obtaining entrance surface doses, a numerical dose determination method has been applied in Japan. Although this technique is effective, it has to account for errors, particularly fluctuations, due to the beam quality and output of X-ray tubes. As a part of our quality control procedures, we recorded the entrance surface air kerma, tube voltage, and half-value layer measurements made for four diagnost...

  9. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Alan Hap [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90° Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ~ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 Å) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been demonstrated as a

  10. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.H.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1998-01-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90 o Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ∼ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 (angstrom)) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been

  11. Raios-x: fascinação, medo e ciência X-rays: fascination, fear and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Silva Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the discovery and the use of x-rays at the end of the XIXth and the beginning of the XXth century. X-rays greatly impacted science and everyday life. Their existence broke the idea that knowledge had reached a limiting step. In general, people regarded x-rays as a marvel of science, but reactions against their use were also found. Several applications were proposed, especially in medicine. However, little or no attention was paid to security measures, leading to health damages and even death. The development of the radiological protection took into account the accidents with the x-rays.

  12. X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrizzi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    X-ray imaging is a standard tool for the non-destructive inspection of the internal structure of samples. It finds application in a vast diversity of fields: medicine, biology, many engineering disciplines, palaeontology and earth sciences are just few examples. The fundamental principle underpinning the image formation have remained the same for over a century: the X-rays traversing the sample are subjected to different amount of absorption in different parts of the sample. By means of phase-sensitive techniques it is possible to generate contrast also in relation to the phase shifts imparted by the sample and to extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging to those details that lack enough absorption contrast to be visualised in conventional radiography. A general overview of X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques is presented in this review, along with more recent advances in this fast evolving field and some examples of applications.

  13. Radiation exposure of the Yazd Population from medical conventional X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzarjomehri, F.; Zare, M. H.; Dashti, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation dose knowledge through X-ray examinations and their distribution in Iran provides useful guidance on patient dose reduction. The results of the entrance skin dose (ESD s ) of five common radiographs in all radiology centers in Yazd province were reported in our previous study (2003). In the present study we have evaluated the collective effective dose of conventional X-ray examinations, as well as the annual per caput of Yazd population.Materials and Methods: The annual frequencies of 18 different types of conventional radiology examinations during April 2005 to March 2006 were recorded from all 35 radiology centers in Yazd province. The exposure conditions consisted of kVp, mAs, and Focus surface distance (FSD) of the examinations for the mode of exposure in each X-ray unit. 620 ESD were measured by diode dosimeter in 35 hospitals and clinics. The real exposure kVp for each radiology unit was measured by a Molt-0-Meter. The conversion coefficient (effective dose - ESD ratio) for each radiology examination was determined by using SR262 tables. Finally, the patients' effective dose was calculated by multiplying the conversion factor to the ESD. Results: The patients' annual collective effective dose due to the conventional radiology examinations was 31.159 man-Sv (0.03 mSv per inhabitant). The frequency of examinations was 311813 i.e. 0.36 examinations per head of the population for one year. Conclusion: According to our findings, the effective per caput dose seems to be optimally relative to HCL-II countries, which may be due to low mean effective dose that could obscure high examination frequency. The number of radiology conventional examinations and frequency of radiologist per1000 population of Yazd was more and lower than HCL-II countries respectively. Thus the justification of radiography requests in this province must be revised

  14. Metrological analysis of constancy tests in conventional medical X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Frederico L.; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C.; Squair, Peterson L.; Soares, Carlos M.; Silva, Teogenes A. da

    2005-01-01

    Constancy tests in x-ray diagnostic machines should follow performance requirements with the aim to verify their safety and quality and to protect workers, patients and public members that are or may be exposed to ionizing radiation risks. In the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, from 1999 to 2004, 110 radiometric and evaluation reports of x-ray machines were issued by accredited professionals. Most of the reports did not provide the estimation of the measurement uncertainty that should be part of the results; it means that there is a lack of metrological care in such reports which may cause difficulties to get a conclusive analysis. In this work, relevant sources of uncertainties were identified and estimated for the following tests carried out in a conventional x-ray machine: high voltage accuracy and reproducibility, air kerma rate repeatability and linearity and half-value layer determination. This work gives details on the methodology and the expanded and combined uncertainty values for each measuring procedure, which may be adopted as representative values for analysis of radiometric report. (author)

  15. Identification of resonant x-ray Raman scattering using SR- and conventional TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Q.; Burrow, B.; Baur, K.; Brennan, S.; Pianetta, P.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzing and control the surface contamination are important steps in the processing of integrated circuits. The need for using non-destructive analysis techniques either as laboratory or in-line inspection tools has increased dramatically in the past. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy is one of the best choices to fill such needs. Earlier works have established the phenomenon of resonant x-ray Raman scattering with excitation energy very close to the Si-K absorption edge (1.74 keV). In this work, similar phenomena are identified in W-silicide and GaAs substrate with the excitation of W-Lβ 9.67 keV) line, a choice of x-ray source for almost all the conventional TXRF systems nowadays. The observation of the resonant Raman peak is clearly the result of close proximity of W-L and As-K absorption edges to the excitation energy. Synchrotron TXRF measurements are performed by tuning the excitation energy. The resonant Raman peak shifts accordingly with the excitation energy, along with the drastic change of its intensity below and above the absorption edge of W-L or As-K in the respective samples. The current analysis provides new perspective for analyzing W- and As-containing samples, which suggests Raman background correction in conventional TXRF with W-Lβ excitation. (author)

  16. Quality of outpatient care of children and adolescents in conventional X-ray diagnosis - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasch, C.; Duetting, T.; Zieger, B.; Troeger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the current quality of the outpatient radiodiagnostic care of children and adolescents as demonstrated for the example of conventional X-ray procedures. Materials and Methods: A consecutive series of 166 outpatient X-rays, selected by fixed criteria, was analysed according to both diagnostic aspects and radiation protection. Results: The X-rays examined were mainly gathered from orthopedic and radiological practices and from hospital radiological departments. The majority of these outpatient X-rays showed significant deficiencies regarding exposure, appropriate field size, and focussing or positioning of the patient. After the evaluation of the 166 X-rays by a total-score, 25% (42/166) of the X-rays were considered to be diagnostically insufficient. Conclusions: Improvements in outpatient radiodiagnostics are necessary to ensure adequate radiodiagnostic care of children and adolescents. (orig.) [de

  17. High-speed X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckers, W.; Oppolzer, H.

    1977-01-01

    The investigation of lattice defects in semiconductor crystals by conventional X-ray diffraction topography is very time-consuming. Exposure times can be reduced by using high-intensity X-rays and X-ray image intensifiers. The described system comprises a high-power rotating-anode X-ray tube, a remote-controlled X-ray topography camera, and a television system operating with an X-ray sensing VIDICON. System performance is demonstrated with reference to exploratory examples. The exposure time for photographic plates is reduced to 1/20 and for the X-ray TV system (resolution of the order of 30 μm) to 1/100 relative to that required when using a conventional topography system. (orig.) [de

  18. Dynamic MR defecography of the posterior compartment: Comparison with conventional X-ray defecography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncelet, E; Rock, A; Quinton, J-F; Cosson, M; Ramdane, N; Nicolas, L; Feldmann, A; Salleron, J

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to compare conventional X-ray defecography and dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) defecography in the diagnosis of pelvic floor prolapse of the posterior compartment. Fifty women with a mean age of 65.5 years (range: 53-72 years) who underwent X-ray defecography and MR defecography for clinical suspicion of posterior compartment dysfunction, were included in this retrospective study. X-ray defecography and dynamic MR defecography were reviewed separately for the presence of pelvic organ prolapse. The results of the combination of X-ray defecography and MR defecography were used as the standard of reference. Differences in sensitivities between X-ray defecography and MR defecography were compared using the McNemar test. With the gold standard, we evidenced a total of 22 cases of peritoneocele (17 elytroceles, 3 hedroceles and 2 elytroceles+hedroceles), including 15 cases of enterocele, 28 patients with rectocele including 16 that retained contrast, 37 cases of rectal prolapse, and 11 cases of anismus. The sensitivities of X-ray defecography were 90.9% for the diagnosis of peritoneocele, 71.4% for rectocele, 81.1% for rectal prolapse and 63.6% for anismus. The sensitivities of MR defecography for the same diagnoses were 86.4%, 78.6%, 62.2% and 63.6%, respectively. For all these pathologies, no significant differences between X-ray defecography and MR defecography were found. Dynamic MR defecography is equivalent to X-ray defecography for the diagnosis of abnormalities of the posterior compartment of the pelvic floor. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. X-ray fluorescence imaging with polycapillary X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, Tasuku; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Tsuji, Kouichi

    2010-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry imaging is a powerful tool to provide information about the chemical composition and elemental distribution of a specimen. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry images were conventionally obtained by using a μ-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry spectrometer, which requires scanning a sample. Faster X-ray fluorescence spectrometry imaging would be achieved by eliminating the process of sample scanning. Thus, we developed an X-ray fluorescence spectrometry imaging instrument without sample scanning by using polycapillary X-ray optics, which had energy filter characteristics caused by the energy dependence of the total reflection phenomenon. In the present paper, we show that two independent straight polycapillary X-ray optics could be used as an energy filter of X-rays for X-ray fluorescence. Only low energy X-rays were detected when the angle between the two optical axes was increased slightly. Energy-selective X-ray fluorescence spectrometry images with projection mode were taken by using an X-ray CCD camera equipped with two polycapillary optics. It was shown that Fe Kα (6.40 keV) and Cu Kα (8.04 keV) could be discriminated for Fe and Cu foils.

  20. The Role of Project Science in the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, one of NASA's Great Observatories, has an outstanding record of scientific and technical success. This success results from the efforts of a team comprising NASA, its contractors, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the instrument groups, and other elements of the scientific community, including thousands of scientists who utilize this powerful facility for astrophysical research. We discuss the role of NASA Project Science in the formulation, development, calibration, and operation of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. In addition to representing the scientific community within the Project, Project Science performed what we term "science systems engineering". This activity encompasses translation of science requirements into technical requirements and assessment of the scientific impact of programmatic and technical trades. We briefly describe several examples of science systems engineering conducted by Chandra Project Science.

  1. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, L.J.

    1981-01-01

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  2. Evaluation of the use of computed tomography versus conventional orthogonal X-ray simulation in the treatment of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darben, P.; Lim-Joon, D.; Chao, M.; Gibbs, P.; Tjandra, J.; Jones, I.T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare and contrast the treatment fields designed using CT versus conventional orthogonal X-ray simulation in the treatment of patients with rectal cancer given preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nine patients participated in this study. The coverage of treatment fields, the volume of treatment fields, and the position of the anorectal junction in relation to the inferior border of the obturator foramen as the delineator of the pelvic floor were evaluated in each patient using CT and conventional orthogonal X-ray simulation. The results demonstrated undercoverage of the anterior border of the lateral fields of up to 2.5 cm in seven of nine patients when conventional orthogonal X-ray simulation was compared to CT simulation. In addition, the inferior border of the obturator foramen proved to be a poor delineator of the pelvic floor with the anorectal junction situated up to 2 cm superiorly in seven of nine patients. In conclusion, CT simulation is superior to conventional orthogonal X-ray simulation when designing treatment fields for patients with rectal cancer Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  3. Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Schönlein, R W; Alivisatos, A P; Belkacem, A; Berrah, N; Bozek, J; Bressler, C; Cavalleri, A; Chang, Z; Chergui, M; Falcone, R W; Glover, T E; Heimann, P A; Hepburn, J; Larsson, J; Lee, R W; McCusker, J; Padmore, H A; Pattison, P; Pratt, S T; Robin, D W; Schlüter, Ross D; Shank, C V; Wark, J; Zholents, A A; Zolotorev, M S

    2001-01-01

    We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

  4. Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2001-12-12

    We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron.

  5. Proposal to DOE Basic Energy Sciences: Ultrafast X-ray science facility at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenlein, Robert W.; Falcone, Roger W.; Abela, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.; Belkacem, A.; Berrah, N.; Bozek, J.; Bressler, C.; Cavalleri, A.; Chergui, M.; Glover, T.E.; Heimann, P.A.; Hepburn, J.; Larsson, J.; Lee, R.W.; McCusker, J.; Padmore, H.A.; Pattison, P.; Pratt, S.T.; Shank, C.V.; Wark, J.; Chang, Z.; Robin, D.W.; Schlueter, R.D.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    We propose to develop a true user facility for ultrafast x-ray science at the Advanced Light Source. This facility will be unique in the world, and will fill a critical need for the growing ultrafast x-ray research community. The development of this facility builds upon the expertise from long-standing research efforts in ultrafast x-ray spectroscopy and the development of femtosecond x-ray sources and techniques at both the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and at U.C. Berkeley. In particular, the technical feasibility of a femtosecond x-ray beamline at the ALS has already been demonstrated, and existing ultrafast laser technology will enable such a beamline to operate near the practical limit for femtosecond x-ray flux and brightness from a 3rd generation synchrotron

  6. Synchrotron x-ray sources and new opportunities in the soil and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, D.; Anderson, S.; Mattigod, S.

    1990-07-01

    This report contains the following papers: characteristics of the advanced photon source and comparison with existing synchrotron facilities; x-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS and XANES -- A versatile tool to study the atomic and electronic structure of materials; applications of x-ray spectroscopy and anomalous scattering experiments in the soil and environmental sciences; X-ray fluorescence microprobe and microtomography

  7. X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsmuir, J.H.; Ferguson, S.R.; D'Amico, K.L.; Stokes, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  8. The present state and future development of X-ray imaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Liang; Wang Xuben; Cao Hui

    2002-01-01

    Medical imaging has long been the hot topic of clinical medical sciences, the X-ray imaging equipment is a popular device of current medical imaging, and the digital imaging technology has become a challenge to the conventional plane imaging. The author first discusses that the key of X-ray-based imaging is the generator and detector of X-ray and the improvement of imaging software, and then points out that the future development of medical imaging will aim at the capability of reducing radiation and handling more efficient and accurate data capacity

  9. Evaluation of quality control in the college of medical radiological sciences, conventional x-ray department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiker, Esameldeen Mohamed Tom

    2002-02-01

    Quality control in diagnostic radiography aims to ensure continuous production of diagnostic images with optimum quality, using minimum necessary dose to the patients and staff. Therefore an ineffective quality control program can lead to poor quality images that can impair diagnosis, increase operating costs and contribute to unnecessary radiation exposure to both patients and staff. Apply basic quality control program is responsibility of each x-ray facility, and to achieve maximum benefits, all levels of management and technical staff must support and participate in operating the programme. The main parameters to be monitored during the quality control programme include: dose consistency, k Vp accuracy, k Vp variations, exposure timer accuracy, besides checking image receptors, recording system and processing conditions. The aims of this project is to evaluate the quality control in the x-ray department of the college of medical radiologic sciences. The evaluation was an experimental study done by checking the operational status of the radiographic equipment, beside data collection using questionnaires regarding quality control. In the applied experiments the results show that there is a noted variation in the accuracy of k Vp, exposure timer and also in the dose consistency. The obtained results from image receptors and processing system showed noted variations too. The results of the questionnaire and direct interviewing showed other causes of quality degradation such as absence of test tools, the status of the equipment, absence of regular quality control testing, in addition to absence of an organized team to deal with quality. (Author)

  10. PREFACE: Buried Interface Sciences with X-rays and Neutrons 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    The 2010 summer workshop on buried interface science with x-rays and neutrons was held at Nagoya University, Japan, on 25-27 July 2010. The workshop was organized by the Japan Applied Physics Society, which established a group to develop the research field of studying buried function interfaces with x-rays and neutrons. The workshop was the latest in a series held since 2001; Tsukuba (December 2001), Niigata (September 2002), Nagoya (July 2003), Tsukuba (July 2004), Saitama (March 2005), Yokohama (July 2006), Kusatsu (August 2006), Tokyo (December 2006), Sendai (July 2007), Sapporo (September 2007), Tokyo (December 2007), Tokyo-Akihabara (July 2009) and Hiratsuka (March 2010). The 2010 summer workshop had 64 participants and 34 presentations. Interfaces mark the boundaries of different material systems at which many interesting phenomena take place, thus making it extremely important to design, fabricate and analyse the structures of interfaces at both the atomic and macroscopic scale. For many applications, devices are prepared in the form of multi-layered thin films, with the result that interfaces are not exposed but buried under multiple layers. Because of such buried conditions, it is generally not easy to analyse such interfaces. In certain cases, for example, when the thin surface layer is not a solid but a liquid such as water, scientists can observe the atomic arrangement of the liquid-solid interface directly by using a scanning probe microscope, of which the tip is soaked in water. However, it has become clear that the use of a stylus tip positioned extremely close to the interface might change the structure of the water molecules. Therefore it is absolutely crucial to develop non-contact, non-destructive probes for buried interfaces. It is known that analysis using x-rays and neutrons is one of the most powerful tools for exploring near-surface structures including interfaces buried under several layers. In particular, x-ray analysis using 3rd

  11. Comparison of conventional and total reflection excitation geometry for fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy on droplet samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenberg, G.; Pepponi, G.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments in fluorescence mode have been performed in total reflection excitation geometry and conventional 45 deg. /45 deg. excitation/detection geometry for comparison. The experimental results have shown that XAFS measurements are feasible under normal total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) conditions, i.e. on droplet samples, with excitation in grazing incidence and using a TXRF experimental chamber. The application of the total reflection excitation geometry for XAFS measurements increases the sensitivity compared to the conventional geometry leading to lower accessible concentration ranges. However, XAFS under total reflection excitation condition fails for highly concentrated samples because of the self-absorption effect

  12. Conventional vs  invert-grayscale X-ray for diagnosis of pneumothorax in the emergency setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalar, Ekrem; Ekinci, Salih; Ünek, Orkun; Arş, Eda; Eren, Hakan Şevki; Gürses, Bengi; Aktaş, Can

    2017-09-01

    Pneumothorax is a pathologic condition in which air is accumulated between the visceral and parietal pleura. After clinical suspicion, in order to diagnose the severity of the condition, imaging is necessary. By using the help of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) direct conventional X-rays are converted to gray-scale and this has become a preferred method among many physicians. Our study design was a case-control study with cross-over design study. Posterior-anterior chest X-rays of patients were evaluated for pneumothorax by 10 expert physicians with at least 3years of experience and who have used inverted gray-scale posterior anterior chest X-ray for diagnosing pneumothorax. The study included posterior anterior chest X-ray images of 268 patients of which 106 were diagnosed with spontaneous pneumothorax and 162 patients used as a control group. The sensitivity of Digital-conventional X-rays was found to be higher than that of inverted gray-scale images (95% CI (2,08-5,04), ppneumothorax. Prospective studies should be performed where diagnostic potency of inverted gray-scale radiograms is tested against gold standard chest CT. Further research should compare inverted grayscale to lung ultrasound to assess them as alternatives prior to CT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre lengthscale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludwig, W.; King, A.; Reischig, P.

    2009-01-01

    Non-destructive, three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the grain structure in mono-phase polycrystalline materials is an open challenge in material science. Recent advances in synchrotron based X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer interesting possibilities for mapping 3D grain shapes....... A recent extension of this methodology, termed X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT), combines the principles of X-ray diffraction imaging, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (3DXRD) and image reconstruction from projections. DCT provides simultaneous access to 3D grain shape...

  14. Materials science with SR using x-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Masao

    1990-01-01

    Some examples of applications of synchrotron radiation to materials science demonstrate the importance of microstructure information within structural as well as functional materials in order to control their properties and quality as designed for industrial purposes. To collect such information, x-ray imaging in quasi real time is required in either the microradiographic mode or the diffraction (in transmission) mode. New measurement technologies based on imaging are applied to polycrystalline materials, single crystal materials and multilayered device materials to illustrate what kind of synchrotron radiation facility is most desirable for materials science and engineering. (author)

  15. Correlation of conventional simulation x-ray films and CT images for HDR-brachytherapy catheters reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, M.; Reddy, K.D.; Reddy, R.M.; Reddy, J.M.; Reddy, B.V.N.; Kiran Kumar; Gopi, S.; Dharaniraj; Janardhanan

    2002-01-01

    In order to plan a brachytherapy implant, it is imperative that implant reconstruction is done accurately. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether implant reconstruction done with transverse CT images is comparable to reconstruction done with conventional x-ray films

  16. Applications of synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence technique in materials science-possibilities at INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Manoj K.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy has seen remarkable progress over the last few decades. Numerous applications in basic and applied sciences demonstrate its importance. Various advantages of XRF technique have motivated us to construct a microfocus XRF beamline (BL-16) on Indus-2 national synchrotron radiation facility. The BL-16 beamline offers a wide range of usages - both from research laboratories and industries; and for researchers working in diverse fields. Apart from the fields of pure sciences like physics and chemistry, the beamline provides an attractive platform to exercise material science applications, interdisciplinary applied sciences like medical, forensic and environmental studies etc. In addition to micro-XRF characterization, BL-16 beamline allows a user to perform studies using other advanced synchrotron based experimental methodologies, viz; grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) analysis, chemical speciation, near-edge absorption spectroscopy and X-ray reflectivity studies of thin layered materials etc. The combined XRR-GIXRF analysis feature of the BL-16 beamline offers a novel capability to perform GIXRF assisted depth resolved X-ray studies to investigate chemical state and electronic structure of the thin nano-structured materials. The design aspects and various salient features of the BL-16 beamline X-ray reflectometer will be presented along with the measured performance. (author)

  17. Image Analysis for X-ray Imaging of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur

    for quality and safety evaluation of food products. In this effort the fields of statistics, image analysis and statistical learning are combined, to provide analytical tools for determining the aforementioned food traits. The work demonstrated includes a quantitative analysis of heat induced changes......X-ray imaging systems are increasingly used for quality and safety evaluation both within food science and production. They offer non-invasive and nondestructive penetration capabilities to image the inside of food. This thesis presents applications of a novel grating-based X-ray imaging technique...... and defect detection in food. Compared to the complex three dimensional analysis of microstructure, here two dimensional images are considered, making the method applicable for an industrial setting. The advantages obtained by grating-based imaging are compared to conventional X-ray imaging, for both foreign...

  18. Novel X-ray telescopes for wide-field X-ray monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Inneman, A.; Pina, L.; Sveda, L.

    2005-01-01

    We report on fully innovative very wide-field of view X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity as well as large field of view. The prototypes are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster-eye X-ray optics to be considered. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study and to understand various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. The Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science

  19. Frontiers in X-Ray Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The year 2010 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the optical laser and the first anniversary of the world's first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC. This exciting, new accelerator-based source of x-rays provides peak brilliances roughly a billion times greater than currently available from synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, and thus explores a qualitatively different parameter space. This talk will describe the first experiments at the LCLS aimed at understanding the nature of high intensity x-ray interactions, related applications in ultrafast imaging on the atomic scale and sketch nascent plans for the extension of both linac and storage-ring based photon sources.

  20. Collagen imaged by Coherent X-ray Diffraction: towards a complementary tool to conventional scanning SAXS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berenguer de la Cuesta, Felisa; Bean, Richard J; Bozec, Laurent; Robinson, Ian K; McCallion, Catriona; Wallace, Kris; Hiller, Jen C; Terrill, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Third generation x-ray sources offer unique possibilities for exploiting coherence in the study of materials. New insights in the structure and dynamics of soft condensed matter and biological samples can be obtained by coherent x-ray diffraction (CXD). However, the experimental procedures for applying these methods to collagen tissues are still under development. We present here an investigation for the optimal procedure in order to obtain high quality CXD data from collagen tissues. Sample handling and preparation and adequate coherence defining apertures are among the more relevant factors to take into account. The impact of the results is also discussed, in particular in comparison with the information that can be extracted from conventional scanning small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Images of collagen tissues obtained by CXD reconstructions will give additional information about the local structure with higher resolution and will complement scanning SAXS images.

  1. Collagen imaged by Coherent X-ray Diffraction: towards a complementary tool to conventional scanning SAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berenguer de la Cuesta, Felisa; Bean, Richard J; Bozec, Laurent; Robinson, Ian K [London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN), University College London (UCL), London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); McCallion, Catriona; Wallace, Kris [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (UCL), London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hiller, Jen C; Terrill, Nicholas J, E-mail: f.berenguer@ucl.ac.u [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-01

    Third generation x-ray sources offer unique possibilities for exploiting coherence in the study of materials. New insights in the structure and dynamics of soft condensed matter and biological samples can be obtained by coherent x-ray diffraction (CXD). However, the experimental procedures for applying these methods to collagen tissues are still under development. We present here an investigation for the optimal procedure in order to obtain high quality CXD data from collagen tissues. Sample handling and preparation and adequate coherence defining apertures are among the more relevant factors to take into account. The impact of the results is also discussed, in particular in comparison with the information that can be extracted from conventional scanning small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Images of collagen tissues obtained by CXD reconstructions will give additional information about the local structure with higher resolution and will complement scanning SAXS images.

  2. Implementation of a patient dose monitoring system in conventional digital X-ray imaging: initial experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilmaier, Christina; Zuber, Niklaus; Weishaupt, Dominik [Stadtspital Triemli Zurich, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose was to report on the initial experience after implementation of a patient dose-monitoring system in conventional X-ray imaging. A dose-monitoring system collected dose data relating to different radiographs (one projection) and studies (two or more projections). Images were acquired on digital X-ray systems equipped with flat-panel detectors. During period 1, examinations were performed in a routine fashion in 12,614 patients. After period 1, technical modifications were performed and radiographers underwent training in radiation protection. During period 2, examinations were performed in 14,514 patients, and the radiographers were advised to read dose data after each radiograph/study. Dose data were compared by means of kerma area product (KAP, gray x centimetre squared) and entrance surface air kerma (ESAK, milligray). During period 1, 13,955 radiographs and 8,466 studies were performed, and in period 2 16,090 radiographs and 10,389 studies. In period 2, KAP values for radiographs were an average of 25 % lower and for studies 7 % lower, and ESAK values for radiographs were 24 % lower and for studies 5 % lower. The reduction in KAP was significant in 8/13 radiographs and in 6/14 studies, and the reduction in ESAK was significant in 6/13 radiographs and 5/14 studies. Implementation of a patient dose-monitoring system in conventional X-ray imaging allows easy data collection, supports dose reduction efforts, and may increase radiographers' dose awareness. (orig.)

  3. Test facility for astronomical x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Lewis, Robert A.; Bordas, J.

    1990-01-01

    Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earth's atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source that is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has to appro......Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earth's atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source that is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has...... to approximate that encountered under working conditions; however, the testing of these optical elements is notoriously difficult with conventional x-ray generators. Synchrotron radiation (SR) sources are sufficiently brilliant to produce a nearly perfect parallel beam over a large area while still retaining...... a flux considerably higher than that available from conventional x-ray generators. A facility designed for the testing of x-ray optics, particularly in connection with x-ray telescopes, is described. It is proposed that this facility will be accommodated at the Synchrotron Radiation Source...

  4. Radiation exposure in X-ray angiography and comparisons between digital and conventional methods of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    The more recent developments and techniques in the field of angiography are examined for associated radiation exposure risks for patients and investigators and then compared to the conventional methods of angiography. It could be shown that digital subtraction angiography is generally associated with a lesser risk of somatic exposure of the patient, provided that the equipment used offers an adjustable useful-beam range and focus. The fact that above-table X-ray tubes are now generally replaced with X-ray systems installed under the examination table permits the relatively high doses, to which investigators are exposed during angiography, to be reduced by a factor of 3. (DG) [de

  5. X-ray, neutron, and electron scattering. Report of a materials sciences workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The ERDA Workshop on X-ray, Neutron, and Electron Scattering to assess needs and establish priorities for energy-related basic research on materials. The general goals of the Workshop were: (1) to review various energy technologies where x-ray, neutron, and electron scattering techniques might make significant contributions, (2) to identify present and future materials problems in the energy technologies and translate these problems into requirements for basic research by x-ray, neutron, and electron scattering techniques, (3) to recommend research areas utilizing these three scattering techniques that should be supported by the DPR Materials Sciences Program, and (4) to assign priorities to these research areas

  6. Field size and centring for conventional X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimpel, H.; Kreienfeld, H.; Overbeck, R.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1973, all X-ray equipment for medical applications in the Federal Republic of Germany has had to be examined according to the requirements of the German ''Rontgenverordnung'' before it is used on patients and after each essential modification of design or construction. These examinations are carried out by inspectors appointed by the authorities, e.g. TUV. The field size adjustment and the centring of the radiation beam in relation to the image reception area is checked, along with other tests. To increase quality assurance in X-ray diagnosis, since the mid-1980s X-ray equipment has also been subject to in-service inspections to an increasing extent. (author)

  7. Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstadter, Donald [Ann Arbor, MI; He, Fei [Ann Arbor, MI; Lau, Yue-Ying [Potomac, MD

    2008-01-22

    A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

  8. Modification of conventional X-ray diffractometer for the measurement of phase distribution in a narrow region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yang-Soon; Han, Sun-Ho; Kim, Jong-Goo; Jee, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Won-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    An X-ray diffractometer for spatially resolved X-ray diffraction measurements was developed to identify phase in the narrow (micron-scaled) region of high burn-up fuels and some nuclear materials. The micro-SRD was composed of an X-ray microbeam alignment system and a sample micro translation system instead of a normal slit and a fixed sample stage in a commercial XRD. The X-ray microbeam alignment system was fabricated with a microbeam concentrator having two Ni deposited mirrors, a vertical positioner, and a tilt table for the generation of a concentrated microbeam. The sample micro translation system was made with a sample holder and a horizontal translator, allowing movement of a specimen at 5 {mu}m steps. The angular intensity profile of the microbeam generated through a concentrator was symmetric and not distorted. The size of the microbeam was 4,000 x 20{mu}m and the spatial resolution of the beam was 47 {mu}m at the sample position. When the diffraction peaks were measured for a UO{sub 2} pellet specimen by this system, the reproducibility (2{theta} = {+-}0.01 .deg.) of the peaks was as good as a conventional X-ray diffractometer. For the cross section of oxidized titanium metal, not only TiO{sub 2} in an outer layer but also TiO near an oxide-metal interface was observed.

  9. Wavelength dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure imaging by parametric X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Manabu; Sakai, Takeshi; Sato, Isamu; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Nogami, Kyoko; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Ken; Nakao, Keisuke

    2008-01-01

    The parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) generator system at Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) in Nihon University is a monochromatic and coherent X-ray source with horizontal wavelength dispersion. The energy definition of the X-rays, which depends on the horizontal size of the incident electron beam on the generator target crystal, has been investigated experimentally by measuring the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra on Cu and CuO associated with conventional X-ray absorption imaging technique. The result demonstrated the controllability of the spectrum resolution of XANES by adjusting of the horizontal electron beam size on the target crystal. The XANES spectra were obtained with energy resolution of several eV at the narrowest case, which is in qualitative agreement with the energy definition of the PXR X-rays evaluated from geometrical consideration. The result also suggested that the wavelength dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure measurement associated with imaging technique is one of the promising applications of PXR. (author)

  10. Comparative review of computed tomography of the spinal column and conventional x-ray films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, H.; Yamaura, A.; Horie, T.; Makino, H. (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-04-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) of the cervical spinal column was carried out in 39 patients using a GE.CT/T or Toshiba TCT60A scanner. There were 22 cervical disk lesions, 4 spinal neoplasms, 5 narrow spinal canals with or without ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, 2 syringomyelias, 5 traumas, and one Arnold-Chiari malformation. In all the patients, tomography was done after conventional spinal X-ray studies. The correlation between the CT findings and conventional X-ray films revealed the excellent capability of the CT. The measurement of the midline sagittal diameter of the spinal canal in the patient with the narrowest canal in this series showed 7.4 mm when done by CT and 9.6 mm when done by the conventional plain film at the C/sub 5/ level. To ascertain the precise sagittal diameter of the cord itself, CT myelography is indispensable after the intrathecal injection of metrizamide A; metrizamide CT myelogram is useful in determining the nature of the disease, the risk of and best approach to surgery, and the evaluation after a surgical procedure. Although the range of motion of cervical joints and intervertebral foramen are visible with the conventional films, the size of the spinal tumors, the degree of bony change, and the tumor extension to the paraspinal connective tissue can be precisely demonstrated only by CT. A CT study of the spine is a simple procedure and is less likely to produce complication, even with a metrizamide CT myelogram, though there are certain limitations in the examination.

  11. A Test Facility For Astronomical X-Ray Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, R. A.; Bordas, J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1989-01-01

    Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earths atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source which is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has...... to approximate that encountered under working conditions, however the testing of these optical elements is notoriously difficult with conventional x-ray generators. Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources are sufficiently brilliant to produce a nearly perfect parallel beam over a large area whilst still retaining...... a flux considerably higher than that available from conventional x-ray generators. A facility designed for the testing of x-ray optics, particularly in connection with x-ray telescopes is described below. It is proposed that this facility will be accommodated at the Synchrotron Radiation Source...

  12. Katherine E. Weimer Award: X-ray light sources from laser-plasma and laser-electron interaction: development and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Felicie

    2017-10-01

    Bright sources of x-rays, such as synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) are transformational tools for many fields of science. They are used for biology, material science, medicine, or industry. Such sources rely on conventional particle accelerators, where electrons are accelerated to gigaelectronvolts (GeV) energies. The accelerated particles are wiggled in magnetic structures to emit x-ray radiation that is commonly used for molecular crystallography, fluorescence studies, chemical analysis, medical imaging, and many other applications. One of the drawbacks of these machines is their size and cost, because electric field gradients are limited to about 100 V/M in conventional accelerators. Particle acceleration in laser-driven plasmas is an alternative to generate x-rays via betatron emission, Compton scattering, or bremsstrahlung. A plasma can sustain electrical fields many orders of magnitude higher than that in conventional radiofrequency accelerator structures. When short, intense laser pulses are focused into a gas, it produces electron plasma waves in which electrons can be trapped and accelerated to GeV energies. X-ray sources, driven by electrons from laser-wakefield acceleration, have unique properties that are analogous to synchrotron radiation, with a 1000-fold shorter pulse. An important use of x-rays from laser plasma accelerators is in High Energy Density (HED) science, which requires laser and XFEL facilities to create in the laboratory extreme conditions of temperatures and pressures that are usually found in the interiors of stars and planets. To diagnose such extreme states of matter, the development of efficient, versatile and fast (sub-picosecond scale) x-ray probes has become essential. In these experiments, x-ray photons can pass through dense material, and absorption of the x-rays can be directly measured, via spectroscopy or imaging, to inform scientists about the temperature and density of the targets being studied. Performed

  13. A comparison of a niobium filter (NIOBI-X) with conventional filters in x-ray radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandborg, M.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    1990-01-01

    A 0.05 mm thick x-ray filter of niobium (NIOBI-X) has been tested and the x-ray image quality and radiation doses have been compared with conventionel x-ray filters of copper and aluminium. The results show that for x-ray tube voltage higher than 50 kV or objects thicker than 50 mm a 0.05 mm thick niobium with benefit can be replaced by a 0.11 mm thick copper filter. (25 refs.) (K.A.E.)

  14. The X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, M.; Kelley, R.

    2017-10-01

    On 25 March 2016, the Japanese 6th X-ray astronomical satellite ASTRO-H (Hitomi), launched on February 17, lost communication after a series of mishap in its attitude control system. In response to the mishap the X-ray astronomy community and JAXA analyzed the direct and root cause of the mishap and investigated possibility of a recovery mission with the international collaborator NASA and ESA. Thanks to great effort of scientists, agencies, and governments, the X-ray Astronomy Recovery Mission (XARM) are proposed. The recovery mission is planned to resume high resolution X-ray spectroscopy with imaging realized by Hitomi under the international collaboration in the shortest time possible, simply by focusing one of the main science goals of Hitomi Resolving astrophysical problems by precise high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy'. XARM will carry a 6 x 6 pixelized X-ray micro-calorimeter on the focal plane of an X-ray mirror assembly, and an aligned X-ray CCD camera covering the same energy band and wider field of view, but no hard X-ray or soft gamma-ray instruments are onboard. In this paper, we introduce the science objectives, mission concept, and schedule of XARM.

  15. Applications for X-ray detectors in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remillard, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Position-sensitive X-Ray detectors continue to playa central role in high-energy astrophysics. The current science goals are reviewed with emphasis on requirements in terms of camera performance. Wide-field imaging techniques, including coded mask cameras, are an essential part of space programs because of the transient nature of high-priority targets, e.g. eruptions from black-hole binaries and cosmic explosions such as gamma ray bursts. Pointing X-ray telescopes are being planned with a wide range of photon energies and with collection designs that include both mirrors and coded masks. Requirements for high spectral resolution and high time resolution are driven by diverse types of X-ray sources such as msec pulsars, quasars with emission-line profiles shaped by general relativity, and X-ray binaries that exhibit quasi-periodic oscillations in the range of 40-1300 Hz. Many laboratories and universities are involved in space-qualification of new detector technologies, e.g. CZT cameras, X-ray calorimeters, new types of CCDs, and GEM detectors. Even X-ray interferometry is on the horizon of NASA's science roadmap. The difficulties in advancing new technologies for space science applications require careful coordinations between industry and science groups in order to solve science problems while minimizing risk

  16. X-Ray Lasers 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings comprise a selection of invited and contributed papers presented at the 15th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers (ICXRL 2016), held at the Nara Kasugano International Forum, Japan, from May 22 to 27, 2016. This conference was part of an ongoing series dedicated to recent developments in the science and technology of x-ray lasers and other coherent x-ray sources with additional focus on supporting technologies, instrumentation and applications.   The book showcases recent advances in the generation of intense, coherent x-rays, the development of practical devices and their applications across a wide variety of fields. It also discusses emerging topics such as plasma-based x-ray lasers, 4th generation accelerator-based sources and higher harmonic generations, as well as other x-ray generation schemes.

  17. Stimulated X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy in Transition Metal Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Thomas; Weninger, Clemens; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; Mercadier, Laurent; Majety, Vinay P.; Marinelli, Agostino; Lutman, Alberto; Guetg, Marc W.; Decker, Franz-Josef; Boutet, Sébastien; Aquila, Andy; Koglin, Jason; Koralek, Jake; DePonte, Daniel P.; Kern, Jan; Fuller, Franklin D.; Pastor, Ernest; Fransson, Thomas; Zhang, Yu; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Rohringer, Nina; Bergmann, Uwe

    2018-03-01

    We report the observation and analysis of the gain curve of amplified K α x-ray emission from solutions of Mn(II) and Mn(VII) complexes using an x-ray free electron laser to create the 1 s core-hole population inversion. We find spectra at amplification levels extending over 4 orders of magnitude until saturation. We observe bandwidths below the Mn 1 s core-hole lifetime broadening in the onset of the stimulated emission. In the exponential amplification regime the resolution corrected spectral width of ˜1.7 eV FWHM is constant over 3 orders of magnitude, pointing to the buildup of transform limited pulses of ˜1 fs duration. Driving the amplification into saturation leads to broadening and a shift of the line. Importantly, the chemical sensitivity of the stimulated x-ray emission to the Mn oxidation state is preserved at power densities of ˜1020 W /cm2 for the incoming x-ray pulses. Differences in signal sensitivity and spectral information compared to conventional (spontaneous) x-ray emission spectroscopy are discussed. Our findings build a baseline for nonlinear x-ray spectroscopy for a wide range of transition metal complexes in inorganic chemistry, catalysis, and materials science.

  18. Non-conventional applications of a noninvasive portable X-ray diffraction/fluorescence instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiari, Giacomo; Sarrazin, Philippe; Heginbotham, Arlen

    2016-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques have become widespread in the cultural heritage analytical domain. The popular handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) devices give the elemental composition of all the layers that X-rays can penetrate, but no information on how atoms are bound together or at which depth they are located. A noninvasive portable X-ray powder diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) device may offer a solution to these limitations, since it can provide information on the composition of crystalline materials. This paper introduces applications of XRD beyond simple phase recognition. The two fundamental principles for XRD are: (1) the crystallites should be randomly oriented, to ensure proper intensity to all the diffraction peaks, and (2) the material should be positioned exactly in the focal plane of the instrument, respecting its geometry, as any displacement of the sample would results in 2θ shifts of the diffraction peaks. In conventional XRD, the sample is ground and set on the properly positioned sample holder. Using a noninvasive portable instrument, these two requirements are seldom fulfilled. The position, size and orientation of a given crystallite within a layered structure depend on the object itself. Equation correlating the displacement (distance from the focal plane) versus peak shift (angular difference in 2θ from the standard value) is derived and used to determine the depth at which a given substance is located. The quantitative composition of two binary Cu/Zn alloys, simultaneously present, was determined measuring the cell volume and using Vegard's law. The analysis of the whole object gives information on the texture and possible preferred orientations of the crystallites, which influences the peak intensity. This allows for the distinction between clad and electroplated daguerreotypes in the case of silver and between ancient and modern gilding for gold. Analyses of cross sections can be carried out successfully. Finally, beeswax, used in Roman

  19. Preliminary research on dual-energy X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hua-Jie; Wang, Sheng-Hao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhi-Li; Zhang, Can; Yang, Meng; Zhang, Kai; Zhu, Pei-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been widely applied to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) and soft-tissue composition of the human body. However, the use of DEXA is greatly limited for low-Z materials such as soft tissues due to their weak absorption, while X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) shows significantly improved contrast in comparison with the conventional standard absorption-based X-ray imaging for soft tissues. In this paper, we propose a novel X-ray phase-contrast method to measure the area density of low-Z materials, including a single-energy method and a dual-energy method. The single-energy method is for the area density calculation of one low-Z material, while the dual-energy method aims to calculate the area densities of two low-Z materials simultaneously. Comparing the experimental and simulation results with the theoretical ones, the new method proves to have the potential to replace DEXA in area density measurement. The new method sets the prerequisites for a future precise and low-dose area density calculation method for low-Z materials. Supported by Major State Basic Research Development Program (2012CB825800), Science Fund for Creative Research Groups (11321503) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11179004, 10979055, 11205189, 11205157)

  20. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  1. X-ray electromagnetic application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, particularly for X-ray electromagnetic application technology from January 2006 to December 2008. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and free-electron laser, Saga Synchrotron Project, X-ray waveguides and waveguide-based lens-less hard-X-ray imaging, X-ray nanofocusing for capillaries and zone plates, dispersion characteristics in photonics crystal consisting of periodic atoms for nanometer waveguides, electromagnetic characteristics of grid structures for scattering fields of nano-meter electromagnetic waves and X-rays, FDTD parallel computing of fundamental scattering and attenuation characteristics of X-ray for medical imaging diagnosis, orthogonal relations of electromagnetic fields including evanescent field in dispersive medium. (author)

  2. Synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.R.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The advent of dedicated synchrotron radiation sources has led to a significant increase in activity in many areas of science dealing with the interaction of x-rays with matter. Synchrotron radiation provides intense, linearly polarized, naturally collimated, continuously tunable photon beams, which are used to determine not only the elemental composition of a complex, polyatomic, dilute material but also the chemical form of the elements with improved accuracy. Examples of the application of synchrotron radiation include experiments in synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SXRF) analysis and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. New synchrotron radiation x-ray microprobes for elemental analysis in the parts per billion range are under construction at several laboratories. 76 references, 24 figures

  3. High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-07-28

    High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.

  4. Real-time soft x-ray imaging on composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polichar, R.

    1985-01-01

    The increased use of composite materials in aircraft structures has emphasized many of the unique and difficult aspects of the inspection of such components. Ultrasound has been extensively applied to certain configurations since it is relatively sensitive to laminar discontinuities in structure. Conversely, the use of conventional x-ray examination has been severely hampered by the fact that these composite materials are virtually transparent to the x-ray energies commonly encountered in industrial radiography (25 kv and above). To produce images with contrast approaching conventional radiography, one must use x-ray beams with average energies below 10 KEV where the absorption coefficients begin to rise rapidly for these low atomic number materials. This new regime of soft x-rays presents a major challenge to real-time imaging components. Special screen and window technology is required if these lower energy x-rays are to be effectively detected. Moreover, conventional x-ray tubes become very inefficient for generating the required x-ray flux at potentials much below 29 kv and the increased operating currents put significant limitations on conventional power sources. The purpose of this paper is to explore these special problems related to soft x-ray real-time imaging and to define the optimal technologies. Practical results obtained with the latest commerical and developmental instruments for real-time imaging will be shown. These instruments include recently developed imaging systems, new x-ray tubes and various approaches to generator design. The measured results convincingly demonstrate the effectiveness practicality of real-time soft x-ray imaging. They also indicate the major changes in technology and approach that must be taken for practical systems to be truly effective

  5. Phase-contrast X-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi [Hitachi Ltd., Saitama (Japan). Advanced Research Laboratory; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT) enabling the observation of biological soft tissues without contrast enhancement has been developed. The X-ray phase shift caused by an object is measured and input to a standard CT reconstruction algorithm. A thousand times increase in the image sensitivity to soft tissues is achieved compared with the conventional CT using absorption contrast. This is because the X-ray phase shift cross section of light elements is about a thousand times larger than the absorption cross section. The phase shift is detected using an X-ray interferometer and computer analyses of interference patterns. Experiments were performed using a synchrotron X-ray source. Excellent image sensitivity is demonstrated in the observation of cancerous rabbit liver. The CT images distinguish cancer lesion from normal liver tissue and, moreover, visualize the pathological condition in the lesion. Although the X-ray energy employed and the present observation area size are not suitable for medical applications as they are, phase-contrast X-ray CT is promising for investigating the internal structure of soft tissue which is almost transparent for X-rays. The high sensitivity also provides the advantage of reducing X-ray doses. (author).

  6. Quantitative x-ray dark-field computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, M; Pfeiffer, F; Bunk, O; Donath, T; David, C; Feidenhans'l, R

    2010-01-01

    The basic principles of x-ray image formation in radiology have remained essentially unchanged since Roentgen first discovered x-rays over a hundred years ago. The conventional approach relies on x-ray attenuation as the sole source of contrast and draws exclusively on ray or geometrical optics to describe and interpret image formation. Phase-contrast or coherent scatter imaging techniques, which can be understood using wave optics rather than ray optics, offer ways to augment or complement the conventional approach by incorporating the wave-optical interaction of x-rays with the specimen. With a recently developed approach based on x-ray optical gratings, advanced phase-contrast and dark-field scatter imaging modalities are now in reach for routine medical imaging and non-destructive testing applications. To quantitatively assess the new potential of particularly the grating-based dark-field imaging modality, we here introduce a mathematical formalism together with a material-dependent parameter, the so-called linear diffusion coefficient and show that this description can yield quantitative dark-field computed tomography (QDFCT) images of experimental test phantoms.

  7. Advantages of computed tomography over conventional x-ray examination in the treatment of cervical spinal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hideo; Yamaura, Akira; Makino, Hiroyasu (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-07-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the cervical spinal column was carried out in 42 patients using a General Electric CT/T of a Toshiba TCT60 Type A scanner. There were 22 cervical disk lesions, 4 spinal neoplasms, 6 narrow spinal canals with or without ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, 2 syringomyelias, 6 traumas and 2 Arnold-Chiari malformations. In all patients, CT-examination followed conventional spinal X-ray studies. Correlation between the CT and conventional X-ray findings revealed the better diagnostic capability of the CT. For example, the measured midline sagittal diameter of the spinal canal in a patient with the narrowest canal in this series was 7.4 mm on the CT and 9.6 mm on the conventioned plain film at the C/sub 5/ level. To know the precise sagittal diameter of the cord itself, CT myelography (CTM) is indispensable. CTM is useful in determining the nature of the disease, the risk and approach of surgery, and for evaluation after the surgical procedure. Although the range of motion of cervical joints and intervertebral foramen are visible with conventional films, the size and extension of a tumor, the degree of bony errosion and the spinal subarachnoid space can be precisely identified only by CT. CT study of the spine and spinal cord is a simple procedure and less likely to produce complication, even with CTM, although there are certain limitations in the examination which are also presented.

  8. Assessing the dose values received by patients during conventional radiography X-ray examinations and the technical condition of the equipment used for this purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekas, Marcin; Pachocki, Krzysztof A; Waśniewska, Elżbieta; Bogucka, Dagmara; Magiera, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    X-ray examination is associated with patient exposure to ionizing radiation. Dose values depend on the type of medical procedure used, the X-ray unit technical condition and exposure conditions selected. The aim of this study was to determine the dose value received by patients during certain conventional radiography X-ray examinations and to assess the technical condition of medical equipment used for this purpose. The study covered the total number of 118 conventional diagnostic X-ray units located in the Masovian Voivodeship. The methodology used to assess the conventional diagnostic X-ray unit technical condition and the measurement of the radiation dose rate received by patients are based on test procedures developed by the Department of Radiation Protection and Radiobiology of the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene (Warszawa, Poland) accredited for compliance with PN-EN 17025 standard by the Polish Centre for Accreditation. It was found that 84.7% of X-ray units fully meet the criteria set out in the Polish legislation regarding the safe use of ionizing radiation in medicine, while 15.3% of the units do not meet some of them. The broadest dose value range was recorded for adult patients. Particularly, during lateral (LATl) lumbar spine radiography the recorded entrance surface dose (ESD) values ranged from 283.5 to 7827 µGy (mean: 2183.3 µGy). It is absolutely necessary to constantly monitor the technical condition of all X-ray units, because it affects population exposure to ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it is essential to raise radiographers' awareness of the effects that ionizing radiation exposure can have on the human body.

  9. Differential X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a grating interferometer using a laboratory X-ray micro-focus tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Ryu, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Chang-Won [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Young-Jo; Kwon, Young-Man [Jeonbuk Technopark, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi-Ran; Cho, Seung-Ryong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chon, Kwon-Su [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide images with much greater soft-tissue contrast than conventional absorption-based images. In this paper, we describe differential X-ray phase-contrast images of insect specimens that were obtained using a grating-based Talbot interferometer and a laboratory X-ray source with a spot size of a few tens of micrometers. We developed the interferometer on the basis of the wavelength, periods, and height of the gratings; the field of view depends on the size of the grating, considering the refractive index of the specimen. The phase-contrast images were acquired using phase-stepping methods. The phase contrast imaging provided a significantly enhanced soft-tissue contrast compared with the attenuation data. The contour of the sample was clearly visible because the refraction from the edges of the object was strong in the differential phase-contrast image. Our results demonstrate that a grating-based Talbot interferometer with a conventional X-ray tube may be attractive as an X-ray imaging system for generating phase images. X-ray phase imaging obviously has sufficient potential and is expected to soon be a great tool for medical diagnostics.

  10. Differential X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a grating interferometer using a laboratory X-ray micro-focus tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Ryu, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Chang-Won; Ryu, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Young-Jo; Kwon, Young-Man; Park, Mi-Ran; Cho, Seung-Ryong; Chon, Kwon-Su

    2014-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide images with much greater soft-tissue contrast than conventional absorption-based images. In this paper, we describe differential X-ray phase-contrast images of insect specimens that were obtained using a grating-based Talbot interferometer and a laboratory X-ray source with a spot size of a few tens of micrometers. We developed the interferometer on the basis of the wavelength, periods, and height of the gratings; the field of view depends on the size of the grating, considering the refractive index of the specimen. The phase-contrast images were acquired using phase-stepping methods. The phase contrast imaging provided a significantly enhanced soft-tissue contrast compared with the attenuation data. The contour of the sample was clearly visible because the refraction from the edges of the object was strong in the differential phase-contrast image. Our results demonstrate that a grating-based Talbot interferometer with a conventional X-ray tube may be attractive as an X-ray imaging system for generating phase images. X-ray phase imaging obviously has sufficient potential and is expected to soon be a great tool for medical diagnostics

  11. Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Paul G [Computer-Aided Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Isaacs, Eric D [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    Magnetic x-ray microdiffraction uses the structural specificity of x-ray diffraction to probe complex magnetic structures at the length scales relevant to physical phenomena including domain dynamics and phase transitions. Conventional magnetic crystallography techniques such as neutron or x-ray diffraction lack this spatial resolution. The combination of both reciprocal space and real space resolution with a rich magnetic cross section allows new microscopy techniques to be developed and applied to magnetism at the scale of single domains. Potential applications include a wide range of magnetic problems in nanomagnetism, the interaction of strain, polarization and magnetization in complex oxides and spatially resolved studies of magnetic phase transitions. We present the physical basis for x-ray microdiffraction and magnetic scattering processes, review microdiffraction domain imaging techniques in antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials and discuss potential directions for studies. (topical review)

  12. Material Discriminated X-Ray CT System by Using New X-Ray Imager with Energy Discriminate Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Aoki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Material discriminated X-ray CT system has been constructed by using conventional X-ray tube (white X-ray source and photon-counting X-ray imager as an application with energy band detection. We have already reported material identify X-ray CT using K-shell edge method elsewhere. In this report the principle of material discrimination was adapted the separation of electron-density and atomic number from attenuation coefficient mapping in X-ray CT reconstructed image in two wavelength X-ray CT method using white X-ray source and energy discriminated X-ray imager by using two monochrome X-ray source method. The measurement phantom was prepared as four kinds material rods (Carbon(C, Iron(Fe, Copper(Cu, Titanium(Ti rods of 3mm-diameter inside an aluminum(Al rod of 20mm-diameter. We could observed material discriminated X-ray CT reconstructed image, however, the discrimination properties were not good than two monochrome X-ray CT method. This results was could be explained because X-ray scattering, beam-hardening and so on based on white X-ray source, which could not observe in two monochrome X-ray CT method. However, since our developed CdTe imager can be detect five energy-bands at the same time, we can use multi-band analysis to decrease the least square error margin. We will be able to obtain more high separation in atomic number mapping in X-ray CT reconstructed image by using this system.

  13. Actinide science with soft x-ray synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuh, D.

    2002-01-01

    Several workshops, some dating back more than fifteen years, recognised both the potential scientific impact and opportunities that would be made available by the capability to investigate actinide materials in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)/soft X-ray region of the synchrotron radiation (SR) spectrum. This spectral region revolutionized the approach to surface materials chemistry and physics nearly two decades ego. The actinide science community was unable to capitalize on these SR methodologies for the study of actinide materials until recently because of radiological safety concerns. ,The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBNL is a third-generation light source providing state-of-the-art performance in the VUV/soft X-ray region. Along with corresponding improvements in detector and vacuum technology, the ALS has rendered experiments with small amounts of actinide materials possible. In particular, it has been the emergence and development of micro-spectroscopic techniques that have enabled investigations of actinide materials at the ALS. The primary methods for the experimental investigation of actinide materials in the VUV/soft X-ray region are the complementary photoelectron spectroscopies, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) techniques. Resonant photo-emission is capable of resolving the 5f electron contributions to actinide bonding and can be used to characterise the electronic structure of actinide materials. This technique is clearly a most important methodology afforded by the tunable SR source. Core level and valence band photoelectron spectroscopies are valuable for the characterisation of the electronic properties of actinide materials, as well as for general analytical purposes. High-resolution core-level photo-emission and resonant photo-emission measurements from the a (monoclinic) and δ (FCC) allotropic phases of plutonium metal have been collected on beam line 7.0 at the ALS and the spectra show

  14. Construction of an analytic-realistic phantom for adaptation of the radiographic techniques in any conventional X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, D.R.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Trad, C.S.; Brochi, M.A. Corte; Duarte, S.B.; Pina, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work we construct a homogeneous phantom, for calibrating the X-ray beam. Each homogeneous phantom was used in the time-scale sensitometric method for obtaining a radiographic technique which is able to produce in the film, an optical density around 1,0 higher than the density of base plus fog. These radiographic techniques were applied in a anthropomorphic phantom (Rando) and its images were analyzed by specialists in radiology. They identified the best image and then a ideal radiographic technique for a standard patient with smaller doses, at any conventional X-ray equipment. (author)

  15. Application of X-ray topography to USSR and Russian space materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shul'pina, I L; Prokhorov, I A; Serebryakov, Yu A; Bezbakh, I Zh

    2016-05-01

    The authors' experience of the application of X-ray diffraction imaging in carrying out space technological experiments on semiconductor crystal growth for the former USSR and for Russia is reported, from the Apollo-Soyuz programme (1975) up to the present day. X-ray topography was applied to examine defects in crystals in order to obtain information on the crystallization conditions and also on their changes under the influence of factors of orbital flight in space vehicles. The data obtained have promoted a deeper understanding of the conditions and mechanisms of crystallization under both microgravity and terrestrial conditions, and have enabled the elaboration of terrestrial methods of highly perfect crystal growth. The use of X-ray topography in space materials science has enriched its methods in the field of digital image processing of growth striations and expanded its possibilities in investigating the inhomogeneity of crystals.

  16. Computerized tomography and conventional radiography: A comparison from the standpoint of X-ray physics and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiler, M; Linke, G [Siemens A.G., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Unternehmensbereich Medizinische Technik

    1979-08-01

    After a short explantation of the technical foundations of computerized tomography (CT) from terms used in conventional X-ray technique and CT the differences (dose distribution, image character) and similarities (quantum noise, beam quality) of both methods are discussed. Finally possible methods of quantitative evaluation of CT images and computation of longitudinal layers from a series of computerized tomograms are described. (author).

  17. Evaluation of odontological X ray and conventional radiology, and mammography installed at Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, during the period of 2005 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfora, Viviane Khoury; Andrade, Marcos Ely; Barros, Vinicius Saito de; Khoury, Helen J.; Brasileiro, Izabela V.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studied the performance of 48 X ray equipment of odontological clinics, 22 mammography, 104 conventional X ray equipment. Accuracy tests were performed and the reproducibility of exposure time and the applied voltage to the X ray tube, collimation and alignment of the radiation beam, half-thickness and filtration. The obtained results have shown that for the mammography, only 55% of evaluated equipment attended to all requirements of the Portaria 453 of the Ministry of Health and that 46% of the odontological equipment and 53% of X-ray equipment attended to all the requirements of the document. The items presenting more inadequacy were collimation, beam filtration and time of accuracy of exposure ad voltage

  18. Polychromatic X-ray Micro- and Nano-Beam Science and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, G. E.; Larson, B. C.; Liu, W.; Barabash, R. I.; Specht, E. D.; Pang, J. W. L.; Budai, J. D.; Tischler, J. Z.; Khounsary, A.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Assoufid, L.

    2007-01-01

    Polychromatic x-ray micro- and nano-beam diffraction is an emerging nondestructive tool for the study of local crystalline structure and defect distributions. Both long-standing fundamental materials science issues, and technologically important questions about specific materials systems can be uniquely addressed. Spatial resolution is determined by the beam size at the sample and by a knife-edge technique called differential aperture microscopy that decodes the origin of scattering from along the penetrating x-ray beam. First-generation instrumentation on station 34-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) allows for nondestructive automated recovery of the three-dimensional (3D) local crystal phase and orientation. Also recovered are the local elastic-strain and the dislocation tensor distributions. New instrumentation now under development will further extend the applications of polychromatic microdiffraction and will revolutionize materials characterization.

  19. Polychromatic X-ray Micro- and Nano-Beam Science and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Larson, Ben C.; Liu, Wenjun; Barabash, Rozaliya; Specht, Eliot D; Pang, Judy; Budai, John D.; Tischler, Jonathan Zachary; Khounsary, Ali; Liu, Chian; Macrander, Albert T.; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2007-01-01

    Polychromatic x-ray micro- and nano-beam diffraction is an emerging nondestructive tool for the study of local crystalline structure and defect distributions. Both long-standing fundamental materials science issues, and technologically important questions about specific materials systems can be uniquely addressed. Spatial resolution is determined by the beam size at the sample and by a knife-edge technique called differential aperture microscopy that decodes the origin of scattering from along the penetrating x-ray beam. First-generation instrumentation on station 34-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) allows for nondestructive automated recovery of the three-dimensional (3D) local crystal phase and orientation. Also recovered are the local elastic-strain and the dislocation tensor distributions. New instrumentation now under development will further extend the applications of polychromatic microdiffraction and will revolutionize materials characterization

  20. Development of X-ray excitable luminescent probes for scanning X-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moronne, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Transmission soft X-ray microscopy is now capable of achieving resolutions that are typically 5 times better than the best-visible light microscopes. With expected improvements in zone plate optics, an additional factor of two may be realized within the next few years. Despite the high resolution now available with X-ray microscopes and the high X-ray contrast provided by biological molecules in the soft X-ray region (λ=2-5 nm), molecular probes for localizing specific biological targets have been lacking. To circumvent this problem, X-ray excitable molecular probes are needed that can target unique biological features. In this paper we report our initial results on the development of lanthanide-based fluorescent probes for biological labeling. Using scanning luminescence X-ray microscopy (SLXM, Jacobsen et al., J. Microscopy 172 (1993) 121-129), we show that lanthanide organo-polychelate complexes are sufficiently bright and radiation resistant to be the basis of a new class of X-ray excitable molecular probes capable of providing at least a fivefold improvement in resolution over visible light microscopy. Lanthanide probes, able to bind 80-100 metal ions per molecule, were found to give strong luminescent signals with X-ray doses exceeding 10 8 Gy, and were used to label actin stress fibers and in vitro preparations of polymerized tubulin. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. Using zone plates for X-ray microimaging and microspectroscopy in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemner, K.M.; Yun, W.; Cai, Z. (and others)

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the transport and ultimate fate of environmental contaminants is of fundamental importance for developing effective remediation strategies and determining the risk associated with the contaminants. Focusing X-rays by using recently developed zone plates allows determination of the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of contaminants at the micron and submicron length scales. This ability is essential for studying the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that play a crucial role in determining contaminant fate and mobility. The following is an overview of some current problems in environmental science that are being addressed with synchrotron-based X-ray microimaging and microspectroscopy. (au) 7 refs.

  2. Using zone plates for X-ray microimaging and microspectroscopy in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemner, K.M.; Yun, W.; Cai, Z. [and others

    1999-11-01

    Understanding the transport and ultimate fate of environmental contaminants is of fundamental importance for developing effective remediation strategies and determining the risk associated with the contaminants. Focusing X-rays by using recently developed zone plates allows determination of the spatial distribution and chemical speciation of contaminants at the micron and submicron length scales. This ability is essential for studying the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that play a crucial role in determining contaminant fate and mobility. The following is an overview of some current problems in environmental science that are being addressed with synchrotron-based X-ray microimaging and microspectroscopy. (au) 7 refs.

  3. Soft x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the development and of the current state of the art in picosecond soft x-ray streak camera technology. Accomplishments from a number of institutions are discussed. X-ray streak cameras vary from standard visible streak camera designs in the use of an x-ray transmitting window and an x-ray sensitive photocathode. The spectral sensitivity range of these instruments includes portions of the near UV and extends from the subkilovolt x- ray region to several tens of kilovolts. Attendant challenges encountered in the design and use of x-ray streak cameras include the accommodation of high-voltage and vacuum requirements, as well as manipulation of a photocathode structure which is often fragile. The x-ray transmitting window is generally too fragile to withstand atmospheric pressure, necessitating active vacuum pumping and a vacuum line of sight to the x-ray signal source. Because of the difficulty of manipulating x-ray beams with conventional optics, as is done with visible light, the size of the photocathode sensing area, access to the front of the tube, the ability to insert the streak tube into a vacuum chamber and the capability to trigger the sweep with very short internal delay times are issues uniquely relevant to x-ray streak camera use. The physics of electron imaging may place more stringent limitations on the temporal and spatial resolution obtainable with x-ray photocathodes than with the visible counterpart. Other issues which are common to the entire streak camera community also concern the x-ray streak camera users and manufacturers

  4. Multilayer X-ray imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, D. L.; Hoover, R. B.; Gabardi, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment of the imaging properties of multilayer X-ray imaging systems with spherical surfaces has been made. A ray trace analysis was performed to investigate the effects of using spherical substrates (rather than the conventional paraboloidal/hyperboloidal contours) for doubly reflecting Cassegrain telescopes. These investigations were carried out for mirrors designed to operate at selected soft X-ray/XUV wavelengths that are of significance for studies of the solar corona/transition region from the Stanford/MSFC Rocket X-Ray Telescope. The effects of changes in separation of the primary and secondary elements were also investigated. These theoretical results are presented as well as the results of ray trace studies to establish the resolution and vignetting effects as a function of field angle and system parameters.

  5. Experimental determination of foetal doses received during conventional X rays explorations of troncus. Influence of the lead apron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pifarre, X.; Brualla, L.; Ruiz, J.; Escalada, C.; Planes, D.; Paredes, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the real doses received by pregnant women during some X rays conventional explorations of thorax and abdomen. The procedure that has been used is the measurement of doses by the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters located on the uterus position of a Random Phantom, and simulating different conventional X rays explorations. The results of such measurements are compared with other data published in ICRP 34, which were our reference. We have obtained smaller doses with the measurements than those derived from ICRP 34. The causes of these differences are analysed. The influence of the use of lead apron to protect abdomen during thorax examination is also analysed, computing the real value of this protection. We conclude that it seems interesting to obtain measurements of theses doses with our own equipment and techniques, because it offers a more realistic approximation to real doses received by patients. (author)

  6. Sensors for x-ray astronomy satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Fumiyoshi; Kondo, Ichiro; Nishioka, Yonero; Kameda, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Masaki.

    1980-01-01

    For the purpose of observing the cosmic X-ray, the cosmic X-ray astronomy satellite (CORSA-b, named ''Hakucho'', Japanese for cygnus,) was launched Feb. 21, 1979 by Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo. The primary objectives of the satellite are: to perform panoramic survey of the space for X-ray bursts and to perform the spectral and temporal measurement of X-ray sources. The very soft X-ray sensor for X-ray observation and the horizon sensor for spacecraft attitude sensing were developed by Toshiba Corporation under technical support by University of Tokyo and Nagoya University for ''Hakucho''. The features of these sensors are outlined in this paper. (author)

  7. X-ray technique hip joints of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imhaeuser, G.

    1982-01-01

    The author points out that the conventional X-ray technique used for adults is not suitable for children. In children of 2 to 8 years (or older) the leg can be rotated much further medially than laterally. Thus in children the middle rotation position is one in which the leg is positioned more medially than this would be in adults. This fact must be taken into consideration in carrying out X-rays of hip joints of children. Diagnostic errors resulting from the conventional X-ray technique can be largely avoided by positioning the leg according to the characteristic roatations of children; that is the leg can be rotated to the same extent both medially and laterally. (orig.)

  8. Scanning transmission x-ray microscope for materials science spectromicroscopy at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, T.; Seal, S.; Shin, H. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The brightness of the Advanced Light Source will be exploited by several new instruments for materials science spectromicroscopy over the next year or so. The first of these to become operational is a scanning transmission x-ray microscope with which near edge x-ray absorption spectra (NEXAFS) can be measured on spatial features of sub-micron size. Here the authors describe the instrument as it is presently implemented, its capabilities, some studies made to date and the developments to come. The Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope makes use of a zone plate lens to produce a small x-ray spot with which to perform absorption spectroscopy through thin samples. The x-ray beam from ALS undulator beamline 7.0 emerges into the microscope vessel through a silicon nitride vacuum window 160nm thick and 300{mu}m square. The vessel is filled with helium at atmospheric pressure. The zone plate lens is illuminated 1mm downstream from the vacuum window and forms an image in first order of a pinhole which is 3m upstream in the beamline. An order sorting aperture passes the first order converging light and blocks the unfocused zero order. The sample is at the focus a few mm downstream of the zone plate and mounted from a scanning piezo stage which rasters in x and y so that an image is formed, pixel by pixel, by an intensity detector behind the sample. Absorption spectra are measured point-by-point as the photon energy is scanned by rotating the diffraction grating in the monochromator and changing the undulator gap.

  9. The advantages of computed tomography over conventional x-ray examination in the treatment of cervical spinal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hideo; Yamaura, Akira; Makino, Hiroyasu

    1982-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the cervical spinal column was carried out in 42 patients using a General Electric CT/T of a Toshiba TCT60 Type A scanner. There were 22 cervical disk lesions, 4 spinal neoplasms, 6 narrow spinal canals with or without ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, 2 syringomyelias, 6 traumas and 2 Arnold-Chiari malformations. In all patients, CT-examination followed conventional spinal X-ray studies. Correlation between the CT and conventional X-ray findings revealed the better diagnostic capability of the CT. For example, the measured midline sagittal diameter of the spinal canal in a patient with the narrowest canal in this series was 7.4 mm on the CT and 9.6 mm on the conventioned plain film at the C 5 level. To know the precise sagittal diameter of the cord itself, CT myelography (CTM) is indispensable. CTM is useful in determining the nature of the disease, the risk and approach of surgery, and for evaluation after the surgical procedure. Although the range of motion of cervical joints and intervertebral foramen are visible with conventional films, the size and extension of a tumor, the degree of bony errosion and the spinal subarachnoid space can be precisely identified only by CT. CT study of the spine and spinal cord is a simple procedure and less likely to produce complication, even with CTM, although there are certain limitations in the examination which are also presented. (author)

  10. Ranking of conventional X-ray diagnosis and phlebography in the thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahlensieck, M.; Beltz, L.

    1991-01-01

    The compression of the neurovascular bundle of the upper limb (thoracic outlet syndrome, TOS) can be caused by osseous, muscular, fibrous, tumorous and habitual abnormalities of the cervicothoracic junction. Osseous causes can be shown in a conventional x-ray of the cervi cothoracic junction. In about 40% of the cases there is a venous stenosis which can be proved by means of phlebography in a special patient position (provocation position). The type of stenosis and location provides information on the cause of it. We examined 34 patients. (orig.) [de

  11. The discovery of X-ray diffraction by crystals and its great impact on science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Zhenhong

    2012-01-01

    In April 1912, Friedrich, Knipping and Laue discovered X-ray diffraction in a CuSO 4 crystal. Later, Laue derived the famous Laue equations which explain the diffraction phenomenon. For this, Laue was awarded a Nobel Prize for Physics in 1914. In 1912 W. H. Bragg and W. L. Bragg received news of Laue 's discovery, and from X-ray diffraction experiments in a ZnS crystal they derived the famous Bragg equation. For this work, father and son were together awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1915, To commemorate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of X-ray diffraction, this article reviews the important contributions of the early pioneers and their historic impact on science and technology worldwide. (author)

  12. Equally sloped X-ray microtomography of living insects with low radiation dose and improved resolution capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Shengkun; Fan, Jiadong; Zong, Yunbing; Sun, Zhibin; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Huaidong; He, You; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao; Huang, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional X-ray imaging of living specimens is challenging due to the limited resolution of conventional absorption contrast X-ray imaging and potential irradiation damage of biological specimens. In this letter, we present microtomography of a living specimen combining phase-contrast imaging and a Fourier-based iterative algorithm termed equally sloped tomography. Non-destructive 3D imaging of an anesthetized living yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor was demonstrated with a relatively low dose using synchrotron generated X-rays. Based on the high-quality 3D images, branching tracheoles and different tissues of the insect in a natural state were identified and analyzed, demonstrating a significant advantage of the technique over conventional X-ray radiography or histotomy. Additionally, the insect survived without problem after a 1.92-s X-ray exposure and subsequent absorbed radiation dose of ∼1.2 Gy. No notable physiological effects were observed after reviving the insect from anesthesia. The improved static tomographic method demonstrated in this letter shows advantage in the non-destructive structural investigation of living insects in three dimensions due to the low radiation dose and high resolution capability, and offers many potential applications in biological science.

  13. Equally sloped X-ray microtomography of living insects with low radiation dose and improved resolution capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shengkun; Fan, Jiadong; Zong, Yunbing; He, You; Zhou, Guangzhao; Sun, Zhibin; Zhang, Jianhua; Huang, Qingjie; Xiao, Tiqiao; Jiang, Huaidong

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional X-ray imaging of living specimens is challenging due to the limited resolution of conventional absorption contrast X-ray imaging and potential irradiation damage of biological specimens. In this letter, we present microtomography of a living specimen combining phase-contrast imaging and a Fourier-based iterative algorithm termed equally sloped tomography. Non-destructive 3D imaging of an anesthetized living yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor was demonstrated with a relatively low dose using synchrotron generated X-rays. Based on the high-quality 3D images, branching tracheoles and different tissues of the insect in a natural state were identified and analyzed, demonstrating a significant advantage of the technique over conventional X-ray radiography or histotomy. Additionally, the insect survived without problem after a 1.92-s X-ray exposure and subsequent absorbed radiation dose of ˜1.2 Gy. No notable physiological effects were observed after reviving the insect from anesthesia. The improved static tomographic method demonstrated in this letter shows advantage in the non-destructive structural investigation of living insects in three dimensions due to the low radiation dose and high resolution capability, and offers many potential applications in biological science.

  14. Equally sloped X-ray microtomography of living insects with low radiation dose and improved resolution capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Shengkun; Fan, Jiadong; Zong, Yunbing; Sun, Zhibin; Zhang, Jianhua; Jiang, Huaidong, E-mail: hdjiang@sdu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); He, You; Zhou, Guangzhao; Xiao, Tiqiao [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Huang, Qingjie [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2016-03-21

    Three-dimensional X-ray imaging of living specimens is challenging due to the limited resolution of conventional absorption contrast X-ray imaging and potential irradiation damage of biological specimens. In this letter, we present microtomography of a living specimen combining phase-contrast imaging and a Fourier-based iterative algorithm termed equally sloped tomography. Non-destructive 3D imaging of an anesthetized living yellow mealworm Tenebrio molitor was demonstrated with a relatively low dose using synchrotron generated X-rays. Based on the high-quality 3D images, branching tracheoles and different tissues of the insect in a natural state were identified and analyzed, demonstrating a significant advantage of the technique over conventional X-ray radiography or histotomy. Additionally, the insect survived without problem after a 1.92-s X-ray exposure and subsequent absorbed radiation dose of ∼1.2 Gy. No notable physiological effects were observed after reviving the insect from anesthesia. The improved static tomographic method demonstrated in this letter shows advantage in the non-destructive structural investigation of living insects in three dimensions due to the low radiation dose and high resolution capability, and offers many potential applications in biological science.

  15. Development of X-ray protective clothes for medical treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, M.; Koike, K.; Fujinuma, T.; Aso, T.; Konba, T.

    1991-01-01

    As various medical treatments using X-ray irradiation are getting more important in modern medicine, effective, excellent X-ray protective clothes have been required. Elastomeric or PVC sheets containing powdery lead are usually employed as conventional X-ray protective clothes. In this case, enhancement of X-ray shielding efficiency increases the weight because the efficiency depends on the amount of lead incorporated. Such heavy clothes give significant fatigue and inconvenience during long term use. Consequently, lightweight and comfortable X-ray protective clothes have been eagerly desired in the medical field. The authors have improved these defects in the conventional clothes by means of elastomeric blending technologies and successfully developed new, lightweight and comfortable X-ray shielding clothes. The new clothes consist of lead-containing rubber sheet in which lead is homogeneously incorporated and lightweight PVC laminated with fabrics. They achieved favorable sense of touch, comfortable wearing and long-term durability. Furthermore, the clothes satisfy all requirements including X-ray shielding efficiency defined in JIS specifications. This article introduces the development of the new clothes and their properties in detail. (author)

  16. Prototyping a Global Soft X-Ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, M. R.; Porter, F. S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Carter, J. A.; Chiao, M. P.; Chornay, D. J.; Cravens, T.; Galeazzi, M.; Keller, J. W.; Koutroumpa, D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobstereye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the ESA AXIOM mission.

  17. Prototyping a Global Soft X-ray Imaging Instrument for Heliophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrophysics Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Porter, F. Scott; Sibeck, David G.; Carter, Jenny A.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chornay, Dennis J.; Cravens, Thomas; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Keller, John W.; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; hide

    2012-01-01

    We describe current progress in the development of a prototype wide field-of-view soft X-ray imager that employs Lobster-eye optics and targets heliophysics, planetary, and astrophysics science. The prototype will provide proof-of-concept for a future flight instrument capable of imaging the entire dayside magnetosheath from outside the magnetosphere. Such an instrument was proposed for the FSA AXIOM mission

  18. X-ray Fluorescence Holography: Principles, Apparatus, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kouichi; Korecki, Pawel

    2018-06-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is an atomic structure determination technique that combines the capabilities of X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. It provides a unique means of gaining fully three-dimensional information about the local atomic structure and lattice site positions of selected elements inside compound samples. In this work, we discuss experimental and theoretical aspects that are essential for the efficient recording and analysis of X-ray fluorescence holograms and review the most recent advances in XFH. We describe experiments performed with brilliant synchrotron radiation as well as with tabletop setups that employ conventional X-ray tubes.

  19. X-ray fluorescence method for trace analysis and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Shinjiro

    2000-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis has a long history as conventional bulk elemental analysis with medium sensitivity. However, with the use of synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence method has become a unique analytical technique which can provide tace elemental information with the spatial resolution. To obtain quantitative information of trace elemental distribution by using the x-ray fluorescence method, theoretical description of x-ray fluorescence yield is described. Moreover, methods and instruments for trace characterization with a scanning x-ray microprobe are described. (author)

  20. Flexible digital x-ray technology for far-forward remote diagnostic and conformal x-ray imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph; Marrs, Michael; Strnad, Mark; Apte, Raj B.; Bert, Julie; Allee, David; Colaneri, Nicholas; Forsythe, Eric; Morton, David

    2013-05-01

    Today's flat panel digital x-ray image sensors, which have been in production since the mid-1990s, are produced exclusively on glass substrates. While acceptable for use in a hospital or doctor's office, conventional glass substrate digital x-ray sensors are too fragile for use outside these controlled environments without extensive reinforcement. Reinforcement, however, significantly increases weight, bulk, and cost, making them impractical for far-forward remote diagnostic applications, which demand rugged and lightweight x-ray detectors. Additionally, glass substrate x-ray detectors are inherently rigid. This limits their use in curved or bendable, conformal x-ray imaging applications such as the non-destructive testing (NDT) of oil pipelines. However, by extending low-temperature thin-film transistor (TFT) technology previously demonstrated on plastic substrate- based electrophoretic and organic light emitting diode (OLED) flexible displays, it is now possible to manufacture durable, lightweight, as well as flexible digital x-ray detectors. In this paper, we discuss the principal technical approaches used to apply flexible display technology to two new large-area flexible digital x-ray sensors for defense, security, and industrial applications and demonstrate their imaging capabilities. Our results include a 4.8″ diagonal, 353 x 463 resolution, flexible digital x-ray detector, fabricated on a 6″ polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrate; and a larger, 7.9″ diagonal, 720 x 640 resolution, flexible digital x-ray detector also fabricated on PEN and manufactured on a gen 2 (370 x 470 mm) substrate.

  1. Introducing the ARL X'Tra x-ray diffraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The ARL X'Tra is a state-of-the-art solution for powder X-ray diffraction in a large range of applications such as pharmaceuticals and biosciences, chemicals, earth sciences, semi-conductors, metallurgy and ceramics. The X'Tra offers the latest technology in key diffraction components to produce a high performance instrument at an affordable price. This presentation examines some of the hardware and performance features of this instrument. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  2. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed

  3. Differential phase contrast setup for a non coherent beamline at HASYLAB using hard X-ray grating interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzen, Julia; Beckmann, Felix; Haibel, Astrid; Schreyer, Andreas [GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht (Germany); Donath, Tilman; David, Christian; Gruenzweig, Christian [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Pfeiffer, Franz [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); EPF Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    Phase-contrast imaging is a common technique to visualize soft tissue with much higher contrast than the conventional absorption-contrast imaging. Differential phase contrast (DPC), developed at PSI, Switzerland, makes use of a hard x-ray grating interferometer and allows for phase-contrast imaging with high brilliance synchrotron sources as well as with conventional x-ray tubes. It is recently reported also to provide dark field information that is very sensitive to micro structures like porosity within the materials. Here we present the plans to adopt the DPC technique to the HARWI-II materials science beamline, operated by GKSS Research Centre, in cooperation with DESY, Hamburg. This will offer an amount of new applications especially in the field of materials science like for example characterizing new light weight materials like magnesium and studying its corrosion as implant material.

  4. Scintillating ribbon x-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchen, B.E.; Rogers, A.

    1995-01-01

    A patent in the early 1970's by Aerojet Corporation in Sacramento, CA put forth the idea of using an array of scintillating fibers for x-ray detection and imaging. In about 1975, Pratt and Whitney Aircraft in East Hartford, CT designed and manufactured an imaging system based on the patent. The device was 1.75 in thick in the direction of the x-ray beam and about 4 in. by 4 in. square. The device was used with a 8 MeV x-ray source to image and measure internal clearances within operating aircraft, gas turbines engines. There are significant advantages of fiber optic detectors in x-ray detection. However, the advantages are often outweighed by the disadvantages. Two of the advantages of scintillating fiber optic x-ray detectors are: (1) high limiting spatial frequency -- between 20 and 25 lp/mm; and (2) excellent x-ray stopping power -- they can be made thick and retain spatial resolution. In traditional fiber optic detectors the x-rays are oriented parallel to the long axis of the fiber. For the scintillating ribbon x-ray sensor, the x-rays are oriented normal to the fiber long axis. This ribbon sensor technique has a number of advantages over the two current radiographic techniques digital x-radiography and x-ray film: The main advantage the ribbon has is size and shape. It can be as thin as 0.05 in., virtually any width or length, and flexible. Once positioned in a given location, 20 to 100 square inches of the object being inspected can be imaged with a single x-ray beam sweep. It is clear that conventional digital cameras do not lend themselves to placement between walls of aircraft structures or similar items requiring x-ray inspections. A prototype scintillating ribbon x-ray sensor has been fabricated and tested by Synergistic Detector Designs. Images were acquired on corrosion test panels of aluminum fabricated by Iowa State University

  5. Exploring transient X-ray sky with Einstein Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Zhang, C.; Ling, Z.; Zhao, D.; Chen, Y.; Lu, F.; Zhang, S.

    2017-10-01

    The Einstein Probe is a small satellite in time-domain astronomy to monitor the soft X-ray sky. It is a small mission in the space science programme of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It will carry out systematic survey and characterisation of high-energy transients at unprecedented sensitivity, spatial resolution, Grasp and monitoring cadence. Its wide-field imaging capability is achieved by using established technology of micro-pore lobster-eye X-ray focusing optics. Complementary to this is X-ray follow-up capability enabled by a narrow-field X-ray telescope. It is capable of on-board triggering and real time downlink of transient alerts, in order to trigger fast follow-up observations at multi-wavelengths. Its scientific goals are concerned with discovering and characterising diverse types of X-ray transients, including tidal disruption events, supernova shock breakouts, high-redshift GRBs, and of particular interest, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave events.

  6. Possibilities and Challenges of Scanning Hard X-ray Spectro-microscopy Techniques in Material Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Somogyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scanning hard X-ray spectro-microscopic imaging opens unprecedented possibilities in the study of inhomogeneous samples at different length-scales. It gives insight into the spatial variation of the major and minor components, impurities and dopants of the sample, and their chemical and electronic states at micro- and nano-meter scales. Measuring, modelling and understanding novel properties of laterally confined structures are now attainable. The large penetration depth of hard X-rays (several keV to several 10 keV beam energy makes the study of layered and buried structures possible also in in situ and in operando conditions. The combination of different X-ray analytical techniques complementary to scanning spectro-microscopy, such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray excited optical luminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS and nano-SIMS, provides access to optical characteristics and strain and stress distributions. Complex sample environments (temperature, pressure, controlled atmosphere/vacuum, chemical environment are also possible and were demonstrated, and allow as well the combination with other analysis techniques (Raman spectroscopy, infrared imaging, mechanical tensile devices, etc. on precisely the very same area of the sample. The use of the coherence properties of X-rays from synchrotron sources is triggering emerging experimental imaging approaches with nanometer lateral resolution. New fast analytical possibilities pave the way towards statistically significant studies at multi- length-scales and three dimensional tomographic investigations. This paper gives an overview of these techniques and their recent achievements in the field of material sciences.

  7. Benchtop phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: o.gundogdu@surrey.ac.uk; Nirgianaki, E.; Che Ismail, E.; Jenneson, P.M.; Bradley, D.A. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    Clinical radiography has traditionally been based on contrast obtained from absorption when X-rays pass through the body. The contrast obtained from traditional radiography can be rather poor, particularly when it comes to soft tissue. A wide range of media of interest in materials science, biology and medicine exhibit very weak absorption contrast, but they nevertheless produce significant phase shifts with X-rays. The use of phase information for imaging purposes is therefore an attractive prospect. Some of the X-ray phase-contrast imaging methods require highly monochromatic plane wave radiation and sophisticated X-ray optics. However, the propagation-based phase-contrast imaging method adapted in this paper is a relatively simple method to implement, essentially requiring only a microfocal X-ray tube and electronic detection. In this paper, we present imaging results obtained from two different benchtop X-ray sources employing the free space propagation method. X-ray phase-contrast imaging provides higher contrast in many samples, including biological tissues that have negligible absorption contrast.

  8. New intraoral x-ray fluorographic imaging for dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, T.; Osada, T.; Aoyama, W.; Iguchi, M.; Suzuki, S.; Kanno, M.; Moriya, K.; Yoshimura, M.; Tusuda, M.

    1983-01-01

    A new dental x-ray fluorographic unit has been developed. This unit is composed of small intraoral x-ray tube, a compact x-ray image intensifier, and a high-resolution TV system. The purposes for developing this equipment were to (1) directly observe the tooth during endodontic procedures and (2) reduce x-ray exposure to the patient and the dentist. The radiation exposure can be reduced to about 1/600 the exposure used with conventional dental film. In clinical trials, a satisfactory fluorographic dental image for endodontic treatment was obtained with this new device

  9. Hard-x-ray phase-difference microscopy with a low-brilliance laboratory x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Hiroaki; Yashiro, Wataru; Harasse, Sebastien; Momose, Atsushi; Mizutani, Haruo

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a hard-X-ray phase-imaging microscopy method using a low-brilliance X-ray source. The microscope consists of a sample, a Fresnel zone plate, a transmission grating, and a source grating creating an array of mutually incoherent X-ray sources. The microscope generates an image exhibiting twin features of the sample with opposite signs separated by a distance, which is processed to generate a phase image. The method is quantitative even for non-weak-phase objects that are difficult to be quantitatively examined by the widely used Zernike phase-contrast microscopy, and it has potentially broad applications in the material and biological science fields. (author)

  10. New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre lengthscale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, W., E-mail: ludwig@esrf.fr [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR 5510, 69621Villeurbanne (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP220, 38043 Grenoble (France); King, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP220, 38043 Grenoble (France); School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Reischig, P. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Herbig, M. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR 5510, 69621Villeurbanne (France); Lauridsen, E.M.; Schmidt, S. [Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Proudhon, H.; Forest, S. [MINES ParisTech, Centre des materiaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, 91003 Evry Cedex (France); Cloetens, P.; Roscoat, S. Rolland du [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Buffiere, J.Y. [Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR 5510, 69621Villeurbanne (France); Marrow, T.J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Poulsen, H.F. [Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, P.O. Box 49, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2009-10-25

    Non-destructive, three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the grain structure in mono-phase polycrystalline materials is an open challenge in material science. Recent advances in synchrotron based X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer interesting possibilities for mapping 3D grain shapes and crystallographic orientations for certain categories of polycrystalline materials. Direct visualisation of the three-dimensional grain boundary network or of two-phase (duplex) grain structures by means of absorption and/or phase contrast techniques may be possible, but is restricted to specific material systems. A recent extension of this methodology, termed X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT), combines the principles of X-ray diffraction imaging, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (3DXRD) and image reconstruction from projections. DCT provides simultaneous access to 3D grain shape, crystallographic orientation and local attenuation coefficient distribution. The technique applies to the larger range of plastically undeformed, polycrystalline mono-phase materials, provided some conditions on grain size and texture are fulfilled. The straightforward combination with high-resolution microtomography opens interesting new possibilities for the observation of microstructure related damage and deformation mechanisms in these materials.

  11. New opportunities for 3D materials science of polycrystalline materials at the micrometre lengthscale by combined use of X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, W.; King, A.; Reischig, P.; Herbig, M.; Lauridsen, E.M.; Schmidt, S.; Proudhon, H.; Forest, S.; Cloetens, P.; Roscoat, S. Rolland du; Buffiere, J.Y.; Marrow, T.J.; Poulsen, H.F.

    2009-01-01

    Non-destructive, three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the grain structure in mono-phase polycrystalline materials is an open challenge in material science. Recent advances in synchrotron based X-ray imaging and diffraction techniques offer interesting possibilities for mapping 3D grain shapes and crystallographic orientations for certain categories of polycrystalline materials. Direct visualisation of the three-dimensional grain boundary network or of two-phase (duplex) grain structures by means of absorption and/or phase contrast techniques may be possible, but is restricted to specific material systems. A recent extension of this methodology, termed X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT), combines the principles of X-ray diffraction imaging, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (3DXRD) and image reconstruction from projections. DCT provides simultaneous access to 3D grain shape, crystallographic orientation and local attenuation coefficient distribution. The technique applies to the larger range of plastically undeformed, polycrystalline mono-phase materials, provided some conditions on grain size and texture are fulfilled. The straightforward combination with high-resolution microtomography opens interesting new possibilities for the observation of microstructure related damage and deformation mechanisms in these materials.

  12. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Sadaoki, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sfujioka@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sfujioka@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ozaki, Tetsuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10{sup 13} photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO{sub 2} converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  13. New light for science: European X-ray Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobierajski, R.; Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.

    2006-01-01

    The execution of the X-Ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) project begins January 2007. The unique combination of the radiation wavelength, pulse duration and peak brightness provided by XFEL will enable to study processes which occur in both atomic scales - time and space. It will create new scientific opportunities in physics, chemistry, biology and material sciences. In the paper the principles of the XFEL radiation generation, technical design and main radiation parameters are described. They are followed by short description of the project organization. (author) [pl

  14. A 36-pixel superconducting tunnel junction soft X-ray detector for environmental science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Stephan; Drury, Owen B.; Cramer, Stephen P.; Green, Peter G.

    2006-01-01

    We are operating a superconducting tunnel junction detector for high-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy at the Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. We have recently upgraded the instrument from 9 to 36 pixels for increased sensitivity. We have also acquired a new digital signal readout to increase the total count rate capabilities to ∼10 6 counts/s while maintaining a high peak-to-background ratio. We report on the performance of the spectrometer, and discuss speciation measurements of chromium in welding aerosols as a typical application of the instrument in environmental science

  15. A 36-pixel superconducting tunnel junction soft X-ray detector for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Stephan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov; Drury, Owen B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Avenue, L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cramer, Stephen P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Green, Peter G. [University of California Davis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We are operating a superconducting tunnel junction detector for high-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy at the Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. We have recently upgraded the instrument from 9 to 36 pixels for increased sensitivity. We have also acquired a new digital signal readout to increase the total count rate capabilities to {approx}10{sup 6} counts/s while maintaining a high peak-to-background ratio. We report on the performance of the spectrometer, and discuss speciation measurements of chromium in welding aerosols as a typical application of the instrument in environmental science.

  16. X-ray Crystallography of Biological Macromolecules -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    trons of the atoms scatter X-rays and if identical molecules are arranged in a ... Institute of Science,. Bangalore. ... The first X-ray diffraction pictures were taken and the theory .... various processes involved in biological systems in detail. We.

  17. A highly sensitive x-ray imaging modality for hepatocellular carcinoma detection in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Danielle; Walsh, Edward G.; Derdak, Zoltan; Wands, Jack R.; Rose-Petruck, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Innovations that improve sensitivity and reduce cost are of paramount importance in diagnostic imaging. The novel x-ray imaging modality called spatial frequency heterodyne imaging (SFHI) is based on a linear arrangement of x-ray source, tissue, and x-ray detector, much like that of a conventional x-ray imaging apparatus. However, SFHI rests on a complete paradigm reversal compared to conventional x-ray absorption-based radiology: while scattered x-rays are carefully rejected in absorption-based x-ray radiology to enhance the image contrast, SFHI forms images exclusively from x-rays scattered by the tissue. In this study we use numerical processing to produce x-ray scatter images of hepatocellular carcinoma labeled with a nanoparticle contrast agent. We subsequently compare the sensitivity of SFHI in this application to that of both conventional x-ray imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although SFHI is still in the early stages of its development, our results show that the sensitivity of SFHI is an order of magnitude greater than that of absorption-based x-ray imaging and approximately equal to that of MRI. As x-ray imaging modalities typically have lower installation and service costs compared to MRI, SFHI could become a cost effective alternative to MRI, particularly in areas of the world with inadequate availability of MRI facilities.

  18. Hard X-ray techniques suitable for polymer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, W; Goossens, H; Goderis, B, E-mail: Wim.Bras@esrf.fr [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) (Netherlands); DUBBLE-ESRF, BP 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Molecular and Nanomaterials, Chemistry Department, Catholic University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    Polymers have been studied since 1979 with 8-12 keV synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering methods and the number and sophistication of the experiments have rapidly grown ever since. More recently, new experimental techniques have been developed that use softer or harder X-rays in less conventional ways. This article provides a brief overview of the possibilities of hard X-ray techniques and indicates some areas that might gain from further developments.

  19. Hard X-ray techniques suitable for polymer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bras, W; Goossens, H; Goderis, B

    2010-01-01

    Polymers have been studied since 1979 with 8-12 keV synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering methods and the number and sophistication of the experiments have rapidly grown ever since. More recently, new experimental techniques have been developed that use softer or harder X-rays in less conventional ways. This article provides a brief overview of the possibilities of hard X-ray techniques and indicates some areas that might gain from further developments.

  20. LOBSTER - New Space X-Ray telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Simon, V.; Sveda, L.; Inneman, A.; Semencova, V.; Skulinova, M.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster Eye X-ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc. For example, the Lobster optics based X-ray All Sky Monitor is capable to detect around 20 GRBs and 8 XRFs yearly and this will surely significantly contribute to the related science

  1. TRW Ships NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory To Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Two U.S. Air Force C-5 Galaxy transport planes carrying the observatory and its ground support equipment landed at Kennedy's Space Shuttle Landing Facility at 2:40 p.m. EST this afternoon. REDONDO BEACH, CA.--(Business Wire)--Feb. 4, 1999--TRW has shipped NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory ("Chandra") to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), in Florida, in preparation for a Space Shuttle launch later this year. The 45-foot-tall, 5-ton science satellite will provide astronomers with new information on supernova remnants, the surroundings of black holes, and other celestial phenomena that produce vast quantities of X-rays. Cradled safely in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System (SCTS), NASA's newest space telescope was ferried on Feb. 4 from Los Angeles International Airport to KSC aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy transporter. The SCTS, an Air Force container, closely resembles the size and shape of the Shuttle cargo bay. Over the next few months, Chandra will undergo final tests at KSC and be mated to a Boeing-provided Inertial Upper Stage for launch aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. A launch date for the Space Shuttle STS-93 mission is expected to be announced later this week. The third in NASA's family of Great Observatories that includes the Hubble Space Telescope and the TRW-built Compton Gamma Ray observatory, Chandra will use the world's most powerful X-ray telescope to allow scientists to "see" and monitor cosmic events that are invisible to conventional optical telescopes. Chandra's X-ray images will yield new insight into celestial phenomena such as the temperature and extent of gas clouds that comprise clusters of galaxies and the superheating of gas and dust particles as they swirl into black holes. A TRW-led team that includes the Eastman Kodak Co., Raytheon Optical Systems Inc., and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. designed and built the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The

  2. X-ray visualization of a mosquito's head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Mochizuki, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    A technology to visualize an internal anatomy of living animals has developed for a medical diagnostics and biology by using Synchrotron x-ray produced in a Photon Factory. A dynamic motion of organ, muscles and respiratory of small insects is difficult to observe by using conventional x-ray imaging because of luck of special and temporal resolution. We visualized motions of pumps located in a mosquito's head through a Phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique by using a synchrotron X-ray. Isovue370 was fed with a 10% dilute glucose solution to visualize a flow. We found that the phase difference between the motions of an oral cavity pump and pharynx pump was 180 degrees. (author)

  3. Tissue chemical analysis with muonic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, R.L.; Reidy, J.J.; Springer, K.; Daniel, H.; Knowles, H.B.

    1976-01-01

    The stopped muon channel at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was used as a source of muons for studying the elemental composition of tissue with muonic X rays. The X ray spectra from several types of tissue were used to determine the amounts of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen present. These determinations agree with the results of more conventional chemical analysis. The results show that muonic X rays offer a non-invasive technique for determining the amounts of the more abundant elements present in selected regions of the body. (orig.) [de

  4. TH-AB-209-07: High Resolution X-Ray-Induced Acoustic Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, L; Tang, S [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Ahmad, M [Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Xing, L [Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: X-ray radiographic absorption imaging is an invaluable tool in medical diagnostics, biology and materials science. However, the use of conventional CT is limited by two factors: the detection sensitivity to weak absorption material and the radiation dose from CT scanning. The purpose of this study is to explore X-ray induced acoustic computed tomography (XACT), a new imaging modality, which combines X-ray absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution to address these challenges. Methods: First, theoretical models was built to analyze the XACT sensitivity to X-ray absorption and calculate the minimal radiation dose in XACT imaging. Then, an XACT system comprised of an ultrashort X-ray pulse, a low noise ultrasound detector and a signal acquisition system was built to evaluate the X-ray induced acoustic signal generation. A piece of chicken bone and a phantom with two golden fiducial markers were exposed to 270 kVp X-ray source with 60 ns exposure time, and the X-ray induced acoustic signal was received by a 2.25MHz ultrasound transducer in 200 positions. XACT images were reconstructed by a filtered back-projection algorithm. Results: The theoretical analysis shows that X-ray induced acoustic signals have 100% relative sensitivity to X-ray absorption, but not to X-ray scattering. Applying this innovative technology to breast imaging, we can reduce radiation dose by a factor of 50 compared with newly FDA approved breast CT. The reconstructed images of chicken bone and golden fiducial marker phantom reveal that the spatial resolution of the built XACT system is 350µm. Conclusion: In XACT, the imaging sensitivity to X-ray absorption is improved and the imaging dose is dramatically reduced by using ultrashort pulsed X-ray. Taking advantage of the high ultrasonic resolution, we can also perform 3D imaging with a single X-ray pulse. This new modality has the potential to revolutionize x-ray imaging applications in medicine and biology.

  5. The Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE): Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Steve; Weisskopf, M.; Soffitta, P.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Costa, E.; Elsner, R.; Kaspi, V.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Latronico, L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Mission background: Imaging x-ray polarimetry in 2–8 kiloelectronvolt band; NASA Astrophysics Small Explorer (SMEX) selected in 2017 January. Orbit: Pegasus-XL (airborne) launch in 2021, from Kwajalein; Equatorial circular orbit at greater than or approximately equal to 540 kilometers (620 kilometers, goal) altitude. Flight system: Spacecraft, payload structure, and integration by Ball Aerospace - Deployable payload boom from Orbital-ATK, under contract to Ball; X-ray Mirror Module Assemblies by NASA/MSFC; X-ray (polarization-sensitive) Instruments by IAPS/INAF (Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali / Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) and INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). Ground system: ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana) Malindi ground station, with Singapore backup; Mission Operations Center at LASP (Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado); Science Operations Center at NASA/MSFC; Data archive at HEASARC (High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center), (NASA/GSFC), mirror at ASI Data Center. Science: Active galactic nuclei; Microquasars; Radio pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae; Supernova remnants; Magnetars; Accreting x-ray pulsars.

  6. X-ray beam splitting design for concurrent imaging at hard X-ray FELs and synchrotron facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Mokso, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 729, NOV (2013), s. 85-89 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : diffractive-refractive optics * hard X-ray FEL * X-ray imaging Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900213009613

  7. Three-Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction Technique for Metals Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Fan, Guohua

    2017-01-01

    The three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) is a new, advanced technique for materials characterization. This technique utilizes high-energy synchrotron X-rays to characterize the 3D crystallographic structure and strain/stress state of bulk materials. As the measurement is non......-destructive, the microstructural evolution as a function of time can be followed, i.e. it allows 4D (x, y, z characterizations, t). The high brilliance of synchrotron X-rays ensures that diffraction signals from volumes of micrometer scale can be quickly detected and distinguished from the background noise, i.e. its spatial...... implemented in several large synchrotron facilities, e.g. the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in USA and the Spring-8 in Japan. Another family of 3DXRD technique that utilizes white beam synchrotron X-rays has also been developed in parallel in cooperation between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and APS...

  8. Characteristics of Transmission-type Microfocus X-ray Tube based-on Carbon Nanotube Field Emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Sung Hwan; Ihsan, Aamir; Cho, Sung Oh

    2007-01-01

    A high resolution microfocus x-ray source is widely applied to noninvasive detection for industrial demands, material science and engineering, and to diagnostic study of microbiology and micro-tomography. Carbon nanotube (CNT) is regarded as an excellent electron emitter, which outperforms conventional electron sources in point of brightness. It has been suggested that CNT is used as an electron source of a high resolution x-ray tube according to their low threshold field with atomically sharp geometry, chemically robust structure, and electric conductivity. Several researchers have reported miniaturized x-ray tube based on diode structure and micro x-ray radiography and computed tomography systems using triode types with precise emission control and electrostatic focusing. Especially, a microfocus x-ray source of 30 μm resolution has been demonstrated recently using an elliptical CNT cathode and asymmetrical Eingel lens. However, to increase the spatial resolution of x-ray source, a smaller CNT emitter is desired. Electron focusing optics must be corrected to reduce aberrations. A thin wire tip end can provide a micro-area of CNT substrate, and a magnetic lens and transmission x-ray target are proper to reduce the lens aberration and a focal length. Until now, CNT based microfocus x-ray source with less than 10 um resolution has not been shown. Here we report a microfocus x-ray source with 4.7 μm x-ray focal spot consisted of a conical CNT tip, a single solenoid lens, and a transmission type x-ray target. A magnified x-ray image larger than 230 times was resolved with advantage of microfocused focal spot and transmission x-ray target

  9. The founding and development of X-ray crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Zhenhong

    2014-01-01

    2014 is the centennial of X-ray crystallography. Crystals have played an important role in our lives and in the development of society throughout these 100 years. In July 2012 the 66th General Assembly of the United Nations declared 2014 to be the official International Year of Crystallography (IYCr2014). The discovery of X-ray diffraction by crystals has had a profound impact on science and technology worldwide. It provides for us a distinct image of the arrangement of atoms or/and molecules in crystals. The development of X-ray spectroscopy has made it possible for us to understand the laws of atomic structure, and thus to identify the elements in all kinds of matter. In this article the greatest events in the history of X-ray crystallography, including the development of X-ray sources, detectors, experimental data analysis, and experimental methods are reviewed to commemorate the pioneers who made such important contributions to science and technology. (author)

  10. The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) for Athena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Laurent; Barret, Didier; Willem den Herder, Jan; Piro, Luigi; Cledassou, Rodolphe; Pointecouteau, Etienne; Peille, Philippe; Pajot, Francois; Arnaud, Monique; Pigot, Claude; hide

    2014-01-01

    Athena is designed to implement the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme selected by the European Space Agency for the second large mission of its Cosmic Vision program. The Athena science payload consists of a large aperture high angular resolution X-ray optics (2 m2 at 1 keV) and twelve meters away, two interchangeable focal plane instruments: the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) and the Wide Field Imager. The X-IFU is a cryogenic X-ray spectrometer, based on a large array of Transition Edge Sensors (TES), oering 2.5 eV spectral resolution, with approximately 5" pixels, over a field of view of 5' in diameter. In this paper, we present the X-IFU detector and readout electronics principles, some elements of the current design for the focal plane assembly and the cooling chain. We describe the current performance estimates, in terms of spectral resolution, effective area, particle background rejection and count rate capability. Finally, we emphasize on the technology developments necessary to meet the demanding requirements of the X-IFU, both for the sensor, readout electronics and cooling chain.

  11. Precision test method by x-ray absorbent clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakadai, Toru; Matsukawa, Hideyuki; Sekita, Jun-ichiro; Murakoshi, Atsushi.

    1982-01-01

    In X-ray penetration photography of such as welds with reinforcing metal and castings of complex shape, the X-ray absorbent clay developed to eliminate various disadvantages of the conventional absorbents was further studied for better application. The results of the usage are as follows. Because the X-ray absorbent is clay, it is flexible in form, and gives good adhesion to test objects. In the welds and castings mentioned, it is effective for reducing the scattered ray, accordingly, it results in superior images. The following matters are described: contrast in radiographs, the required conditions for X-ray absorbents in general, the properties of the absorbent (absorption coefficient, consistency, density), improvement in radiographs by means of the X-ray absorbent clay (wall thickness compensation, masking, the application together with narrow-field irradiation photography). (Mori, K.)

  12. Effects of X-Ray Dose On Rhizosphere Studies Using X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappala, Susan; Helliwell, Jonathan R.; Tracy, Saoirse R.; Mairhofer, Stefan; Sturrock, Craig J.; Pridmore, Tony; Bennett, Malcolm; Mooney, Sacha J.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a non-destructive imaging technique originally designed for diagnostic medicine, which was adopted for rhizosphere and soil science applications in the early 1980s. X-ray CT enables researchers to simultaneously visualise and quantify the heterogeneous soil matrix of mineral grains, organic matter, air-filled pores and water-filled pores. Additionally, X-ray CT allows visualisation of plant roots in situ without the need for traditional invasive methods such as root washing. However, one routinely unreported aspect of X-ray CT is the potential effect of X-ray dose on the soil-borne microorganisms and plants in rhizosphere investigations. Here we aimed to i) highlight the need for more consistent reporting of X-ray CT parameters for dose to sample, ii) to provide an overview of previously reported impacts of X-rays on soil microorganisms and plant roots and iii) present new data investigating the response of plant roots and microbial communities to X-ray exposure. Fewer than 5% of the 126 publications included in the literature review contained sufficient information to calculate dose and only 2.4% of the publications explicitly state an estimate of dose received by each sample. We conducted a study involving rice roots growing in soil, observing no significant difference between the numbers of root tips, root volume and total root length in scanned versus unscanned samples. In parallel, a soil microbe experiment scanning samples over a total of 24 weeks observed no significant difference between the scanned and unscanned microbial biomass values. We conclude from the literature review and our own experiments that X-ray CT does not impact plant growth or soil microbial populations when employing a low level of dose (<30 Gy). However, the call for higher throughput X-ray CT means that doses that biological samples receive are likely to increase and thus should be closely monitored. PMID:23840640

  13. Analysis of surface absorbed dose in X-ray grating interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhili, E-mail: wangnsrl@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dajiang; Chen, Heng; Wang, Shenghao [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wu, Ziyu, E-mail: wuzy@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Theoretical framework for dose estimation in X-ray grating interferometry. • Potential dose reduction of X-ray grating interferometry compared to conventional radiography. • Guidelines for optimization of X-ray grating interferometry for dose-sensitive applications. • Measure to compare various existing X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques. - Abstract: X-ray phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry has shown increased contrast over conventional absorption imaging, and therefore the great potential of dose reduction. The extent of the dose reduction depends on the geometry of grating interferometry, the photon energy, the properties of the sample under investigation and the utilized detector. These factors also determine the capability of grating interferometry to distinguish between different tissues with a specified statistical certainty in a single raw image. In this contribution, the required photon number for imaging and the resulting surface absorbed dose are determined in X-ray grating interferometry, using a two-component imaging object model. The presented results confirm that compared to conventional radiography, phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry indeed has the potential of dose reduction. And the extent of dose reduction is strongly dependent on the imaging conditions. Those results provide a theoretical framework for dose estimation under given imaging conditions before experimental trials, and general guidelines for optimization of grating interferometry for those dose-sensitive applications.

  14. Analysis of surface absorbed dose in X-ray grating interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhili; Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Dajiang; Chen, Heng; Wang, Shenghao; Wu, Ziyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Theoretical framework for dose estimation in X-ray grating interferometry. • Potential dose reduction of X-ray grating interferometry compared to conventional radiography. • Guidelines for optimization of X-ray grating interferometry for dose-sensitive applications. • Measure to compare various existing X-ray phase contrast imaging techniques. - Abstract: X-ray phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry has shown increased contrast over conventional absorption imaging, and therefore the great potential of dose reduction. The extent of the dose reduction depends on the geometry of grating interferometry, the photon energy, the properties of the sample under investigation and the utilized detector. These factors also determine the capability of grating interferometry to distinguish between different tissues with a specified statistical certainty in a single raw image. In this contribution, the required photon number for imaging and the resulting surface absorbed dose are determined in X-ray grating interferometry, using a two-component imaging object model. The presented results confirm that compared to conventional radiography, phase contrast imaging using grating interferometry indeed has the potential of dose reduction. And the extent of dose reduction is strongly dependent on the imaging conditions. Those results provide a theoretical framework for dose estimation under given imaging conditions before experimental trials, and general guidelines for optimization of grating interferometry for those dose-sensitive applications

  15. SMART-X: Square Meter, Arcsecond Resolution Telescope for X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhlinin, Alexey; SMART-X Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    SMART-X is a concept for a next-generation X-ray observatory with large-area, 0.5" angular resolution grazing incidence adjustable X-ray mirrors, high-throughput critical angle transmission gratings, and X-ray microcalorimeter and CMOS-based imager in the focal plane. High angular resolution is enabled by new technology based on controlling the shape of mirror segments using thin film piezo actuators deposited on the back surface. Science applications include observations of growth of supermassive black holes since redshifts of ~10, ultra-deep surveys over 10's of square degrees, galaxy assembly at z=2-3, as well as new opportunities in the high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and time domains. We also review the progress in technology development, tests, and mission design over the past year.

  16. Lifting the veil on the X-ray universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    . A multi-spectral space telescope The spacecraft carries three sets of science instruments, not only capable of making images of an X-ray source but also able to precisely distinguish the "colour" of the X-rays being viewed. At the prime focus of each of the telescopes are three European Photon Imaging Cameras. With silicon chips that can register extremely weak X-ray radiation, these advanced cameras are capable of detecting rapid variations in the intensity of a source. Grating structures at the exit of two mirror modules will reflect about half the incoming rays to a secondary focus, with its own cameras. This Reflection Grating Spectrometer will "fan out" the various wavelengths (much like a prism with visible light), and indicate in more detail the presence of individual elements, such as oxygen and iron. The third instrument aboard XMM is a conventional but very sensitive optical telescope. It will observe simultaneously the same regions as the X-ray telescopes but in the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, giving astronomers complementary data about the X-ray sources being studied. In orbit, this 30-cm telescope will be as sensitive as a 4-m instrument on the Earth's surface. The mysteries of the X-ray sky XMM will explore the hidden depths of the Universe, its violent hotspots where stars and galaxies are formed, and where worlds and matter itself disappear. Much as the colour of a street lamp can indicate which gas it uses, the science instruments on board XMM will reveal the deepest secrets of X-ray objects, their chemical composition and temperatures - clues to the physical processes that are taking place. Astronomers will use XMM to resolve the mysteries of stars that exploded long ago as supernovae and whose remnants, glowing with X-rays, may be supplying material for new planets and stars. They will study regions of supernova remnants that are still hot and may hold the key to understanding the origin of the enigmatic cosmic rays that pervade the

  17. The 100th Anniversary of X-Ray Crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojić-Prodić, B.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The important thing in science is not so much to obtain new facts as to discover new ways of thinking about them.W. L. BraggThe 100th anniversary of X-ray crystallography dates back to the first X-ray diffraction experiment on a crystal of copper sulphate pentahydrate. Max von Laue designed the theoretical background of the experiment, which was performed by German physicists W. Friedrich and P. Knipping in 1912. At that time, the mathematical formulation of the phenomenon and the fundamental concepts of crystallography were subjects of mineralogy. Altogether, they facilitated the development of methods for determination of the structure of matter at the atomic level. In 1913, father and son Bragg started to develop X-ray structure analysis for determination of crystal structures of simple molecules. Historic examples of structure determination starting from rock salt to complex, biologically important (macromolecules, such as globular proteins haemoglobin and myoglobin, DNA, vitamin B12 and the recent discovery of ribozyme, illustrate the development of X-ray structural analysis. The determination of 3D structures of these molecules by X-ray diffraction had opened new areas of scientific research, such as molecular biophysics, molecular genetics, structural molecular biology, bioinorganic chemistry, organometallic chemistry, and many others. The discovery and development of X-ray crystallography revolutionised our understanding of natural sciences – physics, chemistry, biology, and also science of materials. The scientific community recognised these fundamental achievements (including the discovery of X-rays by awarding twenty-eight Nobel prizes to thirty-nine men and two women. The explosive growth of science and technology in the 20th and 21st centuries had been founded on the detailed knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of molecules, which was the basis for explaining and predicting the physical, chemical, biological and

  18. Phase contrast enhanced high resolution X-ray imaging and tomography of soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Dammer, Jiri; Hanus, Robert; Holy, Tomas; Pospisil, Stanislav; Tykva, Richard; Uher, Josef; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2007-01-01

    A tabletop system for digital high resolution and high sensitivity X-ray micro-radiography has been developed for small-animal and soft-tissue imaging. The system is based on a micro-focus X-ray tube and the semiconductor hybrid position sensitive Medipix2 pixel detector. Transmission radiography imaging, conventionally based only on absorption, is enhanced by exploiting phase-shift effects induced in the X-ray beam traversing the sample. Phase contrast imaging is realized by object edge enhancement. DAQ is done by a novel fully integrated USB-based readout with online image generation. Improved signal reconstruction techniques make use of advanced statistical data analysis, enhanced beam hardening correction and direct thickness calibration of individual pixels. 2D and 3D micro-tomography images of several biological samples demonstrate the applicability of the system for biological and medical purposes including in-vivo and time dependent physiological studies in the life sciences

  19. Monte Carlo modeling of a conventional X-ray computed tomography scanner for gel dosimetry purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Homa; Mesbahi, Asghar; Nazarpoor, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose in the current study was to model an X-ray CT scanner with the Monte Carlo (MC) method for gel dosimetry. In this study, a conventional CT scanner with one array detector was modeled with use of the MCNPX MC code. The MC calculated photon fluence in detector arrays was used for image reconstruction of a simple water phantom as well as polyacrylamide polymer gel (PAG) used for radiation therapy. Image reconstruction was performed with the filtered back-projection method with a Hann filter and the Spline interpolation method. Using MC results, we obtained the dose-response curve for images of irradiated gel at different absorbed doses. A spatial resolution of about 2 mm was found for our simulated MC model. The MC-based CT images of the PAG gel showed a reliable increase in the CT number with increasing absorbed dose for the studied gel. Also, our results showed that the current MC model of a CT scanner can be used for further studies on the parameters that influence the usability and reliability of results, such as the photon energy spectra and exposure techniques in X-ray CT gel dosimetry.

  20. Experimental setup for x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabe, P.; Tolkiehn, G.; Werner, A.

    1979-10-01

    In this paper we describe an apparatus used at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) for the measurement of x-ray absorption spectra, specially designed for the investigation of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Performance of the setup is discussed and compared with an apparatus using the bremsstrahlung of a conventional x-ray source. (orig.)

  1. X-ray imaging with the PILATUS 100k detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Martin; Bunk, O.; David, C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the application of the PILATUS 100K pixel detector for medical imaging. Experimental results are presented in the form of X-ray radiographs using standard X-ray absorption contrast and a recently developed phase contrast imaging method. The results obtained with the PILATUS detector...... are compared to results obtained with a conventional X-ray imaging system consisting of an X-ray scintillation screen, lens optics, and a charge coupled device. Finally, the results for both systems are discussed more quantitatively based on an image power spectrum analysis. Udgivelsesdato: April...

  2. Perspectives of in situ/operando resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in catalytic energy materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yi-Sheng; Glans, Per-Anders [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chuang, Cheng-Hao [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui 250, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kapilashrami, Mukes [Center for Engineering Concepts Development, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Guo, Jinghua, E-mail: jguo@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • In-situ/operando soft X-ray RXES and RIXS offer unique perspectives in the energy material science. - Abstract: Growing environmental concerns have renewed the interest for light induced catalytic reactions to synthesize cleaner chemical fuels from syngas. This, however, requires a sound understanding for the dynamics taking place at molecular level as a result of light – matter interaction. We present herein the principles of soft X-ray resonant emission spectroscopy (RXES) and resonant inelastic scattering (RIXS) and the importance of these spectroscopic techniques in materials science in light of their unique ability to emanate characteristic fingerprints on the geometric structure, chemical bonding charge and spin states in addition to chemical sensitivity. The addition of in situ/operando RXES and RIXS capability offers new opportunities to project important material properties and functionalities under conditions nearly identical to the operational modes.

  3. Perspectives of in situ/operando resonant inelastic X-ray scattering in catalytic energy materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi-Sheng; Glans, Per-Anders; Chuang, Cheng-Hao; Kapilashrami, Mukes; Guo, Jinghua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ/operando soft X-ray RXES and RIXS offer unique perspectives in the energy material science. - Abstract: Growing environmental concerns have renewed the interest for light induced catalytic reactions to synthesize cleaner chemical fuels from syngas. This, however, requires a sound understanding for the dynamics taking place at molecular level as a result of light – matter interaction. We present herein the principles of soft X-ray resonant emission spectroscopy (RXES) and resonant inelastic scattering (RIXS) and the importance of these spectroscopic techniques in materials science in light of their unique ability to emanate characteristic fingerprints on the geometric structure, chemical bonding charge and spin states in addition to chemical sensitivity. The addition of in situ/operando RXES and RIXS capability offers new opportunities to project important material properties and functionalities under conditions nearly identical to the operational modes.

  4. Repeated pulsed x-ray emission equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Hikaru; Iida, Satoshi

    1982-01-01

    X-ray diffraction technique has been applied to determine the spatial positions of atoms which compose a material, and it is needless to say that the technique is a fundamental means regardless of the fields of research. However, the application of X-ray diffraction to the research on physical properties has been so far limited to know the spatial positions of atoms or molecules under thermal equilibrium condition. The addition of time element to the conventional technique, that is, the analysis of material structure including the time-varying processes under non-equilibrium conditions, is considered to approach the elucidation of the essence of materials. The authors call this dynamic structural analysis. The authors have planned to analyze X-ray diffraction intensity which has the resolution of about 10 -8 s in the real time which is conjugate with energy. However, present pulsed X-ray sources are not suitable for diffraction experiment because the pulse width is too long or X-ray wavelength is too short. Accordingly, the authors have made for trial a pulsed X-ray source for diffraction experiment. Its specifications are: diode voltage (X-ray tube voltage) from 200 to 300 kV, diode current from 2 to 5 kA, pulse width of about 30ns, maximum repetition frequency 10 pps, and X-ray focus size of 2 mm diameter. One of the features of this source is the repeated generation of pulsed X-ray. This is the first trial in the world, and is indispensable to the dynamic structural analysis described above. The quality of the emitted X-ray is also written. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. The STAR-X X-Ray Telescope Assembly (XTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ryan S.; Bautz, Mark W.; Bonafede, Joseph A.; Miller, Eric D.; Saha, Timo T.; Solly, Peter M.; Zhang, William W.

    2017-01-01

    The Survey and Time-domain Astrophysical Research eXplorer (STAR-X) science goals are to discover what powers the most violent explosions in the Universe, understand how black holes grow across cosmic time and mass scale, and measure how structure formation heats the majority of baryons in the Universe. To achieve these goals, STAR-X requires a powerful X-ray telescope with a large field of view, large collecting area, and excellent point spread function. The STAR-X instrument, the X-Ray Telescope Assembly (XTA), meets these requirements using a powerful X-ray mirror technology based on precision-polished single crystal silicon and a mature CCD detector technology. The XTA is composed of three major subsystems: an X-ray Mirror Assembly (MA) of high resolution, lightweight mirror segments fabricated out of single crystal silicon; a Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) made of back-illuminated CCD's capable of detecting X-rays with excellent quantum efficiency; and a composite Telescope Tube that structurally links the MA and FPA. The MA consists of 5,972 silicon mirror segments mounted into five subassemblies called meta-shells. A meta-shell is constructed from an annular central structural shell covered with interlocking layers of mirror segments. This paper describes the requirements, design, and analysis of the XTA subsystems with particular focus on the MA.

  6. A user-friendly LabVIEW software platform for grating based X-ray phase-contrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenghao; Han, Huajie; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Can; Yang, Meng; Wu, Zhao; Wu, Ziyu

    2015-01-01

    X-ray phase-contrast imaging can provide greatly improved contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging for weakly absorbing samples, such as biological soft tissues and fibre composites. In this study, we introduced an easy and fast way to develop a user-friendly software platform dedicated to the new grating-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging setup at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory of the University of Science and Technology of China. The control of 21 motorized stages, of a piezoelectric stage and of an X-ray tube are achieved with this software, it also covers image acquisition with a flat panel detector for automatic phase stepping scan. Moreover, a data post-processing module for signals retrieval and other custom features are in principle available. With a seamless integration of all the necessary functions in one software package, this platform greatly facilitate users' activities during experimental runs with this grating based X-ray phase contrast imaging setup.

  7. PREFACE: Workshop on 'Buried' Interface Science with X-rays and Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenji

    2007-06-01

    The 2007 workshop on `buried' interface science with X-rays and neutrons was held at the Institute of Materials Research, Tohoku University, in Sendai, Japan, on July 22-24, 2007. The workshop was the latest in a series held since 2001; Tsukuba (December 2001), Niigata (September 2002), Nagoya (July 2003), Tsukuba (July 2004), Saitama (March 2005), Yokohama (July 2006), Kusatsu (August 2006) and Tokyo (December 2006). The 2007 workshop had 64 participants and 34 presentations. There are increasing demands for sophisticated metrology in order to observe multilayered materials with nano-structures (dots, wires, etc), which are finding applications in electronic, magnetic, optical and other devices. Unlike many other surface-sensitive methods, X-ray and neutron analysis is known for its ability to see even `buried' function interfaces as well as the surface. It is highly reliable in practice, because the information, which ranges from the atomic to mesoscopic scale, is quantitative and reproducible. The non-destructive nature of this type of analytical method ensures that the same specimen can be measured by other techniques. However, we now realize that the method should be upgraded further to cope with more realistic problems in nano sciences and technologies. In the case of the reflectivity technique and other related methods, which have been the main topics in our workshops over the past 7 years, there are three important directions as illustrated in the Figure. Current X-ray methods can give atomic-scale information for quite a large area on a scale of mm2-cm2. These methods can deliver good statistics for an average, but sometimes we need to be able to see a specific part in nano-scale rather than an average structure. In addition, there is a need to see unstable changing structures and related phenomena in order to understand more about the mechanism of the functioning of nano materials. Quick measurements are therefore important. Furthermore, in order to apply

  8. Routine dental x-ray : a health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.S.

    1978-01-01

    In orthopantography (OPG) technique, a single panoramic x-ray replaces a dozen or so conventional x-ray exposures required for a full-mouth examination. OPG, thus, reduces radiation dose to the patients. However, the very simplicity of the OPG technique may lead to its misuse. The dentists are tempted to take too many OPG films and thus exposing the patients unnecessarily to X radiation. Dentists are advised against making dental x-radiography a routine part of examinations. Greater care should be exercised particularly in the case of children while using OPG. (M.G.B.)

  9. A JEM-X catalog of X-ray sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Chenevez, Jerome; Lund, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The JEM-X catalog of X-ray sources presented here is based on detections in individual science windows with a sensitivity limit of about 10 mCrab (5-15 keV). It contains 127 sources and only those that can be identified from the existing reference catalog. The input data are taken from the, up...

  10. High-intensity, subkilovolt x-ray calibration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckuck, R.W.; Gaines, J.L.; Ernst, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A high-intensity subkilovolt x-ray calibration source utilizing proton-induced inner-shell atomic fluorescence of low-Z elements is described. The high photon yields and low bremsstrahlung background associated with this phenomenon are ideally suited to provide intense, nearly monoenergetic x-ray beams. The proton accelerator is a 3 mA, 300 kV Cockroft-Walton using a conventional rf hydrogen ion source. Seven remotely-selectable targets capable of heat dissipation of 5 kW/cm 2 are used to provide characteristic x-rays with energies between 100 and 1000 eV. Source strengths are of the order of 10 13 to 10 14 photons/sec. Methods of reducing spectral contamination due to hydrocarbon build-up on the target are discussed. Typical x-ray spectra (Cu-L, C-K and B-K) are shown

  11. An electrochemical cell for in operando studies of lithium/sodium batteries using a conventional x-ray powder diffractometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Yanbin; Pedersen, Erik Ejler; Christensen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    An electrochemical cell has been designed for powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies of lithium ion batteries (LIB) and sodium ion batteries (SIB) in operando with high time resolution using conventional powder X-ray diffractometer. The cell allows for studies of both anode and cathode electrode...... to operate and maintain. Test examples on lithium insertion/extraction in two spinel-type LIB electrode materials (Li4Ti5O12 anode and LiMn2O4 cathode) are presented as well as first results on sodium extraction from a layered SIB cathode material (Na0.84Fe0.56Mn0.44O2)....

  12. Novel Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detector Developments for Future Large Area and High Resolution X-ray Astronomy Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Abe

    In the coming years, X-ray astronomy will require new soft X-ray detectors that can be read very quickly with low noise and can achieve small pixel sizes over a moderately large focal plane area. These requirements will be present for a variety of X-ray missions that will attempt to address science that was highly ranked by the 2010 Decadal Survey, including missions with science that overlaps with that of IXO and Athena, as well as other missions addressing science topics beyond those of IXO and Athena. An X-ray Surveyor mission was recently chosen by NASA for study by a Science & Technology Definition Team (STDT) so it can be considered as an option for an upcom-ing flagship mission. A mission such as this was endorsed by the NASA long term planning document entitled "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions," and a detailed description of one possible reali-zation of such a mission has been referred to as SMART-X, which was described in a recent NASA RFI response. This provides an example of a future mission concept with these requirements since it has high X-ray throughput and excellent spatial resolution. We propose to continue to modify current active pixel sensor designs, in particular the hybrid CMOS detectors that we have been working with for several years, and implement new in-pixel technologies that will allow us to achieve these ambitious and realistic requirements on a timeline that will make them available to upcoming X-ray missions. This proposal is a continuation of our program that has been work-ing on these developments for the past several years. The first 3 years of the program led to the development of a new circuit design for each pixel, which has now been shown to be suitable for a larger detector array. The proposed activity for the next four years will be to incorporate this pixel design into a new design of a full detector array (2k×2k pixels with digital output) and to fabricate this full-sized device so it can be thoroughly tested and

  13. X-ray filter for x-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, John Jay; Conley, Raymond P.; Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Dooryhee, Eric; Ghose, Sanjit

    2018-01-23

    Technologies are described for apparatus, methods and systems effective for filtering. The filters may comprise a first plate. The first plate may include an x-ray absorbing material and walls defining first slits. The first slits may include arc shaped openings through the first plate. The walls of the first plate may be configured to absorb at least some of first x-rays when the first x-rays are incident on the x-ray absorbing material, and to output second x-rays. The filters may comprise a second plate spaced from the first plate. The second plate may include the x-ray absorbing material and walls defining second slits. The second slits may include arc shaped openings through the second plate. The walls of the second plate may be configured to absorb at least some of second x-rays and to output third x-rays.

  14. Handbook of X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Keith A. (Editor); Smith, Randall K.; Siemiginowska, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    X-ray astronomy was born in the aftermath of World War II as military rockets were repurposed to lift radiation detectors above the atmosphere for a few minutes at a time. These early flights detected and studied X-ray emission from the Solar corona. The first sources beyond the Solar System were detected during a rocket flight in 1962 by a team headed by Riccardo Giaccom at American Science and Engineering, a company founded by physicists from MIT. The rocket used Geiger counters with a system designed to reduce non-X-ray backgrounds and collimators limiting the region of sky seen by the counters. As the rocket spun, the field of view (FOV) happened to pass over what was later found to be the brightest non-Solar X-ray source; later designated See X-1. It also detected a uniform background glow which could not be resolved into individual sources. A follow-up campaign using X-ray detectors with better spatial resolution and optical telescopes identified See X-1 as an interacting binary with a compact (neutron star) primary. This success led to further suborbital rocket flights by a number of groups. More X-ray binaries were discovered, as well as X-ray emission from supernova remnants, the radio galaxies M87 and Cygnus-A, and the Coma cluster. Detectors were improved and Geiger counters were replaced by proportional counters, which provided information about energy spectra of the sources. A constant challenge was determining precise positions of sources as only collimators were available.

  15. Video x-ray progressive scanning: new technique for decreasing x-ray exposure without decreasing image quality during cardiac catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.R. Jr.; Bove, A.A.; Wondrow, M.A.; Gray, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A newly developed video x-ray progressive scanning system improves image quality, decreases radiation exposure, and can be added to any pulsed fluoroscopic x-ray system using a video display without major system modifications. With use of progressive video scanning, the radiation entrance exposure rate measured with a vascular phantom was decreased by 32 to 53% in comparison with a conventional fluoroscopic x-ray system. In addition to this substantial decrease in radiation exposure, the quality of the image was improved because of less motion blur and artifact. Progressive video scanning has the potential for widespread application to all pulsed fluoroscopic x-ray systems. Use of this technique should make cardiac catheterization procedures and all other fluoroscopic procedures safer for the patient and the involved medical and paramedical staff

  16. Development of X-ray microcalorimeter using Ir/Au-TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka; Hirayama, Huminori; Ataka, Manabu

    2004-01-01

    We are developing x-ray mirocalorimeters using transition edge sensors of iridium/gold (Ir/Au-TES) for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. TES microcalorimeters can achieve faster response than conventional microcalorimeters by keeping the operating point of TES in the transition region through the use of strong negative electrothermal feedback (ETF). At present, the energy resolution of 9.4 eV (FWHM) was achieved for a 5899 eV Mn K al line. At a synchrotron X-ray radiation facility, we demonstrated microscopic signal response profile of the device and high-resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using a small amount of sample. (author)

  17. Neutron and X-ray optics

    CERN Document Server

    Cremer, Jay Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Covering a wide range of topics related to neutron and x-ray optics, this book explores the aspects of neutron and x-ray optics and their associated background and applications in a manner accessible to both lower-level students while retaining the detail necessary to advanced students and researchers. It is a self-contained book with detailed mathematical derivations, background, and physical concepts presented in a linear fashion. A wide variety of sources were consulted and condensed to provide detailed derivations and coverage of the topics of neutron and x-ray optics as well as the background material needed to understand the physical and mathematical reasoning directly related or indirectly related to the theory and practice of neutron and x-ray optics. The book is written in a clear and detailed manner, making it easy to follow for a range of readers from undergraduate and graduate science, engineering, and medicine. It will prove beneficial as a standalone reference or as a complement to textbooks. Su...

  18. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    Except in the very early stage of the development of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) by Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers, the excitation sources for XPS studies have predominantly been the Al Kα and Mg Kα emission lines. The advent of synchrotron radiation sources opened up the possibility of tuning the excitation photon energy with much higher throughputs for photoemission spectroscopy, however the excitation energy range was limited to the vacuum ultra violet and soft X-ray regions. Over the past 5-6 years, bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using high-brilliance high-flux X-rays from third generation synchrotron radiation facilities has been developed. This article reviews the history of HXPES covering the period from Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers' pioneering works to the present, and describes the fundamental aspects, instrumentation, applications to solid state physics, applied physics, materials science, and industrial applications of HXPES. Finally, several challenging new developments which have been conducted at SPring-8 by collaborations among several groups are introduced.

  19. X-ray-to-current signal conversion characteristics of trench-structured photodiodes for direct-conversion-type silicon X-ray sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Tetsuya; Funaki, Shota; Sakamoto, Kenji; Baba, Akiyoshi; Arima, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the radiation dose required in medical X-ray diagnoses, we propose a high-sensitivity direct-conversion-type silicon X-ray sensor that uses trench-structured photodiodes. This sensor is advantageous in terms of its long device lifetime, noise immunity, and low power consumption because of its low bias voltage. With this sensor, it is possible to detect X-rays with almost 100% efficiency; sensitivity can therefore be improved by approximately 10 times when compared with conventional indirect-conversion-type sensors. In this study, a test chip was fabricated using a single-poly single-metal 0.35 μm process. The formed trench photodiodes for the X-ray sensor were approximately 170 and 300 μm deep. At a bias voltage of 25 V, the absorbed X-ray-to-current signal conversion efficiencies were 89.3% (theoretical limit; 96.7%) at a trench depth of 170 μm and 91.1% (theoretical limit; 94.3%) at a trench depth of 300 μm. (author)

  20. Radiation exposure to the patient during X-ray fluoroscopy and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, A.; Vassileva, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is to assess the patient doses received during conventional and digital X-ray radiography, conventional fluoroscopy of the lungs, and one of the highest dose X-ray procedures - contrast examination of the large intestine (Barium enema examination). The measured quantity is Kerma area product (KAP), registered with a clinical dosimeter DRK-1 (Doza, Russia). A total number of 89 patients are included in the study. The Organ doses and Effective doses were assessed using Monte Carlo calculation code (PCXMC 1.4 (Finland). The measurements took place at the following X-ray units: a CGR (Koch and Sterzel) with two working posts - for radiography and fluoroscopy, a Philips Telediagnost (for barium enema) and an Oldelft N800HF Digidelca (for digital radiography of the chest). The typical KAP per procedure at digital radiography, conventional X-ray radiography and fluoroscopy and Barium enema examination are: 17; 95; 928 and 3630 cGy.cm 2 respectively; the average effective doses are: 0.022; 0.053; 0.728 and 8.0 mSv respectively. Doses to the lungs at digital radiography, conventional radiography and fluoroscopy are: 0.066; 0.136 and 2.412 mSv respectively and the dose to the upper and lower large intestine are: 11.7 and 8.6 mSv respectively. Conclusion: The approach used is applicable for assessment of radiation exposure to the patient during X-ray radiography and fluoroscopy. It needs registration of KAP meter readings when this device is installed on the stationary X-ray units

  1. On the attenuation of x-rays and gamma-rays in dilute solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerward, Leif

    1996-01-01

    The theory of X-ray and gamma-ray attenuation in solutions is developed. The rule of mixture for the calculation of mass and linear attenuation coefficients is elaborated in the general case as well as in the limit of extreme dilution. The validity of the latter approximation is illustrated...... by the attenuation of 17.443 keV X-rays in aqueous solutions of NaCl. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  2. Laser-driven soft-X-ray undulator source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The experimental results described in this thesis demonstrate the successful synergy between the research fields described above: the development of an undulator source driven by laser-plasma accelerated electron beams. First efforts in this new field have led to the production of radiation in the visible to infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum [Schlenvoigt et al., 2008]. In contrast to these early achievements, the experiment described here shows the successful production of laser-driven undulator radiation in the soft-X-ray range with a remarkable reproducibility. The source produced tunable, collimated beams with a wavelength of ∝17 nm from a compact setup. Undulator spectra were detected in ∝70% of consecutive driver-laser shots, which is a remarkable reproducibility for a first proof-of-concept demonstration using ultra-high intensity laser systems. This can be attributed to a stable electron acceleration scheme as well as to the first application of miniature magnetic quadrupole lenses with laseraccelerated beams. The lenses significantly reduce the electron beam divergence and its angular shot-to-shot fluctuations The setup of this experiment is the foundation of potential university-laboratory-sized, highly-brilliant hard X-ray sources. By increasing the electron energy to about 1 GeV, X-ray pulses with an expected duration of ∝10 fs and a photon energy of 1 keV could be produced in an almost identical arrangement. It can also be used as a testbed for the development of a free-electron laser of significantly smaller dimension than facilities based on conventional accelerators [Gruener et al., 2007]. Such compact sources have the potential for application in many fields of science. In addition, these developments could lead to ideal sources for ultrafast pump-probe experiments due to the perfect synchronization of the X-ray beam to the driver laser. (orig.)

  3. Laser-driven soft-X-ray undulator source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Matthias

    2010-08-04

    The experimental results described in this thesis demonstrate the successful synergy between the research fields described above: the development of an undulator source driven by laser-plasma accelerated electron beams. First efforts in this new field have led to the production of radiation in the visible to infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum [Schlenvoigt et al., 2008]. In contrast to these early achievements, the experiment described here shows the successful production of laser-driven undulator radiation in the soft-X-ray range with a remarkable reproducibility. The source produced tunable, collimated beams with a wavelength of {proportional_to}17 nm from a compact setup. Undulator spectra were detected in {proportional_to}70% of consecutive driver-laser shots, which is a remarkable reproducibility for a first proof-of-concept demonstration using ultra-high intensity laser systems. This can be attributed to a stable electron acceleration scheme as well as to the first application of miniature magnetic quadrupole lenses with laseraccelerated beams. The lenses significantly reduce the electron beam divergence and its angular shot-to-shot fluctuations The setup of this experiment is the foundation of potential university-laboratory-sized, highly-brilliant hard X-ray sources. By increasing the electron energy to about 1 GeV, X-ray pulses with an expected duration of {proportional_to}10 fs and a photon energy of 1 keV could be produced in an almost identical arrangement. It can also be used as a testbed for the development of a free-electron laser of significantly smaller dimension than facilities based on conventional accelerators [Gruener et al., 2007]. Such compact sources have the potential for application in many fields of science. In addition, these developments could lead to ideal sources for ultrafast pump-probe experiments due to the perfect synchronization of the X-ray beam to the driver laser. (orig.)

  4. Development of an x-ray beam line at the NSLS for studies in materials science using x-ray absorption spectroscopy: Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayers, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The research programs reported span virtually the entire range of condensed matter studies involving the fields of solid state physics, chemistry, electrochemistry, materials science and biochemistry. Results are discussed for various groups. Topics reported include work on amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors, particularly photostructural changes, kinetics of structural changes and rapid quenching, bond strengths, force constants and phonons. Also reported are temperature dependent EXAFS studies of bonding in high temperature alloys, amorphous systems, disordered alloys and studies of resolve electronic structure, EXAFS and XANES studies of permanent magnet systems based on Nd 2 Fe 14 B, glancing angle EXAFS study of Nb/Al and Nb/Si interfacial systems, x-ray absorption of krypton-implanted solids and high dose implants into silicon, and x-ray absorption and EXAFS studies of superconducting oxide compounds of Cu and related magnetic systems. Work is also reported on XAFS measurements on the icosahedral phase

  5. Historical development of synchrotron x-ray diffraction topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawado, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    After a short history of X-ray diffraction topography, from the early stage of laboratory X-ray topography to recent synchrotron-radiation applications, is described, the development of science and technology for the synchrotron X-ray topography and its industrial applications are reviewed in more detail. In addition, the recent trend to synchrotron topography research is clarified on the basis of several data obtained from 256 papers which have been published since 2000. (author)

  6. U-shape rotating anti-cathode compact X-ray generator: 20 times stronger than the commercially available X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakabe, N., E-mail: sakabe-dsb@sbsp.jp; Sakabe, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Foundation for Advancement of International Science (FAIS), Kasuga 3-chome, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0821 (Japan); Ohsawa, S.; Sakai, T.; Kobayakawa, H.; Sugimura, T.; Ikeda, M.; Tawada, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Watanabe, N.; Sasaki, K. [Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Wakatsuki, M. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    A new type of U-shape anti-cathode X-ray generator in which the inner surface of a cylindrical target is irradiated by an electron beam has been made by modifying a conventional rotating anti-cathode X-ray generator whose brightness in the catalog is 12 kW mm{sup −2}. A brightness of 129 kW mm{sup −2} was thereby obtained with this new U-shape-type X-ray generator. This new X-ray generator is expected to be of keen interest for applications in academia, industry and in hospitals. A new type of U-shape anti-cathode X-ray generator in which the inner surface of a cylindrical target is irradiated by an electron beam has been made by modifying a conventional rotating anti-cathode X-ray generator whose brightness in the catalog is 12 kW mm{sup −2}. The target material (Cu), target radius (50 mm) and rotating speed (6000 r.p.m.) were not changed in this modification. A brightness of 52 kW mm{sup −2} was obtained by this U-shape-type X-ray generator. This means that the brightness of the new type is 4.3 times greater than that of the old unmodified one. Furthermore, the new-type X-ray generator yielded a brightness of 129 kW mm{sup −2} by adding a carbon coating on the Cu target. This means an overall increase of brightness of ten times. The original generator has the highest brightness in the generators of the same class (having a radius of 50 mm and rotation speed of 6000 r.p.m.). Observations showed that Cu Kα counts at vertical incidence of the electron beam onto the surface of the new target, which is initially optically smooth, decrease as the surface is roughened by a severe thermal stress caused by strong electron beam exposure. Further observation reveals, however, that oblique incidence of the electron beam onto the roughened surface drastically increased the X-ray output and amounts to twice as much as that from a smooth surface at vertical incidence. Thus, at the present stage, an overall increase of brightness has been realised at a level 20 times

  7. From synchrotron radiation to lab source: advanced speckle-based X-ray imaging using abrasive paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-02-01

    X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques provide complementary and inaccessible information compared to conventional X-ray absorption or visible light imaging. However, such methods typically require sophisticated experimental apparatus or X-ray beams with specific properties. Recently, an X-ray speckle-based technique has shown great potential for X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a simple experimental arrangement. However, it still suffers from either poor resolution or the time consuming process of collecting a large number of images. To overcome these limitations, in this report we demonstrate that absorption, dark-field, phase contrast, and two orthogonal differential phase contrast images can simultaneously be generated by scanning a piece of abrasive paper in only one direction. We propose a novel theoretical approach to quantitatively extract the above five images by utilising the remarkable properties of speckles. Importantly, the technique has been extended from a synchrotron light source to utilise a lab-based microfocus X-ray source and flat panel detector. Removing the need to raster the optics in two directions significantly reduces the acquisition time and absorbed dose, which can be of vital importance for many biological samples. This new imaging method could potentially provide a breakthrough for numerous practical imaging applications in biomedical research and materials science.

  8. A Recirculating Linac-Based Facility for Ultrafast X-Ray Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J. N.; Barletta, W. A.; DeSantis, S.; Doolittle, L.; Fawley, W. M.; Green, M.A.; Heimann, P.; Leone, S.; Lidia, S.; Li, D.; Ratti, A.; Robinson, K.; Schoenlein, R.; Staples, J.; Wan, W.; Wells, R.; Wolski, A.; Zholents, A.; Parmigiani, F.; Placidi, M.; Pirkl, W.; Rimmer, R. A.; Wang, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present an updated design for a proposed source of ultra-fast synchrotron radiation pulses based on a recirculating superconducting linac [1,2], in particular the incorporation of EUV and soft x-ray production. The project has been named LUX--Linac-based Ultrafast X-ray facility. The source produces intense x-ray pulses with duration of 10-100 fs at a 10 kHz repetition rate, with synchronization of 10's fs, optimized for the study of ultra-fast dynamics. The photon range covers the EUV to hard x-ray spectrum by use of seeded harmonic generation in undulators, and a specialized technique for ultra-short pulse photon production in the 1-10 keV range. High brightness rf photocathodes produce electron bunches which are optimized either for coherent emission in free electron lasers, or to provide a large x/y emittance ration and small vertical emittance which allows for manipulation to produce short-pulse hard x-rays. An injector linac accelerates the beam to 120 MeV, and is followed by f our passes through a 600-720 MeV recirculating linac. We outline the major technical components of the proposed facility

  9. (EXAFS) X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craievich, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    The technique EXAFS (Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure) is presented and its applications using the synchrotron radiation as an incidente beam in Science of Materials and Biophysics are shown. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Diagnosis of initial changes in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. A comparison between low-field magnetic resonance imaging, 3-phase bone scintigraphy and conventional X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoepfner, S.; Dresel, S.; Weiss, M.; Hahn, K.; Treitl, M.; Krolak, C.; Becker-Gaab, C.; Schattenkirchner, M.

    2002-01-01

    Besides conventional X-rays, in the diagnostic work up of initial changes in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 3-phase bone scintigraphy (3P-Sz) is as well established as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of the newly developed low field MRI with the proven methods X-rays and 3P-Sz. Methods: 65 patients (47f, 18m; 20-86 yrs) were studied on a one day protocol with 3P-Sz (550 MBq Tc-99m DPD), MRI and X-rays of the hands. Images were visually analysed by two blinded nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists and classified as a) RA-typical, b) inflammatory, non-RA-typical and c) non inflammatory changes. All methods were compared to 3P-Sz as golden standard. Results: In comparison to 3P-Sz, low field MRI presents with almost equal sensitivity and specificity in rheumatoid-typical and inflammatory changes. Conventional X-rays revealed in arthritis-typical changes as well as in inflammatory changes a significantly lower sensitivity and also a lower negative predictive value while specificity equals the one of MRI. Quantitative analysis of 3P-Sz using ROI-technique unveiled significantly higher values in patients with rheumatoid arthritis than in those with no inflammatory changes. Conclusion: MRI represents an equally sensitive method in the initial diagnosis of rheumatoid-typical and inflammatory changes in the region of the hands as compared to the 3P-Sz. Besides the basic diagnosis with conventional X-rays, 3P-Sz is still the recommended method of choice to evaluate the whole body when RA is suspected. Additionally, quantitative analysis of the 3P-Sz using the ROI technique in the region of the hands reveals statistically significant results and should therefore be taken into account in the assessment of inflammatory changes. (orig.) [de

  11. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  12. X-ray microprobe for the microcharacterization of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, C.J.; Ice, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The unique properties of x rays offer many advantages over those of electrons and other charged particles for the microcharacterization of materials. X rays are more efficient in exciting characteristic x-ray fluorescence and produce higher fluorescent signal-to-background ratios than obtained with electrons. Such x-ray microprobes will also produce unprecedentedly low levels of detection in diffraction, EXAFS, Auger, and photoelectron spectroscopies for structural and chemical characterization and elemental identification. These major improvements in microcharacterization capabilities will have wide-ranging ramifications not only in materials science but also in physics, chemistry, geochemistry, biology, and medicine. 24 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. 100 years of discovery of X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao

    2012-01-01

    X-ray diffraction was discovered by Max von Laue a hundred years ago. Later, through the work of William H. Bragg and William L. Bragg, an experimental analysis method was developed to solve the structure of molecules at the atomic level. Over the past hundred years, science and technology has been dramatically changed by X-ray diffraction analysis, which has also undergone considerable development. The recent emergence of hard X-ray free electron lasers has provided a new dimension for X-ray diffraction analysis, promising even greater progress in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. (author)

  14. High spatial resolution soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-Ilse, W.; Medecki, H.; Brown, J.T. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    A new soft x-ray microscope (XM-1) with high spatial resolution has been constructed by the Center for X-ray Optics. It uses bending magnet radiation from beamline 6.1 at the Advanced Light Source, and is used in a variety of projects and applications in the life and physical sciences. Most of these projects are ongoing. The instrument uses zone plate lenses and achieves a resolution of 43 nm, measured over 10% to 90% intensity with a knife edge test sample. X-ray microscopy permits the imaging of relatively thick samples, up to 10 {mu}m thick, in water. XM-1 has an easy to use interface, that utilizes visible light microscopy to precisely position and focus the specimen. The authors describe applications of this device in the biological sciences, as well as in studying industrial applications including structured polymer samples.

  15. Improvements in x-ray image converters and phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabatin, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Improvements to an X-ray image converter comprising crystals of rare earth phosphor admixtures are described. The phosphor admixtures utilize thulium-activated lanthanum and/or gadolinium oxyhalide phosphor material to increase the relative speed and resolution of an X-ray image compared with conventional rare earth phosphors. Examples of various radiographic screens containing one or more of the phosphor materials are given. (U.K.)

  16. Design studies for ITER x-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.; von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.

    1995-01-01

    Concepts for adapting conventional tokamak x-ray diagnostics to the harsh radiation environment of ITER include use of grazing-incidence (GI) x-ray mirrors or man-made Bragg multilayer (ML) elements to remove the x-ray beam from the neutron beam, or use of bundles of glass-capillary x-ray ''light pipes'' embedded in radiation shields to reduce the neutron/gamma-ray fluxes onto the detectors while maintaining usable x-ray throughput. The x-ray optical element with the broadest bandwidth and highest throughput, the GI mirror, can provide adequate lateral deflection (10 cm for a deflected-path length of 8 m) at x-ray energies up to 12, 22, or 30 keV for one, two, or three deflections, respectively. This element can be used with the broad band, high intensity x-ray imaging system (XIS), the pulseheight analysis (PHA) survey spectrometer, or the high resolution Johann x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS), which is used for ion-temperature measurement. The ML mirrors can isolate the detector from the neutron beam with a single deflection for energies up to 50 keV, but have much narrower bandwidth and lower x-ray power throughput than do the GI mirrors; they are unsuitable for use with the XIS or PHA, but they could be used with the XCS; in particular, these deflectors could be used between ITER and the biological shield to avoid direct plasma neutron streaming through the biological shield. Graded-d ML mirrors have good reflectivity from 20 to 70 keV, but still at grazing angles (<3 mrad). The efficiency at 70 keV for double reflection (10 percent), as required for adequate separation of the x-ray and neutron beams, is high enough for PHA requirements, but not for the XIS. Further optimization may be possible

  17. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, S R; Hilsabeck, T J; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Ayers, M J; Piston, K; Felker, B; Kilkenny, J D; Chung, T; Sammuli, B; Hares, J D; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L

    2014-11-01

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2-17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10(17). We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  18. Investigating high speed phenomena in laser plasma interactions using dilation x-ray imager (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, S. R., E-mail: nagel7@llnl.gov; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈2–17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ≈10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (≈100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ≈64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.

  19. Phase-contrast imaging and tomography at 60 keV using a conventional x-ray tube source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, Tilman; Bunk, Oliver; Groot, Waldemar; Bednarzik, Martin; Gruenzweig, Christian; David, Christian; Pfeiffer, Franz; Hempel, Eckhard; Popescu, Stefan; Hoheisel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Phase-contrast imaging at laboratory-based x-ray sources using grating interferometers has been developed over the last few years for x-ray energies of up to 28 keV. Here, we show first phase-contrast projection and tomographic images recorded at significantly higher x-ray energies, produced by an x-ray tube source operated at 100 kV acceleration voltage. We find our measured tomographic phase images in good agreement with tabulated data. The extension of phase-contrast imaging to this significantly higher x-ray energy opens up many applications of the technique in medicine and industrial nondestructive testing.

  20. X-ray diagnosis in temporal bone anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schratter, M.; Canigiani, G.; Swoboda, H.; Brunner, E.

    1988-01-01

    The X-ray findings in temporal bone anomalies are reviewed. Radiological procedure and examination technique are presented, as are symptoms of important anomalies. The methods available are plain film X-ray of temporal bone, multi-directional tomography, and high-resolution CT. Although some of the abnormalities are visible even in plain films, consistent use of conventional tomography or CT is necessary for correct diagnosis. This procedure is indicated not only when an abnormality is clinically obvious, but also in all cases of unexplained hearing loss without evidence of acquired disease. The advantage of CT over conventional tomography is that soft tissue anomalies, such as primary cholesteatoma or tumor simulating vascular abnormalities, can be demonstrated. In these cases CT is obligatory. (orig.) [de

  1. X-ray powder crystallography with vertex instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzisotiriou, V.; Christofis, I.; Dimitriou, N.; Karvelas, S.; Karydas, A.G.; Loukas, D.; Pavlidis, A.; Spirou, S.; Dre, C.; Haralabidis, N.; Misiakos, K.; Tsoi, E.; Perdikatsis, V.; Psycharis, V.; Terzis, A.; Turchetta, R.

    1998-01-01

    An X-ray Diffractometer for Powder Crystallography is described along with experimental results and future plans. This is an intermediate instrument toward a long linear array system. Three channels of a silicon microstrip detector, are the detecting elements in the present instrument. Each detector channel is followed by a VLSI readout chain, which consists of a charge preamplifier with pulse shaping circuitry, a discriminator, and a 16-bit counter. Control and data acquisition is performed with a custom made PC readout card. A motorized goniometer scans the angle range of interest. Calibration of the system is done with reference samples and data which are captured with a one-channel conventional NaI detector. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. X-ray fluorescence imaging with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The micro-distribution of trace elements is of great interest in fields such as geochemistry, biology and material science. The synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe provides a technique to quantitatively measure trace element compositions at individual points and to construct semiquantitative two dimensional maps of trace element compositions. This paper describes an x-ray fluorescence system used at the National Synchrotron Light Source

  3. Use and regulatory control of dental X-ray installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In the guide the safety requirements concerning dental X-ray installations and their use, prerequisities for exemption from a safety licence, and regulatory control are presented. The guide applies to conventional dental X-ray installations, by which an image is created on an X-ray film or other image receptor placed inside the mouth, and panorama tomography installations for dentition and the cephalostats associated with these. The guide does not apply to multitechnique tomography installations intended for the special imaging of the skull or jaws

  4. 'Taking X-ray phase contrast imaging into mainstream applications' and its satellite workshop 'Real and reciprocal space X-ray imaging'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Alessandro; Robinson, Ian

    2014-03-06

    A double event, supported as part of the Royal Society scientific meetings, was organized in February 2013 in London and at Chicheley Hall in Buckinghamshire by Dr A. Olivo and Prof. I. Robinson. The theme that joined the two events was the use of X-ray phase in novel imaging approaches, as opposed to conventional methods based on X-ray attenuation. The event in London, led by Olivo, addressed the main roadblocks that X-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) is encountering in terms of commercial translation, for clinical and industrial applications. The main driver behind this is the development of new approaches that enable XPCI, traditionally a synchrotron method, to be performed with conventional laboratory sources, thus opening the way to its deployment in clinics and industrial settings. The satellite meeting at Chicheley Hall, led by Robinson, focused on the new scientific developments that have recently emerged at specialized facilities such as third-generation synchrotrons and free-electron lasers, which enable the direct measurement of the phase shift induced by a sample from intensity measurements, typically in the far field. The two events were therefore highly complementary, in terms of covering both the more applied/translational and the blue-sky aspects of the use of phase in X-ray research. 

  5. The MIRAX x-ray astronomy transient mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, João; Mejía, Jorge

    2006-06-01

    The Monitor e Imageador de Raios-X (MIRAX) is a small (~250 kg) X-ray astronomy satellite mission designed to monitor the central Galactic plane for transient phenomena. With a field-of-view of ~1000 square degrees and an angular resolution of ~6 arcmin, MIRAX will provide an unprecedented discovery-space coverage to study X-ray variability in detail, from fast X-ray novae to long-term (~several months) variable phenomena. Chiefly among MIRAX science objectives is its capability of providing simultaneous complete temporal coverage of the evolution of a large number of accreting black holes, including a detailed characterization of the spectral state transitions in these systems. MIRAX's instruments will include a soft X-ray (2-18 keV) and two hard X-ray (10-200 keV) coded-aperture imagers, with sensitivities of ~5 and ~2.6 mCrab/day, respectively. The hard X-ray imagers will be built at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Brazil, in close collaboration with the Center for Astrophysics & Space Sciences (CASS) of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) and the Institut fur Astronomie und Astrophysik of the University of Tubingen (IAAT) in Germany; UCSD will provide the crossed-strip position-sensitive (0.5- mm spatial resolution) CdZnTe (CZT) hard X-ray detectors. The soft X-ray camera, provided by the Space Research Organization Netherlands (SRON), will be the spare flight unit of the Wide Field Cameras that flew on the Italian-Dutch satellite BeppoSAX. MIRAX is an approved mission of the Brazilian Space Agency (Agnecia Espacial Brasileira - AEB) and is scheduled to be launched in 2011 in a low-altitude (~550 km) circular equatorial orbit. In this paper we present recent developments in the mission planning and design, as well as Monte Carlo simulations performed on the GEANT-based package MGGPOD environment (Weidenspointner et al. 2004) and new algorithms for image digital processing. Simulated images of the central Galactic plane as it

  6. Dual-energy x-ray image decomposition by independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yifeng; Jiang, Dazong; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Dengfu; Lin, Gang

    2001-09-01

    The spatial distributions of bone and soft tissue in human body are separated by independent component analysis (ICA) of dual-energy x-ray images. It is because of the dual energy imaging modelí-s conformity to the ICA model that we can apply this method: (1) the absorption in body is mainly caused by photoelectric absorption and Compton scattering; (2) they take place simultaneously but are mutually independent; and (3) for monochromatic x-ray sources the total attenuation is achieved by linear combination of these two absorption. Compared with the conventional method, the proposed one needs no priori information about the accurate x-ray energy magnitude for imaging, while the results of the separation agree well with the conventional one.

  7. Hard X-ray Microscopy with Elemental, Chemical and Structural Contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, C.G.; Boye, P.; Feldkamp, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    We review hard X-ray microscopy techniques with a focus on scanning microscopy with synchrotron radiation. Its strength compared to other microscopies is the large penetration depth of hard x rays in matter that allows one to investigate the interior of an object without destructive sample preparation. In combination with tomography, local information from inside of a specimen can be obtained, even from inside special non-ambient sample environments. Different X-ray analytical techniques can be used to produce contrast, such as X-ray absorption, fluorescence, and diffraction, to yield chemical, elemental, and structural information about the sample, respectively. This makes X-ray microscopy attractive to many fields of science, ranging from physics and chemistry to materials, geo-, and environmental science, biomedicine, and nanotechnology. Our scanning microscope based on nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses has a routine spatial resolution of about 100 nm and supports the contrast mechanisms mentioned above. In combination with coherent X-ray diffraction imaging, the spatial resolution can be improved to the 10 nm range. The current state-of-the-art of this technique is illustrated by several examples, and future prospects of the technique are given. (author)

  8. MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Fluorescence (CheMin) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Blake, Dave; Harris, William; Morookian, John Michael; Randall, Dave; Reder, Leonard J.; Sarrazin, Phillipe

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Chemistry and Mineralogy Xray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) (CheMin) Instrument, an element of the landed Curiosity rover payload, which landed on Mars in August of 2012. The scientific goal of the MSL mission is to explore and quantitatively assess regions in Gale Crater as a potential habitat for life - past or present. The CheMin instrument will receive Martian rock and soil samples from the MSL Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling (SA/SPaH) system, and process it utilizing X-Ray spectroscopy methods to determine mineral composition. The Chemin instrument will analyze Martian soil and rocks to enable scientists to investigate geophysical processes occurring on Mars. The CheMin science objectives and proposed surface operations are described along with the CheMin hardware with an emphasis on the system engineering challenges associated with developing such a complex instrument.

  9. Soft X-Ray Microscopy and Spectroscopy at the Molecular Environmental Science Beamline at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluhm, Hendrik; Andersson, Klas J.; Araki, Tohru; Benzerara, Karim; Brown, Gordon E.; Dynes, Jay J.; Ghosal, Sutapa; Gilles, Mary K.; Hansen, Hans C.; Hemminger, J. C.; Hitchcock, Adam P.; Ketteler, Guido; Kilcoyne, Arthur L.; Kneedler, Eric M.; Lawrence, John R.; Leppard, Gary G.; Majzlam, Juraj; Mun, B. S.; Myneni, Satish C.; Nilsson, Anders R.; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Ogletree, D. F.; Pecher, Klaus H.; Salmeron, Miquel B.; Shuh, David K.; Tonner, Brian; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Warwick, Tony; Yoon, T. H.

    2006-02-01

    We present examples of the application of synchrotron-based spectroscopies and microscopies to environmentally-relevant samples. The experiments were performed at the Molecular Environmental Science beamline (11.0.2) at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Examples range from the study of water monolayers on Pt(111) single crystal surfaces using X-ray emission spectroscopy and the examination of alkali halide solution/water vapor interfaces using ambient pressure photoemission spectroscopy, to the investigation of actinides, river-water biofilms, Al-containing colloids and mineral-bacteria suspensions using scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy. The results of our experiments show that spectroscopy and microscopy in the soft X-ray energy range are excellent tools for the investigation of environmentally relevant samples under realistic conditions, i.e. with water or water vapor present at ambient temperature.

  10. Epoxy replication for Wolter x-ray microscope fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priedhorsky, W.

    1981-01-01

    An epoxy replica of a test piece designed to simulate a Wolter x-ray microscope geometry showed no loss of x-ray reflectivity or resolution, compared to the original. The test piece was a diamond-turned cone with 1.5 0 half angle. A flat was fly-cut on one side, then super- and conventionally polished. The replica was separated at the 1.5 0 -draft angle, simulating a shallow angle Wolter microscope geometry. A test with 8.34 A x rays at 0.9 0 grazing angle showed a reflectivity of 67% for the replica flat surface, and 70% for the original. No spread of the reflected beam was observed with a 20-arc second wide test beam. This test verifies the epoxy replication technique for production of Wolter x-ray microscopes

  11. Phase contrast imaging using a micro focus x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G.

    2014-09-01

    Phase contrast x-ray imaging, a new technique to increase the imaging contrast for the tissues with close attenuation coefficients, has been studied since mid 1990s. This technique reveals the possibility to show the clear details of the soft tissues and tumors in small scale resolution. A compact and low cost phase contrast imaging system using a conventional x-ray source is described in this paper. Using the conventional x-ray source is of great importance, because it provides the possibility to use the method in hospitals and clinical offices. Simple materials and components are used in the setup to keep the cost in a reasonable and affordable range.Tungsten Kα1 line with the photon energy 59.3 keV was used for imaging. Some of the system design details are discussed. The method that was used to stabilize the system is introduced. A chicken thigh bone tissue sample was used for imaging followed by the image quality, image acquisition time and the potential clinical application discussion. High energy x-ray beam can be used in phase contrast imaging. Therefore the radiation dose to the patients can be greatly decreased compared to the traditional x-ray radiography.

  12. X-ray scatter signatures for enhanced breast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidane, Ghirmay; Speller, Robert; Royle, Gary [Medical Physics and Bioengineering Department, University College Landon, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    Conventional mammographic imaging suffers from a low specificity. The main cause is the small difference in the x-ray attenuation properties of healthy and diseased tissue leading to poor contrast in the image. It has been observed that additional information on breast tissue type can be obtained from x-ray diffraction effects. A study of excised normal and neoplastic breast tissue samples using x-ray diffraction apparatus has been observed that significant differences exist in the measured spectra between carcinoma and healthy tissue adjacent to the carcinoma. Such a difference allows tissue type to be characterised according to is diseased state. Furthermore the information can be applied to improve diagnosis. It is proposed that collection and analysis of the scattered x-rays present during a mammographic procedure can supply the additional information and be used to improve the image contrast. The ultimate aim of the project is to improve the specificity of x-ray mammography. (authors) 10 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Estimates of Imaging Times for Conventional and Synchrotron X-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Kinney, J

    2003-01-01

    The following notes are to be taken as estimates of the time requirements for imaging NIF targets in three-dimensions with absorption contrast. The estimates ignore target geometry and detector inefficiency, and focus only on the statistical question of detecting compositional (structural) differences between adjacent volume elements in the presence of noise. The basic equations, from the classic reference by Grodzins, consider imaging times in terms of the required number of photons necessary to provide an image with given resolution and noise. The time estimates, therefore, have been based on the calculated x-ray fluxes from the proposed Advanced Light Source (ALS) imaging beamline, and from the calculated flux for a tungsten anode x-ray generator operated in a point focus mode.

  14. Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for X-Ray Optics at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory works to further science and technology using short wavelength optical systems and techniques....

  15. 3D X-Ray Luggage-Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) x-ray luggage- screening system has been proposed to reduce the fatigue experienced by human inspectors and increase their ability to detect weapons and other contraband. The system and variants thereof could supplant thousands of xray scanners now in use at hundreds of airports in the United States and other countries. The device would be applicable to any security checkpoint application where current two-dimensional scanners are in use. A conventional x-ray luggage scanner generates a single two-dimensional (2D) image that conveys no depth information. Therefore, a human inspector must scrutinize the image in an effort to understand ambiguous-appearing objects as they pass by at high speed on a conveyor belt. Such a high level of concentration can induce fatigue, causing the inspector to reduce concentration and vigilance. In addition, because of the lack of depth information, contraband objects could be made more difficult to detect by positioning them near other objects so as to create x-ray images that confuse inspectors. The proposed system would make it unnecessary for a human inspector to interpret 2D images, which show objects at different depths as superimposed. Instead, the system would take advantage of the natural human ability to infer 3D information from stereographic or stereoscopic images. The inspector would be able to perceive two objects at different depths, in a more nearly natural manner, as distinct 3D objects lying at different depths. Hence, the inspector could recognize objects with greater accuracy and less effort. The major components of the proposed system would be similar to those of x-ray luggage scanners now in use. As in a conventional x-ray scanner, there would be an x-ray source. Unlike in a conventional scanner, there would be two x-ray image sensors, denoted the left and right sensors, located at positions along the conveyor that are upstream and downstream, respectively (see figure). X-ray illumination

  16. CubeX: The CubeSAT X-ray Telescope for Elemental Abundance Mapping of Airless Bodies and X-ray Pulsar Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittler, L. R.; Hong, J.; Kenter, A.; Romaine, S.; Allen, B.; Kraft, R.; Masterson, R.; Elvis, M.; Gendreau, K.; Crawford, I.; Binzel, R.; Boynton, W. V.; Grindlay, J.; Ramsey, B.

    2017-12-01

    The surface elemental composition of a planetary body provides crucial information about its origin, geological evolution, and surface processing, all of which can in turn provide information about solar system evolution as a whole. Remote sensing X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy has been used successfully to probe the major-element compositions of airless bodies in the inner solar system, including the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and Mercury. The CubeSAT X-ray Telescope (CubeX) is a concept for a 6U planetary X-ray telescope (36U with S/C), which utilizes Miniature Wolter-I X-ray optics (MiXO), monolithic CMOS and SDD X-ray sensors for the focal plane, and a Solar X-ray Monitor (heritage from the REXIS XRF instrument on NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission). CubeX will map the surface elemental composition of diverse airless bodies by spectral measurement of XRF excited by solar X-rays. The lightweight ( 1 kg) MiXO optics provide sub-arcminute resolution with low background, while the inherently rad-hard CMOS detectors provide improved spectral resolution ( 150 eV) at 0 °C. CubeX will also demonstrate X-ray pulsar timing based deep space navigation (XNAV). Successful XNAV will enable autonomous deep navigation with little to no support from the Deep Space Network, hence lowering the operation cost for many more planetary missions. Recently selected by NASA Planetary Science Deep Space SmallSat Studies, the first CubeX concept, designed to rideshare to the Moon as a secondary spacecraft on a primary mission, is under study in collaboration with the Mission Design Center at NASA Ames Research Center. From high altitude ( 6,000 km) frozen polar circular orbits, CubeX will study > 8 regions ( 110 km) of geological interest on the Moon over one year to produce a high resolution ( 2-3 km) elemental abundance map of each region. The novel focal plane design of CubeX also allows us to evaluate the performance of absolute navigation by sequential observations of several

  17. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  18. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy and application to semiconductor microstructure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzo, F.; Franck, K.; Howells, M.R.; Hussain, Z.; Warwick, A.; Padmore, H.A.; Triplett, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    The universal trend towards device miniaturization has driven the semiconductor industry to develop sophisticated and complex instrumentation for the characterization of microstructures. Many significant problems of relevance to the semiconductor industry cannot be solved by conventional analysis techniques, but can be addressed with soft x-ray spectromicroscopy. An active spectromicroscopy program is being developed at thr Advanced Light Source, attracting both the semiconductor industry and the materials science academic community. Examples of spectromicroscopy techniques are presented. An Advanced Light Source μ-XPS spectromicroscopy project is discussed, involving the first microscope completely dedicated and designed for microstructure analysis on patterned silicon wafers. (author)

  19. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsuka, Shinji, E-mail: ohsuka@crl.hpk.co.jp [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 431-1202 (Japan); Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Nakano, Tomoyasu [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Ray-Focus Co. Ltd., 6009 Shinpara, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-0003 (Japan); Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  20. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-01

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  1. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, F.M.F. de

    2000-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption

  2. Inelastic X-ray scattering activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1984-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering requires an energy determination before and after the scattering process together with a technique to vary at least one energy continuously in a controlled way. Sufficiently monochromatic beams can only be produced by Bragg reflection from single crystals. Stationary X-ray monochromators are standard equipment of conventional X-ray generators to select a particular characteristic line. Quite often they are curved to focus on the sample or the detector. Devices with variable Bragg angle have been and are used as analyzers in Compton scattering which is inelastic X-ray scattering with moderate resolution. With the rapidly increasing availability of synchrotron radiation (SR) monochromators and analyzers became more and more sophisticated improving momentum (Q) resolution and only somewhat the energy resolution ΔE which stays in the order of eV. Very high energy resolution can only be obtained with Bragg angles Theta near to 90 0 . This field is the topic of the present paper

  3. Columnar recombination for X-ray generated electron-holes in amorphous selenium and its significance in a-Se x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubon, O.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Kasap, S. O.; Reznik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Although amorphous selenium (a-Se) has a long and successful history of application in optical and X-ray imaging, some of its fundamental properties are still puzzling. In particularly, the mechanism of carrier recombination following x-ray excitation and electric field and temperature dependences of the electron-hole pair creation energy (W_e_h_p) remain unclear. Using the combination of X-ray photocurrent and pulse height spectroscopy measurements, we measure W_e_h_p in a wide range of temperatures (218–320 K) and electric fields (10–100 V/µm) and show that the conventional columnar recombination model which assumes Langevin recombination within a column (a primary electron track) fails to explain experimental results in a wide range of electric fields and temperatures. The reason for the failure of the conventional model is revealed in this work, and the theory of the columnar recombination is modified to include the saturation of the recombination rate at high electric field in order to account for the experimental results in the entire range of fields and temperatures.

  4. Knot detection in X-ray images of wood planks using dictionary learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Nils Mattias; Enescu, Alexandru; Brandt, Sami Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a novel application of x-ray imaging of planks, for the purpose of detecting knots in high quality furniture wood. X-ray imaging allows the detection of knots invisible from the surface to conventional cameras. Our approach is based on texture analysis, or more specifically, ......, discriminative dictionary learning. Experiments show that the knot detection and segmentation can be accurately performed by our approach. This is a promising result and can be directly applied in industrial processing of furniture wood.......This paper considers a novel application of x-ray imaging of planks, for the purpose of detecting knots in high quality furniture wood. X-ray imaging allows the detection of knots invisible from the surface to conventional cameras. Our approach is based on texture analysis, or more specifically...

  5. Flash X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Generation of quasi-monochromatic X-ray by production of weakly ionized line plasma (flash X-ray), high-speed imaging by the X-ray and high-contrast imaging by the characteristic X-ray absorption are described. The equipment for the X-ray is consisted from the high-voltage power supply and condenser, turbo molecular pump, and plasma X-ray tube. The tube has a long linear anticathode to produce the line plasma and flash X-ray at 20 kA current at maximum. X-ray spectrum is measured by the imaging plate equipped in the computed radiography system after diffracted by a LiF single crystal bender. Cu anticathode generates sharp peaks of K X-ray series. The tissue images are presented for vertebra, rabbit ear and heart, and dog heart by X-ray fluoroscopy with Ce anticathode. Generation of K-orbit characteristic X-ray with extremely low bremsstrahung is to be attempted for medical use. (N.I.)

  6. X-ray backscatter radiography. Intrusive instead of penetrating, X-ray shadow phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, Norma; Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Osterloh, Kurt; European Federation for Non-Destructive Testing

    2013-01-01

    Generally, the primary practical advantage of X-ray backscattering radiography is that there is no need to place a detector on the side of the specimen opposite to the source. Such a situation usually is encountered whenever the specimen is not only standing right in front of a wall or even inside a wall but also if the specimen is such big that radiography is not possible because of the layer thickness to be penetrated. The method used here differs fundamentally from the conventional method to interrogate the object with a scanning beam ('pencil beam') and to collect the whole backscattered radiation from the area. The object is fully illuminated by a (uncollimated) cone beam. Here, the image is recorded with a camera of absorbent material (tungsten, lead), which contains a matrix detector as the image receiver. The optical effect is generated by a special twisted slit collimator which operates according to an extended pinhole camera. The independent positioning of source and camera allows a variable irradiation geometry which causes different images as a result. As a consequence, a complex object in front of a backscattering wall appears completely different than standing alone. So X-ray backscatter images have to be interpreted according to their illumination with X-rays and their surroundings. (orig.)

  7. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in neuroblastoma--a comparison with conventional X-ray and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Gaertner, H.W.Er.; Erttmann, R.; Helmke, K.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging in comparison with bone X-ray and ultrasound, 15 patients with histologically verified neuroblastoma were investigated using 123- or 131MIBG scintigraphy. 123MIBG and 131MIBG are used as the abbreviations for 123-iodine-labeled-MIBG and 131-iodine-labeled-MIBG, respectively. Either 7.4 MBq 131MIBG (n = 4) or 111-185 MBq 123MIBG (n = 11) was applied, and scans were performed 24 and 48 h PI. Anatomical orientation was provided in selected cases by single-photon emission CT or scintigraphy of other organs. X-ray procedures or ultrasound depicted 27 neuroblastoma manifestations (primary tumors and metastatic deposits); 24 of these (89%) were identified by MIBG scintigraphy. Of 42 primary neuroblastomas and metastatic deposits, 27 (64%) were detected by corresponding bone X-ray or ultrasound. The 15 neuroblastoma lesions depicted solely by MIBG scans were mainly (80%) situated in the skeletal system. Because of the pronounced physiological MIBG uptake by liver tissue, detection of intrahepatic or perihepatic tumor involvement is difficult. MIBG scintigraphy is a safe and noninvasive means of locating a wide range of neuroblastoma lesions. Its main diagnostic advantage in comparison with bone X-ray lies in the detection of bone marrow infiltration

  8. Probing Photoinduced Structural Phase Transitions by Fast or Ultra-Fast Time-Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleau, Hervé Collet, Eric; Buron-Le Cointe, Marylise; Lemée-Cailleau, Marie-Hélène Koshihara, Shin-Ya

    A new frontier in the field of structural science is the emergence of the fast and ultra-fast X-ray science. Recent developments in time-resolved X-ray diffraction promise direct access to the dynamics of electronic, atomic and molecular motions in condensed matter triggered by a pulsed laser irradiation, i.e. to record "molecular movies" during the transformation of matter initiated by light pulse. These laser pump and X-ray probe techniques now provide an outstanding opportunity for the direct observation of a photoinduced structural phase transition as it takes place. The use of X-ray short-pulse of about 100ps around third-generation synchrotron sources allows structural investigations of fast photoinduced processes. Other new X-ray sources, such as laser-produced plasma ones, generate ultra-short pulses down to 100 fs. This opens the way to femtosecond X-ray crystallography, but with rather low X-ray intensities and more limited experimental possibilities at present. However this new ultra-fast science rapidly progresses around these sources and new large-scale projects exist. It is the aim of this contribution to overview the state of art and the perspectives of fast and ultra-fast X-ray scattering techniques to study photoinduced phase transitions (here, the word ultra-fast is used for sub-picosecond time resolution). In particular we would like to largely present the contribution of crystallographic methods in comparison with optical methods, such as pump-probe reflectivity measurements, the reader being not necessary familiar with X-ray scattering. Thus we want to present which type of physical information can be obtained from the positions of the Bragg peaks, their intensity and their shape, as well as from the diffuse scattering beyond Bragg peaks. An important physical feature is to take into consideration the difference in nature between a photoinduced phase transition and conventional homogeneous photoinduced chemical or biochemical processes where

  9. Optimization of a spectrometry for energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis by x-ray tube in combination with secondary target for multielements determination of sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi Embong; Husin Wagiran

    1997-01-01

    The design of an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer equipped with a conventional X-ray tube and secondary target is described. The spectrometer system constructed in our laboratory consists of a semiconductor detector system, irradiation chamber and X-ray tube. Primary source from X-ray tube was used to produced secondary X-ray from selenium, molybdenum and cadmium targets. The fluorescence X-ray from the sample was detected using Si(Li) detector with resolution of 0. 175 keV (Mn-K(x). The spectrometer was used for determination of multi-elements with atomic number between 20 to 44 in river sediment samples. The X-ray spectrum, from the samples were analysed using computer software which was developed based on Marquardt method. Optimal conditions and detection limits are determined experimentally by variation of excitation parameters for each combination of secondary target and tube voltage

  10. From EXOSAT to the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive (HEASARC): X-ray Astronomy Comes of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    In May 1983 the European Space Agency launched EXOSAT, its first X-ray astronomy observatory. Even though it lasted only 3 short years, this mission brought not only new capabilities that resulted in unexpected discoveries, but also a pioneering approach to operations and archiving that changed X-ray astronomy from observations led by small instrument teams, to an observatory approach open to the entire community through a guest observer program. The community use of the observatory was supported by a small dedicated team of scientists, the precursor to the data center activities created to support e.g. Chandra and XMM-Newton. The new science capabilities of EX OS AT included a 90 hr highly eccentric high earth orbit that allow unprecedented continuous coverage of sources as well as direct communication with the satellite that allowed real time decisions to respond to unexpected events through targets of opportunity. The advantages of this orbit demonstrated by EXOSAT resulted in Chandra and XMM-Newton selecting similar orbits. The three instruments on board the EXOSAT observatory were complementary, designed to give complete coverage over a wide energy band pass of 0.05-50 keY. An onboard processor could be programmed to give multiple data modes that could be optimized in response to science discoveries: These new capabilities resulted in many new discoveries including the first comprehensive study of AGN variability, new orbital periods in X-ray binaries and cataclysmic variables, new black holes, quasi-periodic oscillations from neutron stars and black holes and broad band X-ray spectroscopy. The EXOSAT team generated a well-organized database accessible worldwide over the nascent internet, allowing remote selection of data products, making samples and undertaking surveys from the data. The HEASARC was established by NASA at Goddard Space Flight Center in 1990 as the repository of NASA X-ray and Gamma-ray data. The proven EXOSAT database system became the core

  11. State of the Art of X-ray Speckle-Based Phase-Contrast and Dark-Field Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Christine Zdora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, X-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging have evolved to be invaluable tools for non-destructive sample visualisation, delivering information inaccessible by conventional absorption imaging. X-ray phase-sensing techniques are furthermore increasingly used for at-wavelength metrology and optics characterisation. One of the latest additions to the group of differential phase-contrast methods is the X-ray speckle-based technique. It has drawn significant attention due to its simple and flexible experimental arrangement, cost-effectiveness and multimodal character, amongst others. Since its first demonstration at highly brilliant synchrotron sources, the method has seen rapid development, including the translation to polychromatic laboratory sources and extension to higher-energy X-rays. Recently, different advanced acquisition schemes have been proposed to tackle some of the main limitations of previous implementations. Current applications of the speckle-based method range from optics characterisation and wavefront measurement to biomedical imaging and materials science. This review provides an overview of the state of the art of the X-ray speckle-based technique. Its basic principles and different experimental implementations as well as the the latest advances and applications are illustrated. In the end, an outlook for anticipated future developments of this promising technique is given.

  12. Computational time-resolved and resonant x-ray scattering of strongly correlated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansil, Arun [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-11-09

    predominantly decays via Auger processes, thereby providing an internal time-scale, which limits intermediate-state processes to timescales of a few femtoseconds. Accordingly, a number of activities directed at modeling K-, L- and M-edge RIXS in correlated materials were also pursused by our CRT. Our research effort supported by this CMCSN grant substantially advanced the understanding of x-ray scattering processes in the time-domain as well as in the more conventional scattering channels, including time-resolved photoemission, and how such processes can be modeled realistically in complex correlated materials more generally. The modeling of relaxation processes involved in time-domain spectroscopies is important also for understanding photoinduced effects such as energy conversion in photosynthesis and solar cell applications, and thus impacts the basic science for energy needs.

  13. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  14. X-ray Diffraction Results from Mars Science Laboratory: Mineralogy of Rocknest at Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Treiman, A. H.; Sarrazin, P.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Achilles, C. N.; Yen, A. S.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Morookian, J. M.; Farmer, J. D.; Rampe, E. B.; Stolper, E. M.; Spanovich, N.; Achilles, Cherie; Agard, Christophe; Verdasca, José Alexandre Alves; Anderson, Robert; Anderson, Ryan; Archer, Doug; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Arvidson, Ray; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Atreya, Sushil; Aubrey, Andrew; Baker, Burt; Baker, Michael; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Baratoux, David; Baroukh, Julien; Barraclough, Bruce; Bean, Keri; Beegle, Luther; Behar, Alberto; Bell, James; Bender, Steve; Benna, Mehdi; Bentz, Jennifer; Berger, Gilles; Berger, Jeff; Berman, Daniel; Bish, David; Blake, David F.; Avalos, Juan J. Blanco; Blaney, Diana; Blank, Jen; Blau, Hannah; Bleacher, Lora; Boehm, Eckart; Botta, Oliver; Böttcher, Stephan; Boucher, Thomas; Bower, Hannah; Boyd, Nick; Boynton, Bill; Breves, Elly; Bridges, John; Bridges, Nathan; Brinckerhoff, William; Brinza, David; Bristow, Thomas; Brunet, Claude; Brunner, Anna; Brunner, Will; Buch, Arnaud; Bullock, Mark; Burmeister, Sönke; Cabane, Michel; Calef, Fred; Cameron, James; Campbell, John "Iain"; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Carmosino, Marco; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Charpentier, Antoine; Chipera, Steve; Choi, David; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Sam; Cleghorn, Timothy; Cloutis, Ed; Cody, George; Coll, Patrice; Conrad, Pamela; Coscia, David; Cousin, Agnès; Cremers, David; Crisp, Joy; Cros, Alain; Cucinotta, Frank; d'Uston, Claude; Davis, Scott; Day, Mackenzie "Kenzie"; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; DeFlores, Lauren; DeLapp, Dorothea; DeMarines, Julia; DesMarais, David; Dietrich, William; Dingler, Robert; Donny, Christophe; Downs, Bob; Drake, Darrell; Dromart, Gilles; Dupont, Audrey; Duston, Brian; Dworkin, Jason; Dyar, M. Darby; Edgar, Lauren; Edgett, Kenneth; Edwards, Christopher; Edwards, Laurence; Ehlmann, Bethany; Ehresmann, Bent; Eigenbrode, Jen; Elliott, Beverley; Elliott, Harvey; Ewing, Ryan; Fabre, Cécile; Fairén, Alberto; Farley, Ken; Farmer, Jack; Fassett, Caleb; Favot, Laurent; Fay, Donald; Fedosov, Fedor; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Fisk, Marty; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Flesch, Greg; Floyd, Melissa; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Forni, Olivier; Fraeman, Abby; Francis, Raymond; François, Pascaline; Franz, Heather; Freissinet, Caroline; French, Katherine Louise; Frydenvang, Jens; Gaboriaud, Alain; Gailhanou, Marc; Garvin, James; Gasnault, Olivier; Geffroy, Claude; Gellert, Ralf; Genzer, Maria; Glavin, Daniel; Godber, Austin; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Golovin, Dmitry; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Gondet, Brigitte; Gordon, Suzanne; Gorevan, Stephen; Grant, John; Griffes, Jennifer; Grinspoon, David; Grotzinger, John; Guillemot, Philippe; Guo, Jingnan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Guzewich, Scott; Haberle, Robert; Halleaux, Douglas; Hallet, Bernard; Hamilton, Vicky; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Harpold, Daniel; Harri, Ari-Matti; Harshman, Karl; Hassler, Donald; Haukka, Harri; Hayes, Alex; Herkenhoff, Ken; Herrera, Paul; Hettrich, Sebastian; Heydari, Ezat; Hipkin, Victoria; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Hudgins, Judy; Huntress, Wesley; Hurowitz, Joel; Hviid, Stubbe; Iagnemma, Karl; Indyk, Steve; Israël, Guy; Jackson, Ryan; Jacob, Samantha; Jakosky, Bruce; Jensen, Elsa; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Johnson, Jeffrey; Johnson, Micah; Johnstone, Steve; Jones, Andrea; Jones, John; Joseph, Jonathan; Jun, Insoo; Kah, Linda; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kahre, Melinda; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kasprzak, Wayne; Kauhanen, Janne; Keely, Leslie; Kemppinen, Osku; Keymeulen, Didier; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kinch, Kjartan; King, Penny; Kirkland, Laurel; Kocurek, Gary; Koefoed, Asmus; Köhler, Jan; Kortmann, Onno; Kozyrev, Alexander; Krezoski, Jill; Krysak, Daniel; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Lacour, Jean Luc; Lafaille, Vivian; Langevin, Yves; Lanza, Nina; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Lee, Ella Mae; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Lees, David; Lefavor, Matthew; Lemmon, Mark; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Leshin, Laurie; Léveillé, Richard; Lewin-Carpintier, Éric; Lewis, Kevin; Li, Shuai; Lipkaman, Leslie; Little, Cynthia; Litvak, Maxim; Lorigny, Eric; Lugmair, Guenter; Lundberg, Angela; Lyness, Eric; Madsen, Morten; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Malakhov, Alexey; Malespin, Charles; Malin, Michael; Mangold, Nicolas; Manhes, Gérard; Manning, Heidi; Marchand, Geneviève; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; García, César Martín; Martin, Dave; Martin, Mildred; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Mauchien, Patrick; Maurice, Sylvestre; McAdam, Amy; McCartney, Elaina; McConnochie, Timothy; McCullough, Emily; McEwan, Ian; McKay, Christopher; McLennan, Scott; McNair, Sean; Melikechi, Noureddine; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Meyer, Michael; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Miller, Hayden; Miller, Kristen; Milliken, Ralph; Ming, Douglas; Minitti, Michelle; Mischna, Michael; Mitrofanov, Igor; Moersch, Jeff; Mokrousov, Maxim; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Moores, John; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Morookian, John Michael; Morris, Richard; Morrison, Shaunna; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Muller, Jan-Peter; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; Nachon, Marion; López, Sara Navarro; Navarro-González, Rafael; Nealson, Kenneth; Nefian, Ara; Nelson, Tony; Newcombe, Megan; Newman, Claire; Newsom, Horton; Nikiforov, Sergey; Niles, Paul; Nixon, Brian; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Nolan, Thomas; Oehler, Dorothy; Ollila, Ann; Olson, Timothy; Owen, Tobias; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Paillet, Alexis; Pallier, Etienne; Palucis, Marisa; Parker, Timothy; Parot, Yann; Patel, Kiran; Paton, Mark; Paulsen, Gale; Pavlov, Alex; Pavri, Betina; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pepin, Robert; Peret, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Perrett, Glynis; Peterson, Joe; Pilorget, Cedric; Pinet, Patrick; Pla-García, Jorge; Plante, Ianik; Poitrasson, Franck; Polkko, Jouni; Popa, Radu; Posiolova, Liliya; Posner, Arik; Pradler, Irina; Prats, Benito; Prokhorov, Vasily; Purdy, Sharon Wilson; Raaen, Eric; Radziemski, Leon; Rafkin, Scot; Ramos, Miguel; Rampe, Elizabeth; Raulin, François; Ravine, Michael; Reitz, Günther; Rennó, Nilton; Rice, Melissa; Richardson, Mark; Robert, François; Robertson, Kevin; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio J.; Rowland, Scott; Rubin, David; Saccoccio, Muriel; Salamon, Andrew; Sandoval, Jennifer; Sanin, Anton; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Saper, Lee; Sarrazin, Philippe; Sautter, Violaine; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schieber, Juergen; Schmidt, Mariek; Schmidt, Walter; Scholes, Daniel "Dan"; Schoppers, Marcel; Schröder, Susanne; Schwenzer, Susanne; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Sengstacken, Aaron; Shterts, Ruslan; Siebach, Kirsten; Siili, Tero; Simmonds, Jeff; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Slavney, Susie; Sletten, Ronald; Smith, Michael; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Spanovich, Nicole; Spray, John; Squyres, Steven; Stack, Katie; Stalport, Fabien; Steele, Andrew; Stein, Thomas; Stern, Jennifer; Stewart, Noel; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Stoiber, Kevin; Stolper, Ed; Sucharski, Bob; Sullivan, Rob; Summons, Roger; Sumner, Dawn; Sun, Vivian; Supulver, Kimberley; Sutter, Brad; Szopa, Cyril; Tan, Florence; Tate, Christopher; Teinturier, Samuel; ten Kate, Inge; Thomas, Peter; Thompson, Lucy; Tokar, Robert; Toplis, Mike; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Trainer, Melissa; Treiman, Allan; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; VanBommel, Scott; Vaniman, David; Varenikov, Alexey; Vasavada, Ashwin; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Vicenzi, Edward; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Voytek, Mary; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Ward, Jennifer; Webster, Chris; Weigle, Eddie; Wellington, Danika; Westall, Frances; Wiens, Roger Craig; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Williams, Amy; Williams, Joshua; Williams, Rebecca; Williams, Richard B. "Mouser"; Wilson, Mike; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Wolff, Mike; Wong, Mike; Wray, James; Wu, Megan; Yana, Charles; Yen, Albert; Yingst, Aileen; Zeitlin, Cary; Zimdar, Robert; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano

    2013-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity scooped samples of soil from the Rocknest aeolian bedform in Gale crater. Analysis of the soil with the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument revealed plagioclase (~An57), forsteritic olivine (~Fo62), augite, and pigeonite, with minor K-feldspar, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and ilmenite. The minor phases are present at, or near, detection limits. The soil also contains 27 ± 14 weight percent x-ray amorphous material, likely containing multiple Fe3+- and volatile-bearing phases, including possibly a substance resembling hisingerite. The crystalline component is similar to the normative mineralogy of certain basaltic rocks from Gusev crater on Mars and of martian basaltic meteorites. The amorphous component is similar to that found on Earth in places such as soils on the Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii.

  15. Basic studies in X-ray radiography and imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, Paresh R.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the basic characteristics related to a new branch of radiography viz. the micro-focal radiography. The most important among them was to find methods of measurement of focal spot size of these X-ray sources. It is important to accomplish this because the design of such units is specifically meant to produce very fine source size. To this end. first the process of radiography test was introduced. Among other things. various properties of an image and image forming systems (like PSF, LSF, MTF etc.) were introduced and explained. Methods used for microfocus measurement of focal spot size in conventional units were reviewed. It was shown how they are not suitable for microfocal tubes. Next the microfocus X-ray unit meant for the study was installed and commissioned. Features which are different from conventional X-ray units were observed more carefully. Data was collected and analyzed for various aspects. Procedure for focussing the electron beam while getting the feed back about beam diameter from the oscilloscope was established by experiments. In addition, influence of change in tube voltage and tube current on the focal spot size was studied. Relationship between tube current and target current vis-a-vis focus size was established. Radiation zone was determined. Focal spot size was qualitatively compared with that of a conventional X-ray unit by taking radiographs of different wire meshes at different magnifications by both the units

  16. X-ray diffractometry with spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiner, K.

    1981-04-01

    X-ray diffractometry is one of the extensively used methods for investigation of the crystalline structure of materials. Line shape and position of a diffracted line are influenced by grain size, deformation and stress. Spatial resolution of one of these specimen characteristics is usually achieved by point-focused X-ray beams and subsequently analyzing different specimen positions. This work uses the method of image reconstruction from projections for the generation of distribution maps. Additional experimental requirements when using a conventional X-ray goniometer are a specimen scanning unit and a computer. The scanning unit repeatedly performs a number of translation steps followed by a rotation step in a fixed X-ray tube/detector (position sensitive detector) arrangement. At each specimen position a diffraction line is recorded using a line-shaped X-ray beam. This network of diffraction lines (showing line resolution) is mathematically converted to a distribution map of diffraction lines and going thus a point resolution. Specimen areas of up to several cm 2 may be analyzed with a linear resolution of 0.1 to 1 mm. Image reconstruction from projections must be modified for generation of ''function-maps''. This theory is discussed and demonstrated by computer simulations. Diffraction line analysis is done for specimen deformation using a deconvolution procedure. The theoretical considerations are experimentally verified. (author)

  17. Novelty detection of foreign objects in food using multi-modal X-ray imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsdottir, Hildur; Emerson, Monica Jane; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a method for novelty detection of foreign objects in food products using grating-based multimodal X-ray imaging. With this imaging technique three modalities are available with pixel correspondence, enhancing organic materials such as wood chips, insects and soft...... plastics not detectable by conventional X-ray absorption radiography. We conduct experiments, where several food products are imaged with common foreign objects typically found in the food processing industry. To evaluate the benefit from using this multi-contrast X-ray technique over conventional X......-ray absorption imaging, a novelty detection scheme based on well known image- and statistical analysis techniques is proposed. The results show that the presented method gives superior recognition results and highlights the advantage of grating-based imaging....

  18. Image quality of medical X-ray systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoen, P.J. 't.

    1980-01-01

    The quality of images made by medical X-ray systems can only be properly described if the visual system is also taken into account. In this thesis, the visual threshold contrast of edges, bars and disks has been chosen as the criterion. Since these objects resemble medical objects like tumour-mass outlines, blood vessels and micro-calcifications, a correlation with X-ray practice is possible. Only the conventional X-ray systems are considered, but a brief analysis of computerized tomography is given. Considerable attention is paid to unsharpness and the minimization of its influence on the threshold contrast, to the influence of the noise on the threshold contrast, and to the contrast formation as such. The consequences for the dose administered to the patient are also briefly analysed. (Auth.)

  19. X-ray Microprobe for Fluorescence and Diffraction Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (see unit 1.1) and x-ray excited fluorescence analysis are powerful techniques for the nondestructive measurement of crystal structure and chemical composition. X-ray fluorescence analysis is inherently nondestructive with orders of magnitude lower power deposited for the same detectable limit as with fluorescence excited by charged particle probes (Sparks, 1980). X-ray diffraction analysis is sensitive to crystal structure with orders-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to crystallographic strain than electron probes (Rebonato, et al. 1989). When a small-area x-ray microbeam is used as the probe, chemical composition (Z>14), crystal structure, crystalline texture, and crystalline strain distributions can be determined. These distributions can be studied both at the surface of the sample and deep within the sample (Fig. 1). Current state-of-the-art can achieve an ∼1 mm-D x-ray microprobe and an ∼0.1 mm-D x-ray microprobe has been demonstrated (Bilderback, et al., 1994). Despite their great chemical and crystallographic sensitivities, x-ray microprobe techniques have until recently been restricted by inefficient x-ray focusing optics and weak x-ray sources; x-ray microbeam analysis was largely superseded by electron techniques in the 50's. However, interest in x-ray microprobe techniques has now been revived (Howells, et al., 1983; Ice and Sparks, 1984; Chevallier, et al., 1997; Riekel 1992; Thompson, el al., 1992; and Making and Using... 1997) by the development of efficient x-ray focusing optics and ultra-high intensity synchrotron x-ray sources (Buras and Tazzari, 1984; Shenoy, et al., 1988). These advances have increased the achievable microbeam flux by more than 11 orders of magnitude (Fig. 2) (Ice, 1997); the flux in a tunable 1 mm-D beam on a 'so called' 3rd-generation synchrotron source such as the APS can exceed the flux in a fixed-energy mm2 beam on a conventional source. These advances make x-ray microfluorescence and x-ray

  20. Three-dimensional x-ray diffraction detection and visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahkarami, Masoud; Hanan, Jay C

    2014-01-01

    A new method of sensing and analyzing three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction (XRD) cones was introduced. Using a two-dimensional area detector, a sequence of frames was collected while moving the detector away from the sample with small equally spaced steps and keeping all other parameters constant. A 3D dataset was created from the subsequent frames. The 3D x-ray diffraction (XRD 3 ) pattern contains far more information than a one-dimensional profile collected with the conventional diffractometer and 2D x-ray diffraction (XRD 2 ). The present work discusses some fundamentals about XRD 3 , such as the data collection method, 3D visualization, diffraction data interpretation and potential applications of XRD 3 . (paper)

  1. Noise reduction in real time x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Motohisa; Kimura, Yutaro

    1986-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio of real-time digital X-ray imaging systems consisting of an X-ray image intensifer-television chain was investigated while concentrating on the effect of the X-ray quantum nature. Along with conventional signal accumulation, logarithmic conversion and subtraction, a new technique called the peak hold method is introduced. Theoretical and simulational studies were made with practical parameters. Theory and simulation showed good agreement. An accumulation of signal is most effective for improving the signal-to-noise ratio; the peak-hold method comes next. The peak hold method, however, offers a new image-display mode. Moreover, this method is superior to signal accumulation for specific conditions. (author)

  2. Scintillating Quantum Dots for Imaging X-rays (SQDIX) for Aircraft Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eric (Principal Investigator); Williams, Phillip (Principal Investigator); Dehaven, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Scintillation is the process currently employed by conventional x-ray detectors to create x-ray images. Scintillating quantum dots or nano-crystals (StQDs) are a novel, nanometer-scale material that upon excitation by x-rays, re-emit the absorbed energy as visible light. StQDs theoretically have higher output efficiency than conventional scintillating materials and are more environmental friendly. This paper will present the characterization of several critical elements in the use of StQDs that have been performed along a path to the use of this technology in wide spread x-ray imaging. Initial work on the SQDIX system has shown great promise to create state-of-the-art sensors using StQDs as a sensor material. In addition, this work also demonstrates a high degree of promise using StQDs in microstructured fiber optics. Using the microstructured fiber as a light guide could greatly increase the capture efficiency a StQDs based imaging sensor.

  3. Synchrotron x-ray microbeam characteristics for x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Atsuo; Noma, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis using a synchrotron x-ray microprobe has become an indispensable technique for non-destructive micro-analysis. One of the most important parameters that characterize the x-ray microbeam system for x-ray fluorescence analysis is the beam size. For practical analysis, however, the photon flux, the energy resolution and the available energy range are also crucial. Three types of x-ray microbeam systems, including monochromatic and continuum excitation systems, were compared with reference to the sensitivity, the minimum detection limit and the applicability to various types of x-ray spectroscopic analysis. 16 refs., 5 figs

  4. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  5. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  6. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-01-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  7. Laboratory manual on sample preparation procedures for x-ray micro-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    X-ray micro fluorescence is a non-destructive and sensitive method for studying the microscopic distribution of different elements in almost all kinds of samples. Since the beginning of this century, x-rays and electrons have been used for the analysis of many different kinds of material. Techniques which rely on electrons are mainly developed for microscopic studies, and are used in conventional Electron Microscopy (EM) or Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), while x-rays are widely used for chemical analysis at the microscopic level. The first chemical analysis by fluorescence spectroscopy using small x-ray beams was conducted in 1928 by Glockner and Schreiber. Since then much work has been devoted to developing different types of optical systems for focusing an x-ray beam, but the efficiency of these systems is still inferior to the conventional electron optical systems. However, even with a poor optical efficiency, the x-ray microbeam has many advantages compared with electron or proton induced x-ray emission methods. These include: The analyses are non-destructive, losses of mass are negligible, and due to the low thermal loading of x-rays, materials which may be thermally degraded can be analysed; Samples can be analysed in air, and no vacuum is required, therefore specimens with volatile components such as water in biological samples, can be imaged at normal pressure and temperature; No charging occurs during analysis and therefore coating of the sample with a conductive layer is not necessary; With these advantages, simpler sample preparation procedures including mounting and preservation can be used

  8. A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winarski, Robert P., E-mail: winarski@anl.gov; Holt, Martin V. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Rose, Volker [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Fuesz, Peter; Carbaugh, Dean; Benson, Christa; Shu, Deming; Kline, David; Stephenson, G. Brian; McNulty, Ian [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Maser, Jörg [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline is a precision platform for scanning probe and full-field microscopy with 3–30 keV X-rays. A combination of high-stability X-ray optics and precision motion sensing and control enables detailed studies of the internal features of samples with resolutions approaching 30 nm. The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline (or Nanoprobe Beamline) is an X-ray microscopy facility incorporating diffraction, fluorescence and full-field imaging capabilities designed and operated by the Center for Nanoscale Materials and the Advanced Photon Source at Sector 26 of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility was constructed to probe the nanoscale structure of biological, environmental and material sciences samples. The beamline provides intense focused X-rays to the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (or Nanoprobe) which incorporates Fresnel zone plate optics and a precision laser sensing and control system. The beamline operates over X-ray energies from 3 to 30 keV, enabling studies of most elements in the periodic table, with a particular emphasis on imaging transition metals.

  9. X-ray optics developments at ESA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.; Wallace, K.

    2013-01-01

    Future high energy astrophysics missions will require high performance novel X-ray optics to explore the Universe beyond the limits of the currently operating Chandra and Newton observatories. Innovative optics technologies are therefore being developed and matured by the European Space Agency (ESA......) in collaboration with research institutions and industry, enabling leading-edge future science missions. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) [1 to 21] and Slumped Glass Optics (SGO) [22 to 29] are lightweight high performance X-ray optics technologies being developed in Europe, driven by applications in observatory class...... reflective coatings [30 to 35]. In addition, the progress with the X-ray test facilities and associated beam-lines is discussed [36]. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  10. X-ray laser interferometry: A new tool for AGEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Moreno, J.C.; Libby, S.B.

    1995-10-01

    Collisionally pumped soft x-ray lasers now operate over a wavelength range extending from 4--40 nm. With the recent advances in the development of multilayer mirrors and beamsplitters in the soft x-ray regime, we can utilize the unique properties of x-ray lasers to study large, rapidly evolving laser-driven plasmas with high electron densities. By employing a shorter wavelength x-ray laser, as compared to using conventional optical laser as the probe source, we can access a much higher density regime while reducing refractive effects which limit the spatial resolution and data interpretation. Using a neon-like yttrium x-ray laser which operates at a wavelength of 15.5 mn, we have performed a series of soft x-ray laser interferometry experiments, operated in the skewed Mach-Zehnder configuration, to characterize plasmas relevant to both weapons and inertial confinement fusion. The two-dimensional density profiles obtained from the interferograms allow us to validate and benchmark our numerical models used to study the physics in the high-energy density regime, relevant to both weapons and inertial confinement fusion

  11. Real time 2 dimensional detector for charged particle and soft X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Ito, M.; Endo, T.; Oba, K.

    1995-01-01

    The conventional instruments used in experiments for the soft X-ray region such as X-ray diffraction analysis are X-ray films or imaging plates. However, these instruments are not suitable for real time observation. In this paper, newly developed imaging devices will be presented, which have the capability to take X-ray images in real time with a high detection efficiency. Also, another capability, to take elementary particle tracking images, is described. (orig.)

  12. X-Ray Polarimetry with GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2011-01-01

    The polarization properties of cosmic X-ray sources are still largely unexplored. The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) will carry out the first sensitive X-ray polarization survey of a wide range of sources including; accreting compact objects (black holes and neutron stars), AGN, supernova remnants, magnetars and rotation-powered pulsars. GEMS employs grazing-incidence foil mirrors and novel time-projection chamber (TPC) polarimeters leveraging the photoelectric effect to achieve high polarization sensitivity in the 2 - 10 keV band. I will provide an update of the project status, illustrate the expected performance with several science examples, and provide a brief overview of the data analysis challenges

  13. Development of an x-ray beam line at the NSLS for studies in materials science using x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayers, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    At the time of the submission of the original proposal more than 7 years ago, the X-11 PRT had set as a goal to develop one of the leading and most comprehensive x-ray absorption beam lines in the world. By any measure we have been successful. As is well documented in previous annual progress report and in the NSLS annual reports, our PRT has been extremely productive in a wide range of topics in materials science, solid state physics, chemistry and biology. Well over 100 papers have been published acknowledging the support of this contract and this continues at a rate of about 30 papers per year and about 20 invited presentations per year. Significant in this report are major studies in high T c compounds, advances in interface studies, new results in premelting phenomena, several pioneering studies in application of XAS to electrochemistry and significant progress in our understanding of the structure of amorphous chalcogenide systems and their photostructural changes

  14. X-Band Linac Beam-Line for Medical Compton Scattering X-Ray Source

    CERN Document Server

    Dobashi, Katsuhiro; Ebina, Futaro; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Higo, Toshiyasu; Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Ogino, Haruyuki; Sakamoto, Fumito; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Urakawa, Junji; Yamamoto, Tomohiko

    2005-01-01

    Compton scattering hard X-ray source for 10~80 keV are under construction using the X-band (11.424 GHz) electron linear accelerator and YAG laser at Nuclear Engineering Research laboratory, University of Tokyo. This work is a part of the national project on the development of advanced compact medical accelerators in Japan. National Institute for Radiological Science is the host institute and U. Tokyo and KEK are working for the X-ray source. Main advantage is to produce tunable monochromatic hard ( 10-80

  15. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  16. Multi-Mounted X-Ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jian; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    Most existing X-ray computed tomography (CT) techniques work in single-mounted mode and need to scan the inspected objects one by one. It is time-consuming and not acceptable for the inspection in a large scale. In this paper, we report a multi-mounted CT method and its first engineering implementation. It consists of a multi-mounted scanning geometry and the corresponding algebraic iterative reconstruction algorithm. This approach permits the CT rotation scanning of multiple objects simultaneously without the increase of penetration thickness and the signal crosstalk. Compared with the conventional single-mounted methods, it has the potential to improve the imaging efficiency and suppress the artifacts from the beam hardening and the scatter. This work comprises a numerical study of the method and its experimental verification using a dataset measured with a developed multi-mounted X-ray CT prototype system. We believe that this technique is of particular interest for pushing the engineering applications of X-ray CT.

  17. Functional imaging - a new tool for X-ray functional diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, M.; Erbe, W.; Sonne, B.; Hoehne, K.H.; Nicolae, G.C.; Pfeiffer, G.

    1978-05-01

    The method of functional imaging is applied to X-ray angiograms. Functional images are generated by inserting at each point of an X-ray image a computed grey value proportional to a dynamic parameter (such as blood velocity) instead of the recorded X-ray absorption value. For this purpose a new system for angiographic image processing has been developed. First results show that the method is a tool to extract more information about the blood dynamics in organs in an easier and faster way than with the conventional angiographic technique. (orig.)

  18. Imaging plate, a new type of x-ray area detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Nobuo; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Miyahara, Junji.

    1986-01-01

    In respective fields of X-ray crystallography, for the purpose of the efficient collection of reciprocal space information, two-dimensional X-ray detectors such as multiwire proportional chambers and X-ray television sets have been used together with conventional X-ray films. X-ray films are characterized by uniform sensitivity and high positional resolution over a wide area, but the sensitivity is low, and the range of action and the linearity of the sensitivity is problematic. They require the development process, accordingly lack promptitude. The MWPCs and X-ray television sets are superior in the sensitivity, its linearity, the range of action and promptitude, but interior in the uniformity and resolution to the films. Imaging plate is a new X-ray area detector developed by Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd., for digital X-ray medical image diagnosis. This detector is superior in all the above mentioned performances, and it seems very useful also for X-ray crystallography. In this paper, the system composed of an imaging plate and its reader is described, and the basic performance as an X-ray area detector and the results of having recorded the diffraction images of protein crystals as the example of applying it to X-ray crystallography are reported. The imaging plate is that the crystalline fluorescent powder of BaFBr doped with Eu 2+ ions is applied on plastic films. (Kako, I.)

  19. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  20. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  1. Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy and its application to semiconductor microstructure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzo, F.; Franck, K.; Howells, M.R.; Hussain, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The universal trend towards device miniaturization has driven the semiconductor industry to develop sophisticated and complex instrumentation for the characterization of microstructures. Many significant problems of relevance to the semiconductor industry cannot be solved with conventional analysis techniques, but can be addressed with soft x-ray spectromicroscopy. An active spectromicroscopy program is being developed at the Advanced Light Source, attracting both the semiconductor industry and the materials science academic community. Examples of spectromicroscopy techniques are presented. An ALS(mu)-XPS spectromicroscopy project is discussed, involving the first microscope completely dedicated and designed for microstructure analysis on patterned silicon wafers

  2. Nano structured materials studied by coherent X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulden, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    Structure determination with X-rays in crystallography is a rapidly evolving field. Crystallographic methods for structure determination are based on the assumptions about the crystallinity of the sample. It is vital to understand the structure of possible defects in the crystal, because they can influence the structure determination. All conventional methods to characterize defects require a modelling through simulated data. No direct methods exist to image the core of defects in crystals. Here a new method is proposed, which will enable to visualize the individual scatterers around and at defects in crystals. The method is based on coherent X-ray scattering. X-rays are perfectly suited since they can penetrate thick samples and buried structures can be investigated Recent developments increased the coherent flux of X-Ray sources such as synchrotrons by orders of magnitude. As a result, the use of the coherent properties of X-rays is emerging as a new aspect of X-ray science. New upcoming and operating X-ray laser sources will accelerate this trend. One new method which has the capacity to recover structural information from the coherently scattered photons is Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging (CXDI). The main focus of this thesis is the investigation of the structure and the dynamics of colloidal crystals. Colloidal crystals can be used as a model for atomic crystals in order to understand the growth and defect structure. Despite the large interest in these structures, many details are still unknown.Therefore, it is vital to develop new approaches to measure the core of defects in colloidal crystals. After an introduction into the basics of the field of coherent X-ray scattering, this thesis introduces a novel method, Small Angle Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging, (SAB-CDI). This new measurement technique which besides the relevance to colloidal crystals can be applied to a large variety of nano structured materials. To verify the experimental possibilities the

  3. Nano structured materials studied by coherent X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulden, Johannes

    2013-03-15

    Structure determination with X-rays in crystallography is a rapidly evolving field. Crystallographic methods for structure determination are based on the assumptions about the crystallinity of the sample. It is vital to understand the structure of possible defects in the crystal, because they can influence the structure determination. All conventional methods to characterize defects require a modelling through simulated data. No direct methods exist to image the core of defects in crystals. Here a new method is proposed, which will enable to visualize the individual scatterers around and at defects in crystals. The method is based on coherent X-ray scattering. X-rays are perfectly suited since they can penetrate thick samples and buried structures can be investigated Recent developments increased the coherent flux of X-Ray sources such as synchrotrons by orders of magnitude. As a result, the use of the coherent properties of X-rays is emerging as a new aspect of X-ray science. New upcoming and operating X-ray laser sources will accelerate this trend. One new method which has the capacity to recover structural information from the coherently scattered photons is Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging (CXDI). The main focus of this thesis is the investigation of the structure and the dynamics of colloidal crystals. Colloidal crystals can be used as a model for atomic crystals in order to understand the growth and defect structure. Despite the large interest in these structures, many details are still unknown.Therefore, it is vital to develop new approaches to measure the core of defects in colloidal crystals. After an introduction into the basics of the field of coherent X-ray scattering, this thesis introduces a novel method, Small Angle Bragg Coherent Diffractive Imaging, (SAB-CDI). This new measurement technique which besides the relevance to colloidal crystals can be applied to a large variety of nano structured materials. To verify the experimental possibilities the

  4. A miniature X-ray tube based on carbon nanotube for an intraoral dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Han Beom; Lee, Ju Hyuk; Cho, Sung Oh

    2016-01-01

    The number of human teeth that can be radiographically taken is limited. Moreover, at least two X-ray shots are required to get images of teeth from both sides of the mouth. In order to overcome the disadvantages of conventional dental radiography, a dental radiograph has been proposed in which an X-ray tube is inserted into the mouth while an X-ray detector is placed outside the mouth. The miniature X-ray tube is required small size to insert into the mouth. Recently, we have fabricated a miniature x-ray tube with the diameter of 7 mm using a carbon nanotube (CNT) field. But, commercialized miniature X-ray tube were adopted a thermionic type using tungsten filament. The X-ray tubes adopted thermionic emission has a disadvantage of increasing temperature of x-ray tube. So it need to cooling system to cool x-ray tube. On the other hands, X-ray tubes adopted CNT field emitters don't need cooling systems because electrons are emitted from CNT by applying high voltage without heating. We have developed the miniature x-ray tube that produce x-ray with uniform spatial distribution based on carbon nanotube field emitters. The fabricated miniature x-ray tube can be stably and reliably operated at 50kV without any vacuum pump. The developed miniature X-ray tube was applied for intraoral dental radiography that employs an intra-oral CNT-based miniature X-ray tube and extra-oral X-ray detectors. An X-ray image of many teeth was successfully obtained by a single X-ray shot using the intra-oral miniature X-ray tube system. Furthermore, images of both molar teeth of pig were simultaneously obtained by a single X-ray shot. These results show that the intraoral dental radiography, which employs an intraoral miniature X-ray tube and an extraoral X-ray detector, performs better than conventional dental radiography

  5. A miniature X-ray tube based on carbon nanotube for an intraoral dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Han Beom; Lee, Ju Hyuk; Cho, Sung Oh [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The number of human teeth that can be radiographically taken is limited. Moreover, at least two X-ray shots are required to get images of teeth from both sides of the mouth. In order to overcome the disadvantages of conventional dental radiography, a dental radiograph has been proposed in which an X-ray tube is inserted into the mouth while an X-ray detector is placed outside the mouth. The miniature X-ray tube is required small size to insert into the mouth. Recently, we have fabricated a miniature x-ray tube with the diameter of 7 mm using a carbon nanotube (CNT) field. But, commercialized miniature X-ray tube were adopted a thermionic type using tungsten filament. The X-ray tubes adopted thermionic emission has a disadvantage of increasing temperature of x-ray tube. So it need to cooling system to cool x-ray tube. On the other hands, X-ray tubes adopted CNT field emitters don't need cooling systems because electrons are emitted from CNT by applying high voltage without heating. We have developed the miniature x-ray tube that produce x-ray with uniform spatial distribution based on carbon nanotube field emitters. The fabricated miniature x-ray tube can be stably and reliably operated at 50kV without any vacuum pump. The developed miniature X-ray tube was applied for intraoral dental radiography that employs an intra-oral CNT-based miniature X-ray tube and extra-oral X-ray detectors. An X-ray image of many teeth was successfully obtained by a single X-ray shot using the intra-oral miniature X-ray tube system. Furthermore, images of both molar teeth of pig were simultaneously obtained by a single X-ray shot. These results show that the intraoral dental radiography, which employs an intraoral miniature X-ray tube and an extraoral X-ray detector, performs better than conventional dental radiography.

  6. The study on the X-ray correction method of long fracture displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Bin; Huang Ailing; Chen Fuzhong; Men Chunyan; Sui Chengzong; Cui Yiming; Yang Yundong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the image correction of fracture displacement by conventional X-ray photography (ortho tropic and lateral) and test by computed tomography (CT). Methods: The correction method of fracture displacement was designed according to geometry of X-ray photography. Selected one midhumeral fracture specimen which designed with lateral shift and angular displacement, and scanned from anteroposterior and position respectively, and also volume scanned using CT, the data obtained from volume scan were processed using multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and shaded surface display (SSD). The displacement data relied on X-ray image, CT with MPR and SSD processing, actual design of specimens were compared respectively. Results: The direction and degree of displacement among correction data of X-ray images and the data from MPR and SSD, actual design of specimen were little difference, location difference <1.5 mm, degree difference <1.5 degree. Conclusion: It is really reliable for fracture displacement by conventional X-ray photography with coordinate correction, and it is helpful to obviously improve the diagnostic accuracy of the degree of fracture displacement. (authors)

  7. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval’chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu., E-mail: elenatereschenko@yandex.ru; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  8. X-ray and synchrotron methods in studies of cultural heritage sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval’chuk, M. V.; Yatsishina, E. B.; Blagov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, E. Yu.; Prosekov, P. A.; Dyakova, Yu. A.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray and synchrotron methods that are most widely used in studies of cultural heritage objects (including archaeological sites)—X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray spectroscopy, and visualization techniques— have been considered. The reported examples show high efficiency and informativeness of natural science studies when solving most diverse problems of archaeology, history, the study of art, museology, etc.

  9. Absorption and Phase Contrast X-Ray Imaging in Paleontology Using Laboratory and Synchrotron Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidola, Pidassa; Stockmar, Marco; Achterhold, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Franz; Pacheco, Mirian L.A.F.; Soriano, Carmen; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia

    2015-10-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) is commonly used for imaging of samples in biomedical or materials science research. Owing to the ability to visualize a sample in a nondestructive way, X-ray CT is perfectly suited to inspect fossilized specimens, which are mostly unique or rare. In certain regions of the world where important sedimentation events occurred in the Precambrian geological time, several fossilized animals are studied to understand questions related to their origin, environment, and life evolution. This article demonstrates the advantages of applying absorption and phase-contrast CT on the enigmatic fossil Corumbella werneri, one of the oldest known animals capable of building hard parts, originally discovered in Corumba (Brazil). Different tomographic setups were tested to visualize the fossilized inner structures: a commercial laboratory-based CT device, two synchrotron-based imaging setups using conventional absorption and propagation-based phase contrast, and a commercial X-ray microscope with a lens-coupled detector system, dedicated for radiography and tomography. Based on our results we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different imaging setups for paleontological studies.

  10. Femtosecond X-ray Fourier holography imaging of freeflying nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorkhover, Tais; Ulmer, Anatoli; Ferguson, Ken R.; Bucher, Max; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.; Bielecki, Johan; Ekeberg, Tomas; Hantke, Max F.; Daurer, Benedikt J.; Bostedt, Christoph

    2018-02-26

    Ultrafast X-ray imaging on individual fragile specimens such as aerosols1, metastable particles2, superfluid quantum systems3 and live biospecimen4 provides high resolution information, which is inaccessible with conventional imaging techniques. Coherent X-ray diffractive imag- 2 ing, however, suffers from intrinsic loss of phase, and therefore structure recovery is often complicated and not always uniquely-defined4, 5. Here, we introduce the method of in-flight holography, where we use nanoclusters as reference X-ray scatterers in order to encode relative phase information into diffraction patterns of a virus. The resulting hologram contains an unambiguous three-dimensional map of a virus and two nanoclusters with the highest lateral resolution so far achieved via single shot X-ray holography. Our approach unlocks the benefits of holography for ultrafast X-ray imaging of nanoscale, non-periodic systems and paves the way to direct observation of complex electron dynamics down to the attosecond time scale.

  11. X-ray filter for chest X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of an X-ray filter comprised of a sheet of radiation absorbing material with an opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. The upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter. This filter will permit an acceptable density level of x-ray exposure for the lungs while allowing a higher level of x-ray exposure for the mediastinum areas of the body. (author)

  12. An Intraoral Miniature X-ray Tube Based on Carbon Nanotubes for Dental Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jin Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube.

  13. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh

    2016-01-01

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube

  14. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube.

  15. EARLY CLINICAL USE OF THE X-RAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joel D

    2016-01-01

    Western medicine has long been dominated by a faith in the value of science and a belief in the power of technology. I study the history of how technology came to be seen as useful by focusing on one of the most dramatic new tools ever discovered: the X-ray machine. I use a statistically valid sampling of case records from 1900-1925 at the Pennsylvania Hospital to ask why and when physicians at these hospitals came to see X-rays as useful for patient care. Soon after the X-ray's 1895 invention there was seemingly worldwide agreement that it could be used to diagnose common conditions such as fractures and foreign bodies. However, it was only several decades later, after the underlying structure of the hospital changed due to importation of technologies from business, that X-ray images became seen as part of routine patient care.

  16. X-ray dense cellular inclusions in the cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as seen by soft-x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Page, A.M.; Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W.

    1997-01-01

    Soft x-rays, having a greater ability to penetrate biological material than electrons, have the potential for producing images of intact, living cells. In addition, by using the so-called open-quotes water windowclose quotes area of the soft x-ray spectrum, a degree of natural contrast is introduced into the image due to differential absorption of the wavelengths by compounds with a high carbon content compared to those with a greater oxygen content. The variation in carbon concentration throughout a cell therefore generates an image which is dependent upon the carbon density within the specimen. Using soft x-ray contact microscopy the authors have previously examined the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the most prominent feature of the cells are the numerous x-ray absorbing spheres, But they were not seen by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Similar structures have also been reported by the Goettingen group using their cryo transmission x-ray microscope at BESSY. Despite the fact that these spheres appear to occupy up to 20% or more of the cell volume when seen by x-ray microscopy, they are not visible by transmission electron microscopy. Given the difficulties and criticisms associated with soft x-ray contact microscopy, the present study was aimed at confirming the existence of these cellular inclusions and learning more of their possible chemical composition

  17. X-ray dense cellular inclusions in the cells of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as seen by soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Page, A.M. [Univ. of London (United Kingdom); Brown, J.T.; Meyer-Ilse, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Soft x-rays, having a greater ability to penetrate biological material than electrons, have the potential for producing images of intact, living cells. In addition, by using the so-called {open_quotes}water window{close_quotes} area of the soft x-ray spectrum, a degree of natural contrast is introduced into the image due to differential absorption of the wavelengths by compounds with a high carbon content compared to those with a greater oxygen content. The variation in carbon concentration throughout a cell therefore generates an image which is dependent upon the carbon density within the specimen. Using soft x-ray contact microscopy the authors have previously examined the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the most prominent feature of the cells are the numerous x-ray absorbing spheres, But they were not seen by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Similar structures have also been reported by the Goettingen group using their cryo transmission x-ray microscope at BESSY. Despite the fact that these spheres appear to occupy up to 20% or more of the cell volume when seen by x-ray microscopy, they are not visible by transmission electron microscopy. Given the difficulties and criticisms associated with soft x-ray contact microscopy, the present study was aimed at confirming the existence of these cellular inclusions and learning more of their possible chemical composition.

  18. Three-dimensional visualization of a human chromosome using coherent x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yukio; Imamoto, Naoko; Maeshima, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    We succeeded in observing a human chromosome in two- and three-dimensions using x-ray diffraction microscopy. X-ray diffraction microscopy is a lens-less imaging technique utilizing coherent x-ray diffraction, and can overcome various limitations in conventional lens-based x-ray microscopy. Biological applications of the method have been limited to 2D observation, and 3D observation has been long waited. We found that the reconstructed chromosome images contain high-density axial structure, which has not been observed under unstained or unlabeled conditions. The result experimentally demonstrates the effectiveness of x-ray diffraction microscopy in observing internal structures of unstained biological samples with high image contrast. (author)

  19. Simulation of a dense plasma focus x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors are performing simulations of the magnetohydrodynamics of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) x-ray source located at Science Research Laboratory (SRL), Alameda, CA, in order to optimize its performance. The SRL DPF, which was developed as a compact source for x-ray lithography, operates at 20 Hz, giving x-ray power (9--14 Angstroms) of 500 W using neon gas. The simulations are performed with the two dimensional MHD code MACH2, developed by Mission Research Corporation, with a steady state corona model as the equation of state. The results of studies of the sensitivity of x-ray output to charging voltage and current, and to initial gas density will be presented. These studies should indicate ways to optimize x-ray production efficiency. Simulations of various inner electrode configurations will also be presented

  20. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-05-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A-H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A-H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A-H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors.

  1. Ten years of x-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Bortel, G.; Tegze, M.; Fadley, C.S.; Simionovici, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    With the appearance of nano-science the role of local methods has become more and more important. Hard x-ray holography based on the inside reference point concept is a local probe of the atomic order in solids. It gives the 3D real space image of atoms without the phase ambiguity inherent to diffraction methods. In this paper a brief description of the basics of hard x-ray holography is given. The last ten years' experimental and evaluation-related developments are reviewed. We also introduce different variants of the method, such as Bremsstrahlung and gamma ray holography (GRH). The power of the method is illustrated by examples. We outline new directions and future possibilities. (authors)

  2. A submicron synchrotron X-ray beam generated by capillary optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, P.; Larsson, S.; Rindby, A.; Buttkewitz, A.; Garbe, S.; Gaul, G.; Knoechel, A.; Lechtenberg, F.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    1991-01-01

    A novel capillary optics technique for focusing synchrotron X-ray beams has been applied in an experiment performed at the DORIS storage ring at HASYLAB. This new technqiue, which utilizes the total reflection properties of X-rays inside small capillaries, has recently been applied to generate microbeams of X-rays, with a beam size down to about 10 μm using conventional X-ray tubes. The result from our recent experiment shows that capillary optics can also be used to generate a submicron beam of X-rays from a synchrotron light source. A description of the capillary unit, and the alignment procedure is given. The influence of the thermal load on the device caused by the intense flux of synchrotron radiation will be discussed. Future perspectives of the capillary techniques as applied to synchrotron radiation will be discussed. (orig.)

  3. Optimized polychromatic x-ray imaging with asymmetrically cut bent crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podorov, S. G.; Renner, Oldřich; Wehrhan, O.; Förster, E.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2001), s. 2363-2368 ISSN 0022-3727 Grant - others:-(DE) B508-99027; CZ-DE Bilateral Corporation in Science(XC) CZE-00-008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : x-ray imaging * x-ray diffraction * ray-tracing simulations Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2001

  4. X-ray optics and X-ray microscopes: new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susini, J.

    2004-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of X-rays in 1895 by W. Roentgen, it became rapidly clear that the methods traditionally used in the visible light regime, namely refraction, diffraction and reflection were difficult to apply for X-ray optics. The physical origins of these difficulties are closely linked to the very nature of interaction of X-rays with matter. The small deviation δ of the refractive index of condensed matter from unity makes it difficult to extend refraction-based optics from the optical spectral region to the X-ray region because the refraction angle is proportional to δ. Similarly it is very challenging to extend diffraction-based focusing techniques to X-rays because the diffraction angle scales inversely with wavelength. Finally, the use of reflection-based optics is also limited by the very small critical angle for total reflection. All those fundamental limitations prevented for almost one century, the development of X-ray microscopy whereas electron microscopy became a standard tool. In the past twenty years, interests for X-ray microscopy revived, mainly because of several major advances in X-ray sources and X-ray optics. X-ray microscopy techniques are now emerging as powerful and complementary tools for submicron investigations. Soft X-ray microscopes offer traditionally the possibility to form direct images of thick hydrated biological material in near-native environment, at a spatial resolution well beyond that achievable with visible light microscopy. Natural contrast is available in the soft X-ray region, in the so-called ''water-window'', due to the presence of absorption edges of the major constituents (C,N,O). Recent advances in manufacturing techniques have enlarged the accessible energy range of micro-focussing optics and offer new applications in a broad range of disciplines. X-ray microscopy in the 1 - 30 keV energy range is better suited for fluorescence to map trace elements, tomography for 3D imaging and micro-diffraction. The

  5. X-ray filter for chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlic, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Filter for use in medical x-ray apparatus to permit higher intensity x-ray exposure in the heart and mediastinum area while maintaining a normal level of x-ray exposure in other areas of the body, particlarly in the lung area. The filter comprises a sheet of radiation absorbing material having an opening therein, said opening corresponding to the spine and central portion of the heart. Accordingly, the upper portion of the filter exhibits a relatively narrow opening which becomes gradually wider toward the lower portion of the filter

  6. [Conventional X-Rays of Ankle Joint Fractures in Older Patients are Not Always Predictive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubel, A; Faymonville, C; Andermahr, J; Boxberg, S; Schiffer, G

    2017-02-01

    Background: Ankle fractures are extremely common in the elderly, with an incidence of up to 39 fractures per 100,000 persons per year. We found a discrepancy between intraoperative findings and preoperative X-ray findings. It was suggested that many relevant lesions of the ankle joint in the elderly cannot be detected with plain X-rays. Methods: Complete data sets and preoperative X-rays of 84 patients aged above 60 years with ankle fractures were analysed retrospectively. There were 59 women and 25 men, with a mean age of 69.9 years. Operation reports and preoperative X-rays were analysed with respect to four relevant lesions: multifragmentary fracture pattern of the lateral malleolus, involvement of the medial malleolus, posterior malleolar fractures and bony avulsion of anterior syndesmosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and prevalence were calculated. Results: The prevalence of specific ankle lesions in the analyzed cohort was 24 % for the multifragmentary fracture pattern of the lateral malleolus, 38 % for fractures of the medial malleolus, 25 % for posterior malleolar fractures and 22.6 % for bony avulsions of the anterior syndesmosis. Multifragmentary fracture patterns of the lateral malleolus (sensitivity 0 %) and bony avulsions of the anterior syndesmosis (sensitivity 5 %) could not be detected in plain X-rays of the ankle joint at all. Fractures of the medial malleolus and involvement of the dorsal tibial facet were detected with a sensitivity of 96.8 % and 76.2 %, respectively, and specificity of 100 % in both cases. Conclusions: This study confirms that complex fracture patterns, such as multifragmentary involvement of the lateral malleolus, additional fracture of the medial malleolus, involvement of the dorsal tibial facet or bony avulsion of the anterior syndesmosis are common in ankle fractures of the elderly. Therefore, CT scans should be routinely considered for primary

  7. Costs of radiation protection in X-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prahl, M.

    1987-01-01

    The study described investigates into the costs arising from physical protection measures against radiation, in particular from dosimetric determinations carried out in humans according to section 40 of the X-Ray Ordinance, from special structural requirements of examination rooms and higher purchase prices for X-ray units offering built-in protective devices (hardware-related radiation protection). The conventional fluoroscope is chosen as an example of how this is achieved today. At first, a survey is given of X-ray installations in North Rhine-Westphalia, the technical details of which are described. This provides approximative information on the extent of dosimetric calculations in humans, the necessary expenditure on shieldings and the costs involved in additional hardware-related measures. (orig./DG) [de

  8. Utilization of plastics as transparent x-ray filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yathuhiko; Inui, Saburo; Kooda, Kazunao; Takiguchi, Kiyomi; Abe, Yoshinobu.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt has been made to develop heavy atom containing transparent plastic filters which are identical with conventional aluminum or copper filters in X-ray attenuating property. These transparent filters can be used as fixed at the front of a conventional multilayer collimator without obstructing the optical detection of the field size of X-ray exposure. It has become a serious problem that recent increasing use of X-ray in diagnostics, namely increasing patient exposure, may cause baneful influence upon the patients. To reduce such patient exposure, the I.C.R.P. has recommended the proper use of metal filters made of aluminum or copper with regards to the applied tube potential. These filters are generally used as fixed at the X-ray tube window or used at the front of a multilayer collimator as added filters. In the former case, and exchange of filters to select the best one with regards to the applied tube potential needs complicated works, and in the latter, the use of the added filters also needs complicated works to confirm field size before each radiography. These troublesome works have at time resulted in improper uses of the filters although the effective selection of filters is known to be useful to the reduction of patient exposure. Therefore, the problem of reduction of patient exposure by means of filtration still remains practically unsolved. To offer practical added filters which do not possess above mentioned disadvantages of metal filters, we tried to develop transparent added filters. Transparent plastics as the material of the filters were loaded with heavy atoms to equalize X-ray attenuating property with aluminum or copper. (author)

  9. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Dennis [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Padmore, Howard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lessner, Eliane [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2013-03-27

    Each new generation of synchrotron radiation sources has delivered an increase in average brightness 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the previous generation. The next evolution toward diffraction-limited storage rings will deliver another 3 orders of magnitude increase. For ultrafast experiments, free electron lasers (FELs) deliver 10 orders of magnitude higher peak brightness than storage rings. Our ability to utilize these ultrabright sources, however, is limited by our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate these beams with X-ray optics. X-ray optics technology unfortunately lags behind source technology and limits our ability to maximally utilize even today’s X-ray sources. With ever more powerful X-ray sources on the horizon, a new generation of X-ray optics must be developed that will allow us to fully utilize these beams of unprecedented brightness. The increasing brightness of X-ray sources will enable a new generation of measurements that could have revolutionary impact across a broad area of science, if optical systems necessary for transporting and analyzing X-rays can be perfected. The high coherent flux will facilitate new science utilizing techniques in imaging, dynamics, and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. For example, zone-plate-based hard X-ray microscopes are presently used to look deeply into materials, but today’s resolution and contrast are restricted by limitations of the current lithography used to manufacture nanodiffractive optics. The large penetration length, combined in principle with very high spatial resolution, is an ideal probe of hierarchically ordered mesoscale materials, if zone-plate focusing systems can be improved. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) probes a wide range of excitations in materials, from charge-transfer processes to the very soft excitations that cause the collective phenomena in correlated electronic systems. However, although RIXS can probe high-energy excitations, the most exciting and

  10. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Dennis; Padmore, Howard; Lessner, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    Each new generation of synchrotron radiation sources has delivered an increase in average brightness 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the previous generation. The next evolution toward diffraction-limited storage rings will deliver another 3 orders of magnitude increase. For ultrafast experiments, free electron lasers (FELs) deliver 10 orders of magnitude higher peak brightness than storage rings. Our ability to utilize these ultrabright sources, however, is limited by our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate these beams with X-ray optics. X-ray optics technology unfortunately lags behind source technology and limits our ability to maximally utilize even today's X-ray sources. With ever more powerful X-ray sources on the horizon, a new generation of X-ray optics must be developed that will allow us to fully utilize these beams of unprecedented brightness. The increasing brightness of X-ray sources will enable a new generation of measurements that could have revolutionary impact across a broad area of science, if optical systems necessary for transporting and analyzing X-rays can be perfected. The high coherent flux will facilitate new science utilizing techniques in imaging, dynamics, and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. For example, zone-plate-based hard X-ray microscopes are presently used to look deeply into materials, but today's resolution and contrast are restricted by limitations of the current lithography used to manufacture nanodiffractive optics. The large penetration length, combined in principle with very high spatial resolution, is an ideal probe of hierarchically ordered mesoscale materials, if zone-plate focusing systems can be improved. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) probes a wide range of excitations in materials, from charge-transfer processes to the very soft excitations that cause the collective phenomena in correlated electronic systems. However, although RIXS can probe high-energy excitations, the most exciting

  11. X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect x-ray-drive implosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Takayasu; Sakabe, Shuji; Yamanaka, Chiyoe

    1983-01-01

    X-ray geometrical smoothing effect in indirect X-ray drive pellet implosion for inertial confinement fusion has been numerically analyzed. Attainable X-ray driven ablation pressure has been found to be coupled with X-ray irradiation uniformity. (author)

  12. High-intensity laser synchrotron x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1995-10-01

    A laser interacting with a relativistic electron beam behaves like a virtual wiggler of an extremely short period equal to half of the laser wavelength. This approach opens a route to relatively compact, high-brightness x-ray sources alternative or complementary to conventional synchrotron light sources. Although not new, the Laser Synchrotron Light Source (LSLS) concept is still waiting for a convincing demonstration. Available at the BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), a high-brightness electron beam and the high-power C0 2 laser may be used as prototype LSLS brick stones. In a feasible demonstration experiment, 10-GW, 100-ps C0 2 laser beam will be brought to a head-on collision with a 10-ps, 0.5-nC, 70 MeV electron bunch. Flashes of well-collimated, up to 9.36-keV (∼ Angstrom) x-rays of 10-ps pulse duration, with a flux of ∼10 19 photons/sec will be produced via linear Compton backscattering. The x-ray spectrum is tunable proportionally to a variable e-beam energy. A natural short-term extension of the proposed experiment would be further enhancement of the x-ray flux to a 10 21 -10 22 photons/sec level, after the ongoing ATF CO 2 laser upgrade to 1 TW peak power and electron bunch shortening to 3 ps. The ATF LSLS x-ray beamline, exceeding by orders of magnitude the peak fluxes attained at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray storage ring, may become attractive for certain users, e.g., for biological x-ray microscopy. In addition, a terawatt CO 2 laser will enable harmonic multiplication of the x-ray spectrum via nonlinear Compton scattering

  13. The Water Recovery X-ray Rocket (WRX-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Drew

    2017-08-01

    The Water Recovery X-ray Rocket (WRX-R) is a diffuse soft X-ray spectrometer that will launch on a sounding rocket from the Kwajalein Atoll. WRX-R has a field of view of >10 deg2 and will observe the Vela supernova remnant. A mechanical collimator, state-of-the-art off-plane reflection grating array and hybrid CMOS detector will allow WRX to achieve the most highly-resolved spectrum of the Vela SNR ever recorded. In addition, this payload will fly a hard X-ray telescope that is offset from the soft X-ray spectrometer in order to observe the pulsar at the center of the remnant. We present here an introduction to the instrument, the expected science return, and an update on the state of the payload as we work towards launch.

  14. AXSIS: Exploring the frontiers in attosecond X-ray science, imaging and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kärtner, F.X., E-mail: franz.kaertner@cfel.de [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ahr, F. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Hamburg (Germany); Calendron, A.-L. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Çankaya, H. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Carbajo, S. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Chang, G.; Cirmi, G. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Dörner, K. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Dorda, U. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Fallahi, A. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Hartin, A. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Hemmer, M. [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-09-01

    X-ray crystallography is one of the main methods to determine atomic-resolution 3D images of the whole spectrum of molecules ranging from small inorganic clusters to large protein complexes consisting of hundred-thousands of atoms that constitute the macromolecular machinery of life. Life is not static, and unravelling the structure and dynamics of the most important reactions in chemistry and biology is essential to uncover their mechanism. Many of these reactions, including photosynthesis which drives our biosphere, are light induced and occur on ultrafast timescales. These have been studied with high time resolution primarily by optical spectroscopy, enabled by ultrafast laser technology, but they reduce the vast complexity of the process to a few reaction coordinates. In the AXSIS project at CFEL in Hamburg, funded by the European Research Council, we develop the new method of attosecond serial X-ray crystallography and spectroscopy, to give a full description of ultrafast processes atomically resolved in real space and on the electronic energy landscape, from co-measurement of X-ray and optical spectra, and X-ray diffraction. This technique will revolutionize our understanding of structure and function at the atomic and molecular level and thereby unravel fundamental processes in chemistry and biology like energy conversion processes. For that purpose, we develop a compact, fully coherent, THz-driven attosecond X-ray source based on coherent inverse Compton scattering off a free-electron crystal, to outrun radiation damage effects due to the necessary high X-ray irradiance required to acquire diffraction signals. This highly synergistic project starts from a completely clean slate rather than conforming to the specifications of a large free-electron laser (FEL) user facility, to optimize the entire instrumentation towards fundamental measurements of the mechanism of light absorption and excitation energy transfer. A multidisciplinary team formed by laser

  15. Different X-ray spectral evolution for black hole X-ray binaries in dual tracks of radio-X-ray correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Qingwen; Dong, Ai-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an 'outlier' track of radio-X-ray correlation was found, which is much steeper than the former universal correlation, where dual tracks were speculated to be triggered by different accretion processes. In this work, we test this issue by exploring hard X-ray spectral evolution in four black-hole X-ray binaries with multiple, quasi-simultaneous radio and X-ray observations. First, we find that hard X-ray photon indices, Γ, are negatively and positively correlated with X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, F 3-9 keV , is below and above a critical flux, F X, crit , which are consistent with predictions of the advection-dominated accretion flow and the disk-corona model, respectively. Second, and most importantly, we find that the radio-X-ray correlations are also clearly different when the X-ray fluxes are higher and lower than the critical flux as defined by X-ray spectral evolution. The data points with F 3-9 keV ≳ F X, crit have a steeper radio-X-ray correlation (F X ∝F R b and b ∼ 1.1-1.4), which roughly forms the ''outlier'' track. However, the data points with anti-correlation of Γ – F 3-9 keV either stay in the universal track with b ∼ 0.61 or stay in the transition track (from the universal to 'outlier' tracks or vice versa). Therefore, our results support that the universal and ''outlier'' tracks of radio-X-ray correlations are regulated by radiatively inefficient and radiatively efficient accretion model, respectively.

  16. Comparison of x-ray output of inverter-type x-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hiroshi; Miyake, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Keiichi

    2000-01-01

    The x-ray output of 54 inverter-type x-ray apparatuses used at 18 institutions was investigated. The reproducibility and linearity of x-ray output and variations among the x-ray equipment were evaluated using the same fluorescence meter. In addition, the x-ray apparatuses were re-measured using the same non-invasive instrument to check for variations in tube voltage, tube current, and irradiation time. The non-invasive instrument was calibrated by simultaneously obtaining measurements with an invasive instrument, employing the tube voltage and current used for the invasive instrument, and the difference was calculated. Reproducibility of x-ray output was satisfactory for all x-ray apparatuses. The coefficient of variation was 0.04 or less for irradiation times of 5 ms or longer. In 84.3% of all x-ray equipment, variation in the linearity of x-ray output was 15% or less for an irradiation time of 5 ms. However, for all the apparatuses, the figure was 50% when irradiation time was the shortest (1 to 3 ms). Variation in x-ray output increased as irradiation time decreased. Variation in x-ray output ranged between 1.8 and 2.5 compared with the maximum and minimum values, excluding those obtained at the shortest irradiation time. The relative standard deviation ranged from ±15.5% to ±21.0%. The largest variation in x-ray output was confirmed in regions irradiated for the shortest time, with smaller variations observed for longer irradiation times. The major factor responsible for variation in x-ray output in regions irradiated for 10 ms or longer, which is a relatively long irradiation time, was variation in tube current. Variation in tube current was slightly greater than 30% at maximum, with an average value of 7% compared with the preset tube current. Variations in x-ray output in regions irradiated for the shortest time were due to photographic effects related to the rise and fall times of the tube voltage waveform. Accordingly, in order to obtain constant x-ray

  17. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carini, Gabriella [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Denes, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gruener, Sol [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Lessner, Elianne [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2012-08-01

    The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) X-ray and neutron user facilities attract more than 12,000 researchers each year to perform cutting-edge science at these state-of-the-art sources. While impressive breakthroughs in X-ray and neutron sources give us the powerful illumination needed to peer into the nano- to mesoscale world, a stumbling block continues to be the distinct lag in detector development, which is slowing progress toward data collection and analysis. Urgently needed detector improvements would reveal chemical composition and bonding in 3-D and in real time, allow researchers to watch “movies” of essential life processes as they happen, and make much more efficient use of every X-ray and neutron produced by the source The immense scientific potential that will come from better detectors has triggered worldwide activity in this area. Europe in particular has made impressive strides, outpacing the United States on several fronts. Maintaining a vital U.S. leadership in this key research endeavor will require targeted investments in detector R&D and infrastructure. To clarify the gap between detector development and source advances, and to identify opportunities to maximize the scientific impact of BES user facilities, a workshop on Neutron and X-ray Detectors was held August 1-3, 2012, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Participants from universities, national laboratories, and commercial organizations from the United States and around the globe participated in plenary sessions, breakout groups, and joint open-discussion summary sessions. Sources have become immensely more powerful and are now brighter (more particles focused onto the sample per second) and more precise (higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution). To fully utilize these source advances, detectors must become faster, more efficient, and more discriminating. In supporting the mission of today’s cutting-edge neutron and X-ray sources, the workshop identified six detector research challenges

  18. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ... of the inside of the chest. A chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and ...

  19. Computed tomography for light materials using a monochromatic X-ray beam produced by parametric X-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y., E-mail: yahayak@lebra.nihon-u.ac.jp [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Hayakawa, K.; Inagaki, M. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Kaneda, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Nakao, K.; Nogami, K. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Sakae, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Sakai, T.; Sato, I. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho, Tsukuba 305-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Computed tomography (CT) for light materials such as soft biological tissues was performed using a monochromatic X-ray beam provided by a parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) source at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) of Nihon University. Using a high-efficiency flat panel detector (FPD), each projection image for CT was taken with exposure times of 5 or 10 s, and 60–360 projection images in each run were obtained with total measurement time of 5 min to 1 h. CT images were obtained from the projection images using the conventional calculation method. The typical tomograms obtained had sharp outlines, which are likely attributable to the propagation-based phase contrast.

  20. Technical quality assurance in conventional radiography by X-ray assistants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juran, R.; Buehler, G.; Schmidt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Without the X-ray assistant, regularly involved in everyday practice, technical quality assurance can hardly be accomplished. Therefore a model for the organization of quality assurance was developed and tested in practice. It implies accountable technical checks by the technician, that are controlled by a quality supervisor, and are subsequently evaluated by the radiation physics department. This positively influences quality consciousness of the radiographers and therefore the quality itself. (author)

  1. Development of an X-ray detector using surface plasmon resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Y.; Nagashima, K.; Hasegawa, N.; Ochi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A new X-ray detector using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed. The detector consists of a prism coated with a thin metal film and semiconductor film. Optical laser pulse induces SPR condition on the metal surface, and synchronized X-ray pulse which is absorbed into the semiconductor film can be detected by measuring the change of the resonance condition of the surface plasmon. The expected time and spatial resolution of this detector is better than that of conventional X-ray detectors by combining this SPR measurement with ultra-short laser pulse as the probe beam. Our preliminary investigation using Au and ZnSe coated prism implies this scheme works well as the detector for the ultra-short X-ray pulse.

  2. Technique and radiation dose of conventional X-rays and computed tomography of the sacroiliac joint; Technik und Strahlendosis konventioneller Roentgenaufnahmen und Computertomographie des Sakroiliakalgelenks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurik, A.G. [Department of Radiology R, Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark)

    2004-03-01

    Anterior-posterior (a.p.) or posterior-anterior X-rays of the sacroiliac joint, sometimes supplemented by a transverse view, have been the method of choice for diagnosis of patients suspected of having sacroiliitis. The sensitivity and specificity of conventional X-rays are relatively low, which can delay the diagnosis of sacroiliitis. Computed tomography (CT) is superior to conventional X-rays for diagnosis of sacroiliitis, but does emit a relatively higher dose of radiation. For this reason, particularly for females, CT should be optimized by employing semi-coronal planes, which require a lower radiation dose than axial planes. CT in a semi-coronal plane causes minimal radiation to the ovaries, and the effective radiation dose for women might even be lower than with conventional AP X-rays. Therefore, for suspected sacroiliitis in young women, CT in the semi-coronal plane is the preferred imaging method with respect to diagnostics and radiation protection when magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not available. Male gonads can be protected from radiation doses in conventional X-rays, and CT as the primary imaging method can only be justified in these cases because of its better diagnostic capabilities. Due to the lack of inherent risk factors, MRI is superior to CT for diagnostics since it provides images of inflammatory signs in addition to joint destruction. Thus, when available, MRI should be given preference for diagnosis of sacroiliitis. (orig.) [German] Roentgenaufnahmen des Sakroiliakalgelenks im anterior-posterioren bzw. posterior-anterioren Strahlengang, gelegentlich ergaenzt durch die Schraegaufnahme, sind seit vielen Jahren die Methode der Wahl fuer die Diagnostik bei Patienten mit Verdacht auf Sakroiliitis. Die Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet des konventionellen Roentgens sind relativ niedrig, was die Diagnose der Sakroiliitis verzoegern koennte. Die Computertomographie (CT) ist dem konventionellen Roentgen fuer die Diagnostik der Sakroiliitis ueberlegen

  3. The use of Co2+ for crystallization and structure determination, using a conventional monochromatic X-ray source, of flax rust avirulence protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunčar, Gregor; Wang, Ching-I A.; Forwood, Jade K.; Teh, Trazel; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; Ellis, Jeffrey G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Kobe, Boštjan

    2007-01-01

    It is demonstrated that anomalous diffraction based on the signal from a cobalt ion measured on a conventional monochromatic X-ray source can be used to determine the structure of a protein with a novel fold (M. lini avirulence protein AvrL567-A). The approach could be applicable to many metal-binding proteins, particularly when synchrotron radiation is not readily available. Metal-binding sites are ubiquitous in proteins and can be readily utilized for phasing. It is shown that a protein crystal structure can be solved using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction based on the anomalous signal of a cobalt ion measured on a conventional monochromatic X-ray source. The unique absorption edge of cobalt (1.61 Å) is compatible with the Cu Kα wavelength (1.54 Å) commonly available in macromolecular crystallography laboratories. This approach was applied to the determination of the structure of Melampsora lini avirulence protein AvrL567-A, a protein with a novel fold from the fungal pathogen flax rust that induces plant disease resistance in flax plants. This approach using cobalt ions may be applicable to all cobalt-binding proteins and may be advantageous when synchrotron radiation is not readily available

  4. Wide field X-ray telescopes: Detecting X-ray transients/afterglows related to gamma ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, Rene; Pina, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf; Gorenstein, Paul; Rezek, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    The recent discovery of X-ray afterglows of GRBs opens the possibility of analyses of GRBs by their X-ray detections. However, imaging X-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited field of view. Alternative X-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70ies but not constructed and used so far. We review the geometries and basic properties of the wide-field X-ray optical systems based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry and suggest technologies for their development and construction. First results of the development of double replicated X-ray reflecting flats for use in one-dimensional X-ray optics of lobster eye type are presented and discussed. Optimum strategy for locating GRBs upon their X-ray counterparts is also presented and discussed

  5. State-of-the-art and problems of X-ray diffraction analysis of biomacromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, N. S.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules is briefly characterized, and the challenge imposed by science is discussed. These studies are characterized by a wide scope and extensive use. This field of science is of great interest and is developed in many countries. The main purpose is to solve practical problems in medicine consisting in the design of drugs against various diseases. X-ray diffraction analysis of enzymes brought the pharmaceutical industry to a new level, thus allowing the rational design of drugs against formerly untreatable diseases. Modern X-ray diffraction studies of biomacromolecules laid the basis for a new science called structural biology. This method allows one to solve fundamental problems of physical chemistry for a new state of matter existing in living systems. Here, science poses numerous problems in analysis of X-ray diffraction data on biological macromolecules. Many of theses problems are in their infancy

  6. Bi-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Scherer

    Full Text Available Phase-contrast x-ray imaging is a promising improvement of conventional absorption-based mammography for early tumor detection. This potential has been demonstrated recently, utilizing structured gratings to obtain differential phase and dark-field scattering images. However, the inherently anisotropic imaging sensitivity of the proposed mono-directional approach yields only insufficient diagnostic information, and has low diagnostic sensitivity to highly oriented structures. To overcome these limitations, we present a two-directional x-ray phase-contrast mammography approach and demonstrate its advantages by applying it to a freshly dissected, cancerous mastectomy breast specimen. We illustrate that the two-directional scanning procedure overcomes the insufficient diagnostic value of a single scan, and reliably detects tumor structures, independently from their orientation within the breast. Our results indicate the indispensable diagnostic necessity and benefit of a multi-directional approach for x-ray phase-contrast mammography.

  7. Invited Review Article: The Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2014-06-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is an orbiting x-ray telescope facility. It is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's four "Great Observatories" that collectively have carried out astronomical observations covering the infrared through gamma-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chandra is used by astronomers world-wide to acquire imaging and spectroscopic data over a nominal 0.1-10 keV (124-1.24 Å) range. We describe the three major parts of the observatory: the telescope, the spacecraft systems, and the science instruments. This article will emphasize features of the design and development driven by some of the experimental considerations unique to x-ray astronomy. We will update the on-orbit performance and present examples of the scientific highlights.

  8. X-ray bursts observed with JEM-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Chenevez, Jérôme; Lund, Niels

    2006-01-01

    We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found.......We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found....

  9. X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray Observations of Eight Young Open Star Clusters: I. Membership and X-ray Luminosity. Himali Bhatt, J. C. Pandey, K. P. Singh, Ram Sagar & Brijesh Kumar. J. Astrophys. Astr. 34(4), December 2013, pp. 393–429, c Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary Material. Supplementary Table 3 follows.

  10. The instrumental blank of the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.L., E-mail: icampbel@uoguelph.ca [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The alpha particle X-ray spectrometers on the Mars exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity accomplished extensive elemental analysis of the Martian surface through a combination of XRF and PIXE. An advanced APXS is now part of the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. APXS spectra contain contributions which enhance elemental peak areas but which do not arise from these elements within the sample under study, thereby introducing error into derived concentrations. A detailed examination of these effects in the MSL APXS enables us to test two schemes for making the necessary corrections.

  11. X-Ray and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Dim X-Ray Point Sources Constituting the Galactic Ridge X-Ray Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Morihana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of X-ray and Near-Infrared observations of the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE. We extracted 2,002 X-ray point sources in the Chandra Bulge Field (l =0°.113, b = 1°.424 down to ~10-14.8 ergscm-2s-1 in 2-8 keV band with the longest observation (900 ks of the GRXE. Based on X-ray brightness and hardness, we classied the X-ray point sources into three groups: A (hard, B (soft and broad spectrum, and C (soft and peaked spectrum. In order to know populations of the X-ray point sources, we carried out NIR imaging and spectroscopy observation. We identied 11% of X-ray point sources with NIR and extracted NIR spectra for some of them. Based on X-ray and NIR properties, we concluded that non-thermal sources in the group A are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs and Pre-CVs. We concluded that the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flare and quiescence, respectively.

  12. X-ray Phase Contrast analysis - Digital wavefront development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idir, Mourad; Potier, Jonathan; Fricker, Sebastien; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina; Modi, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Optical schemes that enable imaging of the phase shift produced by an object have become popular in the x-ray region, where phase can be the dominant contrast mechanism. The propagation-based technique consists of recording the interference pattern produced by choosing one or several sample-to-detector distances. Pioneering studies, carried out making use of synchrotron radiation, demonstrated that this technique results in a dramatic increase of image contrast and detail visibility, allowing the detection of structures invisible with conventional techniques. An experimental and theoretical study of in-line hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging had been performed. The theoretical description of the technique is based on Fresnel diffraction. As an illustration of the potential of this quantitative imaging technique, high-resolution x-ray phase contrast images of simple objects will be presented.

  13. Laboratory and In-Flight In-Situ X-ray Imaging and Scattering Facility for Materials, Biotechnology and Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    We propose a multifunctional X-ray facility for the Materials, Biotechnology and Life Sciences Programs to visualize formation and behavior dynamics of materials, biomaterials, and living organisms, tissues and cells. The facility will combine X-ray topography, phase micro-imaging and scattering capabilities with sample units installed on the goniometer. This should allow, for the first time, to monitor under well defined conditions, in situ, in real time: creation of imperfections during growth of semiconductors, metal, dielectric and biomacromolecular crystals and films, high-precision diffraction from crystals within a wide range of temperatures and vapor, melt, solution conditions, internal morphology and changes in living organisms, tissues and cells, diffraction on biominerals, nanotubes and particles, radiation damage, also under controlled formation/life conditions. The system will include an ultrabright X-ray source, X-ray mirror, monochromator, image-recording unit, detectors, and multipurpose diffractometer that fully accommodate and integrate furnaces and samples with other experimental environments. The easily adjustable laboratory and flight versions will allow monitoring processes under terrestrial and microgravity conditions. The flight version can be made available using a microsource combined with multilayer or capillary optics.

  14. Image processing techniques for thermal, x-rays and nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadda, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes image acquisition techniques for the non-visible range of electromagnetic spectrum especially thermal, x-rays and nuclear radiations. Thermal imaging systems are valuable tools used for applications ranging from PCB inspection, hot spot studies, fire identification, satellite imaging to defense applications. Penetrating radiations like x-rays and gamma rays are used in NDT, baggage inspection, CAT scan, cardiology, radiography, nuclear medicine etc. Neutron radiography compliments conventional x-rays and gamma radiography. For these applications, image processing and computed tomography are employed for 2-D and 3-D image interpretation respectively. The paper also covers main features of image processing systems for quantitative evaluation of gray level and binary images. (author)

  15. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-05-11

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays.

  16. Numerical design of in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging based on ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Peng, Song; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    A new device using an ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics was numerically designed to realize in-line X-ray phase-contrast imaging by using conventional laboratory X-ray source with a large spot. Numerical simulation results validated the effectiveness of the proposed device and approach. The ellipsoidal single-bounce monocapillary X-ray optics had potential applications in the in-line phase contrast imaging with polychromatic X-rays

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  20. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very small ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  1. CRL X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed. (authors)

  2. The Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Didier; Trong, Thein Lam; Den Herder, Jan-Willem; Piro, Luigi; Barcons, Xavier; Huovelin, Juhani; Kelley, Richard; Mas-Hesse, J. Miquel; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Paltani, Stephane; hide

    2016-01-01

    The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board the Advanced Telescope for High-ENergy Astrophysics (Athena) will provide spatially resolved high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy from 0.2 to 12 keV, with 5 pixels over a field of view of 5 arc minute equivalent diameter and a spectral resolution of 2.5 eV up to 7 keV. In this paper, we first review the core scientific objectives of Athena, driving the main performance parameters of the X-IFU, namely the spectral resolution, the field of view, the effective area, the count rate capabilities, the instrumental background. We also illustrate the breakthrough potential of the X-IFU for some observatory science goals. Then we brie y describe the X-IFU design as defined at the time of the mission consolidation review concluded in May 2016, and report on its predicted performance. Finally, we discuss some options to improve the instrument performance while not increasing its complexity and resource demands (e.g. count rate capability, spectral resolution). (2016) .

  3. Workshop report on new directions in x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; Del Grande, N.K.; Fuoss, P.; Mallett, J.H.; Pratt, R.; Templeton, D.

    1987-01-01

    This report is a summary of the Workshop on New Directions in X-Ray Scattering held at the Asilomar Conference Center, Pacific Grove, California, April 2-5, 1985. The report primarily consists of the edited transcript of the final review session of the workshop, in which members of a panel summarized the proceedings. It is clear that we are close to achieving an accurate theory of scattering in independent particle approximation, but for edge regions, there is need to go beyond this approach. Much of what is experimentally interesting in scattering is occurring between the photoabsorption edge and the photoelectric threshold. Applications in condensed matter and biological and chemical material studies are expanding, exploiting higher intensity sources and faster time resolution as in magnetic scattering and surface studies. Storage rings are now conventional sources, and new high-intensity beam lines are under development; the free electron laser is one of the more speculative sources. Recent work in x-ray scattering has led to advances in x-ray optics, and conversely, advances in x-ray optics have benefitted our understanding of x-ray scattering

  4. Diagnosing and mapping pulmonary emphysema on X-ray projection images: incremental value of grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinel, Felix G; Schwab, Felix; Schleede, Simone; Bech, Martin; Herzen, Julia; Achterhold, Klaus; Auweter, Sigrid; Bamberg, Fabian; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Bohla, Alexander; Eickelberg, Oliver; Loewen, Rod; Gifford, Martin; Ruth, Ronald; Reiser, Maximilian F; Pfeiffer, Franz; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether grating-based X-ray dark-field imaging can increase the sensitivity of X-ray projection images in the diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema and allow for a more accurate assessment of emphysema distribution. Lungs from three mice with pulmonary emphysema and three healthy mice were imaged ex vivo using a laser-driven compact synchrotron X-ray source. Median signal intensities of transmission (T), dark-field (V) and a combined parameter (normalized scatter) were compared between emphysema and control group. To determine the diagnostic value of each parameter in differentiating between healthy and emphysematous lung tissue, a receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed both on a per-pixel and a per-individual basis. Parametric maps of emphysema distribution were generated using transmission, dark-field and normalized scatter signal and correlated with histopathology. Transmission values relative to water were higher for emphysematous lungs than for control lungs (1.11 vs. 1.06, pemphysema provides color-coded parametric maps, which show the best correlation with histopathology. In a murine model, the complementary information provided by X-ray transmission and dark-field images adds incremental diagnostic value in detecting pulmonary emphysema and visualizing its regional distribution as compared to conventional X-ray projections.

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  6. Hard X-ray bremsstrahlung production in solar flares by high-energy proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. G.; Brown, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility that solar hard X-ray bremsstrahlung is produced by acceleration of stationary electrons by fast-moving protons, rather than vice versa, as commonly assumed, was investigated. It was found that a beam of protons which involves 1836 times fewer particles, each having an energy 1836 times greater than that of the electrons in the equivalent electron beam model, has exactly the same bremsstrahlung yield for a given target, i.e., the mechanism has an energetic efficiency equal to that of conventional bremsstrahlung models. Allowance for the different degrees of target ionization appropriate to the two models (for conventional flare geometries) makes the proton beam model more efficient than the electron beam model, by a factor of order three. The model places less stringent constraints than a conventional electron beam model on the flare energy release mechanism. It is also consistent with observed X-ray burst spectra, intensities, and directivities. The altitude distribution of hard X-rays predicted by the model agrees with observations only if nonvertical injection of the protons is assumed. The model is inconsistent with gamma-ray data in terms of conventional modeling.

  7. Soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) of actinide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Hans J; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wilson, Richard E; Werme, Lars; Shuh, David K

    2005-09-01

    A descriptive account is given of our most recent research on the actinide dioxides with the Advanced Light Source Molecular Environmental Science (ALS-MES) Beamline 11.0.2 soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The ALS-MES STXM permits near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and imaging with 30-nm spatial resolution. The first STXM spectromicroscopy NEXAFS spectra at the actinide 4d5/2 edges of the imaged transuranic particles, NpO2 and PuO2, have been obtained. Radiation damage induced by the STXM was observed in the investigation of a mixed oxidation state particle (Np(V,VI)) and was minimized during collection of the actual spectra at the 4d5/2 edge of the Np(V,VI) solid. A plutonium elemental map was obtained from an irregular PuO2 particle with the dimensions of 650 x 650 nm. The Pu 4d5/2 NEXAFS spectra were collected at several different locations from the PuO2 particle and were identical. A representative oxygen K-edge spectrum from UO2 was collected and resembles the oxygen K-edge from the bulk material. The unique and current performance of the ALS-MES STXM at extremely low energies (ca. 100 eV) that may permit the successful measurement of the actinide 5d edge is documented. Finally, the potential of STXM as a tool for actinide investigations is briefly discussed.

  8. The Hard X-ray Sky: Recent Observational Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The last fifty years have witnessed the birth, development, and maturation to full potential of hard X-ray astrophysics. The primary force driving the history of the field has been the development of space-based instrumentation optimized for getting the maximum science out of observations of high-energy photons from astrophysical sources. Hard X-ray telescopes are leading research in areas such as galactic diffuse emission, galactic transients, and active galactic nuclei.

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  10. Perfect-crystal x-ray optics to treat x-ray coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    X-ray diffraction of perfect crystals, which serve as x-ray monochromator and collimator, modifies coherence properties of x-ray beams. From the time-dependent Takagi-Taupin equations that x-ray wavefields obey in crystals, the reflected wavefield is formulated as an integral transform of a general incident wavefield with temporal and spatial inhomogeneity. A reformulation of rocking-curve profiles from the field solution of the Takagi-Taupin equations allows experimental evaluation of the mutual coherence function of x-ray beam. The rigorous relationship of the coherence functions between before and after reflection clarifies how the coherence is transferred by a crystal. These results will be beneficial to developers of beamline optics for the next generation synchrotron sources. (author)

  11. Ultra high resolution X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, U.; Buehler, M.; Hentig, R. von; Hertrich, T.; Phelan, K.; Wernicke, D.; Hoehne, J.

    2001-01-01

    CSP Cryogenic Spectrometers GmbH is developing cryogenic energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting detector technology. Superconducting sensors exhibit at least a 10-fold improvement in energy resolution due to their low energy gap compared to conventional Si(Li) or Ge detectors. These capabilities are extremely valuable for the analysis of light elements and in general for the analysis of the low energy range of the X-ray spectrum. The spectrometer is based on a mechanical cooler needing no liquid coolants and an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) stage which supplies the operating temperature of below 100 mK for the superconducting sensor. Applications include surface analysis in semiconductor industry as well material analysis for material composition e.g. in ceramics or automobile industry

  12. Using X-ray computed tomography to predict carcass leanness in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, P.; Kover, Gy.; Paszthy, Gy.; Berenyi, E.; Repa, I; Kovacs, G.

    1996-01-01

    Just one hundred years ago. Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen published his paper in Wurzburg describing X-rays and their effects, earning him the first Nobel Prize in Physics, presented in 1901. X-ray based diagnostic equipment revolutionized human diagnostics. A new milestone in the development of radiology was when Godfrey Hotmufield proposed to get additional anatomical information from a cross-sectional plane of the body by computer aided mathematical synthesis of an image from X-ray transmission data obtained from many different angles through the plane in consideration. The idea of the X-ray Computer Aided Tomography (CAT) was born, and the dramatic development of X-ray CAT imaging technology began, enhancing efficiency and scope of human diagnostics in human medicine. The numbers used to characterize the X-ray absorption in each picture element (pixel) of the CAT image are called ''CT'' or Hounsfield numbers (Hounsfield, 1979). The Nobel Prize was awarded to Hounsfield in 1979. X-ray Computer Aided Tomography system and software used were developed for humen medical purposes - mainly to detect anatomical physiological disorders - by all leading high-tech manufacturers in the world. As early as 1980, the potential of the new technique to be utilized in animal science was first recognized in Norway (Skjervold et al., 1981). In 1982, the Agricultural University of Norway acquired a Siemens Somatom 2 CAT system, and pioneering work started to apply X-ray CAT techniques in animal science. Based on the promising results obtained and published by the ''Norwegian school'' (Sehested, 1 984 Vangen, 1984 Allen and Vangen, 1984: Vangen and Standal, 1984), a research project proposal was prepared for the Hungarian Ministry of Agriculture and Food and the World Bank in 1985 to set up a digital imaging center at our Institute. The project was approved in 1986 (Horn, 1991a). The new digital imaging and diagnostic center started its operation in 1990, equipped first with a Siemens

  13. X-ray scattering in X-ray fluorescence spectra with X-ray tube excitation - Modelling, experiment, and Monte-Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Radtke, M.; Vincze, L.; Rackwitz, V.; Reuter, D.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray scattering may contribute significantly to the spectral background of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectra. Based on metrological measurements carried out with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) having attached a well characterised X-ray source (polychromatic X-ray tube) and a calibrated energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) the accuracy of a physical model for X-ray scattering is systematically evaluated for representative samples. The knowledge of the X-ray spectrometer efficiency, but also of the spectrometer response functions makes it possible to define a physical spectral background of XRF spectra. Background subtraction relying on purely mathematical procedures is state-of-the-art. The results produced by the analytical model are at least as reliable as those obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, even without considering the very challenging contribution of multiple scattering. Special attention has been paid to Compton broadening. Relevant applications of the implementation of the analytical model presented in this paper are the prediction of the limits of detection for particular cases or the determination of the transmission of X-ray polycapillary lenses.

  14. X-Ray Scattering Applications Using Pulsed X-Ray Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, B.C.

    1999-05-23

    Pulsed x-ray sources have been used in transient structural phenomena investigations for over fifty years; however, until the advent of synchrotrons sources and the development of table-top picosecond lasers, general access to ligh temporal resolution x-ray diffraction was relatively limited. Advances in diffraction techniques, sample excitation schemes, and detector systems, in addition to IncEased access to pulsed sources, have ld tO what is now a diverse and growing array of pulsed-source measurement applications. A survey of time-resolved investigations using pulsed x-ray sources is presented and research opportunities using both present and planned pulsed x-ray sources are discussed.

  15. X-ray diagnostic installation for X-ray tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haendle, J.; Sklebitz, H.

    1984-01-01

    An exemplary embodiment includes at least one x-ray tube for the generation of an x-ray beam, a patient support, an image detector, and a control generator-connected with the x-ray tube and the image detector-for the purpose of moving the x-ray beam, and in opposition thereto, the image field of the image detector. There is connected to the control generator a layer height computer which calculates the enlargement from the geometric data for the tomogram. The image detector has a circuit-connected with the layer height computer-for the purpose of fading-in a marking for the dimensions in the layer plane

  16. Progress in compact soft x-ray lasers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    The ultra-high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. A crucial factor in the availability of these devices is their scale and cost. Recent breakthroughs in this field has brought closer the advent of table-top devices, suitable for applications to fields such as x-ray microscopy, chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography. In this article we review recent progress in the development of compact (table-top) soft x-ray lasers

  17. Use of silicon microstrip detectors in medical diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabal Rodriguez, Ana Ester

    2004-11-01

    This work presents the development and characterization of a single photon counting system based on silicon microstrip detectors, used in High Energy Physics experiments, and on low noise multichannel readout electronics. The thesis evaluates the feasibility of dual energy X-ray imaging with silicon microstrip detectors to be applied on medical diagnosis. Dual energy mammographic and angiographic experimental tests have been performed using the developed counting systems proto types, properly phantoms and quasi-monochromatic X ray beams, obtained on a compact dichromatic source based on a conventional X-ray tube and a mosaic crystal. A Monte Carlo simulation of the performance of the experimental setup for dual X-ray imaging has also been carried out using MCNP-4C transport code. We obtained good agreement between MCNP results and the experimental data. (Author)

  18. Comparison of x-ray computed tomography, through-transmission ultrasound, and low-kV x-ray imaging for characterizing green-state ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.A.; Ellingson, W.A.; Vannier, M.W.

    1985-06-01

    Green-state MgAl 2 O 4 compact disk specimens have been studied by x-ray computed tomography (CT), through-transmission pulsed ultrasound, and low-kV x-ray imaging to compare the abilities of these nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to detect flaws and density variations. X-ray computed tomographic images were obtained from a 125-kV (peak) imaging system with a 512 x 512 matrix and a pixel size of 100 μm. A 3- to 10- MHz focused-beam ultrasonic transducer was used, together with special immersion techniques, to obtain topographical maps of acoustic attenuation and phase velocity; a 30 x 30 matrix was used in the ultrasonic scans. A 35-kV x-ray system with high-resolution type RR film was used to obtain conventional radiographs. Large-scale nonuniform density gradients were detected with CT and ultrasonics in supposedly uniform ceramic disks. In addition, inclusions in the green-state samples were detected by all three methods, with each method providing certain advantages. The influence of grain structure and other ceramic powder characteristics will be examined in the future. 5 refs., 9 figs

  19. First results from the high-brightness x-ray spectroscopy beamline at ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, R.C.C.; Ng, W.; Jones, G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.3.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a windowless beamline, covering the 1-6 keV photon-energy range, designed to achieve the goal of high brightness at the sample for use in the X-ray Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy (XAMS) science, surface and interface science, biology and x-ray optical development programs at ALS. X-ray absorption and time of flight photo emission measurements in 2 - 5 keV photon energy in argon along with the flux, resolution, spot size and stability of the beamline will be discussed. Prospects for future XAMS measurements will also be presented.

  20. X-ray emission spectroscopy. X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despujols, J.

    1992-01-01

    Principles of X-ray emission spectrometry are first recalled, then wave-length dispersive and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer are described. They are essentially designed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements (Z>10). Sample preparation, calibration, corrections, interferences, accuracy are reviewed. Examples of use in different industries are given. (71 refs.)

  1. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  2. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation.

  3. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation

  4. Clear as Crystal: The Story of the Braggs--How X-Ray Crystallography Has Contributed to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Robert; Patterson, John

    2014-01-01

    Here is a brief history of the work of two of Australia's most famous scientists, Sir William Bragg and his son Sir Lawrence Bragg. Jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in 1915 for their groundbreaking research into the use of X-rays to study the chemical structure and function of molecules, they have contributed to our heritage and to science at an…

  5. A special ionisation chamber for quality control of diagnostic and mammography X ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.M.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2003-01-01

    A quality control program for X ray equipment used for conventional radiography and mammography requires the constancy check of the beam qualities in terms of the half-value layers. In this work, a special double-faced parallel-plate ionisation chamber was developed with inner electrodes of different materials, in a tandem system. Its application will be in quality control programs of diagnostic and mammography X ray equipment for confirmation of half-value layers previously determined by the conventional method. Moreover, the chamber also may be utilised for measurements of air kerma values (and air kerma rates) in X radiation fields used for conventional radiography and mammography. The chamber was studied in relation to the characteristics of saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effects, leakage current, and short-term stability. The energy dependence in response of each of the two faces of the chamber was determined over the conventional radiography and mammography X ray ranges (unattenuated beams). The different energy responses of the two faces of the chamber allowed the formation of a tandem system useful for the constancy check of beam qualities. (author)

  6. A special ionisation chamber for quality control of diagnostic and mammography X ray equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, A M; Caldas, L V E

    2003-01-01

    A quality control program for X ray equipment used for conventional radiography and mammography requires the constancy check of the beam qualities in terms of the half-value layers. In this work, a special double-faced parallel-plate ionisation chamber was developed with inner electrodes of different materials, in a tandem system. Its application will be in quality control programs of diagnostic and mammography X ray equipment for confirmation of half-value layers previously determined by the conventional method. Moreover, the chamber also may be utilised for measurements of air kerma values (and air kerma rates) in X radiation fields used for conventional radiography and mammography. The chamber was studied in relation to the characteristics of saturation, ion collection efficiency, polarity effects, leakage current, and short-term stability. The energy dependence in response of each of the two faces of the chamber was determined over the conventional radiography and mammography X ray ranges (unattenuated beams). The different energy response of the two faces of the chamber allowed the formation of a tandem system useful for the constancy check of beam qualities.

  7. X-ray detector for a panoramic X-ray unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowell, D; Ensslin, F H

    1976-01-15

    The discovery deals with an X-ray detector suitable for the controlling of panoramic X-ray systems. It consists of a fluorescent image screen and a semiconductor photo cell. The output signal of the detector is proportional to the intensity of the X-radiation and the response time is large enough to follow the change of amplitude of the contours of the modulated X radiation. The detector with band-pass filter regulates, via a control system, the moving rate of the X-ray source and of the film opposite it in dependence of the intensity, so that a uniform exposure is ensured.

  8. X-ray imaging with compound refractive lens and microfocus X-ray tube

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Ladislav; Dudchik, Yury; Jelinek, Vaclav; Sveda, Libor; Marsik, Jiri; Horvath, Martin; Petr, Ondrej

    2008-01-01

    Compound refractive lenses (CRL), consisting of a lot number in-line concave microlenses made of low-Z material were studied. Lenses with focal length 109 mm and 41 mm for 8-keV X-rays, microfocus X-ray tube and X-ray CCD camera were used in experiments. Obtained images show intensity distribution of magnified microfocus X-ray source focal spot. Within the experiments, one lens was also used as an objective lens of the X-ray microscope, where the copper anode X-ray microfocus tube served as a...

  9. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  10. The discovery of X-rays diffraction: From crystals to DNA. A case study to promote understanding of the nature of science and of its interdisciplinary character

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Francesco; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    The advantages of introducing history of science topics into the teaching of science has been advocated by a large number of scholars within the science education community. One of the main reasons given for using history of science in teaching is its power to promote understanding of the nature of science (NOS). In this respect, the historical case of X-rays diffraction, from the discovery of Max von Laue (1912) to the first X-rays diffraction photographs of DNA (1953), is a case in point for showing that a correct experimental strategy and a favourable theoretical context are not enough to make a scientific discovery.

  11. Cylindrical Crystal Imaging Spectrometer (CCIS) for cosmic X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnopper, H. W.; Taylor, P. O.

    1981-01-01

    A "stigmatic" focusing, Bragg crystal spectrometer was developed and used for high spectral resolution X-ray emission line diagnostics on hot laboratory plasmas. The concept be applied at the focal plane of an orbiting X-ray telescope where it offers several advantages over conventional spectrometers, i.e., mechanical simplicity, high resolving power and sensitivity, simultaneous measurement of an extended segment of spectrum, and good imaging properties. The instrument features a simple, unambiguous, non-scanning spectrum readout that is not adversely affected by either spacecraft pointing error or source extent. The performance of the instrument is estimated in the context of the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysical Facility mission.

  12. X-ray image intensifier/television systems for digital skeletal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, J.A.; Hynes, D.M.; Edmonds, E.W.; Porter, A.J.; Toth, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The imaging criteria for skeletal radiography (high resolution and low noise) relevant to the use of x-ray image intensifier/TV digital systems are discussed. It is shown from the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise, and phantom evaluations that conventional x-ray image intensifiers in conjunction with a 1,000-line Plumbicon or Saticon TV camera are in most respects suitable for skeletal radiography. The optimum focal spot size depends on a trade-off with motion blurring through the x-ray exposure time and so is a function of the clinical problem. Since the skeletal system is readily immobilized, a 0.3-mm focal spot size is nearly optimum

  13. Grenz rays. An illustrated guide to the theory and practical application of soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D.; Thomson, J.

    1980-01-01

    The uses of soft x-rays (Grenz rays) as investigative tools in the fields of medical diagnosis, botany, art, entomology and forensic science, are discussed and the practical applications of the techniques illustrated by numerous photographs. (U.K.)

  14. X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography of metalloenzymes at XFELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Junko

    2016-01-01

    The ultra-bright femtosecond X-ray pulses provided by X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFELs) open capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of a wide variety of biological and inorganic systems beyond what is possible at synchrotron sources. Although the structure and chemistry at the catalytic sites have been studied intensively in both biological and inorganic systems, a full understanding of the atomic-scale chemistry requires new approaches beyond the steady state X-ray crystallography and X-ray spectroscopy at cryogenic temperatures. Following the dynamic changes in the geometric and electronic structure at ambient conditions, while overcoming X-ray damage to the redox active catalytic center, is key for deriving reaction mechanisms. Such studies become possible by using the intense and ultra-short femtosecond X-ray pulses from an XFEL, where sample is probed before it is damaged. We have developed methodology for simultaneously collecting crystallography data and X-ray emission spectra, using an energy dispersive spectrometer at ambient conditions. In addition, we have developed a way to collect metal L-edge data of dilute samples using soft X-rays at XFELs. The advantages and challenges of these methods will be described in this review. (author)

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  16. Modern X-ray spectroscopy 3. X-ray fluorescence holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Kouichi

    2008-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) provides three dimensional atomic images around specified elements. The XFH uses atoms as a wave source or monitor of interference field within a crystal sample, and therefore it can record both intensity and phase of scattered X-rays. Its current performance makes it possible to apply to ultra thin film, impurity and quasicrystal. In this article, I show the theory including solutions for twin image problem, advanced measuring system, data processing for reconstruction of the atomic images and for obtaining accurate atomic positions, applications using resonant X-ray scattering and X-ray excited optical luminescence, and an example of XFH result on the local structure around copper in silicon steal. (author)

  17. X-ray holography: X-ray interactions and their effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.A.; Trebes, J.E.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    The authors summarize a theoretical study of the interactions of x-rays with a biological sample during the creation of a hologram. The choice of an optimal wavelength for x-ray holography is discussed, based on a description of scattering by objects within an aqueous environment. The problem of the motion resulting from the absorption of x-rays during a short exposure is described. The possibility of using very short exposures in order to capture the image before motion can compromise the resolution is explored. The impact of these calculation on the question of the feasibility of using an x-ray laser for holography of biological structures is discussed. 12 refs., 2 figs

  18. Development of confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using two X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Ding Xunliang

    2007-01-01

    A new confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument was developed. This instrument has two independent micro X-ray tubes with Mo targets. A full polycapillary X-ray lens was attached to each X-ray tube. Another half polycapillary lens was attached to a silicon drift X-ray detector (SDD). The focal spots of the three lenses were adjusted to a common position. The effects of the excitation of two X-ray beams were investigated. The instrument enabled highly sensitive three-dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis. We confirmed that the X-ray fluorescence intensity from the sample increased by applying the two independent X-ray tubes in confocal configuration. Elemental depth profiling of black wheat was demonstrated with the result that each element in the surface coat of a wheat grain showed unique distribution

  19. Modern X-ray difraction. X-ray diffractometry for material scientists, physicists, and chemicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiess, L.; Schwarzer, R.; Behnken, H.; Teichert, G.

    2005-01-01

    The book yields a comprehensive survey over the applications of X-ray diffraction in fields like material techniques, metallurgy, electrotechniques, machine engineering, as well as micro- and nanotechniques. The necessary fundamental knowledge on X-ray diffraction are mediated foundedly and illustratively. Thereby new techniques and evaluation procedures are presented as well as well known methods. The content: Production and properties of X radiation, diffraction of X radiation, hardware for X-ray diffraction, methods of X-ray diffraction, lattice-constant determination, phase analysis, X-ray profile analysis, crystal structure analysis, X-ray radiographic stress analysis, X-ray radiographic texture analysis, crystal orientation determination, pecularities at thin films, small angle scattering

  20. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Ray Exam: Hip Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  1. Superiority of Low Energy 160 KV X-Rays Compared to High Energy 6 MV X-Rays in Heavy Element Radiosensitization for Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sara N.; Pradhan, Anil K.; Nahar, Sultana N.; Barth, Rolf F.; Yang, Weilian; Nakkula, Robin J.; Palmer, Alycia; Turro, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    High energy X-rays in the MeV range are generally employed in conventional radiation therapy from linear accelerators (LINAC) to ensure sufficient penetration depths. However, lower energy X-rays in the keV range may be more effective when coupled with heavy element (high-Z or HZ) radiosensitizers. Numerical simulations of X-ray energy deposition for tumor phantoms sensitized with HZ radiosensitizers were performed using the Monte Carlo code Geant4. The results showed enhancement in energy deposition to radiosensitized phantoms relative to unsensitized phantoms for low energy X-rays in the keV range. In contrast, minimal enhancement was seen using high energy X-rays in the MeV range. Dose enhancement factors (DEFs) were computed and showed radiosensitization only in the low energy range nitrate, was initially used because it was 7x less toxic that an equivalent amount of carboplatin in vitro studies. This would allow us to separate the radiotoxic and the chemotoxic effects of HZ sensitizers. Results from this study showed a 10-fold dose dependent reduction in surviving fractions (SF) of radiosensitized cells treated with low energy 160 kV X-rays compared to those treated with 6 MV X-rays. This is in agreement with our simulations that show an increase in dose deposition in radiosensitized tumors for low energy X-rays. Due to unforeen in vivo toxicity, however, another in vitro study was performed using the commonly used, Pt-based chemotherapeutic drug carboplatin which confirmed earlier results. This lays the ground work for a planned in vivo study using F98 glioma bearing rats. This study demonstrates that while high energy X-rays are commonly used in cancer radiotherapy, low energy keV X-rays might be much more effective with HZ radiosensitization.

  2. X-ray total reflection mirrors for coherent illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, T; Yabashi, M; Souvorov, A; Yamauchi, K; Yamamura, K; Mimura, H; Saito, A; Mori, Y

    2002-01-01

    X-ray mirrors for coherent illumination demand much higher surface quality than is achievable with the conventional polishing techniques. Plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM) have been applied for x-ray mirror manufacturing. Figure error of a flat silicon single crystal mirrors made with CVM+EEM process was reduced to 2.0 nm peak-to-valley and 0.2 nm RMS. The machining process was also applied to make elliptical mirrors. One-dimensional focusing with a single elliptical mirror showed diffraction-limited properties with the focal width of 200 nm. Two-dimensional focusing with Kirkpatric-Baez configuration gave a focal spot size of 200 nm x 200 nm. (author)

  3. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...... in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all...

  4. Developments in contact X-ray microscopy in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.L.; Flores, N.A.; Pye, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Contact X-ray microscopy (microradiography) is a method of studying the microstructure of biological tissue. These techniques have been used to study the historadiological details of human breast tissue and sections of human ear ossicles. X-ray microscopy can also be used to demonstrate variations in structural densities seen in histological specimens including the detection of microcalcification. A modification of existing apparatus is described which has resulted in improved image-contrast and detail. The ability of X-rays to penetrate relatively thick sections of tissue makes it an ideal method for studying the morphology of biological structures, particularly in calcified tissue. The tissues may be further examined by conventional histology, elemental analysis, etc. The technique has a complementary role to alternative methods of tissue microscopy. (author)

  5. X-ray examination apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2000-01-01

    The invention relates to an X-ray apparatus which includes an adjustable X-ray filter. In order to adjust an intensity profile of the X-ray beam, an X-ray absorbing liquid is transported to filter elements of the X-ray filter. Such transport is susceptible to gravitational forces which lead to an

  6. Basic X-ray scattering for soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    De Jeu, Wim H

    2016-01-01

    X-ray scattering is a well-established technique in materials science. Several excellent textbooks exist in the field, typically written by physicists who use mathematics to make things clear. Often these books do not reach students and scientists in the field of soft matter (polymers, liquid crystals, colloids, and self-assembled organic systems), who usually have a chemical-oriented background with limited mathematics. Moreover, often these people like to know more about x-ray scattering as a technique to be used, but do not necessarily intend to become an expert. This volume is unique in trying to accommodate both points. The aim of the book is to explain basic principles and applications of x-ray scattering in a simple way. The intention is a paperback of limited size that people will like to have on hand rather than on a shelf. Second, it includes a large variety of examples of x-ray scattering of soft matter with, at the end of each chapter, a more elaborate case study. Third, the book contains a separa...

  7. Using x-ray microprobes for environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Z.; Jastrow, J.; Kemner, K. M.; Lai, B.; Lee, H.-R.; Legnini, D. G.; Miller, R. M.; Pratt, S. T.; Rodrigues, W.; Yun, W.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the fate of environmental contaminants is of fundamental importance in the development and evaluation of effective remediation strategies. Among the factors influencing the transport of these contaminants are the chemical speciation of the sample and the chemical and physical attributes of the surrounding medium. Characterization of the spatial distribution and chemical speciation at micron and submicron resolution is essential for studying the microscopic physical, geological, chemical, and biological interfaces that play a crucial role in determining contaminant fate and mobility. Hard X-ray spectroscopy and imaging are powerful techniques for the element-specific investigation of complex environmental samples at the needed micron and submicron resolution. An important advantage of these techniques results from the large penetration depth of hard X-rays in water. This minimizes the requirements for sample preparation and allows the detailed study of hydrated samples. This paper discusses some current problems in environmental science that can be addressed by using synchrotron-based X-ray imaging and spectroscopy. These concepts are illustrated by the results of recent X-ray microscopy studies at the Advanced Photon Source

  8. Development of x-ray laminography under an x-ray microscopic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Masato; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio; Yagi, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    An x-ray laminography system under an x-ray microscopic condition was developed to obtain a three-dimensional structure of laterally-extended planar objects which were difficult to observe by x-ray tomography. An x-ray laminography technique was introduced to an x-ray transmission microscope with zone plate optics. Three prototype sample holders were evaluated for x-ray imaging laminography. Layered copper grid sheets were imaged as a laminated sample. Diatomite powder on a silicon nitride membrane was measured to confirm the applicability of this method to non-planar micro-specimens placed on the membrane. The three-dimensional information of diatom shells on the membrane was obtained at a spatial resolution of sub-micron. Images of biological cells on the membrane were also obtained by using a Zernike phase contrast technique.

  9. Physics Of, and Science With, the X-Ray Free-Electron Laser: 19th Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.

    2003-01-01

    The workshop brought together scientists working on the development of x-ray free-electron lasers, and its applications. X-ray free-electron lasers produce high intensity, subpicosecond long, coherent, X-ray pulses, and will open a new frontier to study the structure of matter at the molecular and atomic levels. Some fields of interest are structural changes in chemical reactions, single biological molecule, warm plasmas, nanosystems. Summary of discussions and conclusions of Group 1: Physics and Technology of the XFEL - The main issues that were discussed by the 50 participants in this group were the photo-injector, the production of ultra-short pulses, the effects of wake-fields induced by the electron bunch, the operation at lower charge and emittance, the possibility of harmonic generation and the diagnostics in the undulator. The following is a short summary of the discussions and their conclusions. Summary of discussions and conclusions of Group 2: Science with the XFEL - About 25 people attended sessions to discuss the possible scientific applications of a x-ray FEL. Because of the recent focus on the first experiments with the proposed Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the discussions were mainly focussed on these proposals. The extension of the characteristics beyond the initial stage and the further developments of the source were also part of the program. Six scientific areas were discussed: Atomic Physics, Warm Dense Matter, Femtosecond Chemistry, Imaging/Holography, Bio-molecular Structures and X-Ray Fluctuations Spectroscopy.

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  11. Microfocussing of synchrotron X-rays using X-ray refractive lens

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray lenses are fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate using deep X-ray lithography beamline of Indus-2. The focussing performance of these lenses is evaluated using Indus-2 and Diamond Light Source Ltd. The process steps for the fabrication of X-ray lenses and microfocussing at 10 keV at moderate and low emittance ...

  12. Watching proteins function with time-resolved x-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šrajer, Vukica; Schmidt, Marius

    2017-09-01

    Macromolecular crystallography was immensely successful in the last two decades. To a large degree this success resulted from use of powerful third generation synchrotron x-ray sources. An expansive database of more than 100 000 protein structures, of which many were determined at resolution better than 2 Å, is available today. With this achievement, the spotlight in structural biology is shifting from determination of static structures to elucidating dynamic aspects of protein function. A powerful tool for addressing these aspects is time-resolved crystallography, where a genuine biological function is triggered in the crystal with a goal of capturing molecules in action and determining protein kinetics and structures of intermediates (Schmidt et al 2005a Methods Mol. Biol. 305 115-54, Schmidt 2008 Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Biology and Medicine (Berlin: Springer) pp 201-41, Neutze and Moffat 2012 Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 22 651-9, Šrajer 2014 The Future of Dynamic Structural Science (Berlin: Springer) pp 237-51). In this approach, short and intense x-ray pulses are used to probe intermediates in real time and at room temperature, in an ongoing reaction that is initiated synchronously and rapidly in the crystal. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography with 100 ps time resolution at synchrotron x-ray sources is in its mature phase today, particularly for studies of reversible, light-initiated reactions. The advent of the new free electron lasers for hard x-rays (XFELs; 5-20 keV), which provide exceptionally intense, femtosecond x-ray pulses, marks a new frontier for time-resolved crystallography. The exploration of ultra-fast events becomes possible in high-resolution structural detail, on sub-picosecond time scales (Tenboer et al 2014 Science 346 1242-6, Barends et al 2015 Science 350 445-50, Pande et al 2016 Science 352 725-9). We review here state-of-the-art time-resolved crystallographic experiments both at synchrotrons and XFELs. We also outline

  13. Current aspects in the development of the quality control in the conventional X-ray diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeva, M.; Velkova, K.

    2004-01-01

    The role of the X-ray diagnostic radiology as one of the main factors forming the general public dose is indisputable. Following the requirement for justification of the application of X-rays for medical purposes, certain criteria for assessment of the parameters of the X-ray diagnostic equipment are formed and maximum permissible values defined. The latter are developed by the international and national radiation protection organizations and introduced both in the international and national legislation. The importance of the quality assurance concept for the radiation protection of the patient and staff in diagnostic radiology turned the quality control into main toll for obtaining high quality images with minimum dose to the patient and staff. X-ray diagnostics is one of the most common methods used in the medical practice. This is the main reason for the increase of the quality control protocols, winch makes their handling difficult. The latest developments in this area bring forward the idea for the development of specialized quality control software, which is capable of: 1) full or semi-automated calculation and assessment of the parameters of the X-ray diagnostic units; 2) tools for data handling and access; 3) tools for data analysis based on predefined procedures

  14. A combined scanning tunnelling microscope and x-ray interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Koenders, Ludger; Weimann, Thomas

    2001-10-01

    A monolithic x-ray interferometer made from silicon and a scanning tunnelling microscope have been combined and used to calibrate grating structures with periodicities of 100 nm or less. The x-ray interferometer is used as a translation stage which moves in discrete steps of 0.192 nm, the lattice spacing of the silicon (220) planes. Hence, movements are traceable to the definition of the metre and the nonlinearity associated with the optical interferometers used to measure displacement in more conventional metrological scanning probe microscopes (MSPMs) removed.

  15. Noise removal for medical X-ray images in wavelet domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ling; Lu, Jianming; Li, Yeqiu; Yahagi, Takashi; Okamoto, Takahide

    2006-01-01

    Many important problems in engineering and science are well-modeled by Poisson noise, the noise of medical X-ray image is Poisson noise. In this paper, we propose a method of noise removal for degraded medical X-ray image using improved preprocessing and improved BayesShrink (IBS) method in wavelet domain. Firstly, we pre-process the medical X-ray image, Secondly, we apply the Daubechies (db) wavelet transform to medical X-ray image to acquire scaling and wavelet coefficients. Thirdly, we apply the proposed IBS method to process wavelet coefficients. Finally, we compute the inverse wavelet transform for the thresholded coefficeints. Experimental results show that the proposed method always outperforms traditional methods. (author)

  16. Assessment of effective radiation dose of an extremity CBCT, MSCT and conventional X ray for knee area using MOSFET dosemeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Juha; Kiljunen, Timo; Wolff, Jan; Kortesniemi, Mika

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the organ and effective doses in the knee area resulting from different commercially available multislice computed tomography devices (MSCT), one cone beam computed tomography device (CBCT) and one conventional X-ray radiography device using MOSFET dosemeters and an anthropomorphic RANDO knee phantom. Measurements of the MSCT devices resulted in effective doses ranging between 27 and 48 µSv. The CBCT measurements resulted in an effective dose of 12.6 µSv. The effective doses attained using the conventional radiography device were 1.8 µSv for lateral and 1.2 µSv for anterior-posterior projections. The effective dose resulting from conventional radiography was considerably lower than those recorded for the CBCT and MSCT devices. The MSCT effective dose results were two to four times higher than those measured on the CBCT device. This study demonstrates that CBCT can be regarded as a potential low-dose 3D imaging technique for knee examinations.

  17. X-ray dosimetry of low energy using ZrO2 in Mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios P, L.L.; Rivera M, T.; Ortiz C, H.; Guzman, G.; Azorin, J.; Garcia H, M.

    2008-01-01

    This work reports the experimental results of the thermoluminescent dosemeters (DTL) of nano particles of zirconium dioxide (ZrO 2 ), prepared by the precipitation for X rays method of low energy that are used in mammography equipment. It is observed that the response of the TL curve for X rays of low energy coincides with the TL curve of ZrO 2 reported for conventional X rays. This curve presents two peaks, at 160 and 270 C respectively, being that of more intensity the second peak. (Author)

  18. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  19. Ultrafast, laser-based, x-ray science: the dawn of atomic-scale cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barty, C.P.J.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification systems are reviewed. Application of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification to the generation of femtosecond, incoherent, 8-keV line radiation is outlined and the use of femtosecond laser-based, x-rays for novel time-resolved diffraction studies of crystalline dynamics with sub-picosecond temporal resolution and sub-picometer spatial resolution is reviewed in detail. Possible extensions of laser-based, x-ray technology and evaluation of alternative x-ray approaches for time-resolved studies of the atomic scale dynamics are given. (author)

  20. Ultrafast, laser-based, x-ray science: the dawn of atomic-scale cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, C.P.J. [University of California, Department of Applied Mechanics and Engineering Science, Urey Hall, Mali Code 0339, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The characteristics of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification systems are reviewed. Application of ultrafast chirped pulse amplification to the generation of femtosecond, incoherent, 8-keV line radiation is outlined and the use of femtosecond laser-based, x-rays for novel time-resolved diffraction studies of crystalline dynamics with sub-picosecond temporal resolution and sub-picometer spatial resolution is reviewed in detail. Possible extensions of laser-based, x-ray technology and evaluation of alternative x-ray approaches for time-resolved studies of the atomic scale dynamics are given. (author)

  1. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, T. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR{sub {mu}}CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR{sub {mu}}CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR{sub {mu}}CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  2. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, T.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR μ CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR μ CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR μ CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR μ CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR μ CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  3. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Miaja-Avila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ∼106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  4. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10 17 W/cm -2 . Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs

  5. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup -2}. Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs.

  6. Advanced X-Ray Telescope Mirrors Provide Sharpest Focus Ever

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Performing beyond expectations, the high- resolution mirrors for NASA's most powerful orbiting X-ray telescope have successfully completed initial testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's X-ray Calibration Facility, Huntsville, AL. "We have the first ground test images ever generated by the telescope's mirror assembly, and they are as good as -- or better than -- expected," said Dr. Martin Weisskopf, Marshall's chief scientist for NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The mirror assembly, four pairs of precisely shaped and aligned cylindrical mirrors, will form the heart of NASA's third great observatory. The X-ray telescope produces an image by directing incoming X-rays to detectors at a focal point some 30 feet beyond the telescope's mirrors. The greater the percentage of X-rays brought to focus and the smaller the size of the focal spot, the sharper the image. Tests show that on orbit, the mirror assembly of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility will be able to focus approximately 70 percent of X-rays from a source to a spot less than one-half arc second in radius. The telescope's resolution is equivalent to being able to read the text of a newspaper from half a mile away. "The telescope's focus is very clear, very sharp," said Weisskopf. "It will be able to show us details of very distant sources that we know are out there, but haven't been able to see clearly." In comparison, previous X-ray telescopes -- Einstein and Rosat -- were only capable of focusing X- rays to five arc seconds. The Advanced X-ray Telescope's resolving power is ten times greater. "Images from the new telescope will allow us to make major advances toward understanding how exploding stars create and disperse many of the elements necessary for new solar systems and for life itself," said Dr. Harvey Tananbaum, director of the Advanced X- ray Astrophysics Facility Science Center at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, in Cambridge, MA -- responsible for the telescope

  7. X-ray instrumentation in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhlane, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference devoted to x-ray instrumentation in astronomy. Special sections are: AXAF X-Ray Optical Systems; Specialized X-Ray Systems; X-Ray Optical Systems I; X-Ray Optical Systems II; Gas Filled X-Ray Detectors II; The NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility; X-Ray and EUV Spectrometers; Microchannel Plates; and Solid State Detectors

  8. The phase problem and perspectives of surface X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajiri, Hiroo; Takahashi, Toshio

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of synchrotron radiation sources has accelerated the application of diffraction techniques to surface sciences. Surface X-ray diffraction has become the state-of-the-art technique for determining ordered structures of atoms on crystal surfaces. We introduce surface X-ray diffraction briefly from the historical point of view and describe the concept that not only determine constellation of surface atoms but also view surface atoms as image. The progress in experimental and theoretical studies of surface X-ray diffraction including crystallographic direct methods is reviewed. (author)

  9. Chandra Studies of Planets and Comets in the X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey; Bhardwaj, A.; Wolk, S. J.; Christian, D. J.; Dennerl, K.; Bodewits, D.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2009-09-01

    The discovery of high energy x-ray emission in 1996 from C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) created a new class of solar system x-ray emitting objects [1]. Subsequent detections of the morphology, spectra, and time dependence of the x-rays from more than 20 comets have shown that the very soft (E Lisse et al., Science 274, 205 (1996)[2] R. Wegmann and K. Dennerl, A&A 430, L33 (2005)[3] D. Bodewits et al., A&A 469, 1183 (2007)[4] A. Bhardwaj et al., PSS 55, 1135 - 1189 (2007)

  10. Fatigue fracture analysis in medium carbon structural steel and austenitic stainless steel by X-ray fractography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.N.; Azmi bin Rahmat

    1994-01-01

    Apart from the reidual stresses present in the bulk material, a growing fatigue crack may develop its own stress field ahead of the crack tip which in turn could influence the crack propagation behaviour. A fracture surface analysis through measurement of the residual stress of a failed component may provide some additional useful information to that obtained through conventional metallurgical and fracture mechanics investigations. This method of fracture surface analysis using x-ray diffraction technique is known as X -ray Fractography . Residual stress (ρ sub γ) and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the x-ray diffraction profile of any reflection are determined at different crack lengths on the fracture surface. These are then corelated to the fracture toughness parameters such as fracture toughness K sub I sub C, the maximum stress intensity factor K sub max and the stress intensity factor range δK. The present investigation aims at detailed x-ray analysis of the fatigue fractured surfaces of the compact tension specimens prepared from ferritic and austenitic stainless steels. The ferritic steel has been subjected to various heat treatments to obtain different microstructures and mechanical properties. The overall observations are analyzed through fatigue (cumulative) damage and material science concepts

  11. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  12. Final Report on Small Particle Speciation for Forensics Analysis by Soft X-ray Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacold, J. I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Altman, A. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Donald, S B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dai, Z. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Davisson, M. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Holliday, K S [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kristo, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Minasian, S. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nelson, A J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tyliszczak, T [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Booth, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuh, D. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Materials of interest for nuclear forensic science are often highly heterogeneous, containing complex mixtures of actinide compounds in a wide variety of matrices. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) is ideally suited to study such materials, as it can be used to chemically image specimens by acquiring X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) data with 25 nm spatial resolution. In particular, STXM in the soft X-ray synchrotron radiation regime (approximately 120 – 2000 eV) can collect spectroscopic information from the actinides and light elements in a single experiment. Thus, STXM combines the chemical sensitivity of X-ray absorption spectroscopy with high spatial resolution in a single non-destructive characterization method. This report describes the application of STXM to a broad range of nuclear materials. Where possible, the spectroscopic images obtained by STXM are compared with information derived from other analytical methods, and used to make inferences about the process history of each material. STXM measurements can yield information including the morphology of a sample, “elemental maps” showing the spatial distribution of major chemical constituents, and XANES spectra from localized regions of a sample, which may show spatial variations in chemical composition.

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I’d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most ... far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  14. Miniature x-ray point source for alignment and calibration of x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Boyle, M.J.; Glaros, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature x-ray point source of high brightness similar to that of Rovinsky, et al. is described. One version of the x-ray source is used to align the x-ray optics on the Argus and Shiva laser systems. A second version is used to determine the spatial and spectral transmission functions of the x-ray optics. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the x-ray emission from the x-ray point source are described. The physical constraints including size, intensity and thermal limitations, and useful lifetime are discussed. The alignment and calibration techniques for various x-ray optics and detector combinations are described

  15. Optical Design for a Survey X-Ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    Optical design trades are underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to define a telescope for an x-ray survey mission. Top-level science objectives of the mission include the study of x-ray transients, surveying and long-term monitoring of compact objects in nearby galaxies, as well as both deep and wide-field x-ray surveys. In this paper we consider Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and modified Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks for the tightly nested survey telescope. Design principles and dominating aberrations of individual telescopes and nested telescopes are discussed and we compare the off-axis optical performance at 1.0 KeV and 4.0 KeV across a 1.0-degree full field-of-view.

  16. Subluminous X-ray binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of the first X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, by Giacconi et al. (1962), marked the birth of X-ray astronomy. Following that discovery, many additional X-ray sources where found with the first generation of X-ray rockets and observatories (e.g., UHURU and Einstein). The short-timescale

  17. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  18. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  19. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  20. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  1. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  2. The relative biological effectiveness of 60Co γ-rays, 55 kVp X-rays, 250 kVp X-rays, and 11 MeV electrons at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadinger, I.; Palcic, B.

    1992-01-01

    The RBE of selected low-LET radiation modalities (55 kVp X- rays, 250 kVp X-rays, 60 Co γ-rays, and 11 MeV electrons) was investigated for survival of two cell lines (V79 and CHO). Detailed measurements were made in the 0 to 3 Gy dose range using an image cytometry device to accurately determine the number of cells assayed at each dose point. Data were also collected in the high dose range (0 to 10 Gy) using conventional counting and plating techniques. RBE values (#+- #1 SE) varied from 1.0±0.07 (V79 cells) and 1.2± 0.05 (CHO cells) at high doses to 1.3±0.07 (V79) and 1.4±0.1 (CHO) at low doses for 55 kVp X-rays, from 1.1±0.05 (V79) and 1.1±0.04 (CHO) at high doses to 1.1±0.06 (V79) and 1.2±0.2 (CHO) at low doses for 250 kVp X-rays, and from 1.1±0.08 (V79) and 1.0±0.04 (CHO) at high doses to 1.0±0.06 (V79) and 0.9±0.1 (CHO) at low doses for 11 MeV electrons. Only the low and high dose RBEs for 55 kVp X-rays relative to 60 Co γ-rays were significantly different. (author)

  3. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  4. Quality control of diagnostic x-ray equipment and film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the section 40 of the Radiation Act (592/92), the licensee is required in Finland to make the arrangements to control the function of the radiation equipment and related facilities used for medical procedures. The guide explains how quality control can be organized for diagnostic x-ray equipment. It also gives recommendations for constancy tests for conventional x-ray radiographic and fluoroscopic equipment and for film processing. The recommendations are based on the publications and statements of the International Committee for Radiation Protection (ICRP) and standardization organizations. The intention is that the operators of x-ray equipment or the maintenance personnel are able to perform the quality control tests presented in the guide

  5. X-ray Topographic Investigations of Domain Structure in Czochralski Grown PrxLa1-xAlO3 Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieteska, K.; Wierzchowski, W.; Malinowska, A.; Turczynski, S.; Pawlak, D.A.; Lukasiewicz, T.; Lefeld-Sosnowska, M.; Graeff, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper X-ray diffraction topographic techniques were applied to a number of samples cut from Czochralski grown Pr x La 1-x AlO 3 crystals with different ratio of praseodymium and lanthanum. Conventional and synchrotron X-ray topographic investigations revealed differently developed domain structures dependent on the composition of mixed praseodymium lanthanum aluminium perovskites. Some large mosaic blocks were observed together with the domains. In the best crystals, X-ray topographs revealed striation fringes and individual dislocations inside large domains. Synchrotron topographs allowed us to indicate that the domains correspond to three different crystallographic planes, and to evaluate the lattice misorientation between domains in the range of 20-50 arc min (authors)

  6. Synchrotron X-ray PIV Technique for Measurement of Blood Flow Velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Guk Bae; Lee, Sang Joon; Je, Jung Ho

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray micro-imaging method has been used to observe internal structures of various organisms, industrial devices, and so on. However, it is not suitable to see internal flows inside a structure because tracers typically employed in conventional optical flow visualization methods cannot be detectable with the X-ray micro-imaging method. On the other hand, a PIV (particle image velocimetry) method which has recently been accepted as a reliable quantitative flow visualization technique can extract lots of flow information by applying digital image processing techniques However, it is not applicable to opaque fluids such as blood. In this study, we combined the PIV method and the synchrotron X-ray micro-imaging technique to compose a new X-ray PIV technique. Using the X-ray PIV technique, we investigated the optical characteristics of blood for a coherent synchrotron X-ray beam and quantitatively visualized real blood flows inside an opaque tube without any contrast media. The velocity field information acquired would be helpful for investigating hemorheologic characteristics of the blood flow

  7. X-ray detector for automatic exposure control using ionization chamber filled with xenon gas

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, A; Yoshida, T

    2003-01-01

    This report refers to our newly developed X-ray detector for reliable automatic X-ray exposure control, which is to be widely used for X-ray diagnoses in various clinical fields. This new detector utilizes an ionization chamber filled with xenon gas, in contrast to conventional X-ray detectors which use ionization chambers filled with air. Use of xenon gas ensures higher sensitivity and thinner design of the detector. The xenon gas is completely sealed in the chamber, so that the influence of the changes in ambient environments is minimized. (author)

  8. Review of soft x-ray lasers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.

    1991-03-01

    The emerging technology of soft x-ray lasers is in a transition phase between the first laboratory demonstrations of gain and the acceptance of soft x-ray lasers as practical tools for novel applications. Current research is focused on several fronts. The operational wavelength range has been extended to the ''water window'', important for applications in the life sciences. Gain has also been generated with substantially simpler technology (such as a 6J laser) and this augurs well for the commercially availability in the near future of soft x-ray lasers for a variety of applications. Advanced soft x-ray laser concepts are being developed from investigations into ultra-high intensity laser/matter interactions. The first paper a brief historical perspective of x-ray microscopy and holography have begun. In this paper a brief historical perspective of x-ray laser development will be followed by a review of recent advances in recombination, collisional and photo-pumped systems and applications. A summary of current gain-length performance achieved in laboratories worldwide is presented. Near term prospects for applications to novel fields are discussed. 81 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  9. Microbeam X-ray analysis in Poland - past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusinski, J

    2010-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the development of electron beam X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) in Poland. Since the introduction by Prof. Bojarski of EMPA over 45 years ago, tremendous advances in methodologies and in instrumentation have been made in order to improve the precision of quantitative compositional analysis, spatial resolution and analytical sensitivity. This was possible due to the activity of Applied Crystallography Committee at the Polish Academy of Sciences, as well as the groups of researches working in the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (Gliwice), the Technical University of Warsaw, the Silesian Technical University (Katowice), the AGH-University of Sciences and Technology (Krakow), and the Institute of Materials Science and Metallurgy Polish Academy of Sciences (Krakow). Based on the research examples realized by these teams, conferences, seminars and congresses organized, as well as books and academic textbooks issued, the evolution of electron beam X-ray microanalysis in Poland is demonstrated.

  10. Frequency filter of seed x-ray by use of x-ray laser medium. Toward the generation of the temporally coherent x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Maki; Sukegawa, Kouta; Tanaka, Momoko; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Nishikino, Masaharu; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kato, Yoshiaki; Renzhong, Tai

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the characteristics of a higher-order harmonics light as a seed X-ray amplified through a laser-produced X-ray amplifier. The narrow spectral bandwidth of the X-ray amplifier works as the frequency filter of the seed X-ray, resulting in that only the temporally coherent X-ray is amplified. Experimental investigation using the 29th-order harmonic light of the Ti:sapphire laser at a wavelength of 26.9 nm together with a neon-like manganese X-ray laser medium shows evident spectral narrowing of the seed X-ray and amplification without serious diffraction effects on the propagation of the amplified X-ray beam. This implies that the present combination is potential to realize temporally coherent X-ray lasers, with an expected duration of approximately 400 fs. (author)

  11. Joint European x-ray monitor (JEM-X): x-ray monitor for ESA's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnopper, H.W.; Budtz-Joergensen, C.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1996-01-01

    JEM-X will extend the energy range of the gamma ray instruments on ESA's INTEGRAL mission (SPI, IBIS) to include the x-ray band. JEM-X will provide images with arcminute angular resolution in the 2 - 60 keV band. The baseline photon detection system consists of two identical, high pressure, imagi...

  12. Wide field x-ray telescopes: Detecting x-ray transients/afterglows related to GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, Rene; Pina, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf; Gorenstein, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The recent discovery of X-ray afterglows of GRBs opens the possibility of analyses of GRBs by their X-ray detections. However, imaging X-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited fields of view. Alternative X-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70's but not constructed and used so far. We review the geometries and basic properties of the wide-field X-ray optical systems based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry and suggest technologies for their development and construction. First results of the development of double replicated X-ray reflecting flats for use in one-dimensional X-ray optics of lobster-eye type are presented and discussed. The optimum strategy for locating GRBs upon their X-ray counterparts is also presented and discussed

  13. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B.; Hilsabeck, T.; Field, J.; Masters, N.; Reed, C.; Pardini, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Alexander, N.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Forsman, A.; Izumi, N.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S.; Patel, P.; Spears, B.; Landen, O. L.

    2016-11-01

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  14. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, B., E-mail: bachmann2@llnl.gov; Field, J.; Masters, N.; Pardini, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Izumi, N.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S.; Patel, P.; Spears, B.; Landen, O. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T.; Reed, C.; Alexander, N.; Forsman, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  15. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B; Hilsabeck, T; Field, J; Masters, N; Reed, C; Pardini, T; Rygg, J R; Alexander, N; Benedetti, L R; Döppner, T; Forsman, A; Izumi, N; LePape, S; Ma, T; MacPhee, A G; Nagel, S; Patel, P; Spears, B; Landen, O L

    2016-11-01

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  16. Resolving hot spot microstructure using x-ray penumbral imaging (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, B.; Field, J.; Masters, N.; Pardini, T.; Rygg, J. R.; Benedetti, L. R.; Döppner, T.; Izumi, N.; LePape, S.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S.; Patel, P.; Spears, B.; Landen, O. L.; Hilsabeck, T.; Reed, C.; Alexander, N.; Forsman, A.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV. Here we give an overview of the experimental design criteria involved and demonstrate the most relevant influences on the reconstruction of x-ray penumbral images, as well as mitigation strategies of image degrading effects like over-exposed pixels, artifacts, and photon limited source emission. We describe experimental results showing the advantages of x-ray penumbral imaging over conventional Fraunhofer and photon limited pinhole imaging and showcase how internal hot spot microstructures can be resolved.

  17. SphinX soft X-ray spectrophotometer: Science objectives, design and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gburek, S.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Kordylewski, Z.; Podgorski, P.; Plocieniak, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S. V.; Pertsov, A. A.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2011-06-01

    The goals and construction details of a new design Polish-led X-ray spectrophotometer are described. The instrument is aimed to observe emission from entire solar corona and is placed as a separate block within the Russian TESIS X- and EUV complex aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON solar orbiting observatory. SphinX uses silicon PIN diode detectors for high time resolution measurements of the solar spectra in the range 0.8-15 keV. Its spectral resolution allows for discerning more than hundred separate energy bands in this range. The instrument dynamic range extends two orders of magnitude below and above these representative for GOES. The relative and absolute accuracy of spectral measurements is expected to be better than few percent, as follows from extensive ground laboratory calibrations.

  18. A preliminary study of synchrotron light sources for x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, C.R.; Bigham, C.B.; Ebrahim, N.A.; Sawicki, J.A.; Taylor, T.

    1989-02-01

    A preliminary study of synchrotron light sources has been made, primarily oriented toward x-ray lithography. X-ray lithography is being pursued vigorously in several countries, with a goal of manufacturing high-density computer chips (0.25 μm feature sizes), and may attain commercial success in the next decade. Many other applications of soft x-rays appear worthy of investigation as well. The study group visited synchrotron radiation facilities and had discussions with members of the synchrotron radiation community, particularly Canadians. It concluded that accelerator technology for a conventional synchrotron light source appropriate for x-ray lithography is well established and is consistent with skills and experience at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. Compact superconducting systems are being developed also. Their technical requirements overlap with capabilities at Chalk River. (32 refs)

  19. The impact of technical conditions of X-ray imaging on reproducibility and precision of digital computer-assisted X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malich, A.; Boettcher, J.; Pfeil, A.; Sauner, D.; Heyne, J.P.; Petrovitch, A.; Hansch, A.; Kaiser, W.A.; Linss, W.

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility of imaging and analysis for bone mineral density (BMD) determination using digital computer-assisted X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR; Pronosco X-posure, version V.2, Sectra Pronosco, Denmark); to verify potential factors that influence BMD extrapolation such as tube voltage, film-focus distance (FFD), film quality and brand (Kodak T-MAT-Plus, Konika SRH, Agfa Scopix), imaging technology (conventional, digital), imaging system (Kodak, Agfa) and exposure level (mAs); and to clarify whether DXR analysis based on printouts of digital images is comparable to analysis of conventional images. The hand of a cadaver was X-rayed using varied parameters: 4-8 mAs, 40-52 kV, 90-130 cm FFD. Radiographs under standardised conditions were performed 10 times using a conventional machine (Philips Super 80 CP) and the printouts of a digital system (Digital Diagnost Philips Optimus) for the analysis of reproducibility. One image was scanned and analysed 10 times additionally for imaging reproducibility. Reliability error of the system for the imaging process using conventional radiographs-rays was 0.49% (standard conditions: 6 mAs, 40 kV, 1 m FFD), using printouts of digital images was 2.89% (4 mAs, 42 kV, 1 m FFD) and regarding the analysis process was 0.22%. BMD calculation is not affected by alterations in FFD (precision error 1.21%), mAs (0.83%) or film quality/brand (0.38%), but differs significantly depending on tube voltage (2.70%). The system was not able to analyse conventional images with tube voltages of 49/52 kV. DXR technology is stable with most of the tested parameters. Normative data should exclusively be used for calculations using similar tube voltage or correction factors. All other parameters had no significant influence on the BMD calculation. Reproducibility is high. For technical reasons it is not recommended to use the printouts of digital images for BMD determination. (orig.)

  20. X-ray coherent scattering tomography of textured material (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Pang, Shuo

    2017-05-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measures the signature of angular-dependent coherently scattered X-rays, which contains richer information in material composition and structure compared to conventional absorption-based computed tomography. SAXS image reconstruction method of a 2 or 3 dimensional object based on computed tomography, termed as coherent scattering computed tomography (CSCT), enables the detection of spatially-resolved, material-specific isotropic scattering signature inside an extended object, and provides improved contrast for medical diagnosis, security screening, and material characterization applications. However, traditional CSCT methods assumes materials are fine powders or amorphous, and possess isotropic scattering profiles, which is not generally true for all materials. Anisotropic scatters cannot be captured using conventional CSCT method and result in reconstruction errors. To obtain correct information from the sample, we designed new imaging strategy which incorporates extra degree of detector motion into X-ray scattering tomography for the detection of anisotropic scattered photons from a series of two-dimensional intensity measurements. Using a table-top, narrow-band X-ray source and a panel detector, we demonstrate the anisotropic scattering profile captured from an extended object and the reconstruction of a three-dimensional object. For materials possessing a well-organized crystalline structure with certain symmetry, the scatter texture is more predictable. We will also discuss the compressive schemes and implementation of data acquisition to improve the collection efficiency and accelerate the imaging process.

  1. X rays and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daillant, J.

    1997-01-01

    After a historical review of the discovery and study of X rays, the various interaction processes between X rays and matter are described: Thomson scattering, Compton scattering, X-photon absorption through photoelectric effect, and magnetic scattering. X ray sources such as the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) are described. The various X-ray applications are presented: imagery such as X tomography, X microscopy, phase contrast; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy; X-ray scattering and diffraction techniques

  2. On the limitations and optimisation of high-resolution 3D medical X-ray imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shuang; Brahme, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Based on a quantitative analysis of both attenuation and refractive properties of X-ray propagation in human body tissues and the introduction of a mathematical model for image quality analysis, some limitations and optimisation of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) medical X-ray imaging techniques are studied. A comparison is made of conventional attenuation-based X-ray imaging methods with the phase-contrast X-ray imaging modalities that have been developed recently. The results indicate that it is theoretically possible through optimal design of the X-ray imaging system to achieve high spatial resolution (<100 μm) in 3D medical X-ray imaging of the human body at a clinically acceptable dose level (<10 mGy) by introducing a phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique.

  3. Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow X-ray microscopy without X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jianwei; Kirz, Janos; Sayre, David; Charalambous, Pambos

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that the soft X-ray diffraction pattern from a micron-size noncrystalline specimen can be recorded and inverted to form a high-resolution image. The phase problem is overcome by oversampling the diffraction pattern. The image is obtained using an iterative algorithm. The technique provides a method for X-ray microscopy requiring no high-resolution X-ray optical elements or detectors. In the present work, a resolution of approximately 60 nm was obtained, but we believe that considerably higher resolution can be achieved

  4. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si0 2 . The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  5. A model of parametric X-ray radiation for application to diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenico, G.; Cardarelli, P.; Gambaccini, M.; Marziani, M.; Taibi, A.; Comandini, A.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric X-ray Radiation (PXR) is well known as an intense, tunable and quasi-monochromatic X-ray source. From the very first work of Ter-Mikaelian, who proposed the interaction phenomenon for Parametric X-rays many theoretical and experimental studies have investigated the characteristics of such a novel X-ray source. Within the framework of classical electrodynamics, we have thoroughly studied the physical implications of electrons moving through a medium at relativistic speed and then developed an analytical model of X-ray diffraction based on the PXR phenomenon. The model has been used to obtain information on the characteristics of PXR diffracted beam in terms of X-ray intensity, energy spectrum and angular distribution. Several crystals have been studied both in Bragg and Laue geometry and their relative yield has been compared. Preliminary results on the diagnostic potential of PXR have shown that, at a distance from the crystal which produces a size of the X-ray field useful for an imaging application, the photon yield of PXR is higher than that produced by a conventional X-ray tube, provided that a similar electron current is available.

  6. X-ray diffraction topography. Stages and tendencies of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'pina, I.L.

    2000-01-01

    The physical foundation of X-ray diffraction topography, its methods, the achievements in image theory, the stages of evolution were described in this review. It was found that modern topography is well along in development associated with the use of third-generation synchrotron radiation and with its adaptation to advance materials and problems of materials science. Some proposals about prospects for X-ray topography progress in the future have been made [ru

  7. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chithra Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  8. X-ray diagnostics for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Bitter, M.

    1982-12-01

    A short description of the x-ray diagnostic preparation for the TFTR tokamak is given. The x-ray equipment consists of the limiter x-ray monitoring system, the soft x-ray pulse-height-analysis-system, the soft x-ray imaging system and the x-ray crystal spectrometer. Particular attention is given to the radiation protection of the x-ray systems from the neutron environment

  9. Development on the muonic X-ray analysis for planetary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional nondestructive element analysis using muons artificially generated by bombarding carbon nuclei with high-energy protons has become realistic. This paper explained the principle of characteristic X-ray element analysis by means of negative muon beams. Next, as the experiments demonstrating the advantages of negative muon characteristic X-rays using the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC MUSE), it explained the following experiments: (1) measurement of the depth profile of negative muon characteristic X-ray intensity of B, C, N, O using four-layer simulated samples, (2) negative muon characteristic X-ray analysis of carbonaceous chondrites meteorite (Murchison and Allende meteorite) samples, and (3) negative muon characteristic X-ray measurement of Murchison meteorite enclosed in a glass tube. It also introduced the negative muon characteristic X-ray analysis of carbonaceous chondrite meteorite sample, Jbilet Winselwan, at MuSIC (Muon Science Innovative muon beam channel) of the Research Center for Nuclear Physics of Osaka University. MuSIC increased the negative muon beam intensity by 50 times and introduced a double strip CdTe detector capable of X-ray imaging, aiming at the practical application of three-dimensional nondestructive element analysis. (A.O.)

  10. Pushing the Boundaries of X-ray Grating Spectroscopy in a Suborbital Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntaffer, Randall L.; DeRoo, Casey; Schultz, Ted; Zhang, William W.; Murray, Neil J.; O'Dell, Stephen; Cash, Webster

    2013-01-01

    Developments in grating spectroscopy are paramount for meeting the soft X-ray science goals of future NASA X-ray Observatories. While developments in the laboratory setting have verified the technical feasibility of using off-plane reflection gratings to reach this goal, flight heritage is a key step in the development process toward large missions. To this end we have developed a design for a suborbital rocket payload employing an Off-Plane X-ray Grating Spectrometer. This spectrometer utilizes slumped glass Wolter-1 optics, an array of gratings, and a CCD camera. We discuss the unique capabilities of this design, the expected performance, the science return, and the perceived impact to future missions.

  11. Replicated x-ray optics for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, René; Pína, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf

    2017-11-01

    We report on the program of design and development of X-ray optics for space applications in the Czech Republic. Having more than 30 years background in X-ray optics development for space applications (for use in astronomical X-ray telescopes onboard spacecrafts, before 1989 mostly for Soviet and East European INTERKOSMOS program), we focus nowadays on novel technologies and approaches, thin shell replicated mirrors, as well as studies of light-weight mirrors based on innovative materials such as ceramics. The collaboration includes teams from the Academy of Sciences, Universities, and industry. We will describe and discuss both the history of the development of Xray optics in the Czech Republic and the developed technologies and approaches (with focus on replication technology) as well as recent activities and developments including our participation on the ESA XEUS mirror technology development based on the Agreement between ESA and Czech Government.

  12. Fabrication of a Polymer Micro Needle Array by Mask-Dragging X-Ray Lithography and Alignment X-Ray Lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yi-Gui; Yang Chun-Sheng; Liu Jing-Quan; Sugiyama Susumu

    2011-01-01

    Polymer materials such as transparent thermoplastic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) have been of great interest in the research and development of integrated circuits and micro-electromechanical systems due to their relatively low cost and easy process. We fabricated PMMA-based polymer hollow microneedle arrays by mask-dragging and aligning x-ray lithography. Techniques for 3D micromachining by direct lithography using x-rays are developed. These techniques are based on using image projection in which the x-ray is used to illuminate an appropriate gold pattern on a polyimide film mask. The mask is imaged onto the PMMA sample. A pattern with an area of up to 100 × 100mm 2 can be fabricated with sub-micron resolution and a highly accurate order of a few microns by using a dragging mask. The fabrication technology has several advantages, such as forming complex 3D micro structures, high throughput and low cost. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. Nanosize Fe x O y @SBA-3: A Comparative Study Between Conventional and Microwave Assisted Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sunita; Badamali, Sushanta K; Sahoo, Sagarika; Behera, Nandakishor; Dapurkar, Sudhir E

    2018-01-01

    The present study is focussed on development of highly dispersed nanosize iron oxide (FexOy) particles within the uniform mesopore channels of SBA-3. Herein we report a comparative study between conventional incipient wetness and microwave assisted synthesis routes adopted to devise nanoparticles. The developed materials are characterised by following X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, proton induced X-ray emission, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Mesoporous siliceous SBA-3 was prepared at room temperature to obtain samples with good crystallinity and ordered pore structure. Pore channels of SBA-3 were used as nanoreactor for developing iron oxide nanoparticles. Iron oxide nanoparticles developed under microwave activation showed uniform distribution within the SBA-3 structure along with retaining the orderness of the pore architecture. On the contrary, iron oxides developed under incipient wetness method followed by conventional heating resulted in agglomeration of nanoparticles along with significant loss in SBA-3 pore structure. Proton induced X-ray emission studies revealed the extremely high purity of the samples and almost thrice higher amount of iron oxide particles are encapsulated within the host by microwave assisted preparation as compared to incipient/conventional heating method.

  14. X-ray beam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, T.J.; Randmer, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A method of minimizing the preferential angular absorption of the divergent beam from an X-ray generator is described. The generator consists of an X-ray shielded housing with an X-ray transmissive window symmetrically placed in radial alignment with a focal spot area on a sloped target surface of an X-ray tube in the housing. The X-ray tube may be of the stationary anode type or of the rotating anode type. (U.K.)

  15. X-rays as a probe of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. X-rays as a probe of the Universe. K. Kasturirangan; ISRO; Presidential address at the Indian Academy of Sciences meeting, Chandigarh, Nov 8 2002. Notes:

  16. Hard X-ray emission spectroscopy with pink beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Rossberg, Andre; Exner, Joerg; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    Valence-band X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) with a ''pink beam'', i.e. a beam with large energy bandwidth produced by a double-multilayer monochromator, is introduced here to overcome the weak count rate of monochromatic beams produced by conventional double-crystal monochromators. Our results demonstrate that - in spite of the large bandwidth in the order of 100 eV - the high spectral resolution of the Johann-type spectrometer is maintained, while the two orders of magnitude higher flux greatly reduces the required counting time. The short working distance Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer and multilayer monochromator is available at ROBL.

  17. Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

    2012-12-01

    This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

  18. X-ray Heating and Electron Temperature of Laboratory Photoionized Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Roberto; Lockard, Tom; Mayes, Daniel C.; Loisel, Guillaume; Bailey, James E.; Rochau, Gregory; Abdallah, J.; Golovkin, I.

    2018-06-01

    In separate experiments performed at the Z facility of Sandia National Laboratories two different samples were employed to produce and characterize photoionized plasmas. One was a gas cell filled with neon, and the other was a thin silicon layer coated with plastic. Both samples were driven by the broadband x-ray flux produced at the collapse of a wire array z-pinch implosion. Transmission spectroscopy of a narrowband portion of the x-ray flux was used to diagnose the charge state distribution, and the electron temperature was extracted from a Li-like ion level population ratio. To interpret the temperature measurement, we performed Boltzmann kinetics and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We found that non-equilibrium atomic physics and the coupling of the radiation flux to the atomic level population kinetics play a critical role in modeling the x-ray heating of photoionized plasmas. In spite of being driven by similar x-ray drives, differences of ionization and charged state distributions in the neon and silicon plasmas are reflected in the plasma heating and observed electron temperatures.This work was sponsored in part by DOE Office of Science Grant DE-SC0014451, and the Z Facility Fundamental Science Program of SNL.

  19. Fabrication of Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeters for X-Ray Focal Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Audley, Heather; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline; Lee, Sang Jun; hide

    2015-01-01

    Requirements for focal planes for x-ray astrophysics vary widely depending on the needs of the science application such as photon count rate, energy band, resolving power, and angular resolution. Transition edge sensor x-ray calorimeters can encounter limitations when optimized for these specific applications. Balancing specifications leads to choices in, for example, pixel size, thermal sinking arrangement, and absorber thickness and material. For the broadest specifications, instruments can benefit from multiple pixel types in the same array or focal plane. Here we describe a variety of focal plane architectures that anticipate science requirements of x-ray instruments for heliophysics and astrophysics. We describe the fabrication procedures that enable each array and explore limitations for the specifications of such arrays, including arrays with multiple pixel types on the same array.

  20. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic x rays for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis; Delis, Harry; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated. (authors)

  1. Unified Theory for Decoding the Signals from X-Ray Florescence and X-Ray Diffraction of Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Frank H

    2017-05-01

    For research and development or for solving technical problems, we often need to know the chemical composition of an unknown mixture, which is coded and stored in the signals of its X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray fluorescence gives chemical elements, whereas XRD gives chemical compounds. The major problem in XRF and XRD analyses is the complex matrix effect. The conventional technique to deal with the matrix effect is to construct empirical calibration lines with standards for each element or compound sought, which is tedious and time-consuming. A unified theory of quantitative XRF analysis is presented here. The idea is to cancel the matrix effect mathematically. It turns out that the decoding equation for quantitative XRF analysis is identical to that for quantitative XRD analysis although the physics of XRD and XRF are fundamentally different. The XRD work has been published and practiced worldwide. The unified theory derives a new intensity-concentration equation of XRF, which is free from the matrix effect and valid for a wide range of concentrations. The linear decoding equation establishes a constant slope for each element sought, hence eliminating the work on calibration lines. The simple linear decoding equation has been verified by 18 experiments.

  2. A novel x-ray circularly polarized ranging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shi-Bin; Xu, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Na; Shen, Yang-He

    2015-05-01

    Range measurement has found multiple applications in deep space missions. With more and further deep space exploration activities happening now and in the future, the requirement for range measurement has risen. In view of the future ranging requirement, a novel x-ray polarized ranging method based on the circular polarization modulation is proposed, termed as x-ray circularly polarized ranging (XCPolR). XCPolR utilizes the circular polarization modulation to process x-ray signals and the ranging information is conveyed by the circular polarization states. As the circular polarization states present good stability in space propagation and x-ray detectors have light weight and low power consumption, XCPolR shows great potential in the long-distance range measurement and provides an option for future deep space ranging. In this paper, we present a detailed illustration of XCPolR. Firstly, the structure of the polarized ranging system is described and the signal models in the ranging process are established mathematically. Then, the main factors that affect the ranging accuracy, including the Doppler effect, the differential demodulation, and the correlation error, are analyzed theoretically. Finally, numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate the performance of XCPolR. Projects supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172138 and 61401340), the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2013JQ8040), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130203120004), the Open Research Fund of the Academy of Satellite Application, China (Grant No. 2014 CXJJ-DH 12), the Xi’an Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant No. CXY1350(4)), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 201413B, 201412B, and JB141303), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Precision Navigation and Timing Technology, National Time Service Center, Chinese

  3. Compact scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Yasuo; Inami, Nobuhito; Ono, Kanta; Suga, Hiroki; Takahashi, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    We report the design and performance of a compact scanning transmission X-ray microscope developed at the Photon Factory. Piezo-driven linear stages are used as coarse stages of the microscope to realize excellent compactness, mobility, and vibrational and thermal stability. An X-ray beam with an intensity of ∼10 7 photons/s was focused to a diameter of ∼40 nm at the sample. At the soft X-ray undulator beamline used with the microscope, a wide range of photon energies (250–1600 eV) is available. The microscope has been used to research energy materials and in environmental sciences

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  5. MapX An In Situ, Full-frame X-Ray Spectroscopic Imager for Planetary Science and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David; Sarrazin, Philippe; Thompson, Kathleen; Bristow, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Microbial life exploits micron-scale disequilibria at boundaries where valence, chemical potential, pH, Eh, etc. vary on a length scale commensurate with the organisms - 10's to 100's of microns. The detection of accumulations of the biogenic elements C,N,O,P,S at appropriate concentrations on or in a mineral/ice substrate would constitute permissive evidence of extant life, but context is also required. Does the putative biosignature exist under habitable conditions? Under what conditions of P, T, and chemical potential was the host mineralogy formed? MapX is an in situ robotic spacecraft instrument that images the biogenic elements C, N, O, P, S, as well as the cations of the rock-forming minerals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe) and important anions such as Cl, Fl. MapX provides element maps with less than or equal to100 microns resolution over a 2.5 cm X 2.5 cm area, as well as quantitative XRF spectra from ground- or instrument-selected Regions of Interest (ROI). XRF spectra are converted to mineralogies using ground- or instrument-based algorithms. Either X-ray tube or radioisotope sources such as 244Cm (Alpha-particle and gamma- ray fluorescence) can be used. Fluoresced sample Xrays are imaged onto an X-ray sensitive CCD through an X-ray MicroPore Optic (MPO). The MapX design as well as baseline performance requirements for a MapX instrument intended for life detection / identification of habitable environments will be presented.

  6. LNLS soft x-ray spectroscopy (SXS) beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolentino, Helio; Rocha, Milton C.; Tamura, Edilson; Cezar, Julio C.; Vicentin, Flavio C.; Giles, Carlos; Compagnon-Cailhol, Valerie; Abbate, Miguel; Cruz, Daniela Z.N.; Mocellin, Alexandra

    1996-01-01

    The Soft X-ray Spectroscopy beamline will be dedicated to the study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of materials by using photoabsorption and photoemission techniques, X-ray dischroism will be used to study magnetism of transition metals and rare earths compounds. This beamline is one of the first seven beamlines which were decided to start operation along with the storage ring. Part of the beamline - mostly importations - has been granted by fundings from the state of Sao Paulo (Fapesp). The electron energy analyser came through EEC from a cooperation with a French group at LURE. All components of the beamline are either constructed or bougth and being mounted at the storage ring. The monochromator has already been commissioned under UHV, attaining the specification of 5x10 -9 Torr. To cover the whole energy range, from 800 eV up to 4000 eV, many crystals have been bought, cut and tested. The mirror has been specified in order to focus the source in both directions. Simulations using the Shadow code (source simulation and ray tracing technique) were performed in order to optimize the performance of the optics. We expert to focus 10 mrad down to a spot of 3.0x1.5 mm 2 . The mirror chamber has already been constructed and commissioned under UHV conditions (pressure -9 Torr). The mechanics (mechanical feedthroughs, stability, etc..) has been tested using an X-ray source and has been approved. The experimental chamber has already been used for photoemission experiments using a conventional AL/Mg X-ray source. Many results have been obtained and two master thesis have been performed using this set-up. (author)

  7. Development of an X-ray detector using photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez G, J.; Azorin V, J. C.; Sosa A, M. A.; Ceron, P.

    2016-10-01

    Currently the radiation detectors for medical applications are very high value in the market and are difficult to access as training material. In the Sciences and Engineering Division of the Guanajuato University (Mexico) investigations are carried out related to ionizing radiations, especially with X-rays. To overcome the lack of materials has had to resort to borrowing equipment from other institutions, so its use and availability are intermittent. For these reasons is proposed to design and implement an X-ray detector for the use of the work group and the University. This work aims to build an X-ray semiconductor detector using inexpensive and affordable materials, is also proposed the use of a photodiode sensor and an Arduino analog-digital card and a LCD display showing the data. (Author)

  8. Some historical glimpses on the discovery of x-rays and radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    In the last decade of the nineteenth century, a cascade of a number of scientific discoveries of great importance took place. The first of these was the discovery of x-rays which marked the beginning of a new era in physics and this was soon followed by the discovery of radioactivity. Both x-rays and radioactivity have wide applications in basic science, technology and medicine. Some glimpses on the historical aspects of the discovery of x-rays and radioactivity are presented. (author). 72 refs., 1 fig

  9. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  10. Effectiveness of X-ray grating interferometry for non-destructive inspection of packaged devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Masato; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi

    2013-10-01

    It is difficult to inspect packaged devices such as IC packages and power modules because the devices contain various components, such as semiconductors, metals, ceramics, and resin. In this paper, we demonstrated the effectiveness of X-ray grating interferometry (XGI) using a laboratory X-ray tube for the industrial inspection of packaged devices. The obtained conventional absorption image showed heavy-elemental components such as metal wires and electrodes, but the image did not reveal the defects in the light-elemental components. On the other hand, the differential phase-contrast image obtained by XGI revealed microvoids and scars in the encapsulant of the samples. The visibility contrast image also obtained by XGI showed some cracks in the ceramic insulator of power module sample. In addition, the image showed the silicon plate surrounded by the encapsulant having the same X-ray absorption coefficient. While these defects and components are invisible in the conventional industrial X-ray imaging, XGI thus has an attractive potential for the industrial inspection of the packaged devices.

  11. Evaluation of radiation protection in conventional x-ray departments in diagnostic radiography (Kartoum City)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhussien, Nuha Yousif Osman

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted in a number of governmental and private hospitals in the city of Khartoum in order to evalute radiation protection in conventional X-ray departments. The number of governmental hospitals was and 4 private 69% and 31&, respectivly, and the number of X-rays rooms that have been evaluted was 19, 15 gvernmental and private by rate of 79% and 21% respectively. And found that many of the hospitals fullfilled the requirements of radiation protection, also we have been observed that all radiology rooms are built well, but their control rooms was mostly not fulfilled the requirements of radiation protection due to either were not build inclimed to reflect the scattered radiation due to either they were not build inclimed to reflect the scattered radiation from the patient or their size was small that not enable workers to exerciese their work safely, as well as some height less than recommended by the competent authorities. Also found that most hospitals have lead aprons axcept three, but some they are old that means do not protect against radiation due they were broke or not put it in the that means do not protect against radiation due they were broke or not put it in the right way. Even the good ares not used by most of the technician and co-patients. All the hoapitals have not the following radiation tools (thyroid collar, lead glasses, lead gloves. TLDs, and gonad shields). The scattered radiation (leakage) was evaluted in the control room, the door of the control room, the dark room, behind chest stand, staff office, and the waiting area. We found that the higher readings in the door of the control rooms (<10 μSv/hr) in the five control rooms from 19, also the readings exceeded the limits in three hospitals in control rooms 13 rooms. And also the readings exceeded the limits in two hospitals in the staff office, and the waiting area. (Author)

  12. Planetary X-ray studies: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Our solar system is a fascinating physics laboratory and X-ray observations are now firmly established as a powerful diagnostic tool of the multiple processes taking place in it. The science that X-rays reveal encompasses solar, space plasma and planetary physics, and the response of bodies in the solar system to the impact of the Sun's activity. This talk will review what we know from past observations and what we expect to learn in the short, medium and long term. Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton have demonstrated that the origin of Jupiter's bright soft X-ray aurorae lies in the Charge eXchange (CX) process, likely to involve the interaction with atmospheric neutrals of local magnetospheric ions, as well as those carried in the solar wind. At higher energies electron bremsstrahlung is thought to be the X-ray emitting mechanism, while the whole planetary disk acts as a mirror for the solar X-ray flux via Thomson and fluorescent scattering. This 'X-ray mirror' phenomenon is all that is observed from Saturn's disk, which otherwise lacks X-ray auroral features. The Earth's X-ray aurora is bright and variable and mostly due to electron bremsstrahlung and line emission from atmospheric species. Un-magnetised planets, Venus and Mars, do not show X-ray aurorae but display the interesting combination of mirroring the solar X-ray flux and producing X-rays by Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) in their exospheres. These processes respond to different solar stimulation (photons and solar wind plasma respectively) hence their relative contributions are seen to vary according to the Sun's output. Present and future of planetary X-ray studies are very bright. We are preparing for the arrival of the Juno mission at Jupiter this summer and for coordinated observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton on the approach and later during Juno's orbital phase. These will allow direct correlation of the local plasma conditions with the X-ray emissions and the establishment of the

  13. Advanced imaging technology using carbon nanotube x ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hae Young; Seol, Seung Kown; Kim, Jaehoon; Yoo, Seung Hoon; Kim, Jong Uk

    2008-01-01

    Recently, X ray imaging technology is a useful and leading medical diagnostic tool for healthcare professionals to diagnose disease in human body. CNTs(i.e. carbon nanotubes)are used in many applications like FED, Micro wave amplifier, X ray source, etc. because of its suitable electrical, chemical and physical properties. Specially, CNTs are well used electron emitters for x ray source. Conventionally, thermionic type of tungsten filament x ray tube is widely employed in the field of bio medical and industrial application fields. However, intrinsic problems such as, poor emission efficiency and low imaging resolution cause the limitation of use of the x ray tube. To fulfill the current market requirement specifically for medical diagnostic field, we have developed rather a portable and compact CNT based x ray source in which high imaging resolution is provided. Electron sources used in X ray tubes should be well focused to the anode target for generation of high quality x ray. In this study, Pierce type x ray generation module was tested based its simulation results using by OPERA 3D code. Pierce type module is composed of cone type electrical lens with its number of them and inner angles of them that shows different results with these parameters. And some preliminary images obtained using the CNT x ray source were obtained. The represented images are the finger bone and teeth in human body. It is clear that the trabeculation shape is observed in finger bone. To obtain the finger bone image, tube currents of 250A at 42kV tube voltage was applied. The human tooth image, however, is somewhat unclear because the supplied voltage to the tube was limited to max. 50kV in the system developed. It should be noted that normally 60∼70kV of tube voltage is supplied in dental imaging. Considering these it should be emphasized that if the tube voltage is over 60kV then clearer image is possible. In this paper, we are discussed comparing between these experiment results and

  14. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray apparatus is described which has a shutter between the X-ray source and the patient. The shutter controls the level of radiation to which the patient is exposed instead of merely discontinuing the electric power supplied to the source. When the shutter is opened a radiation sensor senses the level of X-radiation. When a preset quantity of X-radiation has been measured an exposure control closes the shutter. Instead of using the radiation sensor, the integrated power supplied to the anode of the X-ray source may be measured. (author)

  15. Method for spatially modulating X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2015-03-10

    A method and apparatus are provided for spatially modulating X-rays or X-ray pulses using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based X-ray optics. A torsionally-oscillating MEMS micromirror and a method of leveraging the grazing-angle reflection property are provided to modulate X-ray pulses with a high-degree of controllability.

  16. DETERMINATION OF MINERAL COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL BEVERAGES BY DISPERSIVE ENERGY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. CONSOLI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are natural sources of minerals whose ingestion is recommended in a balanced diet. The increasing consumption of fruit-based beverages demands the development of rapid methods to evaluate their quality parameters. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is an analytical-nuclear technique that is gaining space in the environmental and geological fields, and has been explored modestly in the food field. The main objective of this work was to develop a methodology to determine the mineral content of fruit-based beverages by applying this technique. Beverages manufactured from organic and conventional fruit varieties were evaluated, aiming to compare their nutritional value. The research was divided into three steps: in the first step, a direct measurement of the samples was made, that is, without prior preparation; in the second, standard curves were prepared with the elements of calcium and potassium, based on the category of ‘fine samples’. Lastly, these curves were used to determine concentrations of calcium and potassium in the samples of juices and pulps prepared as ‘fine samples’. The fine sample measurements showed results more exact compared to that obtained from the direct measurements. From the data evaluated, it was not possible to attribute better nutritional quality to either the organic or conventional samples.

  17. Diagnoses accuracy in the detection of abnormalities in the thorax x-ray: Teleradiology vs. conventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moron, Fanny Emilia; Melendez, Patricia; Martinez, Carlos Eli

    1998-01-01

    Background: introduction of teleradiology in Colombia is very recent and its operative characteristics and reliability are unknown. Objective: to evaluate intra and interobserver concordance in the interpretation of digitized chest x-ray films and to compare diagnostic Accuracy of teleradiology and film screen interpretation. Design: cross-sectional study for evaluation or concordance and operative characteristics of a diagnostic test. Patients and methods: convenience sample of 40 chest films. Independent lecture of digitized images for each radiologist to evaluate interobserver concordance: second lecture of digitized images for evaluation of intraobserver concordance. Generation of a gold standard diagnosis with a consensus interpretation of film screens, comparison of operative characteristics of teleradiology and conventional interpretation, using as a reference the gold standard (consensus lectures) and comparison of diagnostic precision using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC curves). Results: agreements and concordance were significant higher than expected in both evaluations (inter and intraobserver). Sensitivity of teleradiology was similar to sensitivity of film screen interpretation and areas under ROC curves were not statistically different. Conclusions: concordance in the interpretation of chest radiological studies are significant in a teleradiology system and diagnostic utility of teleradiology is the same as conventional film screen interpretation. Accuracy and reliability of teleradiology are optimal

  18. Resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy in Dy compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Okada, Kozo; Kotani, Akio.

    1994-01-01

    The excitation spectrum of the L 3 -M 5 X-ray emission of Dy compounds in the pre-edge region of Dy L 3 X-ray absorption near edge structure (L 3 -XANES) is theoretically investigated based upon the coherent second order optical formula with multiplet coupling effects. The spectral broadening of the excitation spectrum is determined by the M 5 core hole lifetime, being free from the L 3 core hole lifetime. The fine pre-edge structure of the L 3 edge due to the 2p→4f quadrupole transition can be seen in the excitation spectrum, while this structure is invisible in the conventional XANES, in agreement with the recent experimental results. We clarify the conditions for the excitation spectrum to be regarded as the absorption spectrum with a smaller width. The resonant X-ray emission spectra for various incident photon energies around the L 3 edge are also calculated. (author)

  19. High resolution x-ray stereomicroscopy: True three-dimensional imaging of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loo, B.W.Jr.; Williams, S.; Meizel, S.; Rothman, S.S.; Univ. of California, Berkeley/San Francisco, CA; Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA

    1993-01-01

    X-ray microscopy has the potential to become a powerful tool for the study of biological samples, allowing the imaging of intact cells and subcellular organelles in an aqueous environment at resolutions previously achievable only by electron microscopy. The ability to examine a relatively thick sample raises the issue of superposition of objects from multiple planes within the sample, making difficult the interpretation of conventional, orthogonally projected images. This paper describes early attempts at developing three-dimensional methods for x-ray microimaging: the first to use x-ray optics, and to the authors' knowledge, the first demonstrating sub-visible resolutions and natural contrast. These studies were performed using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory

  20. Evaluation of odontological X ray and conventional radiology, and mammography installed at Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, during the period of 2005 to 2010; Avaliacao dos equipamentos de raios-X odontologicos e de radiologia convencional e mamografos instalados em Recife no periodo de 2005 a 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asfora, Viviane Khoury; Andrade, Marcos Ely; Barros, Vinicius Saito de; Khoury, Helen J.; Brasileiro, Izabela V. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    This paper studied the performance of 48 X ray equipment of odontological clinics, 22 mammography, 104 conventional X ray equipment. Accuracy tests were performed and the reproducibility of exposure time and the applied voltage to the X ray tube, collimation and alignment of the radiation beam, half-thickness and filtration. The obtained results have shown that for the mammography, only 55% of evaluated equipment attended to all requirements of the Portaria 453 of the Ministry of Health and that 46% of the odontological equipment and 53% of X-ray equipment attended to all the requirements of the document. The items presenting more inadequacy were collimation, beam filtration and time of accuracy of exposure ad voltage

  1. Optical and X-ray studies of Compact X-ray Binaries in NGC 5904

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalotia, Vanshree; Beck-Winchatz, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Due to their high stellar densities, globular cluster systems trigger various dynamical interactions, such as the formation of compact X-ray binaries. Stellar collisional frequencies have been correlated to the number of X-ray sources detected in various clusters and we hope to measure this correlation for NGC 5904. Optical fluxes of sources from archival HST images of NGC 5904 have been measured using a DOLPHOT PSF photometry in the UV, optical and near-infrared. We developed a data analysis pipeline to process the fluxes of tens of thousands of objects using awk, python and DOLPHOT. We plot color magnitude diagrams in different photometric bands in order to identify outliers that could be X-ray binaries, since they do not evolve the same way as singular stars. Aligning previously measured astrometric data for X-ray sources in NGC 5904 from Chandra with archival astrometric data from HST will filter out the outlier objects that are not X-ray producing, and provide a sample of compact binary systems that are responsible for X-ray emission in NGC 5904. Furthermore, previously measured X-ray fluxes of NGC 5904 from Chandra have also been used to measure the X-ray to optical flux ratio and identify the types of compact X-ray binaries responsible for the X-ray emissions in NGC 5904. We gratefully acknowledge the support from the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  2. CCD-based X-ray detectors for X-ray diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Amemiya, Y.

    1999-01-01

    CCD-based X-ray detectors are getting to be used for X-ray diffraction studies especially in the studies where real time (automated) measurements and time-resolved measurements are required. Principles and designs of two typical types of CCD-based detectors are described; one is ths system in which x-ray image intensifiers are coupled to maximize the detective quantum efficiency for time-resolved measurements, and the other is the system in which tapered optical fibers are coupled for the reduction of the image into the CCD, which is optimized for automated measurements for protein crystallography. These CCD-based X-ray detectors have an image distortion and non-uniformity of response to be corrected by software. Correction schemes which we have developed are also described. (author)

  3. Hard X-ray nano-focusing with Montel mirror optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenjun, E-mail: wjliu@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ice, Gene E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu Chian; Shi Bing; Zschack, Paul [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tischler, Jon [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Qian Jun; Khachartryan, Ruben; Shu Deming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors in the Montel (or nested) configuration were tested for hard X-ray nanoscale focusing at a third generation synchrotron beamline. In this scheme, two mirrors, mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, provide for a more compact focusing system and a much higher demagnification and flux than the traditional sequential K-B mirror arrangement. They can accept up to a 120 {mu}mx120 {mu}m incident X-ray beam with a long working distance of 40 mm and broad-bandpass of energies up to {approx}30 keV. Initial test demonstrated a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. Montel mirror optics is important and very appealing for achromatic X-ray nanoscale focusing in conventional non-extra-long synchrotron beamlines.

  4. High resolution hard x-ray microscope on a second generation synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yangchao; Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Liu Longhua; Liu Gang; Tian Jinping; Xiong Ying; Tkachuk, Andrei; Gelb, Jeff; Hsu, George; Yun Wenbing

    2008-01-01

    A full-field, transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) operating in the energy range of 7-11 keV has been installed at the U7A beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, a second generation synchrotron source operating at 0.8 GeV. Although the photon flux at sample position in the operating energy range is significantly low due to its relatively large emittance, the TXM can get high quality x-ray images with a spatial resolution down to 50 nm with acceptable exposure time. This TXM operates in either absorption or Zernike phase contrast mode with similar resolution. This TXM is a powerful analytical tool for a wide range of scientific areas, especially studies on nanoscale phenomena and structural imaging in biology, materials science, and environmental science. We present here the property of the x-ray source, beamline design, and the operation and key optical components of the x-ray TXM. Plans to improve the throughput of the TXM will be discussed.

  5. X-ray scattering signatures of β-thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desouky, Omar S.; Elshemey, Wael M.; Selim, Nabila S.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm -1 , respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; β-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of β-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm -1 , in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  6. X-ray scattering signatures of β-thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Omar S.; Elshemey, Wael M.; Selim, Nabila S.

    2009-08-01

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm -1, respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; β-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of β-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm -1, in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  7. X-ray scattering signatures of {beta}-thalassemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desouky, Omar S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt); Elshemey, Wael M. [Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University (Egypt)], E-mail: waelelshemey@yahoo.com; Selim, Nabila S. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) (Egypt)

    2009-08-11

    X-ray scattering from lyophilized proteins or protein-rich samples is characterized by the presence of two characteristic broad peaks at scattering angles equivalent to momentum transfer values of 0.27 and 0.6 nm{sup -1}, respectively. These peaks arise from the interference of coherently scattered photons. Once the conformation of a protein is changed, these two peaks reflect such change with considerable sensitivity. The present work examines the possibility of characterizing the most common cause of hemolytic anaemia in Egypt and many Mediterranean countries; {beta}-thalassemia, from its X-ray scattering profile. This disease emerges from a genetic defect causing reduced rate in the synthesis of one of the globin chains that make up hemoglobin. As a result, structurally abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed. In order to detect such molecular disorder, hemoglobin samples of {beta}-thalassemia patients are collected, lyophilized and measured using a conventional X-ray diffractometer. Results show significant differences in the X-ray scattering profiles of most of the diseased samples compared to control. The shape of the first scattering peak at 0.27 nm{sup -1}, in addition to the relative intensity of the first to the second scattering peaks, provides the most reliable signs of abnormality in diseased samples. The results are interpreted and confirmed with the aid of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of normal and thalassemia samples.

  8. Simulation of transmitted X-rays in a polycapillary X-ray lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shiqi [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Liu, Zhiguo, E-mail: liuzhiguo512@126.com [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi; Wang, Kai; Yi, Longtao; Yang, Kui; Chen, Man; Wang, Jinbang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-09-21

    The geometrical description of capillary systems adjusted for the controlled guiding of X-rays and the basic theory of the transmission of X-rays are presented. A method of numerical calculation, based on Ray-Tracing theory, is developed to simulate the transmission efficiency of an X-ray parallel lens and the shape and size of the light spot gain from it. The simulation results for two half-lenses are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Microfocussing of synchrotron X-rays using X-ray refractive lens developed at Indus-2 deep X-ray lithography beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamgaye, V.P.; Tiwari, M.K.; Lodha, G.S.; Sawhney, K.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray lenses are fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate using deep X-ray lithography beamline of Indus-2. The focussing performance of these lenses is evaluated using Indus-2 and Diamond Light Source Ltd. The process steps for the fabrication of X-ray lenses and microfocussing at 10 keV at moderate and low emittance sources are compared. (author)

  10. Watching proteins function with time-resolved x-ray crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Šrajer, Vukica; Schmidt, Marius

    2017-08-22

    Macromolecular crystallography was immensely successful in the last two decades. To a large degree this success resulted from use of powerful third generation synchrotron x-ray sources. An expansive database of more than 100 000 protein structures, of which many were determined at resolution better than 2 Å, is available today. With this achievement, the spotlight in structural biology is shifting from determination of static structures to elucidating dynamic aspects of protein function. A powerful tool for addressing these aspects is time-resolved crystallography, where a genuine biological function is triggered in the crystal with a goal of capturing molecules in action and determining protein kinetics and structures of intermediates (Schmidt et al 2005a Methods Mol. Biol. 305 115–54, Schmidt 2008 Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Biology and Medicine (Berlin: Springer) pp 201–41, Neutze and Moffat 2012 Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 22 651–9, Šrajer 2014 The Future of Dynamic Structural Science (Berlin: Springer) pp 237–51). In this approach, short and intense x-ray pulses are used to probe intermediates in real time and at room temperature, in an ongoing reaction that is initiated synchronously and rapidly in the crystal. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography with 100 ps time resolution at synchrotron x-ray sources is in its mature phase today, particularly for studies of reversible, light-initiated reactions. The advent of the new free electron lasers for hard x-rays (XFELs; 5–20 keV), which provide exceptionally intense, femtosecond x-ray pulses, marks a new frontier for time-resolved crystallography. The exploration of ultra-fast events becomes possible in high-resolution structural detail, on sub-picosecond time scales (Tenboer et al 2014 Science 346 1242–6, Barends et al 2015 Science 350 445–50, Pande et al 2016 Science 352 725–9). We review here state-of-the-art time-resolved crystallographic experiments both at synchrotrons and XFELs. We

  11. Watching proteins function with time-resolved x-ray crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šrajer, Vukica; Schmidt, Marius

    2017-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallography was immensely successful in the last two decades. To a large degree this success resulted from use of powerful third generation synchrotron x-ray sources. An expansive database of more than 100 000 protein structures, of which many were determined at resolution better than 2 Å, is available today. With this achievement, the spotlight in structural biology is shifting from determination of static structures to elucidating dynamic aspects of protein function. A powerful tool for addressing these aspects is time-resolved crystallography, where a genuine biological function is triggered in the crystal with a goal of capturing molecules in action and determining protein kinetics and structures of intermediates (Schmidt et al 2005a Methods Mol. Biol . 305 115–54, Schmidt 2008 Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Biology and Medicine (Berlin: Springer) pp 201–41, Neutze and Moffat 2012 Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol . 22 651–9, Šrajer 2014 The Future of Dynamic Structural Science (Berlin: Springer) pp 237–51). In this approach, short and intense x-ray pulses are used to probe intermediates in real time and at room temperature, in an ongoing reaction that is initiated synchronously and rapidly in the crystal. Time-resolved macromolecular crystallography with 100 ps time resolution at synchrotron x-ray sources is in its mature phase today, particularly for studies of reversible, light-initiated reactions. The advent of the new free electron lasers for hard x-rays (XFELs; 5–20 keV), which provide exceptionally intense, femtosecond x-ray pulses, marks a new frontier for time-resolved crystallography. The exploration of ultra-fast events becomes possible in high-resolution structural detail, on sub-picosecond time scales (Tenboer et al 2014 Science 346 1242–6, Barends et al 2015 Science 350 445–50, Pande et al 2016 Science 352 725–9). We review here state-of-the-art time-resolved crystallographic experiments both at synchrotrons and XFELs

  12. X pinch a point x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.B.; Rout, R.K.; Shyam, A.; Srinivasan, M.

    1993-01-01

    X ray emission from an X pinch, a point x-ray source has been studied using a pin-hole camera by a 30 kV, 7.2 μ F capacitor bank. The wires of different material like W, Mo, Cu, S.S.(stainless steel) and Ti were used. Molybdenum pinch gives the most intense x-rays and stainless steel gives the minimum intensity x-rays for same bank energy (∼ 3.2 kJ). Point x-ray source of size (≤ 0.5 mm) was observed using pin hole camera. The size of the source is limited by the size of the pin hole camera. The peak current in the load is approximately 150 kA. The point x-ray source could be useful in many fields like micro lithography, medicine and to study the basic physics of high Z plasmas. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  13. Large area, low capacitance Si(Li) detectors for high rate x-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossington, C.S.; Fine, P.M.; Madden, N.W.

    1992-10-01

    Large area, single-element Si(Li) detectors have been fabricated using a novel geometry which yields detectors with reduced capacitance and hence reduced noise at short amplifier pulse-processing times. A typical device employing the new geometry with a thickness of 6 mm and an active area of 175 mm 2 has a capacitance of only 0.5 pf, compared to 2.9 pf for a conventional planar device with equivalent dimensions. These new low capacitance detectors, used in conjunction with low capacitance field effect transistors, will result in x-ray spectrometers capable of operating at very high count rates while still maintaining excellent energy resolution. The spectral response of the low capacitance detectors to a wide range of x-ray energies at 80 K is comparable to typical state-of-the-art conventional Si(Li) devices. In addition to their low capacitance, the new devices offer other advantages over conventional detectors. Detector fabrication procedures, I-V and C-V characteristics, noise performance, and spectral response to 2-60 keV x-rays are described

  14. Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R.; Lin, Yong; Wilder, Julie; Hutt, Julie A.; Padilla, Mabel T.; Gott, Katherine M.

    2013-02-01

    There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

  15. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Chest X-ray Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... d like to talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x- ...

  16. Management of radiodiagnostic equipment: Implementation of self-maintenance project of the conventional x-ray equipment of Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho - HUCFF-UFRJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto, N.F. do; Azevedo, A.C.P.; Koch, H.A.

    2001-01-01

    The project aims the implantation of a management program, for the maintenance of the conventional X-ray equipment at HUCFF. It has been implemented through the training of the electronic technicians who work at the Hospital. Essential courses were organized such as: Basics of Radioprotection, Radiographs Techniques, and Maintenance of equipment of X-Rays. Equipment: a library with the schemes of the equipment is being assembled in collaboration with UNICAMP. In order to manage the process, a software was created using the tools of the total quality for control of the maintenance. Preliminary tests: the equipment and their working conditions were evaluated, as well as the level of the employees' satisfaction with their use. The creation of a new routine for maintenance seeks to assist the demands of the new legislation in Brazil 5, and also reduce the costs to improve the quality of the images in the Radiodiagnostic Service. (author)

  17. Accelerator X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talman, R.

    2006-01-01

    This is the first monograph to cover in-depth the production of brilliant x-ray beams in accelerators, with emphasis on fourth generation designs, such as energy recovery linacs (ERL), fast cycling storage rings, and free electron lasers (FEL). Going beyond existing treatments of the influence of synchroton radiation on accelerator operation, special emphasis is placed on the design of undulator-based beam lines, and the physics of undulator radiation. Starting from the unified treatment of electron and photon beams both as bunches of particles and as waves, the author proceeds to analyse the main components, from electron gun, through linac and arc lattice, to the x-ray beam line. Designs are given for both an ERL and a more conventional storage ring complex, and their anticipated properties are compared in detail. Space charge effects are analysed with emphasis on coherent synchrotron radiation and emittance dilution. Beam diagnostics using synchrotron radiation or laser wire (Compton scattering) are also analysed in detail. Written primarily for general, particle, and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers. (orig.)

  18. Characterization of a novel x-ray source: The MIRRORCLE-6X system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambaccini, M.; Marziani, M.; Taibi, A.; Cardarelli, P.; Di Domenico, G.; Mastella, E.

    2012-01-01

    MIRRORCLE is a tabletop synchrotron light source being investigated within an EC funded project named LABSYNC. To evaluate the potential of this novel x-ray source for medical imaging applications, a set of measurements was performed at the MIRRORCLE factory in Japan. In particular, the aim of this work was to characterize the proposed compact x-ray source by determining different parameters, such as the intensity of the broad spectra produced with thin wire targets, the size of the focal spot and its distribution. The average electron-beam impact current on wire targets was calculated by several methods and it was demonstrated to be in the range 0.5-1.0μA. By comparing these values with data available for conventional x-ray tubes, the current needed to achieve the same fluence as in a standard diagnostic examination was estimated to be about 0.1-0.5 mA. Finally, results from the measurements of the electron-beam impact cross-section on the target suggested that the diameter of the electron beam circulating in the storage ring is about 6 mm.

  19. Laser-produced X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, L.T.; Seely, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    A formidable array of advanced laser systems are emerging that produce extreme states of light and matter. By irradiating solid and gaseous targets with lasers of increasing energy densities, new physical regimes of radiation effects are being explored for the first time in controlled laboratory settings. One result that is being accomplished or pursued using a variety of techniques, is the realization of novel sources of X-rays with unprecedented characteristics and light-matter interactions, the mechanisms of which are in many cases still being elucidated. Examples include the megajoule class of laser-produced plasmas designed in pursuit of alternative-energy and security applications and the petawatt class of lasers used for fast ignition and X-ray radiographic applications such as medical imaging and real-time imaging of plasma hydrodynamics. As these technologies mature, increased emphasis will need to be placed on advanced instrumentation and diagnostic metrology to characterize the spectra, time structure, and absolute brightness of X-rays emitted by these unconventional sources. Such customized and absolutely calibrated measurement tools will serve as an enabling technology that can help in assessing the overall system performance and progress, as well as identification of the underlying interaction mechanisms of interest to basic and applied strong-field and high-energy-density science.

  20. Compact X-ray sources: X-rays from self-reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangles, Stuart P. D.

    2012-05-01

    Laser-based particle acceleration offers a way to reduce the size of hard-X-ray sources. Scientists have now developed a simple scheme that produces a bright flash of hard X-rays by using a single laser pulse both to generate and to scatter an electron beam.

  1. Phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer for biological imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Atsushi; Koyama, Ichiro [Tokyo Univ., Dept. of Applied Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yoneyama, Akio [Hitachi Ltd., Advanced Research Laboratory, Saitama (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The potential of phase-contrast X-ray imaging using an X-ray interferometer is discussed comparing with other phase-contrast X-ray imaging methods, and its principle of contrast generation is presented including the case of phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography. The status of current instrumentation is described and perspectives for practical applications are discussed. (author)

  2. Time-resolved X-ray studies using third generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1991-10-01

    The third generation, high-brilliance, hard x-ray, synchrotron radiation (SR) sources currently under construction (ESRF at Grenoble, France; APS at Argonne, Illinois; and SPring-8 at Harima, Japan) will usher in a new era of x-ray experimentation for both physical and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high brilliance, and variable spectral bandwidth of these sources make them ideal for x-ray time-resolved studies. The temporal properties (bunch length, interpulse period, etc.) of these new sources will be summarized. Finally, the scientific potential and the technological challenges of time-resolved x-ray scattering from these new sources will be described. 13 refs., 4 figs

  3. Attosecond time-energy structure of X-ray free-electron laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, N.; Hartmann, G.; Heider, R.; Wagner, M. S.; Ilchen, M.; Buck, J.; Lindahl, A. O.; Benko, C.; Grünert, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Liu, J.; Lutman, A. A.; Marinelli, A.; Maxwell, T.; Miahnahri, A. A.; Moeller, S. P.; Planas, M.; Robinson, J.; Kazansky, A. K.; Kabachnik, N. M.; Viefhaus, J.; Feurer, T.; Kienberger, R.; Coffee, R. N.; Helml, W.

    2018-04-01

    The time-energy information of ultrashort X-ray free-electron laser pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source is measured with attosecond resolution via angular streaking of neon 1s photoelectrons. The X-ray pulses promote electrons from the neon core level into an ionization continuum, where they are dressed with the electric field of a circularly polarized infrared laser. This induces characteristic modulations of the resulting photoelectron energy and angular distribution. From these modulations we recover the single-shot attosecond intensity structure and chirp of arbitrary X-ray pulses based on self-amplified spontaneous emission, which have eluded direct measurement so far. We characterize individual attosecond pulses, including their instantaneous frequency, and identify double pulses with well-defined delays and spectral properties, thus paving the way for X-ray pump/X-ray probe attosecond free-electron laser science.

  4. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda; Harper David A.T.

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrot...

  5. Realization of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at conventional X-ray tubes and unconventional radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyreuther, Elke

    2010-01-01

    More than hundred years after the discovery of X-rays different kinds of ionizing radiation are ubiquitous in medicine, applied to clinical diagnostics and cancer treatment as well. Irrespective of their nature, the widespread application of radiation implies its precise dosimetric characterization and detailed knowledge of the radiobiological effects induced in cancerous and normal tissue. Starting with in vitro cell irradiation experiments, which define basic parameters for the subsequent tissue and animal studies, the whole multi-stage process is completed by clinical trials that translate the results of fundamental research into clinical application. In this context, the present dissertation focuses on the establishment of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at unconventional, but clinical relevant radiation qualities. In the first part of the present work the energy dependent biological effectiveness of photons was studied examining low-energy X-rays (≤ 50 keV), as used for mammography, and high-energy photons (≥ 20 MeV) as proposed for future radiotherapy. Cell irradiation experiments have been performed at conventional X-ray tubes providing low-energy photons and 200 kV reference radiation as well. In parallel, unconventional quasi-monochromatic channeling X-rays and high-energy bremsstrahlung available at the radiation source ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf were considered for radiobiological experimentation. For their precise dosimetric characterization dosimeters based on the thermally stimulated emission of exoelectrons and on radiochromic films were evaluated, whereas just the latter was found to be suitable for the determination of absolute doses and spatial dose distributions at cell position. Standard ionization chambers were deployed for the online control of cell irradiation experiments. Radiobiological effects were analyzed in human mammary epithelial cells on different subcellular levels revealing an increasing amount

  6. Realization of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at conventional X-ray tubes and unconventional radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyreuther, Elke

    2010-09-10

    More than hundred years after the discovery of X-rays different kinds of ionizing radiation are ubiquitous in medicine, applied to clinical diagnostics and cancer treatment as well. Irrespective of their nature, the widespread application of radiation implies its precise dosimetric characterization and detailed knowledge of the radiobiological effects induced in cancerous and normal tissue. Starting with in vitro cell irradiation experiments, which define basic parameters for the subsequent tissue and animal studies, the whole multi-stage process is completed by clinical trials that translate the results of fundamental research into clinical application. In this context, the present dissertation focuses on the establishment of radiobiological in vitro cell experiments at unconventional, but clinical relevant radiation qualities. In the first part of the present work the energy dependent biological effectiveness of photons was studied examining low-energy X-rays (≤ 50 keV), as used for mammography, and high-energy photons (≥ 20 MeV) as proposed for future radiotherapy. Cell irradiation experiments have been performed at conventional X-ray tubes providing low-energy photons and 200 kV reference radiation as well. In parallel, unconventional quasi-monochromatic channeling X-rays and high-energy bremsstrahlung available at the radiation source ELBE of the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf were considered for radiobiological experimentation. For their precise dosimetric characterization dosimeters based on the thermally stimulated emission of exoelectrons and on radiochromic films were evaluated, whereas just the latter was found to be suitable for the determination of absolute doses and spatial dose distributions at cell position. Standard ionization chambers were deployed for the online control of cell irradiation experiments. Radiobiological effects were analyzed in human mammary epithelial cells on different subcellular levels revealing an increasing amount

  7. X-ray crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  8. Modern Developments in X-Ray and Neutron Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Erko, Alexei; Krist, Thomas; Michette, Alan G

    2008-01-01

    This volume describes modern developments in reflective, refractive and diffractive optics for short wavelength radiation as well as recent theoretical approaches to modelling and ray-tracing the X-ray and neutron optical systems. It is based on the joint research activities of specialists in X-ray and neutron optics from 11 countries, working together under the framework of the European Programme for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST, Action P7) in the period 2002--2006. The chapters are written by leading specialists from European laboratories, universities and large facilities. In addition to new ideas and concepts, the contents provide a large amount of practical information about recently implemented devices and methods.

  9. Dosimetric comparison between CT and X-ray simulation of radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kali Ayguli, Zhang Jinrong; Wang Juwu; Ge Feng; Wang Haifeng; Xu Suling

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare radiotherapy plan of conventional X-ray simulation with CT simulation by 3D-TPS for lung cancer. Methods: Thirty-three patients were allotted to receive both conventional X-ray simulation and CT simulation in the same treatment position. 3D-TPS was used to design 4-field conventional plan of X-ray simulation (RT), 4-field two dimensional plan(2D)and three dimensional conformal radiation plan(3DCRT) of CT simulation for all patients. The total dose was 50 Gy. Dose volume histogram(DVH) was applied to evaluate the difference of target coverage, dose distribution and normal tissue protection among the three plans. Results: 3DCRT and 2D based on CT simulation were superior to RT in the target coverage, target conformity index (TCI) and target homogeneity (TH) (P 20 , V 30 and mean lung dose were similar among 3DCRT, 2D and RT plans. Moreover, the maximum doses of spinal cord were significantly different among the three plans. No statistical differences of doses to 30% of the heart and esophagus volume among the three plans were observed. Conclusions: There is significantly better tumour volume coverage in CT simulation when compared with X-ray conventional simulation. Target volume delineation by CT simulation is improved significantly. The dose distribution is improved by using three dimensional treatment planning system. 3DCRT plan is superior to 2D plans in target conformity index and target homogeneity. Doses delivered to organs surrounding the target such as lung and heart were reduced significantly in 3DCRT. (authors)

  10. NASA Names Premier X-Ray Observatory and Schedules Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility has been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel laureate, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The telescope is scheduled to be launched no earlier than April 8, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia mission STS-93, commanded by astronaut Eileen Collins. Chandrasekhar, known to the world as Chandra, which means "moon" or "luminous" in Sanskrit, was a popular entry in a recent NASA contest to name the spacecraft. The contest drew more than six thousand entries from fifty states and sixty-one countries. The co-winners were a tenth grade student in Laclede, Idaho, and a high school teacher in Camarillo, CA. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (CXC), operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, will control science and flight operations of the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA from Cambridge, Mass. "Chandra is a highly appropriate name," said Harvey Tananbaum, Director of the CXC. "Throughout his life Chandra worked tirelessly and with great precision to further our understanding of the universe. These same qualities characterize the many individuals who have devoted much of their careers to building this premier X-ray observatory." "Chandra probably thought longer and deeper about our universe than anyone since Einstein," said Martin Rees, Great Britain's Astronomer Royal. "Chandrasekhar made fundamental contributions to the theory of black holes and other phenomena that the Chandra X-ray Observatory will study. His life and work exemplify the excellence that we can hope to achieve with this great observatory," said NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Widely regarded as one of the foremost astrophysicists of the 20th century, Chandrasekhar won the Nobel Prize in 1983 for his theoretical studies of physical processes important to the structure and evolution of stars. He and his wife immigrated from India to the U.S. in 1935. Chandrasekhar served on the faculty of the University of

  11. Projection-type X-ray microscope based on a spherical compound refractive X-ray lens

    OpenAIRE

    Dudchik, Yu. I.; Gary, C. K.; Park, H.; Pantell, R. H.; Piestrup, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    New projection- type X-ray microscope with a compound refractive lens as the optical element is presented. The microscope consists of an X-ray source that is 1-2 mm in diameter, compound X-ray lens and X-ray camera that are placed in-line to satisfy the lens formula. The lens forms an image of the X-ray source at camera sensitive plate. An object is placed between the X-ray source and the lens as close as possible to the source, and the camera shows a shadow image of the object. Spatial resol...

  12. X-ray lithography for micro- and nano-fabrication at ELETTRA for interdisciplinary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Fabrizio, E; Fillipo, R; Cabrini, S

    2004-01-01

    ELETTRA (http://www.elettra.trieste.it/index.html) is a third generation synchrotron radiation source facility operating at Trieste, Italy, and hosts a wide range of research activities in advanced materials analysis and processing, biology and nano-science at several various beam lines. The energy spectrum of ELETTRA allows x-ray nano-lithography using soft (1.5 keV) and hard x-ray (10 keV) wavelengths. The Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Lithography (LIILIT) was established in 1998 as part of an Italian national initiative on micro- and nano-technology project of INFM and is funded and supported by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), INFM and ELETTRA. LILIT had developed two dedicated lithographic beam lines for soft (1.5 keV) and hard x-ray (10 keV) for micro- and nano-fabrication activities for their applications in engineering, science and bio-medical applications. In this paper, we present a summary of our research activities in micro- and nano-fabrication involving x-ray nanolithography at LILIT's soft and hard x-ray beam lines

  13. Prototyping iridium coated mirrors for x-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhring, Thorsten; Probst, Anne-Catherine; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Emmerich, Florian; Stehlíková, Veronika; Inneman, Adolf

    2017-05-01

    X-ray astronomy uses space-based telescopes to overcome the disturbing absorption of the Earth's atmosphere. The telescope mirrors are operating at grazing incidence angles and are coated with thin metal films of high-Z materials to get sufficient reflectivity for the high-energy radiation to be observed. In addition the optical payload needs to be light-weighted for launcher mass constrains. Within the project JEUMICO, an acronym for "Joint European Mirror Competence", the Aschaffenburg University of Applied Sciences and the Czech Technical University in Prague started a collaboration to develop mirrors for X-ray telescopes. The X-ray telescopes currently developed within this Bavarian- Czech project are of Lobster eye type optical design. Corresponding mirror segments use substrates of flat silicon wafers which are coated with thin iridium films, as this material is promising high reflectivity in the X-ray range of interest. The deposition of the iridium films is based on a magnetron sputtering process. Sputtering with different parameters, especially by variation of the argon gas pressure, leads to iridium films with different properties. In addition to investigations of the uncoated mirror substrates the achieved surface roughness has been studied. Occasional delamination of the iridium films due to high stress levels is prevented by chromium sublayers. Thereby the sputtering parameters are optimized in the context of the expected reflectivity of the coated X-ray mirrors. In near future measurements of the assembled mirror modules optical performances are planned at an X-ray test facility.

  14. Exposure of patients and creation of system of quality assurance in conventional x-ray radiology in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkunas, G.; Ziliukas, J.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most important sources of exposure is medical application of ionizing radiation. X-ray examination comprise a significant part of medical exposure. Doses received by patients and quality of diagnostic images are to be optimized. Measurements of these doses were started by the Radiation Protection Centre in 1997. These measurements are performed in randomly selected x-ray departments all around Lithuania during examinations of chest and lumbar spine. Dose and parameters related to exposure and patient are registered. Quality control measurements by PMX-III are being performed on each x-ray machine used for examination. The results show that in many cases the guidance levels are of entrance surface dose for standard patient determined by the Basic Radiation Protection Standard of Lithuania are exceeded. Quality control of x-ray machines performed in 1997-1999 shows that more than 30% of these machines did not comply with the requirements though in many cases shortcomings are minor and easily removed. (au)

  15. Nondestructive Evaluation of Advanced Materials with X-ray Phase Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengwei

    2005-01-01

    X-ray radiation has been widely used for imaging applications since Rontgen first discovered X-rays over a century ago. Its large penetration depth makes it ideal for the nondestructive visualization of the internal structure and/or defects of materials unobtainable otherwise. Currently used nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tools, X-ray radiography and tomography, are absorption-based, and work well in heavy-element materials where density or composition variations due to internal structure or defects are high enough to produce appreciable absorption contrast. However, in many cases where materials are light-weight and/or composites that have similar mass absorption coefficients, the conventional absorption-based X-ray methods for NDE become less useful. Indeed, the light-weight and ultra-high-strength requirements for the most advanced materials used or developed for current flight mission and future space exploration pose a great challenge to the standard NDE tools in that the absorption contrast arising from the internal structure of these materials is often too weak to be resolved. In this presentation, a solution to the problem, the use of phase information of X-rays for phase contrast X-ray imaging, will be discussed, along with a comparison between the absorption-based and phase-contrast imaging methods. Latest results on phase contrast X-ray imaging of lightweight Space Shuttle foam in 2D and 3D will be presented, demonstrating new opportunities to solve the challenging issues encountered in advanced materials development and processing.

  16. Study of a new X-ray protective apron with composite protective sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanzaki, Ryuji; Ohtsuka, Akiyoshi; Okayama, Akio

    1997-01-01

    Lead powder and oxygenated lead are widely used as materials in conventional protective aprons. However, the use of lead alone limits weight reduction in an apron. Because the amount of lead can not be decreased without reducing X-ray absorption rate. In this study, we report the efficiency of a new X-ray protective apron with a composite protective sheet. The X-ray absorption rate of the composite sheet was 4.5 percent less than that of the lead sheet. However, the effective protective efficiency of the composite sheet was the same as that of the lead sheet. The uniformity of the new X-ray protective apron was good, and the differences among products were small. The new X-ray protective apron was about 30 percent lighter than a lead apron with a 0.25 mm lead equivalent. The new lighter aprons are more comfortable for the radiology staff. Therefore, the use of a composite protective apron provides the advantages of weight reduction and increased comfort without reducing X-ray absorption rate. (author)

  17. High speed hydraulic scanner for deep x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, J.C.; Johnson, E.D.

    1997-07-01

    From their research and development in hard x-ray lithography, the authors have found that the conventional leadscrew driven scanner stages do not provide adequate scan speed or travel. These considerations have led the authors to develop a scanning system based on a long stroke hydraulic drive with 635 mm of travel and closed loop feedback to position the stage to better than 100 micrometers. The control of the device is through a PC with a custom LabView interface coupled to simple x-ray beam diagnostics. This configuration allows one to set a variety of scan parameters, including target dose, scan range, scan rates, and dose rate. Results from the prototype system at beamline X-27B are described as well as progress on a production version for the X-14B beamline

  18. High speed hydraulic scanner for deep x-ray lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, J.C.; Johnson, E.D.

    1997-07-01

    From their research and development in hard x-ray lithography, the authors have found that the conventional leadscrew driven scanner stages do not provide adequate scan speed or travel. These considerations have led the authors to develop a scanning system based on a long stroke hydraulic drive with 635 mm of travel and closed loop feedback to position the stage to better than 100 micrometers. The control of the device is through a PC with a custom LabView interface coupled to simple x-ray beam diagnostics. This configuration allows one to set a variety of scan parameters, including target dose, scan range, scan rates, and dose rate. Results from the prototype system at beamline X-27B are described as well as progress on a production version for the X-14B beamline.

  19. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Marchis, F.; Bristow, T.; Thompson, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave traces of their actions as features in the size range 10s to 100s of microns. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (MapX) will provide elemental imaging at 100 micron spatial resolution, yielding elemental chemistry at a scale where many relict physical, chemical, or biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks on planetary bodies and planetesimals. MapX is an arm-based instrument positioned on a rock or regolith with touch sensors. During an analysis, an X-ray source (tube or radioisotope) bombards the sample with X-rays or alpha-particles / gamma-rays, resulting in sample X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). X-rays emitted in the direction of an X-ray sensitive CCD imager pass through a 1:1 focusing lens (X-ray micro-pore Optic (MPO)) that projects a spatially resolved image of the X-rays onto the CCD. The CCD is operated in single photon counting mode so that the energies and positions of individual X-ray photons are recorded. In a single analysis, several thousand frames are both stored and processed in real-time. Higher level data products include single-element maps with a lateral spatial resolution of 100 microns and quantitative XRF spectra from ground- or instrument- selected Regions of Interest (ROI). XRF spectra from ROI are compared with known rock and mineral compositions to extrapolate the data to rock types and putative mineralogies. When applied to airless bodies and implemented with an appropriate radioisotope source for alpha-particle excitation, MapX will be able to analyze biogenic elements C, N, O, P, S, in addition to the cations of the rock-forming elements >Na, accessible with either X-ray or gamma-ray excitation. The MapX concept has been demonstrated with a series of lab-based prototypes and is currently under refinement and TRL maturation.

  20. X-ray crystallographic studies on novel natural products from marine animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, M.I.; Clardy, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter starts with an analysis to illustrate the utility of X-ray diffraction. The X-ray diffraction experiment is particularly suitable for structure elucidation of naturally occurring compounds, especially those that are structurally novel or have a great deal of stereochemistry. Marine plants and animals constitute a prodigious source of new and structurally complex secondary metabolites. Their unique structural features also provide strong incentives for further structural, synthetic and biosynthetic investigations. Organic compounds isolated from various marine animals in relatively small quantities, where structural work by conventional spectroscopic techniques did not lead to ambiguous structures, are investigated and the structures were finally determined through single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements. (A.S.) 20 refs.; 5 figs