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Sample records for sciences chemistry electrical

  1. Modelling electric discharge chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.; Wren, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The chemistry occurring in a electric discharge was modelled to predict how it would be influenced by discharge conditions. The discharge was characterized by a calculated Boltzmann electron-energy distribution, from which rate constants for electron-molecule processes in air were determined. These rate constants were used in a chemical kinetics calculation that also included reactions between neutral molecules, ions, free radicals and electronically excited species. The model describes how the discharge chemistry was influenced by humidity, electric field, electron number density, and concentrations of key reagents identified in the study. The use of an electric discharge to destroy airborne contaminant molecules was appraised, the targeted contaminants being CF 2 Cl 2 , HCN, and SO 2 . The modelling results indicate that an electric discharge should be able to remove HCN and CF 2 Cl 2 effectively, especially if the discharge conditions have been optimized. Effective destruction is achieved with a moderate electric field (over 1 x 10 -15 V.cm 2 ), a substantial electron number density (over 1 x 10 12 cm -3 ), and the presence of H 2 0 in the process air. The residence time in the discharge was also shown to be important in contaminant destruction. An attempt was made to explain the results of the electric discharge abatement of SO 2 , a component of a simulated flue-gas mixture. Results from the model indicate that the discharge parameters that increase the concentration of hydroxyl radical also increase the rate of decomposition of SO 2 . An objective of the study was to explain the apparent enhancement of SO 2 destruction by the presence of a small amount of NO 2 . It was thought that a likely explanation would be the stabilization of HOSO 2 , an important intermediate in the oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 . (49 figs., 14 tabs., 75 refs.)

  2. Teaching Triple Science: GCSE Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) has contracted with the Learning and Skills Network to support awareness and take-up of Triple Science GCSEs through the Triple Science Support Programme. This publication provides an introduction to teaching and learning approaches for the extension topics within GCSE Chemistry. It…

  3. Biomolecular Sciences: uniting Biology and Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Engel

    2017-01-01

    Biomolecular Sciences: uniting Biology and Chemistry www.rug.nl/research/gbb The scientific discoveries in biomolecular sciences have benefitted enormously from technological innovations. At the Groningen Biomolecular Science and Biotechnology Institute (GBB) we now sequence a genome in days,

  4. Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Jaap van Brakel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I assess the relation between philosophy of chemistry and (general) philosophy of science, focusing on those themes in the philosophy of chemistry that may bring about major revisions or extensions of current philosophy of science. Three themes can claim to make a unique contribution to philosophy of science: first, the variety of materials in the (natural and artificial) world; second, extending the world by making new stuff; and, third, specific features of the relations betwe...

  5. Popular Science Articles for Chemistry Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketevan Kupatadze

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper reviews popular science articles (these articles are published in online magazine “The Teacher” as one of the methods of chemistry teaching. It describes which didactic principles they are in line with and how this type of articles can be used in order to kindle the interest of pupils, students and generally, the readers of other specialties, in chemistry.  The articles review the main topics of inorganic/organic chemistry, biochemistry and ecological chemistry in a simple and entertaining manner. A part of the articles is about "household" chemistry. Chemical topics are related to poetry, literature, history of chemistry or simply, to fun news. The paper delineates the structure of popular science articles and the features of engaging students. It also reviews the teachers' and students' interview results about the usage of popular science articles in chemistry teaching process. The aforementioned pedagogical study revealed that the popular science articles contain useful information not only for the students of other specialties, but also for future biologists and ecologists (having chemistry as a mandatory subject at their universities. The articles are effectively used by teachers on chemistry lessons to kindle students' interest in this subject. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i3.960 

  6. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... Modern College of Arts, Science and Commerce. Ganeshkhind, Pune ... API scores for career advancement. Applications are invited from teachers experience in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses in chemistry ...

  7. chemistry syllabus of the nigeria science curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The senior secondary two chemistry course content of the Nigerian science curriculum was assessed ... of the students. In Nigeria, the need to re-examine both what to teach in science and how to teach it led ..... primary school. Our industries ...

  8. Analytical Chemistry at the Interface Between Materials Science and Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Janese C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-21

    Likedlessentid sciences, anal~cd chetis~continues toreinvent itself. Moving beyond its traditional roles of identification and quantification, analytical chemistry is now expanding its frontiers into areas previously reserved to other disciplines. This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and two of these disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detection of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry’s newest forays into these disciplines. The introduction section to this dissertation provides a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work. In advance of the materials science discussion, a brief introduction into electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) and sol-gel chemistry is provided. In advance of the biological discussions, brief overviews of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and the oxidative chemistry used to construct our biological arrays are provided. This section is followed by four chapters, each of which is presented as a separate manuscript, and focuses on work that describes some of our cross-disciplinary efforts within materials science and biology. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and future prospectus.

  9. Radiation chemistry: basic, strategic or tactical science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardman, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The work of Weiss in the 1930s, particularly with Haber, has only recently been recognized to have implications in biology and medicine. Similarly, research in radiation chemistry and the application of the pulse radiolysis technique, for example, have implications far beyond traditional radiation chemistry. Some examples of such research are discussed against a background of categorization into 'basic', 'strategic' or 'tactical' science. Examples discussed include redox properties of free radicals, and the identification and characterization of nitro radicals as intermediates in drug metabolism. Radical reactions often take place in multicomponent systems, and the techniques of radiation chemistry can be used to probe, for example, events occurring at interfaces in micelles. Industrial processes involving radiation are attracting investment, particularly in Japan. (author)

  10. Russian science readings (chemistry, physics, biology)

    CERN Document Server

    Light, L

    1949-01-01

    Some years' experience in teaching Russian to working scientists who had already acquired the rudiments of the grammar convinced me of the need for a reader of the present type that would smooth the path of those wishing to study Russian scientific literature in the original. Although the subject matter comprises what I have described for convenience as chemistry, physics and biology, it could be read with equal profit by those engaged in any branch of pure or applied science. All the passages are taken from school textbooks, and acknowledgements are due to the authors of the works listed at the foot of the contents page.

  11. Teacher's Guide to SERAPHIM Software V. Chemistry: The Central Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Donna J.

    Designed to assist chemistry teachers in selecting appropriate software programs, this publication is the fifth in a series of six teacher's guides from Project SERAPHIM, a program sponsored by the National Science Foundation. This guide is keyed to the chapters of the text "Chemistry: The Central Science." Program suggestions are…

  12. New Pathways for Teaching Chemistry: Reflective Judgment in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, David C.

    1992-01-01

    The reflective judgment model offers a rich context for analysis of science and science teaching. It provides deeper understanding of the scientific process and its critical thinking and reveals fundamental connections between science and the other liberal arts. Classroom techniques from a college chemistry course illustrate the utility of the…

  13. Building Bridges between Science Courses Using Honors Organic Chemistry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Timothy; Pontrello, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Introductory undergraduate science courses are traditionally offered as distinct units without formalized student interaction between classes. To bridge science courses, the authors used three Honors Organic Chemistry projects paired with other science courses. The honors students delivered presentations to mainstream organic course students and…

  14. Prospective Chemistry and Science Teachers' Views and Metaphors about Chemistry and Chemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onen Ozturk, Fatma; Aglarci, Oya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the metaphors created by prospective chemistry and science teachers and their views about how the studies in the field of chemistry are carried out in relation to the grade level and department. Research Methods: Case study as a qualitative research design was used. Participants in the study included…

  15. Teaching Chemistry in Primary Science: What Does the Research Suggest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamp, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The new Australian national science curriculum includes chemistry content at the primary level. Chemistry for young students is learning about changes in material stuff (matter) and, by implication, of what stuff is made. Pedagogy in this area needs to be guided by research if stepping stones to later learning of chemical ideas are to facilitate…

  16. Chemistry----A Central Science.pdf

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry is a big part of our everyday life. We can find chemistry in daily life, the foods we eat, the air we breathe, cleaning chemicals, our emotions and literally every object we can see or touch.  

  17. Supramolecular chemistry - interdisciplinary branch of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radecka-Paryzek, W.

    1997-01-01

    The scientific problems connected with supramolecular chemistry have been reviewed. The basic concepts have been defined as well as rules governed of macromolecules formation. The special emphasize has been put on present and possible in future application of such systems

  18. Magic, science and masculinity: marketing toy chemistry sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gailani, Salim

    2009-12-01

    At least since the late nineteenth century, toy chemistry sets have featured in standard scripts of the achievement of eminence in science, and they remain important in constructions of scientific identity. Using a selection of these toys manufactured in Britain and the United States, and with particular reference to the two dominant American brands, Gilbert and Chemcraft, this paper suggests that early twentieth-century chemistry sets were rooted in overlapping Victorian traditions of entertainment magic and scientific recreations. As chemistry set marketing copy gradually reoriented towards emphasising scientific modernity, citizenship, discipline and educational value, pre-twentieth-century traditions were subsumed within domestic-and specifically masculine-tropes. These developments in branding strategies point to transformations in both users' engagement with their chemistry sets and the role of scientific toys in domestic play. The chemistry set serves here as a useful tool for measuring cultural change and lay engagement with chemistry.

  19. Critical Science Education in a Suburban High School Chemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Patrick

    To improve students' scientific literacy and their general perceptions of chemistry, I enacted critical chemistry education (CCE) in two "regular level" chemistry classes with a group of 25 students in a suburban, private high school as part of this study. CCE combined the efforts of critical science educators (Fusco & Calabrese Barton, 2001; Gilbert 2013) with the performance expectations of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) (NGSS Lead States, 2013a) to critically transform the traditional chemistry curriculum at this setting. Essentially, CCE engages students in the critical exploration of socially situated chemistry content knowledge and requires them to demonstrate this knowledge through the practices of science. The purpose of this study was to gauge these students development of chemistry content knowledge, chemistry interest, and critical scientific literacy (CSL) as they engaged in CCE. CSL was a construct developed for this study that necessarily combined the National Research Center's (2012) definition of scientific literacy with a critical component. As such, CSL entailed demonstrating content knowledge through the practices of science as well as the ability to critically analyze the intersections between science content and socially relevant issues. A mixed methods, critical ethnographic approach framed the collection of data from open-ended questionnaires, focus group interviews, Likert surveys, pre- and post unit tests, and student artifacts. These data revealed three main findings: (1) students began to develop CSL in specific, significant ways working through the activities of CCE, (2) student participants of CCE developed a comparable level of chemistry content understanding to students who participated in a traditional chemistry curriculum, and (3) CCE developed a group of students' perceptions of interest in chemistry. In addition to being able to teach students discipline specific content knowledge, the implications of this study are

  20. Emphasizing the process of science using demonstrations in conceptual chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Courtney A.

    The purpose of this project was to teach students a method for employing the process of science in a conceptual chemistry classroom when observing a demonstration of a discrepant event. Students observed six demonstrations throughout a trimester study of chemistry and responded to each demonstration by asking as many questions as they could think of, choosing one testable question to answer by making as many hypotheses as possible, and choosing one hypothesis to make predictions about observed results of this hypothesis when tested. Students were evaluated on their curiosity, confidence, knowledge of the process of science, and knowledge of the nature of science before and after the six demonstrations. Many students showed improvement in using or mastery of the process of science within the context of conceptual chemistry after six intensive experiences with it. Results of the study also showed students gained confidence in their scientific abilities after completing one trimester of conceptual chemistry. Curiosity and knowledge of the nature of science did not show statistically significant improvement according to the assessment tool. This may have been due to the scope of the demonstration and response activities, which focused on the process of science methodology instead of knowledge of the nature of science or the constraints of the assessment tool.

  1. Ethics in Science: The Unique Consequences of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the ethical issues unique to the science and practice of chemistry. These issues arise from chemistry's position in the middle between the theoretical and the practical, a science concerned with molecules that are of the right size to directly affect human life. Many of the issues are raised by the central activity of chemistry--synthesis. Chemists make thousands of new substances each year. Many are beneficial, but others are threats. Since the development of the chemical industry in the nineteenth century, chemistry has contributed to the deterioration of the environment but has also helped to reduce pollution. Finally, we discuss the role of codes of ethics and whether the current codes of conduct for chemists are adequate for the challenges of today's world.

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-15

    dust and gas emissions from ferrous and nonferrous metallurgical facilities on vegetable crops of 42 collective farms within a 10-15 km radius...the dust and gas wastes were determined to have adverse effects on vegetable crops. Tables 3. 12172/12379 CSO: 1841/299 43 FERTILIZERS...academy’s Institute of physical-Organic Chemistry, head of the republic large-scale program " Membrana "] [Abstract] The author assesses progress in

  3. Analytical Chemistry in the Regulatory Science of Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Guan, Allan; Wickramasekara, Samanthi; Phillips, K Scott

    2018-06-12

    In the United States, regulatory science is the science of developing new tools, standards, and approaches to assess the safety, efficacy, quality, and performance of all Food and Drug Administration-regulated products. Good regulatory science facilitates consumer access to innovative medical devices that are safe and effective throughout the Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC). Because the need to measure things is fundamental to the regulatory science of medical devices, analytical chemistry plays an important role, contributing to medical device technology in two ways: It can be an integral part of an innovative medical device (e.g., diagnostic devices), and it can be used to support medical device development throughout the TPLC. In this review, we focus on analytical chemistry as a tool for the regulatory science of medical devices. We highlight recent progress in companion diagnostics, medical devices on chips for preclinical testing, mass spectrometry for postmarket monitoring, and detection/characterization of bacterial biofilm to prevent infections.

  4. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment

  5. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment

  6. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive transformers; and electrical test components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment

  7. Contribution of radiation chemistry to cluster science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nanoclusters are small objects made of a few atoms, with a size of a few nanometers at most, which constitute a state of matter, named mesoscopic, intermediary between the atom and the bulk metal. In the 70's, radiation chemistry experiments have demonstrated that metal clusters exhibited indeed, due to their very small size, specific properties distinct from the bulk metal. The properties, physical and chemical, change with the number of atoms they contain. Their optical absorption spectrum, for example, as well as their redox potential, depends on the nuclearity, and also on the environment. Radiation chemistry methods have been proven to be of high potentiality to induce small and size-monodispersed metal clusters, as nanocolloids or supported on various materials. Pulse radiolysis provides the means to study the dynamics of nucleation and growth of clusters, monoand bi-metallic, from the monomers to the stable nanoparticle and to observe directly their reactivity, especially to determine during the growth their nuclearity-dependent properties, such as the redox potential. These are of crucial importance for the understanding of the mechanism of the cluster growth itself, in the radiation-induced as well as in the chemical or photochemical reduction processes, and also of the mechanism of certain catalytic reactions. (authors)

  8. Before big science the pursuit of modern chemistry and physics, 1800-1940

    CERN Document Server

    Nye, Mary Jo

    1999-01-01

    Today's vast multinational scientific monoliths bear little resemblance to the modest laboratories of the early nineteenth century. Yet early in the nineteenth century--when heat and electricity were still counted among the elements--changes were already under way that would revolutionize chemistry and physics into the "big science" of the late twentieth century, expanding tiny, makeshift laboratories into bustling research institutes and replacing the scientific amateurs and generalist savants of the early Victorian era with the professional specialists of contemporary physical science. Mary Jo Nye traces the social and intellectual history of the physical sciences from the early 1800s to the beginning of the Second World War, examining the sweeping transformation of scientific institutions and professions during the period and the groundbreaking experiments that fueled that change, from the earliest investigations of molecular chemistry and field dynamics to the revolutionary breakthroughs of quantum mecha...

  9. Microfluidics and nanofluidics handbook chemistry, physics, and life science principles

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Sushanta K

    2011-01-01

    The Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Handbook: Two-Volume Set comprehensively captures the cross-disciplinary breadth of the fields of micro- and nanofluidics, which encompass the biological sciences, chemistry, physics and engineering applications. To fill the knowledge gap between engineering and the basic sciences, the editors pulled together key individuals, well known in their respective areas, to author chapters that help graduate students, scientists, and practicing engineers understand the overall area of microfluidics and nanofluidics. Topics covered include Cell Lysis Techniques in Lab-on-a-Chip Technology Electrodics in Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems: Microstructure and Pore-Scale Transport Microscale Gas Flow Dynamics and Molecular Models for Gas Flow and Heat Transfer Microscopic Hemorheology and Hemodynamics Covering physics and transport phenomena along with life sciences and related applications, Volume One: Chemistry, Physics, and Life Science Principles provides readers with the fun...

  10. Integrating the Liberal Arts and Chemistry: A Series of General Chemistry Assignments to Develop Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…

  11. Chemistry Students' Challenges in Using MBL's in Science Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz

    Understanding students' challenges about using microcomputer based laboratories (MBLs) would provide important data in understanding the appropriateness of using MBLs in high school chemistry laboratories. Identifying students' concerns about this technology will in part help educators identify the obstacles to science learning when using this…

  12. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S [A.A.Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-28

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  13. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S

    2010-01-01

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  14. The Sequencing of Basic Chemistry Topics by Physical Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Doras; Hobden, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out teachers' preferred teaching sequence for basic chemistry topics in Physical Science in South Africa, to obtain their reasons underpinning their preferred sequence, and to compare these sequences with the prescribed sequences in the current curriculum. The study was located within a pragmatic paradigm and…

  15. weaving together climate science and chemistry education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ... students, educators, and the general public, designed to help bridge the gap ... Design Principles of Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate ... The user is also able to examine simple models for these predictions ... Figure 6 illustrates the fluctuations in mean global temperature over an 800 ka span and.

  16. Chemistry, the Central Science? The History of the High School Science Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Keith; Robbins, Dennis M.

    2005-01-01

    Chemistry became the ''central science'' not by design but by accident in the US high schools. The three important factors, which had their influence on the high school science, are sequenced and their impact on the development of US science education, are mentioned.

  17. Enhancing interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science in an undergraduate life science program through physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursell, David P

    2009-01-01

    BIO2010 advocates enhancing the interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science components of the undergraduate biology curriculum. The Department of Chemistry and Life Science at West Point responded by developing a required physical chemistry course tailored to the interests of life science majors. To overcome student resistance to physical chemistry, students were enabled as long-term stakeholders who would shape the syllabus by selecting life science topics of interest to them. The initial 2 yr of assessment indicates that students have a positive view of the course, feel they have succeeded in achieving course outcome goals, and that the course is relevant to their professional future. Instructor assessment of student outcome goal achievement via performance on exams and labs is comparable to that of students in traditional physical chemistry courses. Perhaps more noteworthy, both student and instructor assessment indicate positive trends from year 1 to year 2, presumably due to the student stakeholder effect.

  18. Promotion of science among youngsters: chemistry outreach initiatives at EPFL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Farnaz

    2012-01-01

    At EPFL, a strategy for organising scientific outreach activities has been developed and a programme comprising various measures and actions elaborated to promote science and technology among youngsters, especially young girls. As part of this programme, workshops and chemistry camps are developed and carried out for children and youngsters aged from 7 to 16 years old. These workshops are adapted to the age of the participants and allow them to discover chemistry in a fascinating way and become familiar with this field, understand how useful it is to society and learn about the professions it opens up. Some of the workshops take place at EPFL and others are organised in schools in the French-speaking cantons of Switzerland during the touring campaign of a bus named 'Les sciences, ça m'intéresse !' ('Sciences Interest Me!').

  19. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment

  20. Science Activities in Energy: Electrical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 16 activities relating to electrical energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined in a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  1. Robert Hare's Theory of Galvanism: A Study of Heat and Electricity in Early Nineteenth-Century American Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amy

    2018-04-09

    As a professor of chemistry at the University of Pennsylvania, Robert Hare actively shaped early American science. He participated in a large network of scholars, including Joseph Henry, François Arago, and Jacob Berzelius, and experimented with and wrote extensively about electricity and its associated chemical and thermal phenomena. In the early nineteenth century, prominent chemists such as Berzelius and Humphry Davy proclaimed that a revolution had occurred in chemistry through electrical research. Examining Robert Hare's contributions to this discourse, this paper analyzes how Hare's study of electricity and the caloric theory of heat led him to propose a new theory of galvanism. It also examines the reception of Hare's work in America and Great Britain, highlighting the contributions of early American chemists to the development of electrochemistry.

  2. Engineering for Life Sciences: A Fruitful Collaboration Enabled by Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Christof M

    2017-02-13

    "… The interaction of engineering and life sciences has a long history that is characterized by a mutual dependency. The role of chemistry in these developments is to connect the engineers' instrumentation with the life scientists' specimens. This very successful partnership will further continue to produce essential and innovative solutions for future challenges …" Read more in the Guest Editorial by Christof M. Niemeyer. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Chemistry teachers’ understanding of science process skills in relation of science process skills assessment in chemistry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmah, N.; Yamtinah, S.; Ashadi; Indriyanti, N. Y.

    2018-05-01

    A Science process skill (SPS) is a fundamental scientific method to achieve good knowledge. SPS can be categorized into two levels: basic and integrated. Learning SPS helps children to grow as individuals who can access knowledge and know how to acquire it. The primary outcomes of the scientific process in learning are the application of scientific processes, scientific reasoning, accurate knowledge, problem-solving, and understanding of the relationship between science, technology, society, and everyday life’s events. Teachers’ understanding of SPS is central to the application of SPS in a learning process. Following this point, this study aims to investigate the high school chemistry teachers’ understanding of SPS pertains to their assessment of SPS in chemistry learning. The understanding of SPS is measured from the conceptual and operational aspects of SPS. This research uses qualitative analysis method, and the sample consists of eight chemistry teachers selected by random sampling. A semi-structured interview procedure is used to collect the data. The result of the analysis shows that teachers’ conceptual and operational understanding of SPS is weak. It affects the accuracy and appropriateness of the teacher’s selection of SPS assessment in chemistry learning.

  4. Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Wayne E.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Frank, Alan; Reed, Bryan; Schmerge, John F.; Siwick, Bradley J.; Stuart, Brent C.; Weber, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    The use of pump-probe experiments to study complex transient events has been an area of significant interest in materials science, biology, and chemistry. While the emphasis has been on laser pump with laser probe and laser pump with x-ray probe experiments, there is a significant and growing interest in using electrons as probes. Early experiments used electrons for gas-phase diffraction of photostimulated chemical reactions. More recently, scientists are beginning to explore phenomena in the solid state such as phase transformations, twinning, solid-state chemical reactions, radiation damage, and shock propagation. This review focuses on the emerging area of ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM), which comprises ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM). The topics that are treated include the following: (1) The physics of electrons as an ultrafast probe. This encompasses the propagation dynamics of the electrons (space-charge effect, Child's law, Boersch effect) and extends to relativistic effects. (2) The anatomy of UED and DTEM instruments. This includes discussions of the photoactivated electron gun (also known as photogun or photoelectron gun) at conventional energies (60-200 keV) and extends to MeV beams generated by rf guns. Another critical aspect of the systems is the electron detector. Charge-coupled device cameras and microchannel-plate-based cameras are compared and contrasted. The effect of various physical phenomena on detective quantum efficiency is discussed. (3) Practical aspects of operation. This includes determination of time zero, measurement of pulse-length, and strategies for pulse compression. (4) Current and potential applications in materials science, biology, and chemistry. UEM has the potential to make a significant impact in future science and technology. Understanding of reaction pathways of complex transient phenomena in materials science, biology, and chemistry will provide fundamental

  5. Nuclear science in the 20th century. Radiation chemistry and radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Tao; Xu Furong; Zheng Chunkai

    2003-01-01

    The application of nuclear science and technology to chemistry has led to two important subjects, radiation chemistry and radiation processing, which are playing important roles in many aspects of science and society. We review the development and major applications of radiation chemistry and radiation processing, including the basic physical and chemical mechanisms involved

  6. Opportunities in chemistry and materials science for topological insulators and their nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2011-10-24

    Electrical charges on the boundaries of topological insulators favour forward motion over back-scattering at impurities, producing low-dissipation, metallic states that exist up to room temperature in ambient conditions. These states have the promise to impact a broad range of applications from electronics to the production of energy, which is one reason why topological insulators have become the rising star in condensed-matter physics. There are many challenges in the processing of these exotic materials to use the metallic states in functional devices, and they present great opportunities for the chemistry and materials science research communities. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. Domestic science: making chemistry your cup of tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melanie

    2008-03-01

    In the early Victorian home, there were plenty of scientific lessons to be uncovered. With the appropriate interrogation, everyday objects could transform seemingly mundane activities such as eating breakfast, washing clothes or reading by candle-light into household lectures that gave children a familiar base from which to explore the hidden properties and marvellous histories of common commodities. Responding to an unprecedented hunger for scientific knowledge, a profusion of introductory texts appeared in the mid-nineteenth century that directed lessons into homes across Britain and beyond. In particular, the science of chemistry found its way into this domestic setting, as writers promoted its practice and practitioners as a source of authoritative expertise on everyday life. One of the most compelling illustrations of this encounter between the public and chemistry took place over a simple cup of tea.

  8. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  9. Normal Science Education and Its Dangers: The Case of School Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Berry; De Vos, Wobbe; Verdonk, Adri H.; Pilot, Albert

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to solve the problem of hidden structure in school chemistry. Argues that normal chemistry education is isolated from common sense, everyday life and society, the history and philosophy of science, technology, school physics, and chemical research. (Author/CCM)

  10. Synthetic Approach to biomolecular science by cyborg supramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Kensuke; Matsuo, Muneyuki; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Sato, Sota

    2018-02-01

    To imitate the essence of living systems via synthetic chemistry approaches has been attempted. With the progress in supramolecular chemistry, it has become possible to synthesize molecules of a size and complexity close to those of biomacromolecules. Recently, the combination of precisely designed supramolecules with biomolecules has generated structural platforms for designing and creating unique molecular systems. Bridging between synthetic chemistry and biomolecular science is also developing methodologies for the creation of artificial cellular systems. This paper provides an overview of the recently expanding interdisciplinary research to fuse artificial molecules with biomolecules, that can deepen our understanding of the dynamical ordering of biomolecules. Using bottom-up approaches based on the precise chemical design, synthesis and hybridization of artificial molecules with biological materials have been realizing the construction of sophisticated platforms having the fundamental functions of living systems. The effective hybrid, molecular cyborg, approaches enable not only the establishment of dynamic systems mimicking nature and thus well-defined models for biophysical understanding, but also the creation of those with highly advanced, integrated functions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biophysical Exploration of Dynamical Ordering of Biomolecular Systems" edited by Dr. Koichi Kato. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate 2005 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz De La Rubia, T; Fluss, M J; Rath, K; Rennie, G; Shang, S; Kitrinos, G

    2006-01-01

    In 1952, we began laboratory operations in the barracks building of the Naval Air Station with approximately 50 employees. Today, the Chemistry and Materials Science (CMS) Directorate is a major organization at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with more than 500 employees who continue to contribute to our evolving national security mission. For more than half a century, the mission of the Laboratory revolved primarily around nuclear deterrence and associated defense technologies. Today, Livermore supports a broad-based national security mission, and our specialized capabilities increasingly support emerging missions in human health and energy security. In the future, CMS will play a significantly expanded role in science and technology at the intersection of national security, energy and environment, and health. Our world-class workforce will provide the science and technology base for radically innovative materials to our programs and sponsors. Our 2005 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. Organized into two major sections-research themes and dynamic teams, this report focuses on achievements arising from earlier investments that address future challenges. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national security mission. Research Themes: (1) Materials Properties and Performance under Extreme Conditions--We are developing ultrahard nanocrystalline metals, exploring the properties of nanotubes when exposed to very high temperatures, and engineering stronger materials to meet future needs for materials that can withstand extreme conditions. (2) Chemistry under Extreme Conditions and Chemical Engineering to Support National-Security Programs--Our recent

  12. Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz De La Rubia, T; Fluss, M J; Rath, K; Rennie, G; Shang, S; Kitrinos, G

    2006-08-08

    In 1952, we began laboratory operations in the barracks building of the Naval Air Station with approximately 50 employees. Today, the Chemistry and Materials Science (CMS) Directorate is a major organization at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with more than 500 employees who continue to contribute to our evolving national security mission. For more than half a century, the mission of the Laboratory revolved primarily around nuclear deterrence and associated defense technologies. Today, Livermore supports a broad-based national security mission, and our specialized capabilities increasingly support emerging missions in human health and energy security. In the future, CMS will play a significantly expanded role in science and technology at the intersection of national security, energy and environment, and health. Our world-class workforce will provide the science and technology base for radically innovative materials to our programs and sponsors. Our 2005 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. Organized into two major sections-research themes and dynamic teams, this report focuses on achievements arising from earlier investments that address future challenges. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national security mission. Research Themes: (1) Materials Properties and Performance under Extreme Conditions--We are developing ultrahard nanocrystalline metals, exploring the properties of nanotubes when exposed to very high temperatures, and engineering stronger materials to meet future needs for materials that can withstand extreme conditions. (2) Chemistry under Extreme Conditions and Chemical Engineering to Support National-Security Programs--Our recent

  13. Analytical chemistry in nuclear science and technology: a scientometric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kademani, B.S.; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Vijai

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyse quantitatively the growth and development of Analytical Chemistry research in Nuclear Science and Technology in terms of publication output as reflected in International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database (1970-2005). During 1970-2005 a total of 8224 papers were published. There were only seven papers published in 1970. Thereafter, a tremendous explosion of literature was observed in this area. The highest number of papers (636) were published in 1985. The average number of publications published per year was 228.44. United States topped the list with 1811 publications followed by USSR with 1688 publications, Germany with 777 publications, India with 730 publications and Hungary with 519 publications. Authorship and collaboration trend was towards multi-authored papers as 80.3 percent of the papers were collaborative is indicative of the multidisciplinary nature of research activity. The most prolific authors were: B. F. Myasoedov, AN SSSR Moscow Inst. Geokhimii I Analitisheskoi Khimii, Russian Federation with 84 publications, M. Sudersanan, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 67 publications, P.Vanura and V. Jedinakova Krizova both from Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic with 54 publications each, S. Gangadharan, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 47 publications, V.M. Ivanova , M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation with 45 publications and Yu. A Zolotov Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation with 40 publications. The journals most preferred by the scientists for publication of papers were : Zhurnal Analiticheskoj Khimii with 713 papers, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry with 409 papers, Analytical Chemistry Washington with 364 papers, Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry with 324 papers, Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section A with 251 papers, and Journal of Analytical Chemistry of the USSR with 145 papers. The high

  14. Students' Science Attitudes, Beliefs, and Context: Associations with Science and Chemistry Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Sheldrake, Richard; Reiss, Michael J.; Simon, Shirley

    2018-01-01

    There is a widespread concern that relatively few students, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, continue to study chemistry and other science subjects after compulsory education. Yet it remains unclear how different aspects of students' background and home context, their own attitudes and beliefs, and their experiences of particular…

  15. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science progress report summary of selected research and development topics, FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.

  16. Supramolecular Pharmaceutical Sciences: A Novel Concept Combining Pharmaceutical Sciences and Supramolecular Chemistry with a Focus on Cyclodextrin-Based Supermolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Taishi; Iohara, Daisuke; Motoyama, Keiichi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2018-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry is an extremely useful and important domain for understanding pharmaceutical sciences because various physiological reactions and drug activities are based on supramolecular chemistry. However, it is not a major domain in the pharmaceutical field. In this review, we propose a new concept in pharmaceutical sciences termed "supramolecular pharmaceutical sciences," which combines pharmaceutical sciences and supramolecular chemistry. This concept could be useful for developing new ideas, methods, hypotheses, strategies, materials, and mechanisms in pharmaceutical sciences. Herein, we focus on cyclodextrin (CyD)-based supermolecules, because CyDs have been used not only as pharmaceutical excipients or active pharmaceutical ingredients but also as components of supermolecules.

  17. Electrical conductivity of conductive carbon blacks: influence of surface chemistry and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantea, Dana; Darmstadt, Hans; Kaliaguine, Serge; Roy, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Conductive carbon blacks from different manufacturers were studied in order to obtain some insight into the relation between their electrical conductivity and their surface properties. The surface chemistry was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), whereas the topology of the carbon black surface was investigated using low-pressure nitrogen adsorption. All these techniques yield information on the graphitic character of the surface. In general, the electrical conductivity of the conductive blacks increases with the graphitic character of the surface. For low surface area conductive blacks, the electrical conductivity correlates well with the surface chemistry. In the case of the XPS and SIMS data, this correlation is also valid when other types of carbon blacks such as thermal and furnace blacks are included, confirming the determining influence of the carbon black surface chemistry on the electrical conductivity

  18. Design and Evaluation of a One-Semester General Chemistry Course for Undergraduate Life Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoebelen, Carly; Towns, Marcy H.; Chmielewski, Jean; Hrycyna, Christine A.

    2018-01-01

    The chemistry curriculum for undergraduate life science majors at Purdue University has been transformed to better meet the needs of this student population and prepare them for future success. The curriculum, called the 1-2-1 curriculum, includes four consecutive and integrated semesters of instruction in general chemistry, organic chemistry, and…

  19. Students' science attitudes, beliefs, and context: associations with science and chemistry aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Sheldrake, Richard; Reiss, Michael J.; Simon, Shirley

    2018-04-01

    There is a widespread concern that relatively few students, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, continue to study chemistry and other science subjects after compulsory education. Yet it remains unclear how different aspects of students' background and home context, their own attitudes and beliefs, and their experiences of particular teaching approaches in school might limit or facilitate their studying aspirations; concurrently, less research has specifically focused on and surveyed disadvantaged students. In order to gain more insight, 4780 students were surveyed, covering those in Year 7 (age 11-12 years) and in Year 8 (age 12-13) from schools in England with high proportions of those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Predictive modelling highlighted that the students' aspirations to study non-compulsory science in the future, and to study the particular subject of chemistry, were strongly associated with their extrinsic motivation towards science (their perceived utility of science, considered as a means to gain particular careers or skills), their intrinsic interest in science, and their engagement in extra-curricular activities. Additionally, their self-concept beliefs (their confidence in their own abilities in science), some teaching approaches, and encouragement from teachers and family alongside family science capital had smaller but still relevant associations.

  20. Uranium to Electricity: The Chemistry of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settle, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of a series of industrial processes that produce fuel for the production of electricity in nuclear reactors, use the fuel to generate electricity, and subsequently manage the spent reactor fuel. While the physics and engineering of controlled fission are central to the generation of nuclear power, chemistry…

  1. Bergman cyclization in polymer chemistry and material science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuli; Hu, Aiguo

    2011-11-01

    Bergman cyclization of enediynes, regarded as a promising strategy for anticancer drugs, now finds its own niche in the area of polymer chemistry and material science. The highly reactive aromatic diradicals generated from Bergman cyclization can undergo polymerization acting as either monomers or initiators of other vinyl monomers. The former, namely homopolymerization, leads to polyphenylenes and polynaphthalenes with excellent thermal stability, good solubility, and processability. The many remarkable properties of these aromatic polymers have further endowed them to be manufactured into carbon-rich materials, e.g., glassy carbons and carbon nanotubes. Whereas used as initiators, enediynes provide a novel resource for high molecular weight polymers with narrow polydispersities. The aromatic diradicals are also useful for introducing oligomers or polymers onto pristine carbonous nanomaterials, such as carbon nano-onions and carbon nanotubes, to improve their dispersibility in organic solvents and polymer solutions. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Suitability of the Nanophosphate LiFePO4/C Battery Chemistry for the Fully Electric Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    , and intrinsic safety of the nanophosphate LiFePO4/C lithium ion chemistry make it possible to consider this chemistry for electric vehicle applications. This paper investigates the lifetime of the nanophosphate LiFePO4/C battery chemistry when it is used for full electrical vehicles. The investigation...... is used to study the capacity and power capability degradation behaviour of the tested nanophosphate LiFePO4/C battery for two electric vehicle operational scenarios....

  3. Preservice Science Teachers' Attitudes towards Chemistry and Misconceptions about Chemical Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Aylin; Topçu, Mustafa Sami; Sülün, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates preservice science teachers' attitudes towards chemistry; their misconceptions about chemical kinetics; and relationships between pre-service science teachers' attitudes toward chemistry and misconceptions about chemical kinetics were examined. The sample of this study consisted of 81 freshman pre-service science…

  4. The nature of science and technology for pre-service chemistry teacher: A case of techno-chemistry experiment "From Stannum Metalicum to conductive glass"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudzakir, A.; Widhiyanti, T.; Hernani, Arifin, M.; Lestari, A. N.; Jauhariansyah, S.

    2017-08-01

    The study was conducted to address the problems related to low Indonesian students' scientific literacy as revealed in the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) since 2000-2015. Science teachers (e.g. chemistry teacher) must recognize the nature of science (NOS) to assist their students in preparing an explanation of a phenomenon scientifically correctly. Teachers also need to understand critically about nature of technology (NOT) and it relationship with science as well as society. To integrate those two kinds of knowledge (NOS and NOT), we can conduct a techno-science activity, which integrate the technology to science course in pre-service teacher education program, so that they can improve their knowledge about nature of science and technology (NOST) and pedagogical content knowledge related to NOST. The purpose of this study was to construct an inquiry based laboratory activity worksheet for making conductive glass so that the pre-service teacher could explain how the structure of the semiconductor Fluor doped Tin Oxide (SnO2.F) affect their performance. This study we conducted, described how to design a pre-service chemistry teacher education course that can improve recognizing view of NOST by using a framework called model of educational reconstruction (MER). The scientific activities in the course were guided inquiry based techno-chemistry experiments involving "From Stannum Metallicum to Conductive Glass". Conductive glasses are interesting subject research for several reason. The application of this technology could be found on solar cell, OLED, and display panel. The doped Tin dioxide has been deposited on glass substrate using the spray pyrolysis technique at 400-550°C substrate temperature, 4-5 times, 20 cm gap between glass and sprayer and 450 angle to form a thin film which will act as electrical contact. The resistivity is about 0.5 - 15Ω. The product resulted on this study was rated by several expert to find if the worksheet could

  5. The Effect of Using 3E, 5E Learning Cycle in General Chemistry Laboratory to Prospective Science Teachers Attitude and Perceptions to the Science, Chemistry and Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Fatih; Çelikler, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the emerging changes in prospective science teachers" attitudes and perceptions towards science, chemistry and laboratory resulting from the implementation of 3E. 5E learning cycles and traditional instruction in laboratory environment in which learning is achieved by doing and experiencing. The study included 74 first grade prospective science teachers from Ondokuz Mayıs University at the Department of Science Education. In the study, quasi-experimental pre-tes...

  6. Chemistry and Materials Science Department annual report, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, R.J.; Sugihara, T.T.; Cherniak, J.C.; Corey, C.W. [eds.

    1989-12-31

    This is the first annual report of the Chemistry & Materials Science (C&MS) Department. The principal purpose of this report is to provide a concise summary of our scientific and technical accomplishments for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. The report is also tended to become part of the archival record of the Department`s activities. We plan to publish future editions annually. The activities of the Department can be divided into three broad categories. First, C&MS staff are assigned by the matrix system to work directly in a program. These programmatic assignments typically involve short deadlines and critical time schedules. A second category is longer-term research and development in technologies important to Laboratory programs. The focus and direction of this technology-base work are generally determined by programmatic needs. Finally, the Department manages its own research program, mostly long-range in outlook and basic in orientation. These three categories are not mutually exclusive but form a continuum of technical activities. Representative examples of all three are included in this report. The principal subject matter of this report has been divided into six sections: Innovations in Analysis and Characterization, Advanced Materials, Metallurgical Science and Technology, Surfaces and Interfaces, Energetic Materials and Chemical Synthesis, and Energy-Related Research and Development.

  7. Vehicle exhaust treatment using electrical discharge and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkyn, R.G.; Balmer, M.L.; Barlow, S.E.; Orlando, T.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Goulette, D.; Hoard, J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.

    1997-12-31

    Current 3-way catalytic converters have proven quite effective at removing NO{sub x} from the exhaust of spark ignition vehicles operating near stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratios. However, diesel engines typically operate at very high air-to-fuel ratios. Under such lean burn conditions current catalytic converters are ineffective for NO{sub x} removal. As a result, considerable effort has been made to develop a viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst. Although some materials have been shown to reduce NO{sub x} under lean burn conditions, none exhibit the necessary activity and stability at the high temperatures and humidities found in typical engine exhaust,. As a result, alternative technologies are being explored in an effort to solve the so-called lean NO{sub x} problem. Packed-bed barrier discharge systems are well suited to take advantage of plasma-surface interactions due to the large number of contaminant surface collisions in the bed. The close proximity of the active surface to transient species produced by the plasma may lead to favorable chemistry at considerably lower temperatures than required by thermal catalysts. The authors present data in this paper illustrating that the identity and surface properties of the packing material can alter the discharge-driven chemistry in synthetic leanburn exhaust mixtures. Results using non-porous glass beads as the packing material suggest the limits of NO{sub x} reduction using purely gas phase discharge chemistry. By comparison, encouraging results are reported for several alternative packing materials.

  8. The Impact of Nursing Students' Prior Chemistry Experience on Academic Performance and Perception of Relevance in a Health Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddey, Kerrie; de Berg, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Nursing students have typically found the study of chemistry to be one of their major challenges in a nursing course. This mixed method study was designed to explore how prior experiences in chemistry might impact chemistry achievement during a health science unit. Nursing students (N = 101) studying chemistry as part of a health science unit were…

  9. Where Is Earth Science? Mining for Opportunities in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julie; Ivey, Toni; Puckette, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth sciences are newly marginalized in K-12 classrooms. With few high schools offering Earth science courses, students' exposure to the Earth sciences relies on the teacher's ability to incorporate Earth science material into a biology, chemistry, or physics course. ''G.E.T. (Geoscience Experiences for Teachers) in the Field'' is an…

  10. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. An introduction to natural science. 8. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book is an introduction to physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of solid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Furthermore connections with biology and medicine are considered. (orig./HP) With 104 figs., 51 tabs [de

  11. Lifetime Estimation of the Nanophosphate LiFePO4/C Battery Chemistry Used in Fully Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2015-01-01

    , and intrinsic safety of the nanophosphate LiFePO4/C Li-ion chemistry make it possible to consider this chemistry for electric vehicle (EV) applications. This paper investigates the lifetime of the nanophosphate LiFePO4/C battery chemistry when it is used for full electrical vehicles. The investigation...... is used to study the capacity and power capability degradation behavior of the tested nanophosphate LiFePO4/C battery for two EV operational scenarios....

  12. Computational Materials Science and Chemistry: Accelerating Discovery and Innovation through Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Glotzer, Sharon [University of Michigan; McCurdy, Bill [University of California Davis; Roberto, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-07-26

    This report is based on a SC Workshop on Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation on July 26-27, 2010, to assess the potential of state-of-the-art computer simulations to accelerate understanding and discovery in materials science and chemistry, with a focus on potential impacts in energy technologies and innovation. The urgent demand for new energy technologies has greatly exceeded the capabilities of today's materials and chemical processes. To convert sunlight to fuel, efficiently store energy, or enable a new generation of energy production and utilization technologies requires the development of new materials and processes of unprecedented functionality and performance. New materials and processes are critical pacing elements for progress in advanced energy systems and virtually all industrial technologies. Over the past two decades, the United States has developed and deployed the world's most powerful collection of tools for the synthesis, processing, characterization, and simulation and modeling of materials and chemical systems at the nanoscale, dimensions of a few atoms to a few hundred atoms across. These tools, which include world-leading x-ray and neutron sources, nanoscale science facilities, and high-performance computers, provide an unprecedented view of the atomic-scale structure and dynamics of materials and the molecular-scale basis of chemical processes. For the first time in history, we are able to synthesize, characterize, and model materials and chemical behavior at the length scale where this behavior is controlled. This ability is transformational for the discovery process and, as a result, confers a significant competitive advantage. Perhaps the most spectacular increase in capability has been demonstrated in high performance computing. Over the past decade, computational power has increased by a factor of a million due to advances in hardware and software. This rate of improvement, which shows no sign of

  13. Islam - Science Integration Approach in Developing Chemistry Individualized Education Program (IEP for Students with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Suprihatiningrum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a research which tries to explore, explain and describe Islam - science integration approach to develop an Individualized Education Program (IEP for students with disabilities in chemistry lesson. As a qualitative case study, this paper is aimed at investigating how Islam - science integration approach can be underpinned for developing the IEP for Chemistry. Participants were recruited purposively and data were collected by interviews; documents’ analysis; and experts’ assessment (i.e. material experts, inclusive education experts, media experts, chemistry teachers and support teachers, then analyzed using content-analysis. The result shows Islam - science integration approach can be a foundation to develop the chemistry IEP by seeking support for the verses of the Qur'an and corresponding hadiths. Even although almost all the subject matter in chemistry can be integrated with Islamic values, this study only developed two contents, namely Periodic System of Elements and Reaction Rate.

  14. Multicultural chemistry and the nature of science: but what about knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    In response to Goff, Boesdorfer, and Hunter's article on the use of a multicultural approach to teaching chemistry and the nature of science, I forward this critical reflective essay to discuss more general curriculum aspects of the relationship between the nature of science and science education in school contexts. Taking a social realist perspective, I argue for a more nuanced understanding of the role of epistemology and ontology in science classrooms, and for a reconsideration of the role of knowledge in science classrooms.

  15. Multicultural Chemistry and the Nature of Science: But What about Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In response to Goff, Boesdorfer, and Hunter's article on the use of a multicultural approach to teaching chemistry and the nature of science, I forward this critical reflective essay to discuss more general curriculum aspects of the relationship between the nature of science and science education in school contexts. Taking a social realist…

  16. Teaching Chemistry in a Spiral Progression Approach: Lessons from Science Teachers in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbe, Joymie R.; Espinosa, Allen A.; Datukan, Janir T.

    2018-01-01

    As the Philippines moves towards implementing the K-12 curriculum, there has been a mismatch in teacher preparation in science. The present teacher education curriculum prepares science teachers to specialise in a specific field (e.g. integrated science, biology, chemistry, and physics). However, in the K-12 curriculum, they are required to teach…

  17. Green Chemistry and Sustainability: An Undergraduate Course for Science and Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate lecture course in Green Chemistry and Sustainability has been developed and taught to a "multidisciplinary" group of science and nonscience majors. The course introduced students to the topics of green chemistry and sustainability and also immersed them in usage of the scientific literature. Through literature…

  18. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  19. A Cross-Age Study of Science Student Teachers' Chemistry Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Ültay, Neslihan; Kolomuç, Ali; Aytar, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of some variables (gender and year of study) on science student teachers' (SSTs) chemistry attitudes. An adapted version of Chemistry Attitudes and Experiences Questionnaire was administered to 983 SSTs drawn from four different universities in the region of Eastern Black Sea, Turkey. Significant…

  20. Preliminary Analysis of Assessment Instrument Design to Reveal Science Generic Skill and Chemistry Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarni, Woro; Sudarmin; Supartono, Wiyanto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design assessment instrument to evaluate science generic skill (SGS) achievement and chemistry literacy in ethnoscience-integrated chemistry learning. The steps of tool designing refers to Plomp models including 1) Investigation Phase (Prelimenary Investigation); 2) Designing Phase (Design); 3)…

  1. Opportunities in chemistry and materials science for topological insulators and their nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    of these exotic materials to use the metallic states in functional devices, and they present great opportunities for the chemistry and materials science research communities. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Innovation Developments of Coal Chemistry Science in L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical-Organic Chemistry and Coal Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shendrik, T.G.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents short historical review and innovation developments of Coal Chemistry Department of L.M. Litvinenko Institute, NAS of Ukraine connected with coal mine exploitation problems, search for decisions toward prevention of spontaneous combustion, dust control in mines, establishing structural chemical features of coal with different genesis and stages of metamorphism with the aim to develop new methods of their modification and rational use. The methods of obtaining inexpensive sorbents from Ukrainian raw materials (including carbon containing waste are proposed. The problems of modern coal chemistry science in IPOCC of NAS of Ukraine are outlined.

  3. Assessing Student Knowledge of Chemistry and Climate Science Concepts Associated with Climate Change: Resources to Inform Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versprille, Ashley; Zabih, Adam; Holme, Thomas A.; McKenzie, Lallie; Mahaffy, Peter; Martin, Brian; Towns, Marcy

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most critical problems facing citizens today. Chemistry faculty are presented with the problem of making general chemistry content simultaneously relevant and interesting. Using climate science to teach chemistry allows faculty to help students learn chemistry content in a rich context. Concepts related to…

  4. Representation and Analysis of Chemistry Core Ideas in Science Education Standards between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yanlan; Bi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry core ideas play an important role in students' chemistry learning. On the basis of the representations of chemistry core ideas about "substances" and "processes" in the Chinese Chemistry Curriculum Standards (CCCS) and the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), we conduct a critical comparison of chemistry…

  5. Feasibility of Integration of Selected Aspects of (CBA) Chemistry, (CHEMS) Chemistry and (PSSC) Physics into a Two Year Physical Science Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiasca, Michael Aldo

    Compared, for selected outcomes, were integrated chemistry-physics courses with chemistry and physics courses taught separately. Three classes studying integrated Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC)-Chemical Bond Approach (CBA), and three classes studying integrated Physical Science Study Committee-Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEMS)…

  6. Demonstrating the facticity of facts: university lectures and chemistry as a science in Germany around 1800.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frercks, Jan

    2010-03-01

    In this article, I argue that chemical lectures at universities played a crucial role in the establishment of chemistry as a well-defined science in Germany around 1800. In particular, lecture demonstrations served to secure the facticity of facts. This was important, because the concept of the chemical fact was at the centre of the prevailing epistemology, which itself partly reflected the social order of chemistry as a science in Germany, and partly served to foster it. In the dialectic constellation of research and teaching, professor-chemists took the lead in the social and epistemological definition of chemistry.

  7. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science*,†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. PMID:21445902

  8. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Molecular metal catalysts on supports: organometallic chemistry meets surface science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Pedro; Gates, Bruce C

    2014-08-19

    -support bonding and structure, which identify the supports as ligands with electron-donor properties that influence reactivity and catalysis. Each of the catalyst design variables has been varied independently, illustrated by mononuclear and tetranuclear iridium on zeolite HY and on MgO and by isostructural rhodium and iridium (diethylene or dicarbonyl) complexes on these supports. The data provide examples resolving the roles of the catalyst design variables and place the catalysis science on a firm foundation of organometallic chemistry linked with surface science. Supported molecular catalysts offer the advantages of characterization in the absence of solvents and with surface-science methods that do not require ultrahigh vacuum. Families of supported metal complexes have been made by replacement of ligands with others from the gas phase. Spectroscopically identified catalytic reaction intermediates help to elucidate catalyst performance and guide design. The methods are illustrated for supported complexes and clusters of rhodium, iridium, osmium, and gold used to catalyze reactions of small molecules that facilitate identification of the ligands present during catalysis: alkene dimerization and hydrogenation, H-D exchange in the reaction of H2 with D2, and CO oxidation. The approach is illustrated with the discovery of a highly active and selective MgO-supported rhodium carbonyl dimer catalyst for hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene to give butenes.

  10. Chemistry Science Investigation: Dognapping Workshop, an Outreach Program Designed to Introduce Students to Science through a Hands-On Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Sears, Jeremiah M.; Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Casillas, Maddison R.; Nguyen, Thao H.

    2017-01-01

    The Chemistry Science Investigation: Dognapping Workshop was designed to (i) target and inspire fourth grade students to view themselves as "Junior Scientists" before their career decisions are solidified; (ii) enable hands-on experience in fundamental scientific concepts; (iii) increase public interaction with science, technology,…

  11. Quantum Chemistry; A concise introduction for students of physics, chemistry, biochemistry and materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Ajit J.

    2017-09-01

    This book provides non-specialists with a basic understanding of the underlying concepts of quantum chemistry. It is both a text for second- or third-year undergraduates and a reference for researchers who need a quick introduction or refresher. All chemists and many biochemists, materials scientists, engineers, and physicists routinely use spectroscopic measurements and electronic structure computations in their work. The emphasis of Quantum Chemistry on explaining ideas rather than enumerating facts or presenting procedural details makes this an excellent foundation text/reference.

  12. "Who Dunnit?": Learning Chemistry and Critical Thinking through Hands-On Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetry, Chrysanthe; Nicoletti, Denise; Mix, Kimberlee; O'Connor, Kerri; Martin, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates how forensic science can be used as a framework for generating student interest and learning in chemistry and promoting critical thinking. The "Who Dunnit?" forensic science workshop was developed by undergraduate students and is one element of a two-week residential summer outreach program that seeks to develop interest in…

  13. Electric Vehicles. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydos, John E., Comp.

    This document reviews the literature in the collections of the Library of Congress on electric vehicles. Not intended as a comprehensive bibliography, this guide is designed as the title implies, to put the reader "on target." This is of greatest utility to the beginning student of the topic. (AA)

  14. Analytical Chemistry and Measurement Science: (What Has DOE Done for Analytical Chemistry?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, W. D.

    1989-04-01

    Over the past forty years, analytical scientists within the DOE complex have had a tremendous impact on the field of analytical chemistry. This paper suggests six "high impact" research/development areas that either originated within or were brought to maturity within the DOE laboratories. "High impact" means they lead to new subdisciplines or to new ways of doing business.

  15. Liaison activities with the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences: FY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences is conducting a program of fundamental and applied research into the chemistry of the actinides and technetium in alkaline media such as are present in the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. This work is being coordinated and the results disseminated through a technical liaison maintained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The technical liaison is performing laboratory studies on plutonium chemistry in alkaline media. The activities at the Institute of Physical Chemistry and through the liaison are pursued to improve understanding of the chemical behavior of key long-lived radioactive elements under current operating and proposed tank waste processing conditions. Both activities are supported by the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program under the Office of Science and Technology of the U.S. Department of Energy

  16. Technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Academy of Science)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-12-01

    The Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science (IPC/RAS) is engaged by the DOE to conduct studies of the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium elements (TRU; primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium; Np, Pu, Am) and technetium T c in alkaline media. This work is being supported by the DOE because the radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at DOE sites (Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge) contain TRU and T c , are alkaline, and the chemistries of TRU and T c are not well developed in this system. Previous studies at the IPC/RAS centered on the fundamental chemistry and on coprecipitation. Work continuing in FY 1996 will focus more on the applied chemistry of the TRU and T c in alkaline media and continue effort on the coprecipitation task

  17. Towards Eco-reflexive Science Education. A Critical Reflection About Educational Implications of Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper; Eilks, Ingo; Zuin, Vânia G.

    2016-05-01

    The modern world can be described as a globalized risk society. It is characterized by increasing complexity, unpredictable consequences of techno-scientific innovations and production, and its environmental consequences. Therefore, chemistry, just like many other knowledge areas, is in an ongoing process of environmentalization. For example, green chemistry has emerged as a new chemical metadiscipline and movement. The philosophy of green chemistry was originally based on a suggestion of twelve principles for environment-friendly chemistry research and production. The present article problematizes limitations in green chemistry when it comes to education. It argues that the philosophy of green chemistry in the context of education needs to be extended with socio-critical perspectives to form educated professionals and citizens who are able to understand the complexity of the world, to make value-based decisions, and to become able to engage more thoroughly in democratic decision-making on sustainability issues. Different versions of sustainability-oriented science/chemistry education are discussed to sharpen a focus on the most complex type, which is Bildung-oriented, focusing emancipation and leading to eco-reflexive education. The term eco- reflexive is used for a problematizing stance towards the modern risk society, an understanding of the complexity of life and society and their interactions, and a responsibility for individual and collective actions towards socio-ecojustice and global sustainability. The philosophical foundation and characteristics of eco-reflexive science education are sketched on in the article.

  18. A review of boiling water reactor water chemistry: Science, technology, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, M.J.

    1989-02-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) water chemistry (science, technology, and performance) has been reviewed with an emphasis on the relationships between BWR water quality and corrosion fuel performance, and radiation buildup. A comparison of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.56, the Boiling Water Reactor Owners Group (BWROG) Water Chemistry Guidelines, and Plant Technical Specifications showed that the BWROG Guidelines are more stringent than the NRC Regulatory Guide, which is almost identical to Plant Technical Specifications. Plant performance with respect to BWR water chemistry has shown dramatic improvements in recent years. Up until 1979 BWRs experienced an average of 3.0 water chemistry incidents per reactor-year. Since 1979 the water chemistry technical specifications have been violated an average of only 0.2 times per reactor-year, with the most recent data from 1986-1987 showing only 0.05 violations per reactor-year. The data clearly demonstrate the industry-wide commitment to improving water quality in BWRs. In addition to improving water quality, domestic BWRs are beginning to switch to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC), a remedy for intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Three domestic BWRs are presently operating on HWC, and fourteen more have either performed HWC mini tests or are in various stages of HWC implementation. This report includes a detailed review of HWC science and technology as well as areas in which further research on BWR chemistry may be needed. 43 refs., 30 figs., 8 tabs

  19. Ultrafast phenomena in molecular sciences femtosecond physics and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bañares, Luis

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the latest developments in Femtosecond Chemistry and Physics for the study of ultrafast photo-induced molecular processes. Molecular systems, from the simplest H2 molecule to polymers or biological macromolecules, constitute central objects of interest for Physics, Chemistry and Biology, and despite the broad range of phenomena that they exhibit, they share some common behaviors. One of the most significant of those is that many of the processes involving chemical transformation (nuclear reorganization, bond breaking, bond making) take place in an extraordinarily short time, in or around the femtosecond temporal scale (1 fs = 10-15 s). A number of experimental approaches - very particularly the developments in the generation and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses - coupled with theoretical progress, provide the ultrafast scientist with powerful tools to understand matter and its interaction with light, at this spatial and temporal scale. This book is an attempt to reunite some of the ...

  20. Westinghouse Electric Company experiences in chemistry on-line monitoring in Eastern European nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balavage, J.

    2001-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Company has provided a number of Chemistry On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Systems to Nuclear Power Plants in Eastern Europe. Eleven systems were provided to the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant in the south of the Czech Republic. Four systems were provided to the Russian NPP at Novovoronezh. In addition, a system design was developed for primary side chemistry monitoring for units 5 and 6 of another eastern European VVER. The status of the Temelin OLM systems is discussed including updates to the Temelin designs, and the other Eastern European installations and designs are also described briefly. Some of the problems encountered and lessons learned from these projects are also discussed. (R.P.)

  1. Surface Chemistry of CWAs for Decon Enabling Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    This work was followed by investigations of organophosphate CWA decomposition on alumina.37 In addition, Wagner and colleagues have employed solid...is coupled to a 1,500 cfm Venturi blower (McMaster- Carr ). This design provides a constant negative pressure inside the vacuum chamber and is...G. W.; Koper, O. B.; Lucas, E.; Decker, S.; Klabunde, K. J. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2000 , 104, 5118. (41) Wagner, G. W.; Procell, L. R

  2. Chemistry and Materials Science, 1990--1991. [Second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, T.T.; Bruner, J.M.; McElroy, L.A. [eds.

    1991-12-31

    This 2-year (FY 1990-91) contains 49 technical articles in ten sections: research sampler, metals and alloys, energetic materials, chemistry and physics of advanced materials, bonding and reactions at surfaces and interfaces, superconductivity, energy R and D, waste processing and management, characterization and analysis, and facilities and instrumentation. Two more sections list department personnel, their publications etc., consultants, and summary of department budgets. The articles are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Science and Chemistry Textbooks for Indicators of Reform: A complementary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Ajda

    2010-07-01

    In this study, multiple thematically based and quantitative analysis procedures were utilized to explore the effectiveness of Turkish chemistry and science textbooks in terms of their reflection of reform. The themes gender equity, questioning level, science vocabulary load, and readability level provided the conceptual framework for the analyses. An unobtrusive research method, content analysis, was used by coding the manifest content and counting the frequency of words, photographs, drawings, and questions by cognitive level. The context was an undergraduate chemistry teacher preparation program at a large public university in a metropolitan area in northwestern Turkey. Forty preservice chemistry teachers were guided to analyze 10 middle school science and 10 high school chemistry textbooks. Overall, the textbooks included unfair gender representations, a considerably higher number of input and processing than output level questions, and high load of science terminology. The textbooks failed to provide sufficient empirical evidence to be considered as gender equitable and inquiry-based. The quantitative approach employed for evaluation contrasts with a more interpretive approach, and has the potential in depicting textbook profiles in a more reliable way, complementing the commonly employed qualitative procedures. Implications suggest that further work in this line is needed on calibrating the analysis procedures with science textbooks used in different international settings. The procedures could be modified and improved to meet specific evaluation needs. In the Turkish context, next step research may concern the analysis of science textbooks being rewritten for the reform-based curricula to make cross-comparisons and evaluate a possible progression.

  4. A chemistry and material perspective on lithium redox flow batteries towards high-density electrical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Ding, Yu; Li, Yutao; Peng, Lele; Byon, Hye Ryung; Goodenough, John B; Yu, Guihua

    2015-11-21

    Electrical energy storage system such as secondary batteries is the principle power source for portable electronics, electric vehicles and stationary energy storage. As an emerging battery technology, Li-redox flow batteries inherit the advantageous features of modular design of conventional redox flow batteries and high voltage and energy efficiency of Li-ion batteries, showing great promise as efficient electrical energy storage system in transportation, commercial, and residential applications. The chemistry of lithium redox flow batteries with aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte enables widened electrochemical potential window thus may provide much greater energy density and efficiency than conventional redox flow batteries based on proton chemistry. This Review summarizes the design rationale, fundamentals and characterization of Li-redox flow batteries from a chemistry and material perspective, with particular emphasis on the new chemistries and materials. The latest advances and associated challenges/opportunities are comprehensively discussed.

  5. Relativistic quantum chemistry the fundamental theory of molecular science

    CERN Document Server

    Reiher, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Einstein proposed his theory of special relativity in 1905. For a long time it was believed that this theory has no significant impact on chemistry. This view changed in the 1970s when it was realized that (nonrelativistic) Schrödinger quantum mechanics yields results on molecular properties that depart significantly from experimental results. Especially when heavy elements are involved, these quantitative deviations can be so large that qualitative chemical reasoning and understanding is affected. For this to grasp the appropriate many-electron theory has rapidly evolved. Nowadays relativist

  6. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    theory as applied to biological systems. ... methods to follow the course of chemical reactions devised by. K Fukui and R .... optimize the structure of organic molecules using classical-em- pirical potential ..... science or engineering dis- ciplines.

  7. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  8. Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskokovíc, Vuk

    2010-11-01

    In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability at the roots of the chemical design; (c) defining science from a philosophical perspective that acknowledges both pragmatic and realistic aspects thereof; (d) instigating interdisciplinary research; (e) learning to recognize and appreciate the aesthetic aspects of scientific knowledge and methodology, and promote truly inspiring education in chemistry. In the conclusion, I recapitulate that the evolution of human knowledge inherently depends upon our ability to adopt creative problem-solving attitudes, and that challenges will always be present within the scope of scientific interests.

  9. Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences (by Raymond Chang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Andrew

    2001-05-01

    This book does offer an alternative approach to physical chemistry that is particularly well suited for those who want to pursue a course of study more focused on the biological sciences. It could also be an excellent choice for schools that mainly serve preprofessional programs or for schools that have split physical chemistry tracks to independently serve the B.S. and B.A. degrees. Since the book focuses on single-variable mathematics, schools that require only one year of calculus for their chemistry degree could also think about adopting it. However, in general, the use of the text as a drop-in replacement for physical chemistry for the B.S. degree is questionable owing to its lack of focus on quantum mechanics and its implications for spectroscopy.

  10. The Effect of Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiments on Science Education Students' Chemistry Laboratory Attitudes, Anxiety and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to search the effect of guided inquiry laboratory experiments on students' attitudes towards chemistry laboratory, chemistry laboratory anxiety and their academic achievement in the laboratory. The study has been carried out with 37 third-year, undergraduate science education students, as a part of their Science Education Laboratory…

  11. The Effect of Using 3E, 5E Learning Cycle in General Chemistry Laboratory to Prospective Scinence Teachers’ Attitude and Perceptions to the Science, Chemistry and Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Fatih; Çelikler, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the emerging changes in prospective science teachers" attitudes and perceptions towards science, chemistry and laboratory resulting from the implementation of 3E. 5E learning cycles and traditional instruction in laboratory environment in which learning is achieved by doing and experiencing. The study included 74 first grade prospective science teachers from Ondokuz Mayıs University at the Department of Science Education. In the study, quasi-experimental pr...

  12. Nature of Science Instruction to Turkish Prospective Chemistry Teachers: The Effect of Explicit-Reflective Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglarci, Oya; Sariçayir, Hakan; Sahin, Musa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of explicit-reflective nature of science (NOS) instruction on Turkish prospective chemistry teachers' (PCTs) views of NOS. In the research, case study as a qualitative design was used and PCTs' views were examined thoroughly. The participants of the study consisted of 22 senior PCTs. Data…

  13. Challenging Gifted Learners: General Principles for Science Educators; and Exemplification in the Context of Teaching Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern in some counties about the number of able young people entering degree level study and careers in physical science, including chemistry. Too few of the most talented young people are selecting "STEM" subjects to ensure the future supply of scientists, engineers and related professionals. The present paper sets out general…

  14. Development and Nature of Preservice Chemistry Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdögen, Betül; Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Köseoglu, Fitnat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to delve into the complexities of the early development of preservice chemistry teachers' science teaching orientations, knowledge of learners, knowledge of instructional strategies, and knowledge of assessment during a two-semester intervention designed to enhance their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for…

  15. Gifted Education in the Enabling Sciences with a Particular Emphases on Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Anisuzzaman

    2017-01-01

    The article provides syntheses and critical analyses of literature, creative insights, fruitful information, reflections on gifted education perspectives, and discusses the pertinent issues related to enabling sciences, with a particular focus on chemistry. The misconceptions among the gifted students, and a range of pedagogical approaches to…

  16. Analysis Science Process Skills Content in Chemistry Textbooks Grade XI at Solubility and Solubility Product Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Antrakusuma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the analysis of science process skills in textbooks of chemistry grade XI in SMA N 1 Teras, Boyolali. This research used the descriptive method. The instruments were developed based on 10 indicators of science process skills (observing, classifying, finding a conclusion, predicting, raising the question, hypothesizing, planning an experiment, manipulating materials, and equipment, Applying, and communicating. We analyzed 3 different chemistry textbooks that often used by teachers in teaching. The material analyzed in the book was solubility and solubility product concept in terms of concept explanation and student activity. The results of this research showed different science process skill criteria in 3 different chemistry textbooks. Book A appeared 50% of all aspects of science process skills, in Book B appeared 80% of all aspects of science process skills, and in Book C there was 40% of all aspects of the science process skills. The most common indicator in all books was observing (33.3%, followed by prediction (19.05%, classifying (11.90%, Applying (11.90% , planning experiments (9.52%, manipulating materials and equipment (7.14%, finding conclusion (4.76%, communicating (2.38%. Asking the question and hypothesizing did not appear in textbooks.

  17. Impact of Theoretical Chemistry on Chemical and Biological Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 3 · Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 3. March 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  18. The Development of Dalton's Atomic Theory as a Case Study in the History of Science: Reflections for Educators in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Helio Elael Bonini; Porto, Paulo Alves

    2010-01-01

    The inclusion of the history of science in science curricula--and specially, in the curricula of science teachers--is a trend that has been followed in several countries. The reasons advanced for the study of the history of science are manifold. This paper presents a case study in the history of chemistry, on the early developments of John…

  19. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  20. An Unprecedented Revolution in Medicinal Chemistry Driven by the Progress of Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-01-01

    The eternal or ultimate goal of medicinal chemistry is to find most effective ways to treat various diseases and extend human beings' life as long as possible. Human being is a biological entity. To realize such an ultimate goal, the inputs or breakthroughs from the advances in biological science are no doubt most important that may even drive medicinal science into a revolution. In this review article, we are to address this from several different angles. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Chemistry and Materials Science progress report, first half FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    This report contains sections on: Fundamentals of the physics and processing of metals; interfaces, adhesion, and bonding; energetic materials; plutonium research; synchrotron radiation-based materials science; atomistic approach to the interaction of surfaces with the environment: actinide studies; properties of carbon fibers; buried layer formation using ion implantation; active coherent control of chemical reaction dynamics; inorganic and organic aerogels; synthesis and characterization of melamine-formaldehyde aerogels; structural transformation and precursor phenomena in advanced materials; magnetic ultrathin films, surfaces, and overlayers; ductile-phase toughening of refractory-metal intermetallics; particle-solid interactions; electronic structure evolution of metal clusters; and nanoscale lithography induced chemically or physically by modified scanned probe microscopy

  2. Representation of Science Process Skills in the Chemistry Curricula for Grades 10, 11 and 12 / Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Aydin

    2013-01-01

    In one study conducted in Turkey, Berberoğlu et al. (2002) stressed that methods of designing and implementing especially laboratory experiments should inevitably be focused on developing one’s higher-level mental skills. (Berberoğlu et al., 2002). It was suggested in a study by Koray et al. (2006) entitled as “Conditions of Representing Science Process Skills in 9th grade Chemistry Course Books and Chemistry Curriculums” that scientific process abilities should be given more place in Chemist...

  3. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  4. Development and Nature of Preservice Chemistry Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdöğen, Betül; Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Köseoğlu, Fitnat

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this case study is to delve into the complexities of the early development of preservice chemistry teachers' science teaching orientations, knowledge of learners, knowledge of instructional strategies, and knowledge of assessment during a two-semester intervention designed to enhance their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching nature of science (NOS). Thirty preservice chemistry teachers enrolled in a Research in Science Education course participated in the study. Qualitative data sources included responses to an open-ended instrument, interviews, observations, and artifacts such as lesson plans and reflection papers. Through the in-depth analysis of explicit PCK and constant comparative method of analysis, we identified the influence of the intervention on participants' PCK for NOS. Analysis of data revealed four major themes related to the nature of preservice chemistry teachers' NOS teaching practices and their PCK for NOS: (1) prerequisite knowledge and beliefs are necessary to teach NOS, (2) there is a developmental progression of PCK for NOS from knowledge to application level, (3) teachers need some comfort in their NOS understanding to teach NOS, and (4) the higher integration of PCK components leads to successful NOS teaching practices. Implications for science teacher education and research are discussed.

  5. Recent Electric Propulsion Development Activities for NASA Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    (The primary source of electric propulsion development throughout NASA is managed by the In-Space Propulsion Technology Project at the NASA Glenn Research Center for the Science Mission Directorate. The objective of the Electric Propulsion project area is to develop near-term electric propulsion technology to enhance or enable science missions while minimizing risk and cost to the end user. Major hardware tasks include developing NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), developing a long-life High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HIVHAC), developing an advanced feed system, and developing cross-platform components. The objective of the NEXT task is to advance next generation ion propulsion technology readiness. The baseline NEXT system consists of a high-performance, 7-kW ion thruster; a high-efficiency, 7-kW power processor unit (PPU); a highly flexible advanced xenon propellant management system (PMS); a lightweight engine gimbal; and key elements of a digital control interface unit (DCIU) including software algorithms. This design approach was selected to provide future NASA science missions with the greatest value in mission performance benefit at a low total development cost. The objective of the HIVHAC task is to advance the Hall thruster technology readiness for science mission applications. The task seeks to increase specific impulse, throttle-ability and lifetime to make Hall propulsion systems applicable to deep space science missions. The primary application focus for the resulting Hall propulsion system would be cost-capped missions, such as competitively selected, Discovery-class missions. The objective of the advanced xenon feed system task is to demonstrate novel manufacturing techniques that will significantly reduce mass, volume, and footprint size of xenon feed systems over conventional feed systems. This task has focused on the development of a flow control module, which consists of a three-channel flow system based on a piezo-electrically actuated

  6. Mathematics, chemistry and science connection as a basis of scientific thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Matúš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific thinking is a basic skill that can support problemsolving of interdisciplinary tasks in science. Our research is leading us to creation of materials and resources that will support this interdisciplinary approach to education. The research includes interviews with high-school teachers of mathematics, chemistry and science, item analysis of extensive testing of knowledge and skills of high school students in chemistry in Czech Republic, follow-up survey of students’ problem-solving processes in tasks requiring the use of combined knowledge of mathematics and chemistry and the creation of educational materials. The article contains a few examples of proposed educational materials. The effectiveness of created materials is verified in high-schools. Students have got the most difficulties applying algebraic calculations in chemistry, using proportions, solving equations, expressing the unknown, the spatial imagination, geometry and stereometry and the resulting arrangement of atoms and shapes of molecules, chemical analytical tasks with logical thinking, interpretation of information from graphs and tables, plotting measured values into graphs and statistical evaluation.

  7. Radiation chemistry from basics to applications in material and life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, J.; Mostafavi, M.; Douki, Th.; Spotheim-Maurizot, M.

    2008-01-01

    This book gives a progress report on the many and original contributions of radiation chemistry to the fundamental knowledge of the vast domain of chemical reactions and its applications. Radiation chemistry techniques indeed make it possible to elucidate detailed physicochemical mechanisms in inorganic and organic chemistry (including in space) and in biochemistry. Moreover, this comprehension is applied in materials science to precisely control syntheses by radiation, such as radiopolymerization, radio-grafting, specific treatment of surfaces (textiles, paintings, inks,..), synthesis of complex nano-materials, degradation of environmental pollutants and radioresistance of materials for nuclear reactors. In life sciences, the study of the effects of radiation on bio-macromolecules (DNA, proteins, lipids) not only permits the comprehension of normal or pathological biological mechanisms, but also the improvement of our health. In particular, many advances in cancer radiotherapy, in the radioprotection of nuclear workers and the general population, as well as in the treatment of diseases and the radiosterilization of drugs, could be obtained thanks to this research. Abundantly illustrated and written in English by top international specialists who have taken care to render the subjects accessible, this work will greatly interest those curious about a scientific field that is new to them and students attracted by the original and multidisciplinary aspects of the field. At a time when radiation chemistry research is experiencing spectacular development in numerous countries, this book will attract newcomers to the field. (authors)

  8. Liaison activities with the Institute of Physcial Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Midyear report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1996-01-01

    The task 'IPC/RAS Liaison and Tank Waste Testing' is a program being conducted in fiscal year (FY) 1996 with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology, EM-53 Efficient Separations and Processing (ESP) Crosscutting Program, under the technical task plan (TTP) RLA6C342. The principal investigator is Cal Delegard of the Westinghouse Hanford Company. The task involves a technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPC/RAS) and their DOE-supported investigations into the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium elements (primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium) and technetium in at sign ine media. The task has three purposes: 1. Providing technical information and technical direction to the IPC/RAS. 2. Disseminating IPC/RAS data and information to the DOE technical community. 3. Verifying IPC/RAS results through laboratory testing and comparison with published data

  9. Using Self-Reflection To Increase Science Process Skills in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, William R.; Taylor, Dawne; Rogers, Amy L.

    2009-03-01

    Self-reflection is a tool of instruction that has been used in the science classroom. Research has shown great promise in using video as a learning tool in the classroom. However, the integration of self-reflective practice using video in the general chemistry laboratory to help students develop process skills has not been done. Immediate video feedback and direct instruction were employed in a general chemistry laboratory course to improve students' mastery and understanding of basic and advanced process skills. Qualitative results and statistical analysis of quantitative data proved that self-reflection significantly helped students develop basic and advanced process skills, yet did not seem to influence the general understanding of the science content.

  10. On the Effect of Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry on the Electrical Characteristics of Epoxy-Based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Yeung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nanosilica surface chemistry on the electrical behavior of epoxy-based nanocomposites is described. The nanosilica was reacted with different volumes of (3-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and the efficacy of the process was demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy and combustion analysis. Nanocomposites containing 2 wt % of nanosilica were prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, AC ramp electrical breakdown testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and dielectric spectroscopy. SEM examination indicated that, although the nanoparticle dispersion improved somewhat as the degree of surface functionalization increased, all samples nevertheless contained agglomerates. Despite the non-ideal nature of the samples, major improvements in breakdown strength (from 182 ± 5 kV·mm−1 to 268 ± 12 kV·mm−1 were observed in systems formulated from optimally treated nanosilicas. DSC studies of the glass transition revealed no evidence for any modified interphase regions between the nanosilica and the matrix, but interfacial effects were evident in the dielectric spectra. In particular, changes in the magnitude of the real part of the permittivity and variations in the interfacial α′-relaxation suggest that the observed changes in breakdown performance stem from variations in the polar character of the nanosilica surface, which may affect the local density of trapping states and, thereby, charge transport dynamics.

  11. Using a multicultural approach to teach chemistry and the nature of science to undergraduate non-majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Peter; Boesdorfer, Sarah B.; Hunter, William

    2012-09-01

    This research documents the creation, implementation, and evaluation of a novel chemistry curriculum. The curriculum allowed students to create theories situated in a variety of cultures while they investigated chemical phenomena central to all civilizations; it was a way of synthesizing chemistry, the history and nature of science, inquiry, and multicultural education. Achieving both chemistry content and nature of science objectives were the main goals of the curriculum. A small sample of undergraduate students participated in the curriculum instead of attending a large lecture course. The novel curriculum covered the same chemistry topics as the large lecture course. Program efficacy was evaluated using a combination of grades, survey data, and interviews with the participating undergraduates. The results suggest that this curriculum was a successful start at engaging students and teaching them chemistry as well as nature of science concepts.

  12. The IUPAC International Congresses of Pesticide Chemistry (1963-2014) and Pest Management Science: a half-century of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gerald T

    2014-08-01

    As we approach the 2014 San Francisco IUPAC Pesticide Chemistry Congress, we reflect on the 51 years of such congresses every 4 years since 1963. Meanwhile, our journal, Pesticide Science/Pest Management Science, has in parallel continually published relevant science for nearly as long (44 years from 1970). © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  14. Very high temperature chemistry: Science justification for containerless experimentation in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, William H.; Nordine, Paul

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of the justification for application of containerless processing in space to high temperature science. Low earth orbit offers a gravitational environment that allows samples to be positioned in an experimental apparatus by very small forces. Well controlled experiments become possible on reactive materials at high temperatures in a reasonably quiescent state and without container contamination. This provides an opportunity to advance the science of high temperature chemistry that can only be realized with a commitment by NASA to provide advanced facilities for in-space containerless study of materials at very high temperature.

  15. Using a Multicultural Approach to Teach Chemistry and the Nature of Science to Undergraduate Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Peter; Boesdorfer, Sarah B.; Hunter, William

    2012-01-01

    This research documents the creation, implementation, and evaluation of a novel chemistry curriculum. The curriculum allowed students to create theories situated in a variety of cultures while they investigated chemical phenomena central to all civilizations; it was a way of synthesizing chemistry, the history and nature of science, inquiry, and…

  16. A Framework for Understanding Student Nurses' Experience of Chemistry as Part of a Health Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddey, Kerrie; de Berg, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Twenty-seven first-year nursing students, divided across six focus groups formed on the basis of their past chemistry experience, were interviewed about their chemistry experience as a component of a Health Science unit. Information related to learning and academic performance was able to be established from student conversations resulting in…

  17. Forensic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  18. Synergistic responses of superficial chemistry and micro topography of titanium created by wire-type electric discharge machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Yu; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Wire-type electric discharge machining has been applied to the manufacture of endosseous titanium implants as this computer associated technique allows extremely accurate complex sample shaping with an optimal micro textured surface during the processing. Since the titanium oxide layer is sensitively altered by each processing, the authors hypothesized that this technique also up-regulates biological responses through the synergistic effects of the superficial chemistry and micro topography. To evaluate the respective in vitro cellular responses on the superficial chemistry and micro topography of titanium surface processed by wire-type electric discharge, we used titanium-coated epoxy resin replica of the surface. An oxide layer on the titanium surface processed by wire-type electric discharge activated the initial responses of osteoblastic cells through an integrin-mediated mechanism. Since the mRNA expression of ALP on those replicas was up-regulated compared to smooth titanium samples, the micro topography of a titanium surface processed by wire-type electric discharge promotes the osteogenic potential of cells. The synergistic response of the superficial chemistry and micro topography of titanium processed by wire-type electric discharge was demonstrated in this study.

  19. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science program report, Weapons Resarch and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, L.

    1997-03-01

    This report is the annual progress report for the Chemistry Materials Science Program: Weapons Research and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development. Twenty-one projects are described separately by their principal investigators.

  20. The contributions of Faraday and Maxwell to electrical science

    CERN Document Server

    Tricker, R A R

    1966-01-01

    The Contributions of Faraday and Maxwell to Electrical Science deals with the development of electromagnetic theory following the establishment of the basis for the first law of circulation relating to the magnetic fields generated by steady currents. This book is organized into two parts encompassing nine chapters that specifically treat the provision of the basis for the second law of circulation, the law that deals with the induction of currents, which was predominantly the work of British physicists, Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Part I highlights their life, career, and contri

  1. Lifecycle comparison of selected Li-ion battery chemistries under grid and electric vehicle duty cycle combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alasdair J.; Huang, Qian; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Reed, David M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon

    2018-03-01

    Li-ion batteries are expected to play a vital role in stabilizing the electrical grid as solar and wind generation capacity becomes increasingly integrated into the electric infrastructure. This article describes how two different commercial Li-ion batteries based on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiFePO4 (LFP) chemistries were tested under grid duty cycles recently developed for two specific grid services: (1) frequency regulation (FR) and (2) peak shaving (PS) with and without being subjected to electric vehicle (EV) drive cycles. The lifecycle comparison derived from the capacity, round-trip efficiency (RTE), resistance, charge/discharge energy, and total used energy of the two battery chemistries are discussed. The LFP chemistry shows better stability for the energy-intensive PS service, while the NCA chemistry is more conducive to the FR service under the operating regimes investigated. The results can be used as a guideline for selection, deployment, operation, and cost analyses of Li-ion batteries used for different applications.

  2. Increasing character value and conservation behavior through integrated ethnoscience chemistry in chemistry learning: A Case Study in The Department of Science Universitas Negeri Semarang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarmin; Sumarni, Woro

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a factual picture of the improvement of students' conservation character and conservation behavior through the application integrated ethnoscience chemistry learning. This research was a case study on students majoring in the Department Of Science Mathematics and Natural Science Faculty Universitas Negeri Semarang. The subjects of the study were 30 students attending ethnoscience course in one of the teacher education institutions in the even semester of the academic year of 2016/2017. The subjects were given chemistry learning integrated into ethnoscience for eight weeks. The technique of data collection was done by using attitude scale arranged based on Likert scale. The data were analyzed by using qualitative descriptive. The results showed that the integrated ethnoscience chemistry learning contributed positively to the improvement of the character value and conservation behavior

  3. Validity of Scientific Based Chemistry Android Module to Empower Science Process Skills (SPS) in Solubility Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrakusuma, B.; Masykuri, M.; Ulfa, M.

    2018-04-01

    Evolution of Android technology can be applied to chemistry learning, one of the complex chemistry concept was solubility equilibrium. this concept required the science process skills (SPS). This study aims to: 1) Characteristic scientific based chemistry Android module to empowering SPS, and 2) Validity of the module based on content validity and feasibility test. This research uses a Research and Development approach (RnD). Research subjects were 135 s1tudents and three teachers at three high schools in Boyolali, Central of Java. Content validity of the module was tested by seven experts using Aiken’s V technique, and the module feasibility was tested to students and teachers in each school. Characteristics of chemistry module can be accessed using the Android device. The result of validation of the module contents got V = 0.89 (Valid), and the results of the feasibility test Obtained 81.63% (by the student) and 73.98% (by the teacher) indicates this module got good criteria.

  4. Chemistry as the defining science: discipline and training in nineteenth-century chemical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Catherine M

    2011-06-01

    The institutional revolution has become a major landmark of late-nineteenth century science, marking the rapid construction of large, institutional laboratories which transformed scientific training and practice. Although it has served historians of physics well, the institutional revolution has proved much more contentious in the case of chemistry. I use published sources, mainly written by chemists and largely focused on laboratories built in German-speaking lands between about 1865 and 1900, to show that chemical laboratory design was inextricably linked to productive practice, large-scale pedagogy and disciplinary management. I argue that effective management of the novel risks inherent in teaching and doing organic synthesis was significant in driving and shaping the construction of late-nineteenth century institutional chemical laboratories, and that these laboratories were essential to the disciplinary development of chemistry. Seen in this way, the laboratory necessarily becomes part of the material culture of late-nineteenth century chemistry, and I show how this view leads not only to a revision of what is usually known as the laboratory revolution in chemistry but also to a new interpretation of the institutional revolution in physics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictors of science success: The impact of motivation and learning strategies on college chemistry performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrentz, Shari B.

    As the number of college students studying science continues to grow, it is important to identify variables that predict their success. The literature indicates that motivation and learning strategy use facilitate science success. Research findings show these variables can change throughout a semester and differ by performance level, gender and ethnicity. However, significant predictors of performance vary by research study and by group. The current study looks beyond the traditional predictors of grade point averages, SAT scores and completion of advanced placement (AP) chemistry to consider a comprehensive set of variables not previously investigated within the same study. Research questions address the predictive ability of motivation constructs and learning strategies for success in introductory college chemistry, how these variables change throughout a semester, and how they differ by performance level, gender and ethnicity. Participants were 413 introductory college chemistry students at a highly selective university in the southeast. Participants completed the Chemistry Motivation Questionnaire (CMQ) and Learning Strategies section of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) three times during the semester. Self-efficacy, effort regulation, assessment anxiety and previous achievement were significant predictors of chemistry course success. Levels of motivation changed with significant decreases in self-efficacy and increases in personal relevance and assessment anxiety. Learning strategy use changed with significant increases in elaboration, critical thinking, metacognitive self-regulation skills and peer learning, and significant decreases in time and study management and effort regulation. High course performers reported the highest levels of motivation and learning strategy use. Females reported lower intrinsic motivation, personal relevance, self-efficacy and critical thinking, and higher assessment anxiety, rehearsal and organization

  6. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 2. 3. Solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  7. The Effects of Online Homework on First Year Pre-Service Science Teachers' Learning Achievements of Introductory Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratniyom, Jadsada; Boonphadung, Suttipong; Unnanantn, Thassanant

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the introductory organic chemistry online homework on first year pre-service science teachers' learning achievements. The online homework was created using a web-based Google form in order to enhance the pre-service science teachers' learning achievements. The steps for constructing online homework were…

  8. Liaison activities with the Institute of Physical Chemistry/Russian Academy of Science Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-09-01

    Investigations into the chemistry of alkaline Hanford Site tank waste (TTP RL4-3-20-04) were conducted in Fiscal Year 1995 at Westinghouse Hanford Company under the support of the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (EM-53). The investigation had two main subtasks: liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science and further laboratory testing of the chemistry of thermal reconstitution of Hanford Site tank waste. Progress, which was achieved in the liaison subtask during Fiscal Year 1995, is summarized as follows: (1) A technical dialogue has been established with Institute scientists. (2) Editing was done on a technical literature review on the chemistry of transuranic elements and technetium in alkaline media written by researchers at the Institute. The report was issued in May 1995 as a Westinghouse Hanford Company document. (3) Four tasks from the Institute were selected for support by the U.S. Department of Energy. Work on three tasks commenced on 1 March 1995; the fourth task commenced on 1 April 1995. (4) Technical information describing the composition of Hanford Site tank waste was supplied to the Institute. (5) A program review of the four tasks was conducted at the Institute during a visit 25 August to 1 September, 1995. A lecture on the origin, composition, and proposed treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes was presented during this visit. Eight additional tasks were proposed by Institute scientists for support in Fiscal Year 1996. (6) A paper was presented at the Fifth International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation (ICEM'95) in Berlin, Germany on 3 to 9 September, 1995 on the solubility of actinides in alkaline media

  9. How Important are the Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions in Chemistry and Teaching Chemistry? A History and Philosophy of Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    The main objectives of this study are:(1) to elaborate a framework based on a rational reconstruction of developments that led to the formulation of the laws of definite and multiple proportions; (2) to ascertain students' views of the two laws; (3) to formulate criteria based on the framework for evaluating chemistry textbooks' treatment of the two laws; and (4) to provide a rationale for chemistry teachers to respond to the question: Can we teach chemistry without the laws of definite and multiple proportions? Results obtained show that most of the textbooks present the laws of definite and multiple proportions within an inductivist perspective, characterized by the following sequence: experimental findings showed that chemical elements combined in fixed/multiple proportions, followed by the formulation of the laws of definite and multiple proportions, and finally Dalton's atomic theory was postulated to explain the laws. Students were found to be reluctant to question the laws that they learnt as the building blocks of chemistry. It is concluded that by emphasizing the laws of definite and multiple proportions, textbooks inevitably endorse the dichotomy between theories and laws, which is questioned by philosophers of science (Lakatos 1970; Giere 1995a, b). An alternative approach is presented which shows that we can teach chemistry without the laws of definite and multiple proportions.

  10. Student understanding development in chemistry concepts through constructivist-informed laboratory and science camp process in secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathommapas, Nookorn

    2018-01-01

    Science Camp for Chemistry Concepts was the project which designed to provide local students with opportunities to apply chemistry concepts and thereby developing their 21st century skills. The three study purposes were 1) to construct and develop chemistry stations for encouraging students' understandings in chemistry concepts based on constructivist-informed laboratory, 2) to compare students' understandings in chemistry concepts before and after using chemistry learning stations, and 3) to study students' satisfactions of using their 21st century skills in science camp activities. The research samples were 67 students who attended the 1-day science camp. They were levels 10 to 11 students in SumsaoPittayakarn School, UdonThani Province, Thailand. Four constructivist-informed laboratory stations of chemistry concepts were designed for each group. Each station consisted of a chemistry scenario, a question, answers in tier 1 and supporting reasons in tier 2, and 4 sets of experimental instruments. Four to five-member subgroups of four student groups parallel participated in laboratory station for an hour in each station. Student activities in each station concluded of individual pretest, group prediction, experimental design, testing out and collection data, interpreting the results, group conclusion, and individual post-test. Data collection was done by station mentors using two-tier multiple choice questions, students' written work and interviews. Data triangulation was used for interpreting and confirming students' understandings of chemistry concepts which divided into five levels, Sound Understanding (SU), Partial Understanding (PU), Specific Misconception (SM), No Understanding (NU) and No Response (NR), before and after collaborating at each station. The study results found the following: 1) four constructivist-laboratory stations were successfully designed and used to investigate student' understandings in chemistry concepts via collaborative workshop of

  11. Kant and the nature of matter: Mechanics, chemistry, and the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaukroger, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Kant believed that the ultimate processes that regulate the behavior of material bodies can be characterized exclusively in terms of mechanics. In 1790, turning his attention to the life sciences, he raised a potential problem for his mechanically-based account, namely that many of the operations described in the life sciences seemed to operate teleologically. He argued that the life sciences do indeed require us to think in teleological terms, but that this is a fact about us, not about the processes themselves. Nevertheless, even were we to concede his account of the life sciences, this would not secure the credentials of mechanics as a general theory of matter. Hardly any material properties studied in the second half of the eighteenth century were, or could have been, conceived in mechanical terms. Kant's concern with teleology is tangential to the problems facing a general matter theory grounded in mechanics, for the most pressing issues have nothing to do with teleology. They derive rather from a lack of any connection between mechanical forces and material properties. This is evident in chemistry, which Kant dismisses as being unscientific on the grounds that it cannot be formulated in mechanical terms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Crisis, change and creativity in science and technology: chemistry in the aftermath of twentieth-century global wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the organising ideas behind the symposium "Chemistry in the Aftermath of World Wars," held at the 23rd International Congress of History of Science and Technology, Budapest, 2009, whose theme was "Ideas and Instruments in Social Context." After first recounting the origins of the notion of "crisis" as a decisive turning point in general history as well as in the history of science, the paper presents war and its aftermath as a form of crisis that may affect science and technology, including chemistry, in a variety of contexts and leading to a variety of types of change. The twentieth-century world wars were exemplary forms of crisis, whose aftermaths shaped the contexts for decisive changes in modern chemistry, which continue to offer challenging opportunities for historical research. In discussing these, the paper cites selected current literature and briefly describes how the individual papers of the symposium, including the three papers published in this volume, approached these challenges.

  13. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Chemical Instabilities : Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Baras, F

    1984-01-01

    On March 14-18, 1983 a workshop on "Chemical Instabilities: Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science" was held in Austin, Texas, U.S.A. It was organized jointly by the University of Texas at Austin and the Universite Libre de Bruxelles and sponsored qy NATO, NSF, the University of Texas at Austin, the International Solvay Institutes and the Ex­ xon Corporation. The present Volume includes most of the material of the in­ vited lectures delivered in the workshop as well as material from some posters, whose content was directly related to the themes of the invited lectures. In ,recent years, problems related to the stability and the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium systems invaded a great num­ ber of fields ranging from abstract mathematics to biology. One of the most striking aspects of this development is that subjects reputed to be "classical" and "well-established" like chemistry, turned out to give rise to a rich variety of phenomena leading to multiple steady states and...

  14. Metallurgical electrochemistry: the interface between materials science and molten salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Even though molten salt electrolysis finds application in the primary extraction of metals (electrowinning), the purification and recycling of metals (electrorefining), and in the formation of metal coatings (electroplating), the technology remains in many respects underexploited. Electrolysis in molten salts as well as other nonaqueous media has enormous potential for materials processing. First, owing to the special attributes of nonaqueous electrolytes electrochemical processing in these media has an important role to play in the generation of advanced materials, i.e., materials with specialized chemistries or tailored microstructures (electrosynthesis). Secondly, as environmental quality standards rise beyond the capabilities of classical metals extraction technologies to comply, molten salt electrolysis may prove to be the only acceptable route from ore to metal. Growing public awareness of pollution from the metals industry could stimulate a renaissance in molten salt electrochemistry. Challenges facing metallurgical electrochemistry as relates to the environment fall into two categories: (1) improving existing electrochemical technology, and (2) developing clean electrochemical technology to displace current nonelectrochemical technology. In both instances success hinges upon the discovery of advanced materials and the ecologically sound extraction of metals, the close coupling between materials science and molten salt chemistry is manifest. (author) 6 refs

  15. Bilingual encyclopedic dictionary English-Spanish in sciences: mining, chemistry, geology, metallurgic and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Maradona, M.; Bellini, R.; Busleiman, M.

    2007-01-01

    This dictionary has been designed to satisfy scientists, researchers, technicians, interpreters, translators and students needs in the areas of chemistry, geology, mining, metallurgy and environment if they find it necessary to have an English-Spanish encyclopedia for their sciences. It is a reliable book when looking for words that are normally not included in everyday dictionaries. It is now reaching the final revision stage with more than 15,000 entries. It includes scientific terms, chemical formulas of minerals and other elements, noticeable scientists biographies, tables, graphics, and images so as to help readers understanding. It is divided into three columns: the first one presents the English term and its area of concern; the second, the corresponding Spanish equivalent, and in the third, a suitable explanation In this work has been stablished a relation betwwen geological units and mineralizations related with the aim to understand the hydrochemistry in this area for future environmental impact

  16. Encyclopedic dictionary bilingual English-Spanish of sciences: mining, chemistry, geology, metallurgy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Maradona, M.; Bellini, M.; Busleiman, M.

    2007-01-01

    This dictionary has been designed to satisfy scientists, researchers, technicians, interpreters, translators and students' needs in the areas of chemistry, geology, mining, metallurgy and environment for they find it necessary to have an English- Spanish encyclopedia on their sciences. It is a reliable book when looking for words that are normally not included in everyday dictionaries. It is now reaching the final revision stage with more than 15,000 entries. It includes scientific terms, chemical formulas of minerals and other elements, noticeable scientists' biographies, tables, graphics, and images so as to help readers' understanding. It is divided into three columns: the first one presents the English term and its area of concern; the second, the corresponding Spanish equivalent, and in the third, a suitable explanation.(author)

  17. Supra-amphiphiles: a new bridge between colloidal science and supramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuetong; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Xi

    2014-06-03

    In addition to conventional amphiphiles, an emerging research area is supra-amphiphiles, which are constructed on the basis of noncovalent interactions and dynamic covalent bonds. In this feature article, we have provided a general introduction to the concept, design principles, and topologies of supra-amphiphiles, starting from some rationally tailored building blocks. In addition, we highlight some progress in the functional assembly of supra-amphiphiles, such as responsive nanoscale carriers, antibacterial and antitumor agents, fluorescent-based chemical sensors, and enzyme mimics. The supra-amphiphile is a new bridge between colloidal science and supramolecular chemistry, and it is a field where we can make full use of our imaginative power.

  18. The physical chemistry and materials science behind sinter-resistant catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yunqian; Lu, Ping; Cao, Zhenming; Campbell, Charles T; Xia, Younan

    2018-06-18

    Catalyst sintering, a main cause of the loss of catalytic activity and/or selectivity at high reaction temperatures, is a major concern and grand challenge in the general area of heterogeneous catalysis. Although all heterogeneous catalysts are inevitably subjected to sintering during their operation, the immediate and drastic consequences can be mitigated by carefully engineering the catalytic particles and their interactions with the supports. In this tutorial review, we highlight recent progress in understanding the physical chemistry and materials science involved in sintering, including the discussion of advanced techniques, such as in situ microscopy and spectroscopy, for investigating the sintering process and its rate. We also discuss strategies for the design and rational fabrication of sinter-resistant catalysts. Finally, we showcase recent success in improving the thermal stability and thus sinter resistance of supported catalytic systems.

  19. Radially and temporally resolved electric field of positive streamers in air and modelling of the induced plasma chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoder, T.; Šimek, Milan; Bonaventura, Z.; Prukner, Václav; Gordillo-Vázquez, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2016), č. článku 045021. ISSN 0963-0252 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100431201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : streamer * electric field * Blue Jet * air plasma chemistry * transient luminous event Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0963-0252/25/4/045021/meta

  20. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa

    2017-09-15

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  1. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa; Laref, Slimane; Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf Ewald

    2017-01-01

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  2. European analytical column No. 36 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Emons, Hendrik; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2008-01-01

    European analytical column no. 36 from the division of analytical chemistry (DAC) of the European association for chemical and molecular sciences (EuCheMS)......European analytical column no. 36 from the division of analytical chemistry (DAC) of the European association for chemical and molecular sciences (EuCheMS)...

  3. An Investigation of Zimbabwe High School Chemistry Students' Laboratory Work-Based Images of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vhurumuku, Elaosi; Holtman, Lorna; Mikalsen, Oyvind; Kolsto, Stein D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the proximal and distal images of the nature of science (NOS) that A-level students develop from their participation in chemistry laboratory work. We also explored the nature of the interactions among the students' proximal and distal images of the NOS and students' participation in laboratory work. Students' views of the…

  4. Support for chemistry symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting, February 17-21 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Charles [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2011-08-20

    This proposal supported Chemistry Symposia at the 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Meeting in Washington, DC February 17-21, 2011. The Chemistry Section of AAAS presented an unusually strong set of symposia for the 2011 AAAS meeting to help celebrate the 2011 International Year of Chemistry. The AAAS meeting provided an unusual opportunity to convey the excitement and importance of chemistry to a very broad audience and allowed access to a large contingent of the scientific press. Excellent suggestions for symposia were received from AAAS Chemistry Fellows and from the chairs of the American Chemical Society Technical Divisions. The AAAS Chemistry executive committee selected topics that would have wide appeal to scientists, the public, and the press for formal proposals of symposia. The symposia proposals were peer reviewed by AAAS. The Chemistry Section made a strong case to the program selection committee for approval of the chemistry symposia and 6 were approved for the 2011 annual meeting. The titles of the approved symposia were: (1) Powering the Planet: Generation of Clean Fuels from Sunlight and Water, (2) Biological Role and Consequences of Intrinsic Protein Disorder, (3) Chemically Speaking: How Organisms Talk to Each Other, (4) Molecular Self-Assembly and Artificial Molecular Machines, (5) Frontiers in Organic Materials for Information Processing, Energy and Sensors, and (6) Celebrating Marie Curie's 100th Anniversary of Her Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The Chemistry Section of AAAS is provided with funds to support only 1-2 symposia a year. Because of the much greater number of symposia approved in conjunction with observance of the 2011 International Year of Chemistry, additional support was sought from DOE to help support the 30 invited speakers and 8 symposia moderators/organizers. Support for the symposia provided the opportunity to highlight the excitement of current chemical research, to educate the public about

  5. For the love of learning science: Connecting learning orientation and career productivity in physics and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Tai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this paper: performance orientation or motivation to demonstrate one’s ability or performance to others, and learning orientation or motivation through the desire to learn about a topic. The data were obtained as part of Project Crossover, a mixed-methods study which focused on studying the transition from graduate student to scientist in the physical sciences and included a survey of members of two national professional physical science organizations. Using regression analysis on data from 2353 physicists and chemists, results indicate that physicists and chemists who reported a learning orientation as their motivation for going to graduate school were more productive, in terms of total career primary and/or first-author publications and grant funding, than those reporting a performance orientation. Furthermore, given equal salary, learning-oriented individuals produced more primary and/or first-author publications than their nonlearning oriented counterparts.

  6. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  7. Student's Need Analysis for the Development of Chemistry Modules Based Guided Inquiry to Improve Science Process Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Arantika

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Science process skills (SPS are an important aspect of learning science. SPS help students to develop creativity in learning. Process skills such as observing, formulating questions, interpreting, experimenting, hypothesizing, applying concepts, and communicating. This study aims to analyze the need for development resources needs of science filled with science process skills. Requirement analysis of the development of teaching materials with the skill of the process of science needs to be done because the textbook is the reference a teacher in the class. The subjects matter of chemistry the study was three senior high schools in Sambas, West Borneo. Needs analysis conducted using a qualitative approach, in terms of needs in classroom learning and content of process skills on teaching materials. Data were collected by interviews and questionnaires were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that as many as 27 percents of students perceive the book used in learning has not yet trained the science process skills. As many as 73 percents of students perceive that they need instructional materials in the form of inquiry-based chemistry modules to improve science process skills. Modules are developed based guided inquiry for having guided inquiry learning stages that can practice students' science process skills.

  8. Argonne Chemical Sciences & Engineering - Center for Electrical Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Chemical Sciences & Engineering DOE Logo CSE Home About CSE Research Facilities People Publications Awards News & Highlights Events Search Argonne ... Search Argonne Home > Chemical Sciences & Engineering > Fundamental Interactions Catalysis & Energy Conversion Electrochemical

  9. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.4--Nuclear chemistry and radiation chemistry sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 24 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the fourth one, the content is about Nuclear chemistry and radiation chemistry sub-volume

  10. Workshop of Advanced Science Research Center, JAERI. Nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry of superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Katsuhisa; Nishinaka, Ichiro; Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Nagame, Yuichiro

    2004-03-01

    A liquid drop model predicts that the fission barrier of a nucleus whose atomic number (Z) is larger than 106 disappears, so that such heavier nuclei as Z > 106 cannot exist. The shell effect, however, drastically changes structure of the fission barrier and stabilizes nucleus against fission, predicting the presence of super heavy element (SHE, Z=114-126) with measurable half-life. In the SHE region, a wave function of outermost electron of an atom, which controls chemical properties of an elements, is disturbed or changed by relativistic effects compared to the one from the non-relativistic model. This suggests that the SHEs have different chemical properties from those of lighter elements belonging to the same family. The chemistry of SHEs requires event by event analysis to reveal their chemical properties, thus is called 'atom-at-a-time chemistry'. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been investigating fusion mechanism between heavy nuclei to find out favorable reactions to produce SHE by using JAERI-tandem and booster accelerator. In the JAERI-tandem facility, isotopes of Rf and Db are produced by using actinide targets such as 248 Cm in order to investigate their chemical properties. The present workshop was held in Advanced Science Research Center of JAERI at February 27-28 (2003) in order to discuss current status and future plans for the heavy element research. The workshop also included topics of the radioactive nuclear beam project forwarded by the JAERI-KEK cooperation and the nuclear transmutation facility of J-PARC. Also included is the nuclear fission process as a decay characteristic of heavy elements. There were sixty participants in the workshop including graduate and undergraduate eleven students. We had guests from Germany and Hungary. Through the workshop, we had a common knowledge that researches on SHE in Japan should fill an important role in the world. (author)

  11. Home | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-23

    Dec 23, 2016 ... It is so large that planning, designing and building SKA requires the ... Various scientists have been working on preparing these science articles for ..... are extremely important in physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, etc.

  12. An electricity billing model | Adetona | Journal of Applied Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linear regression analysis has been employed to develop a model for predicting accurately the electricity billing for commercial consumers in Ogun State (Nigeria) at faster rate. The electricity billing model was implement-ed, executed and tested using embedded MATLAB function blocks. The correlations between the ...

  13. On DESTINY Science Instrument Electrical and Electronics Subsystem Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Benford, Dominic J.; Lauer, Tod R.

    2009-01-01

    Future space missions are going to require large focal planes with many sensing arrays and hundreds of millions of pixels all read out at high data rates'' . This will place unique demands on the electrical and electronics (EE) subsystem design and it will be critically important to have high technology readiness level (TRL) EE concepts ready to support such missions. One such omission is the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) charged with making precise measurements of the expansion rate of the universe to reveal vital clues about the nature of dark energy - a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of the expansion. One of three JDEM concept studies - the Dark Energy Space Telescope (DESTINY) was conducted in 2008 at the NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland. This paper presents the EE subsystem framework, which evolved from the DESTINY science instrument study. It describes the main challenges and implementation concepts related to the design of an EE subsystem featuring multiple focal planes populated with dozens of large arrays and millions of pixels. The focal planes are passively cooled to cryogenic temperatures (below 140 K). The sensor mosaic is controlled by a large number of Readout Integrated Circuits and Application Specific Integrated Circuits - the ROICs/ASICs in near proximity to their sensor focal planes. The ASICs, in turn, are serviced by a set of "warm" EE subsystem boxes performing Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based digital signal processing (DSP) computations of complex algorithms, such as sampling-up-the-ramp algorithm (SUTR), over large volumes of fast data streams. The SUTR boxes are supported by the Instrument Control/Command and Data Handling box (ICDH Primary and Backup boxes) for lossless data compression, command and low volume telemetry handling, power conversion and for communications with the spacecraft. The paper outlines how the JDEM DESTINY concept

  14. Electrical and Optical Properties of Rectifying ZnO Homojunctions Fabricated by Wet Chemistry Methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yatskiv, Roman; Tiagulkyi, Stanislav; Grym, Jan; Černohorský, Ondřej

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 215, č. 2 (2018), č. článku 1700592. ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-00546S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17044S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Rectifying ZnO homojunctions * Photoluminescence * N-type nanorods Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  15. Pharmacy and Chemistry in the Eighteenth Century: What Lessons for the History of Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This essay questions the continuity of chemistry across the eighteenth century based on an analysis of its relationship to pharmacy in France. Comparing a text by Nicolas Lémery (1675) with one by Antoine Baumé (1773), the article argues for a key transformation in chemistry across this period. The elimination of the practical side of pharmacy (indications and dosages) from chemistry texts is symptomatic of a reorientation of chemistry toward more theoretical or philosophical concerns. The essay considers several possible explanations for this change in orientation, including developments within pharmacy, but in the end privileges an approach in terms of the changing publics for chemistry in eighteenth-century France.

  16. The Two Cultures of Electricity: Between Entertainment and Edification in Victorian Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morus, Iwan Rhys

    2007-01-01

    Reviewing Fleeming Jenkin's Electricity and Magnetism in Nature in 1873 an anonymous reviewer (probably James Clerk Maxwell) remarked that "at the present time there are two sciences of electricity--one that of the lecture-room and the popular treatise; the other that of the testing-office and the engineer's specifications." In…

  17. Impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impact of virtual chemistry laboratory instruction on pre-service science teachers’ scientific process skills. For this purpose, eight laboratory activities related to chemical kinetic, chemical equilibrium, thermochemistry, acids-bases, and electrochemistry were developed. Those activities were performed in virtual laboratory environment by the pre-service teachers in the experimental group and in the real laboratory environment by c the preservice teachers in the control group during eight weeks. Scientific process skills test developed by Burns, Okey and Wise [3], and translated into Turkish by Ateş and Bahar [2] was used before and after the instructions for data collection. According to results, while there was no significant difference between pre-test mean scores (U=133.500, p>0.05, significant difference between post-test mean scores was found in favour of experimental group (U=76.000, p<0.05. In addition, while no significant difference between pre-test mean scores for each sub-dimension was found, significant difference between post-test mean scores for designing investigation and formulating hypothesis skills was found in favour of experimental group.

  18. Integrated Lecture and Laboratory Chemistry Components of Science Education Program for Early and Middle Childhood Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2004-05-01

    Two new chemistry courses were developed for early childhood and middle childhood education majors. The results of a pre- and posttest in the courses indicate success in developing student content knowledge and ability to problem solve. In addition these courses are designed to develop preservice teachers' understanding of the National Science Education Standards and foster support for implementing these standards in their classrooms. These courses provide materials, resources, and guidance in implementing the standards in their future teaching careers.

  19. Electrically Conductive, Corrosion-Resistant Coatings Through Defect Chemistry for Metallic Interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil V. Virkar

    2006-01-01

    The principal objective of this work was to develop oxidation protective coatings for metallic interconnect based on a defect chemistry approach. It was reasoned that the effectiveness of a coating is dictated by oxygen permeation kinetics; the slower the permeation kinetics, the better the protection. All protective coating materials investigated to date are either perovskites or spinels containing metals exhibiting multiple valence states (Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, etc.). As a result, all of these oxides exhibit a reasonable level of electronic conductivity; typically at least about ∼0.05 S/cm at 800 C. For a 5 micron coating, this equates to a maximum ∼0.025 (Omega)cm 2 area specific resistance due to the coating. This suggests that the coating should be based on oxygen ion conductivity (the lower the better) and not on electronic conductivity. Measurements of ionic conductivity of prospective coating materials were conducted using Hebb-Wagner method. It was demonstrated that special precautions need to be taken to measure oxygen ion conductivity in these materials with very low oxygen vacancy concentration. A model for oxidation under a protective coating is presented. Defect chemistry based approach was developed such that by suitably doping, oxygen vacancy concentration was suppressed, thus suppressing oxygen ion transport and increasing effectiveness of the coating. For the cathode side, the best coating material identified was LaMnO 3 with Ti dopant on the Mn site (LTM). It was observed that LTM is more than 20 times as effective as Mn-containing spinels. On the anode side, LaCrO3 doped with Nb on the Cr site (LNC) was the material identified. Extensive oxidation kinetics studies were conducted on metallic alloy foils with coating ∼1 micron in thickness. From these studies, it was projected that a 5 micron coating would be sufficient to ensure 40,000 h life

  20. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to achieve readiness of Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies of significant maturity: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nulcear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented herein for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities

  1. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, M.P.

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to develop those Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies with significant development heritage: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nuclear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities

  2. Effects of Self-Regulatory Strategy on Prospective Science Teachers' Chemistry Self Efficacy According to Class Level and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Hatice Güngör

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the self-regulatory strategies and the chemistry self-efficacies of a total of one hundred and eighty-nine prospective science teachers in a state university in Turkey while studying the chemistry lesson according to the class level and gender factors. An additional goal was to examine the relationship level between…

  3. Defect Chemistry and Electrical Conductivity of Sm-Doped La1-xSrxCoO3-δ for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björketun, Mårten; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We have calculated the electrical conductivity of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode contact material La1-xSrxCoO3-δ at 900 K. Experimental trends in conductivity against x, and against δ for fixed x, are correctly reproduced for x ≲ 0.8. Furthermore, we have studied the chemistry of neutral...

  4. Students’ experienced coherence between chemistry and biology in context-based secondary science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.J.; Prins, Gjalt; Goedhart, M.J.; Boersma, Kerst

    2014-01-01

    In current biology and chemistry secondary school practice, coherence between the subjects chemistry and biology is underexposed or even ignored. This is incongruent with the current scientific practice, in which the emphasis is shifting towards inter- and multidisciplinarity. These problems have

  5. Cross-disciplinary thermoregulation and sweat analysis laboratory experiences for undergraduate Chemistry and Exercise Science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Gregory; Taylor, Nichole; Glen, Mary; Tomlin, Dona; Gaul, Catherine A

    2011-06-01

    Cross-disciplinary (CD) learning experiences benefit student understanding of concepts and curriculum by offering opportunities to explore topics from the perspectives of alternate fields of study. This report involves a qualitative evaluation of CD health sciences undergraduate laboratory experiences in which concepts and students from two distinct disciplines [chemistry (CHEM) and exercise physiology (EPHE)] combined to study exercise thermoregulation and sweat analysis. Twenty-eight senior BSc Kinesiology (EPHE) students and 42 senior BSc CHEM students participated as part of their mutually exclusive, respective courses. The effectiveness of this laboratory environment was evaluated qualitatively using written comments collected from all students as well as from formal focus groups conducted after the CD laboratory with a representative cohort from each class (n = 16 CHEM students and 9 EPHE students). An open coding strategy was used to analyze the data from written feedback and focus group transcripts. Coding topics were generated and used to develop five themes found to be consistent for both groups of students. These themes reflected the common student perceptions that the CD experience was valuable and that students enjoyed being able to apply academic concepts to practical situations as well as the opportunity to interact with students from another discipline of study. However, students also reported some challenges throughout this experience that stemmed from the combination of laboratory groups from different disciplines with limited modification to the design of the original, pre-CD, learning environments. The results indicate that this laboratory created an effective learning opportunity that fostered student interest and enthusiasm for learning. The findings also provide information that could inform subsequent design and implementation of similar CD experiences to enhance engagement of all students and improve instructor efficacy.

  6. A Science Faculty's Transformation of Nature of Science Understanding into His Teaching Graduate Level Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevgi

    2015-01-01

    This is an interpretive case study to examine the teaching of an experienced science faculty who had a strong interest in teaching undergraduate and graduate science courses and nature of science specifically. It was interested in how he transformed knowledge from his experience as a scientist and his ideas about nature of science into forms…

  7. Strategic elements of steam cycle chemistry control practices at TXU's Comanche Peak steam electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellers, B.; Stevens, J.; Nichols, G.

    2002-01-01

    Early industry experience defined the critical importance of Chemistry Control Practices to maintaining long-term performance of PWR steam generators. These lessons provided the impetus for a number of innovations and alternate practices at Comanche Peak. For example, advanced amine investigations and implementation of results provided record low iron transport and deposition. The benefits of the surface-active properties of dimethyl-amine exceeded initial expectations. Operation of pre-coat polishers and steam generator blowdown demineralizers in the amine cycle enabled optimization of amine concentrations and stable pH control. The strategy for coordinated control of oxygen and hydrazine dosing complemented the advanced amine program for protective oxide stabilization. Additionally, a proactive chemical cleaning was performed on Unit 1 to prevent degradations from general fouling of steam generator tube-tube support plate (TSP) and top-of-tubesheet (TTS) crevices. This paper shares the results of these innovations and practices. Also, the bases, theory, and philosophy supporting the strategic elements of program will be presented. (authors)

  8. Contribution of relativistic quantum chemistry to electron’s electric dipole moment for CP violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M., E-mail: minoria@tmu.ac.jp; Gopakumar, G., E-mail: gopakumargeetha@gmail.com; Hada, M., E-mail: hada@tmu.ac.jp [Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1, Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-city, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); JST, CREST, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Das, B. P., E-mail: das@iiap.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Tatewaki, H., E-mail: htatewak@nsc.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8501 (Japan); Mukherjee, D., E-mail: pcdm@iacs.res.in [Raman Center of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Sciences, IACS, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2015-12-31

    The search for the electric dipole moment of the electron (eEDM) is important because it is a probe of Charge Conjugation-Parity (CP) violation. It can also shed light on new physics beyond the standard model. It is not possible to measure the eEDM directly. However, the interaction energy involving the effective electric field (E{sub eff}) acting on an electron in a molecule and the eEDM can be measured. This quantity can be combined with E{sub eff}, which is calculated by relativistic molecular orbital theory to determine eEDM. Previous calculations of E{sub eff} were not sufficiently accurate in the treatment of relativistic or electron correlation effects. We therefore developed a new method to calculate E{sub eff} based on a four-component relativistic coupled-cluster theory. We demonstrated our method for YbF molecule, one of the promising candidates for the eEDM search. Using very large basis set and without freezing any core orbitals, we obtain a value of 23.1 GV/cm for E{sub eff} in YbF with an estimated error of less than 10%. The error is assessed by comparison of our calculations and experiments for two properties relevant for E{sub eff}, permanent dipole moment and hyperfine coupling constant. Our method paves the way to calculate properties of various kinds of molecules which can be described by a single-reference wave function.

  9. Factor analysis for instruments of science learning motivation and its implementation for the chemistry and biology teacher candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, A. T.; Ridlo, S.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the learning motivation of science instruments and compare the learning motivation of science from chemistry and biology teacher candidates. Kuesioner Motivasi Sains (KMS) in Indonesian adoption of the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ II) consisting of 25 items with a 5-point Likert scale. The number of respondents for the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) test was 312. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), determinant, Bartlett’s Sphericity, Measures of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) tests against KMS using SPSS 20.0, and Lisrel 8.51 software indicate eligible indications. However testing of Communalities obtained results that there are 4 items not qualified, so the item is discarded. The second test, all parameters of eligibility and has a magnitude of Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA), P-Value for the Test of Close Fit (RMSEA <0.05), Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) was good. The new KMS with 21 valid items and composite reliability of 0.9329 can be used to test the level of learning motivation of science which includes Intrinsic Motivation, Sefl-Efficacy, Self-Determination, Grade Motivation and Career Motivation for students who master the Indonesian language. KMS trials of chemistry and biology teacher candidates obtained no significant difference in the learning motivation between the two groups.

  10. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  11. The Two Cultures of Electricity: Between Entertainment and Edification in Victorian Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morus, Iwan Rhys

    2007-06-01

    Reviewing Fleeming Jenkin's Electricity and Magnetism in Nature in 1873 an anonymous reviewer (probably James Clerk Maxwell) remarked that "at the present time there are two sciences of electricity — one that of the lecture-room and the popular treatise; the other that of the testing-office and the engineer's specifications." In this paper I want to look behind Maxwell's remark and examine the relationship between the "two sciences" of electricity during the third quarter or so of the 19th century. In particular I want to look at them in terms of their instrumental technologies. How did apparatus travel between the lecture-room or exhibition-hall and the testing-office or the laboratory? How did skills cross between these different spaces? How did the earlier Victorian culture of electricity as "entertainment and edification" become transformed into late 19th century metrological culture? How did these cultures overlap and how did they differ?

  12. Application of Advances in Learning Theory and Philosophy of Science to the Improvement of Chemistry Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Joseph D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses seven key concepts in Ausubel's learning theory which function to guide research and teaching. Also discusses concept mapping and Gowins Vee, providing examples of how they are used in chemistry instruction. (JN)

  13. Work on the hot atom chemistry at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veljkovic, S.

    1969-01-01

    A survey of work on hot atom chemistry from the establishment of the Institute up to now, where the role of Prof. P. Savic, should be specially emphasized, is given. The investigations in this domain during the first period, were directed to solve various problems in production of radioactive isotopes. Today these investigations are closely associated with the work in radiochemistry, physical chemistry of liquid and solid systems and fast reaction kinetics improving the development of these branches (author) [sr

  14. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fundamental concepts of electrostatics as applied to atoms and molecules. The electric ... chemistry, the chemistry of the covalent bond, deals with the structures ..... the position of an asteroid named Ceres ... World Scientific. Singapore, 1992.

  15. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Kenny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also address interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.

  16. Electrical Engineering in Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Michael James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-30

    The field of electrical engineering plays a significant role in particle accelerator design and operations. Los Alamos National Laboratories LANSCE facility utilizes the electrical energy concepts of power distribution, plasma generation, radio frequency energy, electrostatic acceleration, signals and diagnostics. The culmination of these fields produces a machine of incredible potential with uses such as isotope production, neutron spallation, neutron imaging and particle analysis. The key isotope produced in LANSCE isotope production facility is Strontium-82 which is utilized for medical uses such as cancer treatment and positron emission tomography also known as PET scans. Neutron spallation is one of the very few methods used to produce neutrons for scientific research the other methods are natural decay of transuranic elements from nuclear reactors. Accelerator produce neutrons by accelerating charged particles into neutron dense elements such as tungsten imparting a neutral particle with kinetic energy, this has the benefit of producing a large number of neutrons as well as minimizing the waste generated. Utilizing the accelerator scientist can gain an understanding of how various particles behave and interact with matter to better understand the natural laws of physics and the universe around us.

  17. Fire!: An Event-Based Science Module. Teacher's Guide. Chemistry and Fire Ecology Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.

    This book is designed for middle school earth science or physical science teachers to help their students learn scientific literacy through event-based science. Unlike traditional curricula, the event- based earth science module is a student-centered, interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented program that emphasizes cooperative learning, teamwork,…

  18. Radially and temporally resolved electric field of positive streamers in air and modelling of the induced plasma chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoder, T.; Šimek, M.; Bonaventura, Z.; Prukner, V.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    The initial stages of transient luminous events (TLEs) occurring in the upper atmosphere of the Earth are, in a certain pressure range, controlled by the streamer mechanism. This paper presents the results of the first laboratory experiments to study the TLE streamer phenomena under conditions close to those of the upper atmosphere. Spectrally and highly spatiotemporally resolved emissions originating from radiative states {{\\text{N}}2}≤ft({{\\text{C}}3}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) (second positive system) and \\text{N}2+≤ft({{\\text{B}}2}Σu+\\right) (first negative system) have been recorded from the positive streamer discharge. Periodic ionizing events were generated in a barrier discharge arrangement at a pressure of 4 torr of synthetic air, i.e. simulating the pressure conditions at altitudes of ≃37 km. Employing Abel inversion on the radially scanned streamer emission and a 2D fitting procedure, access was obtained to the local spectral signatures within the over 106  m s-1 fast propagating streamers. The reduced electric field strength distribution within the streamer head was determined from the ratio of the \\text{N}2+/{{\\text{N}}2} band intensities with peak values up to 500 Td and overall duration of about 10 ns. The 2D profiles of the streamer head electric fields were used as an experimentally obtained input for kinetic simulations of the streamer-induced air plasma chemistry. The radial and temporal computed distribution of the ground vibrational levels of the radiative states involved in the radiative transitions analyzed (337.1 nm and 391.5 nm), atomic oxygen, nitrogen, nitric oxide and ozone concentrations are vizualized and discussed in comparison with available models of the streamer phase of Blue Jet discharges in the stratosphere.

  19. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  20. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  1. Structure analysis of molecular systems in the Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of the Czech Academy of Sciences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, 2a (2010), k32-k34 ISSN 1211-5894. [Struktura 2010. Soláň, 14.06.2010-17.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic * X-ray structure analysis * crystallography Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http:// xray .cz/ms/bul2010-2a/hasek.pdf

  2. How Does the Science Writing Heuristic Approach Affect Students' Performances of Different Academic Achievement Levels? A Case for High School Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingir, Sevgi; Geban, Omer; Gunel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH), known as an argumentation-based science inquiry approach, on Grade 9 students' performance on a post-test in relation to their academic achievement levels. Four intact classes taught by 2 chemistry teachers from a Turkish public high school were selected for the study; one…

  3. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  4. An Analysis of Science Textbooks for Grade 6: The Electric Circuit Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    Textbooks are a major tool in the teaching and learning process. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Finnish and Thai 6th grade science textbooks: electric circuit lesson. Textual and pictorial information from the textbooks were analyzed under four main categories: 1) introduction of the concepts, 2) type of knowledge, 3)…

  5. Final results of the FY'78 chemistry and materials science research program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazer, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    18 projects which were selected to be sponsored by ''Chemistry Research Program'' are summarized. These include: lasers for chemical analysis; multi-element analysis systems; spectroscopic analysis of surface passivation; non-aqueous titrimetry; materials damage prediction for fiber composites; safe high energy explosives; single photon absorption reaction chemistry; reaction in shock waves; cryogenic heavy hydrogen technology; acoustic emission; metallic alloy glasses; basic study of toughness in steel; static equation-of-state at 100 GPa; transuranium element research; nuclear structure research; neutron capture gamma measurements; x-ray fluorescence analysis; and pyrochemical investigation

  6. The role of computational chemistry in the science and measurements of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    The role of computational chemistry in determining the stability, photochemistry, spectroscopic parameters, and parameters for estimating reaction rates of atmospheric constituents is discussed. Examples dealing with the photolysis cross sections of HOCl and (1 Delta g) O2 and with the stability of gaseous NH4Cl and asymmetric ClO3 are presented. It is concluded that computational chemistry can play an important role in the study of atmospheric constituents, particularly reactive and short-lived species which are difficult to investigate experimentally.

  7. Ethers on Si(001): A Prime Example for the Common Ground between Surface Science and Molecular Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Lisa; Laref, Slimane; Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf

    2017-11-20

    By using computational chemistry it has been shown that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions can be understood with classical concepts of organic chemistry. Detailed analysis of the two-step reaction mechanism-1) formation of a dative bond between the ether oxygen atom and a Lewis acidic surface atom and 2) nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom-shows that it mirrors acid-catalyzed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is the strongest of its kind, and the reactivity in step 2 defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during C-O bond cleavage has been visualized with a newly developed method for analyzing bonding, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular S N 2 reactions. Our findings illustrate how surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit from each other and unexpected insight can be gained. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Chemistry in Past and New Science Frameworks and Standards: Gains, Losses, and Missed Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente; Sevian, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Science education frameworks and standards play a central role in the development of curricula and assessments, as well as in guiding teaching practices in grades K-12. Recently, the National Research Council published a new Framework for K-12 Science Education that has guided the development of the Next Generation Science Standards. In this…

  9. Visual Representations on High School Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDue, Nicole D.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Thomas, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    The pervasive use of visual representations in textbooks, curricula, and assessments underscores their importance in K-12 science education. For example, visual representations figure prominently in the recent publication of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States in Next generation science standards: for states, by states.…

  10. Chemistry and Nanoscience Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemistry and Nanoscience Center at NREL investigates materials and processes for converting renewable and new technologies. NREL's primary research in the chemistry and nanoscience center includes the Electrochemical Engineering and Materials Chemistry Providing a knowledge base in materials science covering

  11. Stereotype threat's effect on women's achievement in chemistry: The interaction of achievement goal orientation for women in science majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie

    "Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype

  12. Mathematics Models in Chemistry--An Innovation for Non-Mathematics and Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Agnes M.; Zurbach, E. Peter

    2004-01-01

    The intention of this article is to present a year-long interdisciplinary course, Mathematical Models in Chemistry. The course is comprised of eleven units, each of which has both a mathematical and a chemical component. A syllabus of the course is given and the format of the class is explained. The interaction of the professors and the content is…

  13. For the Love of Learning Science: Connecting Learning Orientation and Career Productivity in Physics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John

    2010-01-01

    An individual's motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this…

  14. Seventh BES [Basic Energy Sciences] catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  15. Real Science: MIT Reality Show Tracks Experiences, Frustrations of Chemistry Lab Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    A reality show about a college course--a chemistry class no less? That's what "ChemLab Boot Camp" is. The 14-part series of short videos is being released one episode at a time on the online learning site of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The novel show follows a diverse group of 14 freshmen as they struggle to master the…

  16. Sugar-Cube Science: An Economical Inquiry Experiment for High School Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Many first-year chemistry students have memorized the steps of the "scientific method" and can recite them without any prompting. But when introduced to controlled, independent, and dependent variables, they hit a brick wall. Therefore, the author of this article created a lesson that allows students to determine the fastest way to dissolve a…

  17. Technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Academy of Sciences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    DOE has engaged the IPC/RAS to study the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium actinide elements (primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium) and technetium in alkaline media. This work is supported by DOE because the alkaline radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at DOE sites (Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge) contain TRUs and technetium, and these radioelements must be partitioned to the HLW fraction in planned waste processing operations. The chemistries of the TRUs and technetium are not well developed in this system. Previous studies at the IPC/RAS centered on the fundamental chemistry of the TRUs and technetium in alkaline media, and on their coprecipitation reactions. During FY 1996, further studies of fundamental and candidate process chemistries were pursued with continuing effort on coprecipitation. The technical liaison was established at Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide information to the IPC/RAS on the Hanford Site waste system, define and refine the work scope, publish IPC/RAS reports in open literature documents and presentations, provide essential materials and equipment to the IPC/RAS, compare IPC/RAS results with results from other sources, and test chemical reactions or processes proposed by the IPC/RAS with actual Hanford Site tank waste. The liaison task was transferred to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) in October 1996.

  18. How the Chemistry Modeling Curriculum Engages Students in Seven Science Practices Outlined by the College Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posthuma-Adams, Erica

    2014-01-01

    As advanced placement (AP) teachers strive to implement the changes outlined in the AP chemistry redesign, they will have the opportunity to reflect on and evaluate their current practices. For many AP teachers, the new focus on conceptual understanding, reasoning, inquiry, and critical thinking over memorization and algorithmic problem solving…

  19. Technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Academy of Sciences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    DOE has engaged the IPC/RAS to study the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium actinide elements (primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium) and technetium in alkaline media. This work is supported by DOE because the alkaline radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at DOE sites (Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge) contain TRUs and technetium, and these radioelements must be partitioned to the HLW fraction in planned waste processing operations. The chemistries of the TRUs and technetium are not well developed in this system. Previous studies at the IPC/RAS centered on the fundamental chemistry of the TRUs and technetium in alkaline media, and on their coprecipitation reactions. During FY 1996, further studies of fundamental and candidate process chemistries were pursued with continuing effort on coprecipitation. The technical liaison was established at Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide information to the IPC/RAS on the Hanford Site waste system, define and refine the work scope, publish IPC/RAS reports in open literature documents and presentations, provide essential materials and equipment to the IPC/RAS, compare IPC/RAS results with results from other sources, and test chemical reactions or processes proposed by the IPC/RAS with actual Hanford Site tank waste. The liaison task was transferred to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) in October 1996

  20. Seventh BES (Basic Energy Sciences) catalysis and surface chemistry research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Research programs on catalysis and surface chemistry are presented. A total of fifty-seven topics are included. Areas of research include heterogeneous catalysis; catalysis in hydrogenation, desulfurization, gasification, and redox reactions; studies of surface properties and surface active sites; catalyst supports; chemical activation, deactivation; selectivity, chemical preparation; molecular structure studies; sorption and dissociation. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  1. A Multidisciplinary Science Summer Camp for Students with Emphasis on Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gunnar; Frenzel, Wolfgang; Richter, Wolfgang M.; Ta¨uscher, Lothar; Kubsch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the course of events of a five-day summer camp on environmental chemistry with high emphasis on chemical analysis. The annual camp was optional and open for students of all disciplines and levels. The duration of the summer camp was five and a half days in the Feldberg Lake District in northeast Germany (federal state of…

  2. Opportunities for Teaching Sustainable Development through the Chemistry Component of CAPS Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakeni, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The realisation that education may, in part, have contributed to non-sustainable environmental practices warrants rethinking about what learners experience at school. One approach could involve the promotion of education for sustainable development (ESD). This study analysed the opportunities to integrate ESD presented by the chemistry component…

  3. Multidisciplinary research in space sciences and engineering with emphasis on theoretical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfelder, J. O.; Curtiss, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    A broad program is reported of research in theoretical chemistry, particularly in molecular quantum and statistical mechanics, directed toward determination of the physical and chemical properties of materials, relation of these macroscopic properties to properties of individual molecules, and determination of the structure and properties of the individual molecules. Abstracts are presented for each research project conducted during the course of the program.

  4. Cosmic Chemistry: A Proactive Approach to Summer Science for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Danette; Ristvey, John

    2014-01-01

    Though school is out for the summer, ninth- and tenth-grade students at Union Intermediate High School are burning off energy playing a game of tag on the soccer field. But that is not all they are doing. They are also synthesizing and applying key chemistry concepts they have just learned related to the conditions of the early solar system. They…

  5. Towards Eco-Reflexive Science Education: A Critical Reflection about Educational Implications of Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper; Eilks, Ingo; Zuin, Vânia G.

    2016-01-01

    The modern world can be described as a globalized risk society. It is characterized by increasing complexity, unpredictable consequences of techno-scientific innovations and production, and its environmental consequences. Therefore, chemistry, just like many other knowledge areas, is in an ongoing process of "environmentalization." For…

  6. Teaching chemistry and other sciences to blind and low-vision students through hands-on learning experiences in high school science laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supalo, Cary Alan

    2010-11-01

    Students with blindness and low vision (BLV) have traditionally been underrepresented in the sciences as a result of technological and attitudinal barriers to equal access in science laboratory classrooms. The Independent Laboratory Access for the Blind (ILAB) project developed and evaluated a suite of talking and audible hardware/software tools to empower students with BLV to have multisensory, hands-on laboratory learning experiences. This dissertation focuses on the first year of ILAB tool testing in mainstream science laboratory classrooms, and comprises a detailed multi-case study of four students with BLV who were enrolled in high school science classes during 2007--08 alongside sighted students. Participants attended different schools; curricula included chemistry, AP chemistry, and AP physics. The ILAB tools were designed to provide multisensory means for students with BLV to make observations and collect data during standard laboratory lessons on an equivalent basis with their sighted peers. Various qualitative and quantitative data collection instruments were used to determine whether the hands-on experiences facilitated by the ILAB tools had led to increased involvement in laboratory-goal-directed actions, greater peer acceptance in the students' lab groups, improved attitudes toward science, and increased interest in science. Premier among the ILAB tools was the JAWS/Logger Pro software interface, which made audible all information gathered through standard Vernier laboratory probes and visually displayed through Logger Pro. ILAB tools also included a talking balance, a submersible audible light sensor, a scientific talking stopwatch, and a variety of other high-tech and low-tech devices and techniques. While results were mixed, all four participating BLV students seemed to have experienced at least some benefit, with the effect being stronger for some than for others. Not all of the data collection instruments were found to reveal improvements for all

  7. Actinide Sciences at ITN - Basic Studies in Chemistry with Potential Interest for Partitioning, Fuel Fabrication and More

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.; Dias, M.; Goncalves, A.P.; Henriques, M.S.; Lopes, E.B.; Pereira, L.C.J.; Santos, I.C.; Verbovytskyy, Y.; Waerenborgh, J.C.; Branco, J.B.; Carretas, J.M.; Cruz, A.; Ferreira, A.C.; Gasche, T.A.; Leal, J.P.; Lopes, G.; Lourenco, C.; Marcalo, J.; Maria, L.; Monteiro, B.; Mora, E.; Pereira, C.C.L.; Paiva, I.

    2010-01-01

    The current activities in the area of actinide chemistry at ITN, comprising basic research studies in inorganic and organometallic chemistry, catalysis, gas-phase ion chemistry, thermochemistry, and solid state chemistry, are briefly described. Actinide (and lanthanide) chemistry studies at ITN will be pursued connecting basic research with potential applications in nuclear and non-nuclear areas. (authors)

  8. Conference 'Republic Anniversary Conference of young scientists, dedicated to 30 thirtieth anniversary of Institute of Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This collection of thesis of Republic Anniversary Conference of young scientists, dedicated to 30 thirtieth anniversary of Institute of Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of Republic of Tajikistan present the results of investigation of young scientists-chemists of Tajikistan which was carried out from 1974 till 1976 years in the area of physical, nonorganic, analytical, applied and organic chemistry. They are consider the questions of matters synthesis with beforehand given properties

  9. Twenty years of chemistry associated with the needs and utilization of nuclear reactors at the 'Boris Kidric' Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    This publication covers nine review papers on the following topics related to the needs and utilization of nuclear reactors in the Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences during previous twenty years: radiochemistry, hot atom chemistry, isotope production, spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, chemistry of transuranium elements; liquid radioactive waste processing, purification of reactor coolant water by inorganic ion exchangers, research related to deuterium concentration processes, and chemical dosimetry at the RA reactor [sr

  10. Organic Chemistry in Portugal from 1900 to 1970: A Contribution to the History of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Nuno Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to describe the contributions made by various professors in Portuguese institutions, (located at Lisbon, Coimbra and Oporto, for the development of organic chemistry, between 1900 and 1970, so that we can get a better idea of the Portuguese work done in this area (i.e., teaching, pedagogical, etc.. For this purpose, we will take particular attention to technical books used in class (lecture and laboratory. Another point of this article is to refer the organic chemistry laboratories, existent in various Portuguese universities, in order to understand the importance of practice for the complete university student training. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i5.1086

  11. Designing Science Learning Environments That Support Emerging Bilingual Students to Problematize Electrical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Enrique A.

    This dissertation investigates how emerging bilingual students make sense of natural phenomena through engaging in certain epistemic practices of science, and the elements of the learning environment that created those opportunities. Specifically, the dissertation focuses on how emerging bilingual students problematized electrical phenomena, like electric flow and electrical resistance, and how the design features of the environment (e.g., sequencing of activities, linguistic practices) may have supported students as they made sense of phenomena. The first study describes how for students presented and evaluated mechanistic models of electric flow, focusing specifically on how students identified and negotiated a disagreement between their explanatory models. The results from this study highlight the complexity of students' disagreements, not only because of the epistemological aspects related to presenting and evaluating knowledge, but also due to interpersonal dynamics and the discomfort associated with disagreeing with another person. The second study focuses on the design features of the learning environment that supported emerging bilingual students' investigations of electrical phenomena. The findings from this study highlight how a carefully designed set of activities, with the appropriate material resources (e.g., experimental tools), could support students to problematize electrical resistance. The third study describes how emerging bilingual students engaged in translanguaging practices and the contextual features of the learning environment that created and hindered opportunities for translanguaging. The findings from this study identify and articulate how emerging bilingual students engaged in translanguaging practices when problematizing electrical resistance, and strengthen the perspective that, in order to be equitable for emerging bilingual students, science learning environments need to act as translanguaging spaces. This dissertation makes three

  12. Corrosion chemistry closing comments: opportunities in corrosion science facilitated by operando experimental characterization combined with multi-scale computational modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, John R

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in characterization tools, computational capabilities, and theories have created opportunities for advancement in understanding of solid-fluid interfaces at the nanoscale in corroding metallic systems. The Faraday Discussion on Corrosion Chemistry in 2015 highlighted some of the current needs, gaps and opportunities in corrosion science. Themes were organized into several hierarchical categories that provide an organizational framework for corrosion. Opportunities to develop fundamental physical and chemical data which will enable further progress in thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of corrosion were discussed. These will enable new and better understanding of unit processes that govern corrosion at the nanoscale. Additional topics discussed included scales, films and oxides, fluid-surface and molecular-surface interactions, selected topics in corrosion science and engineering as well as corrosion control. Corrosion science and engineering topics included complex alloy dissolution, local corrosion, and modelling of specific corrosion processes that are made up of collections of temporally and spatially varying unit processes such as oxidation, ion transport, and competitive adsorption. Corrosion control and mitigation topics covered some new insights on coatings and inhibitors. Further advances in operando or in situ experimental characterization strategies at the nanoscale combined with computational modelling will enhance progress in the field, especially if coupling across length and time scales can be achieved incorporating the various phenomena encountered in corrosion. Readers are encouraged to not only to use this ad hoc organizational scheme to guide their immersion into the current opportunities in corrosion chemistry, but also to find value in the information presented in their own ways.

  13. The relationship of attitudes toward science, cognitive style, and self-concept to achievement in chemistry at the secondary school level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Gerald Richard

    There is currently a crisis in science education in the United States. This statement is based on the National Science Foundation's report stating that the nation's students, on average, still rank near the bottom in science and math achievement internationally. This crisis is the background of the problem for this study. This investigation studied learner variables that were thought to play a role in teaching chemistry at the secondary school level, and related them to achievement in the chemistry classroom. Among these, cognitive style (field dependence/independence), attitudes toward science, and self-concept had been given considerable attention by researchers in recent years. These variables were related to different competencies that could be used to measure the various types of achievement in the chemistry classroom at the secondary school level. These different competencies were called academic, laboratory, and problem solving achievement. Each of these chemistry achievement components may be related to a different set of learner variables, and the main purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of these relationships. Three instruments to determine attitudes toward science, cognitive style, and self-concept were used for data collection. Teacher grades were used to determine chemistry achievement for each student. Research questions were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients and t-tests. Results indicated that field independence was significantly correlated with problem solving, academic, and laboratory achievement. Educational researchers should therefore investigate how to teach students to be more field independent so they can achieve at higher levels in chemistry. It was also true that better attitudes toward the social benefits and problems that accompany scientific progress were significantly correlated with higher achievement on all three academic measures in chemistry. This suggests that educational researchers

  14. Science for the Home: New Products Tackle Such Weighty Subjects as Immunology, Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Scott

    1984-01-01

    Discusses trends in science software for home and educational use. Examples of software on various science topics are provided, including packages which revolve around such television shows as "Nova" and "Voyage of the Mimi" and those produced by the Human Engineering Software. (JN)

  15. Using the Activity Model of Inquiry to Enhance General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchlewicz, Sara C.; Wink, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Nature of science refers to the processes of scientific activity and the social and cultural premises involved in the creation of scientific knowledge. Having an informed view of nature of science is important in the development of scientifically literate citizens. However, students often come to the classroom with misconceptions about nature of…

  16. Students' Experienced Coherence Between Chemistry and Biology in Context-Based Secondary Science Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Hilde; Prins, Gjalt; Goedhart, M.J.; Boersma, Kerst

    2014-01-01

    Creating coherence between the content of science subjects has been a primary aim of certain reforms in science education and is often proposed in policy documents in various countries (Osborne and Dillon 2008 ; Schmidt et al. 2005 ; Osborne and Collins 2001 ). One of the problems that emerges from

  17. Proceedings: On-line monitoring of corrosion an water chemistry for the electric power utility industry: An EPRI workshop held during the 12th International Corrosion Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licina, G.

    1994-03-01

    A two-day EPRI workshop on On-line Monitoring of Corrosion and Water Chemistry for the Electric Power Utility Industry included discussions on a variety of methods for the online monitoring of corrosion and water chemistry in a power plant environment. The workshop was held September 22 and 23, 1993 in Houston, Texas, as a part of the 12th International Corrosion Congress sponsored by NACE International. Methods in various stages of development, from laboratory demonstrations to in-plant monitoring, were presented by authors from all over the world. Recent developments in corrosion monitoring and the detection of specific chemical species in power plant environments have utilized a variety of electrochemical methods (both AC and DC), electrical resistance techniques, and potential drop techniques to evaluate crack extension. Other approaches, such as Raman spectroscopy of corroding surfaces, Specific ion detectors, and X-ray fluorescence and ion chromatography to analyze corrosion products have been demonstrated in the laboratory. Techniques that were described in the twenty-three technical papers included: Electrochemical noise, Electrical resistance, Field signature method, Linear polarization resistance, Neutron activation, Corrosion potential monitoring, Electrochemical detection of biofilm activity, Analysis of corrosion products by X-ray fluorescence, Potential drop method for assessing environmentally assisted crack growth, Harmonic impedance spectroscopy, Contact electric resistance, Conductivity and hydrogen sensors, Solid state methods for tracking oxygen and pH, and Raman spectroscopy. Individual papers are indexed separately

  18. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaol, F. L.

    2015-06-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics 2015 (ScieTech 2015), was held at The Westin Resort Nusa Dua, Bali on 31 January - 1 February 2015. The ScieTech 2015 conference is aimed to bring together researchers, engineers and scientists from around the world. ScieTech 2015 is placed on promoting interaction between the theoretical, experimental, and applied communities, so that a high level exchange is achieved in new and emerging areas within mathematics, chemistry and physics. As we already know that science and technology have brought tremendous benefits for human civilization. People are becoming healthier, wealthier, better educated, more peaceful, increasingly connected, and living longer. Of course, science and technology provide many answers to global challenges, but we will face more complex problems in the next decade due to increasing world population, limitation of energy, and climate change. Therefore, researchers should be more active in conducting research that enables collaboration between one and the others. Interdisciplinary cooperation is absolutely necessary in order to create a smart system for solving the global problems. We need a global and general long-term view of the future with long-range goals for solving complex problems in next decade. Therefore the conference was held to be a forum for researchers from different disciplines to start collaborating and conducting research that provides a solution to the global issues. The theme of ScieTech 2015 was ''The interdisciplinary Application between Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics to enhance the Quality of Life''. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to all in the Technical Program Committee who have reviewed the papers and developed a very interesting conference program as well as the invited and plenary speakers. This year, we received 197 papers and after rigorous review, 59 papers were accepted. The participants came from 19

  19. Dielectrics in electric fields

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur G

    2003-01-01

    Discover nontraditional applications of dielectric studies in this exceptionally crafted field reference or text for seniors and graduate students in power engineering tracks. This text contains more than 800 display equations and discusses polarization phenomena in dielectrics, the complex dielectric constant in an alternating electric field, dielectric relaxation and interfacial polarization, the measurement of absorption and desorption currents in time domains, and high field conduction phenomena. Dielectrics in Electric Fields is an interdisciplinary reference and text for professionals and students in electrical and electronics, chemical, biochemical, and environmental engineering; physical, surface, and colloid chemistry; materials science; and chemical physics.

  20. Chemical Analysis of Soils: An Environmental Chemistry Laboratory for Undergraduate Science Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Joan D.; Avery, G. Brooks, Jr.; Manock, John J.; Skrabal, Stephen A.; Stehman, Charles F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise for undergraduate science students in which they evaluate soil samples for various parameters related to suitability for crop production and capability for retention of contaminants. (Contains 18 references.) (WRM)

  1. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  2. Career-Oriented Performance Tasks in Chemistry: Effects on Students Integrated Science Process Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Allen A. Espinosa; Sheryl Lyn C. Monterola; Amelia E. Punzalan

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Career-Oriented Performance Task (COPT) approach against the traditional teaching approach (TTA) in enhancing students’ integrated science process skills. Specifically, it sought to find out if students exposed to COPT have higher integrated science process skills than those students exposed to the traditional teaching approach (TTA). Career-Oriented Performance Task (COPT) approach aims to integrate career-oriented examples and inquiry-b...

  3. Radioisotope electric propulsion for robotic science missions to near-interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.J.

    1994-10-01

    The use of radioisotope electric propulsion for sending small robotic probes on fast science missions several hundred astronomical units (AU) from the Sun is investigated. Such missions would address a large variety of solar, interstellar, galactic and cosmological science themes from unique vantage points at 100 to 600 AU, including parallax distance measurements for the entire Milky Way Galaxy, sampling of the interstellar medium and imaging of cosmological objects at the gravitational lens foci of the Sun (≥ 550 AU). Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on multi-hundred watt, radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. In a previous work, the flight times for rendezvous missions to the outer planets (< 30 AU) using REP were found to be less than fifteen years. However fast prestellar missions to several hundred AU are not possible unless the probe's energy can be substantially increased in the inner Solar System so as to boost the final hyperbolic excess velocity. In this paper an economical hybrid propulsion scheme combining chemical propulsion and gravity assist in the inner Solar System and radioisotope electric propulsion in the outer Solar System is studied which enables fast prestellar missions. Total hyperbolic excess velocities of 15 AU/year and flight times to 550 AU of about 40 years are possible using REP technology that may be available in the next decade

  4. Physical chemistry research for engineering and applied sciences, v.2 polymeric materials and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Eli M; Pethrick, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    PrefaceInvestigation on the Influence of a Strong Electric Field on the Electrical, Transport and Diffusion Properties of Carbon Nanostructures; S. A. Sudorgin and N. G. LebedevA Study Thermal Stability of Polyurethane Elastomers; I. A. Novakov, M. A. Vaniev, D. V. Medvedev, N. V. Sidorenko, G. V. Medvedev, and D. O. GusevTrends in Aromatic Polyesters; Z. S. Khasbulatova and G. E. ZaikovMicroheterogeneous Titanium Ziegler-Natta Catalysts: 1,3-Diene Polymerization Under Ultrasound Irradiations; V. P. Zakharov, V. Z. Mingaleev, I. D. Zakirov

  5. Physical Chemistry '98: Fourth International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry - Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribnikar, S.; Anic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings has following chapters: Plenary lectures; Chemical Thermodynamics; Spectroscopy, Molecular Structures, Physical Chemistry of Plasma; Kinetics, Catalysis, Nonlinear Dynamics; Electrochemistry; Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry; Solid State Physical Chemistry, Material Science; Macromolecular Physical Chemistry; Environmental Protection; Phase Boundaries; Complex Compounds; General Physical Chemistry. A separated abstract was prepared for each of the 20 papers selected from the three chapters: Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry. and Environmental Protection. Refs and figs

  6. New Concepts of Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry: Will They Influence the Way We Conduct Science in General?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens; Glasdam, Sidsel-Marie; Larsen, Daniel Bo

    2016-01-01

    , but in contemporary science two approaches to the implementation of statistics in decision making are used: 1. Short-term precision and 2. long-term precision. Both approaches are valid and both are described using the same methods of statistics. However, they lead to completely different conclusions and decisions....... Despite good intentions and new concepts, as well as practices and procedures for quality assurance, it is shown by these two examples that these efforts may be inadequate or mislead scientists into making major mistakes in the decision-making process. A set of equations is supplied, which are based......According to the guide Vocabulary in Metrology (VIM3) (JCGM, 2008), the definition of the concepts of trueness and accuracy has been revised, which has an important impact on analytical chemistry. Additionally, Eurachem/CITAC has published a new edition of the guide to Quantifying Uncertainty...

  7. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Tobola, K. W.; Stocco, K.; Henry, M.; Allen, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, "How do we know these meteorites are from Mars?" This question sets the stage for a three-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer "It's the chemistry of the rock", students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret real data, students realize that the research is an application of basic science concepts they should know, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes. They can understand the results without knowing how to do the research or operate the instruments.

  8. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes. Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Tobola, K. W.; Allen, J. S.; Stocco, K.; Henry, M.; Allen, J. S.; McReynolds, Julie; Porter, T. Todd; Veile, Jeri

    2005-01-01

    As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, "How do we know these meteorites are from Mars?" This question sets the stage for a six-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer "It's the chemistry of the rock", students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret authentic data, students realize that the research is an application of two basic science concepts taught in the classroom, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  9. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Tobola, K. W.; Stocco, K.; Henry, M.; Allen, J. S.; McReynolds, Julie; Porter, T. Todd; Veile, Jeri

    2004-01-01

    As the scientific community studies Mars remotely for signs of life and uses Martian meteorites as its only available samples, teachers, students, and the general public continue to ask, How do we know these meteorites are from Mars? This question sets the stage for a six-lesson instructional package Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets. Expanding on the short answer It s the chemistry of the rock , students are introduced to the research that reveals the true identities of the rocks. Since few high school or beginning college students have the opportunity to participate in this level of research, a slide presentation introduces them to the labs, samples, and people involved with the research. As they work through the lessons and interpret authentic data, students realize that the research is an application of two basic science concepts taught in the classroom, the electromagnetic spectrum and isotopes.

  10. A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF CASE BASED LEARNING FOR PRE-SERVICE SCIENCE TEACHERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS AN ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY LABORATORY EXPERIMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Alpat, Sibel Kılınç; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu; Özbayrak, Özge; Alpat, Şenol

    2011-01-01

    It is aimed to analyze the change of the pre-service science teachers‘ attitudes towards chemistry laboratories using case-based learning, an active learning method, in this research. This research is an semiexperimental study with a control group. The sample of this research was originated by the second-year students (N=61) of the department of science education in Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Buca Education. In the first stage of the research, a case about the experiment of determinin...

  11. Studies of the chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium at the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, supported by the US Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretrukhin, V.F.

    1995-04-01

    Studies at Hanford in the 1980s revealed the potential for actinides to form stable soluble complexes in alkaline media, simulating radioactive tank waste. Pu(IV) hydrous oxide and Pu(VI) solubility increased with hydroxide concentration, ionic strength, and aluminate/carbonate concentrations. Subsequent contacts between US and Russian researchers in 1993 led to a technical literature review of the chemistry of TRU and Tc in alkaline media; this review addresses oxidation states, solubility, speciation, redox reactions, electrochemistry, radiation chemistry, and separations in alkaline media. As an outgrowth, a program of fundamental and applied chemistry studies of TRU and Tc is being conducted at IPC/RAS with US DOE support: solubility, redox reagents, coprecipitation, and radiation chemistry. This overview provides information on the Hanford Site tank waste system, US DOE technological needs, and IPC/RAS developments

  12. Plutonium metallurgy: The materials science challenges bridging condensed-matter physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: schwartz6@llnl.gov

    2007-10-11

    Although there exists evidence of metallurgical practices dating back over 6000 years, studies of Pu and Pu alloys have been conducted for barely 60 years. During the time of the Manhattan Project and extending for some time afterward, the priority to produce the metal took precedence over the fundamental understanding of the metallurgical principals. In the past decade or so, there has been a resurgence in the basic metallurgy, condensed-matter physics, and chemistry of Pu and Pu alloys. These communities have made substantial progress, both experimentally and theoretically in many areas; however, many challenges still remain. The intent of this brief overview is to highlight a number important challenges that we face in the metallurgy of Pu including phase transformations and phase stability, aging, and the connection between electronic structure and metallurgy.

  13. Chemistry for the protection of the environment. Environmental science research. Volume 42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlowski, L. [ed.; Lacy, W.J.; Dlugosz, J.J.

    1992-12-31

    This book contains the Proceedings from an International Conference on Chemistry for the Protection of the Environment held in Lublin, Poland, September 4-7, 1989. It opens with a tribute to Andre Van Haute who was a member of the Committee on the title subject and who died in 1989. This is followed by a preface by the editors and 70 chapters, which are grouped under the following headings: General Problems; Monitoring Methods for Surface and Ground water and Analysis of Pollutants; Pathways of Chemicals in the Environment; Physicochemical Treatment: Ion Exchange; Physicochemical Treatment: Coagulation, Flocculation and Sorption; Physicochemical Treatment: Oxidation-Reduction Processes; Physicochemical Treatment; Membrane Processes; and Miscellaneous Methods for Removal of Pollutants. There is a brief subject index.

  14. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology: Book II. Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, and Radioactive Waste Processing and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented on Scientific Meeting and Presentation on on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology, held in Yogyakarta, 25-27 April 1995. This proceeding is second part of two books published for the meeting contains papers on nuclear chemistry, process technology, and radioactive waste management and environment. There are 62 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  15. A Case-Based Scenario with Interdisciplinary Guided-Inquiry in Chemistry and Biology: Experiences of First Year Forensic Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Sarah L.; Loughlin, Wendy A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, insight into forensic science students' experiences of a case-based scenario with an interdisciplinary guided-inquiry experience in chemistry and biology is presented. Evaluation of student experiences and interest showed that the students were engaged with all aspects of the case-based scenario, including the curriculum theory…

  16. A Reconstruction of Development of the Periodic Table Based on History and Philosophy of Science and Its Implications for General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Angmary; Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (a) elaboration of a history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework based on a reconstruction of the development of the periodic table; (b) formulation of seven criteria based on the framework; and (c) evaluation of 57 freshman college-level general chemistry textbooks with respect to the presentation of the…

  17. Structure and Evaluation of a Flipped General Chemistry Course as a Model for Small and Large Gateway Science Courses at an Urban Public Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Melissa A.; Mills, Pamela; McGregor, Donna

    2018-01-01

    A flipped classroom is one where students are first introduced to content outside of the classroom. This frees up class time for more active learning strategies and has been shown to enhance student learning in high school and college classrooms. However, many studies in General Chemistry, a college gateway science course, were conducted in small…

  18. Communicating Chemistry: A Framework for Sharing Science: A Practical Evidence-Based Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2016

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that, increasingly, the public is engaging with science in a wide range of informal environments, which can be any setting outside of school such as community-based programs, festivals, libraries, or home. Yet undergraduate and graduate schools often don't prepare scientists for public communication. This…

  19. Developing Critical Thinking Skills Using the Science Writing Heuristic in the Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N. S.; Sadler-McKnight, N. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) laboratory approach is a teaching and learning tool which combines writing, inquiry, collaboration and reflection, and provides scaffolding for the development of critical thinking skills. In this study, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was used to measure the critical thinking skills of…

  20. Brewing Science in the Chemistry Laboratory: A "Mashing" Investigation of Starch and Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelter, Michael W.; McQuade, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    The experiments that mimic the actual brewing process to explain the science to the nonscience majors is performed using malted barley as the source for both the starch and the amylase enzyme. The experiment introduces the concept of monitoring the progress of chemical reaction and was able to show the chemical breakdown of the starch to simple…

  1. Four windows on modern science in flavor and fragrance chemistry at Firmenich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkenmann, Christian; Wünsche, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Four young scientists, recently hired by Firmenich, presented lectures at the University of Geneva. The objective was to stimulate young students to choose sciences. The challenges in the discovery, synthesis, or extraction of new molecules were presented, as well as the structure-activity relationships of human odorant receptors.

  2. Science Education and the Material Culture of the Nineteenth-Century Classroom: Physics and Chemistry in Spanish Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Josep; Cuenca-Lorente, Mar

    2012-02-01

    Although a large number of Spanish secondary schools have preserved an important scientific heritage, including large scientific instrument collections, this heritage has never been officially protected. Their current state is very diverse, and although several research projects have attempted to initiate their recovery and use, their lack of coordination and wide range of methodological approaches has limited their impact. This paper presents a case-study integrated in a new project supported by the Catalan Scientific Instrument Commission (COMIC) whose final aim is the establishment of a research hub for the preservation, study and use of Spanish scientific instrument collections. Major aims in this project are promoting a better coordination of Spanish projects in this field, and furthering international research on science pedagogy and the material culture of science. The major focus of COMIC is currently the recovery of secondary school collections. This paper provides first, a historical account of the development of secondary education in Spain, and the contemporary establishment of physics and chemistry school collections. Second, we focus on a case-study of three Spanish schools (Valencia, Castellón, and Alicante). Finally, we provide a brief overview of current projects to preserve Spanish school collections, and discuss how COMIC can contribute to help to coordinate them, and to take a step forward interdisciplinary research in this context.

  3. Maximizing the science return of interplanetary missions using nuclear electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The multi-kilowatt power sources on the spaecraft also enables active sensing, including radar, which could be used to do topographic and subsurface studies of clouded bodies such as Titan, ground pentrating sounding of Pluto, the major planet's moons, and planetoids, and topside sounding of the electrically conductive atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune to produce profiles of fluid density, conductivity, and horizontal and vertical velocity as a function of depth and global location. Radio science investigations of planetary atmospheres and ring systems would be greatly enhanced by increased transmitter power. The scientific benefits of utilizing such techniques are discussed, and a comparison is made with the quantity and quality of science that a low-powered spacecraft employing RTGs could return. It is concluded that the non-propulsive benefits of nuclear power for spacecraft exploring the outer solar system are enormous, and taken together with the well documented mission enhancements enabled by electric propulsion fully justify the expanditures needed to bring a space qualified nuclear electric power source into being. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  4. Seeking Missing Pieces in Science Concept Assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners' disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M) topics in college-level introductory physics courses.…

  5. Advances in imaging and electron physics time resolved electron diffraction for chemistry, biology and material science

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics merges two long-running serials-Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. The series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field.

  6. New Opportunities for Outer Solar System Science using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Robert J.; /SLAC; Amini, Rashied; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; /Caltech, JPL; Bennett, Gary L.; /Metaspace Enterprises; Brophy, John R.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Ervin, Joan; /Caltech, JPL; Fernandez, Yan R.; /Central Florida U.; Grundy, Will; /Lowell Observ.; Khan, Mohammed Omair; /Caltech, JPL; King, David Q.; /Aerojet; Lang, Jared; /Caltech, JPL; Meech, Karen J.; /Hawaii U.; Newhouse, Alan; Oleson, Steven R.; Schmidt, George R.; /GRC; Spilker, Thomas; West, John L.; /Caltech, JPL

    2010-05-26

    Today, our questions and hypotheses about the Solar System's origin have surpassed our ability to deliver scientific instruments to deep space. The moons of the outer planets, the Trojan and Centaur minor planets, the trans-Neptunian objects (TNO), and distant Kuiper Belt objects (KBO) hold a wealth of information about the primordial conditions that led to the formation of our Solar System. Robotic missions to these objects are needed to make the discoveries, but the lack of deep-space propulsion is impeding this science. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) will revolutionize the way we do deep-space planetary science with robotic vehicles, giving them unprecedented mobility. Radioisotope electric generators and lightweight ion thrusters are being developed today which will make possible REP systems with specific power in the range of 5 to 10 W/kg. Studies have shown that this specific power range is sufficient to perform fast rendezvous missions from Earth to the outer Solar System and fast sample return missions. This whitepaper discusses how mobility provided by REP opens up entirely new science opportunities for robotic missions to distant primitive bodies. We also give an overview of REP technology developments and the required next steps to realize REP.

  7. HEURISTIC REASONING OF PRE-SERVICE SCIENCE TEACHERS IN CHEMISTRY TOPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ugras

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to explain how the heuristics utilized by the students in a multiple choice examination on the general chemistry subject of “chemical bonding theories and molecular structures” caused biases on intuitive judgment and decision making processes, using the three characteristics of associative memory (attribute substitution, fluency process and associative coherence. A mixed-methods approach, both qualitative and quantitative research methods, were used in this research. Therefore, both questionnaire and individual interview were utilized to collect data. The results of the current research demonstrated that the participants used 4 different decision making strategies. Detailed evaluation of these strategies demonstrated that most of the participants did not prefer the processes related to the use of chemical knowledge and thus, were not able to assess the target attribute. Furthermore, it was identified that most of the students’ decision making processes were dependent on one or more of these three associative memory processes. It was also determined by this research that the most dominant of these three associative memory processes is the fluency effect, since participants often prefer to use superficial features. The dependence of participants on associative memory processes caused various biases, so participants often responded incorrectly to questions.

  8. Mobile Technology in Science Classrooms: Using iPad-Enabled Constructivist Learning to Promote Collaborative Problem Solving and Chemistry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Melodie Mirth G.

    Most recently, there has been a noticeable rise in the push for use of technology in the classroom. The advancement in digital science has increased greatly the capacity to explore animations, models, and interesting apps. that should substantially enhance science cognition. At the same time, there is a great need to increase collaboration in the science classroom. There is a concern that the collaborative experience will be lost with the use of technology in the classroom. This study seeks to explore the use of iPads in conjunction with a constructivist learning approach to promote student collaboration. The participants in this study included two sections of 11 th grade AP Chemistry students. Data was generated from different sources such as teacher observations of classroom interactions patterned after Gilles (2004). In order to gauge student perception of working in groups with the use of the iPad, survey questions adapted from Knezek, Mills and Wakefield (2012) and group interviews were used (Galleta, 2013). Learning outcomes were assessed using methods adapted from a study by Lord and Baviskar (2007). Findings of this study showed high percentages of evidence for increased community, productive student group communication, effective feedback through use of the iPads, and value of the interactive apps., but it also showed that students still preferred face-to-face interactions over virtual interactions for certain learning situations. The study showed good content learning outcomes, as well as favorable opinions among the students for the effectiveness of the use of iPads in collaborative settings in the classroom.

  9. A case study of the effects of social experiences on the science identity formation of Mexican American females in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeton, Renee P.

    Mexican Americans are a rapidly growing ethnic group in the United States. However, they are noticeably absent from physical science fields. Little research has explored the experiences of Mexican American girls in high school chemistry. The theories of identity based on communities of practice and multicultural feminism framed this year-long case study of nine Mexican American girls in a high school chemistry course. This study explored the social encounters and experiences that shaped the participants' identities and how their views of themselves affected their attitudes towards high school chemistry and future science careers. Data collection included a focus group and in-depth interviews with the participants, classroom observations, and teacher interviews. Five main identities influenced the participants' potential to become a scientist: ethnic, gender, science, student, and college. Mexican ethnic identity was the overarching identity; however gender also influenced the participants' other identities. The participants were aware of ethnic gender stereotypes that might hinder them from being successful in science. Also, ethnic factors, such as citizenship and abilities to receive financial aid limited their views of themselves as chemists. Participatory science, student, and school identities were all needed in order for the participants to be potential scientists. Family expectations, authentic relationships with teachers, and personal connections were important factors in the development of these participatory identities.

  10. Investigating Relationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Knowledge of Electric Current, Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaltun, Hüseyin; Ates, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among pre-service science teachers' conceptual knowledge of electric current, motivational beliefs, and self-regulation. One hundred and twenty-seven students (female = 107, male = 20) enrolled in the science education program of a public university in Ankara participated the study. A concept…

  11. Korean Kimchi Chemistry: A Multicultural Chemistry Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murfin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Connecting science with different cultures is one way to interest students in science, to relate science to their lives, and at the same time to broaden their horizons in a variety of ways. In the lesson described here, students make kimchi, a delicious and popular Korean dish that can be used to explore many important chemistry concepts,…

  12. Does Everyone's Motivational Beliefs about Physical Science Decline in Secondary School?: Heterogeneity of Adolescents' Achievement Motivation Trajectories in Physics and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Chow, Angela; Degol, Jessica Lauren; Eccles, Jacquelynne Sue

    2017-08-01

    Students' motivational beliefs about learning physical science are critical for achieving positive educational outcomes. In this study, we incorporated expectancy-value theory to capture the heterogeneity of adolescents' motivational trajectories in physics and chemistry from seventh to twelfth grade and linked these trajectories to science-related outcomes. We used a cross-sequential design based on three different cohorts of adolescents (N = 699; 51.5 % female; 95 % European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave = 13.2, 14.1, and 15.3 years) coming from ten public secondary schools. Although many studies claim that physical science motivation declines on average over time, we identified seven differential motivational trajectories of ability self-concept and task values, and found associations of these trajectories with science achievement, advanced science course taking, and science career aspirations. Adolescents' ability self-concept and task values in physics and chemistry were also positively related and interlinked over time. Examining how students' motivational beliefs about physical science develop in secondary school offers insight into the capacity of different groups of students to successfully adapt to their changing educational environments.

  13. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  14. #IHeartChemistryNCSU: Free Choice, Content, and Elements of Science Communication as the Framework for an Introductory Organic Chemistry Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohock, Bram H.; Winterrowd, Samantha T.; Gallardo-Williams, Maria T.

    2018-01-01

    Students in a large introductory organic chemistry class were given the freedom to choose an organic compound of interest and were challenged to develop an educational object (physical or digital) designed to be shared with the broader public via social media. Analysis of the project results shows that most students appreciated the open nature of…

  15. Nanoscience The Science of the Small in Physics, Engineering, Chemistry, Biology and Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscience stands out for its interdisciplinarity. Barriers between disciplines disappear and the fields tend to converge at the very smallest scale, where basic principles and tools are universal. Novel properties are inherent to nanosized systems due to quantum effects and a reduction in dimensionality: nanoscience is likely to continue to revolutionize many areas of human activity, such as materials science, nanoelectronics, information processing, biotechnology and medicine. This textbook spans all fields of nanoscience, covering its basics and broad applications. After an introduction to the physical and chemical principles of nanoscience, coverage moves on to the adjacent fields of microscopy, nanoanalysis, synthesis, nanocrystals, nanowires, nanolayers, carbon nanostructures, bulk nanomaterials, nanomechanics, nanophotonics, nanofluidics, nanomagnetism, nanotechnology for computers, nanochemistry, nanobiology, and nanomedicine. Consequently, this broad yet unified coverage addresses research in academ...

  16. Genetic algorithms and genetic programming for multiscale modeling: Applications in materials science and chemistry and advances in scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Kumara Narasimha

    2007-03-01

    Effective and efficient rnultiscale modeling is essential to advance both the science and synthesis in a, wide array of fields such as physics, chemistry, materials science; biology, biotechnology and pharmacology. This study investigates the efficacy and potential of rising genetic algorithms for rnultiscale materials modeling and addresses some of the challenges involved in designing competent algorithms that solve hard problems quickly, reliably and accurately. In particular, this thesis demonstrates the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) and genetic programming (GP) in multiscale modeling with the help of two non-trivial case studies in materials science and chemistry. The first case study explores the utility of genetic programming (GP) in multi-timescaling alloy kinetics simulations. In essence, GP is used to bridge molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methods to span orders-of-magnitude in simulation time. Specifically, GP is used to regress symbolically an inline barrier function from a limited set of molecular dynamics simulations to enable kinetic Monte Carlo that simulate seconds of real time. Results on a non-trivial example of vacancy-assisted migration on a surface of a face-centered cubic (fcc) Copper-Cobalt (CuxCo 1-x) alloy show that GP predicts all barriers with 0.1% error from calculations for less than 3% of active configurations, independent of type of potentials used to obtain the learning set of barriers via molecular dynamics. The resulting method enables 2--9 orders-of-magnitude increase in real-time dynamics simulations taking 4--7 orders-of-magnitude less CPU time. The second case study presents the application of multiobjective genetic algorithms (MOGAs) in multiscaling quantum chemistry simulations. Specifically, MOGAs are used to bridge high-level quantum chemistry and semiempirical methods to provide accurate representation of complex molecular excited-state and ground-state behavior. Results on ethylene and benzene---two common

  17. Joseph Priestley Across Theology, Education, and Chemistry: An Interdisciplinary Case Study in Epistemology with a Focus on the Science Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berg, Kevin C.

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a search for the intellectual tools used by Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) in his chemistry, education, and theology documents. Priestley's enquiring democratic view of knowledge was applicable in all three areas and constitutes a significant part of his lifework. Current epistemological issues in science education are examined from the point of view of the nature of theory and experiment as observed in Priestley's writings and as espoused in modern philosophy of science. Science and religious faith issues in the context of science education are examined from the point of view of one's understanding of sacred texts, and the suggestion is made that a Priestleyan model of "the liberty to think for oneself" and "to hold knowledge with humility and virtue" could prove helpful in dealing with the known divergent opinions in relation to science, education, and religion.

  18. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 11. Historical changes in surface-water acid-base chemistry in response to acidic deposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Small, M.J.; Kingston, J.C.; Bernert, J.A.; Thomas, D.R.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the analyses reported in the State of Science report are to: identify the lake and stream populations in the United States that have experienced chronic changes in biologically significant constituents of surface water chemistry (e.g. pH, Al) in response to acidic deposition; quantify biologically meaningful historical changes in chronic surface water chemistry associated with acidic deposition, with emphasis on ANC, pH, and Al; estimate the proportion of lakes nor acidic that were not acidic in pre-industrial times; estimate the proportional response of each of the major chemical constituents that have changed in response to acidic deposition using a subset of statistically selected Adirondack lakes for which paleolimnological reconstructions of pre-industrial surface water chemistry have been performed; evaluate and improve, where appropriate and feasible, empirical models of predicting changes in ANC; and evaluate the response of seepage lakes to acidic deposition

  19. The Nuclear Science Facility at San Jose State University and the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored Summer School in Nuclear Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Science Facility at SJSU was first opened for classes in 1975. It is designed primarily for undergraduate teaching of nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, tracer techniques, and radiation safety. Utilizing nearly $1.5 million in counting equipment alone, but excluding a reactor or accelerator, it allows simultaneous use of multiple counting assemblages for up to 20 individual students, even for advanced experiments with Ge/MCA units. Current academic programs include a B.S. Degree in Radiochemistry, an M.S. in Radiological Health Physics, and community outreach to grade schools (nearly 2,000 student-experiments for grades 7-12 were performed in AY88/89). To encourage nuclear chemistry as a potential area of study in graduate school, the US Department of Energy funded a special national Summer School in Nuclear Chemistry. This was first held at SJSU in 1984; summer 1990 will see the seventh such program taught

  20. Preparation, surface chemistry, and electrical conductivity of novel silicon carbide/polypyrrole composites containing an anionic surfactant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mičušík, M.; Omastová, M.; Boukerma, K.; Albouy, A.; Chehimi, M. M.; Trchová, Miroslava; Fedorko, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 8 (2007), s. 1198-1206 ISSN 0032-3888. [Bratislava International Conference on Macromolecules: Advanced Polymeric Materials /20./. Bratislava, 11.06.2006-15.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : composites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.272, year: 2007

  1. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, C., E-mail: cecile.fabre@g2r.uhp-nancy.fr [G2R, Nancy Universite (France); Maurice, S.; Cousin, A. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forni, O. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [MNHN, Paris (France); Guillaume, D. [GET, Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD < 5% for concentration variations > 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and < 10% for concentration variations > 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor

  2. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, C.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Forni, O.; Sautter, V.; Guillaume, D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor elements.

  3. Production technology readiness assessment of surfactant in the research center for Chemistry-Indonesian Institute of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Arief Ameir Rahman; Sulaswatty, Anny

    2017-11-01

    The common problem faced by the institution working on research, innovation and technology development is lack of quantitative measures to determine the technology readiness of research. No common communication language between R & D Institutions and industry about the level of preparedness of a research resulting a barrier to technology diffusion interaction. This lack of connection between R & D institutes with industry may lead to "sluggishness" occurs in innovating. For such circumstance, assessing technology readiness of research is very important. One of wide spread methods for the assessment is Technology Readiness Level (TRL, also known as Technometer), which is introduced by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). TRL is a general guide that provides an overview of maturity level of a technology. This study aims to identify and demonstrate the implementation of TRL to assess a number of surfactant researches in the Research Center for Chemistry, Indonesian Institute of Sciences. According to the assessment, it has been obtained the surfactant recommended for further development towards commercialization of R & D results, i.e. Glycerol Mono Stearate (GMS), which has reached the level of TRL 7.

  4. Vanilla--its science of cultivation, curing, chemistry, and nutraceutical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Krushnamurthy; Shyamala, Bellur Nanjundaiah; Naidu, Madeneni Madhava

    2013-01-01

    Vanilla is a tropical orchid belonging to the family Orchidaceae and it is mainly used in food, perfumery, and pharmaceutical preparations. The quality of the bean depends on the volatile constituent's, viz., the vanillin content, the species of the vine used, and the processing conditions adopted. Hence, proper pollination during flowering and curing by exercising utmost care are the important aspects of vanilla cultivation. There are different methods of curing, and each one is unique and named after the places of its origin like Mexican process and Bourbon process. Recently, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore has developed know-how of improved curing process, where the green vanilla beans are cured immediately after harvest and this process takes only 32 days, which otherwise requires minimum of 150-180 days as reported in traditional curing methods. Vanillin is the most essential component of the 200 and odd such compounds present in vanilla beans. Vanillin as such has not shown any antioxidant properties, it is along with other compounds has got nutraceutical properties and therefore its wide usage. The medicinal future of vanilla may definitely lie in further research on basic science and clinical studies on the constituents and their mechanism of action.

  5. Solid-state quantum chemistry and materials science: Solid compounds of the d and f elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Methods have been developed for calculating electron structures for solid compounds of d and f elements and for simulating physicochemical properties of materials based on them. Cluster and band calculations are considered for refractory compounds of d metals formed with light elements. There are bond and property regularities in doping by meals and metalloids, and defects and impurities have certain effects, where studies have been made on the electron structures for disordered phases and solid solutions in relation to sublattice compositions. Quantum-chemical simulation methods have been developed for optically active and fluorescent materials based on d and f metal oxides, fluorides, and chalcogenides, and compositions have been proposed for new optically active composites and protective coatings. New approaches have been defined to the magnetic parameters of metals, alloys, and compounds; these can be applied in simulating new magnetic materials. Calculations are given on energy spectra for high-temperature oxide superconductors. There is interesting scope for quantum-chemical methods in application to many topics in materials science

  6. Molecular Environmental Science Using Synchrotron Radiation: Chemistry and Physics of Waste Form Materials. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindle, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    Production of defense-related nuclear materials has generated large volumes of complex chemical wastes containing a mixture of radionuclides. The disposition of these wastes requires conversion of the liquid and solid-phase components into durable, solid forms suitable for long-term immobilization. Specially formulated glass compositions and ceramics such as pyrochlores and apatites are the main candidates for these wastes. An important consideration linked to the durability of waste-form materials is the local structure around the waste components. Equally important is the local structure of constituents of the glass and ceramic host matrix. Knowledge of the structure in the waste-form host matrices is essential, prior to and subsequent to waste incorporation, to evaluate and develop improved waste-form compositions based on scientific considerations. This project used the soft-x-ray synchrotron-radiation-based technique of near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) as a unique method for investigating oxidation states and structures of low-Z elemental constituents forming the backbones of glass and ceramic host matrices for waste-form materials. In addition, light metal ions in ceramic hosts, such as titanium, are also ideal for investigation by NEXAFS in the soft-x-ray region. Thus, one of the main objectives was to understand outstanding issues in waste-form science via NEXAFS investigations and to translate this understanding into better waste-form materials, followed by eventual capability to investigate 'real' waste-form materials by the same methodology. We conducted several detailed structural investigations of both pyrochlore ceramic and borosilicate-glass materials during the project and developed improved capabilities at Beamline 6.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to perform the studies.

  7. Molecular Environmental Science Using Synchrotron Radiation: Chemistry and Physics of Waste Form Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindle, Dennis W.

    2011-04-21

    Production of defense-related nuclear materials has generated large volumes of complex chemical wastes containing a mixture of radionuclides. The disposition of these wastes requires conversion of the liquid and solid-phase components into durable, solid forms suitable for long-term immobilization. Specially formulated glass compositions and ceramics such as pyrochlores and apatites are the main candidates for these wastes. An important consideration linked to the durability of waste-form materials is the local structure around the waste components. Equally important is the local structure of constituents of the glass and ceramic host matrix. Knowledge of the structure in the waste-form host matrices is essential, prior to and subsequent to waste incorporation, to evaluate and develop improved waste-form compositions based on scientific considerations. This project used the soft-x-ray synchrotron-radiation-based technique of near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) as a unique method for investigating oxidation states and structures of low-Z elemental constituents forming the backbones of glass and ceramic host matrices for waste-form materials. In addition, light metal ions in ceramic hosts, such as titanium, are also ideal for investigation by NEXAFS in the soft-x-ray region. Thus, one of the main objectives was to understand outstanding issues in waste-form science via NEXAFS investigations and to translate this understanding into better waste-form materials, followed by eventual capability to investigate “real” waste-form materials by the same methodology. We conducted several detailed structural investigations of both pyrochlore ceramic and borosilicate-glass materials during the project and developed improved capabilities at Beamline 6.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to perform the studies.

  8. Analytical Chemistry as Methodology in Modern Pure and Applied Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Honjo, Takaharu

    2001-01-01

    Analytical chemistry is an indispensable methodology in pure and applied chemistry, which is often compared to a foundation stone of architecture. In the home page of jsac, it is said that analytical chemistry is a learning of basic science, which treats the development of method in order to get usefull chemical information of materials by means of detection, separation, and characterization. Analytical chemistry has recently developed into analytical sciences, which treats not only analysis ...

  9. From Matter to Life: Chemistry?!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemistry came along at milder temperatures; particles formed atoms; these ... Chemistry is the science of matter and of its transformations, and life is its highest ..... information. The progression from elementary particles to the nucleus, the.

  10. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  11. Interactions of Native Cyclodextrins with Metal Ions and Inorganic Nanoparticles: Fertile Landscape for Chemistry and Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochowicz, Daniel; Kornowicz, Arkadiusz; Lewiński, Janusz

    2017-11-22

    Readily available cyclodextrins (CDs) with an inherent hydrophobic internal cavity and hydrophilic external surface are macrocyclic entities that display a combination of molecular recognition and complexation properties with vital implications for host-guest supramolecular chemistry. While the host-guest chemistry of CDs has been widely recognized and led to their exploitation in a variety of important functions over the last five decades, these naturally occurring macrocyclic systems have emerged only recently as promising macrocyclic molecules to fabricate environmentally benign functional nanomaterials. This review surveys the development in the field paying special attention to the synthesis and emerging uses of various unmodified CD-metal complexes and CD-inorganic nanoparticle systems and identifies possible future directions. The association of a hydrophobic cavity of CDs with metal ions or various inorganic nanoparticles is a very appealing strategy for controlling the inorganic subunits properties in the very competitive water environment. In this review we provide the most prominent examples of unmodified CDs' inclusion complexes with organometallic guests and update the research in this field from the past decade. We discuss also the coordination flexibility of native CDs to metal ions in CD-based metal complexes and summarize the progress in the synthesis and characterization of CD-metal complexes and their use in catalysis and sensing as well as construction of molecular magnets. Then we provide a comprehensive overview of emerging applications of native CDs in materials science and nanotechnology. Remarkably, in the past few years CDs have appeared as attractive building units for the synthesis of carbohydrate metal-organic frameworks (CD-MOFs) in a combination of alkali-metal cations. The preparation of this new class of highly porous materials and their applications in the separation of small molecules, the loading of drug molecules, as well as

  12. “Biotecnological War” - A Conceptual And Perceptual Assessment Tool For Teaching Biotechnology And Protein Chemistry For Undergraduate Students In Biological Sciences.

    OpenAIRE

    C. R. C. Cruz et al.

    2017-01-01

    "Biotecnological War" board game, a conceptual and perceptual assessment tool for biotechnology and protein chemistry teaching for undergraduate students in biological sciences and related areas. It is a proposal initially conceived as an alternative complementary tool for biochemistry teaching of proteins and peptides, challenging students, aiming to review concepts transmitted in classroom, stimulating diverse student’s abilities, such as their creativity, competitiveness and resource manag...

  13. Finding the Connections between a High-School Chemistry Curriculum and Nano-Scale Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Sakhnini, Sohair

    2017-01-01

    The high-school chemistry curriculum is loaded with many important chemical concepts that are taught at the high-school level and it is therefore very difficult to add modern contents to the existing curriculum. However, many studies have underscored the importance of integrating modern chemistry contents such as nanotechnology into a high-school…

  14. Material science. For electricians, information experts and electrical engineers; Werkstoffkunde. Fuer Elektrotechniker, Informationstechniker und Elektromaschinenbauer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegismund, H.

    1999-10-01

    This book of the series ``Die Meisterpruefung in der Elektrotechnik`` provides information on material science and components. Low redundancy in the subject matter enables efficient learning for examinations as well as fast access for the practician. Each chapter contains questions and answers for checking up on the knowledge gained. Subjects: Fundamentals; Materials and components in electrical engineering; Joints and contacts; Ferrous materials; Lubricants and roller bearings; Materials in electromechanical engineering; Gypsum and cement; Corrosion and corrosion protection. [Deutsch] Dieser vorliegende Band aus der Fachbuchreihe `Die Meisterpruefung in der Elektrotechnik` vermittelt die bei der Anwendung von Werkstoffen und Baulementen noetige Sachkenntnis. Die redundanzarme Stoffvermittlung ermoeglicht eine effiziente Pruefungsvorbereitung, aber auch dem Praktiker den schnellen Zugriff. Mit Fragen und Antworten zu jedem Kapitel kann eine Eigenkontrolle des erworbenen Wissens erfolgen. 1. Grundlagen, 2. Werkstoffe und Bauelemente der Elektrotechnik, 3. Verbindungen und Kontakte, 4. Eisenwerkstoffe, 5. Schmierstoffe und Waelzlager, 6. Werkstoffe im Elektromaschinenbau, 7. Gips und Zement und 8. Korrosion und Korrosionsschutz. (orig.)

  15. Projects for the implementation of science technology society approach in basic concept of natural science course as application of optical and electrical instruments’ material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satria, E.

    2018-03-01

    Preservice teachers in primary education should be well equipped to meet the challenges of teaching primary science effectively in 21century. The purpose of this research was to describe the projects for the implementation of Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach in Basic Concept of Natural Science course as application of optical and electrical instruments’ material by the preservice teachers in Elementary Schools Teacher Education Program. One of the reasons is the lack of preservice teachers’ ability in making projects for application of STS approach and optical and electrical instruments’ material in Basic Concept of Natural Science course. This research applied descriptive method. The instrument of the research was the researcher himself. The data were gathered through observation and documentation. Based on the results of the research, it was figured out that preservice teachers, in groups, were creatively and successful to make the projects of optical and electrical instruments assigned such as projector and doorbell. It was suggested that the construction of the instruments should be better (fixed and strong structure) and more attractive for both instruments, and used strong light source, high quality images, and it could use speaker box for projector, power battery, and heat sink for electrical instruments.

  16. Reconstructing Iconic Experiments in Electrochemistry: Experiences from a History of Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Kvittingen, Lise; Lykknes, Annette; Wittje, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The decomposition of water by electricity, and the voltaic pile as a means of generating electricity, have both held an iconic status in the history of science as well as in the history of science teaching. These experiments featured in chemistry and physics textbooks, as well as in classroom teaching, throughout the nineteenth and twentieth…

  17. Development of sensors for in-situ monitoring of corrosion and water chemistry parameters for the electric power utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Pang, J.; Liu, C.; Medina, E.; Villa, J.; Bueno, J.

    1993-01-01

    The in situ monitoring of the chemistry and electrochemistry of aqueous heat transport fluids in thermal (nuclear and fossil) power plants is now considered essential if adequate assessment and close control of corrosion and mass transfer phenomena are to be achieved. Because of the elevated temperatures and pressures involved, new sensor technologies are required that are able to measure key parameters under plant operating conditions for extended periods of time. In this paper, the authors outline a research and development program that is designed to develop practical sensors for use in thermal power plants. The current emphasis is on sensors for measuring corrosion potential, pH, the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen, and the electrochemical noise generated by corrosion processes at temperatures ranging from ∼250 C to 500 C. The program is currently at the laboratory stage, but testing of prototype sensors in a coal-fired supercritical power plant in Spain will begin shortly

  18. Perspectives of best Practices for Learning Gender-Inclusive Science: Influences of Extracurricular Science for Gifted Girls and Electrical Engineering for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Shaunda L.

    Gifted girls in elementary school must follow the set curriculum, but their choices of extracurricular activities may indicate future subject preferences. This study attempted to explore the perceptions of gifted girls regarding how the family, home, and school environments influenced their choices to take extracurricular science classes. A mixed methodology was adopted: qualitative, to understand the girls' perceptions of influence, and quantitative, to measure their attitudes toward science. Influential factors identified in this study highlight fun as occurring with the highest frequency and four emergent factors: doubt, traditional sex roles, boredom, and group work. In addition, findings from a focused case study of a graduate electrical engineer are interwoven with the girls' perspectives of science. The varying ages and experiences with science of the participants provide interesting views. This study adds knowledge to the field of science education, specifically on withingender differences of gifted girls and women in engineering.

  19. Atmospheric chemistry and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesh, SK

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science where major focus is the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. Knowledge of atmospheric composition is essential due to its interaction with (solar and terrestrial) radiation and interactions of atmospheric species (gaseous and particulate matter) with living organisms. Since atmospheric chemistry covers a vast range of topics, in this article the focus is on the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols with special emphasis on the Indian reg...

  20. Measuring metacognitive ability based on science literacy in dynamic electricity topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warni; Sunyono; Rosidin

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to produce an instrument of metacognition ability assessment based on science literacy on theoretically and empirically feasible dynamic electrical material. The feasibility of the assessment instrument includes theoretical validity on material, construction, and language aspects, as well as empirical validity, reliability, difficulty, distinguishing, and distractor indices. The development of assessment instruments refers to the Dick and Carey development model which includes the preliminary study stage, initial product development, validation and revision, and piloting. The instrument was tested to 32 students of class IX in SMP Negeri 20 Bandar Lampung, using the design of One Group Pretest-Postest Design. The result shows that the metacognition ability assessment instrument based on science literacy is feasible theoretically with theoretical validity percentage of 95.44% and empirical validity of 43.75% for the high category, 43.75% for the medium category, and 12.50 % for low category questions; Reliability of assessment instruments of 0.83 high categories; Difficulty level of difficult item is about 31.25% and medium category is equal to 68.75%. Item that has very good distinguishing power is 12.50%, 62.50% for good stage, and medium category is 25.00%; As well as the duplexing function on a matter of multiple choice is 80.00% including good category and 20.00% for medium category.

  1. A green chemistry approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    One-pot synthesis of quinaldine derivatives by using microwave irradiation without any solvent – A green chemistry approach. JAVAD SAFARI*, SAYED HOSSEIN BANITABA and SEPEHR SADEGH SAMIEI. Department of Chemistry, The Faculty of sciences, University of Kashan, Kashan,. P.O. Box 87317-51167, I.R. Iran.

  2. Chemistry and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigston, David L.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between chemisty and biology in the science curriculum. Points out the differences in perception of the disciplines, which the physical scientists favoring reductionism. Suggests that biology departments offer a special course for chemistry students, just as the chemistry departments have done for biology students.…

  3. Chemistry and Materials Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Thrust areas of the weapons-supporting research are growth, structure, and reactivity of surfaces and thin films; uranium research; physics and processing of metals; energetic materials; etc. The laboratory-directed R and D include director's initiatives and individual projects, and transactinium institute studies

  4. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 7. Electrostatics in Chemistry - Molecular Electrostatic Potential: Visualization and Topography. Shridhar R Gadre Pravin K Bhadane. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 7 July 1999 pp 14-23 ...

  5. Organic Chemistry Masterclasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Science Education that is published monthly by the Academy since January 1996. ...... Modern chemistry is also emerging from molecules derived from the .... photochemical reactions, the traditional correlation diagram approach is more ...

  6. WHAT MAKES CHEMISTRY DIFFICULT?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    School of Natural and Computational Science Dire Dawa University, Ethiopia,. 2 ... lack of teaching aids and the difficulty of the language of chemistry. ... lab every other week consisting of concept pretests on the web, hand-written homework, ...

  7. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  8. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry Data, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Status and Trends (NS&T) Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry data file reports the trace concentrations of a suite of chemical contaminants in...

  9. National Status and Trends, Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry Data, 1984-1992, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Status and Trends (NSandT) Benthic Surveillance Project Chemistry data file reports the trace concentrations of a suite of chemical contaminants in...

  10. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ GENERIC SKILL IN SCIENCE THROUGH CHEMISTRY LEARNING USING ICT-BASED MEDIA ON REACTION RATE AND OSMOTIC PRESSURE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mulyani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to obtain information of improvement students’ generic skills in science through chemistry learning using ICT-based media on reaction rate and osmotic pressure material. This research was designed with quasi-experimental research method, with the design of non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The research subjects were students of class XI and XII one of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri (State Islamic Senior High School in Bandung. Learning process in experiment group were conducted using ICT-based media, whereas in control group conducted by applying laboratory activities. Data were collected through multiple-choice test. The result shows that there was no significant difference of n- gain of students’ generic skill in science between experiment and control group. Therefore it can be concluded that the learning process using ICT-based media can improve students' generic skills in science as well as laboratory-based activities.

  11. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  12. Department of Defense Laboratory Civilian Science and Engineering Workforce - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Aerospace Engineering 1,995 2,207 2,166 -41 -1.9% Electrical Engineering 982 1,193 1,413 220 18.4% Chemistry 744 873 804 -69 -7.9% Operations Research...1313 Geophysics 180 Psychology 690 Industrial Hygiene 1315 Hydrology 184 Sociology 701 Veterinary Medical Science 1320 Chemistry 190 General...Engineering 1520 Mathematics 470 Soil Science 861 Aerospace Engineering 1529 Mathematical Statistician 471 Agronomy 871 Naval Architecture 1530

  13. Scientific Information Analysis of Chemistry Dissertations Using Thesaurus of Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Rajabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available : Concept maps of chemistry can be obtained from thesaurus of chemistry. Analysis of information in the field of chemistry is done at graduate level, based on comparing and analyzing chemistry dissertations by using these maps. Therefore, the use of thesaurus for analyzing scientific information is recommended. Major advantage of using this method, is that it is possible to obtain a detailed map of all academic researches across all branches of science. The researches analysis results in chemical science can play a key role in developing strategic research policies, educational programming, linking universities to industries and postgraduate educational programming. This paper will first introduce the concept maps of chemistry. Then, emerging patterns from the concept maps of chemistry will be used to analyze the trend in the academic dissertations in chemistry, using the data collected and stored in our database at Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc over the past 10 years (1998-2009.

  14. Recent aspects of self-oscillating polymeric materials: designing self-oscillating polymers coupled with supramolecular chemistry and ionic liquid science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryo

    2014-06-14

    Herein, we summarise the recent developments in self-oscillating polymeric materials based on the concepts of supramolecular chemistry, where aggregates of molecular building blocks with non-covalent bonds evolve the temporal or spatiotemporal structure. By utilising the rhythmic oscillation of the association/dissociation of molecular aggregates coupled with the redox oscillation by the BZ reaction, novel soft materials that express similar functions as those of living matter will be achieved. Further, from the viewpoint of materials science, our recent approach to prepare self-oscillating materials that operate long-term under mild conditions will be introduced.

  15. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear of the Science and Technology part II : Nuclear Chemistry and Process Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamsul Abraha; Yateman Arryanto; Sri Jauhari S; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Djoko Sardjono, Ign.; Sukarsono, R.; Samin; Syarip; Suryadi, MS; Sardjono, Y.; Tri Mardji Atmono; Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Tjipto Sujitno, BA.

    2007-08-01

    The Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity held by Centre for Accelerator Technology and Material Process, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring the research activity which achieved in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The Meeting was held in Yogyakarta on July 10, 2007. The proceedings contains papers presented on the meeting about Nuclear Chemistry and Process Technology and there are 47 papers which have separated index. The proceedings is the second part of the three parts which published in series. (PPIN)

  16. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  17. On the Defect Chemistry, Electrical Properties and Electrochemical Performances As Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Materials of New La-(Sr/Vac)-Co-Ti-O Perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Alvarado, Flaviano; Gómez-Pérez, Alejandro; Pérez-Flores, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Perovskite-type oxides are well known materials that have been proposed as electrodes and electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The structure, which is referred to the ABO3 stoichiometry, can accommodate many different transition metal ions in the B-site; its electronic conductivity...... materials with valuable properties for SOFCs. We have analysed the effect of La3+ by Sr2+ substitution and vacancies creation in several double perovskites, La2MTiO6 (M = Co, Ni, Cu). Defect chemistry and electrical behavior have been investigated in order to unveil the nature of charge carriers....... Electrochemical performances have been assessed through polarization resistance measurements. In this communication we present the results regarding La2SrTiO6 perovskites. La/Sr substitution in La2-xSrxCoTiO6-δ produces Co2+ to Co3+ oxidation while vacancies in La2-xCoTiO6-δ yield Co2+ oxidation for low A...

  18. Chemistry and materials science progress report. Weapons-supporting research and laboratory directed research and development: FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report covers different materials and chemistry research projects carried out a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 1995 in support of nuclear weapons programs and other programs. There are 16 papers supporting weapons research and 12 papers supporting laboratory directed research.

  19. Conceptual Mobility and Entrenchment in Introductory Geoscience Courses: New Questions Regarding Physics' and Chemistry's Role in Learning Earth Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven W.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide pre- and posttesting of introductory courses with the Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI) shows little gain for many of its questions. Analysis of more than 3,500 tests shows that 22 of the 73 GCI questions had gains of <0.03, and nearly half of these focused on basic physics and chemistry. We also discovered through an assessment of…

  20. Critical-Thinking Grudge Match: Biology vs. Chemistry--Examining Factors That Affect Thinking Skill in Nonmajors Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.; Cornell, Caitlyn Nicole; Griffith, Lindsay; Hancock, Julie; Egbert, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry students appear to bring significantly higher critical-thinking skill to their nonmajors course than do biology students. Knowing student preconceptions and thinking ability is essential to learning growth and effective teaching. Of the factors investigated, ethnicity and high school physics had the largest impact on critical-thinking…

  1. Strengthening High School Chemistry Education through Teacher Outreach Programs: A Workshop Summary to the Chemical Sciences Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Steve

    2009-01-01

    A strong chemical workforce in the United States will be essential to the ability to address many issues of societal concern in the future, including demand for renewable energy, more advanced materials, and more sophisticated pharmaceuticals. High school chemistry teachers have a critical role to play in engaging and supporting the chemical…

  2. Chemistry and materials science progress report. Weapons-supporting research and laboratory directed research and development: FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This report covers different materials and chemistry research projects carried out a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 1995 in support of nuclear weapons programs and other programs. There are 16 papers supporting weapons research and 12 papers supporting laboratory directed research

  3. Nobody Can See Atoms: Science Camps Highlighting Approaches for Making Chemistry Accessible to Blind and Visually Impaired Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedler, Henry B.; Boyes, Lee; Davis, Rebecca L.; Flynn, Dan; Franz, Annaliese; Hamann, Christian S.; Harrison, Jason G.; Lodewyk, Michael W.; Milinkevich, Kristin A.; Shaw, Jared T.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Wang, Selina C.

    2014-01-01

    Curricula for three chemistry camp experiences for blind and visually impaired (BVI) individuals that incorporated single- and multiday activities and experiments accessible to BVI students are described. Feedback on the camps from students, mentors, and instructors indicates that these events allowed BVI students, who in many cases have been…

  4. Interface of Chemistry and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kira Astakhova

    2013-01-01

    Many exciting research studies in Science today lie at the interface between various disciplines. The interface between Chemistry and Biology is particularly rich, since it closely reflects Nature and the origins of Life. Multiple research groups in the Chemistry Departments around the world have made substantial efforts to interweave ideas from Chemistry and Biology to solve important questions related to material science and healthcare, just to name a few. International Journal of Bioorgani...

  5. Spotlight on medicinal chemistry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Simone; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Taylor, Peter; Turner, Nicholas; Coaker, Hannah; Crews, Kasumi

    2014-05-01

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving and it is important for medicinal chemists to develop the skills and knowledge required to succeed and contribute to the advancement of the field. Future Medicinal Chemistry spoke with Simone Pitman (SP), Yao-Zhong Xu (YX), Peter Taylor (PT) and Nick Turner (NT) from The Open University (OU), which offers an MSc in Medicinal Chemistry. In the interview, they discuss the MSc course content, online teaching, the future of medicinal chemistry education and The OU's work towards promoting widening participation. SP is a Qualifications Manager in the Science Faculty at The OU. She joined The OU in 1993 and since 1998 has been involved in the Postgraduate Medicinal Chemistry provision at The OU. YX is a Senior Lecturer in Bioorganic Chemistry at The OU. He has been with The OU from 2001, teaching undergraduate courses of all years and chairing the master's course on medicinal chemistry. PT is a Professor of Organic Chemistry at The OU and has been involved with the production and presentation of The OU courses in Science and across the university for over 30 years, including medicinal chemistry modules at postgraduate level. NT is a Lecturer in Analytical Science at The OU since 2009 and has been involved in the production of analytical sciences courses, as well as contributing to the presentation of a number of science courses including medicinal chemistry.

  6. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  7. SPECIAL ISSUE DEDICATED TO THE 10TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MOLDOVA. GENERAL, INDUSTRIAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe DUCA

    2016-01-01

    Ten years ago, in 2006, CHEMISTRY JOURNAL OF MOLDOVA. General, Industrial and Ecological Chemistry was founded by the Institute of Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of Moldova and Moldova State University. Chemistry Journal of Moldova is an open access, international indexed and peer-reviewed journal that publishes papers of high quality containing original results in the areas of Chemical Sciences, such as analytical chemistry, ecological chemistry, food chemistry, industrial chem...

  8. Integrating Solar Power onto the Electric Grid - Bridging the Gap between Atmospheric Science, Engineering and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonima, M. S.; Yang, H.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Kim, C. K.; Babacan, O.; Hanna, R.; Kurtz, B.; Mejia, F. A.; Nguyen, A.; Urquhart, B.; Chow, C. W.; Mathiesen, P.; Bosch, J.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main obstacles to high penetrations of solar power is the variable nature of solar power generation. To mitigate variability, grid operators have to schedule additional reliability resources, at considerable expense, to ensure that load requirements are met by generation. Thus despite the cost of solar PV decreasing, the cost of integrating solar power will increase as penetration of solar resources onto the electric grid increases. There are three principal tools currently available to mitigate variability impacts: (i) flexible generation, (ii) storage, either virtual (demand response) or physical devices and (iii) solar forecasting. Storage devices are a powerful tool capable of ensuring smooth power output from renewable resources. However, the high cost of storage is prohibitive and markets are still being designed to leverage their full potential and mitigate their limitation (e.g. empty storage). Solar forecasting provides valuable information on the daily net load profile and upcoming ramps (increasing or decreasing solar power output) thereby providing the grid advance warning to schedule ancillary generation more accurately, or curtail solar power output. In order to develop solar forecasting as a tool that can be utilized by the grid operators we identified two focus areas: (i) develop solar forecast technology and improve solar forecast accuracy and (ii) develop forecasts that can be incorporated within existing grid planning and operation infrastructure. The first issue required atmospheric science and engineering research, while the second required detailed knowledge of energy markets, and power engineering. Motivated by this background we will emphasize area (i) in this talk and provide an overview of recent advancements in solar forecasting especially in two areas: (a) Numerical modeling tools for coastal stratocumulus to improve scheduling in the day-ahead California energy market. (b) Development of a sky imager to provide short term

  9. Teaching Introductory Quantum Physics and Chemistry: Caveats from the History of Science and Science Teaching to the Training of Modern Chemists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, Ileana M.; Freire, Olival, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Finding the best ways to introduce quantum physics to undergraduate students in all scientific areas, in particular for chemistry students, is a pressing, but hardly a simple task. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of taking into account lessons from the history of the discipline and the ongoing controversy over its interpretations and…

  10. Grade 10 Thai students' scientific argumentation in learning about electric field through science, technology, and society (STS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnork, Amporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    The research aimed to enhance Grade 10 Thai students' scientific argumentation in learning about electric field through science, technology, and society (STS) approach. The participants included 45 Grade 10 students who were studying in a school in Nongsonghong, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. The intervention was the force unit which was provided based on Yuenyong (2006) STS approach. Students learned about the STS electric field unit for 4 weeks. The students' scientific argumentation was interpreted based on Toulmin's argument pattern or TAP. The TAP provided six components of argumentation including data, claim, warrants, qualifiers, rebuttals and backing. Tools of interpretation included students' activity sheets, conversation, journal writing, classroom observation and interview. The findings revealed that students held the different pattern of argumentation. Then, they change pattern of argumentation close to the TAP. It indicates that the intervention of STS electric field unit enhance students to develop scientific argumentation. This finding may has implication of further enhancing scientific argumentation in Thailand.

  11. Work on the hot atom chemistry at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Yugoslavia; Hemija vruceg atoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veljkovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1969-07-01

    A survey of work on hot atom chemistry from the establishment of the Institute up to now, where the role of Prof. P. Savic, should be specially emphasized, is given. The investigations in this domain during the first period, were directed to solve various problems in production of radioactive isotopes. Today these investigations are closely associated with the work in radiochemistry, physical chemistry of liquid and solid systems and fast reaction kinetics improving the development of these branches (author) [Serbo-Croat] Daje se pregled rada na hemiji vruceg atoma od osnivanja Instituta do danas, pri cemu se narocito istice uloga koju je u tome imao prof. P. Savic. Dok su u prvom periodu istrazivanja u ovoj oblasti doprinosila resavanju raznih problema proizvodnje radioaktivnih izotopa, ona su danas tesno povezana sa radom u radiohemiji, fizickoj hemiji tecnih i cvrstih sistema, kinetici brzih reakcija, doprinoseci sa svoje strane razvoju tih oblasti (author)

  12. Bringing the science of proteins into the realm of organic chemistry: total chemical synthesis of SEP (synthetic erythropoiesis protein).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen B H

    2013-11-11

    Erythropoietin, commonly known as EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells. Recombinant EPO has been described as "arguably the most successful drug spawned by the revolution in recombinant DNA technology". Recently, the EPO glycoprotein molecule has re-emerged as a major target of synthetic organic chemistry. In this article I will give an account of an important body of earlier work on the chemical synthesis of a designed EPO analogue that had full biological activity and improved pharmacokinetic properties. The design and synthesis of this "synthetic erythropoiesis protein" was ahead of its time, but has gained new relevance in recent months. Here I will document the story of one of the major accomplishments of synthetic chemistry in a more complete way than is possible in the primary literature, and put the work in its contemporaneous context. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Educational experiences in Chemistry with Adult and Youth: incursions at science, work and ideology and its curriculums implications

    OpenAIRE

    Alceu Júnior Paz da Silva; Luiz Carlos Nascimento da Rosa; Gustavo da Silva Flores; Narendranath Martins Costa

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary setting of huge unemployment and precarization of work has brought to Adult and Youth Education courses an imaginary that secondary education is fundamental for professional qualification and achievement of (better) jobs. The objective of this work is to problematize the Chemistry curriculum according to young and adults interests in order to qualify them to the world of work. For that purpose, we adopted some contributions of Gramsci’s Marxist social theory as methodological...

  14. Linking the microscopic view of chemistry to real-life experiences: Intertextuality in a high-school science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai

    2003-11-01

    Chemistry learning involves establishing conceptual relationships among macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic representations. Employing the notion of intertextuality to conceptualize these relationships, this study investigates how class members interactionally construct meanings of chemical representations by connecting them to real-life experiences and how the teachers' content knowledge shapes their ways to coconstruct intertextual links with students. Multiple sources of data were collected over 7 weeks with a participation of 25 eleventh graders, an experienced teacher, and a student teacher. An examination of classroom discourse shows that the intertextual links between the microscopic view of chemistry and students' real-life experiences could be initiated by students and instigated by the teachers. The teachers applied several discursive strategies to scaffold students building meaningful links based on their prior knowledge and experiences. Additionally, the experienced teacher with stronger content knowledge tended to present links in both dialogic and monologic discourses. Yet, the relatively limited content knowledge did not necessarily constrain the student teacher's interactions with students. The findings of this study provide a backdrop for further research to explore how chemistry is learned and taught in a class through the social constructivist lens.

  15. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  16. PCK in Action: Examining One Chemistry Teacher's Practice through the Lens of Her Orientation toward Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesdorfer, Sarah; Lorsbach, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    A teacher's orientation toward science teaching has been proposed as very influential to a teacher's pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and teaching practice. Experienced teachers' orientation toward science teaching and its connections to their practice has not been well explored. Focusing on a unit about the periodic table, this study provides…

  17. Environmental Chemistry Division annual report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.

    1990-01-01

    The research activities making up the programs in the Environmental Chemistry Division of the Department of Applied Science are presented. Some of the more significant accomplishments during 1989 are described and plans for 1990 are discussed briefly. Publications for the period are listed and abstracts are provided. Research objectives and principal investigators are given for each of the active programs. A list of personnel and collaborators during the past year is presented. The support distribution of FY 1989 is approximately 85% from the Department of Energy (65% Office of Health and Environmental Research), and 15% other agencies (principally from the Electric Power Research Institute)

  18. Reference Sources in Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Sthapit, Dilip Man

    1995-01-01

    Information plays an important role in the development of every field. Therefore a brief knowledge regarding information sources is necessary to function in any field. There are many information sources about scientific and technical subjects. In this context there are many reference sources in Chemistry too. Chemistry is one important part of the science which deals with the study of the composition of substances and the chemical changes that they undergo. The purpose of this report is...

  19. Computational quantum chemistry website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage

  20. The Electric Vehicle Project for High School Students in Nagoya City Science Museum : As the First Step of Global Engineering Education to Create Value from Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    馬渕, 浩一; Mabuchi, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an account of "The Electric Vehicle Project", a science museum activity in cooperation with Nagoya Institute of Technology and major manufacturing companies. The project is intended to encourage Japanese high school students' interest in science and technology, based on Nagoya, Japan and Asia, the center of the manufacturing industries. The project contains three programs: 1) Students make practical lead acid batteries. 2) Students drive an electric vehicle of their own desig...

  1. Chemistry to music: Discovering how Music-based Teaching affects academic achievement and student motivation in an 8th grade science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, William Gavin Lodge, Jr.

    Teachers should have access to new and innovative tools in order to engage and motivate their students in the classroom. This is especially important as many students view school as an antiquated and dull environment - which they must seemingly suffer through to advance. School need not be a dreaded environment. The use of music as a tool for learning can be employed by any teacher to create an engaging and exciting atmosphere where students actively participate and learn to value their classroom experience. Through this study, a product and process was developed that is now available for any 8th grade science teacher interested in using music to enhance their content. In this study 8th grade students (n=41) in a public school classroom actively interacted with modern songs created to enhance the teaching of chemistry. Data were collected and analyzed in order to determine the effects that the music treatment had on student achievement and motivation, compared to a control group (n=35). Current literature provides a foundation for the benefits for music listening and training, but academic research in the area of using music as a tool for teaching content was noticeably absent. This study identifies a new area of research called "Music-based Teaching" which results in increases in motivation for 8th grade students learning chemistry. The unintended results of the study are additionally significant as the teacher conducting the treatment experienced newfound enthusiasm, passion, and excitement for her profession.

  2. Present address of cutting-edge chemistry in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This introduces the research center, company and chemistry department with excellent results. This book lists the name of those, which are organic molecule design laboratory by Sunmun university, intelligence Nano technology research center by Biotechnology, Ewha university, Nano chemistry laboratory by Department of chemistry, Yonsei university, science education research center by Haying university, solid chemistry laboratory by Department of Nano science, Ewha university, the center of innovation of chemistry industry with R and D by LG chemistry, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemistry, Sogang university, Department of Chemistry, Busan university and Department of Chemistry, Dankook university.

  3. Water chemistry guidelines for BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilanin, W.J.; Jones, R.L.; Welty, C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Guidelines for BWR water chemistry control have been prepared by a committee of experienced utility industry personnel sponsored by the BWR Owners Group on IGSCC Research and coordinated by the Electric Power Research Institute. The guidelines are based on extensive plant operational experience and laboratory research data. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide guidance to the electric utility industry on water chemistry control to help reduce corrosion, especially stress corrosion cracking, in boiling water reactors

  4. Magnets and Electricity. Seychelles Integrated Science [Teacher and Pupil Booklets]. Unit 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, M.; Fryars, M.

    Seychelles Integrated Science (SIS), a 3-year laboratory-based science program for students (ages 11-15) in upper primary grades 7, 8, and 9, was developed from an extensive evaluation and modification of previous P7-P9 materials. This P8 SIS unit focuses on: (1) elementary concepts in magnetic theory and the role magnets and magnetism play in…

  5. Electricity and Vital Force: Discussing the Nature of Science through a Historical Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Hermann; Guerra, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Seeking a historical-philosophical approach to science teaching, narrative texts have been used as pedagogical tools to improve the learning experience of students. A review of the literature of different types of narrative texts and their different rates of effectiveness in science education is presented. This study was developed using the…

  6. About the ways of republican electrical engineering science development at the market economy conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuliyev, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text : The article is dedlcated to the ways of development of republican electro-technical science in the period of integration of Azerbaijan into world market economy. The most actual problems of this period were explained. The main problem directions of development of electro-technical science in present stage were formulated

  7. An analysis of laboratory activities found in "Applications In Biology/Chemistry: A Contextual Approach to Laboratory Science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Sandra Sue

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine whether the material found in ABC promotes scientific inquiry through the inclusion of science process skills, and to quantitatively determine the type (experimental, comparative, or descriptive) and character (wet-lab, paper and pencil, model, or computer) of laboratory activities. The research design allowed for an examination of the frequency and type of science process skills required of students in 79 laboratory activities sampled from all 12 units utilizing a modified 33-item laboratory analysis inventory (LAI) (Germane et al, 1996). Interrater reliability for the science process skills was completed on 19 of the laboratory activities with a mean score of 86.1%. Interrater reliability for the type and character of the laboratory, on the same 19 laboratory activities, was completed with mean scores of 79.0% and 96.5%, respectively. It was found that all laboratory activities provide a prelaboratory activity. In addition, the science process skill category of student performance is required most often of students with the skill of learning techniques or manipulating apparatus occurring 99% of the time. The science process skill category observed the least was student planning and design, occurring only 3% of the time. Students were rarely given the opportunity to practice science process skills such as developing and testing hypotheses through experiments they have designed. Chi-square tests, applied at the .05 level of significance, revealed that there was a significant difference in the type of laboratory activities; comparative laboratory activities appeared more often (59%). In addition the character of laboratory activities, "wet-lab" activities appeared more often (90%) than any of the others.

  8. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  9. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  10. Research activity of institute of physical chemistry of Russian Academy of sciences in the field of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikaev, A.K. [Institute of Physical Chemistry of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The report is a brief review of the most important directions in research activity of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of RAS (Moscow) in the field of nuclear fuel cycle. The main attention is paid to researches and developments on liquid radioactive waste management including the removal of wastes to deep geological formations and the immobilization of the wastes. In particular, the data from the study on the properties of new, basaltic-like matrices for the immobilization are presented. The results of research on gas evolution from the systems modeling liquid high-level radioactive wastes are considered. The separation of some radionuclides from irradiated nuclear and the production of radiation sources by various methods are discussed. (author)

  11. Participation in BCR - certifications by the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Institute for Nuclear Sciences, University of Gent, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.; Dyg, S.; Dams, R.; Griepink, B.

    1990-01-01

    During the last decade the Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry assisted in the certification of 31 environmental and food reference materials issued by the BCR (Bureau of Reference Materials of the European Communities). The efforts spent can be translated into the following statistics: the 10 most frequently certified elements assisted by the Gent Laboratory are As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, Se and Zn. They cover 70% of the certification work. The Gent Laboratory cooperated in 74% of the latter. There are 21 more major and trace elements certified, some in a single product only. Activation analysis was the main analytical technique applied by the Gent Laboratory. In many instances radiochemical separations were involved. (orig.)

  12. Educational experiences in Chemistry with Adult and Youth: incursions at science, work and ideology and its curriculums implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Júnior Paz da Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary setting of huge unemployment and precarization of work has brought to Adult and Youth Education courses an imaginary that secondary education is fundamental for professional qualification and achievement of (better jobs. The objective of this work is to problematize the Chemistry curriculum according to young and adults interests in order to qualify them to the world of work. For that purpose, we adopted some contributions of Gramsci’s Marxist social theory as methodological and theoretical tools to investigate hegemonic aspects in which the curriculum is immersed. By analyzing the curriculum as a space of struggle for social hegemony, we conclude that is promising to explore the historical approach of the chemical knowledge as a mediator element of counter-hegemonic educational practices.

  13. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  14. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  15. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  16. The Development, Field Testing and Evaluation of Three Hierarchies of Behaviorally Stated Objectives for the Chemistry Content of a Course of Instruction in Physical Science for Pre-Service Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Robert Alden

    The purpose of this research was to develop hierarchies of behavioral objectives for the chemistry content of a one-semester course in physical science for preservice associate degree nursing students. Each of three content objectives was expressed by a series of behaviorally stated objectives which included a terminal objective for a unit of…

  17. Assessing Motivation to Learn Chemistry: Adaptation and Validation of Science Motivation Questionnaire II with Greek Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salta, Katerina; Koulougliotis, Dionysios

    2015-01-01

    In educational research, the availability of a validated version of an original instrument in a different language offers the possibility for valid measurements obtained within the specific educational context and in addition it provides the opportunity for valid cross-cultural comparisons. The present study aimed to adapt the Science Motivation…

  18. A Framework for Evaluating Science and Technology Electronic Reference Books: A Comparison of Five Platforms in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines what is desirable in online reference books in science and technology and outlines a framework for evaluating their interfaces. The framework considers factors unique to these subject areas like chemical structures and numerical data. Criteria in three categories, navigability, searchability, and results, were applied to five…

  19. Improving Student Perceptions of Science through the Use of State-of-the-Art Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurentz, David J.; Kerns, Stefanie L.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    Access to state-of-the-art instrumentation, namely nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, early in the college curriculum was provided to undergraduate students in an effort to improve student perceptions of science. Proton NMR spectroscopy was introduced as part of an aspirin synthesis in a guided-inquiry approach to spectral…

  20. Teachers' Practices in High School Chemistry Just Prior to the Adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesdorfer, Sarah B.; Staude, Kristin D.

    2016-01-01

    Effective professional development that influences teachers' classroom practices starts with what teachers know, understand, and do in their classroom. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) challenge teachers to make changes to their classroom; to help teachers make these changes, it is necessary to know what they are doing in their…

  1. Dynamic Processes in Biology, Chemistry, and Materials Science: Opportunities for UltraFast Transmission Electron Microscopy - Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabius, Bernd C.; Browning, Nigel D.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Diehl, Barbara L.; Stach, Eric A.

    2012-07-25

    This report summarizes a 2011 workshop that addressed the potential role of rapid, time-resolved electron microscopy measurements in accelerating the solution of important scientific and technical problems. A series of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Academy of Science workshops have highlighted the critical role advanced research tools play in addressing scientific challenges relevant to biology, sustainable energy, and technologies that will fuel economic development without degrading our environment. Among the specific capability needs for advancing science and technology are tools that extract more detailed information in realistic environments (in situ or operando) at extreme conditions (pressure and temperature) and as a function of time (dynamic and time-dependent). One of the DOE workshops, Future Science Needs and Opportunities for Electron Scattering: Next Generation Instrumentation and Beyond, specifically addressed the importance of electron-based characterization methods for a wide range of energy-relevant Grand Scientific Challenges. Boosted by the electron optical advancement in the last decade, a diversity of in situ capabilities already is available in many laboratories. The obvious remaining major capability gap in electron microscopy is in the ability to make these direct in situ observations over a broad spectrum of fast (µs) to ultrafast (picosecond [ps] and faster) temporal regimes. In an effort to address current capability gaps, EMSL, the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, organized an Ultrafast Electron Microscopy Workshop, held June 14-15, 2011, with the primary goal to identify the scientific needs that could be met by creating a facility capable of a strongly improved time resolution with integrated in situ capabilities. The workshop brought together more than 40 leading scientists involved in applying and/or advancing electron microscopy to address important scientific problems of relevance to DOE’s research

  2. Nuclear science. U.S. electricity needs and DOE's civilian reactor development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, Judy; Allen, Robert E. Jr.; Fitzgerald, Duane; Young, Edward E. Jr.; Leavens, William P.; Bell, Jacqueline

    1990-05-01

    Electricity projections developed by the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) appear to be the best available estimates of future U.S. electricity needs. NERC, which represents all segments of the utility industry, forecasts that before 1998 certain regions of the country, particularly in the more heavily populated eastern half of the United States, may experience shortfalls during summer peak demand periods. These forecasts considered the utility companies' plans, as of 1989, to meet electricity needs during the period; these plans include such measures as constructing additional generators and conducting demand management programs. Working closely with the nuclear industry, DOE is supporting the development of several reactor technologies to ensure that nuclear power remains a viable electricity supply option. In fiscal year 1990, DOE's Civilian Reactor Development Program was funded at $253 million. DOE is using these funds to support industry-led efforts to develop light water reactors (LWR), advanced liquid-metal reactors (LMR), and modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGR) that are safe, environmentally acceptable, and economically competitive. The utility company officials we spoke with, all of whom were in the Southeast, generally supported DOE's efforts in developing these technologies. However, most of the officials do not plan to purchase nuclear reactors until after 2000 because of the high costs of constructing nuclear reactors and current public opposition to nuclear power

  3. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The series of symposia on 'Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry' (MTIC), which began in 1985 at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Calcutta has evolved into a forum for the Inorganic Chemistry fraternity of the country to meet every two years and discuss the current status and future projections of research in.

  4. Remedial mathematics for quantum chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, L.; Brouwer, N.; Heck, A.; Buma, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the

  5. Glass science tutorial: Lecture number-sign 2, Operating electric glass melters. James N. Edmonson, Lecturer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1994-10-01

    This report contains basic information on electric furnaces used for glass melting and on the properties of glass useful for the stabilization of radioactive wastes. Furnace nomenclature, furnace types, typical silicate glass composition and properties, thermal conductivity information, kinetics of the melting process, glass furnace refractory materials composition and thermal conductivity, and equations required for the operation of glass melters are included

  6. 5. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics and symposium 'Electrical methods of materials treatment'. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This book includes abstracts of the communications presented at the 5th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed-Matter Physics and at the Symposium dedicated to the 100th anniversary of academician Boris Lazarenko, the prominent scientist and inventor, the first director of the Institute of Applied Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. The abstracts presented in the book cover a vast range of subjects, such as: advanced materials and fabrication processes; methods of crystal growth, post-growth technological processes, doping and implantation, fabrication of solid state structures; defect engineering, engineering of molecular assembly; methods of nanostructures and nano materials fabrication and characterization; quantum wells and superlattices; nano composite, nanowires and nano dots; fullerenes and nano tubes, molecular materials, meso- and nano electronics; methods of material and structure characterization; structure and mechanical characterization; optical, electrical, magnetic and superconductor properties, transport processes, nonlinear phenomena, size and interface effects; advances in condensed matter theory; theory of low dimensional systems; modelling of materials and structure properties; development of theoretical methods of solid-state characterization; phase transition; advanced quantum physics for nano systems; device modelling and simulation, device structures and elements; micro- and optoelectronics; photonics; microsensors and micro electro-mechanical systems; microsystems; degradation and reliability, solid-state device design; theory and advanced technologies of electro-physico-chemical and combined methods of materials machining and treatment, including modification of surfaces; theory and advanced technologies of using electric fields, currents and discharges so as to intensify heat mass-transfer, to raise the efficiency of treatment of materials, of biological preparations and foodstuff; modern equipment for

  7. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 2. Electrostatics in Chemistry - Basic Principles. Shridhar R Gadre Pravin K Bhadane. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 2 February 1999 pp 8-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  8. Evaluating Environmental Chemistry Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hites, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    A director of the Indiana University Center for Environmental Science Research reviews textbooks on environmental chemistry. Highlights clear writing, intellectual depth, presence of problem sets covering both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the material, and full coverage of the topics of concern. Discusses the director's own approach…

  9. Nuclear Chemistry, exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, E.; Saucedo, E.

    2002-01-01

    Those exercises have as objective to introduce the student in the basic concepts of nuclear chemistry: a) way of decline b) balances of mass used in nuclear reactions c) how to calculate activities, activity concentrations and specific activity d) radiotracers use in biomedical sciences pharmaceutical

  10. Plasma processing and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The growing field of applications of plasma as deposition, etching, surface modification and chemical conversion has stimulated a renewed interest in plasma science in the atomic physical chemistry regime. The necessity to optimize the various plasma processing techniques in terms of rates, and

  11. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  12. Chemistry and sustainable environment (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.

    2011-01-01

    Chemistry is one of the oldest branches of science; the human beings had ever come across. It has consistently contributed towards meeting the human needs from the dawn of civilization. However, its role has multiplied since the inception of industrial revolution. Although anthropogenic activities have made the human life comfortable and even luxurious yet their impacts on the physical, biological and socio-economic environments had been destructive. Numerous kinds of chemicals have engulfed us and our environment. Modern chemistry has leading role in sculpting the present as well as future of human lifestyle. It is serving the man and other biodiversity by providing countless products in every sphere of life. At the same time it is playing villain role in the destruction of environment at an alarming rate. Today the world is confronted with heinous environmental issues hitherto unknown to the living beings mostly triggered by chemicals. Thousands of chemicals are used in industrial products, agricultural chemicals, persistent organic pollutants, freezers, pharmaceuticals, chemical and radiological warfare, construction industry, synthetic materials, electrical goods, medical gadgets etc. Some natural sources of chemicals are acid rains, volcanic eruptions, eutrophication and photochemical smog. The fact of matter is that chemicals are being consistently added into atmosphere, biosphere and lithosphere. For the sustainable environment it is imperative that the chemicals must not be added into human environment beyond its carrying capacity. It is responsibility of chemists to introduce environmentally benign and biodegradable chemicals. All types of chemistry need to be green and environment friendly. The scientists and engineers should develop chemicals and technologies which do not harm the living creatures during any stage of their life-cycle. (author)

  13. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  14. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  15. Radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on radiation chemistry of heavy elements that includes the following topics: radiation chemistry of plutonium in nitric acid solutions (spectrophotometric analysis and gamma radiolysis of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) in nitric acid solution); EPR studies of intermediates formed in radiolytic reactions with aqueous medium; two-phase radiolysis and its effect on the distribution coefficient of plutonium; and radiation chemistry of nitric acid. (DHM)

  16. Special report: a century of chemistry. History of sciences: Max Planck and the birth of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudenot, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    In 1892 Lord Kelvin said 'that the fundamental concepts of physics had been established'. However, quantum mechanics in 1900, and relativity in 1905 were going to profoundly upset this science. Jean-Claude Boudenot allows us to relive the essential discoveries, which have given rise to the majority of the technologies of the 20. century through the life of Max Planck (1858-1947). The first scientific hit of M.Planck was to solve the problem of the black body at the turn of last century, he postulated that the exchange of energy between radiation and the walls of the cavity had the form of a flow of very small and indivisible quantities of energy called energy quantum. This discovery allowed him to receive the Nobel prize of physics in 1918

  17. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-01-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  18. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  19. European analytical column No. 37 from the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Grasserbauer, Manfred; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column again has a somewhat different format. We have once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year we have invited Prof. Manfred Grasserbauer of Vienna University of Technology to present some...... representing a major branch of chemistry, namely, analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry in particular since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We are already noticing a decreased industrial commitment...... with respect to new research projects and sponsoring of conferences. It is therefore important that we strengthen our efforts and that we keep our presence at analytical chemistry meetings and conferences unchanged. Recent activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) and details regarding the major...

  20. Undergraduate Chemistry Education: A Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Keegan; Alper, Joe

    2014-01-01

    "Undergraduate Chemistry Education" is the summary of a workshop convened in May 2013 by the Chemical Science Roundtable of the National Research Council to explore the current state of undergraduate chemistry education. Research and innovation in undergraduate chemistry education has been done for many years, and one goal of this…

  1. Chemistry Education Research Trends: 2004-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Tang Wee; Goh, Mei Ting; Yeo, Leck Wee

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a content analysis of 650 empirical chemistry education research papers published in two top-tiered chemistry education journals "Chemistry Education Research and Practice" and "Journal of Chemical Education," and four top-tiered science education journals "International Journal of Science…

  2. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  3. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  4. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  5. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2. Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low-dimensional Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai'an 223300, P R China; Department of Chemistry, Science College, Yanbian University, ...

  6. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Detlev [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Luftchemie und Luftreinhaltung

    2015-07-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  7. Frontiers in nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Pujari, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    This book contains articles on the landmarks in nuclear and radiochemistry which takes through scientific history spanning over five decades from the times of Roentgen to the middle of this century. Articles on nuclear fission and back end of the nuclear fuel cycle give an insight into the current status of this subject. Reviews on frontier areas like lanthanides, actinides, muonium chemistry, accelerator based nuclear chemistry, fast radiochemical separations and nuclear medicine bring out the multidisciplinary nature of nuclear sciences. This book also includes an article on environmental radiochemistry and safety. Chapters relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  8. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  9. Seeking missing pieces in science concept assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin

    2014-02-01

    Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners' disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M) topics in college-level introductory physics courses. Differing from typical concept inventories that focus only on one topic of a subject area, BEMA covers a broad range of topics in the electromagnetism domain. In spite of this fact, prior studies exclusively used a single aggregate score to represent individual students' overall understanding of E&M without explicating the construct of this assessment. Additionally, BEMA has been used to compare traditional physics courses with a reformed course entitled Matter and Interactions (M&I). While prior findings were in favor of M&I, no empirical evidence was sought to rule out possible differential functioning of BEMA that may have inadvertently advantaged M&I students. In this study, we used Rasch analysis to seek two missing pieces regarding the construct and differential functioning of BEMA. Results suggest that although BEMA items generally can function together to measure the same construct of application and analysis of E&M concepts, several items may need further revision. Additionally, items that demonstrate differential functioning for the two courses are detected. Issues such as item contextual features and student familiarity with question settings may underlie these findings. This study highlights often overlooked threats in science concept assessments and provides an exemplar for using evidence-based reasoning to make valid inferences and arguments.

  10. Seeking missing pieces in science concept assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ding

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners’ disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M topics in college-level introductory physics courses. Differing from typical concept inventories that focus only on one topic of a subject area, BEMA covers a broad range of topics in the electromagnetism domain. In spite of this fact, prior studies exclusively used a single aggregate score to represent individual students’ overall understanding of E&M without explicating the construct of this assessment. Additionally, BEMA has been used to compare traditional physics courses with a reformed course entitled Matter and Interactions (M&I. While prior findings were in favor of M&I, no empirical evidence was sought to rule out possible differential functioning of BEMA that may have inadvertently advantaged M&I students. In this study, we used Rasch analysis to seek two missing pieces regarding the construct and differential functioning of BEMA. Results suggest that although BEMA items generally can function together to measure the same construct of application and analysis of E&M concepts, several items may need further revision. Additionally, items that demonstrate differential functioning for the two courses are detected. Issues such as item contextual features and student familiarity with question settings may underlie these findings. This study highlights often overlooked threats in science concept assessments and provides an exemplar for using evidence-based reasoning to make valid inferences and arguments.

  11. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  12. Progress report, Chemistry and Materials Division, October 1 to December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Interim research results are reported in solid state science (ion penetration, electron microscopy, radiation damage and metal physics, nuclear methods of analysis), general chemistry (analytical chemistry, hydrogen-water exchange, radioactivity measurements, electrochemistry), physical chemistry (radiation and isotope chemistry), materials science (surface chemistry and metal physics), and university research (deuterium exchange and zirconium alloy properties). (E.C.B.)

  13. História da química e da geologia: Joseph Black e James Hutton como referências para educação em ciências History of chemistry and geology: Joseph Black and James Hutton as references for science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalina Aparecida L. Sicca

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The second half of eighteenth century is marked by the advancement of chemistry and geology. The first science acquired the law of conservation of mass and this science represented a important support to geology and mineralogy. We say that both became modern science that time. Our aim is to show up some interrelations between history of chemistry and history of geology by means of the study of Joseph Black's and James Hutton's works. We defend that it is positive to science education to understand and approach the relations among different and disciplinary areas of science.

  14. European analytical column no. 37 (January 2009) Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC) of the European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (EuCheMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, Bo; Grasserbauer, Manfred; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    This issue of the European Analytical Column has again a somewhat different format: once more DAC invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to Analytical Chemistry in Europe. This year, Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology focuses...... representing a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, especially analytical chemistry since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. Already now a decrease of industrial commitment with respect to new...... research projects and sponsoring of conferences can be observed. It is therefore important to strengthen all efforts and to keep the presence of analytical chemists at meetings and conferences unchanged. Recent activities of DAC and details regarding the major analytical-chemistry event this year in Europe...

  15. Materials science and engineering for electric power generation - success by cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmatjko, K.J.; Tenckhoff, E.

    1994-01-01

    Successful R and D cooperation relies on the coincidence of a general priority for the respective field of research and a strategic relevance of the results for the industrial partner. These two aspects are compared by a portfolio technique for R and D on advanced materials in electric power engineering. The approach is exemplified by tasks in research, development and processing of materials with improved high-temperature performance. Higher operation temperatures result in more efficient steam and gas turbines and fuel cells, and by this they are an essential contribution to environmental integrity. Also, this point of view makes clear that the driving force of materials development is the application, integrating future requirements and the visions from research. (orig.) [de

  16. New electronics stuff chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Su Il

    2003-04-01

    The first part of this book is about equilibrium electrochemistry on electric thermo dynamic equilibrium state of electrochemistry, crystal defect of solid, thermodynamics on defect electron and election in semiconductor, Gawani potential, volta potential and equilibrium potential and thermodynamics application in Gawani battery. The second part deals with dynamic electrochemistry electrode reaction kinetics and corrosion potential in normal state, diffusion and transport of ion and electron and current impedance spectroscopy. It also mentions industrial electrochemistry and laboratory works in electronics chemistry course.

  17. School Chemistry: The Need for Transgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the philosophy of chemistry over the past 15 years suggest that chemistry is a hybrid science which mixes scientific pursuits with technological applications. Dominant universal characterizations of the nature of science thus fail to capture the essence of the discipline. The central goal of this position paper is to encourage…

  18. Optimization routes for high electrical conductivity of polypyrrole nanotubes prepared in presence of methyl orange

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecký, D.; Varga, M.; Prokeš, J.; Vrňata, M.; Trchová, Miroslava; Kopecká, J.; Václavík, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 230, August (2017), s. 89-96 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04109S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polypyrrole * electrical conductivity * nanotube Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  19. The aqueous chemistry of oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Bruce C

    2016-01-01

    The Aqueous Chemistry of Oxides is a comprehensive reference volume and special topics textbook that explores all of the major chemical reactions that take place between oxides and aqueous solutions. The book highlights the enormous impact that oxide-water reactions have in advanced technologies, materials science, geochemistry, and environmental science.

  20. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  1. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  2. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  3. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  4. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  5. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  6. “Biotecnological War” - A Conceptual And Perceptual Assessment Tool For Teaching Biotechnology And Protein Chemistry For Undergraduate Students In Biological Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. C. Cruz et al.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available "Biotecnological War" board game, a conceptual and perceptual assessment tool for biotechnology and protein chemistry teaching for undergraduate students in biological sciences and related areas. It is a proposal initially conceived as an alternative complementary tool for biochemistry teaching of proteins and peptides, challenging students, aiming to review concepts transmitted in classroom, stimulating diverse student’s abilities, such as their creativity, competitiveness and resource management. OBJECTIVES. Correlate biochemistry importance of proteins and peptides with the development of new products. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Firstly, theoretical-practical classes were given with seminars to be presented by the groups, including topics that will be addressed in game. Groups of 5 students, with previously viewed themes drawn a goal to be achieved. There are two drawn goals variations: Academic or Commercial. Board is divided into provinces, which must be bought with an initial resource to complete the goal. Before the beginning each group will have 15 minutes to plan their actions. The objective is to develop the entire objective drawn with appropriate methodology, having at least 1 territory in each province. RESULTS. This game proved to be an excellent tool for complementary evaluation of students, which stimulated teamwork and a strong competitive spirit within classroom, which allowed to analyze students' perception regarding the protein subject and team work. On the other hand, for teacher and students participating in compulsory traineeship program this game demonstrated new ways to approach complex subjects in biochemistry using creativity with the development of new activities such as this board game. CONCLUSION: Overall, students had a good impression of “Biotecnological war” game since it helped to secure and administer the protein and peptides biochemical subject in a competitive and team work way.

  7. Evaluation of Chemical Representations in Physical Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Wood, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    That different levels of representation are important for complete understanding of chemistry is an accepted fact in the chemistry education community. This study sought to uncover types of representations used in given physical chemistry textbooks. Textbooks play a central role in the teaching and learning of science (chemistry), and in some…

  8. Puzzling through General Chemistry: A Light-Hearted Approach to Engaging Students with Chemistry Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Several puzzles are designed to be used by chemistry students as learning tools and teach them basic chemical concepts. The topics of the puzzles are based on the chapters from Chemistry, The Central Science used in general chemistry course and the puzzles are in various forms like crosswords, word searches, number searches, puzzles based on…

  9. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. 7. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an introduction to physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of solid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Furthermore, connections with biology and medicine are considered. The chapters on physiological chemistry, computer and information theory, chemistry and ecology, and metabolism have been rewritten. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Quantum mechanics in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Schatz, George C

    2002-01-01

    Intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students, this text explores quantum mechanical techniques from the viewpoint of chemistry and materials science. Dynamics, symmetry, and formalism are emphasized. An initial review of basic concepts from introductory quantum mechanics is followed by chapters examining symmetry, rotations, and angular momentum addition. Chapter 4 introduces the basic formalism of time-dependent quantum mechanics, emphasizing time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule. Chapter 5 sees this formalism applied to the interaction of radiation and matt

  11. Electrical Enlightenment: Joseph Priestley's Historical and Experimental Studies of Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boantza, Victor

    Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) was one of the most controversial public figures of the eighteenth century. A true Enlightenment polymath, he wrote more than two hundred books, pamphlets, sermons, and essays on subjects ranging from science to politics and from metaphysics to theology. He was a religious dissenter, political radical, vocal supporter of the French Revolution, and lifelong defender of the losing side in the Chemical Revolution. Priestley is best known for having ``discovered'' oxygen in the 1770s and for his lasting contributions to pneumatic chemistry. Yet his first scientific fascination, while teaching at Warrington Academy, was electricity--one of the greatest scientific fads of the Enlightenment. Priestley's work on electricity, both historical and experimental, culminated in his History and Present State of Electricity (1767), which became a standard textbook on the subject for nearly a century, and went through numerous editions and translations. Situating Priestley's electrical investigations against the background of eighteenth-century ideals of scientific theory and practice, especially concerning physics, experimental philosophy, and natural history, illuminates the relations between science, society, and epistemology in the Enlightenment.

  12. Special issue on frontiers of chemistry related to electrical and electronic engineering. Part 4.; Artificial photosynthesis and photoelectrochemistry; Denki/denshi kogaku ga hiraku atarashii kagaku no sekai. 4.; Jinko hikari gosei to hikari denki kagaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, T [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1993-09-20

    Since light can be transformed into electricity, electrolysis of water using light is possible naturally, and photosynthesis in the nature is based on this principle. The reaction field in which electrochemical energy necessary for decomposition of water is generated using light at the first process of photosynthesis is a biofilm less than 10nm thick which is called thylakoid film. In this article, the effects are roughly explained which have been made for constructing an artificial system corresponding to the thylakoid film. Accumulation of knowledge of the molecular level is necessary for the construction of the artificial system and the three dimensional structure concerning the reaction center of photosynthetic bacteria has been determined. At the reaction center, oxidation species of electron donor and reduction species of electron acceptor are generated by charge separation which succeeds electron excitation by light energy. In order to lead the above process to materialistic production, efforts are being made for construction of a reaction center model compound for artificial photosynthesis from both physical chemistry and organic chemistry and the positive results have steadily been obtained in the development of photocatalysis of a semiconductor. 9 figs.

  13. Defect Chemistry, Electrical Properties, and Evaluation of New Oxides Sr2 CoNb1-x Tix O6-δ (0≤x≤1) as Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcondo, María Teresa; Yuste, Mercedes; Pérez-Flores, Juan Carlos; Muñoz-Gil, Daniel; García-Martín, Susana; Muñoz-Noval, Alvaro; Orench, Inés Puente; García-Alvarado, Flaviano; Amador, Ulises

    2017-07-21

    The perovskite series Sr 2 CoNb 1-x Ti x O 6-δ (0≤x≤1) was investigated in the full compositional range to assess its potential as cathode material for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The variation of transport properties and thus, the area specific resistances (ASR) are explained by a detailed investigation of the defect chemistry. Increasing the titanium content from x=0-1 produces both oxidation of Co 3+ to Co 4+ (from 0 up to 40 %) and oxygen vacancies (from 6.0 to 5.7 oxygen atom/formula unit), although each charge compensation mechanism predominates in different compositional ranges. Neutron diffraction reveals that samples with high Ti-contents lose a significant amount of oxygen upon heating above 600 K. Oxygen is partially recovered upon cooling as the oxygen release and uptake show noticeably different kinetics. The complex defect chemistry of these compounds, together with the compositional changes upon heating/cooling cycles and atmospheres, produce a complicated behavior of electrical conductivity. Cathodes containing Sr 2 CoTiO 6-δ display low ASR values, 0,13 Ω cm 2 at 973 K, comparable to those of the best compounds reported so far, being a very promising cathode material for SOFC. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Lunar Science Conference, 4th, Houston, Tex., March 5-8, 1973, Proceedings. Volume 1 - Mineralogy and petrology. Volume 2 - Chemical and isotope analyses. Organic chemistry. Volume 3 - Physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    The mineralogy, petrology, chemistry, isotopic composition, and physical properties of lunar materials are described in papers detailing methods, results, and implications of research on samples returned from eight lunar landing sites: Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, and Luna 16 and 20. The results of experiments conducted or set up on the lunar surface by the astronauts are also described along with observations taken from Command Modules and subsatellites. Major topics include general geology, soil and breccia studies, petrologic studies, mineralogic analyses, elemental compositions, radiometric age determinations, rare gas chemistry, radionuclides, organogenic compounds, particle track records, thermal properties, seismic studies, resonance studies, orbital mapping, lunar atmosphere, magnetic studies, electrical studies, optical properties, and microcratering. Individual items are announced in this issue.

  15. Science meeting. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    the document is a collection of the science meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, material sciences different aspects of energy and presents research done in 2000 in these fields

  16. Organic chemistry of cosmic dusts for understanding an intra-relationship between meteorites and comets: Toward a new frontier of astromaterial science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuta, Hikaru

    2012-07-01

    Organic matter in primitive solar system small bodies, such as meteorites, asteroids, and comets, provides us significant information on the origin and evolution of the early solar system. The achievements of the Stardust comet sample return mission [1] have enabled the comparable small body organic chemistry between comet 81P/Wild 2 and chondritic meteorites [2, 3]. The study of organic matter in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) will play an important role for our further understanding of an intra-relationship among meteorites and comets, as some IDPs are of cometary origin. Historically, a number of isotopic and molecular compositions of organic matter in IDPs collected in stratosphere have been studied [4-7]. Recent new insights in the study of IDP organics is that, Ultracarbonaceous Antarctic micrometeorites (UCAMMs), unique extraterrestrial materials that represent large sizes of high carbon contents, have been first discovered by [8]. The mineralogical and isotopic investigations of UCAMMs by [9] have revealed the association of extreme deuterium-rich organic matter with both crystalline and amorphous silicates, which appears to be compatible to cometary origin. Yabuta et al. (2012) [10] has identified a highly nitrogen-rich but isotopically normal organic material from a UCAMM by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM). Such N-rich compositions have not been generally observed from chondritic organics and stratosphere IDPs, and are rather similar to those observed from several particles of Comet 81P/Wild 2. Aiming to investigate the intact compositions of organic matter in IDPs which those collected from stratosphere and Antarctica might have lost, the Japanese Astrobiology working group, Tanpopo, will be planning to collect the IDPs on the International Space Station from 2013. The mission has great advantages that collection of the pristine IDPs without atmospheric entry heating

  17. The death of the Job plot, transparency, open science and online tools, uncertainty estimation methods and other developments in supramolecular chemistry data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynn Hibbert, D; Thordarson, Pall

    2016-10-25

    Data analysis is central to understanding phenomena in host-guest chemistry. We describe here recent developments in this field starting with the revelation that the popular Job plot method is inappropriate for most problems in host-guest chemistry and that the focus should instead be on systematically fitting data and testing all reasonable binding models. We then discuss approaches for estimating uncertainties in binding studies using case studies and simulations to highlight key issues. Related to this is the need for ready access to data and transparency in the methodology or software used, and we demonstrate an example a webportal () that aims to address this issue. We conclude with a list of best-practice protocols for data analysis in supramolecular chemistry that could easily be translated to other related problems in chemistry including measuring rate constants or drug IC 50 values.

  18. Transformative Pulsed Power Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-16

    al. eds. Plasma for Bio - Martin Gundersen 4 Decontamination, Medicine and Food Security, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry...Pulsed Energy Field Treatments on White Wine Grapes," in Annual Meeting Poster Session, American Society for Enology and Viticulture , Napa...group at U.C. Davis Dept. of Enology and Viticulture . Martin Gundersen 10 Graduated  PhD  Students  2009-­‐2014     Electrical

  19. Science News of the Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights important 1983 news stories reported in Science News. Stories are categorized under: anthropology/paleontology; behavior; biology; chemistry; earth sciences; energy; environment; medicine; physics; science and society; space sciences and astronomy; and technology and computers. (JN)

  20. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  1. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (defines scope of article as dealing with the chemistry of reactive species, (e.g. excess electrons, excited states, free radicals and inorganic ions in unusual valency states) as studied using radiation with radiation chemistry in its traditional sense and with biological and industrial applications); gases; water and simple inorganic systems; aqueous metallo-organic compounds and metalloproteins; small organic molecules in aqueous solution; microheterogeneous systems; non-aqueous liquids and solutions; solids; biological macromolecules; synthetic polymers. (U.K.)

  2. Indoor Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Carslaw, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to encapsulate the importance, ubiquity, and complexity of indoor chemistry. We discuss the many sources of indoor air pollutants and summarize their chemical reactions in the air and on surfaces. We also summarize some of the known impacts of human occupants, who act as sources...... and sinks of indoor chemicals, and whose activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, smoking) can lead to extremely high pollutant concentrations. As we begin to use increasingly sensitive and selective instrumentation indoors, we are learning more about chemistry in this relatively understudied environment....

  3. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    This book is an introduction into physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of colid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, anorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Futhermore connections with biology and medicine are considered. (HSI) [de

  4. National Chemistry Teacher Safety Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plohocki, Barbra A.

    This study evaluated the status of secondary school instructional chemistry laboratory safety using a survey instrument which focused on Teacher background Information, Laboratory Safety Equipment, Facility Safety, General Safety, and a Safety Content Knowledge Survey. A fifty question survey instrument based on recent research and questions developed by the researcher was mailed to 500 secondary school chemistry teachers who participated in the 1993 one-week Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation Chemistry Institute conducted at Princeton University, New Jersey. The data received from 303 respondents was analyzed by t tests and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The level of significance for the study was set at ~\\ performance on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey and secondary school chemistry teachers who have had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training and those who have not had undergraduate and/or graduate safety training. Secondary school chemistry teachers who attended school district sponsored safety inservices did not score higher on the Safety Content Knowledge Survey than teachers who did not attend school district sponsored safety inservice sessions. The type of school district (urban, suburban, or rural) had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory safety equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. The certification area (chemistry or other type of certificate which may or may not include chemistry) of the secondary school teacher had no significant correlation to the type of laboratory equipment found in the instructional chemistry laboratory. Overall, this study indicated a majority of secondary school chemistry teachers were interested in attending safety workshops applicable to chemistry safety. Throughout this research project, many teachers indicated they were not adequately instructed on the collegiate level in science safety and had to rely on common sense and self-study in their future teaching careers.

  5. BAYERO JOURNAL OF PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES (BAJOPAS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    sciences, namely: Agricultural Sciences, Botany, Biochemistry, Chemistry, Computer Science,. Engineering, Environmental Sciences and Geography. Also, areas of Laboratory Science, Technology,. Mathematical Sciences, Microbiology, Physics, Medical Sciences and Zoology form part of the contents of the Journal.

  6. Handbook of heterocyclic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    ... Heterocyclic Chemistry I (1984) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II (1996) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (2008) Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations I (1995) Compreh...

  7. Chemistry and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittoria Barbarulo, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Chemistry is the central science, as it touches every aspect of the society we live in and it is intertwined with many aspects of our culture; in particular, the strong link between Chemistry and Archaeology and Art History is being explored, offering a penetrating insight into an area of growing interest from an educational point of view. A series of vital and vibrant examples (i.e., ancient bronzes composition, colour changes due to natural pigment decomposition, marble degradation) has been proposed, on one hand, to improve student understanding of the relationship between cultural and scientific issues arising from the examination, the conservation, and the maintenance of cultural Heritage, on the other, to illustrate the role of the underlying Chemistry. In some case studies, a survey of the most relevant atmospheric factors, which are involved in the deterioration mechanisms, has also been presented to the students. First-hand laboratory experiences have been providing an invaluable means of discovering the full and varied world of Chemistry. Furthermore, the promotion of an interdisciplinary investigation of a famous painting or fresco, involving the study of its nature and significance, the definition of its historical context, any related literature, the chemical knowledge of the materials used, may be an excellent occasion to experiment the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The aim of this approach is to convey the important message that everyone has the responsibility to care for and preserve Heritage for the benefit of present and future generations.

  8. Knot theory in modern chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Kate E; Miller, Mark A; Steed, Jonathan W; Sutcliffe, Paul M

    2016-11-21

    Knot theory is a branch of pure mathematics, but it is increasingly being applied in a variety of sciences. Knots appear in chemistry, not only in synthetic molecular design, but also in an array of materials and media, including some not traditionally associated with knots. Mathematics and chemistry can now be used synergistically to identify, characterise and create knots, as well as to understand and predict their physical properties. This tutorial review provides a brief introduction to the mathematics of knots and related topological concepts in the context of the chemical sciences. We then survey the broad range of applications of the theory to contemporary research in the field.

  9. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.

  10. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  11. Electricity and Water Supply Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission at the Office of the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronbanchob Apiratikul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work was a data collection of electricity and water supply consumption of the Dean’s Office of the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Thailand. The greenhouse gas emissions from electricity and water supply consumptions were calculated using the up-to-date emission factor from the Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organization (TGO database. In average, the office consumes 1.045 m3 /d and 87.9 kWh/d of water and electricity, respectively. This is equal to 68.5 Liter per person (11.25 L/m2 and 4.1 kWh per person (0.6788 kWh /m2 for the daily water supply and electricity consumptions, respectively. The total daily greenhouse gas emission from both electricity and water supply consumption is 59.01 kg-CO2 eq. which is mainly came from the electricity consumption (≈ 98%. The average emission based on people and area are 2.566 kg-CO2 eq per person and 0.422 kg-CO2/m2 , respectively.

  12. Optimum coolant chemistry in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.; Cowan, R.L.; Kiss, E.

    2004-01-01

    LWR water chemistry parameters are directly or indirectly related to the plant's operational performance and for a significant amount of Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs. Obvious impacts are the operational costs associated with water treatment, monitoring and associated radwaste generation. Less obvious is the important role water chemistry plays in the magnitude of drywell shutdown dose rates, fuel corrosion performance and, (probably most importantly) materials degradation such as from stress corrosion cracking of piping and Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) internal components. To improve the operational excellence of the BWR and to minimize the impact of water chemistry on O and M costs. General Electric has developed the concept of Optimum Water Chemistry (OWC). The 'best practices' and latest technology findings from the U.S., Asia and Europe are integrated into the suggested OWC Specification. This concept, together with cost effective ways to meet the requirement, are discussed. (author)

  13. Global volcanic emissions: budgets, plume chemistry and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades our understanding of global volcanic degassing budgets, plume chemistry and the impacts of volcanic emissions on our atmosphere and environment has been revolutionized. Global volcanic emissions budgets are needed if we are to make effective use of regional and global atmospheric models in order to understand the consequences of volcanic degassing on global environmental evolution. Traditionally volcanic SO2 budgets have been the best constrained but recent efforts have seen improvements in the quantification of the budgets of other environmentally important chemical species such as CO2, the halogens (including Br and I) and trace metals (including measurements relevant to trace metal atmospheric lifetimes and bioavailability). Recent measurements of reactive trace gas species in volcanic plumes have offered intriguing hints at the chemistry occurring in the hot environment at volcanic vents and during electrical discharges in ash-rich volcanic plumes. These reactive trace species have important consequences for gas plume chemistry and impacts, for example, in terms of the global fixed nitrogen budget, volcanically induced ozone destruction and particle fluxes to the atmosphere. Volcanically initiated atmospheric chemistry was likely to have been particularly important before biological (and latterly anthropogenic) processes started to dominate many geochemical cycles, with important consequences in terms of the evolution of the nitrogen cycle and the role of particles in modulating the Earth's climate. There are still many challenges and open questions to be addressed in this fascinating area of science.

  14. Where is the future of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The future potentials of nuclear chemistry as a natural science with a strong orientation towards practical applications has been discussed at this meeting of 45 experts coming from research institutes and laboratories working in the fields of radiochemistry, nuclear chemistry, inorganic and applied chemistry, hot-atom chemistry, radiobiology, and nuclear biology, and from the two nuclear research centres at Juelich and Karlsruhe. The discussion centred around the four main aspects of future work, namely 1. basic research leading to an extension of the periodic table, nuclear reactions, the chemistry of superheavy elements, cosmochemistry; 2. radionuclide technology and activation analysis; 3. nuclear fuel cycle and reprocessing processes together with ultimate disposal methods; 4. radiochemistry in the life sciences, including nuclear chemistry and applications. (HK) [de

  15. Physical chemistry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1992-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.

  16. XIII International science and technology conference High-tech chemical technologies-2010 with elements of Scientific school for young people Innovations in chemistry: achievements and prospects. Summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Materials of the XIII International science and technology conference High-tech chemical technologies-2010 with elements of Scientific school for young people Innovations in chemistry: achievements and prospects (29 June-2 July 2010, Ivanovo) are presented. During the conference the following areas: theoretical aspects of chemical technology; technology of deep oil refining and the production of organic substances; technology of drugs and biologically active substances; technology of inorganic materials, polymers and composites based on them - the technological principles and methods of synthesis, modification, and processing; environmental and economic problems of chemical technologies and their solutions are considered [ru

  17. The future of discovery chemistry: quo vadis? Academic to industrial--the maturation of medicinal chemistry to chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Torsten; Bishop, Cheryl

    2010-04-01

    At Roche, we set out to think about the future role of medicinal chemistry in drug discovery in a project involving both Roche internal stakeholders and external experts in drug discovery chemistry. To derive a coherent strategy, selected scientists were asked to take extreme positions and to derive two orthogonal strategic options: chemistry as the traditional mainstream science and chemistry as the central entrepreneurial science. We believe today's role of medicinal chemistry in industry has remained too narrow. To provide the innovation that industry requires, medicinal chemistry must play its part and diversify at pace with our increasing understanding of chemical biology and network pharmacology. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemistry Today and Tomorrow-The Central, Useful, and Creative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 5. Chemistry Today and Tomorrow – The Central, Useful and Creative Science. Uday Maitra. Book Review Volume 2 ... Author Affiliations. Uday Maitra1. Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  19. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  20. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 14. Methods for projecting future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, K.W.; Marmorek, D.; Ryan, P.F.; Heltcher, K.; Robinson, D.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the report are to: critically evaluate methods for projecting future effects of acidic deposition on surface water acid-base chemistry; review and evaluate techniques and procedures for analyzing projection uncertainty; review procedures for estimating regional lake and stream population attributes; review the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) methodology for projecting the effects of acidic deposition on future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry; and present the models, uncertainty estimators, population estimators, and proposed approach selected to project the effects of acidic deposition on future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry in the NAPAP 1990 Integrated Assessment and discuss the selection rationale

  1. Creating a Context for Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truman Schwartz, A.

    Until relatively recently, the teaching of chemistry at the college and university level in the United States has been quite traditional and oriented primarily toward the preparation of chemists. Students not concentrating in the sciences have often been poorly served by existing courses. Chemistry in Context: Applying Chemistry to Society, a textbook for nonscience majors developed under the sponsorship of the American Chemical Society, is an effort to address the needs and interests of this audience. The book introduces the phenomena and principles of chemistry within the context of socially significant issues such as global warming, ozone depletion, alternate energy sources, nutrition, and genetic engineering. The chemistry is presented as needed to inform an understanding of the central topics, and the text features student-centered activities designed to promote critical thinking and risk-benefit analysis as well as an understanding of chemical principles. This paper summarizes the origin, development, content, pedagogy, evaluation, and influence of Chemistry in Context and considers its potential implications for other disciplines and the instruction of science majors.

  2. 24th Current Trends in Computational Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Corps of Engineers Army Research Office Conference on Current Trends in Computational Chemistry 2016 NOVEMBER 11-12, 2016 JACKSON, MS... Chemistry and Biochemistry Jackson, MS 39217 U.S.A. Tel: 6019793723 E-mail: shonda@icnanotox.org Richard Alo Dean College of Science, Engineering ...Report: 24th Current Trends in Computational Chemistry The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should

  3. Whither Constructivism?--A Chemistry Teachers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    Constructivism in science education has been the subject of considerable debate in the science education literature. The purpose of this study was to facilitate chemistry teachers' understanding that the tentative nature of scientific knowledge leads to the coexistence and rivalries among different forms of constructivism in science education. The…

  4. Chemistry Vocabulary Attainment among Higher Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, K. Abdul; Greeshma, K.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of growing empirical evidence to lack of clear understanding of the language of the science content, undesirable student outcomes including difficulty in learning science and a lack of interest with their science content area, and chemistry being particularly loaded with specialized terminology of its own, this study analyzed the…

  5. Chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on chemistry and physics of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: primary processes in radiation physics and chemistry, general chemistry in radiation chemistry, DNA and model systems in radiation chemistry, molecules of biological interest in radiation chemistry, techniques in radiation chemistry, hot atom chemistry. refs.; figs.; tabs

  6. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  7. Radioanalytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The bibliography of Hungarian literature in the field of radioanalytical chemistry covers the four-year period 1976-1979. The list of papers contains 290 references in the alphabetical order of the first authors. The majority of the titles belongs to neutron activation analysis, labelling, separation and determination of radioactive isotopes. Other important fields like radioimmunoassay, environmental protection etc. are covered as well. (Sz.J.)

  8. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  9. Industrial chemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  10. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  11. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  12. A short textbook of colloid chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jirgensons, B

    1962-01-01

    A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry, Second Revised Edition details the factual aspect of colloid chemistry that includes the basic facts, established empirical and mathematical relationships, and practical applications. The chapters of the title are organized into two parts. In the first part, the text discusses the general concepts of colloid chemistry, such as the history and scope, basic terms, and basic methods in experiment with colloids. Part Two covers the technical aspect of colloid chemistry, such as the optical properties, electrical properties, and viscosity. The book will be of

  13. Collection Development: Celebrating Chemistry, February 1, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Susannah

    2011-01-01

    A hundred years after Marie Curie received her Nobel Prize in Chemistry, this arm of science is pointing the way to a more sustainable future. Growing movements like green chemistry, which strives to create alternative and new chemical reactions that produce no harmful waste products, and molecular engineering hold great potential for industry,…

  14. Environmental chemistry of the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Linfeng

    1986-01-01

    The environmental chemistry of the actinide elements is a new branch of science developing with the application of nuclear energy on a larger and larger scale. Various aspects of the environmental chemistry of the actinide elements are briefly reviewed in this paper, such as its significance in the nuclear waste disposal, its coverage of research fields and possible directions for future study

  15. Fifty years of high energy chemistry. Current situation and perspectives of development in the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the concepts of a new chemical science - High-Energy Chemistry (HECH). Under this concept, the field of science has been associated with chemical processes initiated by non-thermal energy carriers - ionizing radiation, light, electric, sound field etc. Since 1967, the journal of High Energy Chemistry (Russian Academy of Sciences) has been published, which is translated into the English language High Energy Chemistry (Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.). The common feature of HECH is the formation of ions and excited states at temperatures from the ambient temperature at which these particles cannot be generated due to equilibrium processes. The non-thermal energy carriers and chemical sciences are systematized that have been created by examining the impact of these energy carriers on substances. There are two groups of energy carriers: those that transmit an interaction energy substantially higher than kT (ionizing radiation, light, etc.) in one act, and those that transmit the energy of interaction is higher than kT in a single act but the flux of these energy carriers is so high that in this field, the formation of ions and electron-excited states and free radicals are observed. HECH processes consist of three stages: 1) Interaction of energy carriers with the substance in times of femtosecond with the formation of primary intermediates; 2) Conversion of primary intermediates proceed in times of picoseconds to nanoseconds to secondary and tertiary intermediates ("hot spots") because the energy distribution in the medium is inhomogeneous; intermediates unusual for thermal chemistry play an important role at this stage; 3) Chemical stage that takes place over a time exceeding the microsecond, excited states, ions, and radicals, also common for thermal chemistry are involved. In contrast with thermal reactions, the concentration of intermediates of many orders exceeds equilibrium in terms of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. High-energy chemistry

  16. Fifty years of high energy chemistry. Current situation and perspectives of development in the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the concepts of a new chemical science - High-Energy Chemistry (HECH). Under this concept, the field of science has been associated with chemical processes initiated by non-thermal energy carriers - ionizing radiation, light, electric, sound field etc. Since 1967, the journal of High Energy Chemistry (Russian Academy of Sciences) has been published, which is translated into the English language High Energy Chemistry (Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.). The common feature of HECH is the formation of ions and excited states at temperatures from the ambient temperature at which these particles cannot be generated due to equilibrium processes. The non-thermal energy carriers and chemical sciences are systematized that have been created by examining the impact of these energy carriers on substances. There are two groups of energy carriers: those that transmit an interaction energy substantially higher than kT (ionizing radiation, light, etc.) in one act, and those that transmit the energy of interaction is higher than kT in a single act but the flux of these energy carriers is so high that in this field, the formation of ions and electron-excited states and free radicals are observed. HECH processes consist of three stages: 1) Interaction of energy carriers with the substance in times of femtosecond with the formation of primary intermediates; 2) Conversion of primary intermediates proceed in times of picoseconds to nanoseconds to secondary and tertiary intermediates ( h ot spots ) because the energy distribution in the medium is inhomogeneous; intermediates unusual for thermal chemistry play an important role at this stage; 3) Chemical stage that takes place over a time exceeding the microsecond, excited states, ions, and radicals, also common for thermal chemistry are involved. In contrast with thermal reactions, the concentration of intermediates of many orders exceeds equilibrium in terms of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. High-energy chemistry includes

  17. Natural sciences in the focus IV. Foundations of atomistics, quantum mechanics, and chemistry; Naturwissenschaften im Fokus IV. Grundlagen der Atomistik, Quantenmechanik und Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Christian

    2017-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: The electronic structure of the atom, the structure of the atomic nucleus together with radioactive decays, fission, and fusion, the elementary particles together with the standard model, the atomistic foundations of chemistrytogether with the binding types, and inorganic and organic chemistry. (HSI)

  18. Using Demonstrations Involving Combustion and Acid-Base Chemistry to Show Hydration of Carbon Dioxide, Sulfur Dioxide, and Magnesium Oxide and Their Relevance for Environmental Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C. Frank, III; Webb, James W.; Rothenberger, Otis

    2016-01-01

    The nature of acidic and basic (alkaline) oxides can be easily illustrated via a series of three straightforward classroom demonstrations for high school and general chemistry courses. Properties of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and magnesium oxide are revealed inexpensively and safely. Additionally, the very different kinetics of hydration of…

  19. Synthesis of a Self-Healing Polymer Based on Reversible Diels-Alder Reaction: An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory at the Interface of Organic Chemistry and Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Haim; Nielsen, Christian; Weizman, Or S.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory experiment exposes students to the chemistry of self-healing polymers based on a Diels-Alder reaction. Students accomplish a multistep synthesis of a monomer building block and then polymerize it to form a cross-linked polymer. The healing capability of the polymer is verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments.…

  20. A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangirian H

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hossein Jahangirian,1 Ensieh Ghasemian Lemraski,2 Thomas J Webster,1 Roshanak Rafiee-Moghaddam,3 Yadollah Abdollahi4 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran; 3School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed “green nanomedicine”. Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field. In this review, the use of green chemistry design, synthesis, and application principles and eco-friendly synthesis techniques with low side effects are discussed. The review ends with a description of key future efforts that must ensue for this field to continue to grow. Keywords: green chemistry, cancer, drug delivery, nanoparticle

  1. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products Architectural Designs in Molecular Constructions. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 37-43 ...

  2. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 2. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products Determination of Absolute Stereochemistry. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 40-46 ...

  3. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 7. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural engine Products - Structure and Biological Functions. N R Krishnaswamy. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 7 July 1996 pp 23-30 ...

  4. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Learning Organic Chemistry Through Natural Products - Architectural Designs in Molecular Constructions. N R Krishnaswamy. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1287-1293 ...

  5. 7 March 2013 -Stanford University Professor N. McKeown FREng, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and B. Leslie, Creative Labs visiting CERN Control Centre and the LHC tunnel with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    7 March 2013 -Stanford University Professor N. McKeown FREng, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and B. Leslie, Creative Labs visiting CERN Control Centre and the LHC tunnel with Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers.

  6. Teaching aids for nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides teachers with a set of resources to use in teaching modern nuclear chemistry in their classrooms. Included in the resources are references to recent articles on nuclear science, some preprints and abstracts of articles, ideas of where to go for help, lab experiments, and a videotape of simulated nuclear reactions

  7. Nobel Prize in Chemistry-1997

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 2. Nobel Prize in Chemistry – 1997 The Story of Two Extra-ordinary Enzymes. Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 3 Issue 2 February 1998 pp 45-52 ...

  8. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  9. Explosive hazards in polyaniline chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 387-392 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * oxidation of aniline * safety hazards Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  10. Chemistry with bigger, better atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DELL

    Anshu Pandey. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit. Indian Institute of Science. H. Cd. Hg. U ? Page 2. Quantum Dots: A Coarse-grained view. • Quantum Dot Electronic Structure can be approximated remarkably well as a Spherical. Particle in a Box Problem ... The concept of stoichiometry still holds!!! Rekha M. et. al.

  11. Perspectives of Best Practices for Learning Gender-Inclusive Science: Influences of Extracurricular Science for Gifted Girls and Electrical Engineering for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Shaunda L.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the perceptions of gifted girls with regard to how the family, home, and school environments influenced their choices to take extracurricular science classes. Uses qualitative and quantitative methods to measure girls' attitudes toward science. Specifically addresses gender differences of gifted girls and women in engineering. (Contains…

  12. Plutonium oxychalcogenides Pu2O2X (X=O, S, Se, Te) crystal chemistry, magnetic and electrical properties. 5f electrons delocalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc.

    1980-05-01

    We have studied the influence of the chalcogen X on the bonding and on the magnetic and electrical properties of the oxychalcogenides Pu 2 O 2 X. These compounds are isostructural with hexagonal La 2 O 3 for X=O, S, Se and with tetragonal La 2 O 2 Te for X=Te. Comparison of Nd 2 O 2 X and Pu 2 O 2 X cell volumes showed that plutonium crystal radius decreases from Pu 2 O 3 through Pu 2 O 2 Te with increasing 5f electrons delocalization and 5f-np overlap. Superexchange interactions through O 2- and X 2- were thought to be responsible for the observed antiferromagnetic ordering. Neel temperatures increase from Pu 2 O 3 through Pu 2 O 2 Te showing that these interactions and subsequent 5f-np covalency are strengthened as chalcogen electronegativity decreases. Hexagonal Pu 2 O 3 is an insulator while the other compounds are semi-conductors with energy gaps around 0.6 eV which were interpreted as the separation between the 6d-7s conduction band and the np valence band. The localized 5f states were located just below the np band, partially overlapping it [fr

  13. 76 FR 24921 - Proposal Review Panel for Chemistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Chemistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, as amended), the National Science Foundation..., Program Director, Chemistry Centers Program, Division of Chemistry, Room 1055, National Science Foundation...

  14. 76 FR 12996 - Proposal Review Panel for Chemistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Chemistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation... Director, Chemistry Centers Program, Division of Chemistry, Room 1055, National Science Foundation, 4201...

  15. 76 FR 6499 - Proposal Review Panel for Chemistry; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Proposal Review Panel for Chemistry; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463 as amended), the National Science Foundation... Director, Chemistry Centers Program, Division of Chemistry, Room 1055, National Science Foundation, 4201...

  16. Network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics: A scientific outline

    OpenAIRE

    WenJun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In present study, I proposed some new sciences: network chemistry, network toxicology, network informatics, and network behavioristics. The aims, scope and scientific foundation of these sciences are outlined.

  17. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  18. The earth's electrical environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This latest addition to the Studies in Geophysics series explores in scientific detail the phenomenon of lighting, cloud and thunderstorm electricity, and global and regional electrical processes. Consisting of 16 papers by outstanding experts in a number of fields, this volume compiles and reviews many recent advances in such research areas as meteorology, chemistry, electrical engineering, and physics and projects how new knowledge could be applied to benefit mankind

  19. Solution chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies in heavy element chemistry. Topics considered are: synergistic complexes of plutonyl ion; water uptake in synergistic systems; formation constants of some uranyl BETA -diketone complexes; thermodynamic acid dissociation constants of BETA -diketones; thermodynamic formation constants of uranyl BETA -diketonates; thiocyanate complexes of some trivalent lanthanides and actinides; stability constants of actinide complexes using dinonyl naphthalenesulfonic acid extraction; TBP extraction of actinides; stability constants of complexes of Pu(III) with 5- sulfosalicycllc acid; and solvent extraction behavior of Pu( VII). (DHM)

  20. Interstellar chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2006-08-15

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature.

  1. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions

  2. Symposium on high temperature and materials chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This volume contains the written proceedings of the Symposium on High Temperature and Materials Chemistry held in Berkeley, California on October 24--25, 1989. The Symposium was sponsored by the Materials and Chemical Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and by the College of Chemistry of the University of California at Berkeley to discuss directions, trends, and accomplishments in the field of high temperature and materials chemistry. Its purpose was to provide a snapshot of high temperature and materials chemistry and, in so doing, to define status and directions.

  3. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Researchin Nuclear Science and Technology part II: Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, Radioactive Waste Management and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarsono, R.; Karmanto, Eko-Edy; Suradjijo, Ganang

    2000-01-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Scienceand Technology is an annual activity held by Centre for Research and Development of Advanced Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring research activities achieved by the Agency. The papers presented in the meeting were collected into proceedings. These are the second part of the proceedings that contain 71 articles in the fields of nuclear chemistry, process technology, radioactive waste management, and environment (PPIN).

  4. 2012 Gordon Research Conference, Organometallic Chemistry, 8-13 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillhouse, Gregory [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-13

    The 2012 Organometallic Chemistry Gordon Research Conference will highlight new basic science and fundamental applications of organometallic chemistry in industrial, academic, and national lab settings. Scientific themes of the conference will include chemical synthesis, reactivity, catalysis, polymer chemistry, bonding, and theory that involve transition-metal (and main-group) interactions with organic moieties.

  5. Advisory Council on College Chemistry Newsletter Number 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advisory Council on Coll. Chemistry.

    Discussed are the goals of the Advisory Council on College Chemistry and the effect on College Chemistry of termination of National Science Foundation funding. Reported are conferences on (1) the relevance of thermodynamics to chemists and engineers and its place in a chemistry curriculum, (2) new approaches to teaching thermodynamics in an…

  6. Investigating Students' Similarity Judgments in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graulich, N.; Bhattacharyya, G.

    2017-01-01

    Organic chemistry is possibly the most visual science of all chemistry disciplines. The process of scientific inquiry in organic chemistry relies on external representations, such as Lewis structures, mechanisms, and electron arrows. Information about chemical properties or driving forces of mechanistic steps is not available through direct…

  7. Humanizing Chemistry Education: From Simple Contextualization to Multifaceted Problematization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöström, Jesper; Talanquer, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Chemistry teaching has traditionally been weakly connected to everyday life, technology, society, and history and philosophy of science. This article highlights knowledge areas and perspectives needed by the humanistic (and critical-reflexive) chemistry teacher. Different humanistic approaches in chemistry teaching, from simple contextualization…

  8. Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Students' Misconceptions in Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, Basil Mugaga

    2015-01-01

    Preservice teachers enrolled in a modified introductory chemistry course used an instructional rubric to improve and evaluate their understanding of students' misconceptions in learning various chemistry concepts. A sample of 79 preservice teachers first explored the state science standards to identify chemistry misconceptions associated with the…

  9. Materials Science and Engineering |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering? What Is Materials Science and Engineering? MSE combines engineering, physics and chemistry to solve problems in nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, energy, manufacturing, and more ,' which could replace steel. Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering Professors work together to

  10. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  11. Energy payback and CO2 gas emissions from fusion and solar photovoltaic electric power plants. Final report to Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.

    2002-01-01

    A cradle-to-grave net energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of a modern photovoltaic facility that produces electricity has been performed and compared to a similar analysis on fusion. A summary of the work has been included in a Ph.D. thesis titled ''Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis'' by Paul J. Meier, and a synopsis of the work was presented at the 15th Topical meeting on Fusion Energy held in Washington, DC in November 2002. In addition, a technical note on the effect of the introduction of fusion energy on the greenhouse gas emissions in the United States was submitted to the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES)

  12. Radiation chemistry and bioradical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen metabolism results, at the cellular level, in the formation of superoxyde radical O 2 - · and probably also of hydroxyl radical OH·. Other radical species can be produced from exogenous or endogenous molecules and nearly all of them have the possibility to react with oxygen giving peroxyradicals. Some of these transients play a role in various biological processes such as phagocytosis, inflammation or ischemy although the mechanisms invoked are poorly understood. Radiation chemistry is an invaluable tool for obtaining a quantitative view of these mechanisms. A description is given of this interaction [fr

  13. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management : Focused on Electrical and Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Yasinzai, Masoom; Lev, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Welcome to the proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management (ICMSEM2012) held from November 11 to 14, 2012 at Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan and supported by Sichuan University (Chengdu, China), Quaid-i-Azam University (Islamabad, Pakistan) and The National Natural Science Foundation of China. The International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management is the annual conference organized by the International Society of Management Science and Engineering Management. The goals of the Conference are to foster international research collaborations in Management Science and Engineering Management as well as to provide a forum to present current research results. The papers are classified into 8 sections: Computer and Networks, Information Technology, Decision Support System, Industrial Engineering, Supply Chain Management, Project Management, Manufacturing and Ecological Engineering. The key issues of the sixth ICMSEM cover variou...

  14. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, K.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook is a Czech-to-German translation of the second revised edition and covers the subject under the headings: general nuclear chemistry, methods of nuclear chemistry, preparative nuclear chemistry, analytical nuclear chemistry, and applied chemistry. The book is especially directed to students

  15. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 5 ... achieved by threecomponent condensation of corresponding ketones and aldehydes, ... Laboratory of Organic Chemistry Research, Department of Organic Chemistry, ...

  16. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Kajal Krishna Rajak1 Sankar Prasad Rath2. Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700 032, India; Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Calcutta 700 032, India ...

  17. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1 V Ferretti2. Department of Chemistry and Centre of Advanced Studies in Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India; Center for Structural Diffractometry and Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of ...

  18. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Magdy A H Zahran1 Atef M Ibrahim2. Organic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Menoufiya University, 32511, Egypt; Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute, Menoufiya University, 32511, Egypt ...

  19. Computing protein infrared spectroscopy with quantum chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, Nicholas A

    2007-12-15

    Quantum chemistry is a field of science that has undergone unprecedented advances in the last 50 years. From the pioneering work of Boys in the 1950s, quantum chemistry has evolved from being regarded as a specialized and esoteric discipline to a widely used tool that underpins much of the current research in chemistry today. This achievement was recognized with the award of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to John Pople and Walter Kohn. As the new millennium unfolds, quantum chemistry stands at the forefront of an exciting new era. Quantitative calculations on systems of the magnitude of proteins are becoming a realistic possibility, an achievement that would have been unimaginable to the early pioneers of quantum chemistry. In this article we will describe ongoing work towards this goal, focusing on the calculation of protein infrared amide bands directly with quantum chemical methods.

  20. The earth’'s electric field sources from sun to mud

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's Electric Field provides you with an integrated and comprehensive picture of the generation of the terrestrial electric fields, their dynamics and how they couple/propagate through the medium. The Earth's Electric Field provides basic principles of terrestrial electric field related topics, but also a critical summary of electric field related observations and their significance to the various related phenomena in the atmosphere. For the first time, Kelley brings together information on this topic in a coherent way, making it easy to gain a broad overview of the critical processes in an efficient way. If you conduct research in atmospheric science, physics, atmospheric chemistry, space plasma physics, and solar terrestrial physics, you will find this book to be essential reading. The only book on the physics of terrestrial electric fields and their generation mechanisms, propagation and dynamics-making it essential reading for scientists conducting research in upper atmospheric, ionospheric, magnet...