WorldWideScience

Sample records for science-and polymer chemistry

  1. Polymer chemistry (revised edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Mum

    1987-02-01

    This book deals with polymer chemistry, which is divided into fourteen chapters. The contents of this book are development of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer chemistry, conception of polymer, measurement of polymer, molecule structure of polymer, thermal prosperities of solid polymer, basic theory of polymerization, radical polymerization, ion polymerization, radical polymerization, copolymerization, polymerization by step-reaction, polymer reaction, crown polymer and inorganic polymer on classification and process of creation such as polymeric sulfur and carbon fiber.

  2. Cycloadditions in modern polymer chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaittre, Guillaume; Guimard, Nathalie K; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Synthetic polymer chemistry has undergone two major developments in the last two decades. About 20 years ago, reversible-deactivation radical polymerization processes started to give access to a wide range of polymeric architectures made from an almost infinite reservoir of functional building blocks. A few years later, the concept of click chemistry revolutionized the way polymer chemists approached synthetic routes. Among the few reactions that could qualify as click, the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) initially stood out. Soon, many old and new reactions, including cycloadditions, would further enrich the synthetic macromolecular chemistry toolbox. Whether click or not, cycloadditions are in any case powerful tools for designing polymeric materials in a modular fashion, with a high level of functionality and, sometimes, responsiveness. Here, we wish to describe cycloaddition methodologies that have been reported in the last 10 years in the context of macromolecular engineering, with a focus on those developed in our laboratories. The overarching structure of this Account is based on the three most commonly encountered cycloaddition subclasses in organic and macromolecular chemistry: 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions, (hetero-)Diels-Alder cycloadditions ((H)DAC), and [2+2] cycloadditions. Our goal is to briefly describe the relevant reaction conditions, the advantages and disadvantages, and the realized polymer applications. Furthermore, the orthogonality of most of these reactions is highlighted because it has proven highly beneficial for generating unique, multifunctional polymers in a one-pot reaction. The overview on 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions is mostly centered on the application of CuAAC as the most travelled route, by far. Besides illustrating the capacity of CuAAC to generate complex polymeric architectures, alternative 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions operating without the need for a catalyst are described. In the area of (H)DA cycloadditions

  3. Radiation chemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesby, A.

    1987-01-01

    There are several and quite distinct major fields of interest discussed in this paper. The first deals with the modification of existing polymers either by main-chain scission or by cross-linking; the theories of these patterns of behavior are summarized here, and typical examples of polymers that show these alternative reactions are given. These are not comprehensive to avoid this presentation becoming a catalog of similar patterns of behavior

  4. Polymeric Medical Sutures: An Exploration of Polymers and Green Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Cassandra M.; Schneiderman, Deborah K.; Yu, Ming; Javner, Cassidy H.; Distefano, Mark D.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2017-01-01

    With new K-12 national science standards emerging, there is an increased need for experiments that integrate engineering into the context of society. Here we describe a chemistry experiment that combines science and engineering principles while introducing basic polymer and green chemistry concepts. Using medical sutures as a platform for…

  5. Green polymer chemistry: biocatalysis and biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This overview briefly surveys the practice of green chemistry in polymer science. Eight related themes can be discerned from the current research activities: 1) biocatalysis, 2) bio-based building blocks and agricultural products, 3) degradable polymers, 4) recycling of polymer products and catalys...

  6. The role of radiation in polymer chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1977-10-01

    The very important role which polymer chemistry plays in radiation technology is discussed. The present status of radiation processing and the radiation sources that are used by industry are described. The process by which ionising radiation interacts with vinyl monomers and polymers are treated briefly, and the kinetics and mechanisms of the industrially important radiation processes in the polymer field is discussed. Finally, some of the most important industrial radiation processes related to the field of polymers are pointed out [af

  7. Introduction to radiation chemistry of polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Dahlan, Khairul Zaman [Nuclear Energy Unit, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1994-12-31

    The topics briefly discussed are 1. What are radiation chemistry 2. Type of ionising radiation 3. gamma rays versus electron beam 4. Interaction of radiation with matters 5. What is polymers 6. Techniques of crosslinking 7. Crosslinking of polymers i.e. polyethylene, ethylene copolymer, polypropylene, polyamides, polyvinyl chloride, natural rubber.

  8. Introduction to radiation chemistry of polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan

    1994-01-01

    The topics briefly discussed are 1. What are radiation chemistry 2. Type of ionising radiation 3. gamma rays versus electron beam 4. Interaction of radiation with matters 5. What is polymers 6. Techniques of crosslinking 7. Crosslinking of polymers i.e. polyethylene, ethylene copolymer, polypropylene, polyamides, polyvinyl chloride, natural rubber

  9. Plutonium(IV) hydrous polymer chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Dodson, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrous polymer chemistry of Pu(IV) in aqueous nitric acid solutions has been a subject of considerable interest for several years. This interest stems mainly from the fact that most nuclear fuel reprocessing schemes based on the Purex process can be hampered by the occurrence of polymer. As a result, an understanding and control of the parameters that affect polymer formation during reprocessing are studied. 2 refs

  10. Smart Surface Chemistries of Conducting Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik

    In this thesis we investigate post-polymerization covalent modifications of poly(3,4-dioxythiophene (PEDOT)-type conducting polymers. The aim of the modifications is to gain specific control of the interaction between the material and living mammalian cells. The use of “click-chemistry” to modify...... a straightforward and in-expensive method for patterning conducting polymer thin films into microelectrodes, without losing control of the surface chemistry of the samples. On the contrary, the method provides direct control of the surface chemistry of both the fabricated micro-electrodes and the gaps between them....... The method is based on locally removing PEDOTtype polymers to expose underlying non-conducting functional polymer substrates. Thereby, multifunctional substrates are obtained. By applying this method, we are able to fabricate allpolymer micro-systems with multiple types of localized functional (bio...

  11. Radiation chemistry of biologically compatible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J. T.; Pomery, P.J.; Saadat, G.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Poly (2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) [PHEMA] and poly (2-ethoxy ethyl methacrylate) [PEEMA] are of biomedical and industrial interest due to their biocompatibility with living tissue. In this paper the effect of high energy radiation on these polymers is reported. PHEMA and PEEMA have similar molecular structures to poly (methyl methacrylate)[PMMA], and the γ irradiation of this polymer is well understood. Hence the radiation chemistry of PMMA is used as model system for the the analysis of the radiation chemistry of these polymers. The mechanism of the radiation induced chemistry of the polymers has been investigated using a range of techniques including electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) to establish free radical pathways, GC to identify small molecule volatile products, NMR to identify small molecule radiation products and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) to determine molecular weight changes. Whilst much of the major part of the radiation chemistry can be attributed to similar reactions which can be observed in PMMA, there are a number of new radicals which are present as a result of the influence of the side chain interactions which reduces the mobility of the polymer chain

  12. Conductive Polymer Functionalization by Click Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren; Hansen, Thomas Steen

    2008-01-01

    Click chemistry is used to obtain new conductive polymer films based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) from a new azide functional monomer. Postpolymerization, 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions in DMF, using a catalyst system of CUS04 and sodium ascorbate, and different alkynes are performed...

  13. Microwave-assisted organic and polymer chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    The first ACS symposium on Microwave-Assisted Chemistry: Organic and Polymer Synthesis, held as part of the ACS National meeting in Philadelphia, in August 2008, aimed at various topics of the use of microwave irradiation. The symposium found that specific heating effects, such as higher microwave

  14. Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Jaap van Brakel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I assess the relation between philosophy of chemistry and (general) philosophy of science, focusing on those themes in the philosophy of chemistry that may bring about major revisions or extensions of current philosophy of science. Three themes can claim to make a unique contribution to philosophy of science: first, the variety of materials in the (natural and artificial) world; second, extending the world by making new stuff; and, third, specific features of the relations betwe...

  15. Applications of ionic liquids in polymer science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the latest knowledge in the science and technology of ionic liquids and polymers in different areas. Ionic liquids (IL) are actively being investigated in polymer science and technology for a number of different applications. In the first part of the book the authors present the particular properties of ionic liquids as speciality solvents. The state-of-the art in the use of ionic liquids in polymer synthesis and modification reactions including polymer recycling is outlined. The second part focuses on the use of ionic liquids as speciality additives such as plasticizers or antistatic agents.  The third part examines the use of ionic liquids in the design of functional polymers (usually called polymeric ionic liquids (PIL) or poly(ionic liquids)). Many important applications in diverse scientific and industrial areas rely on these polymers, like polymer electrolytes in electrochemical devices, building blocks in materials science, nanocomposites, gas membranes, innovative anion sensitive...

  16. Spatially Selective Functionalization of Conducting Polymers by "Electroclick" Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Conducting polymer microelectrodes can electrochemically generate the catalyst required for their own functionalization by "click chemistry" with high spatial resolution. Interdigitated microelectrodes prepared from an azide-containing conducting polymer are selectively functionalized in sequence...

  17. Magic, science and masculinity: marketing toy chemistry sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gailani, Salim

    2009-12-01

    At least since the late nineteenth century, toy chemistry sets have featured in standard scripts of the achievement of eminence in science, and they remain important in constructions of scientific identity. Using a selection of these toys manufactured in Britain and the United States, and with particular reference to the two dominant American brands, Gilbert and Chemcraft, this paper suggests that early twentieth-century chemistry sets were rooted in overlapping Victorian traditions of entertainment magic and scientific recreations. As chemistry set marketing copy gradually reoriented towards emphasising scientific modernity, citizenship, discipline and educational value, pre-twentieth-century traditions were subsumed within domestic-and specifically masculine-tropes. These developments in branding strategies point to transformations in both users' engagement with their chemistry sets and the role of scientific toys in domestic play. The chemistry set serves here as a useful tool for measuring cultural change and lay engagement with chemistry.

  18. Polymer engineering science and viscoelasticity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Brinson, Hal F

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a unified mechanics and materials perspective on polymers: both the mathematics of viscoelasticity theory as well as the physical mechanisms behind polymer deformation processes. Introductory material on fundamental mechanics is included to provide a continuous baseline for readers from all disciplines. Introductory material on the chemical and molecular basis of polymers is also included, which is essential to the understanding of the thermomechanical response. This self-contained text covers the viscoelastic characterization of polymers including constitutive modeling, experimental methods, thermal response, and stress and failure analysis. Example problems are provided within the text as well as at the end of each chapter.   New to this edition:   ·         One new chapter on the use of nano-material inclusions for structural polymer applications and applications such as fiber-reinforced polymers and adhesively bonded structures ·         Brings up-to-date polymer pro...

  19. Polymer Chemistry--An Elective in the New Leaving Chemistry Course: A Method of Teaching It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, G.

    1972-01-01

    A scheme is suggested for teaching concepts of polymer chemistry. Laboratory activities are suggested for the major topics. Interrelationships of different industrial uses of polymers are emphasized during the course. (PS)

  20. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  1. Competency Based Modular Experiments in Polymer Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eli M; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes a competency-based, modular laboratory course emphasizing the synthesis and characterization of polymers and directed toward senior undergraduate and/or first-year graduate students in science and engineering. One module, free-radical polymerization kinetics by dilatometry, is included as a sample. (CS)

  2. Analytical Chemistry at the Interface Between Materials Science and Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Janese C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-21

    Likedlessentid sciences, anal~cd chetis~continues toreinvent itself. Moving beyond its traditional roles of identification and quantification, analytical chemistry is now expanding its frontiers into areas previously reserved to other disciplines. This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and two of these disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detection of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry’s newest forays into these disciplines. The introduction section to this dissertation provides a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work. In advance of the materials science discussion, a brief introduction into electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) and sol-gel chemistry is provided. In advance of the biological discussions, brief overviews of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and the oxidative chemistry used to construct our biological arrays are provided. This section is followed by four chapters, each of which is presented as a separate manuscript, and focuses on work that describes some of our cross-disciplinary efforts within materials science and biology. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and future prospectus.

  3. Ultrasound in polymer chemistry : revival of an established technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulusse, J.M.J.; Sijbesma, R.P.

    2006-01-01

    The history of ultrasound in polymer chemistry goes back a long way. Initially, its uses were limited to being an alternative method of initiating radical polymerizations through the decomposition of solvents to form radicals or through the breakage of polymers leading to macroradicals. Recently,

  4. Microwave assisted click chemistry on a conductive polymer film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hansen, Thomas S.; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2011-01-01

    Microwave (MW) irradiation has been used to accelerate the functionalization of an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) film by click chemistry. The absorption of MW energy by the conductive polymer has been exploited for localized activation of the reaction on the polymer surface...

  5. The effects of temperature on the radiation chemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of high energy radiation on polymers is dependent on a number of factors. One of the most important factors is the radiolysis temperature. This paper discusses the effects of the α-transition and the other secondary transitions, as well as the ceiling and melting temperatures, on the nature of the radiolysis reactions which occur for a number of polymers. Some implications of changes in the radiation chemistry of polymers with a change in the temperature are also considered. (author)

  6. Recent trends in radiation polymer chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, S.

    1993-01-01

    This book contains five contributions with the following topics: 1. Electron Spin Echo Studies of Free Radicals in Irradiated Polymers (H. Yoshida, T. Ichikawa); 2. Application of Pulse Radiolysis to the Study of Polymers and Polymerizations (M. Ogasawara); 3. Radiation Synthesis of Polymeric Materials for Biomedical and Biochemical Applications (I. Kaetsu); 4. Radiation Effects of Ion Beams on Polymers (S. Tagawa); and 5. Polymer Materials for Fusion Reactors (H. Yamaoka). (orig./MM). 74 figs., 12 tabs

  7. Recent Advances in Glycerol Polymers: Chemistry and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol polymers are attracting increased attention due to the diversity of polymer compositions and architectures available. This article provides a brief chronological review on the current status of these polymers along with representative examples of their use for biomedical applications. First, we describe the underlying chemistry of glycerol, which provides access to a range of monomers for subsequent polymerizations. We then review the various synthetic methodologies to prepare glycerol-based polymers including polyethers, polycarbonates, polyesters, and so forth. Next, we describe several biomedical applications where glycerol polymers are being investigated including carriers for drug delivery, sealants or coatings for tissue repair, and agents possessing antibacterial activity. Fourth, we describe the growing market opportunity for the use of polymers in medicine. Finally we conclude and summarize the findings, as well as discuss potential opportunities for continued research efforts. PMID:25308354

  8. Photoreconfigurable polymers for biomedical applications: chemistry and macromolecular engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Congcong; Ninh, Chi; Bettinger, Christopher J

    2014-10-13

    Stimuli-responsive polymers play an important role in many biomedical technologies. Light responsive polymers are particularly desirable because the parameters of irradiated light and diverse photoactive chemistries produce a large number of combinations between functional materials and associated stimuli. This Review summarizes recent advances in utilizing photoactive chemistries in macromolecules for prospective use in biomedical applications. Special focus is granted to selection criterion when choosing photofunctional groups. Synthetic strategies to incorporate these functionalities into polymers and networks with different topologies are also highlighted herein. Prospective applications of these materials are discussed including programmable matrices for controlled release, dynamic scaffolds for tissue engineering, and functional coatings for medical devices. The article concludes by summarizing the state of the art in photoresponsive polymers for biomedical applications including current challenges and future opportunities.

  9. Polymer chemistry: Proteins in a pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Heather D.

    2013-07-01

    Protein drugs are important therapies for many different diseases, but very few can be administered orally. Now, a cationic dendronized polymer has been shown to stabilize a therapeutic protein for delivery to the gut.

  10. Advanced polymer chemistry of organometallic anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, R.M.; Abney, K.D.; Balaich, G.J.; Fino, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of the project was to prepare and characterize new polymers incorporating cobalt dicarbollide. Specific goals were to prepare polymerizable cobalt dicarbollide monomers using the nucleophilic substitution route discovered in laboratories and to establish the reaction conditions required to form polymers from these complexes. This one-year project resulted in two publications (in press), and provided the foundation for further investigations into polymer synthesis and characterization using cobalt dicarbollide and other metallocarboranes. Interest in synthesizing organometallic polymers containing the cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anion is motivated by their possible application as cation exchange materials for the remediation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from nuclear wastes

  11. Analytical chemistry in nuclear science and technology: a scientometric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kademani, B.S.; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Vijai

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyse quantitatively the growth and development of Analytical Chemistry research in Nuclear Science and Technology in terms of publication output as reflected in International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database (1970-2005). During 1970-2005 a total of 8224 papers were published. There were only seven papers published in 1970. Thereafter, a tremendous explosion of literature was observed in this area. The highest number of papers (636) were published in 1985. The average number of publications published per year was 228.44. United States topped the list with 1811 publications followed by USSR with 1688 publications, Germany with 777 publications, India with 730 publications and Hungary with 519 publications. Authorship and collaboration trend was towards multi-authored papers as 80.3 percent of the papers were collaborative is indicative of the multidisciplinary nature of research activity. The most prolific authors were: B. F. Myasoedov, AN SSSR Moscow Inst. Geokhimii I Analitisheskoi Khimii, Russian Federation with 84 publications, M. Sudersanan, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 67 publications, P.Vanura and V. Jedinakova Krizova both from Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic with 54 publications each, S. Gangadharan, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 47 publications, V.M. Ivanova , M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation with 45 publications and Yu. A Zolotov Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation with 40 publications. The journals most preferred by the scientists for publication of papers were : Zhurnal Analiticheskoj Khimii with 713 papers, Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry with 409 papers, Analytical Chemistry Washington with 364 papers, Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry with 324 papers, Indian Journal of Chemistry, Section A with 251 papers, and Journal of Analytical Chemistry of the USSR with 145 papers. The high

  12. The radiation chemistry of polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, M.

    1991-01-01

    With the use of plastics in the construction of space satellites which may be exposed in geosynchronous orbit to 100 MGy (10,000 Mrad) of high-energy radiation in 30 years of use, the effect of these radiations on the polymer becomes of practical importance. To understand the effects we consider first various radiation-resistant groups that are incorporated into the polymer and their relative effectiveness in reducing molecular scissions due to the radiation. The location of such groups in the polymer is also discussed. Next the chemical structures of a number of resins such as epoxies, polyimides, etc. are described followed by a detailed account of methods of improving the radiation resistance of plastics by the incorporation of carbon or glass fibers. Finally, the role of oxygen in causing chain scissions and other effects during irradiation which reduce the mechanical strength of the plastics and the fiber resin composites are also considered. (author)

  13. Bergman cyclization in polymer chemistry and material science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuli; Hu, Aiguo

    2011-11-01

    Bergman cyclization of enediynes, regarded as a promising strategy for anticancer drugs, now finds its own niche in the area of polymer chemistry and material science. The highly reactive aromatic diradicals generated from Bergman cyclization can undergo polymerization acting as either monomers or initiators of other vinyl monomers. The former, namely homopolymerization, leads to polyphenylenes and polynaphthalenes with excellent thermal stability, good solubility, and processability. The many remarkable properties of these aromatic polymers have further endowed them to be manufactured into carbon-rich materials, e.g., glassy carbons and carbon nanotubes. Whereas used as initiators, enediynes provide a novel resource for high molecular weight polymers with narrow polydispersities. The aromatic diradicals are also useful for introducing oligomers or polymers onto pristine carbonous nanomaterials, such as carbon nano-onions and carbon nanotubes, to improve their dispersibility in organic solvents and polymer solutions. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Green polymer chemistry: enzyme catalysis for polymer functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sanghamitra; Puskas, Judit E

    2015-05-21

    Enzyme catalyzed reactions are green alternative approaches to functionalize polymers compared to conventional methods. This technique is especially advantageous due to the high selectivity, high efficiency, milder reaction conditions, and recyclability of enzymes. Selected reactions can be conducted under solventless conditions without the application of metal catalysts. Hence this process is becoming more recognized in the arena of biomedical applications, as the toxicity created by solvents and metal catalyst residues can be completely avoided. In this review we will discuss fundamental aspects of chemical reactions biocatalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B, and their application to create new functionalized polymers, including the regio- and chemoselectivity of the reactions.

  15. Green Polymer Chemistry: Enzyme Catalysis for Polymer Functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Sen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme catalyzed reactions are green alternative approaches to functionalize polymers compared to conventional methods. This technique is especially advantageous due to the high selectivity, high efficiency, milder reaction conditions, and recyclability of enzymes. Selected reactions can be conducted under solventless conditions without the application of metal catalysts. Hence this process is becoming more recognized in the arena of biomedical applications, as the toxicity created by solvents and metal catalyst residues can be completely avoided. In this review we will discuss fundamental aspects of chemical reactions biocatalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B, and their application to create new functionalized polymers, including the regio- and chemoselectivity of the reactions.

  16. Temperature dependence of radiation chemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, R.W.; Hill, D.J.T.; Le, T.T.; Milne, K.A.; O'Donnell, J.H.; Perera, S.M.C.; Pomery, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical reactions which occur during radiolysis of polymers usually show an increase in rate with increasing temperature that can be described by an Arrhenius relationship. The magnitude of the activation energy can vary widely and is affected by physical, as well as chemical, factors. Different reaction rates may be expected in crystalline and amorphous morphologies, and in glassy and rubbery regions. The temperature dependence of radiolysis reactions can be expected to show discontinuities at the glass and melting transitions, T g and T m . The ceiling temperature, T c , for polymerization/depolymerization will also affect the rate of degradation, especially for depropagation to monomer. The temperature for this effect depends on the molecular structure of the polymer. The temperature dependence of free radical reactions can be studied by cryogenic trapping and ESR spectroscopy during thermal profiling. Increased degradation rates at high dose rates can be due to increased temperatures resulting from energy absorption

  17. From polymer chemistry to membrane elaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iojoiu, C. [ERAS-Labo, 222 RN 90, F-38330 St. Nazaire-les-Eymes (France); Chabert, F.; Marechal, M.; Guindet, J.; Sanchez, J.-Y. [LEPMI ENSEEG, Domaine Universitaire, BP 75, F-38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Kissi, N.El. [Laboratoire de Rheologie, ENSHMG, Domaine Universitaire, BP 95, F-38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2006-02-28

    The paper tries to make a critical inventory of Ionomers, free of fluorine or fluorine less, which can be used as alternatives to Nafion{sup R} in polymer electrolytes fuel cells, as Ionomer is indisputably one of the main bolts of these technologies. All the Ionomer families are discussed, with their main advantages and drawbacks, in particular in terms of their possible industrial scale-up. Special attention has been paid to the discussions about the choice of the ionic functions and that of polymeric backbones of the Ionomers, with regard to the required electrochemical properties and also to their thermomechanical behaviour. It has been emphasized that a global approach of the polymer electrolytes is essential to progress. This must involve (i) a control of the syntheses up to the pilot scale, (ii) thorough characterizations, (iii) attention to the membrane and the MEA assembly and (iv) durability investigations, including post-mortem characterizations. (author)

  18. ESR application to radiation chemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwabara, H.

    1988-01-01

    Important results obtained in our group in the field of ESR application to the study of irradiated polymers are summarized. They are the analysis of the decay reaction of the free radicals, spur-like trapping of the free radicals and the related discussions. A diffusion controlled bimolecular reaction scheme was a good way of analyzing the data of the decay reaction. Power saturation phenomenon of ESR spectra of the free radicals showed a circumstance of the spur-like trapping of the free radicals in irradiated polyethylene. The phenomenon of spur-like trapping was quite consistent with the interpretation of the decay reaction of the free radicals. (author)

  19. Environmental Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalyzers) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization)

  20. Organic polymer chemistry in the context of novel processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC; University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; Mecham, Sue J.; Farrell, Crista L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper was written to shed light on a series of what some have stated are not so obvious connections that link polymer synthesis in supercritical CO2 to cancer treatment and vaccines, nonflammable polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, and 3D printing. In telling this story, we also attempt to show the value of versatility in applying one’s primary area of expertise to address pertinent questions in science and in society. In this Outlook, we attempted to identify key factors to enable a versatile and nimble research effort to take shape in an effort to influence diverse fields and have a tangible impact in the private sector through the translation of discoveries into the marketplace.

  1. Green Chemistry and Sustainability: An Undergraduate Course for Science and Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Erin M.

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate lecture course in Green Chemistry and Sustainability has been developed and taught to a "multidisciplinary" group of science and nonscience majors. The course introduced students to the topics of green chemistry and sustainability and also immersed them in usage of the scientific literature. Through literature…

  2. Mechanistic aspects of polymer chemistry for radiation curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    The chemistry of polymer production has been reviewed for the purpose of identifying suitable uses for high-energy electron accelerators in the plastics industry. High-energy radiation produces free radicals, electrons and ions in irradiated materials. These species initiate polymerization and cross-linking reactions in a manner analogous to that of chemical agents. The chemical mechanisms of radiation-induced polymerization, co-polymerization and cross-linking are compared with those of chemical and thermal initiation. Radiation polymerization can be a very fast process, but the polymerization reactions are quite exothermic, and temperature increases of up to 400 degrees Celcius may result if insufficient cooling is provided. Several approaches to reducing the temperature increase during radiation curing are presented. Chemical kinetic simulations of the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of styrene have shown that the effect of water inhibition on the rate of polymerization may be eliminated at the high dose rates available from high power accelerators. 25 refs

  3. Natural rubber (NR) biosynthesis: perspectives from polymer chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkakaty, Balaka [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Natural rubber is an important strategic raw material for manufacturing a wide variety of industrial products. There are at least 2,500 different latex-producing plant species; however, only Hevea brasiliensis (the Brazilian rubber tree) is a commercial source. The chemical structure of natural rubber is cis-1,4-polyisoprene, but the exact structure of the head and end groups remains unknown. Since synthetic cis-1,4-polyisoprenes cannot match the superior properties of natural rubber, understanding the chemistry behind the biosynthetic process is key to finding a possible replacement. T his chapter summarizes our current understandings from the perspective of a polymer scientist by comparing synthetic polyisoprenes to natural rubber. The chapter also highlights biomimetic polymerization, research towards a synthetic match of natural rubber and the role of natural rubber in health care.

  4. The Alginate Demonstration: Polymers, Food Science, and Ion Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Amy Sue; Schechinger, Linda; Govindarajoo, Geeta; Nowick, James S.; Pignolet, Louis H.

    1998-11-01

    We have recently devised a polymer demonstration involving the crosslinking and decrosslinking of alginate, a polysaccharide isolated from seaweed. The polymer is composed of D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid subunits and is a component of cell walls. It is commonly used as a thickener in foods such as ice cream and fruit-filled snacks. For the demonstration, a 2% solution of sodium alginate is poured into a 1% solution of calcium chloride. Nontoxic calcium alginate "worms" form due to crosslinking of the polymer. Alternatively, the commercially available antacid Gaviscon can be used as a source of sodium alginate. The crosslinks can then be broken by shaking the worms in brine. The demonstration is a fine addition to any chemical educator's repertoire of polymer experiments.

  5. Science and sustainability? Biodegradable polymers from canola and flaxseed oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narins, S.S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Alberta Bioplastics Network

    2002-07-01

    Little progress has been made in value-added development to crops. The development of biodegradable plastics was spurred by environmental concerns and the use of renewable resources. There is a worldwide market for such products, which complements the strategy of the petrochemical industry. Greater sustainability achieved by partnering with the value-added agricultural industry. The drivers impacting the future polymer industry are: environmental and health concerns, consumer attitudes, cost of cheap feedstocks, carbon credits, greenhouse gases reduction, and criteria air contaminant reduction. Two niche markets are food packaging and biomedical products. The opportunity exists for the development of poly lactic acid (PLA) using canola as a primary feedstock in Alberta as there is a well established petrochemical industry, a vegetable oil infrastructure, and a desire to match petrochemical with bio-renewable. The benefits are higher value processing and a new source of monomers from renewable biomass. The main objective is the development of bio-polymer industry in Alberta based on canola and flaxseed oils. Food and agricultural materials have a similar structure and identical instrumentation to study structure and functionality. The author displayed pictures of the major instrumentation required to conduct this type of research. The rheological properties of polymers include flow, mechanical strength, and thermal properties. The author, along with colleagues, has developed a unique approach. The team members were identified, as well as an overview of the expertise required to perform this research. The author is about to file three related patents. This process is not energy intensive and does not use solvent. The author is about to move into scale-up phase of the reactions which produce the monomers. tabs., figs.

  6. Micropatterning of Functional Conductive Polymers with Multiple Surface Chemistries in Register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik; Acikgöz, Canet; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2012-01-01

    A versatile procedure is presented for fast and efficient micropatterning of multiple types of covalently bound surface chemistry in perfect register on and between conductive polymer microcircuits. The micropatterning principle is applied to several types of native and functionalized PEDOT (poly(3...... functionalized conjugated polymer systems....

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymers--potential and challenges in analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, J.O. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Nolan, K. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Smyth, M.R. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Mizaikoff, B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 770 State Street, Boggs Building, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States)]. E-mail: boris.mizaikoff@chemistry.gatech.edu

    2005-04-04

    Among the variety of biomimetic recognition schemes utilizing supramolecular approaches molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have proven their potential as synthetic receptors in numerous applications ranging from liquid chromatography to assays and sensor technology. Their inherent advantages compared to biochemical/biological recognition systems include robustness, storage endurance and lower costs. However, until recently only few contributions throughout the relevant literature describe quantitative analytical applications of MIPs for practically relevant analyte molecules and real-world samples. Increased motivation to thoroughly evaluate the true potential of MIP technology is clearly attributed to the demands of modern analytical chemistry, which include enhanced sensitivity, selectivity and applicability of molecular recognition building blocks at decreasing costs. In particular, the areas of environmental monitoring, food and beverage analysis and industrial process surveillance require analytical tools capable of discriminating chemicals with high molecular specificity considering increasing numbers of complex environmental contaminants, pollution of raw products and rigorous quality control requested by legislation and consumer protection. Furthermore, efficient product improvement and development of new products requires precise qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. Finally, environmental, food and process safety control issues favor the application of on-line in situ analytical methods with high molecular selectivity. While biorecognition schemes frequently suffer from degrading bioactivity and long-term stability when applied in real-world sample environments, MIPs serving as synthetic antibodies have successfully been applied as stationary phase separation matrix (e.g. HPLC and SPE), recognition component in bioassays (e.g. ELISA) or biomimetic recognition layer in chemical sensor systems. Examples such as MIP-based selective analysis of

  8. Molecularly imprinted polymers--potential and challenges in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahony, J.O.; Nolan, K.; Smyth, M.R.; Mizaikoff, B.

    2005-01-01

    Among the variety of biomimetic recognition schemes utilizing supramolecular approaches molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have proven their potential as synthetic receptors in numerous applications ranging from liquid chromatography to assays and sensor technology. Their inherent advantages compared to biochemical/biological recognition systems include robustness, storage endurance and lower costs. However, until recently only few contributions throughout the relevant literature describe quantitative analytical applications of MIPs for practically relevant analyte molecules and real-world samples. Increased motivation to thoroughly evaluate the true potential of MIP technology is clearly attributed to the demands of modern analytical chemistry, which include enhanced sensitivity, selectivity and applicability of molecular recognition building blocks at decreasing costs. In particular, the areas of environmental monitoring, food and beverage analysis and industrial process surveillance require analytical tools capable of discriminating chemicals with high molecular specificity considering increasing numbers of complex environmental contaminants, pollution of raw products and rigorous quality control requested by legislation and consumer protection. Furthermore, efficient product improvement and development of new products requires precise qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. Finally, environmental, food and process safety control issues favor the application of on-line in situ analytical methods with high molecular selectivity. While biorecognition schemes frequently suffer from degrading bioactivity and long-term stability when applied in real-world sample environments, MIPs serving as synthetic antibodies have successfully been applied as stationary phase separation matrix (e.g. HPLC and SPE), recognition component in bioassays (e.g. ELISA) or biomimetic recognition layer in chemical sensor systems. Examples such as MIP-based selective analysis of

  9. Sunscreen synthesis and their immobilisation on polymethylmethacrylate: an integrated project in organic chemistry, polymer chemistry and photochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtinho, Dina Maria B.; Serra, Maria Elisa S.; Pineiro, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Dibenzalacetone and other aldol condensation products are known sunscreens commonly used in cosmetics. This type of compounds can easily be prepared in an Organic Chemistry Lab by reaction of aldehydes with ketones in basic medium. These compounds can be incorporated in poly(methyl methacrylate) and used as UV light absorbers, for example in sunglasses. This project has the advantage of using inexpensive reagents which are readily available in Chemistry Laboratories. This experiment can also be a base starting point for discussions of organic, polymer and photochemistry topics. (author)

  10. Chemistry of the metal-polymer interfacial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidheiser, H; Deck, P D

    1988-09-02

    In many polymer-metal systems, chemical bonds are formed that involve metal-oxygen-carbon complexes. Infrared and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies indicate that carboxylate groups play an important role in some systems. The oxygen sources may be the polymer, the oxygen present in the oxide on the metal surface, or atmospheric oxygen. Diffusion of metal ions from the substrate into the polymer interphase may occur in some systems that are cured at elevated temperatures. It is unclear whether a similar, less extensive diffusion occurs over long time periods in systems maintained at room temperature. The interfacial region is dynamic, and chemical changes occur with aging at room temperature. Positron annihilation spectroscopy may have application to characterizing the voids at the metal-polymer interface.

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Science and Chemistry Textbooks for Indicators of Reform: A complementary perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Ajda

    2010-07-01

    In this study, multiple thematically based and quantitative analysis procedures were utilized to explore the effectiveness of Turkish chemistry and science textbooks in terms of their reflection of reform. The themes gender equity, questioning level, science vocabulary load, and readability level provided the conceptual framework for the analyses. An unobtrusive research method, content analysis, was used by coding the manifest content and counting the frequency of words, photographs, drawings, and questions by cognitive level. The context was an undergraduate chemistry teacher preparation program at a large public university in a metropolitan area in northwestern Turkey. Forty preservice chemistry teachers were guided to analyze 10 middle school science and 10 high school chemistry textbooks. Overall, the textbooks included unfair gender representations, a considerably higher number of input and processing than output level questions, and high load of science terminology. The textbooks failed to provide sufficient empirical evidence to be considered as gender equitable and inquiry-based. The quantitative approach employed for evaluation contrasts with a more interpretive approach, and has the potential in depicting textbook profiles in a more reliable way, complementing the commonly employed qualitative procedures. Implications suggest that further work in this line is needed on calibrating the analysis procedures with science textbooks used in different international settings. The procedures could be modified and improved to meet specific evaluation needs. In the Turkish context, next step research may concern the analysis of science textbooks being rewritten for the reform-based curricula to make cross-comparisons and evaluate a possible progression.

  12. A Study of Functional Polymer Colloids Prepared Using Thiol-Ene/Yne Click Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Olivia Z.

    This project demonstrates the first instance of thiol-ene chemistry as the polymerization method for the production of polymer colloids in two-phase heterogeneous suspensions, miniemulsions, and emulsions. This work was also expanded to thiol-yne chemistry for the production of polymer particles containing increased crosslinking density. The utility of thiol-ene and thiol-yne chemistries for polymerization and polymer modification is well established in bulk systems. These reactions are considered 'click' reactions, which can be defined as processes that are both facile and simple, offering high yields with nearly 100% conversion, no side products, easy product separation, compatibility with a diverse variety of commercially available starting materials, and orthogonality with other chemistries. In addition, thiol-ene and thiol-yne chemistry follow a step-growth mechanism for the development of highly uniform polymer networks, where polymer growth is dependent on the coupling of functional groups. These step-growth polymerization systems are in stark contrast to the chain-growth mechanisms of acrylic and styrenic monomers that have dominated the field of conventional heterogeneous polymerizations. Preliminary studies evaluated the mechanism of particle production in suspension and miniemulsion systems. Monomer droplets were compared to the final polymer particles to confirm that particle growth occurred through the polymerization of monomer droplets. Additional parameters examined include homogenization energy (mechanical mixing), diluent species and concentration, and monomer content. These reactions were conducted using photoinitiation to yield particles in a matter of minutes with diameters in the size range of several microns to hundreds of microns in suspensions or submicron particles in miniemulsions. Improved control over the particle size and size distribution was examined through variation of reaction parameters. In addition, a method of seeded suspension

  13. Biobased step-growth polymers : chemistry, functionality and applicability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordover, B.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the opportunity to obtain materials with interesting new properties and further stimulated by the increasing oil prices and the augmenting environmental concerns, renewed interest in biobased polymers has recently arisen. Extensive efforts are being invested in extracting useful starting

  14. Monomer-Polymer Chemistry and the Impregnation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stannett, V. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1968-10-15

    A brief outline of early polymerization techniques is followed by a description of polymerization process chemistry, impregnation and polymerization methods and criteria for the choice of monomer. General considerations, including the effects of polymerization inhibitors, swelling agents, radiation dose rate and sample thickness, are enumerated. (author)

  15. Determination of Quantum Chemistry Based Force Fields for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Aromatic Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations for model molecules can be used to parameterize force fields for molecular dynamics simulations of polymers. Emphasis in our research group is on using quantum chemistry-based force fields for molecular dynamics simulations of organic polymers in the melt and glassy states, but the methodology is applicable to simulations of small molecules, multicomponent systems and solutions. Special attention is paid to deriving reliable descriptions of the non-bonded and electrostatic interactions. Several procedures have been developed for deriving and calibrating these parameters. Our force fields for aromatic polyimide simulations will be described. In this application, the intermolecular interactions are the critical factor in determining many properties of the polymer (including its color).

  16. Physico-chemistry characterization of sulfonated polyacrylamide polymers for use in polymer flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, Masoud

    2010-07-01

    Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymer (HPAM) as a feasible and effective viscosifier has been fully studied and used for polymer flooding processes in several oil field, e.g. Daqing oil field. It has been shown that Hydrolyzed polyacrylamide polymers (HPAM) may be a good choice for high temperature condition with no oxygen and no divalent ions presence. At high temperature and high salinity conditions, polymer may precipitates and loss their viscosyfing properties. Also adsorption and retention of polymer in porous medium may change rheological properties of polymers. Thus, the viscosyfing property of polymers is influenced by several important parameters, e.g. salinity, hardness, temperature, adsorption, retention, polymer structure, and etc. By replacing some of carboxylate group of HPAM with another monomer, e.g. sodium salt of acrylic acid and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS), effect of high salinity/hardness and temperature seems to be reduced specially for the samples with higher percentage of AMPS co-monomer. The ultimate aim of this work is to develop an understanding of the sulfonated polyacrylamide copolymers with a range of different sulfonation and molecular weight at high salinity and high temperature conditions. Most of the work in this thesis deals with viscosity and adsorption/retention measurements of the sulfonated copolymers and HPAM. The factors which may affect the viscosity of the polymers and have been identified in this work as most likely influencing also adsorption and retention of the polymers are shear rate, polymer concentration, sulfonation degree, molecular weight, NaCl concentration, divalent ion concentration, and temperature. (Author)

  17. Environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The environmental Science and Technology Program was structured based on the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs at IPEN. The program comprehends five main areas: Environmental analysis: Chemical technology; Polymer technology nucleus: Chemical and Isotope characterization and Analytical Chemistry for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle samples.

  18. Computational Materials Science and Chemistry: Accelerating Discovery and Innovation through Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Glotzer, Sharon [University of Michigan; McCurdy, Bill [University of California Davis; Roberto, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-07-26

    This report is based on a SC Workshop on Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation on July 26-27, 2010, to assess the potential of state-of-the-art computer simulations to accelerate understanding and discovery in materials science and chemistry, with a focus on potential impacts in energy technologies and innovation. The urgent demand for new energy technologies has greatly exceeded the capabilities of today's materials and chemical processes. To convert sunlight to fuel, efficiently store energy, or enable a new generation of energy production and utilization technologies requires the development of new materials and processes of unprecedented functionality and performance. New materials and processes are critical pacing elements for progress in advanced energy systems and virtually all industrial technologies. Over the past two decades, the United States has developed and deployed the world's most powerful collection of tools for the synthesis, processing, characterization, and simulation and modeling of materials and chemical systems at the nanoscale, dimensions of a few atoms to a few hundred atoms across. These tools, which include world-leading x-ray and neutron sources, nanoscale science facilities, and high-performance computers, provide an unprecedented view of the atomic-scale structure and dynamics of materials and the molecular-scale basis of chemical processes. For the first time in history, we are able to synthesize, characterize, and model materials and chemical behavior at the length scale where this behavior is controlled. This ability is transformational for the discovery process and, as a result, confers a significant competitive advantage. Perhaps the most spectacular increase in capability has been demonstrated in high performance computing. Over the past decade, computational power has increased by a factor of a million due to advances in hardware and software. This rate of improvement, which shows no sign of

  19. Handbook of polymer coatings for electronics chemistry, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1990-01-01

    This completely revised edition remains the only comprehensive treatise on polymer coatings for electronics. Since the original edition, the applications of coatings for the environmental protection of electronic systems have greatly increased, largely driven by the competitive need to reduce costs, weight and volume. The demands for high-speed circuits for the rapid processing of signals and data, high-density circuits for the storage and retrieval of megabits of memory, and the improved reliability required of electronics for guiding and controlling weapons and space vehicles have triggered

  20. Supra-amphiphiles: a new bridge between colloidal science and supramolecular chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuetong; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Xi

    2014-06-03

    In addition to conventional amphiphiles, an emerging research area is supra-amphiphiles, which are constructed on the basis of noncovalent interactions and dynamic covalent bonds. In this feature article, we have provided a general introduction to the concept, design principles, and topologies of supra-amphiphiles, starting from some rationally tailored building blocks. In addition, we highlight some progress in the functional assembly of supra-amphiphiles, such as responsive nanoscale carriers, antibacterial and antitumor agents, fluorescent-based chemical sensors, and enzyme mimics. The supra-amphiphile is a new bridge between colloidal science and supramolecular chemistry, and it is a field where we can make full use of our imaginative power.

  1. A Polymer Chemistry Point of View on Mucoadhesion and Mucopenetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattling, Philipp; Taipaleenmäki, Essi; Zhang, Yan; Städler, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Although oral is the preferred route of administration of pharmaceutical formulations, the long-standing challenge for medically active compounds to efficiently cross the mucus layer barrier limits its wider applicability. Efforts in nanomedicine to overcome this hurdle consider mucoadhesive and mucopenetrating drug carriers by selectively designing (macromolecular) building blocks. This review highlights and critically discusses recent strategies developed in this context including poly(ethylene glycol)-based modifications, cationic and thiolated polymers, as well as particles with high charge density, zeta-potential shifting ability, or mucolytic properties. The latest advances in ex vivo test platforms are also reviewed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Students' science attitudes, beliefs, and context: associations with science and chemistry aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Sheldrake, Richard; Reiss, Michael J.; Simon, Shirley

    2018-04-01

    There is a widespread concern that relatively few students, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, continue to study chemistry and other science subjects after compulsory education. Yet it remains unclear how different aspects of students' background and home context, their own attitudes and beliefs, and their experiences of particular teaching approaches in school might limit or facilitate their studying aspirations; concurrently, less research has specifically focused on and surveyed disadvantaged students. In order to gain more insight, 4780 students were surveyed, covering those in Year 7 (age 11-12 years) and in Year 8 (age 12-13) from schools in England with high proportions of those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Predictive modelling highlighted that the students' aspirations to study non-compulsory science in the future, and to study the particular subject of chemistry, were strongly associated with their extrinsic motivation towards science (their perceived utility of science, considered as a means to gain particular careers or skills), their intrinsic interest in science, and their engagement in extra-curricular activities. Additionally, their self-concept beliefs (their confidence in their own abilities in science), some teaching approaches, and encouragement from teachers and family alongside family science capital had smaller but still relevant associations.

  3. Metallurgical electrochemistry: the interface between materials science and molten salt chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    Even though molten salt electrolysis finds application in the primary extraction of metals (electrowinning), the purification and recycling of metals (electrorefining), and in the formation of metal coatings (electroplating), the technology remains in many respects underexploited. Electrolysis in molten salts as well as other nonaqueous media has enormous potential for materials processing. First, owing to the special attributes of nonaqueous electrolytes electrochemical processing in these media has an important role to play in the generation of advanced materials, i.e., materials with specialized chemistries or tailored microstructures (electrosynthesis). Secondly, as environmental quality standards rise beyond the capabilities of classical metals extraction technologies to comply, molten salt electrolysis may prove to be the only acceptable route from ore to metal. Growing public awareness of pollution from the metals industry could stimulate a renaissance in molten salt electrochemistry. Challenges facing metallurgical electrochemistry as relates to the environment fall into two categories: (1) improving existing electrochemical technology, and (2) developing clean electrochemical technology to displace current nonelectrochemical technology. In both instances success hinges upon the discovery of advanced materials and the ecologically sound extraction of metals, the close coupling between materials science and molten salt chemistry is manifest. (author) 6 refs

  4. The hidden radiation chemistry in plasma modification and XPS analysis of polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, G.A.; Le, T.T.; Elms, F.M.; Wood, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The surface modification of polymers using plasma treatments is being widely researched to achieve changes in the surface energetics and consequent wetting and reactivity for a range of applications. These include i) adhesion for polymer bonding and composite material fabrication and ii) biocompatibility of polymers when used as orthopedic implants, catheters and prosthetics. A low pressure rf plasma produces a variety of species from the introduced gas which may react with the surface of a hydrocarbon polymer, such as polyethylene. In the case of 0 2 and H 2 0, these species include oxygen atoms, singlet molecular oxygen and hydroxyl radicals, all of which may oxidise and, depending on their energy, ablate the polymer surface. In order to better understand the reactive species formed both in and downstream from a plasma and the relative contributions of oxidation and ablation, self-assembled monolayers of n-alkane thiols on gold are being used as well characterised substrates for quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The identification and quantification of oxidised carbon species on plasma treated polymers from broad, asymmetric XPS signals is difficult, so derivatisation is often used to enhance sensitivity and specificity. For example, trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) selectively labels hydroxyl functionality. The surface analysis of a modified polymer surface may be confounded by high energy radiation chemistry which may occur during XPS analysis. Examples include scission of carbon-halogen bonds (as in TFM adducts), decarboxylation and main-chain polyene formation. The extent of free-radical chemistry occurring in polyethylene while undergoing XPS analysis may be seen by both ESR and FT-IR analysis

  5. Supramolecular Pharmaceutical Sciences: A Novel Concept Combining Pharmaceutical Sciences and Supramolecular Chemistry with a Focus on Cyclodextrin-Based Supermolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Taishi; Iohara, Daisuke; Motoyama, Keiichi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2018-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry is an extremely useful and important domain for understanding pharmaceutical sciences because various physiological reactions and drug activities are based on supramolecular chemistry. However, it is not a major domain in the pharmaceutical field. In this review, we propose a new concept in pharmaceutical sciences termed "supramolecular pharmaceutical sciences," which combines pharmaceutical sciences and supramolecular chemistry. This concept could be useful for developing new ideas, methods, hypotheses, strategies, materials, and mechanisms in pharmaceutical sciences. Herein, we focus on cyclodextrin (CyD)-based supermolecules, because CyDs have been used not only as pharmaceutical excipients or active pharmaceutical ingredients but also as components of supermolecules.

  6. Synthesis of new water-soluble metal-binding polymers: Combinatorial chemistry approach. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurth, M.J.; Miller, R.B.; Sawan, S.; Smith, B.F.

    1998-01-01

    '(1) Develop rapid discovery and optimization approaches to new water-soluble chelating polymers for use in Polymer Filtration (PF) systems, and (2) evaluate the concept of using water and organic soluble polymers as new solid supports for combinatorial synthesis. Polymer Filtration (PF), which uses water-soluble metal-binding polymers to sequester metal ions in dilute solution with ultrafiltration (UF) to separate the polymers, is a new technology to selectively remove or recover hazardous and valuable metal ions. Future directions in PF must include rapid development, testing, and characterization of new metal-binding polymers. Thus, the authors are building upon and adapting the combinatorial chemistry approach developed for rapid molecule generation for the drug industry to the rapid development of new chelating polymers. The authors have focused on four areas including the development of: (1) synthetic procedures, (2) small ultrafiltration equipment compatible with organic- and aqueous-based combinatorial synthesis, (3) rapid assay techniques, and (4) polymer characterization techniques.'

  7. Biomimetic polymers in analytical chemistry. Part 1: preparation and applications of MIP (Molecularly Imprinted Polymers) in extraction and separation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarley, Cesar Ricardo Teixeira; Sotomayor, Maria del Pilar Taboada; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    MIPs are synthetic polymers that are used as biomimetic materials simulating the mechanism verified in natural entities such as antibodies and enzymes. Although MIPs have been successfully used as an outstanding tool for enhancing the selectivity or different analytical approaches, such as separation science and electrochemical and optical sensors, several parameters must be optimized during their synthesis. Therefore, the state-of-the-art of MIP production as well as the different polymerization methods are discussed. The potential selectivity of MIPs in the extraction and separation techniques focusing mainly on environmental, clinical and pharmaceutical samples as applications for analytical purposes is presented. (author)

  8. Supramolecular Chirality: Solvent Chirality Transfer in Molecular Chemistry and Polymer Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiya Fujiki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Controlled mirror symmetry breaking arising from chemical and physical origin is currently one of the hottest issues in the field of supramolecular chirality. The dynamic twisting abilities of solvent molecules are often ignored and unknown, although the targeted molecules and polymers in a fluid solution are surrounded by solvent molecules. We should pay more attention to the facts that mostly all of the chemical and physical properties of these molecules and polymers in the ground and photoexcited states are significantly influenced by the surrounding solvent molecules with much conformational freedom through non-covalent supramolecular interactions between these substances and solvent molecules. This review highlights a series of studies that include: (i historical background, covering chiral NaClO3 crystallization in the presence of d-sugars in the late 19th century; (ii early solvent chirality effects for optically inactive chromophores/fluorophores in the 1960s–1980s; and (iii the recent development of mirror symmetry breaking from the corresponding achiral or optically inactive molecules and polymers with the help of molecular chirality as the solvent use quantity.

  9. Crisis, change and creativity in science and technology: chemistry in the aftermath of twentieth-century global wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey Allan

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the organising ideas behind the symposium "Chemistry in the Aftermath of World Wars," held at the 23rd International Congress of History of Science and Technology, Budapest, 2009, whose theme was "Ideas and Instruments in Social Context." After first recounting the origins of the notion of "crisis" as a decisive turning point in general history as well as in the history of science, the paper presents war and its aftermath as a form of crisis that may affect science and technology, including chemistry, in a variety of contexts and leading to a variety of types of change. The twentieth-century world wars were exemplary forms of crisis, whose aftermaths shaped the contexts for decisive changes in modern chemistry, which continue to offer challenging opportunities for historical research. In discussing these, the paper cites selected current literature and briefly describes how the individual papers of the symposium, including the three papers published in this volume, approached these challenges.

  10. Click chemistry as a powerful and chemoselective tool for the attachment of targeting ligands to polymer drug carriers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pola, Robert; Braunová, Alena; Laga, Richard; Pechar, Michal; Ulbrich, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2014), s. 1340-1350 ISSN 1759-9954 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0802 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : click chemistry * RAFT polymerization * hydrophilic polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2014

  11. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  12. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa

    2017-09-15

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  13. Ethers on Si(001): A prime example for the common ground between surface science and molecular organic chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Pecher, Lisa; Laref, Slimane; Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf Ewald

    2017-01-01

    Using computational chemistry, we show that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultra-high vacuum conditions can be understood with textbook organic chemistry. The two-step reaction mechanism of (1) dative bond formation between the ether oxygen and a Lewis acidic surface atom and (2) a nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom is analysed in detail and found to mirror the acid-catalysed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is found to be the strongest of its kind and reactivity from this state defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during the C-O bond cleavage is visualized using a newly developed bonding analysis method, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular chemistry SN2 reactions. Our findings thus illustrate how the fields of surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit and unexpected insight can be gained.

  14. Directing functional chemistries on micropatterned conducting polymers for all-polymer cell analysis microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johan Ulrik; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    Micrometer scale electrical circuits of PEDOT (poly(3,4-dioxythiophene)) were created by locally oxidizing PEDOT thin films with an agarose stamp containing the oxidizing agent NaOCl. The oxidized PEDOT was removed completely by applying detergents. The process was sufficiently mild that chemical...... groups on the underlying substrate, such as azides or alkynes, were preserved for subsequent specific functionalization. Moreover entire PMOXA (poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)) films preventing cell binding could be hidden below the PEDOT and be re-exposed upon stamping, allowing for cell capturing...... microelectrodes on a cell non-adhesive background. Chemically functionalized PEDOT types permitted the introduction of multiple additional types of micropatterned chemistry....

  15. Interaction between carbon fibers and polymer sizing: Influence of fiber surface chemistry and sizing reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosburger-Will, Judith; Bauer, Matthias; Laukmanis, Eva; Horny, Robert; Wetjen, Denise; Manske, Tamara; Schmidt-Stein, Felix; Töpker, Jochen; Horn, Siegfried

    2018-05-01

    Different aspects of the interaction of carbon fibers and epoxy-based polymer sizings are investigated, e.g. the wetting behavior, the strength of adhesion between fiber and sizing, and the thermal stability of the sizing layer. The influence of carbon fiber surface chemistry and sizing reactivity is investigated using fibers of different degree of anodic oxidation and sizings with different number of reactive epoxy groups per molecule. Wetting of the carbon fibers by the sizing dispersion is found to be specified by both, the degree of fiber activation and the sizing reactivity. In contrast, adhesion strength between fibers and sizing is dominated by the surface chemistry of the carbon fibers. Here, the number of surface oxygen groups seems to be the limiting factor. We also find that the sizing and the additional functionalities induced by anodic oxidation are removed by thermal treatment at 600 °C, leaving the carbon fiber in its original state after carbonization.

  16. Radiation chemistry and advanced polymer materials studied by picosecond pulse radiolysis combined with femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Miki, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Ushida, K.; Izumi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    We have synchronized a single picosecond MeV electron pulse from L-band linear accelerator (linac) of The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research of Osaka University to a single femtosecond laser pulse of Ti:Sapphire laser. It is an essential technique for the future femtosecond pulse radiolysis and is also applied to many kinds of combined application of more than two different beams from accelerators in very short time range. Radiation chemistry and new type of polymers have been studied by LL (laser-linac) twin picosecond pulse radiolysis. Especially the early events in radiation chemistry such as geminate recombination processes of electrons and radical cations are have been studied in both liquids and solids. (author)

  17. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  18. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers (edited by Mickey Sarquis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Science in Our World, Vol. 5. Mickey Sarquis, series editor. Terrific Science Press: Middletown, OH, 1995. xiv + 149 pp. ISBN 1-883822-13-0. Spiral-bound, $13.95. Our familiarity with plastics makes polymers ideal examples of chemicals for discussion in K-12 science classes. Most importantly, polymers can be used as examples of chemicals that are safe to handle and of obvious use to society. The structures of polymers are easily represented by a number of models. These simple models go a long way in explaining the familiar physical properties of plastics. However, the introduction of polymers in the classroom relies on the availability of teaching material, experiments, and demonstrations that illustrate concepts in the current science curriculum. Chain Gang-The Chemistry of Polymers, one of the Science in Our World series published by the Center for Chemical Education at Miami University-Middletown (Ohio), will serve as a great resource for teachers interested in providing their students with a series of activities that can be related to their everyday experiences with these ubiquitous chemicals. After a brief introduction to some basic concepts, the book presents a series of 23 experiments. The collection of experiments presented here spans illustrations of chemistry, physical properties, analysis, and processing. Each experiment is recommended as either a hands-on activity or demonstration for various grade levels. A guide for the teacher suggests how the experiment can be used to illustrate topics in the science curriculum. The materials required for each activity are listed in detail, with quantities and sources (all materials are available from Flinn Scientific or hardware stores). There are detailed instructions for preparation of each experiment and how to introduce the experiment to students, and step-by-step instructions for activity. Very importantly, safety and disposal issues are clearly presented. Suggestions for cross-curriculum integration are also

  19. XIII International science and technology conference High-tech chemical technologies-2010 with elements of Scientific school for young people Innovations in chemistry: achievements and prospects. Summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Materials of the XIII International science and technology conference High-tech chemical technologies-2010 with elements of Scientific school for young people Innovations in chemistry: achievements and prospects (29 June-2 July 2010, Ivanovo) are presented. During the conference the following areas: theoretical aspects of chemical technology; technology of deep oil refining and the production of organic substances; technology of drugs and biologically active substances; technology of inorganic materials, polymers and composites based on them - the technological principles and methods of synthesis, modification, and processing; environmental and economic problems of chemical technologies and their solutions are considered [ru

  20. Coordination polymers: trapping of radionuclides and chemistry of tetravalent actinides (Th, U) carboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falaise, Clement

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy obviously raises the question of the presence of radionuclides in the environment. Currently, their mitigation is a major issue associated with nuclear chemistry. This thesis focuses on both the trapping of radionuclides by porous solids called Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOF) and the crystal chemistry of the carboxylate of tetravalent actinides (AnIV). The academic knowledge of the reactivity of carboxylate of AnIV could help the understanding of actinides speciation in environment. We focused on the sequestration of iodine by aluminum based MOF. The functionalization (electron-donor group) of the MOF drastically enhances the iodine capture capacity. The removal of light actinides (Th and U) from aqueous solution was also investigated as well as the stability of (Al)-MOF under γ radiation. More than twenty coordination polymers based on tetravalent actinides have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The use of controlled hydrolysis promotes the formation of coordination polymers exhibiting polynuclear cluster ([U 4 ], [Th 6 ], [U 6 ] and [U 38 ]). In order to understand the formation of the largest cluster, the ex-situ study of the solvo-thermal synthesis of compound {U 38 } has also been investigated. (author)

  1. 2012 Gordon Research Conference, Organometallic Chemistry, 8-13 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillhouse, Gregory [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-13

    The 2012 Organometallic Chemistry Gordon Research Conference will highlight new basic science and fundamental applications of organometallic chemistry in industrial, academic, and national lab settings. Scientific themes of the conference will include chemical synthesis, reactivity, catalysis, polymer chemistry, bonding, and theory that involve transition-metal (and main-group) interactions with organic moieties.

  2. Improving Adsorption Deinking by Identifying the Optimum Balance between Polymer Beads and Deinking Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithika Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ink removal from recovered paper is a very important process in paper and board recycling. The current deinking processes have made obvious contributions to the use of raw materials for the paper and board industries. In contrast to the flotation deinking process, in which small air bubbles are used to remove ink from the pulp, the novel and more energy-efficient method of adsorption deinking technique depends on the attachment and adsorption of ink particles on small polymer beads. The energy savings of adsorption deinking results from the fact that the process is efficient at greater stock consistencies, thus providing water conservation and savings. The present study was carried out to improve the adsorption deinking method by identifying the optimum balance between the deinking chemistry and the polymer beads. Different types of deinking solutions and polymer beads were used for this study with newsprints and mixture of newsprints and magazines. It was found that EGA 3000 solution and polyethylene terephthalate beads worked well with newspaper pulp.

  3. Synthesis of new water-soluble metal-binding polymers: Combinatorial chemistry approach. 1997 mid-year progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.

    1997-01-01

    'The first objective of this research is to develop rapid discovery and optimization approaches to new water-soluble chelating polymers. A byproduct of the development approach will be the new, selective, and efficient metal-binding agents. The second objective is to evaluate the concept of using water and organic soluble polymers as new solid supports for combinatorial synthesis. The technology under development, Polymer Filtration (PF), is a technique to selectively remove or recover hazardous and valuable metal ions and radionuclides from various dilute aqueous streams. Not only can this technology be used to remediate contaminated soils and solid surfaces and treat aqueous wastes, it can also be incorporated into facilities as a pollution prevention and waste minimization technology. Polymer Filtration uses water-soluble metal-binding polymers to sequester metal ions in dilute solution. The water-soluble polymers have a sufficiently large molecular size that they can be separated and concentrated using commercial ultrafiltration technology. Water, small organic molecules, and unbound metals pass freely through the ultrafiltration membrane while concentrating the metal-binding polymer. The polymers can then be reused by changing the solution conditions to release the metal ions. The metal-ions are recovered in concentrated form for recycle or disposal using a diafiltration process. The water-soluble polymer can be recycled for further aqueous-stream processing. To advance Polymer Filtration technology to the selectivity levels required for DOE needs. fixture directions in Polymer Filtration must include rapid development, testing, and characterization of new metal-binding polymers. The development of new chelating molecules can be equated to the process of new drugs or new materials discovery. Thus, the authors want to build upon and adapt the combinatorial chemistry approaches developed for rapid molecule generation for the drug industry to the rapid

  4. A review of electron-capture and electron-transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry in polymer chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart-Smith, Gene

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •ECD and ETD can produce unique and diagnostically useful polymer ion fragmentation data. •The operating principles of ECD and ETD are discussed in relation to other dissociation techniques. •Key characteristics of ECD and ETD spectra, as observed from biological analytes, are discussed. •ECD and ETD analyses are compared to CID analyses for different classes of synthetic polymer. -- Abstract: Mass spectrometry (MS)-based studies of synthetic polymers often characterise detected polymer components using mass data alone. However when mass-based characterisations are ambiguous, tandem MS (MS/MS) offers a means by which additional analytical information may be collected. This review provides a synopsis of two particularly promising methods of dissociating polymer ions during MS/MS: electron-capture and electron-transfer dissociation (ECD and ETD, respectively). The article opens with a summary of the basic characteristics and operating principles of ECD and ETD, and relates these techniques to other methods of dissociating gas-phase ions, such as collision-induced dissociation (CID). Insights into ECD- and ETD-based MS/MS, gained from studies into proteins and peptides, are then discussed in relation to polymer chemistry. Finally, ECD- and ETD-based studies into various classes of polymer are summarised; for each polymer class, ECD- and ETD-derived data are compared to CID-derived data. These discussions identify ECD and ETD as powerful means by which unique and diagnostically useful polymer ion fragmentation data may be generated, and techniques worthy of increased utilisation by the polymer chemistry community

  5. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.4--Nuclear chemistry and radiation chemistry sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 24 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the fourth one, the content is about Nuclear chemistry and radiation chemistry sub-volume

  6. Synthesis of a Self-Healing Polymer Based on Reversible Diels-Alder Reaction: An Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory at the Interface of Organic Chemistry and Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Haim; Nielsen, Christian; Weizman, Or S.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory experiment exposes students to the chemistry of self-healing polymers based on a Diels-Alder reaction. Students accomplish a multistep synthesis of a monomer building block and then polymerize it to form a cross-linked polymer. The healing capability of the polymer is verified by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments.…

  7. Molecular origin of urea driven hydrophobic polymer collapse and unfolding depending on side chain chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Divya; Folberth, Angelina; van der Vegt, Nico F A

    2017-07-19

    Osmolytes affect hydrophobic collapse and protein folding equilibria. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not well understood. We report large-scale conformational sampling of two hydrophobic polymers with secondary and tertiary amide side chains using extensive molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated free energy of unfolding increases with urea for the secondary amide, yet decreases for the tertiary amide, in agreement with experiment. The underlying mechanism is rooted in opposing entropic driving forces: while urea screens the hydrophobic macromolecular interface and drives unfolding of the tertiary amide, urea's concomitant loss in configurational entropy drives collapse of the secondary amide. Only at sufficiently high urea concentrations bivalent urea hydrogen bonding interactions with the secondary amide lead to further stabilisation of its collapsed state. The observations provide a new angle on the interplay between side chain chemistry, urea hydrogen bonding, and the role of urea in attenuating or strengthening the hydrophobic effect.

  8. Radiation processing of polymers and semiconductors at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Przybytniak, G.; Kaluska, I.

    2006-01-01

    R(and)D studies in the field of radiation technology in Poland are mostly concentrated at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT). The results of the INCT works on polymer and semiconductor modification have been implemented in various branches of national economy, particularly in industry and medicine. Radiation technology for polymer modification was implemented in the middle of the 1970-ties. Among others, the processes of irradiation and heat shrinkable products expansion have been developed. The transfer of this technology to Polish industry was performed in the middle of the 1980-ties. The present study aims at the formulation of new PE composites better suited to new generation of heat shrinkable products, for example, a new generation of hot-melt adhesives has been developed to meet specific requirements of customers. Modified polypropylene was used for the production of medical devices sterilized by radiation, especially disposable syringes, to overcome the low radiation resistance of the basic material. Modified polypropylene (PP-M) has been formulated at the INCT to provide material suitable for medical application and radiation sterilization process. Modification of semiconductor devices by EB was applied on an industrial scale since 1978 when the INCT and the LAMINA semiconductor factory successfully adopted that technology to improve specific semiconductor devices. This activity is continued on commercial basis where the INCT facilities served to contract irradiation of certain semiconductor devices according to the manufacturing program of the Polish factory and customers from abroad. (author)

  9. The Effect of Polymer Backbone Chemistry on the Induction of the Accelerated Blood Clearance in Polymer Modified Liposomes

    KAUST Repository

    Kierstead, Paul H.; Okochi, Hideaki; Venditto, Vincent J.; Chuong, Tracy C.; Kivimae, Saul; Frechet, Jean; Szoka, Francis C.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of water-soluble polymers, when attached to a liposome, substantially increase liposome circulation half-life in animals. However, in certain conditions, liposomes modified with the most widely used polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG

  10. The role of computational chemistry in the science and measurements of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    The role of computational chemistry in determining the stability, photochemistry, spectroscopic parameters, and parameters for estimating reaction rates of atmospheric constituents is discussed. Examples dealing with the photolysis cross sections of HOCl and (1 Delta g) O2 and with the stability of gaseous NH4Cl and asymmetric ClO3 are presented. It is concluded that computational chemistry can play an important role in the study of atmospheric constituents, particularly reactive and short-lived species which are difficult to investigate experimentally.

  11. Multidisciplinary research in space sciences and engineering with emphasis on theoretical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfelder, J. O.; Curtiss, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    A broad program is reported of research in theoretical chemistry, particularly in molecular quantum and statistical mechanics, directed toward determination of the physical and chemical properties of materials, relation of these macroscopic properties to properties of individual molecules, and determination of the structure and properties of the individual molecules. Abstracts are presented for each research project conducted during the course of the program.

  12. Students' Science Attitudes, Beliefs, and Context: Associations with Science and Chemistry Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Sheldrake, Richard; Reiss, Michael J.; Simon, Shirley

    2018-01-01

    There is a widespread concern that relatively few students, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, continue to study chemistry and other science subjects after compulsory education. Yet it remains unclear how different aspects of students' background and home context, their own attitudes and beliefs, and their experiences of particular…

  13. Ethers on Si(001): A Prime Example for the Common Ground between Surface Science and Molecular Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Lisa; Laref, Slimane; Raupach, Marc; Tonner, Ralf

    2017-11-20

    By using computational chemistry it has been shown that the adsorption of ether molecules on Si(001) under ultrahigh vacuum conditions can be understood with classical concepts of organic chemistry. Detailed analysis of the two-step reaction mechanism-1) formation of a dative bond between the ether oxygen atom and a Lewis acidic surface atom and 2) nucleophilic attack of a nearby Lewis basic surface atom-shows that it mirrors acid-catalyzed ether cleavage in solution. The O-Si dative bond is the strongest of its kind, and the reactivity in step 2 defies the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle. Electron rearrangement during C-O bond cleavage has been visualized with a newly developed method for analyzing bonding, which shows that the mechanism of nucleophilic substitutions on semiconductor surfaces is identical to molecular S N 2 reactions. Our findings illustrate how surface science and molecular chemistry can mutually benefit from each other and unexpected insight can be gained. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  15. The nature of science and technology for pre-service chemistry teacher: A case of techno-chemistry experiment "From Stannum Metalicum to conductive glass"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudzakir, A.; Widhiyanti, T.; Hernani, Arifin, M.; Lestari, A. N.; Jauhariansyah, S.

    2017-08-01

    The study was conducted to address the problems related to low Indonesian students' scientific literacy as revealed in the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) since 2000-2015. Science teachers (e.g. chemistry teacher) must recognize the nature of science (NOS) to assist their students in preparing an explanation of a phenomenon scientifically correctly. Teachers also need to understand critically about nature of technology (NOT) and it relationship with science as well as society. To integrate those two kinds of knowledge (NOS and NOT), we can conduct a techno-science activity, which integrate the technology to science course in pre-service teacher education program, so that they can improve their knowledge about nature of science and technology (NOST) and pedagogical content knowledge related to NOST. The purpose of this study was to construct an inquiry based laboratory activity worksheet for making conductive glass so that the pre-service teacher could explain how the structure of the semiconductor Fluor doped Tin Oxide (SnO2.F) affect their performance. This study we conducted, described how to design a pre-service chemistry teacher education course that can improve recognizing view of NOST by using a framework called model of educational reconstruction (MER). The scientific activities in the course were guided inquiry based techno-chemistry experiments involving "From Stannum Metallicum to Conductive Glass". Conductive glasses are interesting subject research for several reason. The application of this technology could be found on solar cell, OLED, and display panel. The doped Tin dioxide has been deposited on glass substrate using the spray pyrolysis technique at 400-550°C substrate temperature, 4-5 times, 20 cm gap between glass and sprayer and 450 angle to form a thin film which will act as electrical contact. The resistivity is about 0.5 - 15Ω. The product resulted on this study was rated by several expert to find if the worksheet could

  16. The Effect of Polymer Backbone Chemistry on the Induction of the Accelerated Blood Clearance in Polymer Modified Liposomes

    KAUST Repository

    Kierstead, Paul H.

    2015-06-18

    A variety of water-soluble polymers, when attached to a liposome, substantially increase liposome circulation half-life in animals. However, in certain conditions, liposomes modified with the most widely used polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG), induce an IgM response resulting in an accelerated blood clearance (ABC) of the liposome upon the second injection. Modification of liposomes with other water-soluble polymers: HPMA (poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide]), PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)), PMOX (poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)), PDMA (poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide)), and PAcM (poly(N-acryloyl morpholine)), increase circulation times of liposomes; but a precise comparison of their ability to promote long circulation or induce the ABC effect has not been reported. To obtain a more nuanced understanding of the role of polymer structure/MW to promote long circulation, we synthesized a library of polymer diacyl chain lipids with low polydispersity (1.04-1.09), similar polymer molecular weights (2.1-2.5 kDa) and incorporated them into 100 nm liposomes of a narrow polydispersity (0.25-1.3) composed of polymer-lipid/hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/diD: 5.0/54.5/40/0.5. We confirm that HPMA, PVP, PMOX, PDMA and PAcM modified liposome have increased circulation times in rodents and that PVP, PDMA, PAcM do not induce the ABC effect. We demonstrate for the first time, that HPMA does not cause an ABC effect whereas PMOX induces a pronounced ABC effect in rats. We find that a single dose of liposomes coated with PEG and PMOX generate an IgM response in rats towards the respective polymer. Finally, in this homologous polymer series, we observe a positive correlation (R = 0.84 in rats, R = 0.92 in mice) between the circulation time of polymer-modified liposomes and polymer viscosity; PEG and PMOX, the polymers that can initiate an ABC response were the two most viscous polymers. Our findings suggest that that polymers that do not cause an ABC effect such as, HPMA

  17. The effect of polymer backbone chemistry on the induction of the accelerated blood clearance in polymer modified liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierstead, Paul H; Okochi, Hideaki; Venditto, Vincent J; Chuong, Tracy C; Kivimae, Saul; Fréchet, Jean M J; Szoka, Francis C

    2015-09-10

    A variety of water-soluble polymers, when attached to a liposome, substantially increase liposome circulation half-life in animals. However, in certain conditions, liposomes modified with the most widely used polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG), induce an IgM response resulting in an accelerated blood clearance (ABC) of the liposome upon the second injection. Modification of liposomes with other water-soluble polymers: HPMA (poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide]), PVP (poly(vinylpyrrolidone)), PMOX (poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)), PDMA (poly(N,N-dimethyl acrylamide)), and PAcM (poly(N-acryloyl morpholine)), increases circulation times of liposomes; but a precise comparison of their ability to promote long circulation or induce the ABC effect has not been reported. To obtain a more nuanced understanding of the role of polymer structure/MW to promote long circulation, we synthesized a library of polymer diacyl chain lipids with low polydispersity (1.04-1.09), similar polymer molecular weights (2.1-2.5kDa) and incorporated them into 100nm liposomes of a narrow polydispersity (0.25-1.3) composed of polymer-lipid/hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol/diD: 5.0/54.5/40/0.5. We confirm that HPMA, PVP, PMOX, PDMA and PAcM modified liposome have increased circulation times in rodents and that PVP, PDMA, and PAcM do not induce the ABC effect. We demonstrate for the first time, that HPMA does not cause an ABC effect whereas PMOX induces a pronounced ABC effect in rats. We find that a single dose of liposomes coated with PEG and PMOX generates an IgM response in rats towards the respective polymer. Finally, in this homologous polymer series, we observe a positive correlation (R=0.84 in rats, R=0.92 in mice) between the circulation time of polymer-modified liposomes and polymer viscosity; PEG and PMOX, the polymers that can initiate an ABC response were the two most viscous polymers. Our findings suggest that polymers that do not cause an ABC effect such as, HPMA or

  18. Very Low Surface Energy (Membrane Separations: An Integrated Polymer Chemistry/Engineering Approach and The Influence of Backpulsing on Fouling Properties of Novel Nanofiltration Membranes for Wastewater Remediation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Benny

    1998-01-01

    ...: An Integrated Polymer Chemistry/Engineering Approach, is to explore several new classes of polymeric materials to identify promising routes for developing low-fouling nanofiltration membranes for wastewater remediation...

  19. Identification of Synthetic Polymers and Copolymers by Analytical Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An experiment for the identification of synthetic polymers and copolymers by analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was developed and performed in the polymer analysis courses for third-year undergraduate students of chemistry with material sciences, and for first-year postgraduate students of polymer sciences. In…

  20. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology: Book II. Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, and Radioactive Waste Processing and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented on Scientific Meeting and Presentation on on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology, held in Yogyakarta, 25-27 April 1995. This proceeding is second part of two books published for the meeting contains papers on nuclear chemistry, process technology, and radioactive waste management and environment. There are 62 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  1. CuAAC-Based Click Chemistry in Self-Healing Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döhler, Diana; Michael, Philipp; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2017-10-17

    Click chemistry has emerged as a significant tool for materials science, organic chemistry, and bioscience. Based on the initial concept of Barry Sharpless in 2001, the copper(I)-catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction has triggered a plethora of chemical concepts for linking molecules and building blocks under ambient conditions, forming the basis for applications in autonomous cross-linking materials. Self-healing systems on the other hand are often based on mild cross-linking chemistries that are able to react either autonomously or upon an external trigger. In the ideal case, self-healing takes place efficiently at low temperatures, independent of the substrate(s) used, by forming strong and stable networks, binding to the newly generated (cracked) interfaces to restore the original material properties. The use of the CuAAC in self-healing systems, most of all the careful design of copper-based catalysts linked to additives as well as the chemical diversity of substrates, has led to an enormous potential of applications of this singular reaction. The implementation of click-based strategies in self-healing systems therefore is highly attractive, as here chemical (and physical) concepts of molecular reactivity, molecular design, and even metal catalysis are connected to aspects of materials science. In this Account, we will show how CuAAC reactions of multivalent components can be used as a tool for self-healing materials, achieving cross-linking at low temperatures (exploiting concepts of autocatalysis or internal chelation within the bulk CuAAC and systematic optimization of the efficiency of the used Cu(I) catalysts). Encapsulation strategies to separate the click components by micro- and nanoencapsulation are required in this context. Consequently, the examples reported here describe chemical concepts to realize more efficient and faster click reactions in self-healing polymeric materials. Thus, enhanced chain diffusion in (hyper

  2. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  3. Genetic algorithms and genetic programming for multiscale modeling: Applications in materials science and chemistry and advances in scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Kumara Narasimha

    2007-03-01

    Effective and efficient rnultiscale modeling is essential to advance both the science and synthesis in a, wide array of fields such as physics, chemistry, materials science; biology, biotechnology and pharmacology. This study investigates the efficacy and potential of rising genetic algorithms for rnultiscale materials modeling and addresses some of the challenges involved in designing competent algorithms that solve hard problems quickly, reliably and accurately. In particular, this thesis demonstrates the use of genetic algorithms (GAs) and genetic programming (GP) in multiscale modeling with the help of two non-trivial case studies in materials science and chemistry. The first case study explores the utility of genetic programming (GP) in multi-timescaling alloy kinetics simulations. In essence, GP is used to bridge molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methods to span orders-of-magnitude in simulation time. Specifically, GP is used to regress symbolically an inline barrier function from a limited set of molecular dynamics simulations to enable kinetic Monte Carlo that simulate seconds of real time. Results on a non-trivial example of vacancy-assisted migration on a surface of a face-centered cubic (fcc) Copper-Cobalt (CuxCo 1-x) alloy show that GP predicts all barriers with 0.1% error from calculations for less than 3% of active configurations, independent of type of potentials used to obtain the learning set of barriers via molecular dynamics. The resulting method enables 2--9 orders-of-magnitude increase in real-time dynamics simulations taking 4--7 orders-of-magnitude less CPU time. The second case study presents the application of multiobjective genetic algorithms (MOGAs) in multiscaling quantum chemistry simulations. Specifically, MOGAs are used to bridge high-level quantum chemistry and semiempirical methods to provide accurate representation of complex molecular excited-state and ground-state behavior. Results on ethylene and benzene---two common

  4. Systematic coarse-graining of the dynamics of entangled polymer melts: the road from chemistry to rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padding, J T; Briels, W J

    2011-01-01

    For optimal processing and design of entangled polymeric materials it is important to establish a rigorous link between the detailed molecular composition of the polymer and the viscoelastic properties of the macroscopic melt. We review current and past computer simulation techniques and critically assess their ability to provide such a link between chemistry and rheology. We distinguish between two classes of coarse-graining levels, which we term coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) and coarse-grained stochastic dynamics (CGSD). In CGMD the coarse-grained beads are still relatively hard, thus automatically preventing bond crossing. This also implies an upper limit on the number of atoms that can be lumped together (up to five backbone carbon atoms) and therefore on the longest chain lengths that can be studied. To reach a higher degree of coarse-graining, in CGSD many more atoms are lumped together (more than ten backbone carbon atoms), leading to relatively soft beads. In that case friction and stochastic forces dominate the interactions, and action must be undertaken to prevent bond crossing. We also review alternative methods that make use of the tube model of polymer dynamics, by obtaining the entanglement characteristics through a primitive path analysis and by simulation of a primitive chain network. We finally review super-coarse-grained methods in which an entire polymer is represented by a single particle, and comment on ways to include memory effects and transient forces. (topical review)

  5. Facile modification of nanodiamonds with hyperbranched polymers based on supramolecular chemistry and their potential for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongye; Liu, Meiying; Jiang, Ruming; Chen, Junyu; Mao, Liucheng; Wen, Yuanqing; Tian, Jianwen; Zhou, Naigen; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2018-03-01

    Due to their excellent chemical stability and remarkable biocompatibility, nanodiamonds (NDs) have received widespread research attention by the biomedical field. The excellent water dispersibility of NDs has significant importance for biomedical applications. Therefore, surface modification of NDs with hydrophilic polymers has been extensively investigated over the past few decades. In this study, we synthesize β-CD containing hyperbranched polymer functionalized ND (ND-β-CD-HPG) composites with high water dispersibility via supramolecular chemistry based on the host-guest interactions between β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) and adamantine (Ad). The hydroxyl groups of NDs first reacted with 1, 1-adamantanecarbonyl chloride to obtain ND-Ad, which was further functionalized with β-CD containing hyperbranched polymers to form the final ND-β-CD-HPG composites. The successful preparation of ND-β-CD-HPG composites was confirmed by several characterization techniques. Furthermore, the loading and release of the anticancer agent doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) on ND-β-CD-HPG composites was also examined to explore its potential in drug delivery. When compared with traditional methods of surface modification of NDs, this method was convenient, fast and efficient. We demonstrated that ND-β-CD-HPG composites have great water dispersibility, low toxicity, high drug-loading capacity and controlled drug-release behavior. Based on these characteristics, ND-β-CD-HPG composites are expected to have high potential for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluorescent boronic acid terminated polymer grafted silica particles synthesized via click chemistry for affinity separation of saccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhifeng, E-mail: 897061147@qq.com; Deng, Peihong; Tang, Siping; Li, Junhua

    2014-07-01

    Boronic acids are important for effective separation of biological active cis-diols. For the purpose of constructing a new type of saccharide-sensitive material which can not only provide convenient separation but also improve the access of boronic acid to guest molecules, the fluorogenic boronic acid terminated, thermo-sensitive polymers (BA-polyNIPAm) were grafted to an alkyne modified silica gel through the exploitation of click chemistry. The BA-polyNIPAm grafted silica gel (BA-polyNIPAm-SG) was characterized by FT-IR, fluorescence spectra, fluorescence microscopy, elemental analysis (EA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and so on. BA-polyNIPAm-SG displayed affinity binding ability for saccharides under physiological pH value and allowed saccharides to be conveniently separated from solution. The maximum binding capacities for fructose and glucose are 83.2 μmol/g and 70.4 μmol/g polymer, respectively. The intensity of fluorescence emission of BA-polyNIPAm-SG increased with the increasing of fructose concentration. The present study provides a new kind of composite material which contains moveable and flexible grippers for recognizing and binding guest molecules. - Highlights: • Fluorogenic boronic acid terminated polymers were conjugated to silica particle. • The prepared material can conveniently separate saccharides from solution. • The prepared material displays increased fluorescence emission upon binding fructose.

  7. Fluorescent boronic acid terminated polymer grafted silica particles synthesized via click chemistry for affinity separation of saccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhifeng; Deng, Peihong; Tang, Siping; Li, Junhua

    2014-01-01

    Boronic acids are important for effective separation of biological active cis-diols. For the purpose of constructing a new type of saccharide-sensitive material which can not only provide convenient separation but also improve the access of boronic acid to guest molecules, the fluorogenic boronic acid terminated, thermo-sensitive polymers (BA-polyNIPAm) were grafted to an alkyne modified silica gel through the exploitation of click chemistry. The BA-polyNIPAm grafted silica gel (BA-polyNIPAm-SG) was characterized by FT-IR, fluorescence spectra, fluorescence microscopy, elemental analysis (EA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and so on. BA-polyNIPAm-SG displayed affinity binding ability for saccharides under physiological pH value and allowed saccharides to be conveniently separated from solution. The maximum binding capacities for fructose and glucose are 83.2 μmol/g and 70.4 μmol/g polymer, respectively. The intensity of fluorescence emission of BA-polyNIPAm-SG increased with the increasing of fructose concentration. The present study provides a new kind of composite material which contains moveable and flexible grippers for recognizing and binding guest molecules. - Highlights: • Fluorogenic boronic acid terminated polymers were conjugated to silica particle. • The prepared material can conveniently separate saccharides from solution. • The prepared material displays increased fluorescence emission upon binding fructose

  8. Polymer-Derived Boron Nitride: A Review on the Chemistry, Shaping and Ceramic Conversion of Borazine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bernard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Boron nitride (BN is a III-V compound which is the focus of important research since its discovery in the early 19th century. BN is electronic to carbon and thus, in the same way that carbon exists as graphite, BN exists in the hexagonal phase. The latter offers an unusual combination of properties that cannot be found in any other ceramics. However, these properties closely depend on the synthesis processes. This review states the recent developments in the preparation of BN through the chemistry, shaping and ceramic conversion of borazine derivatives. This concept denoted as Polymer-Derived Ceramics (PDCs route allows tailoring the chemistry of precursors to elaborate complex BN shapes which cannot be obtained by conventional process. The effect of the chemistry of the molecular precursors, i.e., borazine and trichloroborazine, and their polymeric derivatives i.e., polyborazylene and poly[tri(methylaminoborazine], in which the specific functional groups and structural motifs determine the shaping potential by conventional liquid-phase process and plastic-forming techniques is discussed. Nanotubes, nano-fibers, coatings, monoliths and fiber-reinforced matrix composites are especially described. This leads to materials which are of significant engineering interest.

  9. Polymer-Derived Boron Nitride: A Review on the Chemistry, Shaping and Ceramic Conversion of Borazine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Samuel; Miele, Philippe

    2014-11-21

    Boron nitride (BN) is a III-V compound which is the focus of important research since its discovery in the early 19th century. BN is electronic to carbon and thus, in the same way that carbon exists as graphite, BN exists in the hexagonal phase. The latter offers an unusual combination of properties that cannot be found in any other ceramics. However, these properties closely depend on the synthesis processes. This review states the recent developments in the preparation of BN through the chemistry, shaping and ceramic conversion of borazine derivatives. This concept denoted as Polymer-Derived Ceramics (PDCs) route allows tailoring the chemistry of precursors to elaborate complex BN shapes which cannot be obtained by conventional process. The effect of the chemistry of the molecular precursors, i.e. , borazine and trichloroborazine, and their polymeric derivatives i.e. , polyborazylene and poly[tri(methylamino)borazine], in which the specific functional groups and structural motifs determine the shaping potential by conventional liquid-phase process and plastic-forming techniques is discussed. Nanotubes, nano-fibers, coatings, monoliths and fiber-reinforced matrix composites are especially described. This leads to materials which are of significant engineering interest.

  10. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  11. Surface chemistry of photoluminescent F8BT conjugated polymer nanoparticles determines protein corona formation and internalization by phagocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Khanbeigi, Raha; Abelha, Thais Fedatto; Woods, Arcadia; Rastoin, Olivia; Harvey, Richard D; Jones, Marie-Christine; Forbes, Ben; Green, Mark A; Collins, Helen; Dailey, Lea Ann

    2015-03-09

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles are being developed for a variety of diagnostic and theranostic applications. The conjugated polymer, F8BT, a polyfluorene derivative, was used as a model system to examine the biological behavior of conjugated polymer nanoparticle formulations stabilized with ionic (sodium dodecyl sulfate; F8BT-SDS; ∼207 nm; -31 mV) and nonionic (pegylated 12-hydroxystearate; F8BT-PEG; ∼175 nm; -5 mV) surfactants, and compared with polystyrene nanoparticles of a similar size (PS200; ∼217 nm; -40 mV). F8BT nanoparticles were as hydrophobic as PS200 (hydrophobic interaction chromatography index value: 0.96) and showed evidence of protein corona formation after incubation with serum-containing medium; however, unlike polystyrene, F8BT nanoparticles did not enrich specific proteins onto the nanoparticle surface. J774A.1 macrophage cells internalized approximately ∼20% and ∼60% of the F8BT-SDS and PS200 delivered dose (calculated by the ISDD model) in serum-supplemented and serum-free conditions, respectively, while cell association of F8BT-PEG was minimal (<5% of the delivered dose). F8BT-PEG, however, was more cytotoxic (IC50 4.5 μg cm(-2)) than F8BT-SDS or PS200. The study results highlight that F8BT surface chemistry influences the composition of the protein corona, while the properties of the conjugated polymer nanoparticle surfactant stabilizer used determine particle internalization and biocompatibility profile.

  12. The processing of CdSe/Polymer nanocomposites via solution organometallic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, P.K.; Singh, Narendra; Charan, Shobhit; Lonkar, Sunil P.; Reddy, A. Satyanarayana; Patil, Yogesh; Viswanath, A. Kasi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents in situ preparation of CdSe nanoparticles using poly(vinyl alcohol) [PVA] and polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA] as matrices by use of organoselenium compound. Reaction of cadmium metal salt and 1,2,3-selenadiazole (the source of selenium) enabled formation of CdSe nanoparticles. Use of selenadiazole in the present work with polymer is first of its kind. The radical polymerization of methycrylate monomer with benzoyl peroxide followed by reaction of respective reagents have been successfully employed to synthesize CdSe/PMMA nanocomposite. Similarly, reaction between selenadiazole and cadmium metal salt in aq. PVA yielded polymer coated or mixed CdSe nanoparticles. The UV-vis absorption spectra showed blue shift of about 200 nm with respect to band-gap energy of bulk CdSe, due to size quantization effect in CdSe particles. An emission band was observed at 530 nm in photoluminescence spectrum (PL) of CdSe/PMMA. IR spectra indicated shifts in the values of the polymer functional group due to nanoparticles. X-ray measurement of CdSe/Polymer nano-composites showed broad pattern for cubic CdSe and particle size of CdSe was estimated to be <10 nm. TGA revealed gradual weight loss between 200 and 400 deg. C indicating increased thermal stability of the polymer

  13. Environmental science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology developed at the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalysts) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization). The Chemical and Environmental Technology Center was established in 1995, as an evolution of the former Department of Chemistry Engineering (1970). The program on environment science and technology was structured as consequence of the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs of IPEN. Moreover, it was an answer to the society concerning the climate changes and biodiversity preservation. All activities of research and development, services, supervision of graduate and under graduated students and courses performance at the center were related to the development, improvement and establishment of new technologies. The highlights of this period (2011 - 2013) were: - Development and use of modern analytical technology for the characterization of persistent pollutants and endocrine disrupters (metals, PAHA’s, PCBs, Pesticides, hormones, surfactants, plasticizer and human pharmaceuticals) in order to evaluate water quality and/or sediments; - Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases: Evaluating an estimation of surface trace gas fluxes from aircraft measurements above the Amazon; - Cooperation with SABESP (Water and Sewage Company) and CETESB (State Environment Agency) in program for the development of public policies; - Studies and development in biodegradable polymers, polyolefins and advanced methods for polymer and rubber recycling and re-use; - Studies

  14. Environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology developed at the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalysts) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization). The Chemical and Environmental Technology Center was established in 1995, as an evolution of the former Department of Chemistry Engineering (1970). The program on environment science and technology was structured as consequence of the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs of IPEN. Moreover, it was an answer to the society concerning the climate changes and biodiversity preservation. All activities of research and development, services, supervision of graduate and under graduated students and courses performance at the center were related to the development, improvement and establishment of new technologies. The highlights of this period (2011 - 2013) were: - Development and use of modern analytical technology for the characterization of persistent pollutants and endocrine disrupters (metals, PAHA’s, PCBs, Pesticides, hormones, surfactants, plasticizer and human pharmaceuticals) in order to evaluate water quality and/or sediments; - Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases: Evaluating an estimation of surface trace gas fluxes from aircraft measurements above the Amazon; - Cooperation with SABESP (Water and Sewage Company) and CETESB (State Environment Agency) in program for the development of public policies; - Studies and development in biodegradable polymers, polyolefins and advanced methods for polymer and rubber recycling and re-use; - Studies

  15. Construction of Biofunctional and Biomedical Polymers by Use of “Click" Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    The lecture will address recent research activities aiming at developing novel biomacromolecular materials with unsurpassed properties by use of the proper synthetic tools where various “click” chemistry approaches play a key prominent role. Two entirely different themes will be elaborated...... microelectrodes can electrochemically generate the catalyst required for their own functionalization by ”click” chemistry with high spatial resolution. Through control of the applied electrode potentials the electrodes are selectively functionalized in sequence as demonstrated by use of two alkyne......-modified fluorophores. For this method we have introduced the term “electroclick”. In the most recent development complex one- or two-dimentional concentration gradients of alkynated molecules are produced locally on the PEDOT-N3 by stenciled “electroclick“ chemistry.7 A stencil on the counter electrode defines...

  16. Finding the Connections between a High-School Chemistry Curriculum and Nano-Scale Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Ron; Sakhnini, Sohair

    2017-01-01

    The high-school chemistry curriculum is loaded with many important chemical concepts that are taught at the high-school level and it is therefore very difficult to add modern contents to the existing curriculum. However, many studies have underscored the importance of integrating modern chemistry contents such as nanotechnology into a high-school…

  17. Advances in supramolecular polymer chemistry : well-defined terpyridine-functionalized materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ott, C.

    2008-01-01

    Controlled/"living" polymerization techniques have attracted enormous attention in the field of polymer science since they have opened an avenue to the preparation of well-defined materials with precisely designed molecular architectures like random, block, graft and comb copolymers. These

  18. High-throughput experimentation in synthetic polymer chemistry: From RAFT and anionic polymerizations to process development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero-Sanchez, C.A.; Paulus, R.M.; Fijten, M.W.M.; Mar, de la M.J.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2006-01-01

    The application of combinatorial and high-throughput approaches in polymer research is described. An overview of the utilized synthesis robots is given, including different parallel synthesizers and a process development robot. In addition, the application of the parallel synthesis robots to

  19. Developments in the chemistry and band gap engineering of donor-acceptor substituted conjugated polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullekom, van H.A.M.; Vekemans, J.A.J.M.; Havinga, E.E.; Meijer, E.W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the tools to manipulate and minimize the band gap of conjugated (co)polymers. The effects of minimization of the bond length alternation and of the incorporation of donor-K-acceptor units are discussed in particular. A systematic study of a series of alternating donor-acceptor

  20. New twists and turns for actinide chemistry. Organometallic infinite coordination polymers of thorium diazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monreal, Marisa J.; Seaman, Lani A.; Goff, George S.; Michalczyk, Ryszard; Morris, David E.; Scott, Brian L.; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Two organometallic 1D infinite coordination polymers and two organometallic monometallic complexes of thorium diazide have been synthesized and characterized. Steric control of these self-assembled arrays, which are dense in thorium and nitrogen, has also been demonstrated: infinite chains can be circumvented by using steric bulk either at the metallocene or with a donor ligand in the wedge.

  1. Free Radical Addition Polymerization Kinetics without Steady-State Approximations: A Numerical Analysis for the Polymer, Physical, or Advanced Organic Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iler, H. Darrell; Brown, Amber; Landis, Amanda; Schimke, Greg; Peters, George

    2014-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the free radical addition polymerization system is described that provides those teaching polymer, physical, or advanced organic chemistry courses the opportunity to introduce students to numerical methods in the context of a simple but mathematically stiff chemical kinetic system. Numerical analysis can lead students to an…

  2. Cellulose fibers: bio- and nano-polymer composites ; green chemistry and technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalia, Susheel; Kaith, B. S; Inderjeet Kaur

    2011-01-01

    ... on eco-friendly materials, and the steps taken in this direction will lead toward GreenScience and Green-Technology. Cellulosics account for about half of the dry weight of plant biomass and approximately half of the dry weight of secondary sources of waste biomass. At this crucial moment, cellulose fibers are pushed due to their "gr...

  3. The interfacial chemistry of metallized, oxide coated, and nanocomposite coated polymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, C.P. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Kochem, K.H. [HOECHST Aktiengesellschaft, Werk Kalle/Albert, Geschaftsbereich H, Rheingaustrasse 190-196, D-65174 Wiesbaden (Germany); Revell, K.M. [CAMVAC (Europe) Ltd., Burrell Way, Thetford, Norfolk IP24 3QY (United Kingdom); Kelly, R.S.A. [CAMVAC (Europe) Ltd., Burrell Way, Thetford, Norfolk IP24 3QY (United Kingdom); Badyal, J.P.S. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-02-15

    Aluminium, aluminium oxide, and aluminium/aluminium oxide nanocomposite coated polymer substrates have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, argon ion sputter depth profiling, and gas permeation measurements. A comparison of the similarities and differences between these coatings has provided a detailed insight into the physicochemical origins of gas barrier associated with metallized plastics. Keywords: Aluminium; Aluminium oxide; Coatings; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ((orig.))

  4. New twists and turns for actinide chemistry: organometallic infinite coordination polymers of thorium diazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monreal, Marisa J.; Seaman, Lani A.; Goff, George S.; Michalczyk, Ryszard; Morris, David E.; Scott, Brian L.; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Two organometallic 1D infinite coordination polymers and two organometallic monometallic complexes of thorium diazide have been synthesized and characterized. Steric control of these self-assembled arrays, which are dense in thorium and nitrogen, has also been demonstrated: infinite chains can be circumvented by using steric bulk either at the metallocene or with a donor ligand in the wedge. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  6. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear of the Science and Technology part II : Nuclear Chemistry and Process Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamsul Abraha; Yateman Arryanto; Sri Jauhari S; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Djoko Sardjono, Ign.; Sukarsono, R.; Samin; Syarip; Suryadi, MS; Sardjono, Y.; Tri Mardji Atmono; Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Tjipto Sujitno, BA.

    2007-08-01

    The Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity held by Centre for Accelerator Technology and Material Process, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring the research activity which achieved in National Nuclear Energy Agency. The Meeting was held in Yogyakarta on July 10, 2007. The proceedings contains papers presented on the meeting about Nuclear Chemistry and Process Technology and there are 47 papers which have separated index. The proceedings is the second part of the three parts which published in series. (PPIN)

  7. Materials Science and Engineering |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering? What Is Materials Science and Engineering? MSE combines engineering, physics and chemistry to solve problems in nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, energy, manufacturing, and more ,' which could replace steel. Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering Professors work together to

  8. Synthesis and processing of ELISA polymer substitute: The influence of surface chemistry and morphology on detection sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Samira; Ibrahim, Fatimah [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Center for Innovation in Medical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Djordjevic, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.djordjevic@um.edu.my [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Center for Innovation in Medical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Rothan, Hussin A.; Yusof, Rohana [Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Marel, Cees van der [Philips Materials Analysis, High Tech Campus 11, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Koole, Leo H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Center for Innovation in Medical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University (Netherlands)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Polyacrylate coatings with controlled surface functionalities. • Impact of surface chemistry and morphology on dengue antibody immobilization. • Enhancement of detection signal as a result of bio-activation of polymer surface. - Abstract: Despite the known drawbacks of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), one of the deficiencies that have relatively been ignored is the performance of ELISA substrate itself. Polystyrene (PS), as the cost effective material of choice for mass production of ELISA well-plates, has shown obvious lacks of suitable physical and chemical properties for protein attachment. The general concept of this work was to develop a potential substrate that can be suggested as a material of choice for production of a new generation of ELISA analytical kits. Spin-coated thin films of polymethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA) on silicon surfaces were designed and processed for detection of dengue virus. Coated surfaces of different molar ratios have been investigated as carboxyl-functionalized layers for obtaining platform for biomolecule immobilization with high level of protein activity. To improve the sensitivity of detection, we have used amine functional “spacers”, hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), which were covalently bonded to the surfaces of PMMA-co-MAA coatings. Results demonstrate that the variation of surface concentration of carboxyl groups of PMMA-co-MAA can be used to control the amine surface concentration after carbodiimide coupling with HMDA and PEI spacers. The presence of amine spacers increases hydrophilicity of the coatings and significantly impacts the polymer surface morphology. In particular, protein immobilization via amine-bearing spacers has been achieved in two effective steps: (1) carbodiimide bonding between amine spacer molecules and PMMA-co-MAA polymer coatings; and (2) covalent immobilization of antibody via glutaraldehyde reaction with amine groups

  9. Synthesis and processing of ELISA polymer substitute: The influence of surface chemistry and morphology on detection sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Samira; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Djordjevic, Ivan; Rothan, Hussin A.; Yusof, Rohana; Marel, Cees van der; Koole, Leo H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polyacrylate coatings with controlled surface functionalities. • Impact of surface chemistry and morphology on dengue antibody immobilization. • Enhancement of detection signal as a result of bio-activation of polymer surface. - Abstract: Despite the known drawbacks of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), one of the deficiencies that have relatively been ignored is the performance of ELISA substrate itself. Polystyrene (PS), as the cost effective material of choice for mass production of ELISA well-plates, has shown obvious lacks of suitable physical and chemical properties for protein attachment. The general concept of this work was to develop a potential substrate that can be suggested as a material of choice for production of a new generation of ELISA analytical kits. Spin-coated thin films of polymethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA) on silicon surfaces were designed and processed for detection of dengue virus. Coated surfaces of different molar ratios have been investigated as carboxyl-functionalized layers for obtaining platform for biomolecule immobilization with high level of protein activity. To improve the sensitivity of detection, we have used amine functional “spacers”, hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), which were covalently bonded to the surfaces of PMMA-co-MAA coatings. Results demonstrate that the variation of surface concentration of carboxyl groups of PMMA-co-MAA can be used to control the amine surface concentration after carbodiimide coupling with HMDA and PEI spacers. The presence of amine spacers increases hydrophilicity of the coatings and significantly impacts the polymer surface morphology. In particular, protein immobilization via amine-bearing spacers has been achieved in two effective steps: (1) carbodiimide bonding between amine spacer molecules and PMMA-co-MAA polymer coatings; and (2) covalent immobilization of antibody via glutaraldehyde reaction with amine groups

  10. How does the chemistry of polymer gel dosimeters affect their performance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirasek, A; McAuley, K B; Lepage, M

    2009-01-01

    This review article describes the primary chemical processes affecting polymerization in polymer-based radiosensitive gel dosimeters. Furthermore, recently studied environmental factors and gelation processes affecting polymerization and gel dose response are discussed. Finally, the predominant physical factors affecting dose-response sensitivity for each of the three imaging modalities (MRI, Optical CT, x-ray CT) are outlined. Emphasis is concentrated on recent literature in this area, as prior literature was summarized in review articles submitted to DOSGEL 2006 in Sherbrooke (J. Conf. Series, 56, 2006). Discussions from the recent DOSGEL conference (2008) are incorporated into this review.

  11. How does the chemistry of polymer gel dosimeters affect their performance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); McAuley, K B [Department of Chemical Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Lepage, M [Centre d' imagerie moleculaire de Sherbrooke, Universite de Sherbrooke, 3001 12e Avenue Nord, Sherbrooke QC J1H 5N4 (Canada)], E-mail: jirasek@uvic.ca, E-mail: kim.mcauley@chee.queensu.ca, E-mail: martin.lepage@usherbrooke.ca

    2009-05-01

    This review article describes the primary chemical processes affecting polymerization in polymer-based radiosensitive gel dosimeters. Furthermore, recently studied environmental factors and gelation processes affecting polymerization and gel dose response are discussed. Finally, the predominant physical factors affecting dose-response sensitivity for each of the three imaging modalities (MRI, Optical CT, x-ray CT) are outlined. Emphasis is concentrated on recent literature in this area, as prior literature was summarized in review articles submitted to DOSGEL 2006 in Sherbrooke (J. Conf. Series, 56, 2006). Discussions from the recent DOSGEL conference (2008) are incorporated into this review.

  12. Plastic Electronics and Optoelectronics: New Science and Technology from Soluble Semiconducting Polymers and Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Fabricated from Soluble Semiconducting Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    Seifter, A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater., 23, 1679–1683 (2011). 8. Efficient, Air-Stable Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells Using MoOx as the Anode...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells were invented at UC Santa Barbara after the...Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Fabricated from Soluble Semiconducting Polymers Grant number: AFOSR FA9550-08-1-0248 Dr. Charle Lee, Program

  13. Thermosensitive Triterpenoid-Appended Polymers with Broad Temperature Tunability Regulated by Host-Guest Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jie; Gao, Yuxia; Li, Ying; Yan, Qiang; Hu, Jun; Ju, Yong

    2017-09-05

    Thermoresponsive water-soluble polymers are of great importance since they typically show a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in aqueous media. In this research, the LCST change in broad temperature ranges of copolymers composed of natural glycyrrhetinic acid (GA)-based methacrylate and N,N'-dimethylacrylamides (DMAs) was investigated as a function of the concentration and the content of GA pendants. By complexation of GA pendants with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), a side-chain polypseudorotaxane was obtained, which exhibited a significant increase in the LCST of copolymers. Moreover, the precisely reversible control of the LCST behavior was realized through adding a competing guest molecule, sodium 1-admantylcarboxylate. This work illustrates a simple and effective approach to endow water-soluble polymers with broad temperature tunability and helps us further understand the effect of a biocompatible host-guest complementary β-CD/GA pair on the thermoresponsive process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Surface temperature: A key parameter to control the propanethiol plasma polymer chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiry, Damien, E-mail: damien.thiry@umons.ac.be; Aparicio, Francisco J. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Laha, Priya; Terryn, Herman [Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Department of Materials and Chemistry (MACH), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Snyders, Rony [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons, Belgium and Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the influence of the substrate temperature (T{sub s}) on the chemical composition of propanethiol plasma polymers was investigated for a given set of plasma conditions. In a first study, a decrease in the atomic sulfur content (at. %S) with the deposition time (t{sub d}) was observed. This behavior is explained by the heating of the growing film during deposition process, limiting the incorporation of stable sulfur-based molecules produced in the plasma. Experiments carried out by controlling the substrate temperature support this hypothesis. On the other hand, an empirical law relating the T{sub s} and the at. %S was established. This allows for the formation of gradient layer presenting a heterogeneous chemical composition along the thickness, as determined by depth profile analysis combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and C{sub 60} ion gun sputtering. The experimental data fit with the one predicted from our empiric description. The whole set of our results provide new insights in the relationship between the substrate temperature and the sulfur content in sulfur-based plasma polymers, essential for future developments.

  15. Chemical research projects office functions accomplishments programs. [applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry and polymeric composites with emphasis on fire safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbuch, A. H.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Basic and applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry, polymeric composites, chemical engineering, and biophysical chemistry is summarized. Emphasis is placed on fire safety and human survivability as they relate to commercial and military aircraft, high-rise buildings, mines and rapid transit transportation. Materials systems and other fire control systems developed for aerospace applications and applied to national domestic needs are described along with bench-scale and full-scale tests conducted to demonstrate the improvements in performance obtained through the utilization of these materials and fire control measures.

  16. A Framework for Evaluating Science and Technology Electronic Reference Books: A Comparison of Five Platforms in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines what is desirable in online reference books in science and technology and outlines a framework for evaluating their interfaces. The framework considers factors unique to these subject areas like chemical structures and numerical data. Criteria in three categories, navigability, searchability, and results, were applied to five…

  17. Combined biotin-terpyridine systems : a new versatile bridge between biology, polymer science and metallo-supramolecular chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeier, H.; Pahnke, J.; Weidl, C.H.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biotin, a well-known binding unit for the proteins avidin and streptavidin, was combined with the chelating ligand terpyridine via polymeric and nonpolymeric spacers. An ¿-amino-functionalized terpyridyl-poly(ethylene glycol) was prepared and utilized for complex formation with iron(II), nickel(II),

  18. Organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  19. Forensic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  20. Basic radiation physics and chemistry of composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybytniak, G.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    2006-01-01

    Composites are increasingly more important in the applied and fundamental polymer science, and the participation of radiation processing of these systems increase. In presented paper the newest achievements of radiation physics and chemistry of composites are reviewed. It is stressed, that although main experimental effort is directed towards the development of composites as such, and investigation of their specific properties, mechanical, physicochemical and physical, the radiation processing will enter the field on the wider scale, especially as concerns specialized plastics

  1. Annual report 1985 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1986-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All particles and reports published and lectures given in 1985 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  2. Annual report 1984 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1985-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry , environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  3. General Chemistry for Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kybett, B. D.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces, and tensile strengths of a polymer and suggests that this is a logical way to introduce polymers into a general chemistry course. (Author/JN)

  4. The "Food Polymer Science" approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry

    2018-04-13

    This article reviews the application of the "Food Polymer Science" approach to the practice of industrial R&D, leading to patent estates based on fundamental starch science and technology. The areas of patents and patented technologies reviewed here include: (a) soft-from-the-freezer ice creams and freezer-storage-stable frozen bread dough products, based on "cryostabilization technology" of frozen foods, utilizing commercial starch hydrolysis products (SHPs); (b) glassy-matrix encapsulation technology for flavors and other volatiles, based on structure-function relationships for commercial SHPs; (c) production of stabilized whole-grain wheat flours for biscuit products, based on the application of "solvent retention capacity" technology to develop flours with reduced damaged starch; (d) production of improved-quality, low-moisture cookies and crackers, based on pentosanase enzyme technology; (e) production of "baked-not-fried," chip-like, starch-based snack products, based on the use of commercial modified-starch ingredients with selected functionality; (f) accelerated staling of a starch-based food product from baked bread crumb, based on the kinetics of starch retrogradation, treated as a crystallization process for a partially crystalline glassy polymer system; and (g) a process for producing an enzyme-resistant starch, for use as a reduced-calorie flour replacer in a wide range of grain-based food products, including cookies, extruded expanded snacks, and breakfast cereals.

  5. Transferases in Polymer Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, Jeroen; Loos, Katja; Palmans, ARA; Heise, A

    2010-01-01

    Transferases are enzymes that catalyze reactions in which a group is transferred from one compound to another. This makes these enzymes ideal catalysts for polymerization reactions. In nature, transferases are responsible for the synthesis of many important natural macromolecules. In synthetic

  6. Radiation curing of polymers II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randell, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    During the last decade radiation cured polymers have continued to grow in importance not only by expansion within existing coatings applications but also by extension into new fields of application such as ceramics, ink-jet inks and fibres. To provide a further update on the rapidly growing science and technology of radiation curing the Third International Symposium was held. Apart from providing an update on the application, chemistry and control aspects of the radiation curing the aim of the meeting was also to provide the newcomer with a basic insight into radiation curing applications. Accordingly the proceedings contained in this special publication which follow closely the format of the meeting, has five sections covering the background/trends, applications, initiator chemistry, substrate chemistry and analytical, physical chemical and health and safety aspects. There are twenty-five papers all told, three of which are indexed separately. (Author)

  7. Annual report 1989 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Neve Larsen, Aa.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1990-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1989 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  8. Annual report 1988 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Neve Larsen, Aa.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1989-05-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1988 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, chemical reactivity, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  9. Annual report 1986 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1986 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistral, mineral processing, and general. (author)

  10. Coordination Chemistry Inside Polymeric Nanoreactors: Interparticle Metal Exchange and Ionic Compound Vectorization in Phosphine-Functionalized Amphiphilic Polymer Latexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Gayet, Florence; Manoury, Eric; Joumaa, Ahmad; Lansalot, Muriel; D'Agosto, Franck; Poli, Rinaldo

    2016-04-25

    Stable latexes of hierarchically organized core-cross-linked polymer micelles that are functionalized at the core with triphenylphosphine (TPP@CCM) have been investigated by NMR spectroscopic analysis at both natural (ca. pH 5) and strongly basic (pH 13.6) pH values after core swelling with toluene. The core-shell interface structuring forces part of the hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) chains to reside inside the hydrophobic core at both pH values. Loading the particle cores with [Rh(acac)(CO)2 ] (acac=acetylacetonate) at various Rh/P ratios yielded polymer-supported [Rh(acac)(CO)(TPP)] (TPP=triphenylphosphine). The particle-to-particle rhodium migration is very fast at natural pH, but slows down dramatically at high pH, whereas the size distribution of the nanoreactors remains unchanged. The slow migration at pH 13.6 leads to the generation of polymer-anchored [Rh(OH)(CO)(TPP)2 ], which is also generated immediately upon the addition of NaOH to the particles with a [Rh(acac)(CO)] loading of 50 %. Similarly, treatment of the same particles with NaCl yielded polymer-anchored [RhCl(CO)(TPP)2 ]. Interparticle coupling occurs during these rapid processes. These experiments prove that the major contribution to metal migration is direct core-core contact. The slow migration at the high pH value, however, must result from a pathway that does not involve core-core contact. The facile penetration of the polymer cores by NaOH and NaCl results from the presence of shell-linked poly(ethylene oxide) methyl ether functions both outside and inside the polymer core-shell interface. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  12. Radiation chemistry research education in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangster, D.F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation chemistry techniques may be used to solve research problems in other fields of chemistry and biology particularly when free radicals, excited states or reduction-oxidation reactions are involved. Using pulse radiolysis, absolute kinetic rate constants can be measured. The Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering is an organization jointly funded by universities, ANSTO and CSIRO. Over the past several years it has provided fares, accommodation and specialized supplementary equipment to enable PhD students and post doctoral fellows to make use of the unique electron beam and gamma irradiation facilities at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. It also arranges biennial conferences at which this work is presented and discussed. This talk will discuss the contribution made to the education of students in the undergraduate final year and in physical, metal-organic, organic, polymer and enzyme chemistry research

  13. Annual report 1987 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1988-04-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. The names and abstracts of all articles and reports published and lectures given in 1987 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, radical chemistry, mineral processing, and general. 13 ills., (author)

  14. Annual report 1982 chemistry department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1983-04-01

    The work going on in the Risoe National Laboratory, Chemistry Department is briefly surveyed by a presentation of all articles and reports published in 1982. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The papers are divided into eight activities: 1. neutron activation analysis 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry 6. radical chemistry 7. poitron annihilation 8. uranium process chemistry. (author)

  15. Materials Science and Technology Teachers Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieda, Karen J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Bliss, Mary; Pitman, Stan G.; Eschbach, Eugene A.

    2008-09-04

    The Materials Science and Technology (MST) Handbook was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in Richland, Washington, under support from the U.S. Department of Energy. Many individuals have been involved in writing and reviewing materials for this project since it began at Richland High School in 1986, including contributions from educators at the Northwest Regional Education Laboratory, Central Washington University, the University of Washington, teachers from Northwest Schools, and science and education personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Support for its development was also provided by the U.S. Department of Education. This introductory course combines the academic disciplines of chemistry, physics, and engineering to create a materials science and technology curriculum. The course covers the fundamentals of ceramics, glass, metals, polymers and composites. Designed to appeal to a broad range of students, the course combines hands-on activities, demonstrations and long term student project descriptions. The basic philosophy of the course is for students to observe, experiment, record, question, seek additional information, and, through creative and insightful thinking, solve problems related to materials science and technology. The MST Teacher Handbook contains a course description, philosophy, student learning objectives, and instructional approach and processes. Science and technology teachers can collaborate to build the course from their own interests, strengths, and experience while incorporating existing school and community resources. The course is intended to meet local educational requirements for technology, vocational and science education.

  16. Thiolated Hyaluronic Acid as Versatile Mucoadhesive Polymer: From the Chemistry Behind to Product Developments—What Are the Capabilities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Griesser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decade, intensive research work has been conducted on thiolated hyaluronic acids (HA-SH. By attaching sulfhydryl ligands onto naturally occurring hyaluronic acid various types of HA-SH can be designed. Due the ability of disulfide bond formation within the polymer itself as well as with biological materials, certain properties such as mucoadhesive, gelling, enzyme inhibitory, permeation enhancing and release controlling properties are improved. Besides the application in the field of drug delivery, HA-SH has been investigated as auxiliary material for wound healing. Within this review, the characteristics of novel drug delivery systems based on HA-SH are summarized and the versatility of this polymer for further applications is described by introducing numerous relevant studies in this field.

  17. Highly effective synthesis of a cobalt(ii) metal-organic coordination polymer by using continuous flow chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunhua; Zhang, Junyong; Zeng, Xianghua; Xie, Jingli

    2016-12-20

    The coordination polymer [Co 2 L 4 (H 2 O) 2 ]·CH 3 CN·H 2 O (HL = (E)-2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)vinyl]-8-hydroxyquinoline) has been achieved with 95% yield by using an Asia flow synthesis system (chip reactor). Compared with the conventional batch-type methods such as diffusion, reflux and solvothermal reactions, higher yielding reactions carried out in a flow reactor have demonstrated that this technique is a powerful strategy to obtain coordination compounds.

  18. Adhesion at Al-hydroxide-polymer interfaces: Influence of chemistry and evidence for microscopic self-pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellinga, W.P.; Eising, G.; Wit, F.M. de; Mol, J.M.C; Terryn, H.; Wit, J.H.W. de; De Hosson, J.Th.M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a combined chemical (auger electron spectroscopy) and microscopic (optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy) study of the work of adhesion and delamination mechanisms at interfaces between a glassy polymer (glycol-modified polyethylene terephthalate) and Al covered with different types of surface hydroxides. A clear correlation between the measured work of adhesion and the chemical nature of the Al surface, specifically the hydroxyl coverage and the iso-electric point is found. The magnitude of the work of adhesion points to important contributions from plastic deformation in the glassy polymer for some cases. Delamination is shown to be accompanied by the formation of microscopic shear bands at such interfaces. The non-monotonous stress-strain behaviour of the glassy polymer that gives rise to the shear bands is also shown to lead to peculiar pinning events at the crack front. Evidence indicates that the occurrence of protrusions in the crack front deriving for example from the presence of stress concentrators and crack initiation sites ahead of the front, combined with mode and rate dependence of the local energy release rate along the front may pin the front at positions adjacent to a protrusion. It is believed such microscopic mode-dependent pinning phenomena may be relevant for the adhesion on patterned interfaces.

  19. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swallow, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (defines scope of article as dealing with the chemistry of reactive species, (e.g. excess electrons, excited states, free radicals and inorganic ions in unusual valency states) as studied using radiation with radiation chemistry in its traditional sense and with biological and industrial applications); gases; water and simple inorganic systems; aqueous metallo-organic compounds and metalloproteins; small organic molecules in aqueous solution; microheterogeneous systems; non-aqueous liquids and solutions; solids; biological macromolecules; synthetic polymers. (U.K.)

  20. Data Mining as a Guide for the Construction of Crosslinked Nanoparticles with Low Immunotoxicity via Controlling Polymer Chemistry and Supramolecular Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Wooley, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    CONSPECTUS The potential immunotoxicity of nanoparticles that are currently being approved or in different phases of clinical trials or under rigorous in vitro and in vivo characterizations in several laboratories has recently raised special attention. Products with no apparent in vitro or in vivo toxicity may still trigger the various components of the immune system, unintentionally, and lead to serious adverse reactions. Cytokines are one of the useful biomarkers to predict the effect of biotherapeutics on modulating the immune system and for screening the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles, both in vitro and in vivo, and were found recently to partially predict the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials. Control of polymer chemistry and supramolecular assembly provides a great opportunity for construction of biocompatible nanoparticles for biomedical clinical applications. However, the sources of data collected regarding immunotoxicities of nanomaterials are diverse and experiments are usually conducted using different assays and under specific conditions, making direct comparisons nearly impossible and, thus, tailoring properties of nanomaterials based on the available data is challenging. In this account, the effects of chemical structure, crosslinking, degradability, morphology, concentration and surface chemistry on the immunotoxicity of an expansive array of polymeric nanomaterials will be highlighted, with focus being given on assays conducted using the same in vitro and in vivo models and experimental conditions. Furthermore, numerical descriptive values have been utilized, uniquely, to stand for induction of cytokines by nanoparticles. This treatment of available data provides a simple and easy way to compare the immunotoxicity of various nanomaterials, and the values were found to correlate-well with published data. Based on the investigated polymeric systems in this study, valuable information has been collected that aids in the

  1. Data Mining as a Guide for the Construction of Cross-Linked Nanoparticles with Low Immunotoxicity via Control of Polymer Chemistry and Supramolecular Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabahy, Mahmoud; Wooley, Karen L

    2015-06-16

    The potential immunotoxicity of nanoparticles that are currently being approved, in different phases of clinical trials, or undergoing rigorous in vitro and in vivo characterizations in several laboratories has recently raised special attention. Products with no apparent in vitro or in vivo toxicity may still trigger various components of the immune system unintentionally and lead to serious adverse reactions. Cytokines are one of the useful biomarkers for predicting the effect of biotherapeutics on modulation of the immune system and for screening the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo, and they were recently found to partially predict the in vivo pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of nanomaterials. Control of polymer chemistry and supramolecular assembly provides a great opportunity for the construction of biocompatible nanoparticles for biomedical clinical applications. However, the sources of data collected regarding immunotoxicities of nanomaterials are diverse, and experiments are usually conducted using different assays under specific conditions. As a result, making direct comparisons nearly impossible, and thus, tailoring the properties of nanomaterials on the basis of the available data is challenging. In this Account, the effects of chemical structure, cross-linking, degradability, morphology, concentration, and surface chemistry on the immunotoxicity of an expansive array of polymeric nanomaterials will be highlighted, with a focus on assays conducted using the same in vitro and in vivo models and experimental conditions. Furthermore, numerical descriptive values have been utilized uniquely to stand for induction of cytokines by nanoparticles. This treatment of available data provides a simple way to compare the immunotoxicities of various nanomaterials, and the values were found to correlate well with published data. On the basis of the polymeric systems investigated in this study, valuable information has been collected that

  2. Correlation between the plasma characteristics and the surface chemistry of plasma-treated polymers through partial least-squares analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavadat, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh-Barvarz, Massoud; Turgeon, Stéphane; Duchesne, Carl; Laroche, Gaétan

    2013-12-23

    We investigated the effect of various plasma parameters (relative density of atomic N and H, plasma temperature, and vibrational temperature) and process conditions (pressure and H2/(N2 + H2) ratio) on the chemical composition of modified poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). The plasma parameters were measured by means of near-infrared (NIR) and UV-visible emission spectroscopy with and without actinometry. The process conditions of the N2-H2 microwave discharges were set at various pressures ranging from 100 to 2000 mTorr and H2/(N2+H2) gas mixture ratios between 0 and 0.4. The surface chemical composition of the modified polymers was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A mathematical model was constructed using the partial least-squares regression algorithm to correlate the plasma information (process condition and plasma parameters as determined by emission spectroscopy) with the modified surface characteristics. To construct the model, a set of data input variables containing process conditions and plasma parameters were generated, as well as a response matrix containing the surface composition of the polymer. This model was used to predict the composition of PTFE surfaces subjected to N2-H2 plasma treatment. Contrary to what is generally accepted in the literature, the present data demonstrate that hydrogen is not directly involved in the defluorination of the surface but rather produces atomic nitrogen and/or NH radicals that are shown to be at the origin of fluorine atom removal from the polymer surface. The results show that process conditions alone do not suffice in predicting the surface chemical composition and that the plasma characteristics, which cannot be easily correlated with these conditions, should be considered. Process optimization and control would benefit from plasma diagnostics, particularly infrared emission spectroscopy.

  3. Synthesis and processing of ELISA polymer substitute: The influence of surface chemistry and morphology on detection sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Samira; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Djordjevic, Ivan; Rothan, Hussin A.; Yusof, Rohana; van der Marel, Cees; Koole, Leo H.

    2014-10-01

    Despite the known drawbacks of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), one of the deficiencies that have relatively been ignored is the performance of ELISA substrate itself. Polystyrene (PS), as the cost effective material of choice for mass production of ELISA well-plates, has shown obvious lacks of suitable physical and chemical properties for protein attachment. The general concept of this work was to develop a potential substrate that can be suggested as a material of choice for production of a new generation of ELISA analytical kits. Spin-coated thin films of polymethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid (PMMA-co-MAA) on silicon surfaces were designed and processed for detection of dengue virus. Coated surfaces of different molar ratios have been investigated as carboxyl-functionalized layers for obtaining platform for biomolecule immobilization with high level of protein activity. To improve the sensitivity of detection, we have used amine functional "spacers", hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), which were covalently bonded to the surfaces of PMMA-co-MAA coatings. Results demonstrate that the variation of surface concentration of carboxyl groups of PMMA-co-MAA can be used to control the amine surface concentration after carbodiimide coupling with HMDA and PEI spacers. The presence of amine spacers increases hydrophilicity of the coatings and significantly impacts the polymer surface morphology. In particular, protein immobilization via amine-bearing spacers has been achieved in two effective steps: (1) carbodiimide bonding between amine spacer molecules and PMMA-co-MAA polymer coatings; and (2) covalent immobilization of antibody via glutaraldehyde reaction with amine groups from amine-treated surfaces. The application of PEI spacer in comparison to HMDA has shown much higher intensity of detection signal in ELISA experiment, indicating better immobilization efficiency and preservation of antibody activity upon attachment to the

  4. The Role of IAEA in Coordinating Research and Transferring Technology in Radiation Chemistry and Processing of Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji Saeid, M.

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA has been playing a significant role in fostering developments in radiation technology in general and radiation processing of polymers in particular, among its Member States (MS) and facilitate know-how/technology transfer to developing MS. The former is usually achieved through coordinated research projects (CRP) and thematic technical meetings, while the latter is mainly accomplished through Technical Cooperation (TC) projects. Coordinated research projects encourage research on, and development and practical application of, radiation technology to foster exchange of scientific and technical information. The CRP brings together typically 10 - 15 groups of participants to share and complement core competencies and work on specific areas of development needed to benefit from an emerging radiation technique and its applications. The technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States realize their development priorities through the application of appropriate radiation technology. TC builds national capacities through training, expert advice and delivery of equipment. The impact of the IAEA's efforts is visible by the progress noticeable in adoption of radiation technology and/or growth in the range of activities in several MS in different regions. The IAEA has implemented several coordinated research projects (CRP) recently, including one on-going project, in the field of radiation processing of polymeric materials. The CRPs facilitated the acquisition and dissemination of know-how and technology for controlling of degradation effects in radiation processing of polymers, radiation synthesis of stimuli-responsive membranes, hydrogels and absorbents for separation purposes and the use of radiation processing to prepare biomaterials for applications in medicine. A number of technical cooperation projects have been implemented in this field to strengthen the capability of developing Member States and to create awareness in the industries about the technical

  5. Polymers – A New Open Access Scientific Journal on Polymer Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymers is a new interdisciplinary, Open Access scientific journal on polymer science, published by Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI. This journal welcomes manuscript submissions on polymer chemistry, macromolecular chemistry, polymer physics, polymer characterization and all related topics. Both synthetic polymers and natural polymers, including biopolymers, are considered. Manuscripts will be thoroughly peer-reviewed in a timely fashion, and papers will be published, if accepted, within 6 to 8 weeks after submission. [...

  6. The role of IAEA in coordinating research and transferring technology in radiation chemistry and processing of polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haji-Saeid, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: M.Haji-Saeid@iaea.org; Sampa, M.H.; Ramamoorthy, N. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Gueven, O. [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Chmielewski, A.G. [Faculty of Chemical and Process Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-12-15

    The IAEA has been playing a significant role in fostering developments in radiation technology in general and radiation processing of polymers in particular, among its Member States (MS) and facilitate know-how/technology transfer to developing MS. The former is usually achieved through coordinated research projects (CRP) and thematic technical meetings, while the latter is mainly accomplished through technical cooperation (TC) projects. Coordinated research projects encourage research on, and development and practical application of, radiation technology to foster exchange of scientific and technical information. The technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States to realize their development priorities through the application of appropriate radiation technology. The IAEA has implemented several coordinated research projects (CRP) recently, including one on-going project, in the field of radiation processing of polymeric materials. The CRPs facilitated the acquisition and dissemination of know-how and technology for controlling of degradation effects in radiation processing of polymers, radiation synthesis of stimuli-responsive membranes, hydrogels and absorbents for separation purposes and the use of radiation processing to prepare biomaterials for applications in medicine. The IAEA extends cooperation to well-known international conferences dealing with radiation technology to facilitate participation of talented scientists from developing MS and building collaborations. The IAEA published technical documents, covering the findings of thematic technical meetings (TM) and coordinated research projects have been an important source of valuable practical information.

  7. The role of IAEA in coordinating research and transferring technology in radiation chemistry and processing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Saeid, M.; Sampa, M.H.; Ramamoorthy, N.; Gueven, O.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA has been playing a significant role in fostering developments in radiation technology in general and radiation processing of polymers in particular, among its Member States (MS) and facilitate know-how/technology transfer to developing MS. The former is usually achieved through coordinated research projects (CRP) and thematic technical meetings, while the latter is mainly accomplished through technical cooperation (TC) projects. Coordinated research projects encourage research on, and development and practical application of, radiation technology to foster exchange of scientific and technical information. The technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States to realize their development priorities through the application of appropriate radiation technology. The IAEA has implemented several coordinated research projects (CRP) recently, including one on-going project, in the field of radiation processing of polymeric materials. The CRPs facilitated the acquisition and dissemination of know-how and technology for controlling of degradation effects in radiation processing of polymers, radiation synthesis of stimuli-responsive membranes, hydrogels and absorbents for separation purposes and the use of radiation processing to prepare biomaterials for applications in medicine. The IAEA extends cooperation to well-known international conferences dealing with radiation technology to facilitate participation of talented scientists from developing MS and building collaborations. The IAEA published technical documents, covering the findings of thematic technical meetings (TM) and coordinated research projects have been an important source of valuable practical information

  8. The death of the Job plot, transparency, open science and online tools, uncertainty estimation methods and other developments in supramolecular chemistry data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynn Hibbert, D; Thordarson, Pall

    2016-10-25

    Data analysis is central to understanding phenomena in host-guest chemistry. We describe here recent developments in this field starting with the revelation that the popular Job plot method is inappropriate for most problems in host-guest chemistry and that the focus should instead be on systematically fitting data and testing all reasonable binding models. We then discuss approaches for estimating uncertainties in binding studies using case studies and simulations to highlight key issues. Related to this is the need for ready access to data and transparency in the methodology or software used, and we demonstrate an example a webportal () that aims to address this issue. We conclude with a list of best-practice protocols for data analysis in supramolecular chemistry that could easily be translated to other related problems in chemistry including measuring rate constants or drug IC 50 values.

  9. Third Chemistry Conference on Recent Trends in Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, M.M.; Wheed, S.

    2011-01-01

    The third chemistry conference 2011 on recent trends in chemistry was held from October 17-19, 2001 at Islamabad, Pakistan. More than 65 papers and oral presentation. The scope of the conference was wide open and provides and opportunity for participation of broad spectrum of chemists. This forum provided a platform for the dissemination of the latest research followed by discussion pertaining to new trends in chemistry. This con fence covered different aspects of subjects including analytical chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, industrial chemistry, biochemistry and nano chemistry etc. (A.B.)

  10. Electrochemical impedimetric sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymers/sol-gel chemistry for methidathion organophosphorous insecticide recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Idriss; Hayat, Akhtar; Piletsky, Sergey; Piletska, Elena; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Noguer, Thierry; Rouillon, Régis

    2014-12-01

    We report here a novel method to detect methidathion organophosphorous insecticides. The sensing platform was architected by the combination of molecularly imprinted polymers and sol-gel technique on inexpensive, portable and disposable screen printed carbon electrodes. Electrochemical impedimetric detection technique was employed to perform the label free detection of the target analyte on the designed MIP/sol-gel integrated platform. The selection of the target specific monomer by electrochemical impedimetric methods was consistent with the results obtained by the computational modelling method. The prepared electrochemical MIP/sol-gel based sensor exhibited a high recognition capability toward methidathion, as well as a broad linear range and a low detection limit under the optimized conditions. Satisfactory results were also obtained for the methidathion determination in waste water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Coordination Chemistry inside Polymeric Nanoreactors: Metal Migration and Cross-Exchange in Amphiphilic Core-Shell Polymer Latexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-defined amphiphilic core-shell polymer functionalized with bis(p-methoxy-phenylphosphinophenylphosphine (BMOPPP in the nanogel (NG core has been obtained by a convergent RAFT polymerization in emulsion. This BMOPPP@NG and the previously-reported TPP@NG (TPP = triphenylphosphine and core cross-linked micelles (L@CCM; L = TPP, BMOPPP having a slightly different architecture were loaded with [Rh(acac(CO2] or [RhCl(COD]2 to yield [Rh(acac(CO(L@Pol] or [RhCl(COD(L@Pol] (Pol = CCM, NG. The interparticle metal migration from [Rh(acac(CO(TPP@NG] to TPP@NG is fast at natural pH and much slower at high pH, the rate not depending significantly on the polymer architecture (CCM vs. NG. The cross-exchange using [Rh(acac(CO(BMOPPP@Pol] and [RhCl(COD(TPP@Pol] (Pol = CCM or NG as reagents at natural pH is also rapid (ca. 1 h, although slower than the equivalent homogeneous reaction on the molecular species (<5 min. On the other hand, the subsequent rearrangement of [Rh(acac(CO(TPP@Pol] and [RhCl(COD(TPP@Pol] within the TPP@Pol core and of [Rh(acac(CO(BMOPPP@Pol] and [RhCl(COD(BMOPPP@Pol] within the BMOPPP@Pol core, leading respectively to [RhCl(CO(TPP@Pol2] and [RhCl(CO(BMOPPP@Pol2], is much more rapid (<30 min than on the corresponding homogeneous process with the molecular species (>24 h.

  12. Annual Report 1984. Chemistry Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funck, Jytte; Nielsen, Ole John

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry, an......, analytical- and organic chemistry, environmental chemistry, polymer chemistry, geochemistry and waste disposal, radical chemistry, positron annihilation, mineral processing, and general.......This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1984 are presented. The facilities and equipment are mentioned briefly. The activities are divided into the following groups: radioisotope chemistry...

  13. Annual report 1983 Chemistry Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, J.; Larsen, E.; Nielsen, O.J.

    1984-05-01

    This report contains a brief survey of the main activities in the Chemistry Department. All articles and reports published and lectures given in 1983 are presented. The facilities and equipment are barely mentioned. The activities are divided into nine groups: 1. radioisotope chemistry 2. analytical- and organic chemistry 3. environmental chemistry 4. polymer chemistry 5. geochemistry and waste disposal 6. radical chemstry 7. positron annihilation 8. mineral processing 9. general. (author)

  14. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 11. Historical changes in surface-water acid-base chemistry in response to acidic deposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Small, M.J.; Kingston, J.C.; Bernert, J.A.; Thomas, D.R.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the analyses reported in the State of Science report are to: identify the lake and stream populations in the United States that have experienced chronic changes in biologically significant constituents of surface water chemistry (e.g. pH, Al) in response to acidic deposition; quantify biologically meaningful historical changes in chronic surface water chemistry associated with acidic deposition, with emphasis on ANC, pH, and Al; estimate the proportion of lakes nor acidic that were not acidic in pre-industrial times; estimate the proportional response of each of the major chemical constituents that have changed in response to acidic deposition using a subset of statistically selected Adirondack lakes for which paleolimnological reconstructions of pre-industrial surface water chemistry have been performed; evaluate and improve, where appropriate and feasible, empirical models of predicting changes in ANC; and evaluate the response of seepage lakes to acidic deposition

  15. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 14. Methods for projecting future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, K.W.; Marmorek, D.; Ryan, P.F.; Heltcher, K.; Robinson, D.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of the report are to: critically evaluate methods for projecting future effects of acidic deposition on surface water acid-base chemistry; review and evaluate techniques and procedures for analyzing projection uncertainty; review procedures for estimating regional lake and stream population attributes; review the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP) methodology for projecting the effects of acidic deposition on future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry; and present the models, uncertainty estimators, population estimators, and proposed approach selected to project the effects of acidic deposition on future changes in surface water acid-base chemistry in the NAPAP 1990 Integrated Assessment and discuss the selection rationale

  16. Biomimetic polymers in analytical chemistry. Part 1: preparation and applications of MIP (Molecularly Imprinted Polymers) in extraction and separation techniques; Polimeros biomimeticos em quimica analitica. Parte 1: preparo e aplicacoes de MIP ('Molecularly Imprinted Polymers') em tecnicas de extracao e separacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarley, Cesar Ricardo Teixeira; Sotomayor, Maria del Pilar Taboada; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica]. E-mail: kubota@iqm.unicamp.br

    2005-11-15

    MIPs are synthetic polymers that are used as biomimetic materials simulating the mechanism verified in natural entities such as antibodies and enzymes. Although MIPs have been successfully used as an outstanding tool for enhancing the selectivity or different analytical approaches, such as separation science and electrochemical and optical sensors, several parameters must be optimized during their synthesis. Therefore, the state-of-the-art of MIP production as well as the different polymerization methods are discussed. The potential selectivity of MIPs in the extraction and separation techniques focusing mainly on environmental, clinical and pharmaceutical samples as applications for analytical purposes is presented. (author)

  17. Flow chemistry and polymer-supported pseudoenantiomeric acylating agents enable parallel kinetic resolution of chiral saturated N-heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreituss, Imants; Bode, Jeffrey W.

    2017-05-01

    Kinetic resolution is a common method to obtain enantioenriched material from a racemic mixture. This process will deliver enantiopure unreacted material when the selectivity factor of the process, s, is greater than 1; however, the scalemic reaction product is often discarded. Parallel kinetic resolution, on the other hand, provides access to two enantioenriched products from a single racemic starting material, but suffers from a variety of practical challenges regarding experimental design that limit its applications. Here, we describe the development of a flow-based system that enables practical parallel kinetic resolution of saturated N-heterocycles. This process provides access to both enantiomers of the starting material in good yield and high enantiopurity; similar results with classical kinetic resolution would require selectivity factors in the range of s = 100. To achieve this, two immobilized quasienantiomeric acylating agents were designed for the asymmetric acylation of racemic saturated N-heterocycles. Using the flow-based system we could efficiently separate, recover and reuse the polymer-supported reagents. The amide products could be readily separated and hydrolysed to the corresponding amines without detectable epimerization.

  18. Synthesis of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) by iodine: an interesting route to synthesize bio reabsorbable polymers via green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lidiane G. da; Leyva, Maria E.; Barrak, Elcio R.; Sachs, Daniela; Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. de [Centro de Investigaco e Inovacao de Materiais Funcionais Avancados, Universidade Federal de Itajuba - UNIFEI, MG (Brazil); Barca, Luiz F. [Laboratorio de Separacao de Fases, Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Itajuba - UNIFEI, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) and their copolymers, are used as biomaterial for tissue engineering and drug delivery system. In the present study the thermal characterization (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC), structural characterization by NMR {sup 1}H {sup 13}C and FTIR spectroscopy, determination of particle size and morphology of Poly(e-caprolactone) synthesized by change transfer complex method using iodine as initiation, were investigated. The FT-IR spectra shows strong of the carbonyl stretching mode around 1720,4 cm.1. The particle size was 2,8 {mu}m and 1,8 {mu}m . The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) showed porous larger than 2 {mu}m and DSC measuring conferred Tm 57,8 degree C for PCL and 53,04 degree C for SPCL(Sigma-Aldrich- Poly(e-caprolactone).Thus the polymerisation of e- caprolactone is a very clean, easy and efficient method to obtain small polymers of polycaprolactone with controlled molecular weight may be obtained. (author)

  19. Teaching Introductory Quantum Physics and Chemistry: Caveats from the History of Science and Science Teaching to the Training of Modern Chemists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, Ileana M.; Freire, Olival, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Finding the best ways to introduce quantum physics to undergraduate students in all scientific areas, in particular for chemistry students, is a pressing, but hardly a simple task. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of taking into account lessons from the history of the discipline and the ongoing controversy over its interpretations and…

  20. A Reconstruction of Development of the Periodic Table Based on History and Philosophy of Science and Its Implications for General Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Angmary; Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (a) elaboration of a history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework based on a reconstruction of the development of the periodic table; (b) formulation of seven criteria based on the framework; and (c) evaluation of 57 freshman college-level general chemistry textbooks with respect to the presentation of the…

  1. Síntese de fotoprotetores e sua imobilização em poli(metacrilato de metilo: um projeto integrado de química orgânica, química de polímeros e fotoquímica Sunscreen synthesis and their immobilisition on polymethylmethacrylate: an integrated project in organic chemistry, polymer chemistry and photochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Maria B. Murtinho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dibenzalacetone and other aldol condensation products are known sunscreens commonly used in cosmetics. This type of compounds can easily be prepared in an Organic Chemistry Lab by reaction of aldehydes with ketones in basic medium. These compounds can be incorporated in poly(methyl methacrylate and used as UV light absorbers, for example in sunglasses. This project has the advantage of using inexpensive reagents which are readily available in Chemistry Laboratories. This experiment can also be a base starting point for discussions of organic, polymer and photochemistry topics.

  2. Proceedings of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Researchin Nuclear Science and Technology part II: Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, Radioactive Waste Management and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarsono, R.; Karmanto, Eko-Edy; Suradjijo, Ganang

    2000-01-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Scienceand Technology is an annual activity held by Centre for Research and Development of Advanced Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring research activities achieved by the Agency. The papers presented in the meeting were collected into proceedings. These are the second part of the proceedings that contain 71 articles in the fields of nuclear chemistry, process technology, radioactive waste management, and environment (PPIN).

  3. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology part II : Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, Radioactive Waste Management and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarsono, R.; Ganang Suradjijo

    2002-01-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is a routine activity held by Centre for Research and Development of Advanced Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, for monitoring the research activity which achieved in National Nuclear Energy Agency. This proceedings contains a proposal about basic research in nuclear technology which has environment. This proceedings is the second part of the two parts which published in series. There are 57 articles which have separated index. (PPIN)

  4. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has been hypothesized that these unusual properties result from fast diffusion of the nanostructures in the host polymer, which facilitates polymer chain relaxation by constraint release and other processes. In this study, the effects of addition of sterically stabilized inorganic nanoparticles to entangled cis-1,4-polyisoprene and polydimethylsiloxane on the overall rheology of nanocomposites are discussed. In addition, insights about the relaxation of the host polymer chains and transport properties of nanoparticles in entangled polymer nanocomposites are presented. The nanoparticles are found to act as effective plasticizers for their entangled linear hosts, and below a critical, chemistry and molecular-weight dependent particle volume fraction, lead to reduced viscosity, glass transition temperature, number of entanglements, and polymer relaxation time. We also find that the particle motions in the polymer host are hyperdiffusive and at the nanoparticle length scale, the polymer host acts like a simple, ideal fluid and the composites\\' viscosity rises with increasing particle concentration. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Interfaced conducting polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Bovtun, Viktor; Savinov, Maxim; Petzelt, Jan; Prokeš, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 224, February (2017), s. 109-115 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : polyaniline * polypyrrole * poly(p-phenylenediamine) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Polymer science; Polymer science (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  6. Acidic deposition: State of science and technology. Report 10. Watershed and lake processes affecting surface-water acid-base chemistry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.S.; Cook, R.B.; Miegroet, H.V.; Johnson, D.W.; Elwood, J.W.

    1990-09-01

    The acid-base chemistry of surface waters is governed by the amount and chemistry of deposition and by the biogeochemical reactions that generate acidity or acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) along the hydrologic pathways that water follows through watersheds to streams and lakes. The amount of precipitation and it chemical loading depend on the area's climate and physiography, on it proximity to natural or industrial gaseous or particulate sources, and on local or regional air movements. Vegetation interacts with the atmosphere to enhance both wet and dry deposition of chemicals to a greater or lesser extent, depending on vegetation type. Vegetation naturally acidifies the environment in humid regions through processes of excess base cation uptake and generation of organic acids associated with many biological processes. Natural acid production and atmospheric deposition of acidic materials drive the acidification process. The lake or stream NAC represents a balance between the acidity-and ANC-generating processes that occur along different flow paths in the watershed and the relative importance of each flow path

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2009 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2009 award winner, Professor Krzysztof Matyjaszewski, developed Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization to make polymers with copper catalysts and environmentally friendly reducing agents.

  8. Conducting polymer hydrogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 269-291 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aerogel * conducting polymers * conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  9. A facile route to ketene-functionalized polymers for general materials applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibfarth, Frank A.; Kang, Minhyuk; Ham, Myungsoo; Kim, Joohee; Campos, Luis M.; Gupta, Nalini; Moon, Bongjin; Hawker, Craig J.

    2010-03-01

    Function matters in materials science, and methodologies that provide paths to multiple functionality in a single step are to be prized. Therefore, we introduce a robust and efficient strategy for exploiting the versatile reactivity of ketenes in polymer chemistry. New monomers for both radical and ring-opening metathesis polymerization have been developed, which take advantage of Meldrum's acid as both a synthetic building block and a thermolytic precursor to dialkyl ketenes. The ketene-functionalized polymers are directly detected by their characteristic infrared absorption and are found to be stable under ambient conditions. The inherent ability of ketenes to provide crosslinking via dimerization and to act as reactive chemical handles via addition, provides simple methodology for application in complex materials challenges. Such versatile characteristics are illustrated by covalently attaching and patterning a dye through microcontact printing. The strategy highlights the significant opportunities afforded by the traditionally neglected ketene functional group in polymer chemistry.

  10. Meso-Helical Ag(I) Coordination Polymer Based on a Pyridylimidazole Ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Youngjin; Kim, Jinho; Lee, Eunji; Park, Ki-Min; Moon, Suk-Hee

    2016-01-01

    In the fields of material science and metallosupramolecular chemistry, coordination polymers with various helical types have been extensively explored because of their charming structures, and their potential applications in material chemistry. Among them, meso-helical coordination polymers consisting of achiral 1D strands, which are generally constructed by a crystallographic inversion symmetry, are relatively rare. The coordination polymer 1 exhibits a rare one-dimensional meso-helical chain topology constructed by its internal inversion symmetry. The skeleton of this meso-helical chain is preserved up to 300°C. The complexation of silver(I) ion to the free pyim ligand give rise to the enhanced photoluminescence intensity and slightly blue-shifted emission maximum, originated from intraligand (IL) π[BOND]π* transition and rigidochromic effect. Further exploration of complexation of this ligand with other transition metal ions is currently in progress

  11. Green Chemistry Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolopajlo, Larry

    2017-02-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the practice of chemistry teaching and learning is enriched by the incorporation of green chemistry (GC) into lectures and labs. To support this viewpoint, evidence from a wide range of published papers serve as a cogent argument that GC attracts and engages both science and nonscience students, enhances chemistry content knowledge, and improves the image of the field, while preparing the world for a sustainable future. Published pedagogy associated with green and sustainable chemistry is critically reviewed and discussed.

  12. Computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of supercomputers, modern computational chemistry algorithms and codes, a powerful tool was created to help fill NASA's continuing need for information on the properties of matter in hostile or unusual environments. Computational resources provided under the National Aerodynamics Simulator (NAS) program were a cornerstone for recent advancements in this field. Properties of gases, materials, and their interactions can be determined from solutions of the governing equations. In the case of gases, for example, radiative transition probabilites per particle, bond-dissociation energies, and rates of simple chemical reactions can be determined computationally as reliably as from experiment. The data are proving to be quite valuable in providing inputs to real-gas flow simulation codes used to compute aerothermodynamic loads on NASA's aeroassist orbital transfer vehicles and a host of problems related to the National Aerospace Plane Program. Although more approximate, similar solutions can be obtained for ensembles of atoms simulating small particles of materials with and without the presence of gases. Computational chemistry has application in studying catalysis, properties of polymers, all of interest to various NASA missions, including those previously mentioned. In addition to discussing these applications of computational chemistry within NASA, the governing equations and the need for supercomputers for their solution is outlined.

  13. Proceeding of the Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology: Book II. Nuclear Chemistry, Process Technology, and Radioactive Waste Processing and Environment; Pertemuan dan Presentasi Ilmiah Penelitian Dasar Ilmu Pengetahuan dan Teknologi Nuklir. Buku II. Kimia Nuklir, Teknologi Proses, dan Pengolahan Limbah Radioaktif dan Lingkungan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented on Scientific Meeting and Presentation on on Basic Research of Nuclear Science and Technology, held in Yogyakarta, 25-27 April 1995. This proceeding is second part of two books published for the meeting contains papers on nuclear chemistry, process technology, and radioactive waste management and environment. There are 62 papers indexed individually. (ID)

  14. Advanced polymers in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Puoci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an up-to-date overview of the diverse medical applications of advanced polymers. The book opens by presenting important background information on polymer chemistry and physicochemical characterization of polymers. This serves as essential scientific support for the subsequent chapters, each of which is devoted to the applications of polymers in a particular medical specialty. The coverage is broad, encompassing orthopedics, ophthalmology, tissue engineering, surgery, dentistry, oncology, drug delivery, nephrology, wound dressing and healing, and cardiology. The development of polymers that enhance the biocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices and the incorporation of polymers within biosensors are also addressed. This book is an excellent guide to the recent advances in polymeric biomaterials and bridges the gap between the research literature and standard textbooks on the applications of polymers in medicine.

  15. Nanotechnology in Science and Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bearinger, J

    2007-02-21

    drop appearance breaks up into many small domains as the water vapor evaporates. The base silicon does not retain the water in the same way that the way the hydrogel does, due to differences in surface tension. Thus, the pattern stands out from the background. In addition to bringing together nanotechnology, polymer chemistry, materials science and optics, this image suggests imposing order to an otherwise chaotic world. This is a repeated theme in nature across multiple orders of magnitude. The interface of this order and chaos is amorphous, and render a Klimt-like vision of reflected light. As this image is just a still in time, it also reminds us that all things and states are transient and that the materials of the earth, just as we individuals, are constantly evolving.

  16. What Are We Going to Do about a Problem Like Polymer Chemistry? Develop New Methods of Delivery to Improve Understanding of a Demanding Interdisciplinary Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, G.; Hamerton, I.; Lygo-Baker, S.

    2015-01-01

    Following collaboration between two chemistry lecturers and an academic developer an attempt was made to enhance the learning of students within a chemistry module through the adaptation of the delivery of content material. This paper reports a piece of practitioner led research which considered how effective the approach developed was upon the…

  17. Keynote Speakers [ScieTech 2016: 4. international conference on science and engineering in mathematics, chemistry and physics, Bali (Indonesia), 30-31 January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Prof. Dr Binayak Samader Choudhury, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur Title: Discontinuous Functions in Metric Fixed Point Theory Discontinuous functions have featured in metric fixed point theory since the theory originated in the first quarter of the 20th century. Today these functions occupy a large portion of this expanding branch of mathematics. The present talk gives an account of the recent developments of this area of research along with some of its implications. The broad subject area of the talk is functional analysis. Short Bio: Professor Binayak S. Choudhury is Professor at the Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, West Bengal, India for the last 12 years. He has a brilliant academic career. He obtained his Master of Science and Doctorate degrees from the University of Calcutta, India. He has held several administrative posts and was entrusted with various responsibilities at a governmental level. He served his Institute as Head of the Department of Mathematics (2005-2008) and as the Dean of the Faculty of Science (2013-2015). His research interests are in pure and applied mathematics and theoretical physics ranging over subject areas like topology, functional analysis, real analysis, probability theory, nonlinear dynamics and chaos, equilibrium problems, relativity and cosmology, quantum information theory, foundations of physics, mathematical biology, fuzzy systems and optimization and game theory, in each of which he has guided Ph.D. students. He has published nearly 200 research papers in reputed journals in addition to a good number of works published in conference proceedings. Until now 13 research students have obtained their Ph.D. degrees under his supervision and several other students are working with him. He is the recipient of several awards. He has delivered lectures in different parts of the world on topics both from theoretical physics and mathematics. He

  18. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium, Sessions 'X. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' and 'Y. Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials - Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Seiichi

    2009-09-01

    of Symposium Y (IUMRS-ICA 2008) Chair Seiichi Kawahara (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) Vice Chairs Rong-Ming Ho (National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan) Hiroshi Jinnai (Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan) Masami Kamigaito (Nagoya University, Japan) Takashi Miyata (Kansai University, Japan) Hiroshi Morita (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan) Hideyuki Otsuka (Kyushu University, Japan) Daewon Sohn (Hanyang University, Korea) Keiji Tanaka (Kyushu University, Japan)

  19. Computational quantum chemistry website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report contains the contents of a web page related to research on the development of quantum chemistry methods for computational thermochemistry and the application of quantum chemistry methods to problems in material chemistry and chemical sciences. Research programs highlighted include: Gaussian-2 theory; Density functional theory; Molecular sieve materials; Diamond thin-film growth from buckyball precursors; Electronic structure calculations on lithium polymer electrolytes; Long-distance electronic coupling in donor/acceptor molecules; and Computational studies of NOx reactions in radioactive waste storage

  20. Polymer physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gedde, Ulf W

    1999-01-01

    This book is the result of my teaching efforts during the last ten years at the Royal Institute of Technology. The purpose is to present the subject of polymer physics for undergraduate and graduate students, to focus the fundamental aspects of the subject and to show the link between experiments and theory. The intention is not to present a compilation of the currently available literature on the subject. Very few reference citations have thus been made. Each chapter has essentially the same structure: starling with an introduction, continuing with the actual subject, summarizing the chapter in 30D-500 words, and finally presenting problems and a list of relevant references for the reader. The solutions to the problems presented in Chapters 1-12 are given in Chapter 13. The theme of the book is essentially polymer science, with the exclusion of that part dealing directly with chemical reactions. The fundamentals in polymer science, including some basic polymer chemistry, are presented as an introduction in t...

  1. Abbreviations of polymer names and guidelines for abbreviating polymer names (IUPAC Recommendations 2014)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    He, J.; Chen, J.; Hellwich, K. H.; Hess, M.; Horie, K.; Jones, R. G.; Kahovec, Jaroslav; Kitayama, T.; Kratochvíl, Pavel; Meille, S. V.; Mita, I.; dos Santos, C.; Vert, M.; Vohlídal, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 6 (2014), s. 1003-1015 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : abbreviations * IUPAC Polymer Division * polymer names Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.492, year: 2014

  2. Nanoscale science and nanotechnology education in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanoscale science and nanotechnology education in Africa: importance and ... field with its footing in chemistry, physics, molecular biology and engineering. ... career/business/development opportunities, risks and policy challenges that would ...

  3. An Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Synthesis of Well-Defined Polymers by Low-Catalyst-Concentration ATRP and Postpolymerization Modification to Fluorescent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarevsky, Nicolay V.; Woodruf, Shannon R.; Wisian-Neilson, Patty J.

    2016-01-01

    A two-session experiment is designed to introduce undergraduate students to concepts in catalysis, transition metal complexes, polymer synthesis, and postpolymerization modifications. In the first session, students synthesize poly(glycidyl methacrylate) via low-catalyst-concentration atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The…

  4. Interface of Chemistry and Biology

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kira Astakhova

    2013-01-01

    Many exciting research studies in Science today lie at the interface between various disciplines. The interface between Chemistry and Biology is particularly rich, since it closely reflects Nature and the origins of Life. Multiple research groups in the Chemistry Departments around the world have made substantial efforts to interweave ideas from Chemistry and Biology to solve important questions related to material science and healthcare, just to name a few. International Journal of Bioorgani...

  5. weaving together climate science and chemistry education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ... students, educators, and the general public, designed to help bridge the gap ... Design Principles of Visualizing and Understanding the Science of Climate ... The user is also able to examine simple models for these predictions ... Figure 6 illustrates the fluctuations in mean global temperature over an 800 ka span and.

  6. Clickable antifouling polymer brushes for polymer pen lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bog, U.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Mueller, S. L.; Havenridge, S.; Parrillo, Viviana; Bruns, M.; Holmes, A. E.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.; Fuchs, H.; Hirtz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 13 (2017), s. 12109-12117 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : antifouling * biofunctional interfaces * polymer brushes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  7. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2011 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2011 award winner, Kraton Performance Polymers, developed halogen-free, high-flow NEXAR polymer membranes using less solvent that save energy during reverse osmosis to desalinate water.

  8. Fifty years of polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du Prez, Filip; Hoogenboom, Richard; Klumperman, Bert; Meier, Michael; Monteiro, Michael; Müller, Alejandro; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Polymer Journal (EPJ) has been serving the scientific community for 50 years, which makes it one of the older macromolecular journals with a broad focus. Since its launch 50 years ago, EPJ has provided a distinguished forum for publications in polymer research, including chemistry,

  9. Polymer architecture and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Li Yan; Bae, You Han

    2006-01-01

    Polymers occupy a major portion of materials used for controlled release formulations and drug-targeting systems because this class of materials presents seemingly endless diversity in topology and chemistry. This is a crucial advantage over other classes of materials to meet the ever-increasing requirements of new designs of drug delivery formulations. The polymer architecture (topology) describes the shape of a single polymer molecule. Every natural, seminatural, and synthetic polymer falls into one of categorized architectures: linear, graft, branched, cross-linked, block, star-shaped, and dendron/dendrimer topology. Although this topic spans a truly broad area in polymer science, this review introduces polymer architectures along with brief synthetic approaches for pharmaceutical scientists who are not familiar with polymer science, summarizes the characteristic properties of each architecture useful for drug delivery applications, and covers recent advances in drug delivery relevant to polymer architecture.

  10. Radiation 2006. In association with the Polymer Division, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. Incorporating the 21st AINSE Radiation Chemistry Conference and the 18th Radiation Biology Conference, conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barner, L.; Davis, T. P.; Stenzel, M. H.; Barner-Kowollik, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) process is a controlled/'living' free radical polymerisation process that was invented in Australia by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSRIO) group led by Ezio Rizzardo. RAFT polymerisation has proven to be a powerful tool for the synthesis of polymers with predetermined molecular weight and low polydispersity. The RAFT process is capable of effecting living free radical polymerisation control over a great variety of monomers (eg (meth)acrylates, styrenes, acrylamides, vinyl acetate). The RAFT technique uses thiocarbonylthio compounds to mediate the polymerisation via a reversible chain transfer process. This leads to the establishment of an equilibrium under which all the propagating chains have approximately the same chain length at the same instant of time. The RAFT agent typically possesses a thiocarbonylthio group (S=C-S) with substituents R (radical leaving group) and Z (activating/stabilising group), which govern the reaction kinetics and the degree of structural control. In 2001, we reported the synthesis of RAFT agents (phenyl dithio acetates) that can be applied at low/ambient temperatures in the polymerization of alkyl acrylates and styrene. Low/ambient temperature RAFT agents allow the application of γ-radiation as source of initiation. The combination of γ-radiation and ambient temperature RAFT agents allows performing living polymerization at ambient temperature up to high conversions. This technique also opens the possibility to graft narrow polydisperse polymers from existing polymer surfaces. We have applied RAFT polymerization in conjunction with γ-radiation to graft various monomers (e.g. styrene, m-isopropenyl-α,α ' -dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (TMI), N,N ' -dimethyl acrylamide) from solid polypropylene phases that can be used for applications in combinatorial chemistry (eg peptide synthesis and scavenger reactions)

  11. Green Polymer Chemistry: Investigating the Mechanism of Radical Ring-Opening Redox Polymerization (R3P of 3,6-Dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol (DODT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Q. Rosenthal-Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the new Radical Ring-opening Redox Polymerization (R3P of 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol (DODT by triethylamine (TEA and dilute H2O2 was investigated. Scouting studies showed that the formation of high molecular weight polymers required a 1:2 molar ratio of DODT to TEA and of DODT to H2O2. Further investigation into the chemical composition of the organic and aqueous phases by 1H-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry demonstrated that DODT is ionized by two TEA molecules (one for each thiol group and thus transferred into the aqueous phase. The organic phase was found to have cyclic disulfide dimers, trimers and tetramers. Dissolving DODT and TEA in water before the addition of H2O2 yielded a polymer with Mn = 55,000 g/mol, in comparison with Mn = 92,000 g/mol when aqueous H2O2 was added to a DODT/TEA mixture. After polymer removal, MALDI-ToF MS analysis of the residual reaction mixtures showed only cyclic oligomers remaining. Below the LCST for TEA in water, 18.7 °C, the system yielded a stable emulsion, and only cyclic oligomers were found. Below DODT/TEA and H2O2 1:2 molar ratio mostly linear oligomers were formed, with <20% cyclic oligomers. The findings support the proposed mechanism of R3P.

  12. Welcome to Quantum Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thew, Rob

    2016-03-01

    Quantum information science and related technologies now involve thousands of researchers worldwide, cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering, bioscience, applied mathematics and computer science, extending from fundamental science to novel applications and industry. This situation defines the scope and mission of Quantum Science and Technology, a new IOP journal serving the interests of this multidisciplinary field by publishing research of the highest quality and impact.

  13. Bad chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2004-01-01

    General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.

  14. Scientific Information Analysis of Chemistry Dissertations Using Thesaurus of Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Rajabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available : Concept maps of chemistry can be obtained from thesaurus of chemistry. Analysis of information in the field of chemistry is done at graduate level, based on comparing and analyzing chemistry dissertations by using these maps. Therefore, the use of thesaurus for analyzing scientific information is recommended. Major advantage of using this method, is that it is possible to obtain a detailed map of all academic researches across all branches of science. The researches analysis results in chemical science can play a key role in developing strategic research policies, educational programming, linking universities to industries and postgraduate educational programming. This paper will first introduce the concept maps of chemistry. Then, emerging patterns from the concept maps of chemistry will be used to analyze the trend in the academic dissertations in chemistry, using the data collected and stored in our database at Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc over the past 10 years (1998-2009.

  15. Polymers of phenylenediamines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, February (2015), s. 1-31 ISSN 0079-6700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyphenylenediamine * phenylenediamine * conducting polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 27.184, year: 2015

  16. Polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  17. General Dialdehyde Click Chemistry for Amine Bioconjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Sina; O'Brien, Paul J; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2017-05-17

    -conjugation strategy, we designed a straightforward scheme to synthesize a suite of dialdehyde reagents. The dialdehyde molecules were used for applications in cell-surface engineering and for tailoring surfaces for material science applications. We anticipate the broad utility of the general dialdehyde click chemistry to primary amines in all areas of chemical research, ranging from polymers and bioconjugation to material science and nanoscience.

  18. Selectivity of primary events in the radiation chemistry of organic solids and polymers as revealed by model studies of ionized molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, V.

    2006-01-01

    Selectivity of the primary chemical events induced by ionizing radiation in molecular systems is the key issue of basic radiation chemistry, which is crucially important for controlling the radiation sensitivity of various-type organic and polymeric materials and designing new effective approaches to the radiation modification. In the past decade we have demonstrated that many features of selective localization of the radiation-induced effects in molecular solids can be understood on the basis of model studies of the primary ionized molecules in rigid low-temperature matrices. This talk will outline the key results of these studies and possible implications for radiation chemistry of vatious systems. In particular, the following aspects will be considered: (1) Spectroscopic characteristics of ustable ionized molecules in low-temperature matrices and their correlations with the site-selective reactivity. (2) Experimental modeling of the effect of excess energy on the properties of primary ionized molecules in condensed phases. (3) Intramolecular long-range effects with particular impact on the properties of ionized bifunctional molecules of X-(CH 2 ) n -X and X-(CH 2 ) n -Y types. (4) Modeling of intermolecular long-range positive hole transfer between molecular traps with close ionization energy and manifestations of 'fine tuning' effects resulting from conformation variations and intermolecular interactions. Several illustrative examples of correlation between the properties of primary ionized molecules and selectivity of the radiation-chemical transformations in organic solids and macromolecules will be presented. Finally, the problem of prediction of the radiation-chemical behaviour of complex organic systems on the basis of limited spectroscopic information and quantum-chemical data obtained for model systems will be addressed. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project No. 06-03-33104) and the Russian Academy of Sciences

  19. Recent aspects of self-oscillating polymeric materials: designing self-oscillating polymers coupled with supramolecular chemistry and ionic liquid science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryo

    2014-06-14

    Herein, we summarise the recent developments in self-oscillating polymeric materials based on the concepts of supramolecular chemistry, where aggregates of molecular building blocks with non-covalent bonds evolve the temporal or spatiotemporal structure. By utilising the rhythmic oscillation of the association/dissociation of molecular aggregates coupled with the redox oscillation by the BZ reaction, novel soft materials that express similar functions as those of living matter will be achieved. Further, from the viewpoint of materials science, our recent approach to prepare self-oscillating materials that operate long-term under mild conditions will be introduced.

  20. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  1. Mathematical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Trinajstić, Nenad; Gutman, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    A brief description is given of the historical development of mathematics and chemistry. A path leading to the meeting of these two sciences is described. An attempt is made to define mathematical chemistry, and journals containing the term mathematical chemistry in their titles are noted. In conclusion, the statement is made that although chemistry is an experimental science aimed at preparing new compounds and materials, mathematics is very useful in chemistry, among other things, to produc...

  2. Methods for Introducing Inorganic Polymer Concepts throughout the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lill, Daniel T.; Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic polymers can be introduced in a variety of undergraduate courses to discuss concepts related to polymer chemistry. Inorganic polymers such as silicates and polysiloxanes are simple materials that can be incorporated into an introductory or descriptive inorganic course. Polymers based on inorganic carbon, including diamond and graphite,…

  3. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Detlev [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Luftchemie und Luftreinhaltung

    2015-07-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  4. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  5. New developments in thermally stable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in high-temperature polymers since 1985 are discussed with the emphasis on the chemistry. High-temperature polymers refer to materials that exhibit glass-transition temperatures greater than 200 C and have the chemical structure expected to provide high thermooxidative stability. Specific polymers or series of polymers were selected to show how the chemical structure influences certain properties. Poly(arylene ethers) and polyimides are the two principal families of polymers discussed. Recent work on poly(arylene ethers) has concentrated on incorporating heterocyclic units within the polymer backbone. Recent polyimide work has centered on the synthesis of new polymers from novel monomers, several containing the trifluoromethyl group strategically located on the molecule. Various members in each of these polymer families display a unique combination of properties, heretofore unattainable. Other families of polymers are also briefly discussed with a polymer from an AB maleimidobenzocyclobutene exhibiting an especially attractive combination of properties.

  6. [The effects of the success of the synthesis of Stovaïne in science and industry. Ernest Fourneau (1872-1949) and the transformation of the field of medicinal chemistry in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debue-Barazer, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The synthetic local anaesthetic Stovaine was commercialised in France in 1904. Its inventor, Ernest Fourneau, began his career as a pharmaceutical chemist in organic chemistry laboratories in Germany, where from 1899 to 1901 he discovered how basic research could benefit from the modern chemistry theories which had developed in Germany starting in the 1860s. Using the complex structure of cocaine, he invented an original molecule, with comparable activity, but less toxic. The knowledge and the know-how which he acquired in Germany nourished his reflection in the field of the chemistry of the relationships between structure and activity, and led him to the development of Stovaïne. Emile Roux, Director of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, was interested in his work and invited him to head the first French therapeutic chemistry laboratory, in which research on medicinal chemistry was organised scientifically. The industrial development of new medicines resulting from the Pasteur Institute's therapeutic chemistry laboratory was supported by the Etablissements Poulenc frères, France thus gaining international reputation in the domain of pharmaceutical chemistry.

  7. A review of drug delivery systems based on nanotechnology and green chemistry: green nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangirian H

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hossein Jahangirian,1 Ensieh Ghasemian Lemraski,2 Thomas J Webster,1 Roshanak Rafiee-Moghaddam,3 Yadollah Abdollahi4 1Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran; 3School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, 4Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: This review discusses the impact of green and environmentally safe chemistry on the field of nanotechnology-driven drug delivery in a new field termed “green nanomedicine”. Studies have shown that among many examples of green nanotechnology-driven drug delivery systems, those receiving the greatest amount of attention include nanometal particles, polymers, and biological materials. Furthermore, green nanodrug delivery systems based on environmentally safe chemical reactions or using natural biomaterials (such as plant extracts and microorganisms are now producing innovative materials revolutionizing the field. In this review, the use of green chemistry design, synthesis, and application principles and eco-friendly synthesis techniques with low side effects are discussed. The review ends with a description of key future efforts that must ensue for this field to continue to grow. Keywords: green chemistry, cancer, drug delivery, nanoparticle

  8. Nanofins science and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Navdeep

    2014-01-01

    Nanofins Science and Technology describes the heat transfer effectiveness of polymer coolants and their fundamental interactions with carbon nanotube coatings that act as nanofins. Heat transfer at micro/nano-scales has attracted significant attention in contemporary literature. This has been primarily driven by industrial requirements where significant decrease in the size of electronic devices/chips with concomitant enhancement in the heat flux have caused challenging needs for cooling of these platforms. With quantum effects kicking in, traditional cooling techniques need to be replaced with more effective technologies. A promising technique is to enhance heat transfer by surface texturing using nanoparticle coatings or engineered nanostructures. These nanostructures are termed as nanofins because they augment heat transfer by a combination of surface area enhancement as well as liquid-solid interactions at the molecular scale.

  9. The radiation chemistry of macromolecules

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    The Radiation Chemistry of Macromolecules, Volume II is a collection of papers that discusses radiation chemistry of specific systems. Part 1 deals with radiation chemistry of substituted vinyl polymers, particularly polypropylene (PP) as its structure is intermediate between polyethylene and polyisobutylene. This part also discusses polypropylene oxide (PPOx) for it can be prepared in the atactic, isotactic, and optically active forms. One paper focuses on the fundamental chemical processes and the changes in physical properties that give rise to many different applications of polystyrene. An

  10. Impact of plasma treatment under atmospheric pressure on surface chemistry and surface morphology of extruded and injection-molded wood-polymer composites (WPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünnekens, Benedikt; Avramidis, Georg; Ohms, Gisela; Krause, Andreas; Viöl, Wolfgang; Militz, Holger

    2018-05-01

    The influence of plasma treatment performed at atmospheric pressure and ambient air as process gas by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) on the morphological and chemical surface characteristics of wood-polymer composites (WPC) was investigated by applying several surface-sensitive analytical methods. The surface free energy showed a distinct increase after plasma treatment for all tested materials. The analyzing methods for surface topography-laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-revealed a roughening induced by the treatment which is likely due to a degradation of the polymeric surface. This was accompanied by the formation of low-molecular-weight oxidized materials (LMWOMs), appearing as small globular structures. With increasing discharge time, the nodules increase in size and the material degradation proceeds. The surface degradation seems to be more serious for injection-molded samples, whereas the formation of nodules became more apparent and were evenly distributed on extruded surfaces. These phenomena could also be confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, differences between extruded and injection-molded surfaces could be observed. Besides the morphological changes, the chemical composition of the substrates' surfaces was affected by the plasma discharge. Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicated the formation of new oxygen containing polar groups on the modified surfaces.

  11. Functional Polymers and Nanocomposites for 3D Printing of Smart Structures and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadgorny, Milena; Ameli, Amir

    2018-05-16

    Three-dimensional printing (3DP) has attracted a considerable amount of attention during the past years, being globally recognized as one of the most promising and revolutionary manufacturing technologies. Although the field is rapidly evolving with significant technological advancements, materials research remains a spotlight of interest, essential for the future developments of 3DP. Smart polymers and nanocomposites, which respond to external stimuli by changing their properties and structure, represent an important group of materials that hold a great promise for the fabrication of sensors, actuators, robots, electronics, and medical devices. The interest in exploring functional materials and their 3DP is constantly growing in an attempt to meet the ever-increasing manufacturing demand of complex functional platforms in an efficient manner. In this review, we aim to outline the recent advances in the science and engineering of functional polymers and nanocomposites for 3DP technologies. The report covers temperature-responsive polymers, polymers and nanocomposites with electromagnetic, piezoresistive and piezoelectric behaviors, self-healing polymers, light- and pH-responsive materials, and mechanochromic polymers. The main objective is to link the performance and functionalities to the fundamental properties, chemistry, and physics of the materials, and to the process-driven characteristics, in an attempt to provide a multidisciplinary image and a deeper understanding of the topic. The challenges and opportunities for future research are also discussed.

  12. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Described are eight chemistry experiments and demonstrations applicable to introductory chemistry courses. Activities include: measure of lattice enthalpy, Le Chatelier's principle, decarboxylation of soap, use of pocket calculators in pH measurement, and making nylon. (SL)

  13. Chemistry Dashboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.

  14. Technological aspects of the radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Main technological aspects of the radiation chemistry are reviewed: network formation in polymers and caoutchouc, production of the sterile hydrogels, sterilisation of the expendable medical equipment and the environmental protection technologies (e.g. purification of the combustion gases from the sulfur oxides). Achievements of the are reviewed Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland) in these fields are presented

  15. Combinatorial chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John

    1994-01-01

    An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....

  16. Aquatic Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeun; Kim, Oh Sik; Kim, Chang Guk; Park, Cheong Gil; Lee, Gwi Hyeon; Lee, Cheol Hui

    1987-07-01

    This book deals aquatic chemistry, which treats water and environment, chemical kinetics, chemical balance like dynamical characteristic, and thermodynamics, acid-base chemistry such as summary, definition, kinetics, and PH design for mixture of acid-base chemistry, complex chemistry with definition, and kinetics, precipitation and dissolution on summary, kinetics of precipitation and dissolution, and balance design oxidation and resolution with summary, balance of oxidation and resolution.

  17. Positronium chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Green, James

    1964-01-01

    Positronium Chemistry focuses on the methodologies, reactions, processes, and transformations involved in positronium chemistry. The publication first offers information on positrons and positronium and experimental methods, including mesonic atoms, angular correlation measurements, annihilation spectra, and statistical errors in delayed coincidence measurements. The text then ponders on positrons in gases and solids. The manuscript takes a look at the theoretical chemistry of positronium and positronium chemistry in gases. Topics include quenching, annihilation spectrum, delayed coincidence

  18. Spotlight on medicinal chemistry education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Simone; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Taylor, Peter; Turner, Nicholas; Coaker, Hannah; Crews, Kasumi

    2014-05-01

    The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving and it is important for medicinal chemists to develop the skills and knowledge required to succeed and contribute to the advancement of the field. Future Medicinal Chemistry spoke with Simone Pitman (SP), Yao-Zhong Xu (YX), Peter Taylor (PT) and Nick Turner (NT) from The Open University (OU), which offers an MSc in Medicinal Chemistry. In the interview, they discuss the MSc course content, online teaching, the future of medicinal chemistry education and The OU's work towards promoting widening participation. SP is a Qualifications Manager in the Science Faculty at The OU. She joined The OU in 1993 and since 1998 has been involved in the Postgraduate Medicinal Chemistry provision at The OU. YX is a Senior Lecturer in Bioorganic Chemistry at The OU. He has been with The OU from 2001, teaching undergraduate courses of all years and chairing the master's course on medicinal chemistry. PT is a Professor of Organic Chemistry at The OU and has been involved with the production and presentation of The OU courses in Science and across the university for over 30 years, including medicinal chemistry modules at postgraduate level. NT is a Lecturer in Analytical Science at The OU since 2009 and has been involved in the production of analytical sciences courses, as well as contributing to the presentation of a number of science courses including medicinal chemistry.

  19. Explosive hazards in polyaniline chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 387-392 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * oxidation of aniline * safety hazards Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  20. Biodegradable Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Isabelle; Tighzert, Lan

    2009-01-01

    Biodegradable materials are used in packaging, agriculture, medicine and other areas. In recent years there has been an increase in interest in biodegradable polymers. Two classes of biodegradable polymers can be distinguished: synthetic or natural polymers. There are polymers produced from feedstocks derived either from petroleum resources (non renewable resources) or from biological resources (renewable resources). In general natural polymers offer fewer advantages than synthetic polymers. ...

  1. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... Modern College of Arts, Science and Commerce. Ganeshkhind, Pune ... API scores for career advancement. Applications are invited from teachers experience in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses in chemistry ...

  2. Biomolecular Sciences: uniting Biology and Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Engel

    2017-01-01

    Biomolecular Sciences: uniting Biology and Chemistry www.rug.nl/research/gbb The scientific discoveries in biomolecular sciences have benefitted enormously from technological innovations. At the Groningen Biomolecular Science and Biotechnology Institute (GBB) we now sequence a genome in days,

  3. BEAM applications to polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Seiichi

    1994-01-01

    Recently papers about beam applications to polymers have been increasing rapidly both in the fundamental and applied fields. Fairly large number of papers have been published in the fundamental aspects of radiation effects of beam applications to polymers such as pulse radiolysis and high density electronic excitation effects. A number of papers have been published in the more applied aspects of beam applications to polymers such as radiation processing and curing. The present paper describes recent beam applications to polymers. 1. Radiation Effects on Polymers; Radiation effects on polymers have been studied for more than 40 years. Most of work on radiation effects on polymers has been carried out by using high energy photon (gamma-ray) and electron beams, since polymers are sensitive to any kinds of ionizing radiation. Even non-ionizing radiation such as ultraviolet and visible light excites electronic excited states of polymers and then photo-chemical reactions of polymers are induced from the electronic excited states. Studies on radiation effects of other ionizing radiation on polymers have not been so popular for a long time. Recently application of new radiation such as ion beams to polymers have been worthy of remark in fields of advanced science and technology, since new radiation beams induce different radiation effects from those induced by high energy gamma-rays and electrons. 2. Beam Applications of Polymers; Recent progress in beam applications to polymers such as radiation processing and curing, x-ray and electron beam microlithography, and applications of new beams such as ion beams to polymers has been reviewed. (author)

  4. The Distribution of Macromolecular Principles throughout Introductory Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Joel I.

    2017-01-01

    Many of the principles of organic polymer chemistry are direct extensions of the information contained in the standard introductory organic chemistry course. Often, however, the discussion of macromolecules is relegated to a chapter at the end of the organic chemistry text and is covered briefly, if at all. Connecting the organic-chemical…

  5. Polymer compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1995-01-01

    A Polymer compound comprising a polymer (a) that contains cyclic imidesgroups and a polymer (b) that contains monomer groups with a 2,4-diamino-1,3,5-triazine side group. According to the formula (see formula) whereby themole percentage ratio of the cyclic imides groups in the polymer compoundwith

  6. The contribution of IUPAC to polymer science education

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chan, C. H.; Fellows, C. M.; Hess, M.; Hiorns, R. C.; Hoven, V. P.; Russell, G. T.; dos Santos, C. G.; Šturcová, Adriana; Theato, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 11 (2017), s. 1618-1628 ISSN 0021-9584 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : graduate education/research * internet /web-based learning * nomenclature/units/symbols * polymer chemistry Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.419, year: 2016

  7. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  8. Radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on radiation chemistry of heavy elements that includes the following topics: radiation chemistry of plutonium in nitric acid solutions (spectrophotometric analysis and gamma radiolysis of Pu(IV) and Pu(VI) in nitric acid solution); EPR studies of intermediates formed in radiolytic reactions with aqueous medium; two-phase radiolysis and its effect on the distribution coefficient of plutonium; and radiation chemistry of nitric acid. (DHM)

  9. Chemistry of high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    This review volume contains the most up-to-date articles on the chemical aspects of high temperature oxide superconductors. These articles are written by some of the leading scientists in the field and includes a comprehensive list of references. This is an essential volume for researchers working in the fields of ceramics, materials science and chemistry.

  10. Technetium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, C.; Bryan, J.; Cotton, F.; Ott, K.; Kubas, G.; Haefner, S.; Barrera, J.; Hall, K.; Burrell, A.

    1996-01-01

    Technetium chemistry is a young and developing field. Despite the limited knowledge of its chemistry, technetium is the workhorse for nuclear medicine. Technetium is also a significant environmental concern because it is formed as a byproduct of nuclear weapons production and fission-power generators. Development of new technetium radio-pharmaceuticals and effective environmental control depends strongly upon knowledge of basic technetium chemistry. The authors performed research into the basic coordination and organometallic chemistry of technetium and used this knowledge to address nuclear medicine and environmental applications. This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

  11. Chemistry Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Chemistry technology experts at NCATS engage in a variety of innovative translational research activities, including:Design of bioactive small molecules.Development...

  12. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  13. Conducting polymers as sorbents of influenza viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivanova, V. T.; Garina, E. O.; Burtseva, E. I.; Kirillova, E. S.; Ivanova, M. V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Sapurina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 495-503 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14199 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : influenza viruses * conducting polymers * polyaniline Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  14. Profiling of carbohydrate polymers in biotechnology using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of carbohydrate polymers is very demanding and challenging because of the similar physical and chemical properties they possess. Enzymatic hydrolysis is employed to cleave the polymers. The use of enzymes in analytical chemistry requires an analytical system that has on-line capability, is fast, ...

  15. Dilute and Semidilute Solutions of a Nonionic, Rigid, Water-soluble Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paul; Huberty, Wayne; Zhang, Donghui; Water-Soluble Rodlike Polymer Team Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    The solution physics of random polymer chains was established largely on the behavior of commercial polymers such as polystyrene for organic solvents or nonionic poly(ethyleneoxide) for aqueous solvents. Not only are these materials widely available for industrial use, they can be synthesized to be essentially monodisperse. When it comes to stiff polymers, good choices are few and less prone to be used in industrial applications. Much was learned from polypeptides such as poly(benzylglutamate) or poly(stearylglutamate) in polar organic solvents and nonpolar organic solvents, respectively, but aqueous systems generally require charge. Poly(Nɛ-2-[2-(2-Methoxyethoxy) ethoxy]acetyl-L-Lysine) a.k.a. PEGL was pioneered by Deming and coworkers. In principle, PEGL provides a convenient platform from which to study stiff polymer behavior--phase relations, dynamics, liquid crystal formation and gelation--all with good molecular weight control and uniformity and without electrical charge. Still, a large gap in knowledge exists between PEGL and traditional rodlike polymer systems. To narrow this gap, dynamic and static scattering, circular dichroism, and viscosity measurements have been made in dilute and semidilute solutions as necessary preliminaries for lyotropic liquid crystalline and gel phases. Supported by NSF DMR 1306262. Department of Chemistry and Macromolecular Studies Group. Current address: Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering.

  16. Current organic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    Provides in depth reviews on current progress in the fields of asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, bioorganic chemistry, heterocyclic chemistry, natural product chemistry, and analytical...

  17. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  18. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  19. Definitions of terms relating to crystalline polymers (IUPAC Recommendations 2011)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meille, S. V.; Allegra, G.; Geil, P. H.; He, J.; Hess, M.; Jin, J.-I.; Kratochvíl, Pavel; Mormann, W.; Stepto, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 10 (2011), s. 1831-1871 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : IUPAC Polymer Division * crystalline polymers * crystalline polymer conformation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.789, year: 2011

  20. Nuclear science in the 20th century. Radiation chemistry and radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Tao; Xu Furong; Zheng Chunkai

    2003-01-01

    The application of nuclear science and technology to chemistry has led to two important subjects, radiation chemistry and radiation processing, which are playing important roles in many aspects of science and society. We review the development and major applications of radiation chemistry and radiation processing, including the basic physical and chemical mechanisms involved

  1. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  2. PHOTOREFRACTIVE POLYMERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morichere, D; Malliaras, G.G; Krasnikov, V.V.; Bolink, H.J; Hadziioannou, G

    The use of polymers as photorefractive materials offers many advantages : flexibility in synthesis, doping, processing and low cost. The required functionalities responsible for photorefractivity, namely charge generation, transport, trapping and linear electrooptic effect are given in the polymer

  3. Photorefractive polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolink, Hendrik Jan; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and properties of photorefractive polymers. Photorefractive polymers are materials in which the refractive index can be varied by the interaction with light. Unlike in numerous other photosensitive materials, in photorefractive materials this occurs via

  4. Quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, John P

    1993-01-01

    Praised for its appealing writing style and clear pedagogy, Lowe's Quantum Chemistry is now available in its Second Edition as a text for senior undergraduate- and graduate-level chemistry students. The book assumes little mathematical or physical sophistication and emphasizes an understanding of the techniques and results of quantum chemistry, thus enabling students to comprehend much of the current chemical literature in which quantum chemical methods or concepts are used as tools. The book begins with a six-chapter introduction of standard one-dimensional systems, the hydrogen atom,

  5. Polymer Brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Kleijn, J.M.; Keizer, de A.; Cosgrove, T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    A polymer brush can be defined as a dense array of polymers end-attached to an interface that stretch out into the surrounding medium. Polymer brushes have been investigated for the past 30 years and have shown to be an extremely useful tool to control interfacial properties. This review is intended

  6. Radiation chemistry of high polymers. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dole, M.; Welch, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Work on calibrating the radiation intensity in our γ-ray source as a function of height and horizontal displacement was completed. For extended chain (high crystallinity) polyethylene (PE) before and after quenching from the melt irradiated at room temperature, the crosslinking yield increased twofold on lowering the crystallinity from 96 to 70%. The G-value for alkyl radical production was about 75% higher in the quenched extended chain sample as compared to the value before quenching. The G (alkyl) values were determined for irradiations at 77K. The rate of decay of the alkyl radicals in PE samples of single crystals having different stem lengths was studied at 80 and 85 0 . It was found that the mole fraction of the slowly decaying free radicals increased with the stem length. Hydrogen gas was found to catalyze both the slow and fast decays. Because hydrogen does not dissolve in the crystalline regions of the PE, the catalytic effect must occur at the amorphous boundary of the crystalline stems. With respect to the kinetics of the allyl radical, either it was found that the data could be explained in terms of two simultaneous but spatially separated second order reactions. As the temperature is raised to 135 0 , the two reactions merge into one. Hydrogen gas has no effect on the decay of the allyl radicals. In the case of the highly crystalline extended chain samples, the allyl decay in some cases follows the simple kinetic equation (1/c) - (1/c 0 ) = k√t, where k is called a time independent diffusion controlled reaction rate constant. The less the crystallinity of the sample the greater the k constant. A preliminary study of isotactic polypropylene (PP) was carried out and a definite hydrogen gas catalysis of the free radical decay in PP was seen. Similarly in crystalline 1-leucine the hydrogen catalytic effect could also be clearly demonstrated

  7. Radiation Synthesis of Superabsorbent Polymers Based on Natural Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Murat; Hayrabolulu, Hande

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of proposed research contract were first synthesize superabsorbent polymers based on natural polymers to be used as disposable diapers and soil conditioning materials in agriculture, horticulture and other super adsorbent using industries. We have planned to use the natural polymers; locust beam gum, tara gum, guar gum and sodium alginate on the preparation of natural superabsorbent polymers(SAP). The aqueous solution of natural polymers and their blends with trace amount of monomer and cross-linking agents will be irradiated in paste like conditions by gamma rays for the preparation of cross-linked superabsorbent systems. The water absorption and deswellling capacity of prepared super adsorbents and retention capacity, absorbency under load, suction power, swelling pressure and pet-rewet properties will be determined. Use of these materials instead of synthetic super absorbents will be examined by comparing the performance of finished products. The experimental studies achieved in the second year of project mainly on the effect of radiation on the chemistry of sodium alginate polymers in different irradiation conditions and structure-property relationship particularly with respect to radiation induced changes on the molecular weight of natural polymers and preliminary studies on the synthesis of natural-synthetic hydride super adsorbent polymers were given in details

  8. Weerts to lead Physical Sciences and Engineering directorate | Argonne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Sciences and Engineering directorate By Lynn Tefft Hoff * August 10, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Hendrik Engineering (PSE) directorate at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory. Weerts has , chemistry, materials science and nanotechnology. Weerts joined Argonne in 2005 as director of Argonne's High

  9. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-15

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  10. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Seong

    1993-02-01

    This book is comprised of nineteen chapters, which describes introduction of analytical chemistry, experimental error and statistics, chemistry equilibrium and solubility, gravimetric analysis with mechanism of precipitation, range and calculation of the result, volume analysis on general principle, sedimentation method on types and titration curve, acid base balance, acid base titration curve, complex and firing reaction, introduction of chemical electro analysis, acid-base titration curve, electrode and potentiometry, electrolysis and conductometry, voltammetry and polarographic spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometry, solvent extraction, chromatograph and experiments.

  11. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  12. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  13. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  14. A Platform for Functional Conductive Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hoffmann, Christian; Lind, Johan Ulrik

    Conductive polymers have been studied extensively during recent years. In order to broaden the application field of conductive polymers different methods have been tested and recently an azide functional poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-N3) was developed(1, 2). The azide functional...... conductive polymer can be postpolymerization functionalized to introduce a large number of functionalities through click chemistry(3). Through selection of reaction conditions it is possible control the depth of the reaction into the polymer film to the upper surface or the entire film(4). Thus a conductive...... polymer can be prepared with a subsurface layer of highly conductive polymer where only the upper surface has been grafted with functional groups to ensure selectivity of the surface layer for e.g. interaction with specific biospecies. The conductive polymer can be patterned using selective etching, which...

  15. Metastable Polymers for On Demand Transient Electronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-17

    a triggerable polymer for engineering applications. 25 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 6 REFERENCES (1) Aso, C.; Tagami, S...Macromolecules 1969, 2, 414. (2) Aso, C.; Tagami, S.; Kunitake, T. Journal of Polymer Science Part A-1: Polymer Chemistry 1969, 7, 497. (3) Hernandez...R. Advanced Materials 2014, 26, 7637. (4) Ito, H.; Willson, C. G. Polymer Engineering & Science 1983, 23, 1012. (5) Ito, H.; England, W. P.; Ueda, M

  16. Application of the principle of supramolecular chemistry in the fields of radiochemistry and radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Xinghai; Chen Qingde; Gao Hongcheng

    2008-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry, one of the front fields in chemistry, is defined as 'chemistry beyond the molecule', bearing on the organized entities of higher complexity that result from the association of two or more chemical species held together by intermolecular forces. This article focuses on the application of the principle of supramolecular chemistry in the fields of radiochemistry and radiation chemistry. The following aspects are concerned: (1) the recent progress of supramolecular chemistry; (2) the application of the principle of supramolecular chemistry and the functions of supramolecular system, i.e., recognition, assembly and translocation, in the extraction of nuclides; (3) the application of microemulsion, ionic imprinted polymers, ionic liquids and cloud point extraction in the enrichment of nuclides; (4) the radiation effect of supramolecular systems. (authors)

  17. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1999 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1999 award winner, Nalco Chemical Co., developed homogeneous dispersion polymerization with water as the solvent to make polymers to treat water in industrial and municipal operations.

  18. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 1996 Small Business Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 1996 award winner, Donlar, developed thermal polyaspartate, a nontoxic, biodegradable, biobased polymer made in a highly efficient process for use in agriculture, water treatment, etc.

  19. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2002 Greener Reaction Conditions Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2002 award winner, Cargill Dow, developed the NatureWorks process to make biobased, compostable, and recyclable polylactic acid polymers for fibers and plastic packaging.

  20. Some remarks on applied radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurada, I.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation induced polymerization and grafting are two important reactions in the processing. Numerous reports concerning these subjects have appeared in the literature. There are, however, still many problems which have been left unsolved or neglected. Several problems will be taken up in this paper and discussed on experiments carried out in Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry and Department of Polymer Chemistry of Kyoto University. (author)

  1. [Dendrimers in biomedical sciences and nanotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekowski, Szymon; Miłowska, Katarzyna; Gabryelak, Teresa

    2008-12-30

    Dendrimers are relatively new, hyper-branched polymers that have many interesting abilities. Dendrimers could be used, for example, as drug or gene carriers, contrast agents, sensors for different metal ions, and in developing innovation technology. These spherical polymers are also characterized by pharmacological activity against different bacterial and viral diseases. Dendrimers are currently being intensively investigated as anti-prion and anti-amyloid fibril agents. They can be used to build specific dendrimer films to be applied in modern technology. This review describes different uses of dendrimer particles in biomedical sciences and nanotechnology and shows advantages of their application.

  2. Tailored Band Gaps in Sulfur- and Nitrogen-Containing Porous Donor-Acceptor Polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, D.; Kochergin, Y. S.; Acharjya, A.; Ichangi, Arun; Opanasenko, Maksym; Čejka, Jiří; Lappan, U.; Arki, P.; He, J.; Schmidt, J.; Nachtigall, P.; Thomas, A.; Tarábek, Ján; Bojdys, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 53 (2017), s. 13023-13027 ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : conjugated microporous polymers * donor-acceptor dyads * photocatalysis * sulfur * triazine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry; Physical chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 5.317, year: 2016

  3. Board on chemical sciences and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology organizes and provides direction for standing and ad hoc committees charged with addressing specific issues relevant to the continued health of the chemical sciences and technology community. Studies currently under the oversight of the BCST include a major survey of chemical engineering, an examination of the problems of biohazards in the laboratory, and an analysis of the roots and magnitude of the problem of obsolescent facilities for research and teaching in departments in the chemical sciences and engineering. The Board continues to respond to specific agency requests for program assessments and advice. BCST members are designated to serve as liaison with major federal agencies or departments that support research in order to help identify ways for the board to assist the these organizations. The BCST also maintains close contact with professional societies and nongovernmental organizations that share the Board's concern for the health of chemical sciences and technology. Individual Board members are assigned responsibility for liaison with the American Chemical Society, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the American Society of Biological Chemists, the Council for Chemical Research, the Chemistry and Biochemistry Sections of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and the National Academy of Engineering (NAE). In the past few years, the Board has served as a focus and a forum for a variety of issues that relate specifically to the health of chemistry. A sampling of these concerns include: industry-university cooperation; basic research funding in DOD, DOE, NIH, and NSF; basic research in the chemistry of life processes; basic research in biochemical engineering; basic research in the science and technology of new materials; and undergraduate education in chemistry and chemical engineering

  4. Application of neutron scattering in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, C.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Neutron scattering offers many opportunities in sciences and technology. This is particularly true in the field of polymer sciences and materials. It is mainly because that the scattering length scales (q -1 ) and scattering contrast (scattering cross-sections) makes neutron a perfect tool for polymer studies. Several examples will be used to illustrate the importance of the small angle neutron scattering and the neutron reflection studies in polymer physics. These include the determination of phase diagram, interaction parameter, and spinodal decomposition kinetics by SANS. In the dynamics area, examples will be given to illustrate the critical temperature shift and mixing of polymer blends under shear flow. Also, the confinement effect on the phase separated structure of polymer blend films will be used to demonstrate the importance of the neutron reflectivity measurement

  5. A primer on polymer nomenclature: Structure-based, sourced-based and trade names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymer nomenclature is important because it is part of the language of polymer science and is needed for polymer identification, reference, and documentation. A primer on polymer nomenclature is provided herein for people new to the field or for instructional use. Both structure-based and source-...

  6. How do polymers degrade?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Suping

    2011-03-01

    Materials derived from agricultural products such as cellulose, starch, polylactide, etc. are more sustainable and environmentally benign than those derived from petroleum. However, applications of these polymers are limited by their processing properties, chemical and thermal stabilities. For example, polyethylene terephthalate fabrics last for many years under normal use conditions, but polylactide fabrics cannot due to chemical degradation. There are two primary mechanisms through which these polymers degrade: via hydrolysis and via oxidation. Both of these two mechanisms are related to combined factors such as monomer chemistry, chain configuration, chain mobility, crystallinity, and permeation to water and oxygen, and product geometry. In this talk, we will discuss how these materials degrade and how the degradation depends on these factors under application conditions. Both experimental studies and mathematical modeling will be presented.

  7. The future of discovery chemistry: quo vadis? Academic to industrial--the maturation of medicinal chemistry to chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Torsten; Bishop, Cheryl

    2010-04-01

    At Roche, we set out to think about the future role of medicinal chemistry in drug discovery in a project involving both Roche internal stakeholders and external experts in drug discovery chemistry. To derive a coherent strategy, selected scientists were asked to take extreme positions and to derive two orthogonal strategic options: chemistry as the traditional mainstream science and chemistry as the central entrepreneurial science. We believe today's role of medicinal chemistry in industry has remained too narrow. To provide the innovation that industry requires, medicinal chemistry must play its part and diversify at pace with our increasing understanding of chemical biology and network pharmacology. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanoporous thermosetting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Vijay I; Palmese, Giuseppe R

    2005-02-15

    Potential applications of nanoporous thermosetting polymers include polyelectrolytes in fuel cells, separation membranes, adsorption media, and sensors. Design of nanoporous polymers for such applications entails controlling permeability by tailoring pore size, structure, and interface chemistry. Nanoporous thermosetting polymers are often synthesized via free radical mechanisms using solvents that phase separate during polymerization. In this work, a novel technique for the synthesis of nanoporous thermosets is presented that is based on the reactive encapsulation of an inert solvent using step-growth cross-linking polymerization without micro/macroscopic phase separation. The criteria for selecting such a monomer-polymer-solvent system are discussed based on FTIR analysis, observed micro/macroscopic phase separation, and thermodynamics of swelling. Investigation of resulting network pore structures by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering following extraction and supercritical drying using carbon dioxide showed that nanoporous polymeric materials with pore sizes ranging from 1 to 50 nm can be synthesized by varying the solvent content. The differences in the porous morphology of these materials compared to more common free radically polymerized analogues that exhibit phase separation were evident from SEM imaging. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the chemical activity of the nanoporous materials obtained by our method could be tailored by grafting appropriate functional groups at the pore interface.

  9. Introducing integrated product and process development into the education of science and engineering undergraduates: a lecture course with an accompanying case-study programme at the ETH chemistry department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, K; Jödicke, G; Alean-Kirkpatrick, P; Hungerbühler, K

    2001-04-01

    Increased quality requirements in the development of chemical products and a growing awareness within society of the activities of chemical companies present a new challenge to the education of young scientists. Nowadays, the teaching of chemists, chemical engineers and environmental scientists at universities has to go beyond the traditional, discipline-orientated knowledge acquisition. The students also have to learn to work and communicate in interdisciplinary teams, to solve application-oriented tasks and to integrate scientific, economical, ecological and social aspects into their work. For this reason, a case-study programme was launched at the chemistry department of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. In this paper, we describe the organisational aspects of the programme, its inclusion into academic and industrial environments and summarise some of the scientific methodologies applied. One of the seven case-studies, an assessment of a modern insecticide, is presented in more detail. Finally, we discuss how far the case-study programme is suitable for introducing a new mode of knowledge production to universities.

  10. General chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yeong Sik; Lee, Dong Seop; Ryu, Haung Ryong; Jang, Cheol Hyeon; Choi, Bong Jong; Choi, Sang Won

    1993-07-01

    The book concentrates on the latest general chemistry, which is divided int twenty-three chapters. It deals with basic conception and stoichiometry, nature of gas, structure of atoms, quantum mechanics, symbol and structure of an electron of ion and molecule, chemical thermodynamics, nature of solid, change of state and liquid, properties of solution, chemical equilibrium, solution and acid-base, equilibrium of aqueous solution, electrochemistry, chemical reaction speed, molecule spectroscopy, hydrogen, oxygen and water, metallic atom; 1A, IIA, IIIA, carbon and atom IVA, nonmetal atom and an inert gas, transition metals, lanthanons, and actinoids, nuclear properties and radioactivity, biochemistry and environment chemistry.

  11. Indoor Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Carslaw, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This review aims to encapsulate the importance, ubiquity, and complexity of indoor chemistry. We discuss the many sources of indoor air pollutants and summarize their chemical reactions in the air and on surfaces. We also summarize some of the known impacts of human occupants, who act as sources...... and sinks of indoor chemicals, and whose activities (e.g., cooking, cleaning, smoking) can lead to extremely high pollutant concentrations. As we begin to use increasingly sensitive and selective instrumentation indoors, we are learning more about chemistry in this relatively understudied environment....

  12. Conjugated polymer photovoltaic devices and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozer, A.J.; Niyazi, Serdar Sariciftci

    2006-01-01

    The science and technology of conjugated polymer-based photovoltaic devices (bulk heterojunction solar cells) is highlighted focusing on three major issues, i.e. (i) nano-morphology optimization, (ii) improving charge carrier mobility, (iii) improving spectral sensitivity. Successful strategies towards improved photovoltaic performance are presented using various novel materials, including double-cable polymers, regioregular polymers and low bandgap polymers. The examples presented herein demonstrate that the bulk heterojunction concept is a viable approach towards developing photovoltaic systems by inexpensive solution-based fabrication technologies. (authors)

  13. Fiscal 1993 R and D project for industrial science and technology. Report on results of R and D on silicon-based high polymer material; 1993 nendo keisokei kobunshi zairyo no kenkyu kaihtsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    R and D was conducted on the silicon-based high polymer that are hoped for superior electronic/optical functions and heat/flame-resistant dynamical properties, for the purpose of establishing fundamental technologies such as molecular design, synthesis, material forming and evaluation method, with the fiscal 1993 results summarized. In the synthesis of electrically conductive silicon-based polymeric materials, a concept of indirect doping was presented, revealing that workability and electrically conductive properties were enhanced by additives. In the synthesis of new silicon-based polymeric materials capable of circuit plotting, studies were made on Si-Si bond forming reaction of alkoxydisilanes as well as on the correlation between polysilane skeleton structure and its property. In the synthesis of new silicon-based polymeric materials having for example a light-emitting function, evaluation was made on synthesis and light emitting property concerning the compound that controlled the silicon skeleton structure. In addition, R and D was conducted on the precision synthesis technology of compounds, on which manifestation of photoelectric conversion function was expected. Further, research was done on unsaturated and high coordination organosilicic compound, functionality of silicon-based high polymer, and synthesis/polymerization of silicon monomer. (NEDO)

  14. Polymer Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Daniel T.; Balsara, Nitash P.

    2013-07-01

    This review article covers applications in which polymer electrolytes are used: lithium batteries, fuel cells, and water desalination. The ideas of electrochemical potential, salt activity, and ion transport are presented in the context of these applications. Potential is defined, and we show how a cell potential measurement can be used to ascertain salt activity. The transport parameters needed to fully specify a binary electrolyte (salt + solvent) are presented. We define five fundamentally different types of homogeneous electrolytes: type I (classical liquid electrolytes), type II (gel electrolytes), type III (dry polymer electrolytes), type IV (dry single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes), and type V (solvated single-ion-conducting polymer electrolytes). Typical values of transport parameters are provided for all types of electrolytes. Comparison among the values provides insight into the transport mechanisms occurring in polymer electrolytes. It is desirable to decouple the mechanical properties of polymer electrolyte membranes from the ionic conductivity. One way to accomplish this is through the development of microphase-separated polymers, wherein one of the microphases conducts ions while the other enhances the mechanical rigidity of the heterogeneous polymer electrolyte. We cover all three types of conducting polymer electrolyte phases (types III, IV, and V). We present a simple framework that relates the transport parameters of heterogeneous electrolytes to homogeneous analogs. We conclude by discussing electrochemical stability of electrolytes and the effects of water contamination because of their relevance to applications such as lithium ion batteries.

  15. Handbook of heterocyclic chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katritzky, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    ... Heterocyclic Chemistry I (1984) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry II (1996) Comprehensive Heterocyclic Chemistry III (2008) Comprehensive Organic Functional Group Transformations I (1995) Compreh...

  16. Reinventing Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Whitesides, George McClelland

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is in a period of change, from an era focused on molecules and reactions, to one in which manipulations of systems of molecules and reactions will be essential parts of controlling larger systems. This Essay traces paths from the past to possible futures.

  17. Chemistry Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short articles on the kinetics of the hydrogen peroxide-iodide ion reaction, simulation of fluidization catalysis, the use of Newman projection diagrams to represent steric relationships in organic chemistry, the use of synthetic substrates for proteolytic enzyme reactions, and two simple clock reactions"--hydrolysis of halogenoalkanes and…

  18. Combinatorial chemistry approach to development of molecular plastic solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godovsky, Dmitri; Inganäs, Olle; Brabec, Christoph J.; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.; Janssen, Rene A.J.; Prato, M.; Maggini, M.; Segura, Jose; Martin, Nazario

    1999-01-01

    We used a combinatorial chemistry approach to develop the molecular plastic solar cells based on soluble fullerene derivatives or solubilized TCNQ molecules in combination with conjugated polymers. Profiles, formed by the diffusion of low molecular weight component in the spin-cast polymer host were

  19. News from Online: Industrial Chemicals and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-02-01

    of the American Chemical Society Divisions of Polymer Chemistry and Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering and General Electric Corporation. The POLYED site, http:/ /chemdept.uwsp.edu/polyed/index.htm, is hosted by the University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point. This National Center for Polymer Education is another good place to go for information. More education is available at the Ziegler Research Group Home Page at http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/groups/ziegler/index.html . Go to Metallocene as Olefin Polymerization Catalysis: An Introduction ( http://www.chem.ucalgary.ca/groups/ziegler/met_intro.html ) for historical accounts of metallocene and Ziegler-Natta catalysts. Movies are available here too. This Canadian site is well-documented and educational. Back at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, The Why Files site at http://whyfiles.news.wisc.edu helps bring important chemical and technology news to the public. Go to the archived files of October 1997 ( http://whyfiles.news.wisc.edu/shorties/catalyst.html ) to find information about the importance of low-temperature metallocene catalysts. The Why Files received funding from the National Science Foundation. Go here for science information in an easy-to-read format. One of the driving forces toward better catalysis is the attempt to reach 100% product, combining efficiency with lowered pollution. Companies can look to the Environmental Protection Agency for information: Environsense at http://es.epa.gov/ is pledged to offer "Common Sense Solutions to Environmental Problems". So where can we get these polymers? The American Chemical Society can help. Go to Chemcylopedia at http://pubs.acs.org/chemcy99/ for great information. Both purchasers and users of chemicals can benefit from this site. Searches can be made on the chemical or on the supplier. Information provided includes CAS Registry Numbers and special shipping requirements as well as potential applications. Do you remember that we started with paper? Let

  20. International meeting on radiation chemistry and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The conference heard 76 papers; the abstracts of 74 of them were inputted in INIS. They deal with the basic principles and mechanisms of radiation chemistry, with radiolysis, radiation cross-linking of polymers, with methods and instruments for irradiation beam dosimetry, and with radiation application in the irradiation of foods and wastes. (M.D.)

  1. Importance of nuclear power for chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolotyrkin, J.

    1982-01-01

    Examples are given of the use of ionizing radiations in nuclear chemistry, in radiation cross-linking of polymers. The possibilities are also indicated of applications in the disinfection of wastes, in fertilizer production and packaging, in the production of cellulose and hydrogen. The implementation of the said technologies depends on the solution of a number organizational problems. (J.B.)

  2. Nuclear Science and Technology for Thai Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Bangkok

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Full text: The 11th conference on the nuclear science and technology was held on 2-3 July 2009 in Bangkok. This conference contain paper on non-power applications of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry. These application include irradiation of food for the infestation tram technologies used in diagnosis and therapy and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes. Some technologies which evolved from the development of nuclear power industry are also discussed

  3. Chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on chemistry and physics of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: primary processes in radiation physics and chemistry, general chemistry in radiation chemistry, DNA and model systems in radiation chemistry, molecules of biological interest in radiation chemistry, techniques in radiation chemistry, hot atom chemistry. refs.; figs.; tabs

  4. 50th Anniversary Perspective: Polymers with Complex Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Polymeropoulos, George; Zapsas, George; Ntetsikas, Konstantinos; Bilalis, Panayiotis; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The scope of this Perspective is to highlight innovative contributions in the synthesis of well-defined complex macromolecular architectures and to emphasize the importance of these materials to polymer physical chemistry, physics, theory

  5. Fine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Fine Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research programs are centered on the renewal of the organic chemistry most important reactions and on the invention of new, highly efficient and highly selective reactions, by applying low cost reagents and solvents. An important research domain concerns the study and fabrication of new catalysts. They are obtained by means of the reactive sputtering of the metals and metal oxydes thin films. The Monte Carlo simulations of the long-range electrostatic interaction in a clay and the obtention of acrylamides from anhydrous or acrylic ester are summarized. Moreover, the results obtained in the field of catalysis are also given. The published papers and the congress communications are included [fr

  6. Radioanalytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The bibliography of Hungarian literature in the field of radioanalytical chemistry covers the four-year period 1976-1979. The list of papers contains 290 references in the alphabetical order of the first authors. The majority of the titles belongs to neutron activation analysis, labelling, separation and determination of radioactive isotopes. Other important fields like radioimmunoassay, environmental protection etc. are covered as well. (Sz.J.)

  7. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The division for Analytical Chemistry continued to try and develope an accurate method for the separation of trace amounts from mixtures which, contain various other elements. Ion exchange chromatography is of special importance in this regard. New separation techniques were tried on certain trace amounts in South African standard rock materials and special ceramics. Methods were also tested for the separation of carrier-free radioisotopes from irradiated cyclotron discs

  8. Industrial chemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This book on industrial chemistry engineering is divided in two parts. The first part deals with industrial chemistry, inorganic industrial chemistry, organic industrial chemistry, analytical chemistry and practical questions. The last parts explain the chemical industry, a unit parts and thermodynamics in chemical industry and reference. It reveals the test subjects for the industrial chemistry engineering with a written examination and practical skill.

  9. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  10. Current developments in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The theme of the 2000 Gordon Conference on Radiation Chemistry was 'diversity'. The range of topics covered was heralded by the opening presentations which went from the galactic to molecular biology, radiation chemistry and non thermal surface processes in the outer solar system to achievements and open challenges in DNA research. The rest of the conference reflected the extended usage of radiation chemistry -its processes and techniques - applied to a panorama of topics. The ability to generate either oxidising or reducing free radicals in known quantities has been the foundation stone on which all applications are based. In particular it is noticeable that biological systems have been attempted by an increasing number of workers, such as studies of biological ageing and also reactions of nitric oxide in biological environments. Electron transfer processes in proteins are straightforward applications of solvated electron chemistry even if the results are not straightforward in their interpretation. Other topics presented include, radiation chemical processes induced in: supercritical CO 2 , treatment of contaminated materials, 3-dimensional Fullerenes, zeolites and radiation catalysis. In material science, aspects of ions and excited states in polymers, conducting polymers, donor acceptor processes in photo curing, enhancement of photo-electron yields in doped silver halides- improvement of the photographic process, radiation chemistry in cages and bubbles are discussed. The fundamental aspects of radiation chemistry are not yet all worked out. Subpicosecond pulsed electron beam sources, some of them 'tabletop', are still being planned to probe the early events in radiation chemistry both in water and in organic solvents. There is still an interest in the chemistry produced by pre-solvated electrons and the processes induced by heavy ion radiolysis. The description of the relaxation of an irradiated system which contains uneven distributions of ions

  11. Photochemical stability of electrochromic polymers and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    The stability of fully printed flexible organic electrochromics based on 11 different conjugated polymers is explored from the fundamental chemical degradation level to the operational device level. The photochemical stability of the electrochromic polymers (ECPs) is studied enabling an analysis ...... based on flexible barrier substrates exhibit increased stability and are indeed viable in devices such as shading elements, light management systems, displays with low switching speed requirements and signage. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry....

  12. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER's mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  13. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER`s mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  14. Surface science and heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somorjai, G.A.

    1980-05-01

    The catalytic reactions studied include hydrocarbon conversion over platinum, the transition metal-catalyzed hydrogenation of carbon monoxide, and the photocatalyzed dissociation of water over oxide surfaces. The method of combined surface science and catalytic studies is similar to those used in synthetic organic chemistry. The single-crystal models for the working catalyst are compared with real catalysts by comparing the rates of cyclopropane ring opening on platinum and the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide on rhodium single crystal surface with those on practical commercial catalyst systems. Excellent agreement was obtained for these reactions. This document reviews what was learned about heterogeneous catalysis from these surface science approaches over the past 15 years and present models of the active catalyst surface

  15. Chemistry Division : Annual progress report of 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Research and development activities (during 1974) of the Chemistry Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, are described. Some of the activities of particular interest to nuclear science and technology are: (1) chemistry-based problems of the operating power reactors such as development of a decontaminating solution for power reactors, correlation of iodine-131 levels in the primary heat transport system of a reactor with its operation (2) release of fission gases like xenon from ceramic fuels and (3) radiation chemistry of nitrate solutions (M.G.B.)

  16. Microporous conjugated polymers via homopolymerization of 2,5-diethynylthiophene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bondarev, D.; Sivkova, Radoslava; Šuly, P.; Polášková, M.; Krejčí, O.; Křikavová, R.; Trávníček, Z.; Zukal, Arnošt; Kubů, Martin; Sedláček, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 92, July (2017), s. 213-219 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09637S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : thiophene * microporous * catalysis Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UFCH-W) OBOR OECD: Polymer science; Polymer science (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  17. Phototriggered functionalization of hierarchically structured polymer brushes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Kostina, Nina Yu.; Bruns, M.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Barner-Kowollik, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 21 (2015), s. 5899-5907 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer brushes * antifouling * click chemistry Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.993, year: 2015

  18. Board on chemical sciences and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology organizes and provides direction for standing and ad-hoc committees charged with addressing specific issues relevant to the continued health of the chemical sciences and technology community. Studies currently under the oversight of the BCST include a major survey of the chemical sciences, a complementary survey of chemical engineering, an examination of the problems of biohazards in the laboratory, and an analysis of the roots and magnitude of the problem of obsolescent facilities for research and teaching in departments in the chemical sciences and engineering. The Board continues to respond to specific agency requests for program assessments and advice. BCST members are designated to serve as liaison with major federal agencies or departments that support research in order to help identify ways for the Board to assist these organizations. The BCST maintains close contact with professional societies and non-governmental organizations that share the Board's concern for the health of chemical sciences and technology. Individual Board members are assigned responsibility for liaison with the American Chemical Society, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the American Society of Biological Chemists, the Council for Chemical Research, the NAS Chemistry and Biochemistry Sections, and the National Academy of Engineering. In the past few years, the Board has served as a focus and a forum for a variety of issues that relate specifically to the health of chemistry

  19. Industrial ecology: Environmental chemistry and hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1999-01-01

    Industrial ecology may be a relatively new concept -- yet it`s already proven instrumental for solving a wide variety of problems involving pollution and hazardous waste, especially where available material resources have been limited. By treating industrial systems in a manner that parallels ecological systems in nature, industrial ecology provides a substantial addition to the technologies of environmental chemistry. Stanley E. Manahan, bestselling author of many environmental chemistry books for Lewis Publishers, now examines Industrial Ecology: Environmental Chemistry and Hazardous Waste. His study of this innovative technology uses an overall framework of industrial ecology to cover hazardous wastes from an environmental chemistry perspective. Chapters one to seven focus on how industrial ecology relates to environmental science and technology, with consideration of the anthrosphere as one of five major environmental spheres. Subsequent chapters deal specifically with hazardous substances and hazardous waste, as they relate to industrial ecology and environmental chemistry.

  20. Nuclear science and engineering in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Becker, K

    1979-01-01

    A brief review of the development of nuclear science and technology in China is given. It is stated that the change of leadership in China has brought about a radical revision of the attitude towards the science and technology. In the plan of the development of nuclear science and technology adopted in 1973 a great emphasis is laid on investigations in the field of high energy physics. For instance, it is planned to construct, before 1983, a 30-50 GeV proton accelerator. A brief description is given of main nuclear research institutes in Phangshan, Peking and Shanghai which are shown to Western visitors. It is indicated that at these institutes there are the only two research reactors in China, a 3.5-MW LWR and 10 MW HWR, two cyclotrons and a 90-cm tokamak. These institutes also conduct investigations on solid-state physics, low-temperature physics, high-pressure physics, lasers, radiation biology, radiation chemistry, etc.

  1. Polymer Nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods for the synthesis of polymer nanocomposites. In this article we .... ers, raw materials recovery, drug delivery and anticorrosion .... region giving rise to dose-packed absorption bands called an IR ... using quaternary ammonium salts.

  2. Theoretical chemistry periodicities in chemistry and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Eyring, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical Chemistry: Periodicities in Chemistry and Biology, Volume 4 covers the aspects of theoretical chemistry. The book discusses the stably rotating patterns of reaction and diffusion; the chemistry of inorganic systems exhibiting nonmonotonic behavior; and population cycles. The text also describes the mathematical modeling of excitable media in neurobiology and chemistry; oscillating enzyme reactions; and oscillatory properties and excitability of the heart cell membrane. Selected topics from the theory of physico-chemical instabilities are also encompassed. Chemists, mechanical engin

  3. Solution chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies in heavy element chemistry. Topics considered are: synergistic complexes of plutonyl ion; water uptake in synergistic systems; formation constants of some uranyl BETA -diketone complexes; thermodynamic acid dissociation constants of BETA -diketones; thermodynamic formation constants of uranyl BETA -diketonates; thiocyanate complexes of some trivalent lanthanides and actinides; stability constants of actinide complexes using dinonyl naphthalenesulfonic acid extraction; TBP extraction of actinides; stability constants of complexes of Pu(III) with 5- sulfosalicycllc acid; and solvent extraction behavior of Pu( VII). (DHM)

  4. Interstellar chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2006-08-15

    In the past half century, radioastronomy has changed our perception and understanding of the universe. In this issue of PNAS, the molecular chemistry directly observed within the galaxy is discussed. For the most part, the description of the molecular transformations requires specific kinetic schemes rather than chemical thermodynamics. Ionization of the very abundant molecular hydrogen and atomic helium followed by their secondary reactions is discussed. The rich variety of organic species observed is a challenge for complete understanding. The role and nature of reactions involving grain surfaces as well as new spectroscopic observations of interstellar and circumstellar regions are topics presented in this special feature.

  5. Enriching Learning for First Year Chemistry Students: Introduction of Adobe Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erica; Lye, Peter; Greatrex, Ben; Taylor, Michelle; Stupans, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    The study of chemistry is central within science and other associated degrees. At the University of New England in Armidale academics need to provide chemistry teaching in both a distance and the traditional on-campus mode within science and other degrees. This study explores the contribution that the adoption of Adobe Connect technology can make…

  6. Synthesis of regioregular pentacene-containing conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Okamoto, Toshihiro; Jiang, Ying; Becerril, Hector A.; Hong, Sanghyun; Senatore, Michelle L.; Tang, Ming L.; Toney, Michael F.; Siegrist, Theo; Bao, Zhenan

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a new class of regioregular pentacene-containing conjugated polymers via our synthetic routes reported previously. We found that our regioregular pentacene polymers showed improved ordering than their regiorandom counterpart as well as ambipolar OFET performance. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Swelling of cross-linked polymers: interpretations and misinterpretations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Karel; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, 20 August (2017), s. 102 ISSN 0065-7727. [ACS National Meeting & Exposition /254./. 20.08.2017-24.08.2017, Washington] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : swelling * cross-linked polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  8. Direct measurement of exciton dissociation energy in polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Toušek, J.; Toušková, J.; Chomutová, R.; Paruzel, Bartosz; Pfleger, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 015113. ISSN 2158-3226 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : exciton dissociation energy * polymers * SCR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2016

  9. Polymer/clay nanocomposites and their gas barrier properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalendová, A.; Měřínská, D.; Gerard, J. F.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 9 (2013), s. 1418-1424 ISSN 0272-8397. [International Conference Times of Polymers & Composites /6./ - TOP 2012. Ischia, 10.06.2012-14.06.2012] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer nanocomposites * montmorillonite * intercalation agents Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2013

  10. Progress in Preparation of Monodisperse Polymer Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan

    2017-12-01

    The monodisperse crosslinked polymer microspheres have attracted much attention because of their superior thermal and solvent resistance, mechanical strength, surface activity and adsorption properties. They are of wide prospects for using in many fields such as biomedicine, electronic science, information technology, analytical chemistry, standard measurement and environment protection etc. Functional polymer microspheres prepared by different methods have the outstanding surface property, quantum size effect and good potential future in applications with its designable structure, controlled size and large ratio of surface to volume. Scholars of all over the world have focused on this hot topic. The preparation method and research progress in functional polymer microspheres are addressed in the paper.

  11. Proceedings of the Eighth Conference of Nuclear Sciences and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The publication has been set up as a textbook for researching dealing with radioisotope production during work with Human needs of Nuclear Science and applications. The book consists of the following chapters: chemistry; radioisotope production, trace analysis; environment monitoring; environmental effect; waste management; physics; reactors; nuclear safety and safeguards; materials; radiation protection ; agriculture; hydrology; nuclear medicine; medical applications; radiation chemistry; environmental studies; biological effects of ionizing radiation on agriculture;

  12. Chemistry without Borders: Careers, Research, and Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is based on two symposia of the American Chemical Society (ACS): 1) “The Transnational Practice of Chemistry and Allied Sciences and Engineering: Study, Research and Careers without Borders” held at the Spring National Meeting in Denver in March 2015, and 2) “International Entrepreneurship...

  13. chemistry syllabus of the nigeria science curriculum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The senior secondary two chemistry course content of the Nigerian science curriculum was assessed ... of the students. In Nigeria, the need to re-examine both what to teach in science and how to teach it led ..... primary school. Our industries ...

  14. Chemistry Vocabulary Attainment among Higher Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafoor, K. Abdul; Greeshma, K.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of growing empirical evidence to lack of clear understanding of the language of the science content, undesirable student outcomes including difficulty in learning science and a lack of interest with their science content area, and chemistry being particularly loaded with specialized terminology of its own, this study analyzed the…

  15. New Pathways for Teaching Chemistry: Reflective Judgment in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, David C.

    1992-01-01

    The reflective judgment model offers a rich context for analysis of science and science teaching. It provides deeper understanding of the scientific process and its critical thinking and reveals fundamental connections between science and the other liberal arts. Classroom techniques from a college chemistry course illustrate the utility of the…

  16. Functional supramolecular polymers for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruijiao; Zhou, Yongfeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xinyuan; Lu, Yunfeng; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-21

    As a novel class of dynamic and non-covalent polymers, supramolecular polymers not only display specific structural and physicochemical properties, but also have the ability to undergo reversible changes of structure, shape, and function in response to diverse external stimuli, making them promising candidates for widespread applications ranging from academic research to industrial fields. By an elegant combination of dynamic/reversible structures with exceptional functions, functional supramolecular polymers are attracting increasing attention in various fields. In particular, functional supramolecular polymers offer several unique advantages, including inherent degradable polymer backbones, smart responsiveness to various biological stimuli, and the ease for the incorporation of multiple biofunctionalities (e.g., targeting and bioactivity), thereby showing great potential for a wide range of applications in the biomedical field. In this Review, the trends and representative achievements in the design and synthesis of supramolecular polymers with specific functions are summarized, as well as their wide-ranging biomedical applications such as drug delivery, gene transfection, protein delivery, bio-imaging and diagnosis, tissue engineering, and biomimetic chemistry. These achievements further inspire persistent efforts in an emerging interdisciplin-ary research area of supramolecular chemistry, polymer science, material science, biomedical engineering, and nanotechnology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danbo Yang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(L-g-glutamylglutamine-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX. PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  18. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Danbo; Yu, Lei; Van, Sang

    2010-01-01

    The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(l-γ-glutamylglutamine)-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX). PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic

  19. Clinically Relevant Anticancer Polymer Paclitaxel Therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Danbo [Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Yu, Lei, E-mail: yu-lei@gg.nitto.co.jp [Biomedical Engineering and Technology Institute, Institutes for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai, 200062 (China); Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, 501 Via Del Monte, Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States); Van, Sang [Biomedical Group, Nitto Denko Technical Corporation, 501 Via Del Monte, Oceanside, CA 92058 (United States)

    2010-12-23

    The concept of utilizing polymers in drug delivery has been extensively explored for improving the therapeutic index of small molecule drugs. In general, polymers can be used as polymer-drug conjugates or polymeric micelles. Each unique application mandates its own chemistry and controlled release of active drugs. Each polymer exhibits its own intrinsic issues providing the advantage of flexibility. However, none have as yet been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. General aspects of polymer and nano-particle therapeutics have been reviewed. Here we focus this review on specific clinically relevant anticancer polymer paclitaxel therapeutics. We emphasize their chemistry and formulation, in vitro activity on some human cancer cell lines, plasma pharmacokinetics and tumor accumulation, in vivo efficacy, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we include a short review of our recent developments of a novel poly(l-γ-glutamylglutamine)-paclitaxel nano-conjugate (PGG-PTX). PGG-PTX has its own unique property of forming nano-particles. It has also been shown to possess a favorable profile of pharmacokinetics and to exhibit efficacious potency. This review might shed light on designing new and better polymer paclitaxel therapeutics for potential anticancer applications in the clinic.

  20. The new technology for manufacturing polymer Nanopowder. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRYAZNOV Igor Vasilevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the problem of pollution by waste polymers. The research is dedicated to the methods of recycling of polymers, in particular PTFE. It was shown that the most environmentally friendly disposal methods with the lowest cost are the methods based on stepwise mechanical dispersion. Technologies and devices based on the principles of abrasive vortex dispersion polymers have been developed and tested. To protect the intellectual property of the author the staff of LLC TARK (Ukraine and the Science and Technology Center Polymate (Israel registered patent «Method and apparatus for manufacturing submicron polymer powder» USA No. 12 / 981.202 of 29.12.2010.

  1. The new technology for manufacturing polymer Nanopowder. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRYAZNOV Igor Vasilevich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the problem of pollution by waste polymers. The research is dedicated to the methods of recycling of polymers, in particular PTFE. It was shown that the most environmentally friendly disposal methods with the lowest cost are the methods based on stepwise mechanical dispersion. Technologies and devices based on the principles of abrasive vortex dispersion polymers have been developed and tested. To protect the intellectual property of the author the staff of LLC TARK (Ukraine and the Science and Technology Center Polymate (Israel registered patent «Method and apparatus for manufacturing submicron polymer powder» USA No. 12 / 981.202 of 29.12.2010.

  2. Radiation chemistry and bioradical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferradini, C.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen metabolism results, at the cellular level, in the formation of superoxyde radical O 2 - · and probably also of hydroxyl radical OH·. Other radical species can be produced from exogenous or endogenous molecules and nearly all of them have the possibility to react with oxygen giving peroxyradicals. Some of these transients play a role in various biological processes such as phagocytosis, inflammation or ischemy although the mechanisms invoked are poorly understood. Radiation chemistry is an invaluable tool for obtaining a quantitative view of these mechanisms. A description is given of this interaction [fr

  3. Diverse applications of radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.

    1998-01-01

    Radiation chemistry began as early radiotherapists needed a reliable and appropriate dosimeter. The iron sulphate dosimeter, using ferrous iron in sulphuric acid and oxidation by irradiation, was a nasty brew of chemicals but it was sensitive, reliable and conveniently had the same density as human tissue. Water irradiation chemistry studies were driven by the need to understand the fundamental processes in radiotherapy; to control the corrosion problems in the cooling/ heat exchange systems of nuclear reactors and to find stable solvents and reagents for use in spent fuel element processing. The electrical and mechanical stability of materials in high radiation fields stimulated the attention of radiation chemists to the study of defects in solids. The coupled use of radiation and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) enabled the identity of defect structures to be probed. This research led to the development of the sensitive Thermoluminescent Dosimeters, TLD's and a technique for dating of archaeological pottery artefacts. Radiation chemistry in the area of medicine is very active with fundamental studies of the mechanism of DNA strand breakage and the development of radiation sensitisers and protectors for therapeutic purposes. The major area of polymer radiation chemistry is one which Australia commands great international respect

  4. Substituted Polyacetylenes Prepared with Rh Catalysts: From Linear to Network-Type Conjugated Polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, J.; Balcar, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2017), s. 31-51 ISSN 1558-3724 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : conjugated polymers * polyacetylenes * conjugated polymer networks Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 6.459, year: 2016

  5. Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate 2005 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz De La Rubia, T; Fluss, M J; Rath, K; Rennie, G; Shang, S; Kitrinos, G

    2006-01-01

    discovery of a new source of coherent light adds a new tool to an array of methods we use to more fully understand the properties of materials. Insights into the early stages of polymer crystallization may lead to new materials for our national-security mission and private industry. (3) Science Supporting National Objectives at the Intersection of Chemistry, Materials Science, and Biology--We are improving drug binding for cancer treatment through the use of new tools that are helping us characterize protein-antibody interactions. By probing proteins and nucleic acids, we may gain an understanding of Alzheimer's, Mad Cow, and other neurodegenerative diseases. (4) Applied Nuclear Science for Human Health and National Security--Our work with cyanobacteria is leading to a fuller understanding of how these microorganisms affect the global carbon cycle. We are also developing new ways to reduce nuclear threats with better radiation detectors. Dynamic Teams: The dynamic teams section illustrates the directorate's organizational structure that supports a team environment across disciplinary and institutional boundaries. Our three divisions maintain a close relationship with Laboratory programs, working with directorate and program leaders to ensure an effective response to programmatic needs. CMS's divisions are responsible for line management and leadership, and together, provide us with the flexibility and agility to respond to change and meet program milestones. The three divisions are: Materials Science and Technology Division; Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Division; and Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division. By maintaining an organizational structure that offers an environment of collaborative problem-solving opportunities, we are able to nurture the discoveries and breakthroughs required for future successes. The dynamic teams section also presents the work of CMS's postdoctoral fellows, who bring to the Laboratory many of the most recent advances taking place

  6. Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz De La Rubia, T; Fluss, M J; Rath, K; Rennie, G; Shang, S; Kitrinos, G

    2006-08-08

    discovery of a new source of coherent light adds a new tool to an array of methods we use to more fully understand the properties of materials. Insights into the early stages of polymer crystallization may lead to new materials for our national-security mission and private industry. (3) Science Supporting National Objectives at the Intersection of Chemistry, Materials Science, and Biology--We are improving drug binding for cancer treatment through the use of new tools that are helping us characterize protein-antibody interactions. By probing proteins and nucleic acids, we may gain an understanding of Alzheimer's, Mad Cow, and other neurodegenerative diseases. (4) Applied Nuclear Science for Human Health and National Security--Our work with cyanobacteria is leading to a fuller understanding of how these microorganisms affect the global carbon cycle. We are also developing new ways to reduce nuclear threats with better radiation detectors. Dynamic Teams: The dynamic teams section illustrates the directorate's organizational structure that supports a team environment across disciplinary and institutional boundaries. Our three divisions maintain a close relationship with Laboratory programs, working with directorate and program leaders to ensure an effective response to programmatic needs. CMS's divisions are responsible for line management and leadership, and together, provide us with the flexibility and agility to respond to change and meet program milestones. The three divisions are: Materials Science and Technology Division; Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Division; and Chemical Biology and Nuclear Science Division. By maintaining an organizational structure that offers an environment of collaborative problem-solving opportunities, we are able to nurture the discoveries and breakthroughs required for future successes. The dynamic teams section also presents the work of CMS's postdoctoral fellows, who bring to the Laboratory many of the most recent

  7. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods...

  8. Influence of topology of highly porous methacrylate polymers on their mechanical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paljevac, M.; Kotek, Jiří; Jeřábek, Karel; Krajnc, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 2 (2018), s. 1-8, č. článku 1700337. ISSN 1438-7492 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : mechanical properties * methacrylate monoliths * polymer topology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry; CC - Organic Chemistry (UCHP-M) OBOR OECD: Polymer science; Organic chemistry (UCHP-M) Impact factor: 2.863, year: 2016

  9. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, K.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook is a Czech-to-German translation of the second revised edition and covers the subject under the headings: general nuclear chemistry, methods of nuclear chemistry, preparative nuclear chemistry, analytical nuclear chemistry, and applied chemistry. The book is especially directed to students

  10. Science and Technology Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  11. Cyclodextrin chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Z.; Chuaqui, C.A.

    1990-05-01

    The chemistry of cyclodextrins was studied. This study included synthesising some cyclodextrin derivatives, preparing selected inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin and investigating the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and certain linear oligosaccharides. This report presents a brief review of the structure and properties of cyclodextrins, the synthesis of cyclodextrin derivatives, their complexation and applications. This is followed by a description of the synthesis of some cyclodextrin derivatives and the preparation of inclusion complexes of cyclodextrin with some organic compounds. Finally, the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins, some of their derivatives and certain structurally related carbohydrates are discussed. The gamma irradiation studies were carried out for two reasons: to study the effects of gamma irradiation on cyclodextrins and their derivatives; and to investigate selectivity during the gamma irradiation of cyclodextrin derivatives

  12. Astronomical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemperer, William

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of polar polyatomic molecules in higher-density regions of the interstellar medium by means of their rotational emission detected by radioastronomy has changed our conception of the universe from essentially atomic to highly molecular. We discuss models for molecule formation, emphasizing the general lack of thermodynamic equilibrium. Detailed chemical kinetics is needed to understand molecule formation as well as destruction. Ion molecule reactions appear to be an important class for the generally low temperatures of the interstellar medium. The need for the intrinsically high-quality factor of rotational transitions to definitively pin down molecular emitters has been well established by radioastronomy. The observation of abundant molecular ions both positive and, as recently observed, negative provides benchmarks for chemical kinetic schemes. Of considerable importance in guiding our understanding of astronomical chemistry is the fact that the larger molecules (with more than five atoms) are all organic.

  13. Reburning chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpin, P.; Hupa, M.; Glarborg, P.

    1992-01-01

    No reduction chemistry in natural gas (methane) reburning was studied using detailed kinetic modeling. A reaction set including 225 reversible elementary gas-phase reactions and 48 chemical species was applied to an ideal plug flow reactor, and the most important reactions leading to NO reduction were identified and quantified for a number of conditions relevant for natural gas reburning. In addition, the influence of different process parameters on the NO reduction was investigated in the reburn zone and burn-out zone, respectively. Further, comparison of the calculations to available laboratory-scale data on reburning is made. In this paper, the impact of various fluid dynamic, mixing, and chemical effects---not accounted for in the calculations---on the NO reduction and the optimum reburning conditions predicted is discussed

  14. Combustion chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with the development and use of sensitivity analysis tools to probe the response of dependent variables to model input variables. Sensitivity analysis is important at all levels of combustion modeling. This group`s research continues to be focused on elucidating the interrelationship between features in the underlying potential energy surface (obtained from ab initio quantum chemistry calculations) and their responses in the quantum dynamics, e.g., reactive transition probabilities, cross sections, and thermal rate coefficients. The goals of this research are: (i) to provide feedback information to quantum chemists in their potential surface refinement efforts, and (ii) to gain a better understanding of how various regions in the potential influence the dynamics. These investigations are carried out with the methodology of quantum functional sensitivity analysis (QFSA).

  15. Contribution from philosophy of chemistry to chemistry education: In a case of ionic liquids as technochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudzakir, Ahmad; Hernani, Widhiyanti, Tuszie; Sudrajat, Devi Pratiwi

    2017-08-01

    Traditional chemistry education is commonly handing down of concepts, principles, and theories, such as mechanical properties, the relationship between structure and properties as well as chemical structure and chemical bonding theory, to students without engaging them in the processes of chemical inquiry. This practice leads to the lack of opportunity for the students to construct an appropriate understanding of these concepts, principles, and theories. Students are also rarely facilitated in modeling the structure and function of matter themselves. This situation shows that the philosophy of chemistry has not received as much attention from chemistry educators. The main idea of this paper is to embed philosophy of chemistry through the implementation of technochemistry in chemistry education. One of the most interesting and rapidly developing areas of modern chemistry, technologies and engineering is Ionic Liquids (ILs) as an emerging knowledge on technochemistry which can be applied to chemistry education. The developments between academic researchers and industrial developments in the ILs area are conducted in parallel. In order to overcome the existing problems of scientific development in chemistry education, the science and technology of ILs can be used for reconceptualizing the teaching and learning of chemistry to embrace the epistemology in chemistry. This study promises a potential contribution by philosophy of chemistry. The main objectives of this study are to develop: (i) a perspective based on philosophy of science considerations (rational reconstruction) in order to understand ionic liquids and (ii) teaching materials that can be used to enhance pre-service teacher's view of nature of science and technology (VNOST). The method used in the study is analytical-descriptive (elementarization), i.e. the first step in the model of educational reconstruction (MER). This study concludes that the development of the concepts and their applications of ionic

  16. Polymer nanocomposites: polymer and particle dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Narayanan, Suresh; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites containing nanoparticles smaller than the random coil size of their host polymer chains are known to exhibit unique properties, such as lower viscosity and glass transition temperature relative to the neat polymer melt. It has

  17. PEG-related polymer resins as synthetic supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial chemistry has become a significant part of the discovery and optimization process for novel drugs,affinity ligands,and catalysts.The polymeric supports play a key role in combinatory chemistry.Therefore,various kinds of functional polymer resins have been exploited as supports,reagents,and catalysts in organic synthesis.In comparison to the conventional Merrifield resins,the poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-related polymer resins have advantages including good compatibilities with polar solvents,good solvent absorbency and swelling properties.This review focuses primarily on the more recent work in the field of developing PEG-related polymer resins as supports for organic synthesis.

  18. Polymer brush collapse under shear flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korolkovas, A.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Chenneviére, A.; Restagno, F.; Wolff, M.; Adlmann, F. A.; Dennison, A. J. C.; Gutfreund, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2017), s. 1215-1224 ISSN 0024-9297 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : neutron reflectometry * coarse-grained simulation * brownian dynamics Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.835, year: 2016

  19. A Polymer "Pollution Solution" Classroom Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helser, Terry L.

    1996-01-01

    Explains an approach to presenting polymer chemistry to nonmajors that employs polystyrene foam, foam peanuts made from water soluble starch, and water soluble plastic bags. Students are presented with a pollution scenario and are guided to the discovery of solutions. (DDR)

  20. Antimocrobial Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi-Heng; Wright, Stacy C.

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  1. Development and Assessment of Green, Research-Based Instructional Materials for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.

    2010-01-01

    This research entails integrating two novel approaches for enriching student learning in chemistry into the context of the general chemistry laboratory. The first is a pedagogical approach based on research in cognitive science and the second is the green chemistry philosophy. Research has shown that inquiry-based approaches are effective in…

  2. Incorporation and Effects of Nanoparticles in a Supramolecular Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    polymerizations and main-chain supramolecular polymers . Macromolecules. 2009;42:6823–6835. 17. Wojtecki RJ, Meador MA, Rowan SJ. Using the dynamic bond...ARL-TR-7687 ● MAY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Incorporation and Effects of Nanoparticles in a Supramolecular Polymer by...Laboratory Incorporation and Effects of Nanoparticles in a Supramolecular Polymer by Alice M Savage Oak Ridge Institute of Science and Education

  3. Why Teach Environmental Chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Marjorie H.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of teaching environmental chemistry in secondary school science classes, and outlines five examples of environmental chemistry problems that focus on major concepts of chemistry and have critical implications for human survival and well-being. (JR)

  4. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  5. Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS fifth interdisciplinary symposium on materials chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafar, Mohsin; Tyagi, Adish; Tyagi, Deepak

    2014-12-01

    The focus of the present symposium on materials chemistry was on research areas in materials chemistry like: nuclear materials; high purity materials; nanomaterials and clusters; carbon based materials; fuel cell materials and other electro-ceramics; biomaterials; polymers and soft condensed matter; materials for energy conversion; thin films and surface chemistry; magnetic materials; catalysis; chemical sensors; organic and organometallic compounds; computational material chemistry etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. Environmental chemistry. Seventh edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1999-11-01

    This book presents a basic understanding of environmental chemistry and its applications. In addition to providing updated materials in this field, the book emphasizes the major concepts essential to the practice of environmental chemistry. Topics of discussion include the following: toxicological chemistry; toxicological chemistry of chemical substances; chemical analysis of water and wastewater; chemical analysis of wastes and solids; air and gas analysis; chemical analysis of biological materials and xenobiotics; fundamentals of chemistry; and fundamentals of organic chemistry.

  7. USSR Report Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    Contents: Adsorption, Chemistry,Alkaloids, Analytical Chemistry, Catalysis,Chemical Industry,,Coal Gasification, Combustion, Electrochemistry,Explosives and Explosions, Fertilizers, Free Radicals, Inorganic...

  8. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Infrared spectra of Pu(IV) polymer show effects of CO 2 adsorption and of aging. Uv light (300 nm) increases the rate of reduction of PuO 2 2+ and Pu 4+ to Pu 3+ and the Pu--U separation factor using TBP. Distribution ratios for Zr and Hf between Dowex 50W--X8 resin and H 2 SO 4 solutions were found to decrease sharply with H 2 SO 4 content. Octylphenyl acid phosphate, a mixture of monooctylphenyl and dioctylphenyl phosphoric acids, is being studied for U recovery from wet-process phosphoric acid. A study of HNO 3 leaching of Ra from U ores was completed. Effects of particle size of the packed bed on the dispersion of the boundary of the miscible phase used in oil recovery are being studied. Effects of sulfonates on toluene--n-butanol--water phase relations were determined, as were the effects of salts and solutes on the max water content of 1:1 toluene--alcohol solutions. A study was begun of hydrocarbon solubility in water--surfactant--alcohol. The mechanism of the formation of hydrous ZrO 2 --polyacrylate membranes and their use for sulfate rejection were studied. Salt rejection through hyperfiltration by clay membranes (bentonite and kaolin) was also investigated. Preliminary results are given for hyperfiltration of wood-pulping wastes by ZrO 2 membranes. 13 figures

  9. Facile design of biomaterials by 'click' chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the so‐called ‘click chemistry’ a decade ago has significantly improved the chemical toolbox for producing novel biomaterials. This review focuses primarily on the application of Cu(I)‐catalysed azide–alkyne 1,3‐cycloadditon in the preparation of numerous, diverse biomaterials...... chemistry is elaborated. The present state of creating functional and biologically active surfaces by click chemistry is presented. Finally, conducting surfaces based on an azide‐functionalized polymer with prospective biological sensor potential are introduced. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry...

  10. Antimicrobial polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjali; Duvvuri, L Sailaja; Farah, Shady; Beyth, Nurit; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2014-12-01

    Better health is basic requirement of human being, but the rapid growth of harmful pathogens and their serious health effects pose a significant challenge to modern science. Infections by pathogenic microorganisms are of great concern in many fields such as medical devices, drugs, hospital surfaces/furniture, dental restoration, surgery equipment, health care products, and hygienic applications (e.g., water purification systems, textiles, food packaging and storage, major or domestic appliances etc.) Antimicrobial polymers are the materials having the capability to kill/inhibit the growth of microbes on their surface or surrounding environment. Recently, they gained considerable interest for both academic research and industry and were found to be better than their small molecular counterparts in terms of enhanced efficacy, reduced toxicity, minimized environmental problems, resistance, and prolonged lifetime. Hence, efforts have focused on the development of antimicrobial polymers with all desired characters for optimum activity. In this Review, an overview of different antimicrobial polymers, their mechanism of action, factors affecting antimicrobial activity, and application in various fields are given. Recent advances and the current clinical status of these polymers are also discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Baston, V.F.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to the accident, the coolants in the primary and secondary systems were within normal chemistry specifications for an operating pressurized water reactor with once-through steam generators. During and immediately after the accident, additional boric acid and sodium hydroxide were added to the primary coolant for control of criticality and radioiodine solubility. A primary to secondary leak developed contaminating the water in one steam generator. For about 5 years after the accident, the primary coolant was maintained at 3800 +. 100 ppm boron and 1000 +. 100 ppm sodium concentrations. Dissolved oxygen was maintained 7.5, corrosion caused by increased dissolved oxygen levels (up to 8 ppm) and higher chloride ion content (up to 5 ppm) is minimized. Chemical control of dissolved oxygen was discontinued and the coolant was processed. Prior to removal of the reactor vessel head, the boron concentration in the coolant was increased to ≅ 5000 ppm to support future defueling operations. Decontamination of the accident generated water is described in terms of contaminated water management. In addition, the decontamination and chemical lay-up conditions for the secondary system are presented along with an overview of chemical management at TMI-2

  12. Migration chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, L.

    1992-05-01

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional K D concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  13. Science and Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Steven; Chinnery, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Describes an assignment in which the preservice teacher must find a connection between science and Shakespeare. Connects the science of the witches in Shakespeare's "Macbeth" to the holistic approach of education. (SG)

  14. Nuclear science and engineering education at a university research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveland, W.

    1993-01-01

    The role of an on-site irradiation facility in nuclear science and engineering education is examined. Using the example of a university research reactor, the use of such devices in laboratory instruction, public outreach programs, special instructional programs, research, etc. is discussed. Examples from the Oregon State University curriculum in nuclear chemistry, nuclear engineering and radiation health are given. (author) 1 tab

  15. Position paper on main areas of nuclear chemistry research and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear chemistry, with its specialized areas of nuclear chemistry, radiochemistry, and radiation chemistry, mainly covers these fields: basic research in nuclear chemistry; actinide chemistry; radioanalysis; nuclear chemistry in the life sciences, geosciences, and cosmic chemistry; radiotracers in technology; nuclear power technology; nuclear waste management; tritium chemistry in fusion technology, and radiation protection and radioecology. In the more than one hundred years of history of this branch of science and technology, which was opened up by the discovery of radioactivity and of the radioelements, pioneering discoveries and developments have been made in many sectors. Far beyond the confines of this area of work, they have achieved overriding importance in applications in many fields of technology and industry and in the life sciences. Research and application in nuclear chemistry continue to be highly relevant to society, ecology, and the economy, and the potential of science and technology in this field in Germany is acknowledged internationally. In the light of this vast area of activity, and against the need to maintain competence in nuclear chemistry for the use of nuclear power, irrespective of the status of this continued use in Germany, nuclear chemistry is indispensable to the solution of future problems. The Nuclear Chemistry Group of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker therefore uses this position paper to draw attention to the urgent need to keep up and further advance nuclear chemistry applications in a variety of areas of science and technology, also as a public duty of thorough education and research. (orig.) [de

  16. small-scale chemistry for a hands-on approach to chemistry practical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, ..... kits were acquired from South Africa (Mylab project, Northwest University). .... solve/handle the lab problems, and, even less, to explore innovative ways ..... lessons at their own pace, they were good at managing and saving time for activities like.

  17. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  18. China nuclear science and technology report. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1993 (Report Numbers CNIC-00675∼CNIC-00800) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  19. China nuclear science and technology report. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1993 (Report Numbers CNIC-00675{approx}CNIC-00800) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed.

  20. Recent development in computational actinide chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the Manhattan project in World War II, actinide chemistry has been essential for nuclear science and technology. Yet scientists still seek the ability to interpret and predict chemical and physical properties of actinide compounds and materials using first-principle theory and computational modeling. Actinide compounds are challenging to computational chemistry because of their complicated electron correlation effects and relativistic effects, including spin-orbit coupling effects. There have been significant developments in theoretical studies on actinide compounds in the past several years. The theoretical capabilities coupled with new experimental characterization techniques now offer a powerful combination for unraveling the complexities of actinide chemistry. In this talk, we will provide an overview of our own research in this field, with particular emphasis on applications of relativistic density functional and ab initio quantum chemical methods to the geometries, electronic structures, spectroscopy and excited-state properties of small actinide molecules such as CUO and UO 2 and some large actinide compounds relevant to separation and environment science. The performance of various density functional approaches and wavefunction theory-based electron correlation methods will be compared. The results of computational modeling on the vibrational, electronic, and NMR spectra of actinide compounds will be briefly discussed as well [1-4]. We will show that progress in relativistic quantum chemistry, computer hardware and computational chemistry software has enabled computational actinide chemistry to emerge as a powerful and predictive tool for research in actinide chemistry. (authors)

  1. Electron tunneling in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Khajrutdinov, R.F.; Zhdanov, V.P.; Molin, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are outlined systematically on electron tunnelling in chemical reactions. Mechanism of electron transport to great distances is shown to be characteristic to chemical compounds of a wide range. The function of tunnel reactions is discussed for various fields of chemistry, including radiation chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of solids, chemistry of surface and catalysis

  2. Chemistry: Who are you? Where are you going? How do we catch up with you?

    OpenAIRE

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a personal reflection on the nature of Chemistry, its potential areas of development in the 21st century, and the corresponding implications for chemistry education. Beyond reflecting about basic characteristics of Chemistry as a science and speculating on future research trends in this discipline, the central goal of this essay is to motivate chemistry teachers and instructors, as well as chemical educators, to question the relevance and validity of the current general ch...

  3. Polymer blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Scott D.; Naik, Sanjeev

    2017-08-22

    The present invention provides, among other things, extruded blends of aliphatic polycarbonates and polyolefins. In one aspect, provided blends comprise aliphatic polycarbonates such as poly(propylene carbonate) and a lesser amount of a crystalline or semicrystalline polymer. In certain embodiments, provided blends are characterized in that they exhibit unexpected improvements in their elongation properties. In another aspect, the invention provides methods of making such materials and applications of the materials in applications such as the manufacture of consumer packaging materials.

  4. Novel Polymers with Carboxylic Acid Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders Daugaard; Malmström, Eva; Hvilsted, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Click chemistry has been used to prepare a range of novel polymers with pendant carboxylic acid side groups. Four azido carboxylic acids, either mono- or difunctional and aliphatic or aromatic, have been prepared and thoroughly characterized. Extensive model reactions with 1-ethyl-4-hydroxybenzene......, the simplest model for poly(4-hydroxystyrene), and the four azido carboxylic acids have been conducted to establish the proper reaction conditions and provide an analytical frame for the corresponding polymers. Poly(4-hydroxystyrene) moieties in three different polymers—poly(4-hydroxystyrene), poly(4...... the polymers in general exhibit [when poly(4-hydroxystyrene) is a substantial part] significant changes in the glass-transition temperature from the polar poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (120–130 °C) to the much less polar alkyne polymers (46–60 °C). A direct correlation between the nature of the pendant groups...

  5. Charge transport and structure in semimetallic polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudd, Sam; Franco-Gonzalez, Juan F.; Kumar Singh, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Owing to changes in their chemistry and structure, polymers can be fabricated to demonstrate vastly different electrical conductivities over many orders of magnitude. At the high end of conductivity is the class of conducting polymers, which are ideal candidates for many applications in low......-cost electronics. Here, we report the influence of the nature of the doping anion at high doping levels within the semi-metallic conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on its electronic transport properties. Hall effect measurements on a variety of PEDOT samples show that the choice of doping...... that the chosen doping anion modifies the way PEDOT chains stack together. This link between structure and specific anion doping at high doping levels has ramifications for the fabrication of conducting polymer-based devices....

  6. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin; Ladegaard Skov, Anne; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Muscles—ESNAM', entirely focused on EAPs and gathering the most active research institutes, as well as key industrial developers and end users. The ESNAM network has received financial support from the European COST (Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme (COST Action MP1003), leading to fruitful collaboration, of which some results are showcased in this issue. This focus issue deals with a number of relevant topics on ionic and electronic EAPs. The contents, which span highly heterogeneous and cross diverse disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, material science and engineering, embrace size scales from nano to macro, and cover different areas, such as new materials, devices and applications. This collection of papers helps elucidate, on the one hand, how heterogeneous and dynamic the EAP field is in general and, on the other hand, the state of the art of the EAP research in Europe. We hope that this focus issue might help to stimulate future work in this emerging field of research and generate new applications. Acknowledgments We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, and the Smart Materials and Structures Editor-in-Chief, Professor Garcia, for having accepted our proposal to organize this focus issue. Special thanks also go to Natasha Leeper, from the IOP Publishing team, for her continued support and impeccable professionalism in arranging this focus issue. We also gratefully acknowledge financial support from COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) in the framework of 'ESNAM—European Scientific Network for Artificial Muscles' (COST Action MP1003), which made possible cooperation that led to contributions to this issue.

  7. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Radiation Sciences and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-04-01

    The publication has been set up as proceedings of the Radiation Sciences and Application conference. the conference consistes of Chemistry; Food Sciences and Technology; Entomolgy; Biology; Waste Management; Safety and Microbiology. This conference consists of one volume and 360 pages., figs., tabs., refs.

  8. Constrained swelling of polymer networks: characterization of vapor-deposited cross-linked polymer thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Karel; Choukourov, A.; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava; Biederman, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 13 (2014), s. 4417-4427 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1306 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : swelling * cross-linked polymer * elasticity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.800, year: 2014

  9. Pragmaticism, Science and Theology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This review assesses Ashley and Deely’s claims regarding the relation of science and religion, taking Einstein’s famous statement that “science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind” as its starting point. It argues that Ashley and Deely’s book How Science Enriches Theology...... demonstrates that the actual problem in the contemporary dialogue between the two seem to be whether the link between science and religion shall be based on an impersonal process spirituality arising from a void or on a personalism with a personal god at the source....

  10. Science and Society Colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    Randi, J

    1991-01-01

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  11. Science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chorafas, Dimitris N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this book is to explore science and technology from the viewpoint of creating new knowledge, as opposed to the reinterpretation of existing knowledge in ever greater but uncertain detail. Scientists and technologists make progress by distinguishing between what they regard as meaningful and what they consider as secondary or unimportant. The meaningful is dynamic; typically, the less important is static. Science and technology have made a major contribution to the culture and to the standard of living of our society. From antiquity to the present day, the most distinguished scientis

  12. Computational Science and Innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, David Jarvis

    2011-01-01

    Simulations - utilizing computers to solve complicated science and engineering problems - are a key ingredient of modern science. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is a world leader in the development of high-performance computing (HPC), the development of applied math and algorithms that utilize the full potential of HPC platforms, and the application of computing to science and engineering problems. An interesting general question is whether the DOE can strategically utilize its capability in simulations to advance innovation more broadly. In this article, I will argue that this is certainly possible.

  13. Green chemistry: A tool in Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Smita Talaviya; Falguni Majumdar

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry expresses an area of research developing from scientific discoveries about pollution awareness and it utilizes a set of principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in all steps of particular synthesis or process. Chemists and medicinal scientists can greatly reduce the risk to human health and the environment by following all the valuable principles of green chemistry. The most simple and direct way to apply green chemistry in pharmaceut...

  14. From hot atom chemistry to epithermal chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, K.

    2004-01-01

    The rise and fall of hot atom chemistry (HAC) over the years from 1934 to 2004 is reviewed. Several applications are discussed, in particular to astrophysics and the interaction of energetic ions and atoms in space. Epithermal chemistry (ETC) is proposed to substitute the old name, since it better fits the energy range as well as the non-thermal and non-equilibrium character of the reactions. ETC also avoids the strong connexion of HAC to nuclear chemistry and stands for the opening of the field to physical chemistry and astrophysics. (orig.)

  15. Thinking Outside the 'Block': Alternative Polymer Compositions for Micellar Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    With a number of formulations currently in clinical trials, the interest in polymer micelles as drug carriers in unlikely to subside. Historically, linear diblock copolymers have been used as the building blocks for micelle preparation. Yet, recent advances in polymer chemistry have meant that a wider variety of polymer architectures and compositions have become available and been trialed for pharmaceutical applications. This mini-review aims to provide an overview of recent, exciting developments in triblock, graft and hyperbranched polymer chemistries that may change the way polymeric micelles drug formulations are prepared.

  16. Special Issue: The 7th International Conference on Modification, Degradation and Stabilisation of polymers (MoDeSt)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Al-Malaika, S. (ed.); George, G. (ed.); Pilař, Jan (ed.)

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 12 (2013) ISSN 0141-3910. [MoDeSt Conference /7./. Prague, 02.09.2012-06.09.2012] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : stabilization of polymer systems * polymer nanoparticles * fire retardant polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.633, year: 2013

  17. Experimental Polymer Mechanochemistry and its Interpretational Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulatov, Sergey; Boulatov, Roman

    2017-06-02

    Polymer mechanochemistry is an emerging field at the interface of chemistry, materials science, physics and engineering. It aims at understanding and exploiting unique reactivities of polymer chains confined to highly non-equilibrium stretched geometries by interactions with their surroundings. Macromolecular chains or their segments become stretched in bulk polymers under mechanical loads or when polymer solutions are sonicated or flow rapidly through abrupt contractions. An increasing amount of empirical data suggests that mechanochemical phenomena are widespread wherever polymers are used. In the past decade, empirical mechanochemistry has progressed enormously, from studying fragmentations of commodity polymers by simple backbone homolysis to demonstrations of self-strengthening and stress-reporting materials and mechanochemical cascades using purposefully designed monomers. This progress has not yet been matched by the development of conceptual frameworks within which to rationalize, systematize and generalize empirical mechanochemical observations. As a result, mechanistic and/or quantitative understanding of mechanochemical phenomena remains, with few exceptions, tentative. In this review we aim at systematizing reported macroscopic manifestations of polymer mechanochemistry, and critically assessing the interpretational framework that underlies their molecular rationalizations from a physical chemist's perspective. We propose a hierarchy of mechanochemical phenomena which may guide the development of multiscale models of mechanochemical reactivity to match the breadth and utility of the Eyring equation of chemical kinetics. We discuss the limitations of the approaches to quantifying and validating mechanochemical reactivity, with particular focus on sonicated polymer solutions, in order to identify outstanding questions that need to be solved for polymer mechanochemistry to become a rigorous, quantitative field. We conclude by proposing 7 problems whose

  18. History of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byeong Ju

    1986-04-15

    This book shows origin of technology and development of civilization, origin of science and dissemination of ironware, accumulation of science and technology in the Middle Age society, the era of the Renaissance and science, factory-made manual industry and mechanistic nature view, the era of scientific enlightenment, industrial revolution, science and technology of Korea, formation of modern science and technology, modern technology and approach to science and technology, science and technology in the twenty century such as biochemistry and physics, and cooperation of science and technology.

  19. History of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Byeong Ju

    1986-04-01

    This book shows origin of technology and development of civilization, origin of science and dissemination of ironware, accumulation of science and technology in the Middle Age society, the era of the Renaissance and science, factory-made manual industry and mechanistic nature view, the era of scientific enlightenment, industrial revolution, science and technology of Korea, formation of modern science and technology, modern technology and approach to science and technology, science and technology in the twenty century such as biochemistry and physics, and cooperation of science and technology.

  20. Degradability of Polymers for Implantable Biomedical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, SuPing; Untereker, Darrel

    2009-01-01

    Many key components of implantable medical devices are made from polymeric materials. The functions of these materials include structural support, electrical insulation, protection of other materials from the environment of the body, and biocompatibility, as well as other things such as delivery of a therapeutic drug. In such roles, the stability and integrity of the polymer, over what can be a very long period of time, is very important. For most of these functions, stability over time is desired, but in other cases, the opposite–the degradation and disappearance of the polymer over time is required. In either case, it is important to understand both the chemistry that can lead to the degradation of polymers as well as the kinetics that controls these reactions. Hydrolysis and oxidation are the two classes of reactions that lead to the breaking down of polymers. Both are discussed in detail in the context of the environmental factors that impact the utility of various polymers for medical device applications. Understanding the chemistry and kinetics allows prediction of stability as well as explanations for observations such as porosity and the unexpected behavior of polymeric composite materials in some situations. In the last part, physical degradation such interfacial delamination in composites is discussed. PMID:19865531

  1. Science and the Citizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific American, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Reports on the following topics: (1) a national science and technology plan for China, (2) operable nuclear power plants in the U.S., (3) the university presidents' report on scientific research, (4) the pluperfect square, (5) test tube potatoes, and (6) Russian research of paranormal phenomena a century ago. (MA)

  2. Science and Superheroes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Nathan; Wood, Aja; Washburn, Megan; Batson, Yarden; Fan, Brittany; Dickens, Victoria; Armstrong, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Role-play has been shown to increase student engagement and improve the overall classroom environment. When used effectively, role-play can transform a task or assignment to appear more like play than work. In this four-part lesson, role-play was used as a teaching strategy to engage students in learning the science and application of several…

  3. Science and Technology Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    CONTENTS,1992, Vol 35, Iss AUG, pp 3 12 Garfield E, "Parascience, Pseudoscience , and Political Power Holton,Gerald on the Antiscience Phenomenon And Why...1993, Vol 25, Iss JUN, pp 3 9 Garfield E, "The Science Religion Connection an Introduction to Science and Religion From Warfare over Sociobiology to a

  4. Natural polymers: an overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, MJ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of natural polymers during the world war years led to the development of synthetic polymers like nylon, acrylic, neoprene, styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and polyethylene. The increasing popularity of synthetic polymers is partly due...

  5. The latest general chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Geun Bae; Choi, Se Yeong; Kim, Chin Yeong; Yoon, Gil Jung; Lee, Eun Seok; Seo, Moon Gyu

    1995-02-01

    This book deals with the latest general chemistry, which is comprised of twenty-three chapters, the contents of this book are introduction, theory of atoms and molecule, chemical formula and a chemical reaction formula, structure of atoms, nature of atoms and the periodic table, structure of molecule and spectrum, gas, solution, solid, chemical combination, chemical reaction speed, chemical equilibrium, thermal chemistry, oxidation-reduction, electrochemistry, acid-base, complex, aquatic chemistry, air chemistry, nuclear chemistry, metal and nonmetal, organic chemistry and biochemistry. It has exercise in the end of each chapter.

  6. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  7. Physically persistent stabilizers by functionalization of polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jan; Habicher, W. D.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 164, - (2001), s. 389-399 ISSN 1022-1360. [Reactive Polymers in Inhomogeneous Systems, in Melts and at Interfaces. Dresden, 16.07.2000-19.07.2000] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 184; GA MŠk ME 372; GA AV ČR IAA1050901; GA ČR GA106/98/0700; GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : nonvolatile antioxidants * photostabilizers * polymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.634, year: 2001

  8. Initial Drug Dissolution from Amorphous Solid Dispersions Controlled by Polymer Dissolution and Drug-Polymer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuejie; Wang, Shujing; Wang, Shan; Liu, Chengyu; Su, Ching; Hageman, Michael; Hussain, Munir; Haskell, Roy; Stefanski, Kevin; Qian, Feng

    2016-10-01

    ); while drug released much slower than the polymer when molecular level mixing or drug-polymer interaction was absent (SDD-PB systems). For ASDs without drug-polymer interaction (i.e., KTZ/HPMC systems), the mixing homogeneity had little impact on the release rate of either the drug or the polymer thus SDD and SDD-PB demonstrated the same drug or polymer release rate, while the drug released slowly and independently of polymer release. The initial drug release from an ASD was controlled by 1) the polymer release rate; 2) the strength of drug-polymer interaction, including the intrinsic interaction caused by the chemistry of the drug and the polymer (measured by the χ value), as well as that the apparent interaction caused by the drug-polymer ratio (measure by the extent of peak shift on spectroscopic analysis); and 3) the level of mixing homogeneity between the drug and polymer. In summary, the selection of polymer, drug-polymer ratio, and ASD processing conditions have profound impacts on the dissolution behavior of ASDs. Graphical Abstract Relationship between initial drug and polymer dissolution rates from amorphous solid dispersions with different mixing uniformity and drug-polymer interactions.

  9. Atomic Origins of the Self-Healing Function in Cement–Polymer Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Manh Thuong; Wang, Zheming; Rod, Kenton A.; Childers, Matthew I.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Koech, Phillip K.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2018-01-09

    Motivated by recent advances in self-healing cement and epoxy polymer composites, we present a combined ab initio molecular dynamics and sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy study of a calcium-silicate-hydrate/polymer interface. On stable, low-defect surfaces, the polymer only weakly adheres through coordination and hydrogen bonding interactions and can be easily mobilized towards defected surfaces. Conversely, on fractured surfaces, the polymer strongly anchors through ionic Ca-O bonds resulting from the deprotonation of polymer hydroxyl groups. In addition, polymer S-S groups are turned away from the cement/polymer interface, allowing for the self-healing function within the polymer. The overall elasticity and healing properties of these composites stem from a flexible hydrogen bonding network that can readily adapt to surface morphology. The theoretical vibrational signals associated with the proposed cement-polymer interfacial chemistry were confirmed experimentally by SFG spectroscopy.

  10. Advanced Chemistry Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Advanced Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) is a unique facility designed for working with the most super toxic compounds known...

  11. Electrostatics in Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fundamental concepts of electrostatics as applied to atoms and molecules. The electric ... chemistry, the chemistry of the covalent bond, deals with the structures ..... the position of an asteroid named Ceres ... World Scientific. Singapore, 1992.

  12. Properties and applications of polymer nanocomposites clay and carbon based polymer nanocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad Sahoo, Bibhu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present edited book is to furnish scientific information about manufacturing, properties, and application of clay and carbon based polymer nanocomposites. It can be used as handbook for undergraduate and post graduate courses (for example material science and engineering, polymer science and engineering, rubber technology, manufacturing engineering, etc.) as well as as reference book for research fellows and professionals. Polymer nanocomposites have received outstanding importance in the present decade because of their broad range of high-performance applications in various areas of engineering and technology due to their special material properties. A great interest is dedicated to nanofiller based polymeric materials, which exhibit excellent enhancement in macroscopic material properties (mechanical, thermal, dynamic mechanical, electrical and many more) at very low filler contents and can therefore be used for the development of next-generation composite materials.

  13. Annual report of the Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This report describes research activities of Osaka Laboratory for Radiation Chemistry, JAERI during one year period from April 1, 1987 through March 31, 1988. Detailed descriptions of the activities are presented in the following subjects: (i) studies on surface phenomena under electron and ion irradiations and (ii) studies on radiation chemistry of high polymers and radiation dosimetry. (J.P.N.)

  14. Preparative radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawe, H.

    1978-01-01

    Preparative synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiation chemistry is increasingly used in laboratories as well as on a technical scale. A large number of new compounds has been produced with the methods of radiation chemistry. With the increasing number of available radiation sources, also the number of synthesis metods in radiation chemistry has increased. This paper can only briefly mention the many possible ways of synthesis in radiation chemistry. (orig./HK) [de

  15. USSR Report Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    THIS REPORT CONTAINS FOREIGN MEDIA INFORMATION FROM THE USSR CONCERNING Adsorption, Alkaloids, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, CATALYSIS, ELECTROCHEMISTRY, Fertilizers, INORGANIC COMPOUNDS, ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS...

  16. Frontiers in Gold Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Basic chemistry of gold tells us that it can bond to sulfur, phosphorous, nitrogen, and oxygen donor ligands. The Frontiers in Gold Chemistry Special Issue covers gold complexes bonded to the different donors and their fascinating applications. This issue covers both basic chemistry studies of gold complexes and their contemporary applications in medicine, materials chemistry, and optical sensors. There is a strong belief that aurophilicity plays a major role in the unending applications of g...

  17. Organic chemistry experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Seok Sik

    2005-02-01

    This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.

  18. Polymer dynamics from synthetic polymers to proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Polymer dynamics; reptation; domain dynamics biomolecules. Abstract. Starting from the standard model of polymer motion - the Rouse model - we briefly present some key experimental results on the mesoscopic dynamics of polymer systems. We touch the role of topological confinement as expressed in the ...

  19. Support for the Advanced Polymers Beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Benjamin S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Stonybrook, NY (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The primary focus of the X27C beamline is to investigate frontier polymer science and engineering problems with emphasis on real-time studies of structures, morphologies and dynamics from atomic, nanoscopic, microscopic to mesoscopic scales using simultaneous small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) techniques. The scientific merit of this project is as follows. Currently, many unique sample chambers for in-situ synchrotron studies, developed by the PI (B. Hsiao) and Co-PI (B. Chu), are available for general users of X27C at NSLS. These instruments include a gel/melt spinning apparatus, a continuous fiber drawing apparatus, a tensile stretching apparatus, a high pressure X-ray cell using supercritical carbon dioxide, a parallel plate strain-controlled shear stage and a dynamic rheometer for small-strain oscillatory deformation study. Based on the use of these instruments in combination with synchrotron X-rays, many new insights into the relationships between processing and structure have been obtained in recent years. The broader impact of this project is as follows. The X27C beamline is the first synchrotron facility in the United States dedicated to chemistry/materials research (with emphasis on polymers). The major benefit of this facility to the materials community is that no extensive synchrotron experience and equipment preparation are required from general users to carry out cutting-edge experiments.

  20. Targeting distinct myeloid cell populations in vivo using polymers, liposomes and microbubbles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ergen, C.; Heymann, F.; Al Rawashdeh, W.; Gremse, F.; Bartneck, M.; Panzer, U.; Pola, Robert; Pechar, Michal; Storm, G.; Mohr, N.; Barz, M.; Zentel, R.; Kiessling, F.; Trautwein, C.; Lammers, T.; Tacke, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 114, January (2017), s. 106-120 ISSN 0142-9612 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : targeted delivery * nanomedicine * macrophages Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer sci ence Impact factor: 8.402, year: 2016

  1. Building ultramicropores within organic polymers based on a thermosetting cyanate ester resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bufeng; Wang, Zhonggang

    2009-09-07

    Ultramicropores with high surface areas (>530 m(2) g(-1)) and narrow micropore size distribution (4-6 A) were engineered within a new cyanate ester resin, extending the microporous concept (thermosetting resins in the area of polymer chemistry.

  2. Analytical chemistry instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    In nine sections, 48 chapters cover 1) analytical chemistry and the environment 2) environmental radiochemistry 3) automated instrumentation 4) advances in analytical mass spectrometry 5) fourier transform spectroscopy 6) analytical chemistry of plutonium 7) nuclear analytical chemistry 8) chemometrics and 9) nuclear fuel technology

  3. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  4. Conducting polymers, buckminsterfullerenes, and carbon nanotubes: optoelectronic materials based on architectural diversity of the π-conjugated structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, L.

    2001-01-01

    Recent discovery of superconductivity in self assembled poly(3-hexylthiophene) two-dimensional conjugated sheets indicates the possible applications of plastics even in superconducting optoelectronic devices. Just as the discovery of C 60 has created an entirely new branch of carbon chemistry, the subsequent discovery of carbon nanotubes by lijima in 1991 opened up a new era in material science and nanotechnology. These elongated nanotubes consist of carbon hexagons arranged in a concentric manner with both ends normally capped by fullerene-like structures containing pentagons. Having a conjugated all-carbon structure with unusual molecular symmetries, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes also show interesting electronic, photonic, magnetic and mechanical properties, attractive for various applications, including optical limiters, photovoltaic cells and field emitting displays. For most of the above applications, it is highly desirable to prepare ordered/micropatterned conducting polymers, fullerenes, and carbon nanotubes. Although the microfabrication of conducting polymers has been an active research area for some years, it is a very recent development for fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. Recently, we doped polyaniline (PANI) with a hydrogensulfated fullerenol derivative containing multiple -OSO 3 H groups (i.e. C 60 (OH) 6 (OSO 3 H) 6 ) to produce three-dimensional PANI conductors with a room-temperature conductivity of up to 100 S cm -1 . This value of conductivity is about six orders of magnitude higher than the typical value for C 60 doped conducting polymers. Later, in collaboration with Wan's group at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, we have also synthesized PANI nanotubes via a self assembled C 60 (OH) 6 (OSO 3 H) 6 supramolecular template using (NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 as an oxidant. These results, together with the more recent discovery of a hollow sphere, self assembled by the potassium salt of pentaphenyl fullerene (Ph 5 C 60 K) in water, clearly indicate that

  5. Materials chemistry approach to anion-sensor design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anzenbacher Jr., P.; Jursiková, K.; Aldakov, D.; Marquez, M.; Pohl, Radek

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 49 (2004), s. 11163-11168 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : conductive polymer * anion sensing * polythiophene Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.643, year: 2004

  6. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find the answer to your question IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Hs-cTnI as a Gatekeeper for Further Cardiac ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  7. Conductive polymer composites with carbonic fillers: Shear induced electrical behaviour

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starý, Zdeněk; Krückel, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 139, 14 March (2018), s. 52-59 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05654S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer-matrix composites * carbon fibres * electrical properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer sci ence Impact factor: 3.684, year: 2016

  8. Ceramic Nanocomposites from Tailor-Made Preceramic Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Mera, Gabriela; Gallei, Markus; Bernard, Samuel; Ionescu, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    The present Review addresses current developments related to polymer-derived ceramic nanocomposites (PDC-NCs). Different classes of preceramic polymers are briefly introduced and their conversion into ceramic materials with adjustable phase compositions and microstructures is presented. Emphasis is set on discussing the intimate relationship between the chemistry and structural architecture of the precursor and the structural features and properties of the resulting ceramic nanocomposites. Va...

  9. Radiation chemistry of polymeric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo; Ishigaki, Isao

    1978-01-01

    Among wide application of radiation in the field of polymer chemistry, practices of polymerization, graft polymerization, bridging, etc. are introduced hereinafter. As for the radiation sources of radiation polymerization, in addition to the 60 Co-γ ray with long permeation distance which has been usually applied, electron beam accelerators with high energy, large current and high reliability have come to be produced, and the liquid phase polymerization by electron beam has attracted attention industrially. Concerning polymerizing reactions, explanations were given to electron beam polymerization under high dose rate, the polymerization in supercooling state or under high pressure, and emulsifying polymerization. As for radiation bridging, radiation is applied for the bridging of hydrogel, acceleration of bridging and improvement of radiation resistance. It is also utilized for reforming membranes by graft polymerization, and synthesis of polymers for medical use. Application of fixed enzymes in the medical field has been investigated by fixing various enzymes by low temperature γ-ray polymerization with glassy monomers such as HEMA. (Kobatake, H.)

  10. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an 55 Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed

  11. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provide a solution for this requirement, green chemistry rules and under standings should be primarily taken in the university curriculum and at all educational levels.

  12. NASA-HBCU Space Science and Engineering Research Forum Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Y.D.; Freeman, Y.B.; George, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) forum are presented. A wide range of research topics from plant science to space science and related academic areas was covered. The sessions were divided into the following subject areas: Life science; Mathematical modeling, image processing, pattern recognition, and algorithms; Microgravity processing, space utilization and application; Physical science and chemistry; Research and training programs; Space science (astronomy, planetary science, asteroids, moon); Space technology (engineering, structures and systems for application in space); Space technology (physics of materials and systems for space applications); and Technology (materials, techniques, measurements)

  13. Artificial Muscles Based on Electroactive Polymers as an Enabling Tool in Biomimetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Evolution has resolved many of nature's challenges leading to working and lasting solutions that employ principles of physics, chemistry, mechanical engineering, materials science, and many other fields of science and engineering. Nature's inventions have always inspired human achievements leading to effective materials, structures, tools, mechanisms, processes, algorithms, methods, systems, and many other benefits. Some of the technologies that have emerged include artificial intelligence, artificial vision, and artificial muscles, where the latter is the moniker for electroactive polymers (EAPs). To take advantage of these materials and make them practical actuators, efforts are made worldwide to develop capabilities that are critical to the field infrastructure. Researchers are developing analytical model and comprehensive understanding of EAP materials response mechanism as well as effective processing and characterization techniques. The field is still in its emerging state and robust materials are still not readily available; however, in recent years, significant progress has been made and commercial products have already started to appear. In the current paper, the state-of-the-art and challenges to artificial muscles as well as their potential application to biomimetic mechanisms and devices are described and discussed.

  14. Novel polymer vectors of Cu-64

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozempel, J.; Hrubý, Martin; Nováková, Michaela; Kučka, Jan; Lešetický, L.; Lebeda, Ondřej

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 97, - (2009), s. 747-752 ISSN 0033-8230 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400480616; GA AV ČR KJB4050408; GA AV ČR KAN200200651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : copper-64 * polymer * chelating group Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.459, year: 2009

  15. Polymer nanotherapeutics to overcome multidrug resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braunová, Alena; Kostka, Libor; Sivák, Ladislav; Filippov, Sergey K.; Pechar, Michal; Janoušková, Olga; Šírová, Milada; Etrych, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 6, 4 (Suppl) (2017), s. 92 ISSN 2325-9604. [International Conference and Exhibition on Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery. 29.05.2017-31.05.2017, Osaka] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-17207S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-28600A Institutional support: RVO:61389013 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : polymer- drug carrier * micelle * controlled drug release Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  16. Surface chemistry essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Birdi, K S

    2013-01-01

    Surface chemistry plays an important role in everyday life, as the basis for many phenomena as well as technological applications. Common examples range from soap bubbles, foam, and raindrops to cosmetics, paint, adhesives, and pharmaceuticals. Additional areas that rely on surface chemistry include modern nanotechnology, medical diagnostics, and drug delivery. There is extensive literature on this subject, but most chemistry books only devote one or two chapters to it. Surface Chemistry Essentials fills a need for a reference that brings together the fundamental aspects of surface chemistry w

  17. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1981-12-01

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  18. Yearly scientific meeting: chemistry in human health and environment protection. Bialystok'92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The conference has been divided into 12 sections devoted to following topics: analytical chemistry; environmental chemistry; chemistry of natural compounds; chemistry of pharmaceutics and toxic compounds; chemistry in medicine; electrochemistry; young scientists forum; didactics and history of chemistry; chemistry and industry - technologies environment friendly; new trends in polymer science; crystallochemistry; pro-ecological actions in leather industry. Different analytical methods for determination of heavy methods and rare earths have been presented. Some of them have been successfully applied for the examination of environmental and biological materials. The basic chemical and physico-chemical studies including thermodynamic, crystal structure, coordination chemistry, sorption properties etc. have been extensively resented. The existence of radioactive elements in environment has been also investigated, especially in respect to municipal and industrial wastes and products of their processing. The radiation effects for different materials have been reported and discussed as well

  19. Controlling Film Morphology in Conjugated Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lee Y.; Munro, Andrea M.; Ginger, David S.

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of patterned surface chemistry on the microscale and nanoscale morphology of solution-processed donor/acceptor polymer-blend films. Focusing on combinations of interest in polymer solar cells, we demonstrate that patterned surface chemistry can be used to tailor the film morphology of blends of semiconducting polymers such as poly-[2-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-5-methoxy-p-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV), poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT), poly[(9,9-dioctylflorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-benzothiadiazole)] (F8BT), and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N’-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N’-phenyl-1,4-phenylendiamine) (PFB) with the fullerene derivative, [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). We present a method for generating patterned, fullerene-terminated monolayers on gold surfaces, and use microcontact printing and Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN) to pattern alkanethiols with both micro- and nanoscale features. After patterning with fullerenes and other functional groups, we backfill the rest of the surface with a variety of thiols to prepare substrates with periodic variations in surface chemistry. Spin coating polymer:PCBM films onto these substrates, followed by thermal annealing under nitrogen, leads to the formation of structured polymer films. We characterize these films with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. The surface patterns are effective in guiding phase separation in all of the polymer:PCBM systems investigated, and lead to a rich variety of film morphologies that are inaccessible with unpatterned substrates. We demonstrate our ability to guide pattern formation in films thick enough of be of interest for actual device applications (up to 200 nm in thickness) using feature sizes as small as 100 nm. Finally, we show that the surface chemistry can lead to variations in film morphology on length scales significantly smaller than those used in generating the original surface patterns. The variety of

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Melanie M

    2010-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been recognized as one of the most important tools in medical diagnosis and research. However, MRI is also well placed to image chemical reactions and processes, determine the concentration of chemical species, and look at how chemistry couples with environmental factors, such as flow and heterogeneous media. This tutorial review will explain how magnetic resonance imaging works, reviewing its application in chemistry and its ability to directly visualise chemical processes. It will give information on what resolution and contrast are possible, and what chemical and physical parameters can be measured. It will provide examples of the use of MRI to study chemical systems, its application in chemical engineering and the identification of contrast agents for non-clinical applications. A number of studies are presented including investigation of chemical conversion and selectivity in fixed-bed reactors, temperature probes for catalyst pellets, ion mobility during tablet dissolution, solvent dynamics and ion transport in Nafion polymers and the formation of chemical waves and patterns.

  1. Electrochemical Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith; Bond, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The book addresses the scientific principles underlying electrochemistry. Starting with the basic concepts of electricity, the early chapters discuss the physics and chemistry of the materials from which electrochemical cells are constructed and the properties that make these materials appropriate as cell components. Much of the importance of electrochemistry lies in the conversion of electrical energy into chemical energy and vice versa; the thermodynamics of these processes is described, in the context of a wide range of applications of these interconversions. An electrode is a surface at wh

  2. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matel, L.; Dulanska, S.

    2013-01-01

    This text-book is an introductory text in nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry, aimed on university undergraduate students in chemistry and related disciplines (physics, nuclear engineering). It covers the key aspects of modern nuclear chemistry. The text begins with basic theories in contemporary physics. It relates nuclear phenomena to key divisions of chemistry such as atomic structure, spectroscopy, equilibria and kinetics. It also gives an introduction to sources of ionizing radiation, detection of ionizing radiation, nuclear power industry and accident on nuclear installations as well as basic knowledge's of radiobiology. This book is essential reading for those taking a first course in nuclear chemistry and is a useful companion to other volumes in physical and analytical chemistry. It will also be of use to those new to working in nuclear chemistry or radiochemistry.

  3. Shape memory polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2017-08-29

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  4. Shape memory polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas S.; Bearinger, Jane P.

    2015-06-09

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape memory polymer comprises at least a portion of the actuator. A shape memory polymer comprising a polymer composition which physically forms a network structure wherein the polymer composition has shape-memory behavior and can be formed into a permanent primary shape, re-formed into a stable secondary shape, and controllably actuated to recover the permanent primary shape. Polymers have optimal aliphatic network structures due to minimization of dangling chains by using monomers that are symmetrical and that have matching amine and hydroxyl groups providing polymers and polymer foams with clarity, tight (narrow temperature range) single transitions, and high shape recovery and recovery force that are especially useful for implanting in the human body.

  5. Nuclear chemistry in the traditional chemistry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppinger, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    The traditional undergraduate program for chemistry majors, especially at institutions devoted solely to undergraduate education, has limited space for 'special topics' courses in areas such as nuclear and radiochemistry. A scheme is proposed whereby the basic topics covered in an introductury radiochemistry course are touched upon, and in some cases covered in detail, at some time during the four-year sequence of courses taken by a chemistry major. (author) 6 refs.; 7 tabs

  6. The New Color of Chemistry: Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhal GERÇEK

    2012-01-01

    Green chemistry which is the new application of chemistry rules provides solutions to problems that mankind is faced with climate changes, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics, depletion of natural sources e.g. designing new chemicals and processes that production and utilization of hazardous matters. So, it is the indispensible tool for sustainable development. Current and future chemists should consider the human health and ecological issues in their professional life. In order to provid...

  7. The influence of polymer topology on pharmacokinetics: differences between cyclic and linear PEGylated poly(acrylic acid) comb polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Jerger, Katherine; Fréchet, Jean M J; Szoka, Francis C

    2009-12-16

    Water-soluble polymers for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs passively target solid tumors as a consequence of reduced renal clearance and the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Elimination of the polymers in the kidney occurs due to filtration through biological nanopores with a hydrodynamic diameter comparable to the polymer. Therefore we have investigated chemical features that may broadly be grouped as "molecular architecture" such as: molecular weight, chain flexibility, number of chain ends and branching, to learn how they impact polymer elimination. In this report we describe the synthesis of four pairs of similar molecular weight cyclic and linear polyacrylic acid polymers grafted with polyethylene glycol (23, 32, 65, 114 kDa) with low polydispersities using ATRP and "click" chemistry. The polymers were radiolabeled with (125)I and their pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution after intravenous injection were determined in normal and C26 adenocarcinoma tumored BALB/c mice. Cyclic polymers above the renal threshold of 30 kDa had a significantly longer elimination time (between 10 and 33% longer) than did the comparable linear polymer (for the 66 kDa cyclic polymer, t(1/2,beta)=35+/-2 h) and a greater area under the serum concentration versus time curve. This resulted in a greater tumor accumulation of the cyclic polymer than the linear polymer counterpart. Thus water-soluble cyclic comb polymers join a growing list of polymer topologies that show greatly extended circulation times compared to their linear counterparts and provide alternative polymer architecture for use as drug carriers.

  8. Materials science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    During FY-96, work within the Materials Science and Engineering Thrust Area was focused on material modeling. Our motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as material processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, in support of many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These studies are described in (1) Strength and Fracture Toughness of Material Interfaces; (2) Damage Evolution in Fiber Composite Materials; (3) Flashlamp Envelope Optical Properties and Failure Analysis; (4) Synthesis and Processing of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite; and (5) Room Temperature Creep Compliance of Bulk Kel-E.

  9. Network science and cybersecurity

    CERN Document Server

    Pino, Robinson E

    2014-01-01

    Network Science and Cybersecurity introduces new research and development efforts for cybersecurity solutions and applications taking place within various U.S. Government Departments of  Defense, industry and academic laboratories. This book examines new algorithms and tools, technology platforms and reconfigurable technologies for cybersecurity systems. Anomaly-based intrusion detection systems (IDS) are explored as a key component of any general network intrusion detection service, complementing signature-based IDS components by attempting to identify novel attacks.  These attacks  may not y

  10. Naturapolyceutics: The Science of Utilizing Natural Polymers for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndidi C. Ngwuluka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Naturapolyceutics defines the emerging science and technology platform that blends natural polymers and pharmaceutics for the design and development of drug delivery systems. Natural polymers due to their biological properties, sustainability, chemical flexibility, human and eco-friendliness are promising in this field. As drug delivery advances, there will be need for more polymers. Given that polymers utilized in pharmaceuticals require regulatory approval, robust processes are undertaken to facilitate the production of pharmaceutical grade natural polymers. This review provides insight into the processes—extraction, purification, modifications and characterizations—involved in the eventual utilization of natural polymers for drug delivery. The versatility of natural polymers and particularly modified natural polymers in targeted drug delivery, micro-/nano-drug delivery, theranostics, BioMEMs and generally in research and development of highly efficient, safe and quality products is demonstrated. Natural polymers are polymers of today and tomorrow. Therefore, the shift to undertake training, extensive research and subsequent commercialization of more natural polymers—novel and underutilized—for drug delivery is now!

  11. Electroactive polymers for healthcare and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Siegfried

    2017-04-01

    Electroactivity was noticed early in biological substances, including proteins, polynucleotides and enzymes, even piezoand pyroelectricity were found in wool, hair, wood, bone and tendon. Recently, ferroelectricity has been identified in a surprisingly large number of biologically relevant materials, including hydroxyapatite, aortic walls and elastin. Inspired by the variety of natural electroactive materials, a wealth of new elastomers and polymers were designed recently, including an all organic elastomer electret and self-healing dielectric elastomers. Let's further draw inspiration from nature and widen the utilization of electroactive polymers towards (mobile) healthcare and biomedical applications. Ferroelectrets, internally charged polymer foams with a strong piezoelectric thickness coefficient are employed in biomedical sensing, for example as blood pressure and pulse sensor, as vital signs monitor or for the detection of tonicclonic seizures. Piezo- and pyroelectric polymers are booming in printed electronics research. They provide electronic skin the ability to "feel" pressure and temperature changes, or to generate electrical energy from vibrations and motions, even from contractile and relaxation motions of the heart and lung. Dielectric elastomers are pioneered by StretchSense as wearable motion capture sensors, monitoring pressure, stretch, bend and shear, quantifying comfort in sports and healthcare. On the cellular level, electroactive polymer arrays are used to study mechanotransduction of individual cells. Ionic electroactive polymers show potential to be used in implantable electroactive biomedical devices. Already with the currently available science and technology, we are at the verge of witnessing the demonstration of truly complex bionic systems.

  12. Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology: in greater demand than ever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheringer, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology have been losing support, resources, and recognition at universities for many years. What are the possible causes of this process? A first problem may be that the need for research and teaching in environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology is no longer seen because chemical pollution problems are considered as largely solved. Second, environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology may be seen as fields dominated by routine work and where there are not many interesting research questions left. A third part of the problem may be that other environmental impacts such as climate change are given higher priority than chemical pollution problems. Here, several cases are presented that illustrate the great demand for innovative research and teaching in environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology. It is crucial that environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology are rooted in academic science and are provided with sufficient equipment, resources, and prospects for development.

  13. Nanoscopic Studies on Polymer Molecules(STM-other surfaces)

    OpenAIRE

    Toshio, NISHI; Ken, NAKAJIMA; Takayuki, IKEHARA; Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo; Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo; Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo

    1997-01-01

    A new field of study in the polymer science and engineering is being opened with the use of scanning tunneling microscope (STM), atomic force microscope (AFM), and scanning probe microscope (SPM). In this short review article several examples are given with comments. They are direct observation of poly(macromonomer), structure of a cross-linking domain of a gel, and observation of topochemically photopolymerizable conjugated aromatic compound. Moreover, nanorheological properties of polymer b...

  14. Proceedings of the 5th nuclear science and technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-11-01

    The 5th conference on nuclear science and technology was held on 21-23 November, 1992 in Bangkok. This conference contain papers on non-power applications of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry. These application including irradiation of food for desinfestation; tram technologies used in diagnosis and therapy and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes. Some technologies which evolved from the development of the nuclear power industry are also discussed.

  15. Abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Report (1998)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1998 (Report Numbers CNIC-01231-CNIC-01330) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed.

  16. Abstracts China nuclear science and technology report (1999)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1999 (Report Numbers CNIC-01331 -CNIC-01430) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  17. Abstracts: China Nuclear Science and Technology Report (1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1990 (Report Numbers CNIC--00355 to CNIC-00454) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subjects categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  18. Proceedings of the 6th nuclear science and technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The 6th conference on nuclear science and technology was held on 2 - 4 December, 1996 in Bangkok. This conference contain papers on non-power applications of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry. These application include irradiation of food for des infestation; tram technologies used in diagnosis and therapy and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes. Some technologies which evolved from the development of nuclear power industry are also discussed

  19. Proceedings of the 5th nuclear science and technology conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The 5th conference on nuclear science and technology was held on 21-23 November, 1992 in Bangkok. This conference contain papers on non-power applications of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry. These application including irradiation of food for desinfestation; tram technologies used in diagnosis and therapy and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes. Some technologies which evolved from the development of the nuclear power industry are also discussed

  20. China nuclear science and technology report (1991). Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1991 (Report Numbers CNIC-00455 to CNIC-00554) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  1. China nuclear science and technology report: Abstracts, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1992 (Report Numbers CNIC-00555 ∼ CNIC-00674) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  2. Abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Report (1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1998 (Report Numbers CNIC-01231-CNIC-01330) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  3. Abstracts China nuclear science and technology report (1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1999 (Report Numbers CNIC-01331 -CNIC-01430) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physical sciences, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed.

  4. Abstracts China nuclear science and technology reports (1988)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Reports published in 1988 (Report Numbers CNIC -00115 ∼ CNIC-00254) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  5. Proceedings of the 7. Nuclear Science and Technology Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The 7. conference on nuclear science and technology was held on 1-2 December 1998 in Bangkok. This conference contain papers on non-power applications of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry. These application include irradiation of food for disinfestation; tram technologies used in diagnosis and therapy and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes. Some technologies which evolved from the development of nuclear power industry are also discussed

  6. Abstracts: China Nuclear Science and Technology Report (1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The bibliographies and abstracts of China Nuclear Science and Technology Report published in 1989 (Report Numbers CNIC--00255∼CNIC--00354) are presented. The items are arranged according to INIS subject categories, which mainly are physics, chemistry, materials, earth sciences, life sciences, isotopes, isotope and radiation applications, engineering and technology, and other aspects of nuclear energy. The numbers on the left corners of the entries are report numbers, and on the right corners the serial numbers. A report number index is annexed

  7. Antiparallel Dynamic Covalent Chemistries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Bartosz M; Nowak, Piotr; Cvrtila, Ivica; Pappas, Charalampos G; Liu, Bin; Komáromy, Dávid; Otto, Sijbren

    2017-05-17

    The ability to design reaction networks with high, but addressable complexity is a necessary prerequisite to make advanced functional chemical systems. Dynamic combinatorial chemistry has proven to be a useful tool in achieving complexity, however with some limitations in controlling it. Herein we introduce the concept of antiparallel chemistries, in which the same functional group can be channeled into one of two reversible chemistries depending on a controllable parameter. Such systems allow both for achieving complexity, by combinatorial chemistry, and addressing it, by switching from one chemistry to another by controlling an external parameter. In our design the two antiparallel chemistries are thiol-disulfide exchange and thio-Michael addition, sharing the thiol as the common building block. By means of oxidation and reduction the system can be reversibly switched from predominantly thio-Michael chemistry to predominantly disulfide chemistry, as well as to any intermediate state. Both chemistries operate in water, at room temperature, and at mildly basic pH, which makes them a suitable platform for further development of systems chemistry.

  8. Conducting polymer colloids, hydrogels, and cryogels: common start to various destinations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Bober, Patrycja

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 296, č. 5 (2018), s. 989-994 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * colloidal dispersion Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2016

  9. Biomass-derived, functional step-growth polymers for coating applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordover, B.A.J.; Duchateau, R.; Koning, C.E.; Benthem, van R.A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Performance polymers derived from biomass represent a fascinating and increasingly important field of research, as such macromolecules offer differentiated material properties as compared to conventional polymers from fossil feedstock.1,2 The aim of our research is to understand the chemistry of

  10. Molybdenum and tungsten disulfides surface-modified with a conducting polymer, polyaniline, for application in electrorheology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Mrlík, M.; Plachý, T.; Trchová, Miroslava; Kovářová, Jana; Li, Yu

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, November (2017), s. 30-37 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-04109S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : molybdenum sulfide * polyaniline * conducting polymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2016

  11. Laser Co-Photolytic Approach to Copper(I) Bromide/Polymer Nanosol and Nanocomposite.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pola, Josef; Ouichi, A.; Bezdička, Petr; Boháček, Jaroslav; Šubrt, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 190, 1 (2007) , s. 29-33 ISSN 1010-6030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : co-photolysis * CuBr/polymer nanosol * CuBr/polymer nanocomposite Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2007

  12. Thermoresponsive polymer nanoparticles co-deliver RSV F trimers with a TLR-7/8 adjuvant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francica, J. R.; Lynn, G. M.; Laga, Richard; Joyce, M. G.; Ruckwardt, T. J.; Morabito, K. M.; Chen, M.; Chaudhuri, R.; Zhang, B.; Sastry, M.; Druz, A.; Ko, K.; Choe, M.; Pechar, Michal; Georgiev, I. S.; Kueltzo, L. A.; Seymour, L. W.; Mascola, J. R.; Kwong, P. D.; Graham, B. S.; Seder, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2016), s. 2372-2385 ISSN 1043-1802 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ16-14957Y; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : thermoresponsive polymers * polymer vaccines * toll-like receptor agonists Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.818, year: 2016

  13. College-Mentored Polymer/Materials Science Modules for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Robert G.; Lewis, Maurica S.; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2011-01-01

    Polymers are materials with vast environmental and economic ramifications, yet are generally not discussed in secondary education science curricula. We describe a program in which college mentors develop and implement hands-on, polymer-related experiments to supplement a standard, state regents-prescribed high school chemistry course, as well as a…

  14. Synthesis and characterization of metallo-supramolecular polymers from thiophene-based unimers bearing pybox ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hladysh, S.; Václavková, D.; Vrbata, D.; Bondarev, D.; Havlíček, D.; Svoboda, Jan; Zedník, J.; Vohlídal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 18 (2017), s. 10718-10728 ISSN 2046-2069 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : metallo-supramolecular polymers * XPS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  15. Radiation modification of polymers: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    When polymers were first exposed to ionizing radiation some 50 years ago, the resultant changes were found to be complex and relatively non-selective. Most importantly, irradiation was seen to give a mix of bond forming and bond breaking processes, and different polymer types were classified into two groups according to which process predominated. For polymers in the 'crosslinking' category, large industrial applications emerged within the first two decades of the initiation of this field, including heat shrink products, high performance wire insulation and tire manufacturing. There has been continuing work toward development of a wide range of new applications based on polymers and radiation, and this field remains quite active today. One approach to finding new commercial processes has been to take advantage of a variety of different radiation-induced phenomena (for example, uses for chain scission have emerged for enhancing the processing properties of various bulk polymers, for recycling of rubber, and for microlithography and LIGA). Another approach has taken advantage of progress in the science of radiation chemistry, by employing our increasing knowledge to enhance and/or reduce competing processes through the use of additives, the design of specialized resins, controlling gaseous atmospheres, varying processing conditions such as temperature, post-irradiation treatments, etc. This presentation will survey some of the exciting developments in polymer radiation processing, and will point out some of the underlying phenomena that are being manipulated to further their success. We will finish by describing progress on fundamental isotope-labeling studies of one longstanding mechanistic complexity, oxidation chemistry, which is critical in many radiation processing applications, such as retarding post-irradiation degradation problems, enhancing chain scission where desired, altering surface polarity, and providing a useful pretreatment in grafting schemes

  16. Regioregular narrow-bandgap-conjugated polymers for plastic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Lei; Huang, Fei; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2017-03-01

    Progress in the molecular design and processing protocols of semiconducting polymers has opened significant opportunities for the fabrication of low-cost plastic electronic devices. Recent studies indicate that field-effect transistors and organic solar cells fabricated using narrow-bandgap regioregular polymers with translational symmetries in the direction of the backbone vector often outperform those containing analogous regiorandom polymers. This review addresses the cutting edge of regioregularity chemistry, in particular how to control the spatial distribution in the molecular structures and how this order translates to more ordered bulk morphologies. The effect of regioregularity on charge transport and photovoltaic properties is also outlined.

  17. Molecular thermodynamics for food science and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Mai; Guiga, Wafa; Vitrac, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    We argue that thanks to molecular modeling approaches, many thermodynamic properties required in Food Science and Food Engineering will be calculable within a few hours from first principles in a near future. These new possibilities will enable to bridge via multiscale modeling composition, process and storage effects to reach global optimization, innovative concepts for food or its packaging. An outlook of techniques and a series of examples are given in this perspective. We emphasize solute chemical potentials in polymers, liquids and their mixtures as they cannot be understood and estimated without theory. The presented atomistic and coarse-grained methods offer a natural framework to their conceptualization in polynary systems, entangled or crosslinked homo- or heteropolymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Science and Orthodox Christianity:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, Efthymios; Delli, Eudoxie; Livanos, Nikolaos; Tampakis, Kostas; Vlahakis, George

    2016-09-01

    This essay offers an overview of the history of the relations between science and Eastern Christianity based on Greek-language sources. The civilizations concerned are the Byzantine Empire, the Christian Orthodox communities of the Ottoman Empire, and modern Greece, as a case study of a national state. Beginning with the Greek Church Fathers, the essay investigates the ideas of theologians and scholars on nature. Neoplatonism, the theological debates of Iconoclasm and Hesychasm, the proposed union of the Eastern and Western Churches, and the complex relations with the Hellenic past all had notable impacts on the conception of science held by the Byzantine Orthodox. From the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, the Christian Orthodox world did not actively participate in the making of the new science that was developing in modern Europe. It had to deal with the assimilation of scientific ideas produced by Western Christianity, and its main concern was the “legitimacy” of knowledge that did not originate directly from its own spiritual tradition. Finally, with regard to the Greek state, beyond the specific points of contact between the sciences and Orthodox Christianity—pertaining, for example, to materialism, evolution, and the calendar—the essay presents the constant background engagement with religion visible in most public pronouncements of scientists and intellectuals.

  19. Science and Team Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Cole

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a new idea about the future development of science and teams, and predicts its possible applications in science, education, workforce development and research. The inter-relatedness of science and teamwork developments suggests a growing importance of team facilitators’ quality, as well as the criticality of detailed studies of teamwork processes and team consortiums to address the increasing complexity of exponential knowledge growth and work interdependency. In the future, it will become much easier to produce a highly specialised workforce, such as brain surgeons or genome engineers, than to identify, educate and develop individuals capable of the delicate and complex work of multi-team facilitation. Such individuals will become the new scientists of the millennium, having extraordinary knowledge in variety of scientific fields, unusual mix of abilities, possessing highly developed interpersonal and teamwork skills, and visionary ideas in illuminating bold strategies for new scientific discoveries. The new scientists of the millennium, through team consortium facilitation, will be able to build bridges between the multitude of diverse and extremely specialised knowledge and interdependent functions to improve systems for the further benefit of mankind.

  20. Science and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2001-10-01

    Science and art diverge in that art usually represents a single individual's conception and viewpoint, even when many others are involved in bringing a work to fruition, whereas science progresses by extending consensus among those knowledgeable in a field. Art usually communicates at an emotional level. It values individual expression and impact on the emotions at the expense of objectivity. Science, especially in its archival record, values objectivity and reproducibility and does not express the imagination and joy of discovery inherent in its practice. This is too bad, because it does not give a realistic picture of how science is really done and because individuality and emotion are inherently more interesting than consensus. Leaving out the personal, emotional side can make science seem boring and pedestrian, when exactly the opposite is true. In teaching science we need to remember that communication always benefits from imagination and esthetic sense. If we present science artistically and imaginatively, as well as objectively and precisely, students will develop a more complete understanding of what science and scientists are about--one that is likely to capture their imaginations, emotions, and best efforts.

  1. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of science and technology parks is necessarily accompanied by the establishment of a base of professional staff as the foundation of the park and the base of the potential management that will manage the park and the professional staff. Science and Technology Park is a broader term used to describe a variety of attempts directed at enhancing the entrepreneurship development by means of establishing knowledge – based, small and medium-sized enterprises. The enterprise at the top of the technology pyramid receives support in the form of capital, administration, space and access to new information technologies. The overall objective of the development of industrial enterprises in the technology park is the introduction of economically profitable production with the efficient usage of nonrenewable resources and the application of the highest environmental standards. Achieving the primary developmental objective of the Technology Park includes: creating a favorable business atmosphere in the local community, attractive to both foreign and domestic investors – providing support to the establishment of small and medium-sized enterprises using different models of joint ventures and direct foreign investment.

  2. Separation science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Sauer, N.; Chamberlin, R.M.; Gottesfeld, S.; Mattes, B.R.; Li, D.Q.; Swanson, B.

    1998-01-01

    The focus of this project is the demonstration and advancement of membrane-based separation and destruction technologies. The authors are exploring development of membrane systems for gas separations, selective metal ion recovery, and for separation or destruction of hazardous organics. They evaluated existing polymers and polymer formulations for recovery of toxic oxyanionic metals such as chromate and arsenate from selected waste streams and developed second-generation water-soluble polymeric systems for highly selective oxyanion removal and recovery. They optimized the simultaneous removal of radioactive strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions using the new nonhazardous separations agents, and developed recyclable, redox-active extractants that permitted recovery of the radioactive ions into a minimal waste volume. They produced hollow fibers and fabricated prototype hollow-fiber membrane modules for applications to gas separations and the liquid-liquid extraction and recovery of actinides and nuclear materials from process streams. They developed and fabricated cyclodextrin-based microporous materials that selectively absorb organic compounds in an aqueous environment; the resultant products gave pure water with organics at less than 0.05 parts per billion. They developed new, more efficient, membrane-based electrochemical reactors for use in organic destruction in process waste treatment. They addressed the need for advanced oxidation technologies based on molecular-level materials designs that selectively remove or destroy target species. They prepared and characterized surface-modified TiO 2 thin films using different linking approaches to attach ruthenium photosensitizers, and they started the measurement of the photo-degradation products generated using surface modified TiO 2 films in reaction with chlorophenol

  3. Deep learning for computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Garrett B; Hodas, Nathan O; Vishnu, Abhinav

    2017-06-15

    The rise and fall of artificial neural networks is well documented in the scientific literature of both computer science and computational chemistry. Yet almost two decades later, we are now seeing a resurgence of interest in deep learning, a machine learning algorithm based on multilayer neural networks. Within the last few years, we have seen the transformative impact of deep learning in many domains, particularly in speech recognition and computer vision, to the extent that the majority of expert practitioners in those field are now regularly eschewing prior established models in favor of deep learning models. In this review, we provide an introductory overview into the theory of deep neural networks and their unique properties that distinguish them from traditional machine learning algorithms used in cheminformatics. By providing an overview of the variety of emerging applications of deep neural networks, we highlight its ubiquity and broad applicability to a wide range of challenges in the field, including quantitative structure activity relationship, virtual screening, protein structure prediction, quantum chemistry, materials design, and property prediction. In reviewing the performance of deep neural networks, we observed a consistent outperformance against non-neural networks state-of-the-art models across disparate research topics, and deep neural network-based models often exceeded the "glass ceiling" expectations of their respective tasks. Coupled with the maturity of GPU-accelerated computing for training deep neural networks and the exponential growth of chemical data on which to train these networks on, we anticipate that deep learning algorithms will be a valuable tool for computational chemistry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Conformational Behavior of Polymer Chains of Different Architectures in Strongly Endothermic Solvent Mixtures: Specific Solvation Effects.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchá, L.; Limpouchová, Z.; Procházka, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 295, č. 8 (2017), s. 1391-1403 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19542S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : cononsolvency * preferential solvation * star polymer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2016

  5. How wide is the gap between high school and first-year chemistry at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to identify the nature and extent of the gap between high school and first-year chemistry at the University of the Witwatersrand. The investigation was done at the macro and micro levels. At the macro level high school physical science and first-year chemistry syllabuses were compared. The testing ...

  6. Past, Present and Future of General Chemistry in the PUC-Rio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Percio A. M.; Goulart, Mauricio S.; de Mello, Paulo Correa

    This manuscript describes the role of chemistry as a vehicle for understanding many other basic sciences and engineering based on the experience acquired in the General Chemistry course at the "Center Technical-Scientific" at the Pontific Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (CTC-PUC-Rio). A description of the history of the General…

  7. Biodegradable Polymers and Stem Cells for Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Lei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative to develop organ manufacturing technologies based on the high organ failure mortality and serious donor shortage problems. As an emerging and promising technology, bioprinting has attracted more and more attention with its super precision, easy reproduction, fast manipulation and advantages in many hot research areas, such as tissue engineering, organ manufacturing, and drug screening. Basically, bioprinting technology consists of inkjet bioprinting, laser-based bioprinting and extrusion-based bioprinting techniques. Biodegradable polymers and stem cells are common printing inks. In the printed constructs, biodegradable polymers are usually used as support scaffolds, while stem cells can be engaged to differentiate into different cell/tissue types. The integration of biodegradable polymers and stem cells with the bioprinting techniques has provided huge opportunities for modern science and technologies, including tissue repair, organ transplantation and energy metabolism.

  8. Biodegradable Polymers and Stem Cells for Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Meijuan; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-04-29

    It is imperative to develop organ manufacturing technologies based on the high organ failure mortality and serious donor shortage problems. As an emerging and promising technology, bioprinting has attracted more and more attention with its super precision, easy reproduction, fast manipulation and advantages in many hot research areas, such as tissue engineering, organ manufacturing, and drug screening. Basically, bioprinting technology consists of inkjet bioprinting, laser-based bioprinting and extrusion-based bioprinting techniques. Biodegradable polymers and stem cells are common printing inks. In the printed constructs, biodegradable polymers are usually used as support scaffolds, while stem cells can be engaged to differentiate into different cell/tissue types. The integration of biodegradable polymers and stem cells with the bioprinting techniques has provided huge opportunities for modern science and technologies, including tissue repair, organ transplantation and energy metabolism.

  9. Polarised light in science and nature

    CERN Document Server

    Pye, J David

    2001-01-01

    We humans cannot see when light is polarized and this leads to unfortunate misapprehensions about this aspect of nature. Even scientists who should know better often assume that it is an obscure topic of specialized interest in only a few rather isolated areas. In fact, it is a universal feature of our world and most natural light is at least partially polarized. In the animal kingdom, insects and other animals exploit such natural polarization in some fascinating ways since they do not share this human deficiency and can both detect and analyze polarization. It may be our unfamiliarity with this aspect of light that also makes people think it is a difficult subject, yet the basis is extremely simple. When these misconceptions are overcome, the phenomena associated with polarization are found to be important throughout science and technology, from physics, astronomy, natural history, geology, chemistry, and several branches of engineering to crafts such as glass-blowing and jewelry. Polarized light also invol...

  10. Science and technology. A radio chemist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    In this document the author has described the political scenario and the progress in the field of radiochemistry during late eighties and first half of this century. The natural and political events and the discovery of certain natural elements during this period are discussed. The author is a Japanese radiochemist. At present he is teaching at the J. William Fulbright College of Arts and Science of the University of Arkansas. In a fascinating style he has narrated the role of nuclear chemistry and nuclear chemists in second world war and how it effected the nuclear science in Japan in those days. It gives some important events in the history of nuclear science and the people involved in it

  11. Atmospheric chemistry and climate

    OpenAIRE

    Satheesh, SK

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science where major focus is the composition of the Earth's atmosphere. Knowledge of atmospheric composition is essential due to its interaction with (solar and terrestrial) radiation and interactions of atmospheric species (gaseous and particulate matter) with living organisms. Since atmospheric chemistry covers a vast range of topics, in this article the focus is on the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols with special emphasis on the Indian reg...

  12. Chemistry of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook presents an account of the chemistry of the elements for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. It covers not only the 'inorganic' chemistry of the elements, but also analytical, theoretical, industrial, organometallic;, bio-inorganic and other areas of chemistry which apply. The following elements of special nuclear interest are included: Rb, Cs, Fr, Sr, Ba, Ra, Po, At, Rn, Sc, Y, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, Tc, Ru, the Lanthanide Elements, the Actinide Elements. (U.K.)

  13. From trace chemistry to single atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Hot atom chemistry in the vast majority of experimental works deals with the trace amount of radioactive matters. Accordingly, the concept of trace chemistry is at the heart of hot atom chemistry. Some aspects of the chemistry at trace scale and at subtrace scale are presented together with the related problems of speciation and the complication which may arise due to the formation of radio colloids. The examples of 127 I(n,γ) 128 I and 132 Te (β - ) 132 I are shown, and the method based on radioactivity was used. The procedure of separating the elements in pitchblende is shown as the example of the chemistry of traces. 13 27 Al+ 2 4 He→ 0 1 n+ 15 30 P and 15 30 P→ 14 30 Si+e + +V are shown, and how to recognize the presence of radioactive colloids is explained. The formation of radiocolloids is by the sorption of a trace radioelement on pre-existing colloidal impurity or the self-condensation of monomeric species. The temporal parameters of the nature of reactions at trace concentration are listed. The examples of Class A and Class B reactions are shown. The kinetics of reactions at trace level, radon concentration, anthropogenic Pu and natural Pu in environment, the behavior of Pu atoms and so on are described. (K.I.)

  14. Exploring Dominant Types of Explanations Built by General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The central goal of our study was to explore the nature of the explanations generated by science and engineering majors with basic training in chemistry to account for the colligative properties of solutions. The work was motivated by our broader interest in the characterisation of the dominant types of explanations that science college students…

  15. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  16. Canopy Chemistry (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Canopy characteristics: leaf chemistry, specific leaf area, LAI, PAR, IPAR, NPP, standing biomass--see also: Meteorology (OTTER) for associated...

  17. USSR Report, Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1986-01-01

    This USSR Report on Chemistry contains articles on Aerosols, Adsorption, Biochemistry, Catalysis, Chemical Industry, Coal Gasification, Electrochemistry, Explosives and Explosions, Fertilizers, Food...

  18. Elements of environmental chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hites, R. A; Raff, Jonathan D

    2012-01-01

    ... more. Extensively revised, updated, and expanded, this second edition includes new chapters on atmospheric chemistry, climate change, and polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins, and brominated flame retardants...

  19. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  20. All-union conference on theoretical and applied radiation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putilov, A.V.; Barashkov, N.N.

    1985-01-01

    The All-Union Conference on Theoretical and Applied Radiation Chemistry was held in Obninsk in October 1984. The subjects covered by the all-union conference included practically all urgent problems of modern radiation chemistry: theoretical principles of radiation chemistry, solid state radiation chemistry, radiation chemistry of heterogeneous processes, radiolysis of organic and inorganic substances, radiation polymerization and hardening, radiation chemistry of polymers, the technology of radiation chemistry and instrument making. Twenty-three plenary reports given by scientists representing the corresponding directions were devoted to an examination of the basic problems of modern radiation chemistry. Around 100 oral communications were heard and discussed at meetings of six sections operating within the framework of the conference. In addition the conference participants were able to acquaint themselves with and discuss more than 230 displays in parallel with the oral reports. Abstracts of all of the section oral reports and displays were published by the organizing committee in the form of a separate collection. The texts of the plenary reports were published in the journal Khimiya Vysokikh Energiy in 1985.