WorldWideScience

Sample records for science seeks prevention

  1. Studies on asymptomatic malaria, prevention and treatment seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on asymptomatic malaria, prevention and treatment seeking behaviours in Abeokuta, south-west Nigeria. ... Self-diagnosis for the disease was more common (60.8%) among the participants, compared to other measures; seeking laboratory test (26.5%) and clinical diagnosis (9.1%). A good proportion of the ...

  2. Seeking HIV prevention strategies for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1993-05-01

    Women are biologically more susceptible to HIV infection than men through heterosexual penile-vaginal intercourse, and transmission by heterosexual means seems to be increasing. The use of male condoms and partner reduction are currently recommended to reduce the risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. Women can, however, only indirectly influence these behaviors. Many face social and emotional factors which make it impossible to negotiate condom use with an unwilling partner. Scientists are therefore paying greater attention to female barrier methods such as the female condom and spermicides as potential female- controlled ways to help women avoid infection. Noncontraceptive chemical methods in the form of jellies and topical creams are being explored. Limited in vivo scientific data exists on how these methods may prevent the transmission of HIV. The female condom is a thin, plastic sheath which covers the cervix, vagina, and women's external genitalia. It has gone to clinical trials in 1700 women at 71 sites. While many women are in favor of the method, objections to its use have been voiced due to its appearance, the noise made during intercourse, slippage, how it feels during intercourse, expense, reduced sensitivity, and embarrassment. Its potential for re-use must be explored. Only inconclusive results are available on the effectiveness of spermicides. While lab and animal research show nonoxynol-9 can kill HIV, it remains to be seen how much or how often it may be used before mucosal linings become irritated and potentially facilitate the entry of HIV. Many unresolved questions about the mechanics of HIV infection remain to be answered before these methods may be fully endorsed by a wide array of scientists.

  3. Politics of prevention: The emergence of prevention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumeliotis, Filip

    2015-08-01

    This article critically examines the political dimension of prevention science by asking how it constructs the problems for which prevention is seen as the solution and how it enables the monitoring and control of these problems. It also seeks to examine how prevention science has established a sphere for legitimate political deliberation and which kinds of statements are accepted as legitimate within this sphere. The material consists of 14 publications describing and discussing the goals, concepts, promises and problems of prevention science. The analysis covers the period from 1993 to 2012. The analysis shows that prevention science has established a narrow definition of "prevention", including only interventions aimed at the reduction of risks for clinical disorders. In publications from the U.S. National Institute of Drug Abuse, the principles of prevention science have enabled a commitment to a zero-tolerance policy on drugs. The drug using subject has been constructed as a rational choice actor lacking in skills in exerting self-control in regard to drug use. Prevention science has also enabled the monitoring and control of expertise, risk groups and individuals through specific forms of data gathering. Through the juxtaposition of the concepts of "objectivity" and "morality", prevention science has constituted a principle of delineation, disqualifying statements not adhering to the principles of prevention science from the political field, rendering ethical and conflictual dimensions of problem representations invisible. The valorisation of scientific accounts of drugs has acted to naturalise specific political ideals. It simultaneously marginalises the public from the public policy process, giving precedence to experts who are able to provide information that policy-makers are demanding. Alternative accounts, such as those based on marginalisation, poverty or discrimination are silenced within prevention science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Information-seeking behavior of social sciences scholars: A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in the social sciences, based on the premise that information-seeking behavior follows universally applicable stages and patterns worldwide. The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Fifty eight active ...

  5. Seeking Relevance: American Political Science and America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranto, Robert; Woessner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors talk about the relevance of American political science and America. Political science has enormous strengths in its highly talented practitioners and sophisticated methods. However, its disconnection from its host society, while not so severe as for fields like English and sociology, nonetheless poses an existential…

  6. The Science of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The science of cancer prevention is described by Dr. Barnett S. Kramer, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute (NCI). The Division of Cancer Prevention administers a broad spectrum of research that spans basic pre-clinical, laboratory research, supportive and palliative care research, early detection, and randomized controlled clinical trials. The Division also supports the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program and is devoted to the balanced communication of scientific results.

  7. Seeking environmental causes of neurodegenerative disease and envisioning primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter S; Palmer, Valerie S; Kisby, Glen E

    2016-09-01

    Pathological changes of the aging brain are expressed in a range of neurodegenerative disorders that will impact increasing numbers of people across the globe. Research on the causes of these disorders has focused heavily on genetics, and strategies for prevention envision drug-induced slowing or arresting disease advance before its clinical appearance. We discuss a strategic shift that seeks to identify the environmental causes or contributions to neurodegeneration, and the vision of primary disease prevention by removing or controlling exposure to culpable agents. The plausibility of this approach is illustrated by the prototypical neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS-PDC). This often-familial long-latency disease, once thought to be an inherited genetic disorder but now known to have a predominant or exclusive environmental origin, is in the process of disappearing from the three heavily affected populations, namely Chamorros of Guam and Rota, Japanese residents of Kii Peninsula, Honshu, and Auyu and Jaqai linguistic groups on the island of New Guinea in West Papua, Indonesia. Exposure via traditional food and/or medicine (the only common exposure in all three geographic isolates) to one or more neurotoxins in seed of cycad plants is the most plausible if yet unproven etiology. Neurotoxin dosage and/or subject age at exposure might explain the stratified epidemic of neurodegenerative disease on Guam in which high-incidence ALS peaked and declined before that of PD, only to be replaced today by a dementing disorder comparable to Alzheimer's disease. Exposure to the Guam environment is also linked to the delayed development of ALS among a subset of Chamorro and non-Chamorro Gulf War/Era veterans, a summary of which is reported here for the first time. Lessons learned from this study and from 65 years of research on ALS-PDC include the exceptional value of initial, field-based informal investigation of

  8. Opportunities for Prevention: Assessing Where Low-Income Patients Seek Care for Preventable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiman, Tamar A; Valdmanis, Vivian G; Bernet, Patrick; Moises, James

    2015-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has many aspects that are aimed at improving health care for all Americans, including mandated insurance coverage for individuals, as well as required community health needs assessments (CHNAs), and reporting of investments in community benefit by nonprofit hospitals in order to maintain tax exemptions. Although millions of Americans have gained access to health insurance, many--often the most vulnerable--remain uninsured, and will continue to depend on hospital community benefits for care. Understanding where patients go for care can assist hospitals and communities to develop their CHNA and implementation plans in order to focus resources where the need for prevention is greatest. This study evaluated patient care-seeking behavior among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in Florida in 2008--analyzed in 2013--to assess whether low-income patients accessed specific safety net hospitals for treatment or received care from hospitals that were geographically closer to their residence. This study found evidence that low-income patients went to hospitals that treated more low-income patients, regardless of where they lived. The findings demonstrate that hospitals-especially public safety net hospitals with a tradition of treating low-income patients suffering from CAD-should focus prevention activities where low-income patients reside.

  9. The Influence of Achievement Goals on Online Help Seeking of Computer Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiang; Barnes, Brad; Wright, Ewan; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the online help-seeking behaviors of computer science students with a focus on the effect of achievement goals. The online help-seeking behaviors investigated were online searching, asking teachers online for help, and asking peers or unknown people online for help. One hundred and sixty-five students studying computer…

  10. Seeking Constructive Synergy: Design Science and the Constructive Research Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piirainen, Kalle; Gonzalez, Rafael A.

    2013-01-01

    Information systems research and management science create knowledge which can be applied in organizations. Design science specifically aims at applying existing knowledge to solve interesting and relevant business problems and has been steadily gaining support in information systems research....... However, design science is not the only design-oriented framework. Accordingly, this raises the question of whether it is possible to compare the results obtained from different brands of design-oriented research. This paper contributes to answering this question by comparing two research approaches......, enabling mutual learning possibilities and suggesting improvements in transparency and rigor. The objective of this paper is to compare design science research with the constructive research approach. The conclusion is that the two approaches are compatible, save for details in practical requirements...

  11. The science of violence prevention

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years after Rodrigo Guerrero-Velasco treated violence like a disease, using epidemiology to find the causes, his approach to violence prevention has been taken up across the Americas. He talks to Alyssa Greenhouse.

  12. Making Science Worthwhile: Still Seeking Critical, Not Cosmetic, Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Tonso's commentary on Sinnes and Løken's paper links what they found to empirical research done in science and engineering career settings. Sinnes and Løken's findings are a welcome addition to a literature dedicated to pointing out, yet again, some of the reasons we have made so little progress reversing gender inequities in the…

  13. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dougan and Lee (1)]. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one's life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping, and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  14. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  15. Intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older adults: An application of the theory of planned behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Maessen, Mia; de Bruijn, Renske; Smets, Bianca

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines the intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older persons. The study is carried out from the theory of planned behaviour and distinguishes attitudes (psychological openness), subjective norms (indifference to stigma), and perceived behavioural

  16. A cluster randomized trial of alcohol prevention in small businesses: a cascade model of help seeking and risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, G Shawn; Bennett, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    The current study adapted two workplace substance abuse prevention programs and tested a conceptual model of workplace training effects on help seeking and alcohol consumption. Questionnaires were collected 1 month before, 1 month after, and 6 months within a cluster randomized field experiment. Texas small businesses in construction, transportation, and service industries. A total of 1510 employees from 45 businesses were randomly assigned to receive no training or one of the interventions. The interventions were 4-hour on-the-job classroom trainings that encouraged healthy lifestyles and seeking professional help (e.g., from the Employee Assistance Program [EAP]). The Team Awareness Program focused on peer referral and team building. The Choices in Health Promotion Program delivered various health topics based on a needs assessment. Questionnaires measured help-seeking attitudes and behavior, frequency of drinking alcohol, and job-related incidents. Mixed-model repeated-measures analyses of covariance were computed. Relative to the control group, training was associated with significantly greater reductions in drinking frequency, willingness to seek help, and seeking help from the EAP. After including help-seeking attitudes as a covariate, the correlation between training and help seeking becomes nonsignificant. Help-seeking behavior was not correlated with drinking frequency. Training improved help-seeking attitudes and behaviors and decreased alcohol risks. The reductions in drinking alcohol were directly correlated with training and independent from help seeking.

  17. 'Men who use the Internet to seek sex with men': Rethinking sexuality in the transnational context of HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleymanov, R; Huang, Y-T

    2016-01-01

    MISM (i.e. men who use the Internet to seek sex with men) has emerged in public health literature as a population in need of HIV prevention. In this paper, we argue for the importance of rethinking the dominant notions of the MISM category to uncover its ethnocentric and heteronormative bias. To accomplish this, we conducted a historical, epistemological and transnational analysis of social sciences and health research literature (n = 146) published on MISM between 2000 and 2014. We critically unravel the normative underpinnings of 'westernised' knowledge upon which the MISM category is based. We argue that the essentialist approach of Western scholarship can homogenise MISM by narrowly referring to behavioural aspects of sexuality, thereby rendering multiple sexualities/desires invisible. Furthermore, we argue that a Eurocentric bias, which underlies the MISM category, may hinder our awareness of the transnational dynamics of sexual minority communities, identities, histories and cultures. We propose the conceptualisation of MISM as hybrid cultural subjects that go beyond transnational and social boundaries, and generate conclusions about the future of the MISM category for HIV prevention and health promotion.

  18. Perceptions of oral health, preventive care, and care-seeking behaviors among rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2014-12-01

    An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being "free" or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  19. Seeking science information online: Data mining Google to better understand the roles of the media and the education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Elad; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2012-10-01

    Which extrinsic cues motivate people to search for science-related information? For many science-related search queries, media attention and time during the academic year are highly correlated with changes in information seeking behavior (expressed by changes in the proportion of Google science-related searches). The data mining analysis presented here shows that changes in the volume of searches for general and well-established science terms are strongly linked to the education system. By contrast, ad-hoc events and current concerns were better aligned with media coverage. The interest and ability to independently seek science knowledge in response to current events or concerns is one of the fundamental goals of the science literacy movement. This method provides a mirror of extrapolated behavior and as such can assist researchers in assessing the role of the media in shaping science interests, and inform the ways in which lifelong interests in science are manifested in real world situations.

  20. Pediatric primary care to help prevent child maltreatment: the Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Feigelman, Susan; Lane, Wendy; Kim, Jeongeun

    2009-03-01

    Effective strategies for preventing child maltreatment are needed. Few primary care-based programs have been developed, and most have not been well evaluated. Our goal was to evaluate the efficacy of the Safe Environment for Every Kid model of pediatric primary care in reducing the occurrence of child maltreatment. A randomized trial was conducted from June 2002 to November 2005 in a university-based resident continuity clinic in Baltimore, Maryland. The study population consisted of English-speaking parents of children (0-5 years) brought in for child health supervision. Of the 1118 participants approached, 729 agreed to participate, and 558 of them completed the study protocol. Resident continuity clinics were cluster randomized by day of the week to the model (intervention) or standard care (control) groups. Model care consisted of (1) residents who received special training, (2) the Parent Screening Questionnaire, and (3) a social worker. Risk factors for child maltreatment were identified and addressed by the resident physician and/or social worker. Standard care involved routine pediatric primary care. A subset of the clinic population was sampled for the evaluation. Child maltreatment was measured in 3 ways: (1) child protective services reports using state agency data; (2) medical chart documentation of possible abuse or neglect; and (3) parental report of harsh punishment via the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics scale. Model care resulted in significantly lower rates of child maltreatment in all the outcome measures: fewer child protective services reports, fewer instances of possible medical neglect documented as treatment nonadherence, fewer children with delayed immunizations, and less harsh punishment reported by parents. One-tailed testing was conducted in accordance with the study hypothesis. The Safe Environment for Every Kid (SEEK) model of pediatric primary care seems promising as a practical strategy for helping prevent child maltreatment

  1. Malaria prevalence, prevention and treatment seeking practices among nomadic pastoralists in northern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Mame Cheikh; Thwing, Julie; Fall, Fatou Ba; Gomis, Jules Francois; Deme, Awa; Ndiaye, Yaye Die; Daniels, Rachel; Volkman, Sarah K; Ndiop, Medoune; Ba, Mady; Ndiaye, Daouda

    2017-10-13

    Malaria transmission in Senegal is highly stratified, from low in the dry north to moderately high in the moist south. In northern Senegal, along the Senegal River Valley and in the Ferlo semi-desert region, annual incidence is less than five cases per 1000 inhabitants. Many nomadic pastoralists have permanent dwellings in the Ferlo Desert and Senegal River Valley, but spend dry season in the south with their herds, returning north when the rains start, leading to a concern that this population could contribute to ongoing transmission in the north. A modified snowball sampling survey was conducted at six sites in northern Senegal to determine the malaria prevention and treatment seeking practices and parasite prevalence among nomadic pastoralists in the Senegal River Valley and the Ferlo Desert. Nomadic pastoralists aged 6 months and older were surveyed during September and October 2014, and data regarding demographics, access to care and preventive measures were collected. Parasite infection was detected using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), microscopy (thin and thick smears) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular barcodes were determined by high resolution melting (HRM). Of 1800 participants, 61% were male. Sixty-four percent had at least one bed net in the household, and 53% reported using a net the night before. Only 29% had received a net from a mass distribution campaign. Of the 8% (142) who reported having had fever in the last month, 55% sought care, 20% of whom received a diagnostic test, one-third of which (n = 5) were reported to be positive. Parasite prevalence was 0.44% by thick smear and 0.50% by PCR. None of the molecular barcodes identified among the nomadic pastoralists had been previously identified in Senegal. While access to and utilization of malaria control interventions among nomadic pastoralists was lower than the general population, parasite prevalence was lower than expected and sheds doubt on the perception that they are a

  2. Information-seeking behavior of basic science researchers: implications for library services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Laura L; Light, Jeanene; O'Malley, Donna; Delwiche, Frances A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the information-seeking behaviors of basic science researchers to inform the development of customized library services. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted on a sample of basic science researchers employed at a university medical school. The basic science researchers used a variety of information resources ranging from popular Internet search engines to highly technical databases. They generally relied on basic keyword searching, using the simplest interface of a database or search engine. They were highly collegial, interacting primarily with coworkers in their laboratories and colleagues employed at other institutions. They made little use of traditional library services and instead performed many traditional library functions internally. Although the basic science researchers expressed a positive attitude toward the library, they did not view its resources or services as integral to their work. To maximize their use by researchers, library resources must be accessible via departmental websites. Use of library services may be increased by cultivating relationships with key departmental administrative personnel. Despite their self-sufficiency, subjects expressed a desire for centralized information about ongoing research on campus and shared resources, suggesting a role for the library in creating and managing an institutional repository.

  3. Motivations to Seek Science Videos on YouTube: Free-Choice Learning in a Connected Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Sonny

    2018-01-01

    Do individuals use video sharing sites in their free time to learn about science, and if so, why? This study takes a preliminary look at individual differences that motivate online science video seeking. Among 273 Singapore Internet users who participated in an online survey, most reported using YouTube during the previous week, and one-third…

  4. Commentary for Special Issue of Prevention Science "Using Genetics in Prevention: Science Fiction or Science Fact?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Danielle M

    2018-01-01

    A growing number of prevention studies have incorporated genetic information. In this commentary, I discuss likely reasons for growing interest in this line of research and reflect on the current state of the literature. I review challenges associated with the incorporation of genotypic information into prevention studies, as well as ethical considerations associated with this line of research. I discuss areas where developmental psychologists and prevention scientists can make substantive contributions to the study of genetic predispositions, as well as areas that could benefit from closer collaborations between prevention scientists and geneticists to advance this area of study. In short, this commentary tackles the complex questions associated with what we hope to achieve by adding genetic components to prevention research and where this research is likely to lead in the future.

  5. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  6. Ethnic differences in breast cancer prevention information-seeking among rural women: will provider mobile messages work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Although growing research supports cancer survivor information-seeking, little is known about breast cancer prevention information-seeking among women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in breast cancer risk factor knowledge, information sources, and desired mobile messages among Hispanic and non-Hispanic rural women. Women were recruited to complete a survey at an imaging center during a mammography screening visit. A total of 156 women (mean age = 61, SD = 12.07) completed the survey. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge was significantly higher for non-Hispanic women compared to Hispanic women (p = .035). Television, magazines, and Internet were the most frequent information sources. Providers were the most frequent interpersonal information source. Nearly 87 % used cell phones and 47 % used texting. Hispanic women were more likely to desire breast cancer prevention cell voice messages (p breast cancer prevention education, and best practices to manage screening appointments.

  7. Rapamycin prevents drug seeking via disrupting reconsolidation of reward memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jue; Liu, Lingqi; Wen, Quan; Zheng, Chunming; Gao, Yang; Peng, Shuxian; Tan, Yalun; Li, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    The maladaptive drug memory developed between the drug-rewarding effect and environmental cues contributes to difficulty in preventing drug relapse. Established reward memories can be disrupted by pharmacologic interventions following their reactivation. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, has been proved to be involved in various memory consolidation. However, it is less well characterized in drug memory reconsolidation. Using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we examined the effects of systemically administered rapamycin on reconsolidation of drug memory in rats. We found that systemically administered rapamycin (0.1 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.) after re-exposure to drug-paired environment, dose dependently decreased the expression of CPP 1 d later, and the effect lasted for up to 14 d and could not be reversed by a priming injection of morphine. The effect of rapamycin on morphine-associated memory was specific to drug-paired context, and rapamycin had no effect on subsequent CPP expression when rats were exposed to saline-paired context or homecage. These results indicated that systemic administration of rapamycin after memory reactivation can persistently inhibit the drug seeking behaviour via disruption of morphine memory reconsolidation in rats. Additionally, the effect of rapamycin on memory reconsolidation was reproduced in cocaine CPP and alcohol CPP. Furthermore, rapamycin did not induce conditioned place aversion and had no effect on locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour. These findings suggest that rapamycin could erase the acquired drug CPP in rats, and that mTOR activity plays an important role in drug reconsolidation and is required for drug relapse.

  8. Determinants of Malaria Prevention and Treatment Seeking Behaviours of Pregnant Undergraduates Resident in University Hostels, South-East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonia Ukamaka Chinweuba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional descriptive survey investigated determinants of malaria prevention and treatment seeking behaviours of pregnant undergraduates resident in university hostels, South-East Nigeria. Purposive sampling was used to enrol 121 accessible and consenting undergraduates with self-revealed and noticeable pregnancy residing in twenty-three female hostels of four university campuses in Enugu State, Nigeria. Structured interview guide developed based on reviewed literature and WHO-recommended malaria prevention and treatment measures was used to collect students’ self-report data on malaria preventive health behaviours, sick role behaviours, and clinic use using mixed methods. The WHO-recommended malaria prevention measures were sparingly used. Some believed that pregnancy does not play any role in a woman’s reaction to malaria infection. Only 41 (50.6% visited a hospital for screening and treatment. Thirty-four (28.1% used antimalaria medicine bought from chemist shop or over-the-counter medicines, while 33 (27.3% used untreated net. The students were more likely to complete their antimalaria medicine when they were sick with malaria infection than for prevention (p=0.0186. Knowledge, academic schedule, cultural influence on perception and decision-making, and accessibility of health facility were key determinants of the women’s preventive and treatment seeking behaviours. Health education on malaria prevention and dangers of drug abuse should form part of orientation lectures for all freshmen. University health centres should be upgraded to provide basic antenatal care services.

  9. Workplace substance abuse prevention and help seeking: comparing team-oriented and informational training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E

    2001-07-01

    Employees fail to seek help for alcohol or drug (AOD) abuse because of unhealthy work climates, stigma, and distrust in Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs). To address such problems, the authors randomly assigned groups of municipal employees (N = 260) to 2 types of training: a 4-hr informational review of EAPs and policy and an 8-hr training that embedded messages about AOD reduction in the context of team building and stress management. Pre- and posttraining and 6-month follow-up surveys assessed change. Group privacy regulation, EAP trust, help seeking, and peer encouragement increased for team training. Stigma of substance users decreased for information training. EAP/policy knowledge increased for both groups. A control group showed little change. Help seeking and peer encouragement also predicted EAP utilization. Integrating both team and informational training may be the most effective for improving help seeking and EAP utilization.

  10. The promises and pitfalls of retrieval-extinction procedures in preventing relapse to drug seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavan P McNally

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Relapse to drug seeking after treatment or a period of abstinence remains a fundamental challenge for drug users. The retrieval – extinction procedure offers promise in augmenting the efficacy of exposure based treatment for drug use and for protecting against relapse to drug seeking. Preceding extinction training with a brief retrieval or reminder trial, retrieval – extinction training, has been shown to reduce reinstatement of extinguished drug seeking in animal models and also to produce profound and long lasting decrements in cue-induced craving in human heroin users. However, the mechanisms that mediate these effects of retrieval - extinction training are unclear. Moreover, under some circumstances, the retrieval – extinction procedure can significantly increase vulnerability to reinstatement in animal models.

  11. Teratology: from science to birth defects prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Erickson, J David; Reef, Susan E; Ross, Danielle S

    2009-01-01

    One of the goals of birth defects research is to better understand risk or preventive factors for birth defects so that strategies for prevention can be developed. In this article, we have selected four areas of birth defects research that have led to the development of prevention strategies. These areas include rubella virus as a cause of congenital rubella syndrome, folic acid as a preventive factor for neural tube defects, cytomegalovirus infection as a cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities, and alcohol as a cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. For each of these areas, we review key clinical and research findings that led to the identification of the risk or preventive factor, milestones in the development of prevention strategies, and the progress made thus far toward prevention.

  12. The Impact of Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements on Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-Dougan & Lee, 2010. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one’s life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - Stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  13. Attitude toward depression, its complications, prevention and barriers to seeking help among ethnic groups in Penang, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explore attitudes towards, complications of and preventive measures for depression and the barriers that result in delays in seeking help among the various ethnic groups in Penang, Malaysia. In June 2007 a questionnaire‐based survey was undertaken in Penang. Face‐to‐face interviews were conducted, and 1855 respondents were approached to participate in the study by adopting a cluster random sampling method. A 25‐item questionnaire was used to explore public attitudes towards, complications of and preventive measures for depression and delays in seeking help. A total of 1149 (61.94%) showed willingness to participate in the survey. Ethnically, 490 (42.6%) of the respondents who participated in the survey were Malay, while 413 (35.9%) were Chinese, 149 (13%) Indian and 97 (8.4%) from other ethnic minorities. The mean age of the respondents was 30 years (SD ± 11.5). In evaluating public attitudes, the majority (n = 910, 79.2%) agreed with the statement that family and friends can enhance the depression recovery process by providing more care and attention to the patient and this was found to be statistically significant (P ≤0.001). More than one‐third of the respondents (n = 437, 38.0%) perceived depression as a normal medical condition and believed that it subsides automatically. The majority (n = 830, 72.2%) stated that depression results in social problems, while some felt that it can lead to raised blood pressure (n = 518, 45.1%). In terms of prevention, most of the respondents indicated that one can prevent depression by maintaining a good social life. In evaluating the barriers to seeking professional help, the majority (n = 582, 50.7%) stated that they did not believe they were at risk, with the next largest group identifying a lack of awareness regarding the signs and symptoms. However, a positive attitude was observed towards the complications and prevention of depression. Initiatives to increase mental health literacy will

  14. Emotionally Troubled Teens' Help-Seeking Behaviors: An Evaluation of Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.; Ossege, Julianne; King, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Many school-based suicide prevention programs do not show a positive impact on help-seeking behaviors among emotionally troubled teens despite their being at high risk for suicide. This study is a secondary analysis of the Surviving the Teens® program evaluation to determine its effect on help-seeking behaviors among troubled youth. Results showed…

  15. Update on microbicide research and development-seeking new HIV prevention tools for women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertenskoetter T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women and girls are especially vulnerable to HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, and in some of those countries, prevalence among young women can be up to 3 times higher than among men of the same age. Effective HIV prevention options for women are clearly needed in this setting. Several ARV-based vaginal microbicides are currently in development for prevention of HIV transmission to women and are discussed here. The concept of pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV transmission to women is introduced.

  16. Information-Seeking Behaviour on Internet: A Comparison between Arts and Science Undergraduate Students in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidian, Faranak; Seifi Maleki, A.M. Masoomeh

    2013-01-01

    The Internet has increasingly influenced the information-seeking behavior of students in higher education over the past few decades. The mass availability of information on the web has seen significant changes in the electronic information needs, information retrieval, and communication patterns (information seeking behavior) of university…

  17. The Relationship between Learning Styles and Information Seeking Behavior in Master Degree Students of Medical Sciences in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Parsaeian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Learning styles influence the methods and ways of obtaining information and lead to the variety of information seeking behaviors from the searchers. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between learning styles and information seeking behavior in master degree students of medical science in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analytic study. The population of the study was 601 master degree students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd in 2013-2015. They were all freshmen. The sample size of 234 students was determined using Cochran formula. Data were collected by two questionnaires (Kolb questionnaire and researcher-made seeking behavior questionnaire. The validity of questionnaires was confirmed by a panel of experts and their reliability was confirmed by Cronbach`s alpha. Data analysis was done by inferential statistics and statistical software SPSS (version 18. Measuring the significant relationship between learning styles and information seeking behavior was done with Pierson correlation coefficient. The significant difference between learning styles and information seeking behavior in terms of gender and faculty was examined by Fisher`s test. Results: Learning styles had effect on information seeking behavior; also correlation coefficients between the learning styles and information seeking behavior had significant difference, but there was no difference in terms of faculty. Conclution: Recognition of learning styles and including it into designing of information systems may increase system`s interactivity that it may lead to have better and faster accessibility to information resources.

  18. Nutritional Science Staff | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. The influence of risk labeling on risk perception and willingness to seek help in an experimental simulation of preventive medical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Hulshof, Carel T; Sluiter, Judith K

    2018-07-01

    To study the influence of the presentation of results of a preventive medical examination on risk perception and willingness to seek help for work-related fatigue or being overweight. A factorial design experiment was conducted, presenting workers (n = 82) with vignettes including eight scenarios of test results with and without an emphasis on the risk of a current or future health condition or a probe to seek help. Participants rated perceived risk and willingness to seek help (0-100 Visual Analogue Scale) as if these were their own results. Differences were tested with paired-sample t-tests. In scenarios emphasizing the risk of a current or future disorder, participants perceived higher risk and were more willing to seek help (p-values < .00). Slightly higher willingness to seek help scores was observed in all scenarios that included probes (p < .00). Risk perception and willingness to seek help of workers participating in a preventive medical examination were higher when they were told that the test results indicate a risk of a current or future disorder and after being advised to seek help. Healthcare providers should take the potential effects on risk perception and help-seeking into account in preventive settings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Worldwide application of prevention science in adolescent health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Richard F; Fagan, Abigail A; Gavin, Loretta E; Greenberg, Mark T; Irwin, Charles E; Ross, David A; Shek, Daniel T L

    2015-01-01

    The burden of morbidity and mortality from non-communicable disease has risen worldwide and is accelerating in low-income and middle-income countries, whereas the burden from infectious diseases has declined. Since this transition, the prevention of non-communicable disease as well as communicable disease causes of adolescent mortality has risen in importance. Problem behaviours that increase the short-term or long-term likelihood of morbidity and mortality, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drug misuse, mental health problems, unsafe sex, risky and unsafe driving, and violence are largely preventable. In the past 30 years new discoveries have led to prevention science being established as a discipline designed to mitigate these problem behaviours. Longitudinal studies have provided an understanding of risk and protective factors across the life course for many of these problem behaviours. Risks cluster across development to produce early accumulation of risk in childhood and more pervasive risk in adolescence. This understanding has led to the construction of developmentally appropriate prevention policies and programmes that have shown short-term and long-term reductions in these adolescent problem behaviours. We describe the principles of prevention science, provide examples of efficacious preventive interventions, describe challenges and potential solutions to take efficacious prevention policies and programmes to scale, and conclude with recommendations to reduce the burden of adolescent mortality and morbidity worldwide through preventive intervention. PMID:22538180

  1. Predictors of Online Cancer Prevention Information Seeking Among Patients and Caregivers Across the Digital Divide: A Cross-Sectional, Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar

    2016-03-09

    The digital divide is a recognized public health problem caused by social determinants that exacerbate health disparities. Despite the "tectonic shift" in how most of the public obtains cancer information, underserved communities are at increased risk of being digitally marginalized. However, research that examines factors underlying eHealth information seeking in diverse health contexts is lacking. The aim of this paper is to explore preferences and use of eHealth cancer prevention information (CPI) among patients and caregivers attending a minority-serving oncology clinic using the comprehensive model of information seeking as a theoretical framework. Specifically, the study examined the role of social determinants and prevention orientation in differences in preference and use of the Internet for CPI seeking among this diverse sample. Survey methodology was used to identify social determinants and behavioral factors, including prevention orientation as correlates and predictors of respondents' (n=252) preferences and use of eHealth for CPI seeking. Less than half (112/252, 44.4%) of respondents said that if faced with the need to seek CPI, they would seek this information online. In the final logistic regression model, education, ethnicity, age, and prevention orientation made significant contributions to the model (Pdigitally underserved racial/ethnic group. Finally, additional factors underlying these differences should be explored to better tailor CPI eHealth information to diverse communities' information needs. ©Tamar Ginossar. Originally published in JMIR Cancer (http://cancer.jmir.org), 09.03.2016.

  2. Japan seeks targeted science funding and to use external scrutiny to increase competitiveness at universities

    CERN Multimedia

    Saegusa, A

    1999-01-01

    Japan's science policy committee is planning to prioritise research fields in an attempt to better support high-priority research areas such as information sciences and genome research. The Science and Technology Council has also asked for the formation of an independent body to externally evaluate the quality of university research (1 page).

  3. Maybe Small Is Too Small a Term: Introduction to Advancing Small Sample Prevention Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2015-10-01

    Prevention research addressing health disparities often involves work with small population groups experiencing such disparities. The goals of this special section are to (1) address the question of what constitutes a small sample; (2) identify some of the key research design and analytic issues that arise in prevention research with small samples; (3) develop applied, problem-oriented, and methodologically innovative solutions to these design and analytic issues; and (4) evaluate the potential role of these innovative solutions in describing phenomena, testing theory, and evaluating interventions in prevention research. Through these efforts, we hope to promote broader application of these methodological innovations. We also seek whenever possible, to explore their implications in more general problems that appear in research with small samples but concern all areas of prevention research. This special section includes two sections. The first section aims to provide input for researchers at the design phase, while the second focuses on analysis. Each article describes an innovative solution to one or more challenges posed by the analysis of small samples, with special emphasis on testing for intervention effects in prevention research. A concluding article summarizes some of their broader implications, along with conclusions regarding future directions in research with small samples in prevention science. Finally, a commentary provides the perspective of the federal agencies that sponsored the conference that gave rise to this special section.

  4. School Psychology Research: Combining Ecological Theory and Prevention Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The current article comments on the importance of theoretical implications within school psychological research, and proposes that ecological theory and prevention science could provide the conceptual framework for school psychology research and practice. Articles published in "School Psychology Review" should at least discuss potential…

  5. Emotionally troubled teens' help-seeking behaviors: an evaluation of surviving the Teens® suicide prevention and depression awareness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Catherine M; Sorter, Michael T; Ossege, Julianne; King, Keith A

    2014-10-01

    Many school-based suicide prevention programs do not show a positive impact on help-seeking behaviors among emotionally troubled teens despite their being at high risk for suicide. This study is a secondary analysis of the Surviving the Teens(®) program evaluation to determine its effect on help-seeking behaviors among troubled youth. Results showed significant increases in mean scores of the Behavioral Intent to Communicate with Important Others Regarding Emotional Health Issues subscale (p Teens program has a positive effect on help-seeking behaviors in troubled youth. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Pregnancy prevention and condom use practices among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy seeking family planning in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B Haddad

    Full Text Available Programs for integration of family planning into HIV care must recognize current practices and desires among clients to appropriately target and tailor interventions. We sought to evaluate fertility intentions, unintended pregnancy, contraceptive and condom use among a cohort of HIV-infected women seeking family planning services within an antiretroviral therapy (ART clinic.200 women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire during enrollment into a prospective contraceptive study at the Lighthouse Clinic, an HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010.Most women (95% did not desire future pregnancy. Prior reported unintended pregnancy rates were high (69% unplanned and 61% unhappy with timing of last pregnancy. Condom use was inconsistent, even among couples with discordant HIV status, with lack of use often attributed to partner's refusal. Higher education, older age, lower parity and having an HIV negative partner were factors associated with consistent condom usage.High rates of unintended pregnancy among these women underscore the need for integ rating family planning, sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, and HIV services. Contraceptive access and use, including condoms, must be improved with specific efforts to enlist partner support. Messages regarding the importance of condom usage in conjunction with more effective modern contraceptive methods for both infection and pregnancy prevention must continue to be reinforced over the course of ongoing ART treatment.

  7. Pregnancy prevention and condom use practices among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy seeking family planning in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Lisa B; Feldacker, Caryl; Jamieson, Denise J; Tweya, Hannock; Cwiak, Carrie; Chaweza, Thomas; Mlundira, Linly; Chiwoko, Jane; Samala, Bernadette; Kachale, Fanny; Bryant, Amy G; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Stuart, Gretchen S; Hoffman, Irving; Phiri, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Programs for integration of family planning into HIV care must recognize current practices and desires among clients to appropriately target and tailor interventions. We sought to evaluate fertility intentions, unintended pregnancy, contraceptive and condom use among a cohort of HIV-infected women seeking family planning services within an antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic. 200 women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire during enrollment into a prospective contraceptive study at the Lighthouse Clinic, an HIV/ART clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between August and December 2010. Most women (95%) did not desire future pregnancy. Prior reported unintended pregnancy rates were high (69% unplanned and 61% unhappy with timing of last pregnancy). Condom use was inconsistent, even among couples with discordant HIV status, with lack of use often attributed to partner's refusal. Higher education, older age, lower parity and having an HIV negative partner were factors associated with consistent condom usage. High rates of unintended pregnancy among these women underscore the need for integ rating family planning, sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and HIV services. Contraceptive access and use, including condoms, must be improved with specific efforts to enlist partner support. Messages regarding the importance of condom usage in conjunction with more effective modern contraceptive methods for both infection and pregnancy prevention must continue to be reinforced over the course of ongoing ART treatment.

  8. Teen Science Cafés: A Vehicle for Scientists Seeking Broader Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M.; Mayhew, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Teen Science Cafés are a global phenomenon where scientists and teenagers engage in lively conversations about current, relevant, and intriguing science. In the past two years, Teen Café programs have been initiated in 41 sites in 18 U.S. states via the Teen Science Cafe Network, teensciencecafe.org. Other such programs are growing in the UK, eastern Africa, South Africa, and Singapore. The events are a free, informal, and low risk way for scientists to share their science with a receptive audience much focused on future careers. The success of a Café depends on the core principle that rich conversation occurs; a Café program is not a lecture series. Engaging teen participants brings out different perspectives and new dimensions to the topic; this has typically given scientists new ways of thinking about their own research! Presenting the event as a conversation and inviting the teens to bring in questions and points of view is key to fostering a dynamic Café. Scientists report that the training provided for these engagements has changed the way they talk about their science to peers, managers, and funding agencies. Teen Cafés have been shown to significantly change teens' view of the importance of science in their lives, positively influence teens' understanding of science in the news, and increase their ability and confidence to use facts to support scientific points of view. The Café events also positively influenced teens' interest in science and science careers, and revealed to them the true nature of scientific research and the interesting lives that scientists lead. Cafés are an excellent vehicle for scientists to have broader impact on the current generation of students, our future adult citizens. The Teen Science Café Network is an open community of practice committed to helping others implement Teen Cafés.

  9. Understanding the psychology of seeking support to increase Health Science student engagement in academic support services. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Francis Hoyne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing student engagement within higher education academic support services is a constant challenge. Whilst engagement with support is positively associated with successful retention, and non-engagement connected to attrition, the most vulnerable students are often the least likely to engage. Our data has shown that Health Science students are reluctant to engage with academic support services despite being made aware of their academic deficiencies. The “psychology of seeking support” was used as a lens to identify some of the multifaceted issues around student engagement. The School of Health Sciences made attendance at support courses compulsory for those students who were below the benchmark score in a post entrance literacy test. Since the policy change was implemented, there has been a 50% reduction in the fail rate of “at risk” students in a core literacy unit. These findings are encouraging and will help reduce student attrition in the long term.

  10. Differences among college women for breast cancer prevention acquired information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and daughter-initiated information to mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources.

  11. Seeking a rapprochement between anthropology and the cognitive sciences: a problem-driven approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Harvey; Cohen, Emma

    2012-07-01

    Beller, Bender, and Medin question the necessity of including social anthropology within the cognitive sciences. We argue that there is great scope for fruitful rapprochement while agreeing that there are obstacles (even if we might wish to debate some of those specifically identified by Beller and colleagues). We frame the general problem differently, however: not in terms of the problem of reconciling disciplines and research cultures, but rather in terms of the prospects for collaborative deployment of expertise (methodological and theoretical) in problem-driven research. For the purposes of illustration, our focus in this article is on the evolution of cooperation. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. The role of science education for combating and preventing diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffar, A.

    2011-01-01

    In most developing countries, the role of science education for combating and preventing diseases is both minimal and impracticable. There are two main reasons to this: i) lack of medical knowledge; and ii) lack of practical knowledge. These consequences may be a result of exclusion of medically trained people in the education system, e.g. in our education systems, there is no established trend of medical doctors to teach at school, college or even at university levels. There is a provision of medical education at teaching hospitals, but they still lack the right educationists and latest trainings at par with global standards. In order to consolidate the concept and promotion of science education in the field of health and medicine, this paper discusses four diseases commonly found in developing countries like Pakistan. These diseases are Poliomyelitis, Malaria, Rabies and Typhoid. The disability/mortality due to Poliomyelitis; the morbidity and mortality as a result of Malaria and Typhoid fever, and a very high death rate (up to 5000/year) as a result of dog bites (Rabies) are reported in Pakistan. The study takes into account myths and mysteries related to these diseases and their consequences/complications leading to mortality. This study is focused on the prophylactic measures (prophylaxis), as an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Prophytactic measures can only be taken by creating awareness about these diseases and re-evaluation of the role of science education in all sectors. (author)

  13. The role of science education for combating and preventing diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaffar, A. [COMSATS Inst. of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Meteorology; Tariq, S. [Department of Meteorology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-01-15

    In most developing countries, the role of science education for combating and preventing diseases is both minimal and impracticable. There are two main reasons to this: i) lack of medical knowledge; and ii) lack of practical knowledge. These consequences may be a result of exclusion of medically trained people in the education system, e.g. in our education systems, there is no established trend of medical doctors to teach at school, college or even at university levels. There is a provision of medical education at teaching hospitals, but they still lack the right educationists and latest trainings at par with global standards. In order to consolidate the concept and promotion of science education in the field of health and medicine, this paper discusses four diseases commonly found in developing countries like Pakistan. These diseases are Poliomyelitis, Malaria, Rabies and Typhoid. The disability/mortality due to Poliomyelitis; the morbidity and mortality as a result of Malaria and Typhoid fever, and a very high death rate (up to 5000/year) as a result of dog bites (Rabies) are reported in Pakistan. The study takes into account myths and mysteries related to these diseases and their consequences/complications leading to mortality. This study is focused on the prophylactic measures (prophylaxis), as an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. Prophytactic measures can only be taken by creating awareness about these diseases and re-evaluation of the role of science education in all sectors. (author)

  14. Sex work, syphilis, and seeking treatment: an opportunity for intervention in HIV prevention programming in Karnataka, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sharmistha; Moses, Stephen; Hanumaiah, Prakash K; Washington, Reynold; Alary, Michel; Ramesh, B M; Isac, Shajy; Blanchard, James F

    2009-03-01

    To measure the determinants of syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) in the state of Karnataka, South India. During 2004-2006, cross-sectional surveys were administered to 2312 FSWs across 5 districts in the state, in the context of a large-scale HIV preventive intervention program. Demographic and behavioral information, and serum (for syphilis, HSV-2 and HIV) and urine specimens (for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis) were obtained. The prevalences of lifetime (TPHA positive) and active (RPR and TPHA positive) syphilis were 25.3% and 9.6%, respectively. There was considerable variation in the prevalence between districts, ranging from 10.9% to 37.4% lifetime, and 3.4% to 24.9% active infection. Factors associated with lifetime syphilis were older age, longer duration of sex work, illiteracy, client volume, practising sex work in >1 city, and sex work typology (public solicitation followed by brothel or lodge-based sex). The same typology, client volume, illiteracy, and having been widowed, divorced or deserted, were predictive of active infection. Of the 976 women who had symptoms of an STI, 78.8% had sought medical treatment, behavior that was protective for both outcomes. HIV infection was strongly associated with lifetime (OR 2.0; 95% CI: 1.6-2.6) and active syphilis (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-2.9). Despite reasonable treatment-seeking behavior, the high prevalence of syphilis has necessitated enhanced outreach efforts for FSWs and acceleration of the implementation of syphilis screening. Mobilizing resources to enhance syphilis control will not only reduce the burden of syphilis morbidity, but should impact in reducing HIV transmission.

  15. Needs of students seeking careers in communication sciences and disorders and barriers to their success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Akiko

    The purpose of this study was to identify the needs for and barriers to success of underrepresented students in the Communication Sciences and Disorders field and to determine factors linked to student persistence and academic achievement. An online survey was completed by 126 undergraduates pursuing graduate studies in Communication Sciences and Disorders. Data were subjected to Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Survey responses indicated that financial matters exerted the most influence on students' preparation for and number of choices for graduate-school applications. However, socioeconomic status was associated with needed financial support for paying tuition and completing the admission process. In addition, students at lower socioeconomic status reported spending fewer hours studying for tests and earned lower grade-point averages than peers who self-identified with a relatively high socioeconomic status. The findings also show a relationship between students' grade-point averages and family members' levels of education. The majority reported that mothers had earned the highest degree in their household, followed by siblings, themselves, and fathers. The findings suggest that students of low socioeconomic status were less academically prepared than those self-reporting a higher status. Moreover, the presence of a role model, such as a college-educated family member, may affect academic performance. Therefore, interventions for students at risk of not gaining admissions to graduate school include financial assistance and mentoring and advising programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Information-seeking strategies and science content understandings of sixth-grade students using on-line learning environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Joseph Loris

    1999-11-01

    This study examined the information-seeking strategies and science content understandings learners developed as a result of using on-line resources in the University of Michigan Digital Library and on the World Wide Web. Eight pairs of sixth grade students from two teachers' classrooms were observed during inquiries for astronomy, ecology, geology, and weather, and a final transfer task assessed learners' capabilities at the end of the school year. Data included video recordings of students' screen activity and conversations, journals and completed activity sheets, final artifacts, and semi-structured interviews. Learners' information-seeking strategies included activities related to asking, planning, tool usage, searching, assessing, synthesizing, writing, and creating. Analysis of data found a majority of learners posed meaningful, openended questions, used technological tools appropriately, developed pertinent search topics, were thoughtful in queries to the digital library, browsed sites purposefully to locate information, and constructed artifacts with novel formats. Students faced challenges when planning activities, assessing resources, and synthesizing information. Possible explanations were posed linking pedagogical practices with learners' growth and use of inquiry strategies. Data from classroom-lab video and teacher interviews showed varying degrees of student scaffolding: development and critique of initial questions, utilization of search tools, use of journals for reflection on activities, and requirements for final artifacts. Science content understandings included recalling information, offering explanations, articulating relationships, and extending explanations. A majority of learners constructed partial understandings limited to information recall and simple explanations, and these occasionally contained inaccurate conceptualizations. Web site design features had some influence on the construction of learners' content understandings. Analysis of

  17. Insights for undergraduates seeking an advanced degree in wildlife and fisheries sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaemingk, Mark A.; Dembkowski, Daniel J.; Meyer, Hilary A.; Gigliotti, Larry M.

    2013-01-01

    In today's job market, having a successful career in the fisheries and wildlife sciences is becoming more dependent on obtaining an advanced degree. As a result, competition for getting accepted into a graduate program is fierce. Our objective for this study was to provide prospective graduate students some insights as to what qualifications or attributes would best prepare them for obtaining a graduate position (M.S.) and to excel once they are enrolled in a graduate program. A survey was sent to 50 universities within the National Association of University Fisheries and Wildlife Programs (NAUFWP) where both faculty and undergraduate students were asked questions relating to graduate school. Faculty rated the importance of various criteria and attributes of graduate school, and students answered the questions according to how they believed faculty members would respond. Overall, undergraduate students shared many of the same graduate school viewpoints as those held by faculty members. However, viewpoints differed on some topics related to admittance and the most important accomplishment of a graduate student while enrolled in a graduate program. These results indicate that undergraduate students may be better prepared for graduate school—and they may understand how to be successful once they are enrolled in a program—than was initially thought.

  18. Examining reward-seeking, negative self-beliefs and over-general autobiographical memory as mechanisms of change in classroom prevention programs for adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Frances; Rawal, Adhip; Riglin, Lucy; Lewis, Gemma; Lewis, Glyn; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    Effective methods to prevent adolescent depressive symptoms could reduce suffering and burden across the lifespan. However, psychological interventions delivered to adolescents show efficacy only in symptomatic or high-risk youth. Targeting causal risk factors and assessing mechanistic change can help devise efficacious universal or classroom based prevention programs. A non-randomized longitudinal design was used to compare three classroom-based prevention programs for adolescent depression (Behavioral Activation with Reward Processing, "Thinking about Reward in Young People" (TRY); Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)), and determine cognitive mechanisms of change in these programs. Cognitive mechanisms examined were reward-seeking, negative self-beliefs (assessed with behavioral tasks) and over-general autobiographical memory. 256 healthy adolescents aged 13-14 participated with 236 (92%) and 227 (89%) completing the pre- and post-assessments. TRY was the only intervention associated with a reduction in depressive symptoms at follow-up. Reward-seeking increased following TRY. In the other programs there were non-significant changes in cognitive mechanisms, with more reflective negative self-beliefs in CBT and fewer over-general autobiographical memories in MBCT In the TRY program, which focused on increasing sensitivity to rewarding activities, reward seeking increased and this was associated with decreased depressive symptoms. Due to the infeasibility of a cluster randomized controlled trial, a non-randomized design was used. Increased reward-seeking was associated with decreased depressive symptoms and may be a mechanism of depressive symptom change in the intervention with a focus on enhancing sensitivity and awareness of reward. This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that incorporating activities to enhance reward sensitivity may be fruitful in randomized controlled trials of universal prevention

  19. The NetQuakes Project - Seeking a Balance Between Science and Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetgert, J. H.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    The challenge for any system that uses volunteer help to do science is to dependably acquire quality data without unduly burdening the volunteer. The NetQuakes accelerograph and its data acquisition system were created to address the recognized need for more densely sampled strong ground motion recordings in urban areas to provide more accurate ShakeMaps for post-earthquake disaster assessment and to provide data for structural engineers to improve design standards. The recorder has 18 bit resolution with ±3g internal tri-axial MEMS accelerometers. Data are continuously recorded at 200 sps into a 1-2 week ringbuffer. When triggered, a miniSEED file is sent to USGS servers via the Internet. Data can also be recovered from the ringbuffer by a remote request through the NetQuakes servers. Following a power failure, the instrument can run for 36 hours using its internal battery. We rely upon cooperative citizens to host the dataloggers, provide power and Internet connectivity and perform minor servicing. Instrument and battery replacement are simple tasks that can be performed by hosts, thus reducing maintenance costs. Communication with the instrument to acquire data or deliver firmware is accomplished by file transfers using NetQuakes servers. The client instrument initiates all client-server interactions, so it safely resides behind a host's firewall. A connection to the host's LAN, and from there to the public Internet, can be made using WiFi to minimize cabling. Although timing using a cable to an external GPS antenna is possible, it is simpler to use the Network Time Protocol (NTP) to discipline the internal clock. This approach achieves timing accuracy substantially better than a sample interval. Since 2009, we have installed more than 140 NetQuakes instruments in the San Francisco Bay Area and have successfully integrated their data into the near real time data stream of the Northern California Seismic System. An additional 235 NetQuakes instruments have been

  20. Breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior and interest on cell phone and text use: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh; Ghanbari-Baghestan, Abbas; Latiff, Latiffah A; Khaniki, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, including Malaysia. This study focused on media choice and attempted to determine the communication channels mostly used and preferred by women in seeking information and knowledge about breast cancer. A cross sectional study was carried out to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior among 450 students at one private university in Malaysia. The mean age of respondents was 25±4.3 years. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, friends, and nurses and common channel information sources were television, brochure, and internet. Overall, 89.9% used cell phones, 46.1% had an interest in receiving cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 73.9% used text messaging, and 36.7% had an interest in receiving text breast cancer prevention messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences among age, eduation, nationality and use of cell phones. Assessment of health information seeking behavior is important for community health educators to target populations for program development.

  1. Seeking missing pieces in science concept assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin

    2014-02-01

    Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners' disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M) topics in college-level introductory physics courses. Differing from typical concept inventories that focus only on one topic of a subject area, BEMA covers a broad range of topics in the electromagnetism domain. In spite of this fact, prior studies exclusively used a single aggregate score to represent individual students' overall understanding of E&M without explicating the construct of this assessment. Additionally, BEMA has been used to compare traditional physics courses with a reformed course entitled Matter and Interactions (M&I). While prior findings were in favor of M&I, no empirical evidence was sought to rule out possible differential functioning of BEMA that may have inadvertently advantaged M&I students. In this study, we used Rasch analysis to seek two missing pieces regarding the construct and differential functioning of BEMA. Results suggest that although BEMA items generally can function together to measure the same construct of application and analysis of E&M concepts, several items may need further revision. Additionally, items that demonstrate differential functioning for the two courses are detected. Issues such as item contextual features and student familiarity with question settings may underlie these findings. This study highlights often overlooked threats in science concept assessments and provides an exemplar for using evidence-based reasoning to make valid inferences and arguments.

  2. Seeking missing pieces in science concept assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ding

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners’ disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M topics in college-level introductory physics courses. Differing from typical concept inventories that focus only on one topic of a subject area, BEMA covers a broad range of topics in the electromagnetism domain. In spite of this fact, prior studies exclusively used a single aggregate score to represent individual students’ overall understanding of E&M without explicating the construct of this assessment. Additionally, BEMA has been used to compare traditional physics courses with a reformed course entitled Matter and Interactions (M&I. While prior findings were in favor of M&I, no empirical evidence was sought to rule out possible differential functioning of BEMA that may have inadvertently advantaged M&I students. In this study, we used Rasch analysis to seek two missing pieces regarding the construct and differential functioning of BEMA. Results suggest that although BEMA items generally can function together to measure the same construct of application and analysis of E&M concepts, several items may need further revision. Additionally, items that demonstrate differential functioning for the two courses are detected. Issues such as item contextual features and student familiarity with question settings may underlie these findings. This study highlights often overlooked threats in science concept assessments and provides an exemplar for using evidence-based reasoning to make valid inferences and arguments.

  3. Effects of Contextual Factors on Information Seeking Behavior on the Web by Postgraduate Students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rahimi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the influence of contextual factors on information seeking behavior. This survey investigates search tactics used and users’ perceptions of the search results on the Web by postgraduate students at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted through a mixed method. Thirty postgraduate students voluntarily participated. The study was carried out in the first semester of the academic year 2012-2013. The data was gathered using two questionnaires and log files recorded with Camtasia Studio software. The findings indicated more than half of the participants (53.3 percent used Google, short queries were more used than long queries, advanced search options were used rarely (23 percent, and the participants view few search result pages. According to the results, the contextual factors significantly influenced the search time, search tactics (including querying and navigating and users’ perceptions of the search results (including ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction and relevance judgment. Navigating tactic was primarily used by the participants. Among different aspects of users’ perceptions of the search results, ease of use and relevance judgments were significantly different based on the contextual factors, whereas scanning, extracting, and confidence were less affected by the contextual factors. The findings suggest practical implications for information retrieval systems designers that can design of systems with better user interface in order to meet the needs of users with different knowledge and skills, in this way it leads in promotion of search process and improvement of search results quality.

  4. When science meets culture: the prevention and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-13

    May 13, 2013 ... throughout the world, low treatment-seeking behaviour could be attributed to the .... as food and drinks, that reportedly enhance sexual desire and/or .... Globally, consumers are taking a more proactive role in their own.

  5. From science to action and from action to science: the Nunavik Trichinellosis Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Larrat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. During the 1980s, walrus-meat consumption caused infections with the parasite Trichinella nativa in Nunavik inhabitants. In response to these events, stakeholders set up the community-based Nunavik Trichinellosis Prevention Program (NTPP. The objectives of the present communication are to review the NTPP, describe how science and action were interwoven in its development and identify its assets and limitations. Study design. Descriptive study. Methods. The NTPP relies on a pooled digestion assay of tongue samples taken from each harvested walrus. The public health recommendations depend on the results of the analyses: infected walrus meat should be destroyed; parasite-free meat may be eaten raw or cooked. Results. All communities involved in the walrus hunt participate in the NTPP and a high percentage of harvested walruses are included in the NTPP. Infected animals account for 2.9% of the walruses tested (20/694 since 1992. The NTPP permitted the early management of a trichinellosis event in 1997. Since then, it prevented the new occurrence of outbreaks related to walruses hunted by Nunavimmiut. Conclusions. The absence of recent major outbreaks of trichinellosis in Nunavik may reasonably be attributed to the NTPP. The success of the program stands on many facilitating factors such as the nature of the disease and its source, the existence of an efficient analytic method, the strong involvement of the different partners including direct resource users, as well as the comprehensive bidirectional science-to-action approach that has been followed.

  6. Suicidal ideation and behaviour among persons seeking HIV testing in peri-urban areas of Cape Town, South Africa: a lost opportunity for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Saal, Wylene

    2017-07-01

    Suicidal ideation and behaviour (SIB) are among the psychiatric sequela of HIV/AIDS. Few studies have however examined the prevalence and correlates of SIB among persons seeking HIV testing. We set out to document the prevalence and correlates of SIB among people seeking HIV testing in peri-urban areas of Cape Town, South Africa (SA). A cross-sectional research design was used to recruit a sample (n = 500) of individuals seeking HIV testing. Self-report measures were used to assess two-week prevalence of SIB as well as life-time prevalence of suicide attempt. A structured clinical interview was used to assess common mental disorders (CMDs). Regression analysis was used to determine if CMD and socio-demographic variables predicted suicidal ideation. The mean age of the sample was 36 years, 51.6% were female and 46.6% were unemployed. The two-week prevalence of suicidal ideation was 24.27% while the two-week prevalence of suicide attempt and suicide plans was 2.8%. Suicidal ideation was not associated with age, gender, employment status, family income or household food insecurity. CMDs were significantly associated with suicidal ideation; individuals with depressive disorders were approximately 5.5 times more likely to report suicidal ideation, while those with generalised anxiety disorder, trauma-related disorders and alcohol use disorder were approximately 7, 4.7 and 2.8 times more likely to report suicidal ideation, respectively. Results suggest that persons seeking HIV testing may be a well-delineated group of persons at risk of suicide in this region of SA. Contact with the health care system during HIV testing provides an opportunity for targeted suicide prevention interventions in what appears to be a high risk group.

  7. Preliminary effectiveness of surviving the teens(®) suicide prevention and depression awareness program on adolescents' suicidality and self-efficacy in performing help-seeking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Strunk, Catherine M; Sorter, Michael T

    2011-09-01

    Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens® Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on students' suicidality and perceived self-efficacy in performing help-seeking behaviors. High school students in Greater Cincinnati schools were administered a 3-page survey at pretest, immediate posttest, and 3-month follow-up. A total of 1030 students participated in the program, with 919 completing matched pretests and posttests (89.2%) and 416 completing matched pretests and 3-month follow-ups (40.4%). Students were significantly less likely at 3-month follow-up than at pretest to be currently considering suicide, to have made a suicidal plan or attempted suicide during the past 3 months, and to have stopped performing usual activities due to feeling sad and hopeless. Students' self-efficacy and behavioral intentions toward help-seeking behaviors increased from pretest to posttest and were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Students were also more likely at 3-month follow-up than at pretest to know an adult in school with whom they felt comfortable discussing their problems. Nine in 10 (87.3%) felt the program should be offered to all high school students. The findings of this study lend support for suicide prevention education in schools. The results may be useful to school professionals interested in implementing effective suicide prevention programming to their students. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  8. The science of softball: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flyger, Nicholas; Button, Chris; Rishiraj, Neetu

    2006-01-01

    Whilst the sport of softball has achieved worldwide popularity over the last 100 years, a consideration of the scientific principles underpinning softball is in its infancy. It is clear that the various motor skills associated with softball, such as pitching, batting and fielding, place considerable perceptual and physical demands upon players. Each of these skill categories are examined in more detail by reviewing the biomechanical principles associated with skilled performance. For pitching, a certain amount of information can be gleaned from baseball research; however, the underarm technique required by softball places the highest loads on the arm and shoulder during the accelerative, downward phase of the swing. Kinematic analyses of the bat swing suggest that elite batters have approximately 200 ms to decide whether to swing, and approximately the same duration to complete the swing (resulting in reported bat speeds of up to 40 m/sec). The research conducted on fielding has been limited to a consideration of throwing styles adopted in games. A variety of throwing techniques are adopted in the course of a typical game but elite players commonly adopt a sidearm technique when returning to base as quickly as possible. Data obtained from the National Athletic Training Association indicate a similar level of injury incidence in softball as in baseball. Approximately 17% of injuries are experienced by the pitcher and approximately 25% of all injuries are located in the forearm/wrist/hand joint segments. Sports science and sports medicine research have the potential to contribute significantly to performance enhancement and injury prevention in the future.

  9. When science meets culture: The prevention and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because of the increasing number of men seeking treatment for ED, there is a need to assess the safety and biological plausibility of some of the readily available ... These include oysters, alcoholic beverages, chocolate, chilli, Epimedium extract (horny goat weed), Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Tribulis terrestris, Eriosema ...

  10. Knowledge on the transmission, prevention and treatment of malaria among two endemic populations of Bangladesh and their health-seeking behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque Ubydul

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sociological and behavioural aspects of malaria, which is essential for an evidence-based design of prevention and control programmes, is lacking in Bangladesh. This paper attempts to fill this knowledge gap by using data from a population-based prevalence survey conducted during July to November 2007, in 13 endemic districts of Bangladesh. Methods A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study respondents randomly from 30 mauzas in each district for the socio-behavioural inquiry (n = 9,750. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data in face-to-face interview by trained interviewers, after obtaining informed consent. Results The overall malaria prevalence rate in the 13 endemic districts was found to be 3.1% by the Rapid Diagnostic Test 'FalciVax' (P. falciparum 2.73%, P. vivax 0.16% and mixed infection 0.19%, with highest concentration in the three hill districts (11%. Findings revealed superficial knowledge on malaria transmission, prevention and treatment by the respondents. Poverty and level of schooling were found as important determinants of malaria knowledge and practices. Allopathic treatment was uniformly advocated, but the 'know-do' gap became especially evident when in practice majority of the ill persons either did not seek any treatment (31% or practiced self-treatment (12%. Of those who sought treatment, the majority went to the village doctors and drugstore salespeople (around 40%. Also, there was a delay beyond twenty-four hours in beginning treatment of malaria-like fever in more than half of the instances. In the survey, gender divide in knowledge and health-seeking behaviour was observed disfavouring women. There was also a geographical divide between the high endemic south-eastern area and the low-endemicnorth-eastern area, the former being disadvantaged with respect to different aspects of malaria studied. Conclusion The respondents in this study lacked

  11. Help seeking behavior and onset-to-alarm time in patients with acute stroke: sub-study of the preventive antibiotics in stroke study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zock, E; Kerkhoff, H; Kleyweg, R P; van Bavel-Ta, T B V; Scott, S; Kruyt, N D; Nederkoorn, P J; van de Beek, D

    2016-11-25

    Patients with acute stroke often do not seek immediate medical help, which is assumed to be driven by lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms. We explored the process of help seeking behavior in patients with acute stroke, evaluating knowledge about stroke symptoms, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and onset-to-alarm time (OAT). In a sub-study of the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS), 161 acute stroke patients were prospectively included in 3 Dutch hospitals. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, recognition and interpretation of stroke symptoms. With in-depth interviews, response actions and reasons were explored. OAT was recorded and associations with socio-demographic, clinical parameters were assessed. Knowledge about stroke symptoms does not always result in correct recognition of own stroke symptoms, neither into correct interpretation of the situation and subsequent action. In our study population of 161 patients with acute stroke, median OAT was 30 min (interquartile range [IQR] 10-150 min). Recognition of one-sided weakness and/or sensory loss (p = 0.046) and adequate interpretation of the stroke situation (p = 0.003), stroke at daytime (p = 0.002), severe stroke (p = 0.003), calling the emergency telephone number (p = 0.004), and transport by ambulance (p = 0.040) were associated with shorter OAT. Help seeking behavior after acute stroke is a complex process. A shorter OAT after stroke is associated with correct recognition of one-sided weakness and/or sensory loss, adequate interpretation of the stroke situation by the patient and stroke characteristics and logistics of stroke care, but not by knowledge of stroke symptoms.

  12. Behavioral and social sciences theories and models: are they used in unintentional injury prevention research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifiletti, L B; Gielen, A C; Sleet, D A; Hopkins, K

    2005-06-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury prevention research. The authors conducted a systematic review to evaluate the published literature from 1980 to 2001 on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury prevention and control. Electronic database searches in PubMed and PsycINFO identified articles that combined behavioral and social sciences theories and models and injury causes. The authors identified some articles that examined behavioral and social science theories and models and unintentional injury topics, but found that several important theories have never been applied to unintentional injury prevention. Among the articles identified, the PRECEDE PROCEED Model was cited most frequently, followed by the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior and Health Belief Model. When behavioral and social sciences theories and models were applied to unintentional injury topics, they were most frequently used to guide program design, implementation or develop evaluation measures; few examples of theory testing were found. Results suggest that the use of behavioral and social sciences theories and models in unintentional injury prevention research is only marginally represented in the mainstream, peer-reviewed literature. Both the fields of injury prevention and behavioral and social sciences could benefit from greater collaborative research to enhance behavioral approaches to injury control.

  13. SEEK! Tiedonhakupeli

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Nina; Lassila, Matti; Rajahonka, Matti; Korkiakangas, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Finnish adaptation of SEEK! The search skills game. Includes press-ready files and Adobe Illustrator & Indesign templates. Original game developed by Andrew Walsh & Tanya Williamson, University of Huddersfield.

  14. Nutrition and the science of disease prevention: a systems approach to support metabolic health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brian J.; Hall, Kevin D.; Hu, Frank B.; McCartney, Anne L.; Roberto, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Progress in nutritional science, genetics, computer science, and behavioral economics can be leveraged to address the challenge of noncommunicable disease. This report highlights the connection between nutrition and the complex science of preventing disease and discusses the promotion of optimal metabolic health, building on input from several complementary disciplines. The discussion focuses on (1) the basic science of optimal metabolic health, including data from gene–diet interactions, microbiome, and epidemiological research in nutrition, with the goal of defining better targets and interventions, and (2) how nutrition, from pharma to lifestyle, can build on systems science to address complex issues. PMID:26415028

  15. HIV prevention and care-seeking behaviour among female sex workers in four cities in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim

    2016-10-01

    To identify gaps in the use of HIV prevention and care services and commodities for female sex workers, we conducted a baseline cross-sectional survey in four cities, in the context of an implementation research project aiming to improve use of sexual and reproductive health services. Using respondent-driven sampling, 400 sex workers were recruited in Durban, 308 in Tete, 400 in Mombasa and 458 in Mysore and interviewed face-to-face. RDS-adjusted proportions were estimated by nonparametric bootstrapping and compared across cities using post hoc pairwise comparison. Condom use with last client ranged from 88.3% to 96.8%, ever female condom use from 1.6% to 37.9%, HIV testing within the past 6 months from 40.5% to 70.9%, receiving HIV treatment and care from 35.5% to 92.7%, care seeking for last STI from 74.4% to 87.6% and having had at least 10 contacts with a peer educator in the past year from 5.7% to 98.1%. Many of the differences between cities remained statistically significant (P sex worker characteristics. Models to improve use of condoms and HIV prevention and care services should be tailored to the specific context of each site. Programmes at each site must focus on improving availability and uptake of those services that are currently least used. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Preventing Youth Pregnancy: Dialogue and Deliberation in a Science Museum Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Iannini, Ana Maria; Pedretti, Erminia

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we explore how visitors engage with a science museum exhibit that displays controversial topics. Through a case study methodology, we focus on the Brazilian exhibit "Preventing Youth Pregnancy" that delves into teen pregnancy, sexual practices, and sexually transmitted diseases. Using the lens of science communication…

  17. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  18. Nutritional Science Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Nutritional Science Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Nutritional Science Meetings and Events | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Active Nutritional Science Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Expertise seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    used sources. Studies repeatedly show the influence of the social network – of friendships and personal dislikes – on the expertise-seeking network of organisations. In addition, people are no less prominent than documentary sources, in work contexts as well as daily-life contexts. The relative...

  3. Seeking Missing Pieces in Science Concept Assessments: Reevaluating the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment through Rasch Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Discipline-based science concept assessments are powerful tools to measure learners' disciplinary core ideas. Among many such assessments, the Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA) has been broadly used to gauge student conceptions of key electricity and magnetism (E&M) topics in college-level introductory physics courses.…

  4. Workshop on imaging science development for cancer prevention and preemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloff, Gary J; Sullivan, Daniel C; Baker, Houston; Clarke, Lawrence P; Nordstrom, Robert; Tatum, James L; Dorfman, Gary S; Jacobs, Paula; Berg, Christine D; Pomper, Martin G; Birrer, Michael J; Tempero, Margaret; Higley, Howard R; Petty, Brenda Gumbs; Sigman, Caroline C; Maley, Carlo; Sharma, Prateek; Wax, Adam; Ginsberg, Gregory G; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hawk, Ernest T; Messing, Edward M; Grossman, H Barton; Harisinghani, Mukesh; Bigio, Irving J; Griebel, Donna; Henson, Donald E; Fabian, Carol J; Ferrara, Katherine; Fantini, Sergio; Schnall, Mitchell D; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Hayes, Wendy; Klein, Eric A; DeMarzo, Angelo; Ocak, Iclal; Ketterling, Jeffrey A; Tempany, Clare; Shtern, Faina; Parnes, Howard L; Gomez, Jorge; Srivastava, Sudhir; Szabo, Eva; Lam, Stephen; Seibel, Eric J; Massion, Pierre; McLennan, Geoffrey; Cleary, Kevin; Suh, Robert; Burt, Randall W; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Hoffman, John M; Roy, Hemant K; Wang, Thomas; Limburg, Paul J; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vali; Hittelman, Walter N; MacAulay, Calum; Veltri, Robert W; Solomon, Diane; Jeronimo, Jose; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Johnson, Karen A; Viner, Jaye L; Stratton, Steven P; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Dhawan, Atam

    2007-01-01

    The concept of intraepithelial neoplasm (IEN) as a near-obligate precursor of cancers has generated opportunities to examine drug or device intervention strategies that may reverse or retard the sometimes lengthy process of carcinogenesis. Chemopreventive agents with high therapeutic indices, well-monitored for efficacy and safety, are greatly needed, as is development of less invasive or minimally disruptive visualization and assessment methods to safely screen nominally healthy but at-risk patients, often for extended periods of time and at repeated intervals. Imaging devices, alone or in combination with anticancer drugs, may also provide novel interventions to treat or prevent precancer.

  5. Nonhuman Primate Studies to Advance Vision Science and Prevent Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustari, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    Most primate behavior is dependent on high acuity vision. Optimal visual performance in primates depends heavily upon frontally placed eyes, retinal specializations, and binocular vision. To see an object clearly its image must be placed on or near the fovea of each eye. The oculomotor system is responsible for maintaining precise eye alignment during fixation and generating eye movements to track moving targets. The visual system of nonhuman primates has a similar anatomical organization and functional capability to that of humans. This allows results obtained in nonhuman primates to be applied to humans. The visual and oculomotor systems of primates are immature at birth and sensitive to the quality of binocular visual and eye movement experience during the first months of life. Disruption of postnatal experience can lead to problems in eye alignment (strabismus), amblyopia, unsteady gaze (nystagmus), and defective eye movements. Recent studies in nonhuman primates have begun to discover the neural mechanisms associated with these conditions. In addition, genetic defects that target the retina can lead to blindness. A variety of approaches including gene therapy, stem cell treatment, neuroprosthetics, and optogenetics are currently being used to restore function associated with retinal diseases. Nonhuman primates often provide the best animal model for advancing fundamental knowledge and developing new treatments and cures for blinding diseases. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Condoms for sexually transmissible infection prevention: politics versus science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindel, Adrian; Sawleshwarkar, Shailendra

    2008-03-01

    The present review assesses the protection that condoms offer against sexually transmissible infections (STI) and the impact that social, political and religious opinion in the USA has had in the past 8 years on promoting condoms for safer sex. Condoms offer protection against most STI. However, the degree of protection depends on correct and consistent use, the type of sexual activity and the biological characteristics of different infections. Cross-sectional and case-control studies and other observational data provide the majority of evidence for STI prevention. Condoms provide a high level of protection against those infections that are transmitted mainly via infected secretions, including HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis. Protection against those infections transmitted via skin and mucous membrane contact, including Herpes simplex virus infection and human papilloma virus, appears to be less. The Bush administration, driven by conservative political, social and religious elements in the USA, has mounted a concerted campaign to undermine the role of the condom in health-promotion activities in the USA and overseas by undervaluing and misrepresenting scientific data, and through a sustained and well-funded promotion of abstinence-only education. However, this has lead to considerable controversy and disillusionment with abstinence-only education, both at home and abroad, and there is now incontrovertible evidence that abstinence-only programs are ineffectual.

  7. Seeking the "museum of the future": Public exhibitions of science, industry, and the social, 1910-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Loïc; Giraud, Yann

    2018-06-01

    Using as case studies the initiatives developed by two museum curators, the Belgian bibliographer Paul Otlet (1868-1944) and the Austrian social scientist Otto Neurath (1882-1945), and their subsequent collaboration with an extended network of scientists, philanthropists, artists, and social activists, this article provides a portrait of the general movement toward the creation of a new form of museum: the "museum of the future," as Neurath labeled it. This museum would be able to enlighten the people by showing the nature of modern industrial civilization. The promoters of the "museum of the future" intended to reform museum practices by organizing exhibitions of social facts, but also by integrating several dimensions - architecture, commerce, entertainment, pedagogy, and science and technology - to create a holistic frame to address their audience. However, the effortlessly circulating museum Neurath and Otlet envisioned stood in sharp contrast to the many, often immaterial, boundaries they encountered in their attempt to implement their vision. Ever-growing nationalism, the professionalization of social science, and the increasing commercialization of scientific vulgarization are some of the factors that help explain their failure.

  8. Help seeking behavior and onset-to-alarm time in patients with acute stroke: sub-study of the preventive antibiotics in stroke study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, E.; Kerkhoff, H.; Kleyweg, R. P.; van Bavel-Ta, T. B. V.; Scott, S.; Kruyt, N. D.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; van de Beek, D.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute stroke often do not seek immediate medical help, which is assumed to be driven by lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms. We explored the process of help seeking behavior in patients with acute stroke, evaluating knowledge about stroke symptoms, socio-demographic and clinical

  9. Seeking an African Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    2008-07-01

    A new postgraduate centre for maths and computer science is set to open in the Nigerian capital of Abuja this month as part of an ambitious plan to find the "next Einstein" in Africa. The centre will provide advanced training to graduate students from across Africa in maths and related fields. It will seek to attract the best young African scientists and nurture their talents as problem-solvers and teachers.

  10. Sports Biostatistician: a critical member of all sports science and medicine teams for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-12-01

    Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Does Digital Ad Exposure Influence Information-Seeking Behavior Online? Evidence From the 2012 Tips From Former Smokers National Tobacco Prevention Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Duke, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; Alexander, Robert; Rowland, Amy; Mitchko, Jane

    2016-03-16

    Measuring the impact of online health campaigns is challenging. Ad click-through rates are traditionally used to measure campaign reach, but few Internet users ever click on ads. Alternatively, self-reported exposure to digital ads would be prone to recall bias. Furthermore, there may be latency effects whereby people do not click on ads when exposed but visit the promoted website or conduct campaign-related searches later. Online panels that unobtrusively collect panelists' Web behavior data and link ad exposure to website visits and searches can more reliably assess the impact of digital ad exposure. From March to June 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention aired the national Tips From Former Smokers (Tips 2012) media campaign designed to encourage current smokers to quit. Advertisements ran across media channels, and the digital ads directed users to the Tips 2012 campaign website. Our aim was to examine whether exposure to Tips 2012 digital ads influenced information-seeking behaviors online. ComScore mined its panelists' Web behavior data for unique codes that would indicate exposure to Tips 2012 ads, regardless of whether panelists clicked the ad or not. A total of 15,319 US adults were identified as having been exposed to a Tips 2012 campaign ad. An equal number of unexposed adults (N=15,319) were identified and matched on demographics and Internet use behavior to the exposed group. Panelists' Web behavior data were mined for up to 4 weeks after initial Tips 2012 ad exposure to determine whether they visited the Tips 2012 campaign website or other cessation-related websites (eg, nicotine replacement therapy site) or conducted searches for campaign-related topics (eg, quit smoking). The proportion of exposed adults visiting the Tips 2012 sites increased from 0.4% in Week 1 to 0.9% 4 weeks after ad exposure, and these rates were significantly higher than in the unexposed group (0.1% in Week 1 to 0.4% in Week 4, P<.001) across all weeks examined

  12. Prevention of drug priming- and cue-induced reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviors by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Yoko; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki

    2016-03-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a methamphetamine (METH) derivative, exhibits METH-like actions at monoamine transporters and positive reinforcing effects in rodents and primates. The purposes of the present study were to determine whether cross-reinstatement would be observed between MDMA and METH and if the cannabinoid receptor, a receptor known to play critical roles in the brain reward system, could modulate MDMA craving. Rats were trained to press a lever for intravenous MDMA (0.3mg/infusion) or METH (0.02mg/infusion) infusions under a fixed ratio 1 schedule paired with drug-associated cues (light and tone). Following drug self-administration acquisition training, rats underwent extinction training (an infusion of saline). Reinstatement tests were performed once the extinction criteria were achieved. In MDMA-trained rats, the MDMA-priming injection (3.2mg/kg, i.p.) or re-exposure to MDMA-associated cues reinstated MDMA-seeking behavior. Additionally, a priming injection of METH (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) also reinstated MDMA-seeking behavior. In contrast, none of the MDMA doses reinstated METH-seeking behavior in the METH-trained rats. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist AM251 markedly attenuated the MDMA-seeking behaviors induced by MDMA-priming injection or re-exposure to MDMA-associated cues in a dose-dependent manner. These findings show that MDMA has obvious addictive potential for reinstating drug-seeking behavior and that METH can be an effective stimulus for reinstating MDMA-seeking behaviors. Furthermore, based on the attenuating effect of AM251 in the reinstatement of MDMA-seeking behaviors, drugs that suppress CB1 receptors may be used in treatment of MDMA dependence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Pharmaceutical HIV prevention technologies in the UK: six domains for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Peter; Dodds, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The development of pharmaceutical HIV prevention technologies (PPTs) over the last five years has generated intense interest from a range of stakeholders. There are concerns that these clinical and pharmaceutical interventions are proceeding with insufficient input of the social sciences. Hence key questions around implementation and evaluation remain unexplored whilst biomedical HIV prevention remains insufficiently critiqued or theorised from sociological as well as other social science perspectives. This paper presents the results of an expert symposium held in the UK to explore and build consensus on the role of the social sciences in researching and evaluating PPTs in this context. The symposium brought together UK social scientists from a variety of backgrounds. A position paper was produced and distributed in advance of the symposium and revised in the light this consultation phase. These exchanges and the emerging structure of this paper formed the basis for symposium panel presentations and break-out sessions. Recordings of all sessions were used to further refine the document which was also redrafted in light of ongoing comments from symposium participants. Six domains of enquiry for the social sciences were identified and discussed: self, identity and personal narrative; intimacy, risk and sex; communities, resistance and activism; systems, structures and institutions; economic considerations and analyses; and evaluation and outcomes. These are discussed in depth alongside overarching consensus points for social science research in this area as it moves forward.

  14. Seeking Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash

    2014-01-01

    What does sustainability research do to help the environment? One might well wonder when observing the annual conference season with various academics and professors in sustainability science, ecological economics or environmental ethics driving to the airport to fly off to international meetings to discuss how bad things are getting, what should been done about it, and how time is running out for action. In fact, singling out a few academic groups is highly unfair because the link between pr...

  15. Knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among health sciences students at University of Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojulong, J; Mitonga, K H; Iipinge, S N

    2013-12-01

    Health Sciences students are exposed early to hospitals and to activities which increase their risk of acquiring infections. Infection control practices are geared towards reduction of occurrence and transmission of infectious diseases. To evaluate knowledge and attitudes of infection prevention and control among Health Science students at University of Namibia. To assess students' knowledge and attitudes regarding infection prevention and control and their sources of information, a self-administered questionnaire was used to look at standard precautions especially hands hygiene. One hundred sixty two students participated in this study of which 31 were medical, 17 were radiography and 114 were nursing students. Medical students had better overall scores (73%) compared to nursing students (66%) and radiology students (61%). There was no significant difference in scores between sexes or location of the high school being either in rural or urban setting. Serious efforts are needed to improve or review curriculum so that health sciences students' knowledge on infection prevention and control is imparted early before they are introduced to the wards.

  16. Sexual Maltreatment of Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Minors from the Horn of Africa: A Mixed Method Study Focusing on Vulnerability and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Margaret; Papadopoulos, Irena

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The study described in this paper sought to identify the social, cultural, and political factors that effect African unaccompanied asylum-seeking minors' (UASM) vulnerability to sexual maltreatment in England. It aimed to illuminate how child protection measures could be strengthened for this highly marginalized group. Methods: A mixed…

  17. Principles of Precision Prevention Science for Improving Recruitment and Retention of Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supplee, Lauren H; Parekh, Jenita; Johnson, Makedah

    2018-03-12

    Precision medicine and precision public health focus on identifying and providing the right intervention to the right population at the right time. Expanding on the concept, precision prevention science could allow the field to examine prevention programs to identify ways to make them more efficient and effective at scale, including addressing issues related to engagement and retention of participants. Research to date on engagement and retention has often focused on demographics and risk factors. The current paper proposes using McCurdy and Daro (Family Relations, 50, 113-121, 2001) model that posits a complex mixture of individual, provider, program, and community-level factors synergistically affect enrollment, engagement, and retention. The paper concludes recommending the use of research-practice partnerships and innovative, rapid cycle methods to design and improve prevention programs related to participant engagement and retention at scale.

  18. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umubyeyi, Aline; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.

  19. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Umubyeyi

    Full Text Available Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda.Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis.The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter.Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.

  20. Promotion of Influenza Prevention Beliefs and Behaviors through Primary School Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koep, T H; Jenkins, S; M Hammerlund, M E; Clemens, C; Fracica, E; Ekker, S C; Enders, F T; Huskins, W C; Pierret, C

    2016-06-01

    School-based campaigns to improve student health have demonstrated short-term success across various health topics. However, evidence of the effectiveness of programs in promoting healthy beliefs and behaviors is limited. We hypothesized that educational curricula teaching the science behind health promotion would increase student knowledge, beliefs and adherence to healthy behaviors, in this case related to influenza. Integrated Science Education Outreach is a successful education intervention in Rochester, Minnesota public schools that has demonstrated improvements in student learning. Within this program, we designed novel curricula and assessments to determine if gains in knowledge extended to influenza prevention. Further, we coupled InSciEd Out programming with a clinical intervention, Influenza Prevention Prescription Education (IPPE), to compare students' attitudes, intentions and healthy behaviors utilizing surveys and hand hygiene monitoring equipment. 95 students participated in (IPPE) in the intervention school. Talking drawings captured improvement in influenza prevention understanding related to hand washing [pre n=17(43%); post n=30(77%)] and vaccination [pre n=2(5%); post n=15(38%)]. Findings from 1024 surveys from 566 students revealed strong baseline understanding and attitudes related to hand washing and cough etiquette (74% or greater positive responses). Automated hand hygiene monitoring in school bathrooms and classrooms estimated compliance for both soap (overall median 63%, IQR 38% to 100%) and hand sanitizer use (0.04 to 0.24 uses per student per day) but did not show significant pre/ post IPPE differences. Student understanding of principles of influenza prevention was reasonably high. Even with this baseline, InSciEd Out and IPPE improved students' unprompted knowledge of behaviors to prevent influenza, as reflected by talking drawings. This novel metric may be more sensitive in capturing knowledge among students than traditional

  1. Engineering behaviour change in an epidemic: the epistemology of NIH-funded HIV prevention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam; Kolar, Kat

    2015-05-01

    Social scientific and public health literature on National Institutes of Health-funded HIV behavioural prevention science often assumes that this body of work has a strong biomedical epistemological orientation. We explore this assumption by conducting a systematic content analysis of all NIH-funded HIV behavioural prevention grants for men who have sex with men between 1989 and 2012. We find that while intervention research strongly favours a biomedical orientation, research into the antecedents of HIV risk practices favours a sociological, interpretive and structural orientation. Thus, with respect to NIH-funded HIV prevention science, there exists a major disjunct in the guiding epistemological orientations of how scientists understand HIV risk, on the one hand, and how they engineer behaviour change in behavioural interventions, on the other. Building on the extant literature, we suggest that the cause of this disjunct is probably attributable not to an NIH-wide positivist orientation, but to the specific standards of evidence used to adjudicate HIV intervention grant awards, including randomised controlled trials and other quantitative measures of intervention efficacy. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Using mixed methods effectively in prevention science: designs, procedures, and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqing; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest in using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to generate evidence about the effectiveness of health prevention, services, and intervention programs. With the emerging importance of mixed methods research across the social and health sciences, there has been an increased recognition of the value of using mixed methods for addressing research questions in different disciplines. We illustrate the mixed methods approach in prevention research, showing design procedures used in several published research articles. In this paper, we focused on two commonly used mixed methods designs: concurrent and sequential mixed methods designs. We discuss the types of mixed methods designs, the reasons for, and advantages of using a particular type of design, and the procedures of qualitative and quantitative data collection and integration. The studies reviewed in this paper show that the essence of qualitative research is to explore complex dynamic phenomena in prevention science, and the advantage of using mixed methods is that quantitative data can yield generalizable results and qualitative data can provide extensive insights. However, the emphasis of methodological rigor in a mixed methods application also requires considerable expertise in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Besides the necessary skills and effective interdisciplinary collaboration, this combined approach also requires an open-mindedness and reflection from the involved researchers.

  3. Keeping gay and bisexual men safe: The arena of HIV prevention science and praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam Isaiah

    2016-04-01

    Abstract In this article, I draw from an ongoing ethnographic study of HIV prevention for gay, bisexual, and 'men who have sex with men' to develop an institutional analysis of HIV behavioral intervention science and praxis. I approach this analysis through the lens of the social worlds framework, focusing on the institutional arena in which HIV behavioral interventions are devised and executed. Toward this end, I focus on two fundamental points of contention that lie at the heart of the prevention enterprise and put its social organization in high relief: (1) conceptions of health and lifestyle practices and (2) attributions of expertise. These core contentions reveal less the steady advance of normal science than an arena of actors ensconced in boundary work and jurisdictional struggles over how to engineer behavior change and reduce the scale of the HIV epidemic. Their resolution, I argue, has occurred in a historically contingent process determined by the political economy of the US HIV prevention arena and the differential structural location of its social worlds.

  4. Social science research in malaria prevention, management and control in the last two decades: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenesi, Halima Abdullah

    2005-09-01

    In the recent past, considerable progress has been made in understanding how human behavior and social organization, macro- and micro-level economic processes, and health and political systems affect responses to malaria at global, national, community, household, and individual levels. Advances in malaria-related social, behavioral, economic, evaluation, health systems, and policy (social science) research have resulted in improvements in the design and implementation of malaria prevention, management and control (PMC) strategies. Indeed, the past two decades chronicle dramatic advances in the implementation of evidence-based interventions, drawn not only from biomedical but also from social science research. Malaria awareness-raising, advocacy, case management, and prevention efforts have reaped the benefits of social science research and as a result, many programs are implemented and evaluated in a more effective manner than in the past. However, the pace at which findings from social science research are integrated into program and policy implementation is unsatisfactory. Additionally, examples remain of programs that fail to utilize findings from social science research and as a result, achieve minimal results. Furthermore, there is a sizeable body of knowledge that is underutilized and which, if assimilated into programs and policies, could accelerate progress in malaria PMC. Examples include information on meaningful community participation, gender, socio-economic status, and health systems. Regrettably, although social science input is necessary for almost all interventions for malaria management and control, the numbers of scientists working in this area are dismal in most of the key disciplines-medical anthropology; demography; geography and sociology; health economics and health policy; social psychology; social epidemiology; and behavior-change communication. Further, skills of program workers charged with implementation of interventions and strategies

  5. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...

  6. Fostering Science Club: Creating a Welcoming Extra-Curricular Science Inquiry Space for ALL Learners that Seeks to Close the Science Experience Gap in a Predominantly Minority Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    BackgroundTo minority adolescents in urban centers science inquiry seems like an engagement completed by others with specialized skills (Alkon & Agyeman, 2012). When scientists teach science classes those spaces and pedagogy are underwritten by the science teachers' beliefs about how science happens (Southerland, Gess-Newsome & Johnston, 2002). Further, scientific inquiry is often presented as the realm of upperclass whiteness (Alkon & Agyeman, 2012; Mayfield, 2014). When science educators talk about the achievement gaps between raced and classed learners, accompanying that gap is also a gap in science experience. My high school students in a postindustrial school district: attend a school under state takeover (the lowest 5/5 rating (MA Executive Office of Education, 2017)); have a student body that is 70% Latinx; and 96% of whom receive Free and Reduced Lunch (a Federal marker of a family below the poverty line). Annual Yearly Progress is a goal set by state and federal governments for school populations by race, ability, and language. In 2016, the site has failed to make its goals for special education, black, hispanic, white, and English as a Second Language populations. As a high poverty district there is a paucity of extracurricular science experiences. This lack of science extensions make closing standardized test gaps difficult. Geoscience Skills & FindingsThis after school program does not replicate deficit narratives that keep certain bodies of students away from science inquiry (Mayfield, 2015; Ogbu, 1987). Instead, Science Club uses an array of student-centered science (physics, math, arts, chemistry, biology) projects to help students see themselves as citizen scientists who lead explorations of their world. We meet 1.5 hours a week in a 30 week school year. Science club helps students feel like powerful and capable science inquirers with 80% girls in attendance, and uses science experiments to cultivate essential inquiry skills like: Observation

  7. Antagonism of GABA-B but not GABA-A receptors in the VTA prevents stress- and intra-VTA CRF-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacktop, Jordan M; Vranjkovic, Oliver; Mayer, Matthieu; Van Hoof, Matthew; Baker, David A; Mantsch, John R

    2016-03-01

    Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking requires corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However the mechanisms through which CRF regulates VTA function to promote cocaine use are not fully understood. Here we examined the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the VTA mediated by GABA-A or GABA-B receptors in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking by a stressor, uncontrollable intermittent footshock, or bilateral intra-VTA administration of CRF. Rats underwent repeated daily cocaine self-administration (1.0 mg/kg/ing; 14 × 6 h/day) and extinction and were tested for reinstatement in response to footshock (0.5 mA, 0.5" duration, average every 40 s; range 10-70 s) or intra-VTA CRF delivery (500 ng/side) following intra-VTA pretreatment with the GABA-A antagonist, bicuculline, the GABA-B antagonist, 2-hydroxysaclofen or vehicle. Intra-VTA bicuculline (1, 10 or 20 ng/side) failed to block footshock- or CRF-induced cocaine seeking at either dose tested. By contrast, 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.2 or 2 μg/side) prevented reinstatement by both footshock and intra-VTA CRF at a concentration that failed to attenuate food-reinforced lever pressing (45 mg sucrose-sweetened pellets; FR4 schedule) in a separate group of rats. These data suggest that GABA-B receptor-dependent CRF actions in the VTA mediate stress-induced cocaine seeking and that GABA-B receptor antagonists may have utility for the management of stress-induced relapse in cocaine addicts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of Support Service for Prevention and Recovery from Dementia and Science of Lethe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Mihoko

    Purpose of this study is to explore service design method through the development of support service for prevention and recovery from dementia towards science of lethe. We designed and implemented conversation support service via coimagination method based on multiscale service design method, both were proposed by the author. Multiscale service model consists of tool, event, human, network, style and rule. Service elements at different scales are developed according to the model. Interactive conversation supported by coimagination method activates cognitive functions so as to prevent progress of dementia. This paper proposes theoretical bases for science of lethe. Firstly, relationship among coimagination method and three cognitive functions including division of attention, planning, episodic memory which decline at mild cognitive imparement. Secondly, thought state transition model during conversation which describes cognitive enhancement via interactive communication. Thirdly, Set Theoretical Measure of Interaction is proposed for evaluating effectiveness of conversation to cognitive enhancement. Simulation result suggests that the ideas which cannot be explored by each speaker are explored during interactive conversation. Finally, coimagination method compared with reminiscence therapy and its possibility for collaboration is discussed.

  9. Effect of a community-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy on treatment seeking for malaria at health units in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, A K; Schultz Hansen, K; Bygbjerg, I C

    2008-01-01

    whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive health workers and adolescent peer mobilizers can administer IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to pregnant women, reach those at greatest risk of malaria, and increase access and compliance with IPTp. STUDY DESIGN...... of the intervention on access to malaria treatment, antenatal care, other services and related costs. RESULTS: More women (67.5%) received two doses of SP through the community approach compared with health units (39.9%; P... in the community had sought malaria treatment (70.3%), suggesting the possibility that the novel approach had a positive impact on care seeking for malaria. Similarly, utilization of antenatal care, insecticide-treated nets and delivery care by women in the community was high. The total costs per woman receiving...

  10. Effect of a community-based delivery of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy on treatment seeking for malaria at health units in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Bygbjerg, Ib

    2008-01-01

    whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive health workers and adolescent peer mobilizers can administer IPTp with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to pregnant women, reach those at greatest risk of malaria, and increase access and compliance with IPTp. Study design...... of the intervention on access to malaria treatment, antenatal care, other services and related costs. Results: More women (67.5%) received two doses of SP through the community approach compared with health units (39.9%; P... in the community had sought malaria treatment (70.3%), suggesting the possibility that the novel approach had a positive impact on care seeking for malaria. Similarly, utilization of antenatal care, insecticide-treated nets and delivery care by women in the community was high. The total costs per woman receiving...

  11. Exercise for falls prevention in older people: assessing the knowledge of exercise science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturnieks, Daina L; Finch, Caroline F; Close, Jacqueline C T; Tiedemann, Anne; Lord, Stephen R; Pascoe, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Participation in appropriate exercise can help reduce the risk of falls and falls injury in older people. Delivery of population-level exercise interventions requires an expert workforce with skills in development and delivery of group exercise programs and prescription of individually targeted exercise. This study assessed the current knowledge of university exercise science students (as future exercise professionals) across different levels of study. A structured survey designed to assess knowledge in relation to falls in older people and exercise prescription for falls prevention was administered during second, third and fourth year lectures in seven Australian universities. Students' knowledge was assessed as the percent of correct responses. Overall, 566 students completed the survey and knowledge levels increased significantly with study year. Mean knowledge levels were significantly knowledge. They were lowest for falls risk factor questions and highest for issue/cost related questions in second and third year students. Fourth year students had best knowledge about falls interventions and this was the only group and topic with a mean score >70%. In conclusion, knowledge about falls and exercise prescription for falls prevention in current students does not meet a desired competency level of 70% and is therefore insufficient to ensure an adequately equipped future workforce in this area. There is a clear need for the development and widespread delivery of an evidence-based "exercise for falls prevention" curriculum module for exercise professionals. Copyright (c) 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preliminary Effectiveness of Surviving the Teens[R] Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on Adolescents' Suicidality and Self-Efficacy in Performing Help-Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens[R]…

  13. Health Promotion for Adolescent Childhood Leukemia Survivors: Building on Prevention Science and eHealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L.; Lindemulder, Susan J.; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D.; Smith, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals’ subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors. PMID:23109253

  14. Corporate externalities: a challenge to the further success of prevention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Anthony

    2011-03-01

    The full benefit of prevention science will not be realized until we learn how to influence organizational practices. The marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and food and corporate advocacy for economic policies that maintain family poverty are examples of practices we must influence. This paper analyzes the evolution of such practices in terms of their selection by economic consequences. A strategy for addressing these critical risk factors should include: (a) systematic research on the impact of corporate practices on each of the most common and costly psychological and behavior problems; (b) empirical analyses of the consequences that select harmful corporate practices; (c) assessment of the impact of policies that could affect problematic corporate practices; and (d) research on advocacy organizations to understand the factors that influence their growth and to help them develop effective strategies for influencing corporate externalities.

  15. Development of Support Service for Prevention and Recovery from Dementia and Science of Lethe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Mihoko

    This paper proposes multiscale service design method through the development of support service for prevention and recovery from dementia towards science of lethe. Proposed multiscale service model consists of tool, event, human, network, style and rule. Service elements at different scales are developed according to the model. Firstly, the author proposes and practices coimagination method as an ``event'', which is expected to prevent the progress of cognitive impairment. Coimagination support system was developed as a ``tool''. Experimental results suggest the effective activation of episodic memory, division of attention, and planning function of participants by the measurement of cognitive activities during the coimagination. Then, Fonobono Research Institute was established as a ''network'' for ``human'' who studies coimagination, which is a multisector research organization including elderly people living around Kashiwa city, companies including instrument and welfare companies, Kashiwa city and Chiba prefecture, researchers of the University of Tokyo. The institute proposes and realizes lifelong research as a novel life ``style'' for elderly people, and discusses life with two rounds as an innovative ``rule'' for social system of aged society.

  16. Comparison on information-seeking behavior of postgraduated students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and University of Isfahan in writing dissertation based on Kuhlthau model of information search process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Mahnaz; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Nouri, Rasoul; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Information-seeking behaviors have been one of the main focuses of researchers in order to identify and solve the problems users face in information recovery. The aim of this research is Comparative on Information-Seeking Behavior of the Postgraduate Students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University in Writing Dissertation based on Kuhlthau Model of Information Search Process in 2012. The research method followed is survey and the data collection tool is Narmenji questionnaire. Statistical population was all postgraduate students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Isfahan University. The sample size was 196 people and sampling was stratified randomly. The type of statistical analyses were descriptive (mean and frequency) and inferential (independent t test and Pearson's correlation) and the software used was SPSS20. The findings showed that Isfahan Medical Sciences University followed 20% of the order steps of this model and Isfahan University did not follow this model. In the first stage (Initiation) and sixth (Presentation) of feelings aspects and in actions (total stages) significant difference was found between students from the two universities. Between gender and fourth stage (Formulation) and the total score of feelings the Kuhlthau model there has a significant relationship. Also there was a significant and inverse relationship between the third stage (Exploration) of feelings and age of the students. The results showed that in writing dissertation there were some major differences in following up the Kuhlthau model between students of the two Universities. There are significant differences between some of the stages of feelings and actions of students' information-seeking behavior from the two universities. There is a significant relationship between the fourth stage (Formulation) of feelings in the Kuhlthau Model with gender and third stage of the Feelings (Exploration) with age.

  17. Em busca de um perfil epistemológico para a prática educacional em educação em ciências Seeking an epistemic profile for educational practice in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Aurora Mion

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Procuramos fazer uma comparação entre programas de investigação científica em Lakatos (1978 e 1979 e programas de investigação-ação educacionais crítico-ativos, buscando assim o perfil epistemológico da prática educacional em ciências naturais, apontando em que a ciência pode iluminar a nossa prática, os nossos problemas de ensinar e aprender. Nas idéias de Lakatos, buscamos complementos para a estruturação de um programa de investigação-ação educacional na formação inicial de professores, bem como a orientação para a reconstrução racional da própria prática educacional. Não estamos querendo priorizar as ciências naturais sobre as ciências sociais, mesmo porque essa visão de mundo não daria conta dos problemas no ensino, pois são visões distintas. Buscamos bases epistemológicas para o fazer educativo.We carry out a comparison between the scientific research programs, described by Lakatos (1978 and 1979, and the educational programs of active critical action-research, seeking an epistemic profile and pointing out where science can clarify our practice and identify problems of learning and teaching. Taking into account Lakatos' ideas, we seek features to structure an educational action-research program for initial teachers as well as establishing guidelines for a rational reconstruction of teachers' own practice. We do not intend to prioritize natural sciences over social sciences because it would not solve the teaching problems since both present different points of view. We are seeking an epistemic foundation for educational practice.

  18. Who Are the Science Teachers That Seek Professional Development in Research Experience for Teachers (RET's)? Implications for Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Yavuz

    2013-01-01

    To address the need to better prepare teachers to enact science education reforms, the National Science Foundation has supported a Research Experience for Teachers (RET's) format for teacher professional development. In these experiences, teachers work closely with practicing scientists to engage in authentic scientific inquiry. Although…

  19. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  20. Partnerships for the Design, Conduct, and Analysis of Effectiveness, and Implementation Research: Experiences of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.

    2012-01-01

    What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786

  1. Assessing Capacity to Promote Science-Based Programs: A Key Informant Study of State Teen Pregnancy Prevention Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Edward; Sabri, Bushra; Huberman, Barbara; Klaus, T. W.; Davis, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify significant external and internal challenges that state organization leaders face in promoting science-based teen pregnancy prevention programs within their states. The state organization administrators were chosen because their organizations were funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control…

  2. The Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior to Prevention Science in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, John L.; Netland, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of reasoned action and planned behavior (TRA/PB) is a model of behavior change that has been extensively studied in the health sciences but has had limited exposure in the counseling psychology literature. The model offers counseling psychologists a framework to conceptualize prevention research and practice. The model is important to…

  3. Collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information......, the activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing...... on the collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....

  4. Newcomer information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper is to o...... and corporeal information sources newcomers learn about the organizational practice, and the knowledge needed in order to develop as a competent practitioner and become a full member of the organization.......Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper...... is to outline and discuss the significance of information seeking in newcomer socialization and learning, and analyse how different approaches influence our understanding of the role of information seeking in the workplace. Results: It is argued, that a development in research on newcomer information seeking...

  5. State-of-the-science on prevention of elder abuse and lessons learned from child abuse and domestic violence prevention: Toward a conceptual framework for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Burnes, David; Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Dutton, Mary Ann; Mosqueda, Laura; Lachs, Mark S.; Pillemer, Karl

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the state-of-the-science in elder abuse prevention. Findings from evidence-based programs to reduce elder abuse are discussed, drawing from findings and insights from evidence-based programs for child maltreatment and domestic/ intimate partner violence. A conceptual measurement model for the study of elder abuse is presented, and linked to possible measures of risk factors and outcomes. Advances in neuroscience in child maltreatment and novel measurement strategies for outcome assessment are presented. PMID:27676289

  6. State of the science on prevention of elder abuse and lessons learned from child abuse and domestic violence prevention: Toward a conceptual framework for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Burnes, David; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Dutton, Mary Ann; Mosqueda, Laura; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the state of the science in elder abuse prevention. Findings from evidence-based programs to reduce elder abuse are discussed, drawing from findings and insights from evidence-based programs for child maltreatment and domestic/intimate partner violence. A conceptual measurement model for the study of elder abuse is presented and linked to possible measures of risk factors and outcomes. Advances in neuroscience in child maltreatment and novel measurement strategies for outcome assessment are presented.

  7. High-Yield HIV Testing, Facilitated Linkage to Care, and Prevention for Female Youth in Kenya (GIRLS Study): Implementation Science Protocol for a Priority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inwani, Irene; Chhun, Nok; Agot, Kawango; Cleland, Charles M; Buttolph, Jasmine; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Kurth, Ann E

    2017-12-13

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the region with the highest HIV burden. Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in the age range of 15 to 24 years are twice as likely as their male peers to be infected, making females in sub-Saharan Africa the most at-risk group for HIV infection. It is therefore critical to prioritize access to HIV testing, prevention, and treatment for this vulnerable population. Using an implementation science framework, the purpose of this research protocol was to describe the approaches we propose to optimize engagement of AGYW in both the HIV prevention and care continuum and to determine the recruitment and testing strategies that identify the highest proportion of previously undiagnosed HIV infections. We will compare two seek recruitment strategies, three test strategies, and pilot adaptive linkage to care interventions (sequential multiple assignment randomized trial [SMART] design) among AGYW in the age range of 15 to 24 years in Homa Bay County, western Kenya. AGYW will be recruited in the home or community-based setting and offered three testing options: oral fluid HIV self-testing, staff-aided rapid HIV testing, or referral to a health care facility for standard HIV testing services. Newly diagnosed AGYW with HIV will be enrolled in the SMART trial pilot to determine the most effective way to support initial linkage to care after a positive diagnosis. They will be randomized to standard referral (counseling and a referral note) or standard referral plus SMS text message (short message service, SMS); those not linked to care within 2 weeks will be rerandomized to receive an additional SMS text message or a one-time financial incentive (approximately US $4). We will also evaluate a primary prevention messaging intervention to support identified high-risk HIV-negative AGYW to reduce their HIV risk and adhere to HIV retesting recommendations. We will also conduct analyses to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of the seek, testing and

  8. Seeking congruity between goals and roles: a new look at why women opt out of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B; Brown, Elizabeth R; Johnston, Amanda M; Clark, Emily K

    2010-08-01

    Although women have nearly attained equality with men in several formerly male-dominated fields, they remain underrepresented in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). We argue that one important reason for this discrepancy is that STEM careers are perceived as less likely than careers in other fields to fulfill communal goals (e.g., working with or helping other people). Such perceptions might disproportionately affect women's career decisions, because women tend to endorse communal goals more than men. As predicted, we found that STEM careers, relative to other careers, were perceived to impede communal goals. Moreover, communal-goal endorsement negatively predicted interest in STEM careers, even when controlling for past experience and self-efficacy in science and mathematics. Understanding how communal goals influence people's interest in STEM fields thus provides a new perspective on the issue of women's representation in STEM careers.

  9. The use of respondent-driven sampling to assess malaria knowledge, treatment-seeking behaviours and preventive practices among mobile and migrant populations in a setting of artemisinin resistance in Western Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Po; Thwing, Julie; McGinn, Colleen; Quintero, Cesia E; Top-Samphor, Narann; Habib, Najibullah; Richards, Jack S; Canavati, Sara E; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Nguon, Chea

    2017-09-19

    Multi-drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum threatens malaria elimination efforts in Cambodia and the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). Malaria burden in the GMS is higher among certain high-risk demographic groups in Cambodia, especially among migrant and mobile populations (MMPs). This respondent driven sampling (RDS) study was conducted in order to determine malaria knowledge, treatment-seeking behaviours and preventive practices among two MMP groups in Western Cambodia. An RDS survey of MMPs was implemented in four purposively-selected communes along the Thai-Cambodia border; two in Veal Veang District and two in Pailin Province, chosen due to their sizeable MMP groups, their convenience of access, and their proximity to Thailand, which allowed for comparison with RDS studies in Thailand. There were 764 participants in Pailin Province and 737 in Veal Veang District. Health messages received in Veal Veang were most likely to come from billboards (76.5%) and family and friends (57.7%), while in Pailin they were most likely to come from sources like radio (57.1%) and television (31.3%). Knowledge of malaria transmission by mosquito and prevention by bed net was above 94% in both locations, but some misinformation regarding means of transmission and prevention methods existed, predominantly in Veal Veang. Ownership of treated bed nets was lower in Pailin than in Veal Veang (25.3% vs 53.2%), while reported use the night before the survey was higher in Pailin than in Veal Veang (57.1% vs 31.6%). Use of private sector health and pharmaceutical services was common, but 81.1% of patients treated for malaria in Pailin and 86.6% in Veal Veang had received a diagnostic test. Only 29.6% of patients treated in Pailin and 19.6% of those treated in Veal Veng reported receiving the indicated first-line treatment. Barriers in access to malaria prevention and case management were common among MMPs, with marked variation by site. Resolving both nation-wide and MMP-specific challenges

  10. The application of implementation science for pressure ulcer prevention best practices in an inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovil, Carol Y; Flett, Heather M; McMillan, Lan T; Delparte, Jude J; Leber, Diane J; Brown, Jacquie; Burns, Anthony S

    2014-09-01

    To implement pressure ulcer (PU) prevention best practices in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation using implementation science frameworks. Quality improvement. SCI Rehabilitation Center. Inpatients admitted January 2012 to July 2013. Implementation of two PU best practices were targeted: (1) completing a comprehensive PU risk assessment and individualized interprofessional PU prevention plan (PUPP); and (2) providing patient education for PU prevention; as part of the pan-Canadian SCI Knowledge Mobilization Network. At our center, the SCI Pressure Ulcer Scale replaced the Braden risk assessment scale and an interprofessional PUPP form was implemented. Comprehensive educational programing existed, so efforts focused on improving documentation. Implementation science frameworks provided structure for a systematic approach to best practice implementation (BPI): (1) site implementation team, (2) implementation drivers, (3) stages of implementation, and (4) improvement cycles. Strategies were developed to address key implementation drivers (staff competency, organizational supports, and leadership) through the four stages of implementation: exploration, installation, initial implementation, and full implementation. Improvement cycles were used to address BPI challenges. Implementation processes (e.g. staff training) and BPI outcomes (completion rates). Following BPI, risk assessment completion rates improved from 29 to 82%. The PUPP completion rate was 89%. PU education was documented for 45% of patients (vs. 21% pre-implementation). Implementation science provided a framework and effective tools for successful pressure ulcer BPI in SCI rehabilitation. Ongoing improvement cycles will target timeliness of tool completion and documentation of patient education.

  11. Study Describes Research Scientists’ Information Seeking Behaviour, but Methodological Issues Make Usefulness as Evidence Debatable. A Review of: Hemminger, B.M., Lu, D., Vaughan, K.T.L., & Adams, S. J. (2007. Information seeking behavior of academic scientists. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 58(14, 2205‐2225.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the transition to electronic communication in information‐seeking behaviour of academic scientists.Design – Census survey.Setting – University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, a large public research university.Subjects – Nine hundred two faculty, research staff, and graduate students involved in research in basic or medical science departments. Participants self‐selected (26% from 3523 recruited. The sample reflected the larger population in terms of gender, age, university position, and department.Methods – The authors developed a web‐based survey and delivered it via PHP Survey Tool. They developed the questions to parallel similar earlier studies to allow for comparative analysis. The survey included 28 main questions with some questions including further follow‐up questions depending on the initial answer. The instrument included three initial questions designed to reveal the participant’s place and role in the university, and further coding classified participants’ department as either basic or medical science. The questions included categorical, continuous, and open‐ended types. While most questions focused on the scientists’ information seeking behaviour, the three final open‐ended questions asked about their opinions of the library and ideal searching environment. Answers were transferred into a MySQL database, then imported into SAS to generate simple descriptive statistics.Main Results – Participants reported easy access to online resources, and a strong preference for conducting research online, even when access to a physical library is convenient. Infrequent visits to the library predominantly took place to utilize materials not available online, although the third most common answer for visiting was to take advantage of the library building as a quiet reading space (14%. Additional questions revealed both type and specifics of most popular sources for research, preferred

  12. seeking behavior in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Background: Immunization and appropriate health-seeking behavior are effective strategies to reduce child ..... be cured in the hospital which the TBA can cure like 'iru inu'. ... with a rural nurse) Rural Indian mothers were also.

  13. Science from evaluation: testing hypotheses about differential effects of three youth-focused suicide prevention trainings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Daniel; Del Quest, Aisling

    2015-01-01

    As part of an evaluation component of a youth suicide prevention, a quasi-experimental repeated measures design tested hypotheses about two brief suicide prevention gatekeeper trainings (Question, Persuade, Refer [QPR] and RESPONSE) and one longer suicide intervention skills training (Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training [ASIST]). All three trainings showed large changes in prevention attitudes and self-efficacy, largely maintained at follow-up. ASIST trainees had large increases in asking at-risk youth about suicide at follow-up. Convergent with other research, modeling and role-play in training are crucial to increased prevention behaviors. Practice and research implications are discussed, including social work roles in suicide prevention and research.

  14. Teaching information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Limberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method. Thirteen teachers and five librarians, teaching 12-19 year-old students in three schools, participated. Forty-five interviews were conducted over a period of three years. Analysis. The IDOL project adopted a phenomenographic approach with the purpose of describing patterns of variation in experiences. The findings were also analysed by way of relating them to four competing approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Results. A gap was identified between experiences of teaching content that focused on sources and order, and experiences of assessment criteria applied to students' work that focused on the importance of correct facts and the analysis of information. These findings indicate a highly restricted range of teaching contents when compared with the four theoretical approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Conclusion. Teaching information seeking might be enhanced by a wider repertoire of contents reflecting more varied theoretical understanding developed in information seeking research, particularly as regards the importance of content and context related to user perspectives.

  15. The Information Practices of Physical Science Librarians Differ from Those of the Scientific Community: More Research is Needed to Characterize Specific Information Seeking and Use. A Review of: Brown, Cecilia M. and Lina Ortega. “Information-Seeking Behavior of Physical Science Librarians: Does Research Inform Practice?” College & Research Libraries 66.3 (2005): 231-47.

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Perryman

    2008-01-01

    Objective - As part of a larger study exploring the information environments of physical science librarians (Ortega & Brown), the authors’ overall objective for this study is to profile physical science librarians’ information behaviours. The authors’ two-part hypothesis was that first, peer-reviewed journals would be preferred over all other sources for research dissemination, resembling the preferences of scientists, and second, that peer-to-peer consultation would predominate for practice-...

  16. Transfer Entails Communication: The Public Understanding of (Social) Science as a Stage and a Play for Implementing Evidence-Based Prevention Knowledge and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromme, Rainer; Beelmann, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Many social science-based interventions entail the transfer of evidence-based knowledge to the "target population," because the acquisition and the acceptance of that knowledge are necessary for the intended improvement of behavior or development. Furthermore, the application of a certain prevention program is often legitimated by a reference to science-based reasons such as an evaluation according to scientific standards. Hence, any implementation of evidence-based knowledge and programs is embedded in the public understanding of (social) science. Based on recent research on such public understanding of science, we shall discuss transfer as a process of science communication.

  17. Exercise and Sports Science Australia position statement on exercise and falls prevention in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Catherine; Close, Jacqueline C T; Lord, Stephen R

    2011-11-01

    Falls affect a significant number of older Australians and present a major challenge to health care providers and health systems. The purpose of this statement is to inform and guide exercise practitioners and health professionals in the safe and effective prescription of exercise for older community-dwelling people with the goal of preventing falls. Falls in older people are not random events but can be predicted by assessing a number of risk factors. Of particular importance are lower limb muscle strength, gait and balance, all of which can be improved with appropriate exercise. There is now extensive evidence to demonstrate that many falls are preventable, with exercise playing a crucial role in prevention. Research evidence has identified that programs which include exercises that challenge balance are more effective in preventing falls than those which do not challenge balance. It is important for exercise to be progressively challenging, ongoing and of sufficient dose to maximise its benefits in reducing falls. Other (non-exercise) interventions are necessary for certain people with complex medical conditions or recent hospitalisation and risk factors relating to vision and the use of psychotropic medications. Qualified exercise professionals are well placed to implement the research evidence and to prescribe and supervise specific exercise aimed at preventing falls in both healthy older community-dwelling people and those with co-morbidities. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preventing biological weapon development through the governance of life science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Gerald L

    2012-03-01

    The dual-use dilemma in the life sciences-that illicit applications draw on the same science and technology base as legitimate applications-makes it inherently difficult to control one without inhibiting the other. Since before the September 11 attacks, the science and security communities in the United States have struggled to develop governance processes that can simultaneously minimize the risk of misuse of the life sciences, promote their beneficial applications, and protect the public trust. What has become clear over that time is that while procedural steps can be specified for assessing and managing dual-use risks in the review of research proposals, oversight of ongoing research, and communication of research results, the actions or decisions to be taken at each of these steps to mitigate dual-use risk defy codification. Yet the stakes are too high to do nothing, or to be seen as doing nothing. The U.S. government should therefore adopt an oversight framework largely along the lines recommended by the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity almost 5 years ago-one that builds on existing processes, can gain buy-in from the scientific community, and can be implemented at modest cost (both direct and opportunity), while providing assurance that a considered and independent examination of dual-use risks is being applied. Without extraordinary visibility into the actions of those who would misuse biology, it may be impossible to know how well such an oversight system will actually succeed at mitigating misuse. But maintaining the public trust will require a system to be established in which reasonably foreseeable dual-use consequences of life science research are anticipated, evaluated, and addressed.

  19. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Cools

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1 risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2 established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3 these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4 preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD; rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.

  20. Guided Learning at Workstations about Drug Prevention with Low Achievers in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Heyne; Bogner, Franz X.

    2012-01-01

    Our study focussed on the cognitive achievement potential of low achieving eighth graders, dealing with drug prevention (cannabis). The learning process was guided by a teacher, leading this target group towards a modified learning at workstations which is seen as an appropriate approach for low achievers. We compared this specific open teaching…

  1. A history of fish vaccination. Science-based disease prevention in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudding, R.; Muiswinkel, van W.B.

    2013-01-01

    Disease prevention and control are crucial in order to maintain a sustainable aquaculture, both economically and environmentally. Prophylactic measures based on stimulation of the immune system of the fish have been an effective measure for achieving this goal. Immunoprophylaxis has become an

  2. Information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2000-01-01

    A general theory of information seeking behaviour must include an outline of an evolutionary theory of how organisms have adapted their cognitive apparatus to the demands raised in order to cope with their environments. It should describe important qualitative stages in this development and explain...

  3. Identification of gaps for implementation science in the HIV prevention, care and treatment cascade; a qualitative study in 19 districts in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajunirwe, Francis; Tumwebaze, Flora; Abongomera, George; Akakimpa, Denis; Kityo, Cissy; Mugyenyi, Peter N

    2016-04-14

    Over the last 20 years, countries in sub Saharan Africa have made significant strides in the implementation of programs for HIV prevention, care and treatment. Despite, the significant progress made, many targets set by the United Nations have not been met. There remains a large gap between the ideal and what has been achieved. There are several operational issues that may be responsible for this gap, and these need to be addressed in order to achieve the targets. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify gaps in the HIV prevention, care and treatment cascade, in a large district based HIV implementation program. We aimed to identify gaps that are amenable for evaluation using implementation science, in order to improve the delivery of HIV programs in rural Uganda. We conducted key informant (KI) interviews with 60 district health officers and managers of HIV/AIDS clinics and organizations and 32 focus group discussions with exit clients seeking care and treatment for HIV in the 19 districts. The data analysis process was guided using a framework approach. The recordings were transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were read back and forth and codes generated based on the framework. Nine emerging themes that comprise the gaps were identified and these were referral mechanisms indicating several loop holes, low levels of integration of HIV/TB services, low uptake of services for PMTCT services by pregnant women, low coverage of services for most at risk populations (MARPs), poor HIV coordination structures in the districts, poor continuity in the delivery of pediatric HIV/AIDS services, limited community support for orphans and vulnerable (OVC's), inadequate home based care services and HIV services and support for discordant couples. The themes indicate there are plenty of gaps that need to be covered and have been ignored by current programs. Our study has identified several gaps and suggested several interventions that should be tested before large scale

  4. Intention to seek information on cancer genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Andrews

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The public has a high interest in seeking personal genetic information, which holds implications for health information seeking research and health care policy. Rapid advances in cancer genetics research promise early detection, prevention and treatment, yet consumers may have greater difficulty finding and using the information they may need to make informed decisions regarding their personal health and the future of their families. Design. A statewide telephone survey was conducted of non-institutionalized Kentucky residents 18 years of age or older to investigate factors associated with the intention to seek cancer genetics information, including the need for such information seeking help. Results. The results show that intention to seek cancer genetics information, if testing were readily available, is moderately high (62.5% of those responding; n=835, and that status as a racial minority, the perception that cancer runs in one's family, and frequent worrying about cancer risk are statistically significant predictors of intent to seek genetics information. Conclusion. . We argue that an already complex health information environment will be even more difficult for individuals to navigate as genetic research becomes more ubiquitous in health care. An increase in demand for genetics information in various forms, as suggested by these results and those of other studies, implies that enduring intervention strategies are needed to help individuals acquire necessary health information literacy skills, with special attention given to racial minorities.

  5. The Information Practices of Physical Science Librarians Differ from Those of the Scientific Community: More Research is Needed to Characterize Specific Information Seeking and Use. A Review of: Brown, Cecilia M. and Lina Ortega. “Information-Seeking Behavior of Physical Science Librarians: Does Research Inform Practice?” College & Research Libraries 66.3 (2005: 231-47.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective - As part of a larger study exploring the information environments of physical science librarians (Ortega & Brown, the authors’ overall objective for this study is to profile physical science librarians’ information behaviours. The authors’ two-part hypothesis was that first, peer-reviewed journals would be preferred over all other sources for research dissemination, resembling the preferences of scientists, and second, that peer-to-peer consultation would predominate for practice-oriented decisions.Design – Mixed methods: survey questionnaire followed by citation and content analysis.Setting – Five internationally disseminated professional association electronic mailing lists whose readership comprised those with interests in science librarianship: the American Library Association (ALA Science and Technology Section; the American Society for Information Science & Technology (ASIST Science and Technology Information Special Interest Group; the Special Library Association (SLA Chemistry Division and its Physics-Astronomy-Mathematics Division; and the American Geological Institute Geoscience Information Society.Subjects – Seventy-two physical science librarians voluntarily responding to an online survey.Methods – A questionnaire was distributed to inquire about physical science librarians’ professional reading practices as well as their perceptions about the applicability of research to their work. Participants were asked to rank preferences among 11 resource types as sources supporting daily business, including personal communication, conference attendance, electronic mailing lists, and scholarly journals. Differences between the mean rankings of preferences were tested for significance by applying the Friedman test with p>0.0005. Journals identified most frequently were analyzed using the Institute for Scientific Information’s (ISI Web of Science index and Ulrich’s Periodical Index to measure proportions of research

  6. Prevention, innovation and implementation science in mental health: the next wave of reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorry, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Although the corrosive effect of mental ill health on human health and happiness has long been recognised, it is only relatively recently that mental illness has been acknowledged as one of the major threats to economic productivity worldwide. This is because the major mental disorders most commonly have their onset during adolescence and early adulthood, and therefore have a disproportionate impact on the most productive decades of life. With the costs associated with mental ill health estimated to double over the next two decades, a greater emphasis on prevention and early intervention has become even more imperative. Although prevention largely remains aspirational for many reasons, early intervention is well within our current reach and offers the potential to significantly reduce the impact of mental ill health on our health, happiness and prosperity in the immediate future.

  7. A history of fish vaccination: science-based disease prevention in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudding, Roar; Van Muiswinkel, Willem B

    2013-12-01

    Disease prevention and control are crucial in order to maintain a sustainable aquaculture, both economically and environmentally. Prophylactic measures based on stimulation of the immune system of the fish have been an effective measure for achieving this goal. Immunoprophylaxis has become an important part in the successful development of the fish-farming industry. The first vaccine for aquaculture, a vaccine for prevention of yersiniosis in salmonid fish, was licensed in USA in 1976. Since then the use of vaccines has expanded to new countries and new species simultaneous with the growth of the aquaculture industry. This paper gives an overview of the achievements in fish vaccinology with particular emphasis on immunoprophylaxis as a practical tool for a successful development of bioproduction of aquatic animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Subjects Protection and Technology in Prevention Science: Selected Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Pisani, Anthony R.; Wyman, Peter A.; Mohr, David C.; Perrino, Tatiana; Gallo, Carlos; Villamar, Juan; Kendziora, Kimberly; Howe, George W.; Sloboda, Zili; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2016-01-01

    Internet-connected devices are changing the way people live, work, and relate to one another. For prevention scientists, technological advances create opportunities to promote the welfare of human subjects and society. The challenge is to obtain the benefits while minimizing risks. In this article, we use the guiding principles for ethical human subjects research and proposed changes to the Common Rule regulations, as a basis for discussing selected opportunities and challenges that new techn...

  9. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Prevention at Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai: A case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bandi, Shekappa; Pothare, Devyani; Angadi, Mallikarjun; Jange, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is not always a black and white issue. The boundary between plagiarism and research is often unclear. Learning to recognize the various forms of plagiarism, especially the more ambiguous ones, is an important step towards effective prevention. The study overview the concept and types of plagiarism and it`s benefits, Plagiarism Policies in India, and also discussed turnitin and its workflow process of the TISS comparison of the Turnitin and iThenticate plagiarism tools and other rel...

  10. Deep data science to prevent and treat growth faltering in Maya children

    OpenAIRE

    Varela-Silva, M I; Bogin, B; Sobral, J A G; Dickinson, F; Monserrat-Revillo, S

    2016-01-01

    The Maya people are descended from the indigenous inhabitants of southern Mexico, Guatemala and adjacent regions of Central America. In Guatemala, 50% of infants and children are stunted (very low height-for-age), and some rural Maya regions have >70% children stunted. A large, longitudinal, intergenerational database was created to (1) provide deep data to prevent and treat somatic growth faltering and impaired neurocognitive development, (2) detect key dependencies and predictive relations ...

  11. Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in China: A Research Agenda for Science and Technology Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Rodolfo Andres

    2016-01-01

    China’s air pollution has reached a critical state, and is characterized by heavy coal smoke and a wide presence of ozone and particulate matter (PM2.5). From 2011, through the 12th five year plan, the prevention and control of air pollution entered a new ‘transition stage’ guided by the principles of sustainability and energy conservation, and also intensified by pressure from the society. This article is divided into two parts: first, it introduces the most important changes, problems and a...

  12. Deep data science to prevent and treat growth faltering in Maya children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Silva, M I; Bogin, B; Sobral, J A G; Dickinson, F; Monserrat-Revillo, S

    2016-06-01

    The Maya people are descended from the indigenous inhabitants of southern Mexico, Guatemala and adjacent regions of Central America. In Guatemala, 50% of infants and children are stunted (very low height-for-age), and some rural Maya regions have >70% children stunted. A large, longitudinal, intergenerational database was created to (1) provide deep data to prevent and treat somatic growth faltering and impaired neurocognitive development, (2) detect key dependencies and predictive relations between highly complex, time-varying, and interacting biological and cultural variables and (3) identify targeted multifactorial intervention strategies for field testing and validation. Contributions to this database included data from the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala Longitudinal Study of Child and Adolescent Development, child growth and intergenerational studies among the Maya in Mexico and studies about Maya migrants in the United States.

  13. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. How has the economic downturn affected communities and implementation of science-based prevention in the randomized trial of communities that care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinski, Margaret R; Hawkins, J David; Plotnick, Robert D; Abbott, Robert D; Reid, Carolina K

    2013-06-01

    This study examined implications of the economic downturn that began in December 2007 for the Community Youth Development Study (CYDS), a longitudinal randomized controlled trial of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system. The downturn had the potential to affect the internal validity of the CYDS research design and implementation of science-based prevention in study communities. We used archival economic indicators and community key leader reports of economic conditions to assess the extent of the economic downturn in CYDS communities and potential internal validity threats. We also examined whether stronger economic downturn effects were associated with a decline in science-based prevention implementation. Economic indicators suggested the downturn affected CYDS communities to different degrees. We found no evidence of systematic differences in downturn effects in CTC compared to control communities that would threaten internal validity of the randomized trial. The Community Economic Problems scale was a reliable measure of community economic conditions, and it showed criterion validity in relation to several objective economic indicators. CTC coalitions continued to implement science-based prevention to a significantly greater degree than control coalitions 2 years after the downturn began. However, CTC implementation levels declined to some extent as unemployment, the percentage of students qualifying for free lunch, and community economic problems worsened. Control coalition implementation levels were not related to economic conditions before or after the downturn, but mean implementation levels of science-based prevention were also relatively low in both periods.

  15. Risk factors and preventive interventions for Alzheimer disease: state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daviglus, Martha L; Plassman, Brenda L; Pirzada, Amber; Bell, Carl C; Bowen, Phyllis E; Burke, James R; Connolly, E Sander; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline M; Granieri, Evelyn C; McGarry, Kathleen; Patel, Dinesh; Trevisan, Maurizio; Williams, John W

    2011-09-01

    Numerous studies have investigated risk factors for Alzheimer disease (AD). However, at a recent National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference, an independent panel found insufficient evidence to support the association of any modifiable factor with risk of cognitive decline or AD. To present key findings for selected factors and AD risk that led the panel to their conclusion. An evidence report was commissioned by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. It included English-language publications in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1984 through October 27, 2009. Expert presentations and public discussions were considered. Study inclusion criteria for the evidence report were participants aged 50 years and older from general populations in developed countries; minimum sample sizes of 300 for cohort studies and 50 for randomized controlled trials; at least 2 years between exposure and outcome assessment; and use of well-accepted diagnostic criteria for AD. Included studies were evaluated for eligibility and data were abstracted. Quality of overall evidence for each factor was summarized as low, moderate, or high. Diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia in midlife, and current tobacco use were associated with increased risk of AD, and Mediterranean-type diet, folic acid intake, low or moderate alcohol intake, cognitive activities, and physical activity were associated with decreased risk. The quality of evidence was low for all of these associations. Currently, insufficient evidence exists to draw firm conclusions on the association of any modifiable factors with risk of AD.

  16. Being, Seeking and Telling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    University's Centre for Research in Education, Equity and Work. Both Peter Willis ... medical and science and communication but who has an interest in education. ... virtual reality, sketches imagery, produces poetry and presents an aesthetic ...

  17. SSC seeks aid

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    The chairman of the science committee in the US House of representatives will ask Congress to pass a law requiring that at least a quarter of the funds for the SSC come from foreign money (2 paragraphs).

  18. seeking behavior in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... India, Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo ... but knowledge of vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) was poor in both areas. ... proportions of rural women utilized nutritional counseling (p=0.005) and treatment of ...

  19. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  20. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  1. Bullying Prevention: a Summary of the Report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine : Committee on the Biological and Psychosocial Effects of Peer Victimization: Lessons for Bullying Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Todres, Jonathan; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Amar, Angela Frederick; Graham, Sandra; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Masiello, Matthew; Moreno, Megan; Sullivan, Regina; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Le Menestrel, Suzanne M; Rivara, Frederick

    2016-11-01

    Long tolerated as a rite of passage into adulthood, bullying is now recognized as a major and preventable public health problem. The consequences of bullying-for those who are bullied, the perpetrators of bullying, and the witnesses-include poor physical health, anxiety, depression, increased risk for suicide, poor school performance, and future delinquent and aggressive behavior. Despite ongoing efforts to address bullying at the law, policy, and programmatic levels, there is still much to learn about the consequences of bullying and the effectiveness of various responses. In 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine published a report entitled Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy and Practice, which examined the evidence on bullying, its impact, and responses to date. This article summarizes the report's key findings and recommendations related to bullying prevention.

  2. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  3. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  4. Sensation seeking and error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya; Sheng, Wenbin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-09-01

    Sensation seeking is defined by a strong need for varied, novel, complex, and intense stimulation, and a willingness to take risks for such experience. Several theories propose that the insensitivity to negative consequences incurred by risks is one of the hallmarks of sensation-seeking behaviors. In this study, we investigated the time course of error processing in sensation seeking by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while high and low sensation seekers performed an Eriksen flanker task. Whereas there were no group differences in ERPs to correct trials, sensation seeking was associated with a blunted error-related negativity (ERN), which was female-specific. Further, different subdimensions of sensation seeking were related to ERN amplitude differently. These findings indicate that the relationship between sensation seeking and error processing is sex-specific. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  5. Pleasure seeking and birdsong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V

    2011-10-01

    Songbirds sing at high rates within multiple contexts, suggesting that they are highly motivated to communicate and that the act of singing itself may be rewarding. Little is known about the neural regulation of the motivation to communicate. Dopamine and opioid neuropeptides play a primary role in reward seeking and sensory pleasure. In songbirds, these neurochemicals are found within brain regions implicated in both motivation and reward, including the medial preoptic nucleus (mPOA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Several lines of research indicate that dopamine and opioids in these regions play a role in birdsong that differs depending upon whether song is used to attract females (female-directed song) or is not directed towards other individuals (undirected song). Evidence is reviewed supporting the hypotheses: (1) that distinct patterns of dopamine activity influence the motivation to produce undirected and female-directed song, (2) that undirected communication is intrinsically reinforced by immediate release of opioids induced by the act of singing, and (3) that directed communication is socially reinforced by opioids released as part of social interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  7. Presence seeking and sensation seeking as motives for international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, G

    1994-12-01

    Although independent research has identified presence seeking and sensation seeking as important motives for a variety of activities, there is sufficient conceptual overlap to suggest the concepts describe in part the same motive or are related. The possible relationship was examined in motives of students for international travel. Nonsignificant correlations suggest that, at least for this activity, they are differentiable.

  8. Sensation seeking in opium abusers compared to normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that it is possible to identify people at risk of substance abuse using some personality variables. Identification of these people might help social planners to deal with these people specifically in their prevention attempts. The aim of this study was to compare the sensation seeking of opium addicted and non-addicted people using the sensation seeking scale. Such a comparison might help to identify personality variables that are effective in turning toward substance abuse. In order to measure the sensation seeking of subjects “Sensation Seeking Scale” (SSS were used. 31 opium abusers were matched to 31 normal controls according to the following variables: age, education, father and mother education. Results showed that opium abusers obtain higher scores on the total sensation seeking score ,“variety seeking” and “experience seeking” subscales.

  9. Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering  and analysis of bacterial  convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...

  10. Patterns of care seeking during episodes of childhood diarrhea and its relation to preventive care patterns: national integrated monitoring and evaluation survey (IMES of family health. Islamic republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmail Motlagh

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: According to this national survey, our health system needs to integrate all the levels of prevention, especially the Integrated Management of Child Illnesses (IMCI programs with a family physician project. Futher more, there is a great need for empowering the referral system and gate keeping in all referral levels, to make efficient national integrated programs.

  11. Circadian typology and sensation seeking in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana

    2012-12-01

    The relationship of circadian typology with personality has been largely studied in adults, but there are few studies exploring such relationship in adolescents. Adolescence has been associated with a greater tendency to eveningness preference, sleeping problems, poorer academic achievement, earlier substance use, or risky behaviors, and it is suggested that this association might be mediated by personality factors. Given the relevance of identifying the behavioral outcomes of young evening types to detect and prevent health problems, the present study aimed to explore, for the first time, the relationship between sensation seeking and circadian typology in an adolescent sample of 688 students (51.45% boys) from 12 to 16 yrs old. They answered the Spanish versions of the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) and the Junior Sensation Seeking Scale (J-SSS), which includes four subscales measuring Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking, Disinhibition, and Boredom Susceptibility. Analyses showed that boys obtained significantly higher scores than girls on J-SSS total score and all subscales except Boredom Susceptibility, whereas evening-type adolescents of both sexes scored significantly higher than neither types and than morning types on J-SSS total score. These results indicate that evening-type adolescents show a greater desire for varied, new, complex, and intense sensations, and they are ready for experiencing more risks than morning types. The implications of this study suggest the need of being aware of individual differences in the SS trait in evening-type adolescents, as well as taking into account the wide variety of behaviors associated with it, either prosocial or antisocial, to design better preventive health and academic programs.

  12. Collaborative Information Seeking and Expertise Seeking: Different Discourses about Similar Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – This study compares and contrasts research on collaborative information seeking (CIS) and expertise seeking (EXS) to identify focal themes, blind spots, and possibilities for cross-fertilization. Design/methodology/approach – Existing research was reviewed. The review consisted of a con......Purpose – This study compares and contrasts research on collaborative information seeking (CIS) and expertise seeking (EXS) to identify focal themes, blind spots, and possibilities for cross-fertilization. Design/methodology/approach – Existing research was reviewed. The review consisted...... the information need is held by an individual but resolved by consulting other people. While the typical scope of EXS studies is source selection, CIS studies mostly concern the consultation of the sources and the use of the obtained information. CIS and EXS studies also attend differentially to the information...... and prevent duplication of effort. Topics for future research are identified. It should be noted that the findings are limited to the 142 studies reviewed. Originality/value – By analyzing CIS in the context of EXS, and vice versa, this study provides a fresh look at the information-seeking research...

  13. Care seeking for orofacial pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollman, A.; Visscher, C.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Naeije, M.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the contribution of a wide range of factors to care-seeking behavior in orofacial pain patients, expressed as (A) decision to seek care and (B) number of health care practitioners visited. METHODS: Subjects with orofacial pain complaints were recruited in seven TMD clinics and

  14. Breakdowns in collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative information seeking is integral to many professional activities. In hospital work, the medication process encompasses continual seeking for information and collaborative grounding of information. This study investigates breakdowns in collaborative information seeking through analyses...... of the use of the electronic medication record adopted in a Danish healthcare region and of the reports of five years of medication incidents at Danish hospitals. The results show that breakdowns in collaborative information seeking is a major source of medication incidents, that most of these breakdowns...... are breakdowns in collaborative grounding rather than information seeking, that the medication incidents mainly concern breakdowns in the use of records as opposed to oral communication, that the breakdowns span multiple degrees of separation between clinicians, and that the electronic medication record has...

  15. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  16. Younger Adults Derive Pleasure and Utilitarian Benefits from Browsing for Music Information Seeking in Physical and Digital Spaces. A Review of: Laplante, A., & Downie, J. S. (2011). The utilitarian and hedonic outcomes of music information-seeking in everyday life. Library & Information Science Research, 33, 202-210. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2010.11.002

    OpenAIRE

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2012-01-01

    Objective – This study’s objective was to identify the utilitarian and hedonic features of satisfying music information seeking experiences from the perspective of younger adults when using physical and digital music information retrieval (MIR) systems in their daily lives.Design – In-depth, semi-structured interviews.Setting – Large public library in Montreal, Canada.Subjects – 15 French-speaking younger adults,10 males and 5 females (aged 18 to 29 years, mean age of 24 years).Methods – A pr...

  17. Kuhlthau’s Classic Research on the Information Search Process (ISP Provides Evidence for Information Seeking as a Constructivist Process. A review of: Kuhlthau, Carol C. “Inside the Search Process: Information Seeking from the User's Perspective.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42.5 (1991: 361‐71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelagh K. Genuis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To extend understanding of purposeful information seeking and to present a model of the information search process (ISP from the perspective of the user.Design – Review of theoretical foundation, summing up of qualitative and quantitative data from a series of five foundational studies, and presentation of ISP model. Setting – Summarised research was conducted primarily in high school and college environments where subjects were investigating an assigned topic. A small proportion of public libraries were used in the fifth study within the reviewed series.Subjects – The ISP model as presented in this ‘classic’ article is based on studies involving a total of 558 participants. The first study involved 26 academically advanced high school seniors, and the 2 subsequent studies involved respectively 20 and 4 of the original participants following their completion of 4 years of college. The final 2 studies involved respectively 147 high, middle and low achieving high school seniors, and 385 academic, public and school library users.Methods – This paper presents the foundation for the ISP model by reviewing the relationship between Kelly’s personal construct theory, Belkin, Brooks, and Oddy’s investigation of cognitive aspects of the constructive information seeking process, and Taylor’s work on levels of information need (“Question‐negotiation” and value‐added information (“Value added”. This is followed by a review of Kuhlthau’s five foundational studies, which investigated the common information seeking experiences of users who were seeking to expand knowledge related to a particular topic or problem. The first of these studies was a small‐scale exploration in which participants were given two assignments. Questionnaires, journaling, search logs, and reflective writing were used to collect data throughout the process of assignment completion. Data collection was augmented by case studies involving in

  18. Nutrition, Food Science, and Dietetics Faculty Have Information Needs Similar to Basic and Medical Sciences Faculty – Online Access to Electronic Journals, PubMed/Medline, and Google. A Review of: Shpilko, I. (2011. Assessing information-seeking patterns and needs of nutrition, food science, and dietetics faculty. Library & Information Science Research, 33(2, 151-157.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mê-Linh Lê

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine the information needs of nutrition, food science, and dietetics faculty members by specifically examining how they locate and access information sources and which scholarly journals are consulted for teaching, research, and current awareness; and identifying any perceived information service needs (e.g., training.Design – Online survey questionnaire.Setting – Four senior colleges within the City University of New York (CUNY system.Subjects – Nutrition, food science, and dietetics faculty members.Methods – Using institutional websites and the assistance of relevant affiliated librarians, 29 full-time and adjunct nutrition, food science, and dietetics faculty members were identified at Queens College, Brooklyn College, Hunter College, and Lehman College (all part of the CUNY system. A survey was emailed in June and July 2007 and had 14 (48.4% responses. The study was temporarily halted in late 2007. When resumed in January 2009, the survey was re-sent to the initial non-respondents; five additional responses were received for a final 65.5% (n=19 response rate.Main Results – The majority of respondents held a PhD in their field of study (63.1%, were full-time faculty (no percentage given, and female (89.5%. Information sources were ranked for usage by respondents, with scholarly journals unsurprisingly ranked highly (100%, followed by conference and seminar proceedings (78.9%, search engines (73.6%, government sources (68.4%, and information from professional organizations (68.4%. Respondents ranked the top ten journals they used for current awareness and for research and teaching purposes. Perhaps due to a lack of distinction by faculty in terms of what they use journals for, the two journal lists differ by only two titles.The majority browse e-journals (55.6% rather than print, obtain access to e-journals through home or work computers (23.6%, and obtain access to print through personal collections (42

  19. Putting Science First: Using the Precautionary Principle in the Central Arctic Ocean to Prevent a Fishing Disaster Before it Occurs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, C.

    2017-12-01

    As ice conditions change and ocean temperatures continue to rise, the potential for living marine resources to migrate farther north and for vessels to journey north with them is expanding. To date, the central Arctic Ocean (CAO) has remained relatively unexposed to human activities, including commercial fishing. However, as conditions continue to change, the potential for expansion of fishing fleets exists. In July 2015, the five Arctic coastal states signed a declaration concerning the prevention of unregulated high seas fishing in the CAO. Recognizing the need to involve additional nations with interests in the Arctic region, in December 2015, the five Arctic coastal states, along with China, the European Union, Japan, Iceland, and Korea, began a process to negotiate a binding agreement to prevent unregulated fishing in the high seas of the CAO. A key underlying goal of the negotiations is to reach agreement that nations would establish a joint program of scientific research and monitoring to better understand the CAO ecosystem and whether fish stocks might exist there that could be harvested on a sustainable basis and the possible impacts of such fisheries on the ecosystems. The data collected through the international joint science program will compose a key piece of the decision-making at the policy level regarding establishing appropriate measures or organizations to manage fishing in the CAO should the science indicate potentials for commercial fishing in the CAO. Since the beginning of these high-level negotiations, the policy makers have consistently agreed that conducting collaborative science is the primary way to determine whether sustainable commercial fishing could one day occur in the region. I will highlight the policy negotiation process and parallel science meetings to date to demonstrate how science can influence policy to prevent a fishing disaster.

  20. [Physical activity as prevention and treatment resource of chronic diseases in the syllabus of Medicine and Sport Sciences at Spanish universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge Pascual, Sergio; Casajús Mallén, José Antonio; González Gross, Marcela

    2017-07-28

    Currently, there is scientific evidence about the benefits of physical exercise over human health. The aim of this study was to review the curricula of Medicine and Sport Sciences at Spanish universities, specifically regarding the contents related to physical exercise in the promotion, prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). In a systematic way, all syllabus, programs and contents of the different subjects were reviewed for all Spanish universities which offer the Bachelors of Medicine and Sport Sciences. Total, compulsory and optional European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) were analyzed and added for each university. Practicum and Bachelor thesis were not considered. In the mean, Medicine studies dedicate 3.62% (2.38% mandatory and 1.20% optional) of the total 360 ECTS to these contents. In Sport Sciences studies, of the total 240 ECTS, 17.78% (9.87% mandatory and 7.92% optional) were identified as related to these areas of knowledge. Contents ranged from 36 to 4.5 ECTS in Medicine and from 48 to 28 ECTS in Sport Sciences. There is a great disparity between universities for both degrees among Spanish universities. Contents related to the efficient use of physical exercise for the prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic diseases are scarce, especially in Medicine. Results indicate the need of increasing these contents in undergraduate studies and/or include them in Master or other programs.

  1. Insomnia patients' help-seeking experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Janet M Y; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Armour, Carol L; Glozier, Nicholas; Saini, Bandana

    2014-03-04

    Timely access to appropriate treatment is important for optimizing insomnia management. To date, little is known about insomnia patients' treatment experiences or how they access and engage with the available health care resources. This study sought to capture the help-seeking experiences and behavioral patterns of patients with insomnia who are seeking or receiving specialist care. A purposive sample of 26 insomnia patients from specialist sleep and mental health clinics located in metropolitan New South Wales, Australia was recruited. Participants completed a brief questionnaire, followed by an in-depth, semi-structured interview. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using framework analysis. Three key themes emerged from the data: patients' sleep beliefs, treatment beliefs, and accessing specialized care. The findings show that daytime symptoms arising from insomnia serve as important illness cues for patients to seek medical help. In addition, participants' treatment pathways highlight factors that prevent the widespread use of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), including limited awareness about CBT-I, tentative referral mechanisms, limited service providers, and the high cost of CBT-I.

  2. Younger Adults Derive Pleasure and Utilitarian Benefits from Browsing for Music Information Seeking in Physical and Digital Spaces. A Review of: Laplante, A., & Downie, J. S. (2011. The utilitarian and hedonic outcomes of music information-seeking in everyday life. Library & Information Science Research, 33, 202-210. doi:10.1016/j.lisr.2010.11.002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This study’s objective was to identify the utilitarian and hedonic features of satisfying music information seeking experiences from the perspective of younger adults when using physical and digital music information retrieval (MIR systems in their daily lives.Design – In-depth, semi-structured interviews.Setting – Large public library in Montreal, Canada.Subjects – 15 French-speaking younger adults,10 males and 5 females (aged 18 to 29 years, mean age of 24 years.Methods – A pre-test was completed to test the interview guide. The guide was dividedinto five sections asking the participants questions about their music tastes, how music fit into their daily lives, how they discovered music, what music information sources were used and how they were used, what made their experiences satisfying, and theirbiographical information. Participants were recruited between April 1, 2006 and August 8,2007 following maximum variation samplingfor the main study. Recruitment stopped whendata saturation was reached and no new themes arose during analysis. Interviews were recorded and the transcripts were analyzed via constant comparative method (CCM to determine themes and patterns. Main Results – The researchers found that both utilitarian and hedonic factors contributed to satisfaction with music information seeking experiences for the young adults. Utilitarian factors were divided between two main categories: finding music and finding information about music. Finding information about music could be further divided into three sub-categories: increasing cultural knowledge and social acceptance through increased knowledge about music, enriching the listening experience by finding information about the artist and the music, and gathering information to help with future music purchases including information that would help the participants recommend music to others. Hedonic outcomes that contributed to satisfying information seeking

  3. An examination of the advances in science and technology of prevention of tooth decay in young children since the Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T; Tanzer, Jason M

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing, although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and polyvinylpyrrolidone iodine (PVI-I) may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diamine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the United States. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the report Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice.

  4. AN EXAMINATION OF THE ADVANCES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF PREVENTION OF TOOTH DECAY IN YOUNG CHILDREN SINCE THE SURGEON GENERAL’S REPORT ON ORAL HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Zero, Domenick T.; Tanzer, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses a number of areas related to how effectively science and technology have met Healthy People 2010 goals for tooth decay prevention. In every area mentioned, it appears that science and technology are falling short of these goals. Earlier assessments identified water fluoridation as one of the greatest public health accomplishments of the last century. Yet, failure to complete needed clinical and translational research has shortchanged the caries prevention agenda that incomplete at a critical juncture. Science has firmly established the transmissible nature of tooth decay. However, there is evidence that tooth decay in young children is increasing although progress has been made in other age groups. Studies of risk assessment have not been translated into improved practice. Antiseptics, chlorhexidine varnish, and PVP-iodine may have value, but definitive trials are needed. Fluorides remain the most effective agents, but are not widely disseminated to the most needy. Fluoride varnish provides a relatively effective topical preventive for very young children, yet definitive trials have not been conducted. Silver diammine fluoride also has potential but requires study in the US. Data support effectiveness and safety of xylitol, but adoption is not widespread. Dental sealants remain a mainstay of public policy, yet after decades of research, widespread use has not occurred. We conclude that research has established the public health burden of tooth decay, but insufficient research addresses the problems identified in the Surgeon General's Report. Transfer of technology from studies to implementation is needed to prevent tooth decay among children. This should involve translational research and implementation of scientific and technological advances into practice. PMID:19837019

  5. Gratification Theory Provides a Useful Framework for Understanding the Information Seeking Behaviours and Needs of Distinct Populations. A review of: Chatman, E. A. (1991. Life in a small world: Applicability of gratification theory to information‐seeking behavior. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42(6, 438‐449.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Zoellner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Apply gratification theory to the information‐seeking behaviours and use of information by a lower working class population. Design – An ethnographic study framed by social stratification literature was utilized to explore, describe and interpret the everyday information needs, information‐seeking behaviours and views of information held by lower working class individuals.Setting – A major university in the southeast United States, specifically the physical plant facilities including classrooms, bathrooms, janitorial closets, and front steps.Subjects – The participants were 52 lower working class janitorial staff at a major university. The majority of subjects were single black women in their late 30s. The women had children and were the heads of their households. The women had not completed high school and earned minimum wage; they had been at their jobs for an average of seven years. The workers’ supervisors, and others at the physical plant, were also contacted as part of the study.Methods – Ethnographic data was collected over a two‐year period, 1984‐86, through participation in the setting and interviews. A 28‐item interview guide was used to identify participants’ job‐search strategies, use of mass media, television viewing behaviours, and acceptance of information from individuals and believable sources of information.Main results – Chatman confirmed the usefulness of gratification theory as a conceptual framework to identify what defines information problems, motivations, and information seeking behaviours for an impoverished population. The results support the findings of social stratification research on the parallel between impoverished individuals’ social life and their orientation toward gratification. A focus on local present reality due to pressing economic and psychological problems orients lower working class individuals toward immediate gratification. Thus, information sources of value

  6. Information Seeking and Avoidance Behavior in School Library Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yunfei

    2010-01-01

    Library science students in school librarianship were surveyed to determine their information seeking and avoidance behaviors in Web-based online environments. Two coping styles were identified among students. Barriers to student online collaboration, such as individual preferences, concerns on efficiency, and lack of mutual trust, were observed.…

  7. The national response for preventing healthcare-associated infections: research and adoption of prevention practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Katherine L; Mendel, Peter; Leuschner, Kristin J; Hiatt, Liisa; Gall, Elizabeth M; Siegel, Sari; Weinberg, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) have long been the subject of research and prevention practice. When findings show potential to significantly impact outcomes, clinicians, policymakers, safety experts, and stakeholders seek to bridge the gap between research and practice by identifying mechanisms and assigning responsibility for translating research to practice. This paper describes progress and challenges in HAI research and prevention practices, as explained through an examination of Health and Human Services (HHS) Action Plan's goals, inputs, and implementation in each area. We used the Context-Input-Process-Product evaluation model, together with an HAI prevention system framework, to assess the transformative processes associated with HAI research and adoption of prevention practices. Since the introduction of the Action Plan, HHS has made substantial progress in prioritizing research projects, translating findings from those projects into practice, and designing and implementing research projects in multisite practice settings. Research has emphasized the basic science and epidemiology of HAIs, the identification of gaps in research, and implementation science. The basic, epidemiological, and implementation science communities have joined forces to better define mechanisms and responsibilities for translating HAI research into practice. Challenges include the ongoing need for better evidence about intervention effectiveness, the growing implementation burden on healthcare providers and organizations, and challenges implementing certain practices. Although these HAI research and prevention practice activities are complex spanning multiple system functions and properties, HHS is making progress so that the right methods for addressing complex HAI problems at the interface of patient safety and clinical practice can emerge.

  8. Building a science of partnership-focused research: forging and sustaining partnerships to support child mental health prevention and services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynes, Katherine Taylor

    2012-07-01

    Building on growing interest in translational research, this paper provides an overview of a special issue of Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Service Research, which is focused on the process of forging and sustaining partnerships to support child mental health prevention and services research. We propose that partnership-focused research is a subdiscipline of translational research which requires additional research to better refine the theoretical framework and the core principles that will guide future research and training efforts. We summarize some of the major themes across the eight original articles and three commentaries included in the special issue. By advancing the science of partnership-focused research we will be able to bridge the gap between child mental health prevention and services research and practice.

  9. Moving evidence-based drug abuse prevention programs from basic science to practice: "bridging the efficacy-effectiveness interface".

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Gerald J; Winters, Ken C; Realmuto, George M; Tarter, Ralph; Perry, Cheryl; Hektner, Joel M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges faced by developers of youth drug abuse prevention programs in transporting scientifically proven or evidence-based programs into natural community practice systems. Models for research on the transfer of prevention technology are described with specific emphasis given to the relationship between efficacy and effectiveness studies. Barriers that impede the successful integration of efficacy methods within effectiveness studies (e.g., client factors, practitioner factors, intervention structure characteristics, and environmental and organizational factors) are discussed. We present a modified model for program development and evaluation that includes a new type of research design, the hybrid efficacy-effectiveness study that addresses program transportability. The utility of the hybrid study is illustrated in the evaluation of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" prevention program.

  10. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  11. Strategic Asset Seeking by EMNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Seifert, Jr., Rene E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The chapter provides an economic explanation and perspectivation of strategic asset seeking of multinational enterprises from emerging economies (EMNEs) as a prominent feature of today’s global economy. Approach: The authors apply and extend the “springboard perspective.” This perspective...

  12. Music Information Seeking Behaviour Poses Unique Challenges for the Design of Information Retrieval Systems. A Review of: Lee, J. H. (2010. Analysis of user needs and information features in natural language queries seeking music information. Journal of the American Society for information Science and Technology, 61, 1025-1045.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To better understand music information seeking behaviour in a real life situation and to create a taxonomy relating to this behaviour to facilitate better comparison of music information retrieval studies in the future.Design – Content analysis of natural language queries.Setting – Google Answers, a fee based online service.Subjects – 1,705 queries and their related answers and comments posted in the music category of the Google Answers website before April 27, 2005.Methods – A total of 2,208 queries were retrieved from the music category on the Google Answers service. Google Answers was a fee based service in which users posted questions and indicated what they were willing to pay to have them answered. The queries selected for this study were posted prior to April 27, 2005, over a year before the service was discontinued completely. Of the 2208 queries taken from the site, only 1,705 were classified as relevant to the question of music information seeking by the researcher. The off-topic queries were not included in the study. Each of the 1,705 queries was coded according to the needs expressed by the user and the information provided to assist researchers in answering the question. The initial coding framework used by the researcher was informed by previous studies of music information retrieval to facilitate comparison, but was expanded and revised to reflect the evidence itself. Only the questions themselves were subjected to this iterative coding process. The answers provided by the Google Answer researchers and online comments posted by other users were examined by the author, but not coded for inclusion in the study.User needs in the questions were coded for their form and topic. Each question was assigned at least one form and one topic. Form refers to the type of question being asked and consisted of the following 10 categories: identification, location, verification, recommendation, evaluation, ready reference

  13. Development of a Systems Science Curriculum to Engage Rural African American Teens in Understanding and Addressing Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Young, Tiffany L.; Dave, Gaurav; Stith, Doris; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2018-01-01

    Engaging youth from racial and ethnic minority communities as leaders for change is a potential strategy to mobilize support for addressing childhood obesity, but there are limited curricula designed to help youth understand the complex influences on obesity. Our aim was to develop and pilot test a systems science curriculum to elicit rural…

  14. Harnessing and blending the power of two research networks to improve prevention science and public health practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpool, Robin C.; Brownson, Ross C.; Mays, Glen P.; Crosby, Richard A.; Wyatt, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic collaborations are essential in moving public health research and practice forward1, particularly in light of escalating fiscal and environmental challenges facing the public health community. This commentary provides background and context for an emerging partnership between two national networks, Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) and Public Health Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs), to impact public health practice. Supported by CDC, PRCs are celebrating over 25 years of transdisciplinary applied prevention research grounded in community and stakeholder engagement. Public Health PBRNs, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, conduct innovative public health services and systems research with public health agencies and community partners to improve public health decision-making. By utilizing each of the networks’ respective strengths and resources, collaborative ventures between PRCs and Public Health PBRNs can enhance the translation of applied prevention research to evidence-based practice and empirically investigate novel public health practices developed in the field. Three current PRC-Public Health PBRNs projects are highlighted and future research directions are discussed. Improving the interconnectedness of prevention research and public health practice is essential to improve the health of the Nation. PMID:24237918

  15. A contemporary approach to the prevention of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis in children: the role of improvement science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath Mahon, Allison; Neu, Alicia M

    2017-08-01

    Peritonitis is a leading cause of hospitalizations, morbidity, and modality change in pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients. Despite guidelines published by the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis aimed at reducing the risk of peritonitis, registry data have revealed significant variability in peritonitis rates among centers caring for children on CPD, which suggests variability in practice. Improvement science methods have been used to reduce a variety of healthcare-associated infections and are also being applied successfully to decrease rates of peritonitis in children. A successful quality improvement program with the goal of decreasing peritonitis will not only include primary drivers directly linked to the outcome of peritonitis, but will also direct attention to secondary drivers that are important for the achievement of primary drivers, such as health literacy and patient and family engagement strategies. In this review, we describe a comprehensive improvement science model for the reduction of peritonitis in pediatric patients on CPD.

  16. Women׳s help-seeking behaviours for depressive symptoms during the perinatal period: Socio-demographic and clinical correlates and perceived barriers to seeking professional help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana; Gorayeb, Ricardo; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to characterize the help-seeking behaviours of women who were screened positive for perinatal depression, to investigate its sociodemographic and clinical correlates, and to characterize the perceived barriers that prevent women from seeking professional help. Cross-sectional internet survey. Participants were recruited through advertisements published in pamphlets and posted on social media websites (e.g., Facebook) and websites and forums that focused on pregnancy and childbirth. 656 women (currently pregnant or who had a baby during the last 12 months) completed the survey. Participants were assessed with the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, and were questioned about sociodemographic and clinical data, help-seeking behaviours and perceived barriers to help-seeking. Different pathways of help-seeking were found, with only 13.6% of women with a perinatal depression seeking help for their emotional problems. Married women, currently pregnant women, and women without history of psychological problems had a higher likelihood of not engaging in any type of help-seeking behaviour. The majority of women who had not sought professional assistance identified several barriers to help-seeking, particularly knowledge barriers. Strategies to increase women׳s help-seeking behaviours should be implemented, namely improving mental health literacy, introducing screening procedures for mental health problems in pre/postnatal health care settings, and offering women innovative opportunities (e.g., web-based tools) that allow them to overcome the practical barriers to help-seeking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 75 FR 64357 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Renew an Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... refusal to provide the information or providing false information. The agency's contractor's reviewing... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Renew an Information Collection.... For Additional Information or Comments: Contact Suzanne H. Plimpton, Reports Clearance Officer...

  18. HIV knowledge and health-seeking behavior in Zambe´ zia Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess the level of knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and health-seeking behavior, we interviewed 349 people in 2009 using free response and multiple choice questionnaires. Over half reported first seeking treatment at a government health clinic; however, the majority of participants had visited a ...

  19. Cancer Fatalism, Literacy, and Cancer Information Seeking in the American Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Smith, Samuel G.

    2016-01-01

    Information seeking is an important behavior for cancer prevention and control, but inequalities in the communication of information about the disease persist. Conceptual models have suggested that low health literacy is a barrier to information seeking, and that fatalistic beliefs about cancer may be a mediator of this relationship. Cancer…

  20. To seek work and worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Yong Gyu

    2010-07-01

    It describes the documentary which shows US writers effect and process to seek worth though the work related nuclear power for half a century such as international nuclear school start of use of nuclear energy industry, establishment of nuclear society, by becoming a member of a standing committee and introduction of KINS, KANS and NSSC. It also describes his personal history about family and work and a brief summary of his career.

  1. 1 Knowledge, treatment seeking and preventive practices in respect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... knowledge of 495 patients attending the HIV clinic, in Lagos University Teaching Hospital,. Nigeria. ... is of crucial importance for anti-malaria responses (Good & Doolan, 1999). In non- ... power of the data obtained. Patients ...

  2. Risk Perceptions, Prevention and Treatment Seeking for Sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AIDS/STIs of 124 female commercial sex workers from 52 randomly selected brothels in Kano, Nigeria using a descriptive cross sectional design. We analysed the data using Epi Info® 3.5.1. The mean age of the sex workers was 26.4 ± 1.9 years, ...

  3. Diabetes-related information-seeking behaviour: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuske, Silke; Schiereck, Tim; Grobosch, Sandra; Paduch, Andrea; Droste, Sigrid; Halbach, Sarah; Icks, Andrea

    2017-10-24

    Information-seeking behaviour is necessary to improve knowledge on diabetes therapy and complications. Combined with other self-management skills and autonomous handling of the disease, it is essential for achieving treatment targets. However, a systematic review addressing this topic is lacking. The aims of this systematic review were to identify and analyse existing knowledge of information-seeking behaviour: (1) types information-seeking behaviour, (2) information sources, (3) the content of searched information, and (4) associated variables that may affect information-seeking behaviour. The systematic review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) requirements. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CCMed, ERIC, Journals@OVID, Deutsches Ärzteblatt and Karlsruher virtueller Katalog (KvK) databases were searched. Publications dealing with information-seeking behaviour of people with diabetes mellitus published up to June 2015 were included. A forward citation tracking was performed in September 2016 and June 2017. Additionally, an update of the two main databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL) was conducted, considering studies published up to July 2017. Studies published in languages other than English or German were excluded, as well as letters, short reports, editorials, comments and discussion papers. A study selection and the critical appraisal of the selected studies were performed independently by two reviewers. A third reviewer was consulted if any disagreement was found. Data extraction and content analysis were performed using selected dimensions of Wilson's 'model of information behaviour'. Twenty-six studies were included. Five 'types of information-seeking behaviour' were identified, e.g. passive and active search. The 'Internet' and 'healthcare professionals' were the most frequently reported sources. 'Diet', 'complications', 'exercise' and 'medications and

  4. Exercise and Sports Science Australia (ESSA) position statement on exercise prescription for the prevention and management of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Belinda R; Daly, Robin M; Singh, Maria A Fiatarone; Taaffe, Dennis R

    2017-05-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Although exercise has long been recommended for the prevention and management of osteoporosis, existing guidelines are often non-specific and do not account for individual differences in bone health, fracture risk and functional capacity. The aim of the current position statement is to provide health practitioners with specific, evidence-based guidelines for safe and effective exercise prescription for the prevention or management of osteoporosis, accommodating a range of potential comorbidities. Position statement. Interpretation and application of research reports describing the effects of exercise interventions for the prevention and management of low bone mass, osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture. Evidence from animal and human trials indicates that bone responds positively to impact activities and high intensity progressive resistance training. Furthermore, the optimisation of muscle strength, balance and mobility minimises the risk of falls (and thereby fracture), which is particularly relevant for individuals with limited functional capacity and/or a very high risk of osteoporotic fracture. It is important that all exercise programs be accompanied by sufficient calcium and vitamin D, and address issues of comorbidity and safety. For example, loaded spine flexion is not recommended, and impact activities may require modification in the presence of osteoarthritis or frailty. Specific guidelines for safe and effective exercise for bone health are presented. Individual exercise prescription must take into account existing bone health status, co-morbidities, and functional or clinical risk factors for falls and fracture. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Toward a deeper understanding of the willingness to seek help: the case of teleworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Timothy D; Schoenleber, Alisa H W

    2014-01-01

    Employees frequently do not engage in help-seeking due to the associated social costs. Despite the importance of help-seeking, little research has been done to explore factors affecting whether individuals will or will not engage in help-seeking at work, and existing research has thus far not addressed help seeking in the telework context. This paper expands the current literature on help-seeking by exploring this behavior in the context of teleworkers and develops propositions regarding how aspects of virtual work environments will help determine teleworkers' willingness to engage in help-seeking behavior. This article presents a review with critical analysis and integration of selected telework and help-seeking literatures. Grounded in the literature on inequity/indebtedness and the literature on threats to self-esteem, theoretically-derived research propositions are developed that help shed insights into help seeking behaviors in the telework context. These research propositions encompass media presence and the teleworker's perceived opportunity for reciprocation, and their associated impacts on the perceived cost of seeking help. The proposed research propositions provide practitioners and researchers a means to be better able to assess telework applications and prevent unintended effects. Through such systematic understanding of how telework alters the perceived cost of seeking help and the teleworker's willingness to seek help, telework may be further improved to contribute to more effective and productive individuals and organizations.

  6. Predicting job-seeking intensity and job-seeking intention in the sample of unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Ajzen' theory (1991 of planned behavior was used to predict job - seek intention and behavior among unemployed people (N = 650. In addition to theory of planned behavior variables (job - seek attitude, subjective norm, self - efficacy and controllability of job seek process we used several other psychological (financial pressure, self - mastery, self - esteem and depression and demographic (gender, age, education, marriage and lent of unemployment variables to build a model of predictors for both criterion variables. Financial pressure, intention to seek employment, job seek - self - efficacy, job - seek controllability, marriage and job - seek attitude predicted job - seeking behavior, while attitude toward job - seeking, subjective norm, job - seek self - efficacy and financial pressure predicted job seek - intention. Results are discussed in light of theory of planned behavior, current research of job - seeking behavior and recommendations are made for practice.

  7. 23 July - Italian Director-General for Prevention G. Ruocco and Director-General for European and International Relations Ministry of Health D. Roderigo visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Deputy Spokesperson B. Heinemann. Life Sciences Section M. Cirilli and Life Sciences Adviser M. Dosanjh present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    23 July - Italian Director-General for Prevention G. Ruocco and Director-General for European and International Relations Ministry of Health D. Roderigo visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Deputy Spokesperson B. Heinemann. Life Sciences Section M. Cirilli and Life Sciences Adviser M. Dosanjh present.

  8. Habitual alcohol seeking: modeling the transition from casual drinking to addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jacqueline M; Taylor, Jane R

    2014-01-01

    The transition from goal-directed actions to habitual ethanol seeking models the development of addictive behavior that characterizes alcohol use disorders. The progression to habitual ethanol-seeking behavior occurs more rapidly than for natural rewards, suggesting that ethanol may act on habit circuit to drive the loss of behavioral flexibility. This review will highlight recent research that has focused on the formation and expression of habitual ethanol seeking, and the commonalities and distinctions between ethanol and natural reward-seeking habits, with the goal of highlighting important, understudied research areas that we believe will lead toward the development of novel treatment and prevention strategies for uncontrolled drinking. PMID:25193245

  9. Consumer health information seeking in social media: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuehua; Zhang, Jin

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this literature review was to summarise current research regarding how consumers seek health-related information from social media. Primarily, we hope to reveal characteristics of existing studies investigating the health topics that consumers have discussed in social media, ascertaining the roles social media have played in consumers' information-seeking processes and discussing the potential benefits and concerns of accessing consumer health information in social media. The Web of Science Core Collection database was searched for existing literature on consumer health information seeking in social media. The search returned 214 articles, of which 21 met the eligibility criteria following review of full-text documents. Between 2011 and 2016, twenty-one studies published explored various topics related to consumer information seeking in social media. These ranged from online discussions on specific diseases (e.g. diabetes) to public health concerns (e.g. pesticide residues). Consumers' information needs vary depending on the health issues of interest. Benefits of health seeking on social media, in addition to filling a need for health information, include the social and emotional support health consumers gain from peer-to-peer interactions. These benefits, however, are tempered by concerns of information quality and authority and lead to decreased consumer engagement. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  10. Seeking high reliability in primary care: Leadership, tools, and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Leaders in health care increasingly recognize that improving health care quality and safety requires developing an organizational culture that fosters high reliability and continuous process improvement. For various reasons, a reliability-seeking culture is lacking in most health care settings. Developing a reliability-seeking culture requires leaders' sustained commitment to reliability principles using key mechanisms to embed those principles widely in the organization. The aim of this study was to examine how key mechanisms used by a primary care practice (PCP) might foster a reliability-seeking, system-oriented organizational culture. A case study approach was used to investigate the PCP's reliability culture. The study examined four cultural artifacts used to embed reliability-seeking principles across the organization: leadership statements, decision support tools, and two organizational processes. To decipher their effects on reliability, the study relied on observations of work patterns and the tools' use, interactions during morning huddles and process improvement meetings, interviews with clinical and office staff, and a "collective mindfulness" questionnaire. The five reliability principles framed the data analysis. Leadership statements articulated principles that oriented the PCP toward a reliability-seeking culture of care. Reliability principles became embedded in the everyday discourse and actions through the use of "problem knowledge coupler" decision support tools and daily "huddles." Practitioners and staff were encouraged to report unexpected events or close calls that arose and which often initiated a formal "process change" used to adjust routines and prevent adverse events from recurring. Activities that foster reliable patient care became part of the taken-for-granted routine at the PCP. The analysis illustrates the role leadership, tools, and organizational processes play in developing and embedding a reliable-seeking culture across an

  11. STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking Africa: a review of the recent literature in the social sciences and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Simone

    2009-03-01

    The article reviews academic literature in the social sciences and health on the problems and challenges of STD/AIDS prevention in Portuguese-speaking African countries. Based on a bibliographic survey of the SciELO, PubMed, and Sociological Abstracts databases between 1997 and 2007, the research under review was organized into two groups, according to content. The first group of studies sought to understand STD/AIDS vulnerability among social groups by examining local cultural and socioeconomic factors as related to gender dynamics, sexuality, color/race, religion and health care. The second group encompassed critical assessments of shortcomings in the STD/AIDS educational messages delivered by governments and international agencies. Attention is called to the way in which the presence of traditional medicine systems and the occurrence of civil wars in the post-colonial period impact the STD/AIDS epidemic in the African countries under study.

  12. Iranian Women's Breast Health-Seeking Behaviors: Husband's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloomy-Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed; Khodayarian, Mahsa; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Lamyian, Minoor; Tavangar, Hossein

    2017-12-14

    Breast cancer has become the most common cancer among Yazdi women in Iran. Thus, it is necessary to encourage these women to participate in breast health-seeking behaviors. In this regard, husbands can play an effective role. The aim of this study was to explore women's perceptions about the effect of their husband's role on breast health-seeking protection motivation. This study used a directed qualitative content analysis approach based on the Protection Motivation Theory. Participants were selected using purposive sampling; in-depth semistructured interviews with 14 Yazdi women were completed. One major category named "motivator role of husband" emerged from the analysis. The following subcategories underlying this category were "indifference and a lack of support as long as the women can continue with expected duties," "what women want for support," "facilitating and restrictive factors of husband's supportive role," "public health education needed," and "husband's agreement with preventive actions." Voluntary participation in breast health-seeking behaviors is a culturally sensitive topic. The qualitative methodology allowed this sensitive topic and its different aspects to be explored. The findings indicated that the major source of support for women was their husband's behavior toward breast health-seeking actions. Family cohesion and love among couples were identified as strong determinant factors pertaining to husband's supportive behaviors. The study findings provided deeper understanding about the effective factors related to a husband's role in motivating a wife to practice breast cancer prevention. These new findings are relevant for health educators and practitioners to develop culturally based interventions.

  13. Because of Science You Also Die...; Comment on “Quaternary Prevention, an Answer of Family Doctors to Over Medicalization”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Bernstein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of quaternary prevention (P4 refers to the idea that medicine has acquired the ability to damage through the proper exercise. Family medicine or general practice has the duty of recovering the ethical values and the exercise of a profession with the doctor-patient relationship serving to people’s humanity. In the fourth Congress of Family and Community Medicine, held in Montevideo (Uruguay last March 18-21, 2015, it was established the Working Group P4 WONCA-CIMF with communication tools included as constitutive part of P4. It was also remarked that we should be wary of attempts to denature the P4, diminishing its ethic value and limiting it to a reason for cost control.

  14. Adapting the SLIM diabetes prevention intervention to a Dutch real-life setting: joint decision making by science and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Sophia C; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Duijzer, Geerke; Ter Beek, Josien; Hiddink, Gerrit J; Feskens, Edith J M

    2013-05-08

    Although many evidence-based diabetes prevention interventions exist, they are not easily applicable in real-life settings. Moreover, there is a lack of examples which describe the adaptation process of these interventions to practice. In this paper we present an example of such an adaptation. We adapted the SLIM (Study on Lifestyle intervention and Impaired glucose tolerance Maastricht) diabetes prevention intervention to a Dutch real-life setting, in a joint decision making process of intervention developers and local health care professionals. We used 3 adaptation steps in accordance with current adaptation frameworks. In the first step, the elements of the SLIM intervention were identified. In the second step, these elements were judged for their applicability in a real-life setting. In the third step, adaptations were proposed and discussed for those elements which were deemed not applicable. Participants invited for this process included intervention developers and local health care professionals (n=19). In the first adaptation step, a total of 22 intervention elements were identified. In the second step, 12 of these 22 intervention elements were judged as inapplicable. In the third step, a consensus was achieved for the adaptations of all 12 elements. The adapted elements were in the following categories: target population, techniques, intensity, delivery mode, materials, organisational structure, and political and financial conditions. The adaptations either lay in changing the SLIM protocol (6 elements) or the real-life working procedures (1 element), or a combination of both (4 elements). The positive result of this study is that a consensus was achieved within a relatively short time period (nine months) between the developers of the SLIM intervention and local health care professionals on the adaptations needed to make SLIM applicable in a Dutch real-life setting. Our example shows that it is possible to combine the perspectives of scientists and

  15. Authoritative parenting and sensation seeking as predictors of adolescent cigarette and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T; Helme, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that prevent or buffer sensation seeking remain unexplored. This study fills this gap in extant research by examining the role of authoritative parenting as a protective factor that prevents or buffers cigarette and marijuana use by adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies. Data from 1461 adolescents attending 6th through 8th grades in central Colorado were gathered during a semester-long classroom-based intervention to prevent the onset or further use of cigarettes. Results indicate that authoritative parenting moderated the effect of sensation seeking on adolescent marijuana attitudes, intentions, and peer influence but not behaviors. Further, authoritative parenting was a stronger influence than sensation seeking on cigarette-related outcomes with just the opposite effect observed for marijuana-related outcomes.

  16. Perceived Barriers and Enablers of Help-Seeking for Substance Use Problems During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Bonita J; McCann, Terence V; Cheetham, Ali; Lubman, Dan I

    2018-01-01

    Receiving professional help early can reduce long-term harms associated with substance use. However, little is known about the factors that influence help-seeking for substance use problems during early-mid adolescence, prior to the emergence of disorder. Given that beliefs regarding help-seeking are likely to develop early, understanding adolescent views of help-seeking during this period is likely to provide important information for prevention and intervention efforts. The current study identifies perceptions that would facilitate or prevent adolescents from seeking support for substance use problems from formal and informal help sources. Thirty-four 12- to 16-year-olds from two schools in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, were recruited. A qualitative interpretative design was used, incorporating semistructured, audio-recorded interviews. Three overlapping themes that reflected barriers or enablers to help-seeking were identified: approachability, confidentiality and trustworthiness, and expertise. Help-seeking was facilitated when adolescents believed that the help source would be supportive and understanding, would keep information confidential, and had expertise in the alcohol and drug field. Conversely, adolescents were reluctant to seek help from sources they believed would be judgmental, lacked expertise, or would inform their parents. These findings highlight perceptions that may influence help-seeking for alcohol and drug problems during adolescence. Further research is needed to determine if help-seeking can be facilitated by improving parents' and peers' knowledge and promoting health professionals' expertise in working with young people's alcohol and drug issues.

  17. Financial Literacy, Confidence and Financial Advice Seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Marc M.

    2016-01-01

    We find that people with higher confidence in their own financial literacy are less likely to seek financial advice, but no relation between objective measures of literacy and advice seeking. The negative association between confidence and advice seeking is more pronounced among wealthy households.

  18. Gestational weight gain information: seeking and sources among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Jane C.; Campbell, Karen J.; McCarthy, Elizabeth A.; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women?s GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women?s sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Methods Consecutive women (n?=?1032) received a mailed que...

  19. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A; Rubincam, Clara; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Chuang, Deng-Min; Tepjan, Suchon; Shunmugam, Murali; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Logie, Carmen; Koen, Jennifer; Lindegger, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations. From 2008-2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement. Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of "community"; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted. This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the GPP Blueprint, as well as highlighting

  20. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A.; Rubincam, Clara; Slack, Catherine; Essack, Zaynab; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Chuang, Deng-Min; Tepjan, Suchon; Shunmugam, Murali; Roungprakhon, Surachet; Logie, Carmen; Koen, Jennifer; Lindegger, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations. Methods From 2008–2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement. Results Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of “community”; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted. Conclusions This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the

  1. Towards a Science of Community Stakeholder Engagement in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: An Embedded Four-Country Case Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Newman

    Full Text Available Broad international guidelines and studies in the context of individual clinical trials highlight the centrality of community stakeholder engagement in conducting ethically rigorous HIV prevention trials. We explored and identified challenges and facilitators for community stakeholder engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials in diverse global settings. Our aim was to assess and deepen the empirical foundation for priorities included in the GPP guidelines and to highlight challenges in implementation that may merit further attention in subsequent GPP iterations.From 2008-2012 we conducted an embedded, multiple case study centered in Thailand, India, South Africa and Canada. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with respondents from different trial-related subsystems: civil society organization representatives, community advocates, service providers, clinical trialists/researchers, former trial participants, and key HIV risk populations. Interviews/focus groups were recorded, and coded using thematic content analysis. After intra-case analyses, we conducted cross-case analysis to contrast and synthesize themes and sub-themes across cases. Lastly, we applied the case study findings to explore and assess UNAIDS/AVAC GPP guidelines and the GPP Blueprint for Stakeholder Engagement.Across settings, we identified three cross-cutting themes as essential to community stakeholder engagement: trial literacy, including lexicon challenges and misconceptions that imperil sound communication; mistrust due to historical exploitation; and participatory processes: engaging early; considering the breadth of "community"; and, developing appropriate stakeholder roles. Site-specific challenges arose in resource-limited settings and settings where trials were halted.This multiple case study revealed common themes underlying community stakeholder engagement across four country settings that largely mirror GPP goals and the GPP Blueprint, as well as

  2. A state of the science on influential factors related to sun protective behaviors to prevent skin cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F. Bruce, MSN, RN, NE-BC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer rates have risen over the past decades, making it imperative that adults understand the need for protection from sun exposure. Though some risk factors have been identified as predictive for skin cancers, there is a lack of synthesized information about factors that influence adults in their decisions to engage in sun protective behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to present the current state of the science on influential factors for sun protective behaviors in the general adult population. A rigorous literature search inclusive of a generally White, Caucasian, and non-Hispanic adult population was performed, and screening yielded 18 quantitative studies for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that modifiable and non-modifiable factors are interdependent and play a role in sun protective behaviors. This study resulted in a proposed conceptual model for affecting behavioral change in sun protection including the following factors: personal characteristics, cognitive factors, family dynamics, and social/peer group influences. These factors are introduced to propose tailored nursing interventions that would change current sun protective behavior practice. Key implications for nursing research and practice focus on feasibility of annual skin cancer screening facilitated by advanced practice nurses, incorporating the identified influential factors to reduce skin cancer risk and unnecessary sun exposure.

  3. Memories of the past contribute to prevention: photography as a direct means for public understanding of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Piccione

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are thousands of ways to achieve a sustainable future for our Planet. Some of these follow high-value scientific research activities, while others simply aim to increase people’s awareness of what can and should be done to improve our, and our children’s, quality of life. The easiest way to develop this specific kind of ‘spread of culture’ consists of bringing back to life what was preserved of the history of a population and of a territory, by representing it in a renewed form, and by making it ‘food for thought’. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV followed this approach and decided to publish two volumes where the objective was to make people more aware of the geological and volcanic risks in some specific areas of Italy. The immediacy of the photography is used to tell the stories of volcanoes and earthquakes, to represent past events that have become ‘memories’. and to use these as a basis to build a better future. Terremoto Calabro Messinese, 1908/2008 and Terre di Fuoco are the two photographic books that have been published by INGV in cooperation with Alinari, the oldest firm in the world in the field of photography and image communication. The photographs selected to be included in the two books had a double significance: on the one side, they had to convey to the reader the immediacy of the emotions that other people had felt and lived; and on the other side, they had to make people understand the importance of prevention. The fascination of history, the importance of memories of the past, and the extraordinary strength of images help the reader build a link between the past, the present and the future, where the lessons learnt from past centuries and from the study of the Earth and its energy help us to understand which steps should be taken to achieve a ‘sustainable’ future.

  4. Sex differences in methamphetamine seeking in rats: impact of oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brittney M; Young, Amy B; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M

    2013-10-01

    Previous evidence in an animal model of drug self-administration and drug seeking showed that acute oxytocin decreased methamphetamine (meth) seeking in male rats, suggesting potential clinical efficacy for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, based on the well-established role of oxytocin in reproduction and pair bond formation, it is important to know how this effect extrapolates to females. Here, we tested whether oxytocin (1mg/kg, IP) would decrease meth seeking in female rats across various stages of the estrous cycle (Experiment 1). Freely cycling Long Evans female rats self-administered meth (IV) in 2-h daily sessions, followed by daily extinction sessions. Following extinction, rats received oxytocin (0, 0.3, or 1mg/kg, IP) 30min before a meth priming injection (1mg/kg, IP) to assess reinstatement of meth seeking. Next, we examined the effects of oxytocin on motivated meth- and sucrose-taking and seeking in male and female rats. In separate experiments, males and females self-administered meth (Experiment 2) or sucrose (Experiment 3) until responding was stabilized along a fixed ratio (FR) 5 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats received either oxytocin or vehicle prior to self-administration along a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Rats were subsequently tested for cue-, meth-, and stress-induced reinstatement after pretreatment with oxytocin or vehicle. While oxytocin reduced meth seeking in females, we found that estrous cycle stage (as determined from vaginal cytology) did not influence meth-primed reinstatement or the ability of oxytocin to decrease reinstatement of meth seeking. Oxytocin reduced PR responding for meth only in females. Females responded more than males during cue-induced reinstatement of meth and sucrose seeking, and oxytocin reduced this responding only in meth females. In both sexes, oxytocin attenuated meth seeking in response to a meth prime and yohimbine (a pharmacological stressor). The

  5. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E Richard

    2016-12-01

    Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro) announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  6. Accelerating Translational Research through Open Science: The Neuro Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Richard Gold

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Translational research is often afflicted by a fundamental problem: a limited understanding of disease mechanisms prevents effective targeting of new treatments. Seeking to accelerate research advances and reimagine its role in the community, the Montreal Neurological Institute (Neuro announced in the spring of 2016 that it is launching a five-year experiment during which it will adopt Open Science-open data, open materials, and no patenting-across the institution. The experiment seeks to examine two hypotheses. The first is whether the Neuro's Open Science initiative will attract new private partners. The second hypothesis is that the Neuro's institution-based approach will draw companies to the Montreal region, where the Neuro is based, leading to the creation of a local knowledge hub. This article explores why these hypotheses are likely to be true and describes the Neuro's approach to exploring them.

  7. 78 FR 1266 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Extend a Current Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... the World Wide Web. The survey is a fully automated Web data collection effort and is handled... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Extend a Current Information Collection AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The...

  8. Scientific data as argument: The case of sexual partners reduction in HIV prevention in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Galindo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This article dicusses the use of scientific facts as argument for a 1999 Brazilian debate about the legitimacy of an official aids prevention policy. It seeks to defamiliarized a common aids argumentative practice which uses a classification of a scientific public health measure as a main legitimacy judgement. It is argued that it is peoples? negotiations and objects? mobilization that gives legitimacy to the implementation of a prevention estrategy ? acccording to a Social Psicology of science with a construcionist point of view.

  9. Factors Associated with Regular Physical Activity for the Prevention of Osteoporosis in Female Employees Alborz University of Medical Sciences: Application of Health Belief Model

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    E. Hatefnia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease and a growing global health problem that causes bones to thin and fragile. It is estimated that about two million people suffer from osteoporosis. According to the World Health Organization recommends regular physical activity is effective in preventing and while the results of some studies show about 65% of working women in Iran; do not get enough physical activity. This study aimed to determine factors associated with regular physical activity behavior for the prevention of osteoporosis in female employees Alborz University of Medical Sciences and was designed by HBM Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study involving 217 female university employees, all of whom were studied with the consent of the census. Tools for data collection questionnaire that included demographic questions, knowledge and questions based on health belief model structures that had done Validity and reliability. Data were analyzed using spss Edition19 and descriptive analytical statistics tests. Findings: The results show that regular physical activity was 37/8%. Idependent t-test showed a significant difference (P< 0/001 knowledge and self-efficacy between the two groups (with and without regular physical activity. Logistic regression analysis showed that knowledge and self-efficacy are significant predictor of Physical activity behavior. In this study, a significant association was found between the income and physical activity And the other factors such relationship wasnot found for physical activity. Conclusion: According to lack of regular physical activity and considering the relationship between knowledge and self-efficacy with physical activity, the need to addressing this issue through educational programming based on related factors. 

  10. A Graduate Degree in Library or Information Science Is Required, but not Sufficient, to Enter the Profession. A Review of: Reeves, R., & Hahn, T. (2010. Job advertisements for recent graduates: Advising, curriculum, and job-seeking implications. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 51(2, 103-119.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazi Torabi

    2011-03-01

    were covering a wide range of responsibilities, the greatest numbers of entry-level library positions are found to be public service (52.2% and technical services (23.9% positions. The two largest represented position types in archives are technical services (50.7 % and generalist (40.5%.While average salaries increased slightly over the four years of study, there is a more significant increase in the salaries of positions posted in 2009. The highest average salaries were found to be $43K for archivists working for government and $60K for library positions in the "other" category. In addition, the number of entry-level positions has increased from year to year over this period.Social competencies such as communication, collaboration and team work, and service orientation were the most emphasized traits for novice librarians and archivists. General information technology skills and knowledge of technical services were the most common skills required for both library and archive positions. Overall, the entry-level job postings did not require non-professional experience. However, 13.6% of the library and 18.7% of the archival positions required supervisory experience. Experience with preservation of physical objects and the knowledge of programming and mark-up languages were also common requirements for archives positions. Instructional and reference experience ranks the second and third essential skills for librarians.Conclusion – Based on the research results, a graduate degree in library or information science is required, but not sufficient, to enter the profession. Practical experience, either through internships, co-op programs, or part-time or full-time employment, is essential for new graduates seeking employment, but the majority of postings do not require a subject expertise, second Master’s degree, or knowledge of a foreign language. Since the job content analysis in this study only evaluated broad components of library services and archival operation, it

  11. Epidemiologic Study of Animal Bites and Rabies Referring to Rabies Prevention and Treatment Center of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences in 2011-2016

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    Tayebeh Rakhshani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of animal bite during 2011 -2016 years in Jahrom city. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. For analytical statistics, Chi-square test and multiple regression test were used. SPSS software version 21 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In total, 2010 people with an average age of 31.4 ±1.7 in the years 2011 to 2016 in the were biting. Of these, 429 were female (21.3% and 1581 were male (78.7%. The results multiple showed that there was a positive correlation between (animal bites; Beta = 0.05, age; Beta = 0.02, location of ulcer; Beta = 0.01 with animal bites positive and direct correlation with animal bites. Animal type variables (Beta = -0.06, primary measures (Beta = -0.03, gender (Beta = -0.03, nationality (Beta = -0.03, wound size (Beta = -0.02 and location (Beta = 0.05 had a negative correlation with animal bites. Conclusion: Most cases of biting have been related to dogs, pets and rural areas. Therefore, the vaccination of dogs and cats is essential by preventing dogs from being exposed to humans.

  12. Fermentation. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  13. Health information seeking and the World Wide Web: an uncertainty management perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty management theory was applied in the present study to offer one theoretical explanation for how individuals use the World Wide Web to acquire health information and to help better understand the implications of the Web for information seeking. The diversity of information sources available on the Web and potential to exert some control over the depth and breadth of one's information-acquisition effort is argued to facilitate uncertainty management. A total of 538 respondents completed a questionnaire about their uncertainty related to cancer prevention and information-seeking behavior. Consistent with study predictions, use of the Web for information seeking interacted with respondents' desired level of uncertainty to predict their actual level of uncertainty about cancer prevention. The results offer evidence that respondents who used the Web to search for cancer information were better able than were respondents who did not seek information to achieve a level of uncertainty commensurate with the level of uncertainty they desired.

  14. Science seeks [nuclear] weapons clean-up role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macilwain, Colin.

    1996-01-01

    US scientists argue for funding to support basic research which would make the decommissioning of one of the world's nuclear stockpiles cheaper and more effective. This runs contrary to current popular and political thought, from citizens' groups and state governments, that the stockpile should be dismantled immediately and publicly due to their suspicion of scientists and fear that stockpiled weapons could still be used. This article examines the debate between the two opposing views. (UK)

  15. Goddess Science, Primates and Feminism. Primatology and Human Nature Seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Derra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Author introduces basic aims, notions, methodological tools and theories of primatology. Underlining crucial role this discipline has played in defining human nature, she points out how it has changed due to its social duties, close relations to popular culture and growing impact of female researchers with feminist sensitivity. She posits the question about female or feminist character of primatology, indicating that the answer depends on taking for granted certain disputable assumptions about femininity and female scientific methods. Subsequently she presents androcentric bias of primatology studies (concerning sexuality, reproduction, male domination, female roles, aggression, and its later critique. Finally she problematizes culture/nature division which is used both in scientific and everyday discourse.

  16. Aggressive behavior: an alternative model of resting heart rate and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Low resting heart rate is a well-replicated biological correlate of aggression, and sensation seeking is frequently cited as the underlying causal explanation. However, little empirical evidence supports this mediating relationship. Furthermore, the biosocial model of violence and social push theory suggest sensation seeking may moderate the relationship between heart rate and aggression. In a sample of 128 college students (82.0% White; 73.4% female), the current study tested a moderation model as an alternative relationship between resting heart rate and sensation seeking in regard to aggression. Overall, the findings partially supported an interaction effect, whereby the relationship between heart rate and aggression was moderated by sensation seeking. Specifically, the oft-noted relationship between low resting heart rate and increased aggression was found, but only for individuals with low levels of sensation seeking. If replication supports this finding, the results may better inform prevention and intervention work. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Desistance and Treatment Seeking Among Women With Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Blythe E; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Hill, Lauren M

    2018-04-01

    Addiction rates are rising faster among women than men. However, women with substance use disorders are less likely to enter treatment than males. This study seeks to understand how turning-point events and other maturational processes affect "life course persistent" women's motivations for seeking treatment for their disorder. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 women who were receiving treatment for addiction using thematic analysis. Recurring themes were as follows: experiences of rock-bottom events prior to entering treatment, feeling "sick and tired" in regard to both their physical and mental health, and shifting identities or perceptions of themselves. We discuss the importance of motivating shifts in identity to prevent women from entering treatment as a result of more traumatic mechanisms as well as the possibility of intercepting women with substance dependence and chronic health conditions in primary care or hospital settings with the aim of encouraging treatment.

  18. Understanding barriers to Malaysian women with breast cancer seeking help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Rahmah, Mohd Amin; Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Knight, Aishah

    2012-01-01

    Delay in help-seeking behaviour which is potentially preventable has a major effect on the prognosis and survival of patients with breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore reasons for delay in seeking help among patients with breast cancer from the East Coast of peninsular Malaysia. A qualitative study using face- to-face in-depth interview was carried out involving 12 breast cancer patients who had been histo-pathologically confirmed and were symptomatic on presentation. Respondents were selected purposely based on their history of delayed consultation, diagnosis or treatment. All were of Malay ethnicity and the age range was 26-67 years. Three were in stage ll, seven in stage lll and two in stage lV. At the time of interview, all except one respondent had accepted treatment. The range of consultation time was 0.2-72.2 months with a median of 1.7 months, diagnosis time was 1.4-95.8 months( median 5.4 months )and treatment time was 0-33.3 months (median 1.2 months). The themes derived from the study were poor knowledge or awareness of breast cancer, fear of cancer consequences, beliefs in complementary alternative medicine, sanction by others, other priorities, denial of disease, attitude of wait and see and health care system weakness. Help-seeking behaviour was influenced by a complex interaction of cognitive, environmental, beliefs, culture and psycho-social factors. Breast cancer awareness and psychological counselling are recommended for all patients with breast symptoms to prevent delay in seeking clinical help.

  19. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities Effective protection for children Language: ... more use of sealants and reimbursement of services. Dental care providers can Apply sealants to children at ...

  20. Journal of Applied Science and Technology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Applied Science and Technology (JAST) seeks to promote and ... knowledge of various research topics in the applied sciences which address issues of ... Numerical value must be separated from the Physical Unit by 1 spacing.

  1. Journal of Applied Science and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Applied Science and Technology (JAST) seeks to promote and ... addressing issues that relate to technological developments in the Tropics. ... Science and Technology (ICMST-Gh) and the Materials Research Society of Ghana ...

  2. Interfaces for End-User Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionini, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Discusses essential features of interfaces to support end-user information seeking. Highlights include cognitive engineering; task models and task analysis; the problem-solving nature of information seeking; examples of systems for end-users, including online public access catalogs (OPACs), hypertext, and help systems; and suggested research…

  3. Professional e-government seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Lykke, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with professional e-government seeking behavior. With the digitalization of governments, expectations have been raised with regard to changes in the composition of employee work tasks. The purpose of our study is to determine whether these changes affect seeking beh...

  4. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  5. Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1997-01-01

    Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.

  6. Information Need and Information Seeking Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Information need is one of the cognitive needs of humankind. Information need causes information seeking behaviour and these concepts complement each other. Information need and information seeking behaviour are effected by many factors. It is necessary to know these factors in establishing the effective information centers and services.

  7. Employer's information and promotion-seeking activities

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Gil S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model in which promotion of employees within the internal firm hierarchy is determined by the individuals' allocation of time between promotion/rent-seeking and productive activity. We consider the effect of an increase in the employer's knowledge (information) regarding the employees' productivity levels on the total time spent by the workers in non-productive promotion-seeking activities.

  8. Information seeking and communication behaviour of Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the findings of a study which sought insight into engineer's information seeking and communication behaviour at Kenya Railways Corporation. The study employed a user centered approach to information seeking and use unlike many past studies which were system centered. It focused broadly and ...

  9. Barriers to Support: A Qualitative Exploration into the Help-Seeking and Avoidance Factors of Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamark, Daniel; Gabriel, Lynne

    2018-01-01

    The current research explores young adults' beliefs, awareness and understanding surrounding help-seeking behaviour in relation to barriers preventing access to counselling support. The literature suggests that several barriers, such as a lack of awareness, stigma and gender roles, will have a negative influence on help-seeking. To complement and…

  10. China QIUSHI SEEKING TRUTH no 3, 1 August 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-16

    Legal Principles in Law Circles in Recent Years 40 A New ’Political Economy’ Textbook Is Compiled in the Soviet Union [Dan Zhu ] 43 On ’Writings...Analysis on Results" (hereafter called "Census") which has been published by Zhongguo Caizheng Jingji Chubanshe (China Finance and Economics Publishing...HK2508082288 Beijing Q1USHI[SEEKING TRUTH] in Chinese No 3, 1 Aug 88 p 44 [Article by Dan Zhu 0030 4554 of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

  11. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Seeking Commonality in Military Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    RAND ReseARch AReAs Children and Families eduCation and the arts energy and environment health and health Care inFrastruCture and transportation... international aFFairs law and Business national seCurity population and aging puBliC saFety sCienCe and teChnology terrorism and homeland seCurity this...rand 2011 www.rand.org The Advantages and Disadvantages of Seeking Commonality in Military Equipment I ncreasingly, the Army and the Department

  12. The God Machine seeks the origin of the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Under the green fields of the French-Swiss border, not far from the Alps and Lake Geneva, is hidden underground most strength Earth energy. The generated particles of low mass, subatomic, ue collide with each other in a huge circumference of 27 kilometers, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC English siglasen), an underground infrastructure that seeks to answer big questions of science: the origin of matter we know or dark matter and energy, which together occupy 95% of the universe and that we are not able to see or understand. They call it the 'god machine' and is the largest and most complex built in the world. (Author)

  13. Sensation Seeking or Empathy? Physically Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behaviors (ASBs Amongst University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Eman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has linked anti-social behavior (ASB to subtypes of empathy and also to sensation seeking, but there is limited research on the relative roles of empathy subtypes and sensation seeking traits in predicting ASB subtypes. The current study therefore investigated the relationship between sensation seeking, the three subtypes of empathy (emotional reactivity, cognitive empathy and social skills and the two subtypes of ASB (physically aggressive and non-aggressive. An online survey consisting of Demographic Variables Questionnaire, Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, Empathy Quotient and the Antisocial Behavior Measure was sent to student volunteers, leading to a total of 537 respondents. Empathy alone accounted for a relatively modest proportion of the total variance in the ASBs, with emotional reactivity being the only significant predictor. Adding sensation seeking to the regression led to a marked improvement in prediction for non-aggressive ASB and a slight but significant improvement for physically aggressive ASB. Sensation seeking, emotional reactivity and social skills (but not cognitive empathy contributed unique variance for both ASB subtypes. The greatest variance for physically aggressive and non-aggressive ASB were accounted for by emotional reactivity and sensation seeking, respectively. The results indicate that both sensation seeking and sub-types of empathy are important in predicting ASBs. This has theoretical implications for different personality models and has practical implications for the development of preventive measures to avoid such behaviors.

  14. Suicide and Its Prevention on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Lee

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…

  15. Cryoethics: seeking life after death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David

    2009-11-01

    Cryonic suspension is a relatively new technology that offers those who can afford it the chance to be 'frozen' for future revival when they reach the ends of their lives. This paper will examine the ethical status of this technology and whether its use can be justified. Among the arguments against using this technology are: it is 'against nature', and would change the very concept of death; no friends or family of the 'freezee' will be left alive when he is revived; the considerable expense involved for the freezee and the future society that will revive him; the environmental cost of maintaining suspension; those who wish to use cryonics might not live life to the full because they would economize in order to afford suspension; and cryonics could lead to premature euthanasia in order to maximize chances of success. Furthermore, science might not advance enough to ever permit revival, and reanimation might not take place due to socio-political or catastrophic reasons. Arguments advanced by proponents of cryonics include: the potential benefit to society; the ability to cheat death for at least a few more years; the prospect of immortality if revival is successful; and all the associated benefits that delaying or avoiding dying would bring. It emerges that it might be imprudent not to use the technology, given the relatively minor expense involved and the potential payoff. An adapted and more persuasive version of Pascal's Wager is presented and offered as a conclusive argument in favour of utilizing cryonic suspension.

  16. Smart Tools for Academic Information Seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeva Koponen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic information seeking is an essential part of academic work. Research and information seeking go hand in hand, and both need planning. In the academic world you can hardly avoid the research plan, but you probably won’t hear that much about the information seeking plan. The information seeking plan guides you through the research process from the first sparks of an idea to the last dot in the bibliography from the point of view of the often invisible process of systematic information seeking. Systematic Information Seeking Framework designed in the Jyväskylä University Library has its roots in Carol Kuhlthau's Guided Inquiry Design Process. Our model, designed for more contextual adjustability, is presented in our Library Tutorial (https://koppa.jyu.fi/avoimet/kirjasto/en/library-tutorial, an open self-study material. The process starts with “Defining the topic and finding search terms”. This stage requires extensive reading about the subject matter, understanding the basic differences between everyday knowledge and scientific knowledge and distinguishing information resources for different kinds of needs. Analysis of concepts and understanding of their contextuality are at the core of scientific knowledge. With the information seeking plan and a mind map one can work on the search terms, discover connections and construct search statements for different resources and the search strategies they require. The second section is about “Finding sources”, which students often understand as the starting point for systematic information seeking. Knowledge of the publication cultures in different disciplines guide the information seeker to the different types of sources needed. Finally, “Citing and managing references”. One of the most essential skills in all academic work is the appropriate use of scientific sources, citing and managing references correctly. As academic dishonesty hurts the whole community, academic fraud, e

  17. When to Seek Help for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... others; opposition to authority, truancy, thefts, or vandalism Strange thoughts, beliefs, feelings, or unusual behaviors If problems persist over an extended period of time or if others involved in the child's life are concerned, consider speaking with your seeking a ...

  18. Sexual information seeking on web search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Amanda; Koricich, Andrew; Jansen, B J; Cole, Charles

    2004-02-01

    Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior. Seeking sexually related information on the Internet takes many forms and channels, including chat rooms discussions, accessing Websites or searching Web search engines for sexual materials. The study of sexual Web queries provides insight into sexually-related information-seeking behavior, of value to Web users and providers alike. We qualitatively analyzed queries from logs of 1,025,910 Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com Web user queries from 2001. We compared the differences in sexually-related Web searching between Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com users. Differences were found in session duration, query outcomes, and search term choices. Implications of the findings for sexual information seeking are discussed.

  19. EDITORIAL HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOUR IN CONTEXT Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-02-01

    Feb 1, 2003 ... coherent picture of specific cultural features that affect people's health ... seeking is not homogenous depending on cognitive and non-cognitive factors that call ... services that are drawn into the decision making process(5,6).

  20. Peak-Seeking Control for Trim Optimization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovators have developed a peak-seeking algorithm that can reduce drag and improve performance and fuel efficiency by optimizing aircraft trim in real time. The...

  1. Information seeking behavior of Greek astronomers

    OpenAIRE

    Brindesi, Hara; Kapidakis, Sarantos

    2011-01-01

    This study examines three aspects of information seeking behaviour of astronomers in Greece including a) the importance they place in keeping up- to-date with current developments b) the methods they depend on for keeping up-to-date and c) the information sources they mostly use. We adopted an intradisciplinary approach in order to investigate similarities and differences in information seeking behaviour among astronomers when examining them as groups bearing different characteristics, includ...

  2. Bureaucratic Tax-Seeking: The Danish Waste Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Henrik; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    Two main results in traditional tax theory states the following. First, general taxes minimize the welfare loss from changed relative prices. Second, because the total public budget tends to exceed the optimal size, a leader (here named 'troop leader') is needed in the budget process to prevent...... over-taxation. Nevertheless, differentiated taxes initiated by individual ministries generate a still larger proportion of total tax revenue, in particular under cover of taxing externalities such as environmental pollution. We suggest that this situation leads to over-taxation for two reasons. First......, the absence of a strong and fully informed troop leader prevents rational coordination of collective action. Second, budget maximization leads to overwhelming fiscal pressure because bureaucracies are competing about resources just like fishermen or hunters (here named 'bureaucratic tax-seeking'). Taxing...

  3. Attitudes and stigma in relation to help-seeking intentions for psychological problems in low and high suicide rate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, A; Kerkhof, A J F M; Molenberghs, G; Van Audenhove, C

    2014-02-01

    Accessibility and availability of mental health care services are necessary but not sufficient for people to seek help for psychological problems. Attitudes and stigma related to help seeking also determine help seeking intentions. The aim of this study is to investigate how cross-national differences in attitudes and stigma within the general population are related to professional and informal help seeking intentions in low and high suicide rate regions. By means of a postal structured questionnaire, data of 2999 Dutch and Flemish respondents between 18 and 65 years were gathered. Attitudes toward help seeking, perceived stigma, self-stigma, shame and intention to seek help were assessed. People in the Netherlands, where suicide rates are low, have more positive attitudes toward help seeking and experience less self stigma and shame compared to the people in Flanders, where suicide rates are relatively high. These attitudinal factors predicted professional as well as informal help seeking intentions. Perceived stigma was negatively associated with informal help seeking. Shame was positively associated with higher intention to use psychotropic drugs and perceived stigma was negatively associated with the intention to seek help from a psychotherapist in Flanders but not in the Netherlands. Help seeking for psychological problems prevent these problems to aggravate and it is assumed to be a protective factor for suicide. Our results stress the importance of the promotion of positive attitudes and the reduction of stigma within the general population to facilitate help seeking from professional providers and informal networks. Focusing on these attitudinal factors is believed to be a key aspect of universal mental health and suicide prevention policies.

  4. Why don't men seek help? Family physicians' perspectives on help-seeking behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudiver, F; Talbot, Y

    1999-01-01

    Men tend to underuse primary care health services despite their susceptibility to particular types of illness. The purpose of this study was to report the family physician's perspective on why men do not access the health care system for medical problems. We used focus group interviews to identify major themes. The participants were family physicians in active practice randomly selected from a list of 500 full- and part-time teachers. Four focus groups were formed from 18 participants (12 men, 6 women), in practice an average of 17 years. Eleven of the physicians were in community practice. Three key themes were identified: (1) Support: Men appear to get most of their support for health concerns from their female partners, little from their male friends. Their pattern of seeking support tends to be indirect rather than straightforward. (2) Help Seeking: Perceived vulnerability, fear, and denial are important influences on whether men seek help. They look for help for specific problems rather than for more general health concerns. (3) Barriers: Personal barriers involved factors related to a man's traditional social role characteristics: a sense of immunity and immortality; difficulty relinquishing control; a belief that seeking help is unacceptable; and believing men are not interested in prevention. Systematic barriers had to do with time and access; having to state the reason for a visit; and the lack of a male care provider. Many of these findings are supported by psychological theories. Future research should apply these theories in more transferable populations and settings. However, an in-depth understanding of the patterns of men's use of primary care services is needed before we can determine if a regular source of primary care would have a positive impact on their health.

  5. Defending Science Denial in Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, J.

    2013-12-01

    Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, and other social media have proven themselves powerful vectors for science denial. Left unchecked, these attacks on foundational sciences like evolution and climate change undermine public confidence in science and spawn attacks on science-based policy and science education. Scientists can blunt such attacks by being vigorous advocates for their own research and their discipline's core findings, by seeking wide and unexpected audiences for discussions of their science, and by understanding and addressing the social, political, and cultural roots of science denial.

  6. A review of literature on delays in seeking care for tuberculosis in different Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmejaya Samal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The passive case-finding approach of Revised National Tuberculosis (TB Control Programme in India strongly affects the health-seeking behavior of TB patients, the timing of help seeking as well as the subsequent delays associated with the same. Studies carried out in different parts of India reveal a host of several factors for delay in seeking help and the reasons for not seeking help at all. Important reasons for delayed health-seeking behavior include financial constraint, symptoms are not severe (as perceived by the patients, work pressure, lack of awareness, first consulted nonpublic sector, inaccessibility to health facility, home remedy, social stigma, self-medication, transport problem, and dissatisfaction with health facility. Similarly, the median patient delay ranged from 7 to 56 days as reported by various studies. Health-seeking behavior and related delays are of utmost importance in TB care from two important perspectives; first, TB requires timely treatment, and second, it requires protracted treatment. Required level of knowledge and a positive health behavior helps the patients in taking timely help from an appropriate health facility. Moreover, timely help-seeking prevents further spread of the disease and helps in establishing a TB-free society.

  7. Stigma, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking Intentions for Psychological Problems in Relation to Regional Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Alexandre; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to seek informal help (β = -1.47, p = .001), self-stigma (β = 1.33, p = .038), and shame (β = .71, p = .030). The association between self-stigma and suicide rate was mediated by intentions to seek informal help. These results suggest that to promote suicide prevention at the level of the regional population, stigma, shame, and intentions to seek help should be targeted in the public domain. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  8. A Study of Labour Market Information Needs through Employers' Seeking Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cuadrado, Sonia; Morato, Jorge; Andreadakis, Yorgos; Moreiro, Jose Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study is understand the information needs that businesses have while seeking Library and Information Science professionals and analyse how they formulate those needs. Method: The analysis is performed by examining the professional skills and capabilities demanded in job offers published. A total of 1,020 job…

  9. Context-driven Salt Seeking Test (Rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Stephen E.; Smith, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Changes in reward seeking behavior often occur through incremental learning based on the difference between what is expected and what actually happens. Behavioral flexibility of this sort requires experience with rewards as better or worse than expected. However, there are some instances in which behavior can change through non-incremental learning, which requires no further experience with an outcome. Such an example of non-incremental learning is the salt appetite phenomenon. In this case, animals such as rats will immediately seek out a highly-concentrated salt solution that was previously undesired when they are put in a novel state of sodium deprivation. Importantly, this adaptive salt-seeking behavior occurs despite the fact that the rats never tasted salt in the depleted state, and therefore never tasted it as a highly desirable reward. The following protocol is a method to investigate the neural circuitry mediating adaptive salt seeking using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. The procedure is designed to provide an opportunity to discover possible dissociations between the neural circuitry mediating salt seeking and salt consumption to replenish the bodily deficit after sodium depletion. Additionally, this procedure is amenable to incorporating a number of neurobiological techniques for studying the brain basis of this behavior.

  10. 75 FR 14633 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Extend and Revise a Current Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... Expenditures and are available electronically on the World Wide Web. The survey is a fully automated Web data... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Extend and Revise a Current Information Collection AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY...

  11. Gender-related clinical and neurocognitive differences in individuals seeking treatment for pathological gambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2012-01-01

    Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for selecting appropriate prevention and treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and cogn...... and cognitive differences in treatment-seeking people with pathological gambling as a function of gender....

  12. The SEEK Program: A SEEK Student's View. Community Issues, July 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jackie

    The Search for Elevation through Education and Knowledge (SEEK) experience at Queens College has been a hectic and strained undertaking, culminating in a confrontation between black and white students which gained national attention. The white community at Queens reacted negatively towards SEEK students, faculty, and counseling staff. The…

  13. Psychological Help-Seeking Attitudes and Barriers to Help-Seeking in Young People in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koydemir, Selda; Erel, Ozge; Yumurtaci, Duygu; Sahin, Gozde Nur

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research sought to understand the needs of Turkish university students related to adjustment to university, the sources they seek help from, their attitudes about and barriers to psychological help-seeking. Data analysis of interview transcriptions from 15 undergraduates identified several themes. Interpersonal problems,…

  14. Factors driving public tolerance levels and information-seeking behaviour concerning insects in the household environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoelitsz, Bruce; Poortvliet, P Marijn; Takken, Willem

    2018-06-01

    The public's negative attitudes towards household insects drive tolerance for these insects and their control. Tolerance levels are important in integrated pest management (IPM), as are pest knowledge and information. The risk information seeking and processing (RISP) model describes the relationships between personal factors and information-seeking behaviour. We combined IPM and RISP to determine important relationships between factors driving insect tolerance levels and information-seeking behaviour through an online survey and tested whether this model is valid and generally applicable. Relationships between variables from both IPM and RISP models were tested for seven insect species. Tolerance levels were measured with two factors: willingness to pay for pest control and whether insects are tolerated. Willingness to pay for control was positively affected by age, experience, risk perception, insect characteristics, and negative emotions and affected behavioural intention, by influencing information sufficiency and information-seeking behaviour. Tolerability was influenced by perception of insect characteristics and determines whether control measures are taken. It was possible to combine the RISP and IPM models. Relevant driving factors were a person's age, experience, risk perception, negative affective responses, tolerance levels, relevant channel beliefs about online forums, information sufficiency and information-seeking behaviour. There was, however, variation in important factors between different insects. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Between Faith and Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, Stephen; Rappleye, Jeremy; Silova, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    World culture theory seeks to explain an apparent convergence of education through a neoinstitutionalist lens, seeing global rationalization in education as driven by the logic of science and the myth of progress. While critics have challenged these assumptions by focusing on local manifestations...

  16. Relapse to cocaine seeking in an invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaning-Kwarteng, Akua O; Asif-Malik, Aman; Pei, Yue; Canales, Juan J

    2017-06-01

    Addiction is characterised by cycles of compulsive drug taking, periods of abstinence and episodes of relapse. The extinction/reinstatement paradigm has been extensively used in rodents to model human relapse and explore underlying mechanisms and therapeutics. However, relapse to drug seeking behaviour has not been previously demonstrated in invertebrates. Here, we used a cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in the flatworm, planarian, followed by extinction and reinstatement of drug seeking. Once baseline preference was established for one of two distinctly textured environments (i.e. compartments with a coarse or smooth surface), planarian received pairings of cocaine (5μM) in the non-preferred, and vehicle in the most preferred, environment, and were tested for conditioning thereafter. Cocaine produced robust CPP, measured as a significant increase in the time spent in the cocaine-paired compartment. Subsequently, planarian underwent extinction training, reverting back to their original preference within three sessions. Brief exposure to cocaine (5μM) or methamphetamine (5μM) reinstated cocaine-seeking behaviour. By contrast, the high affinity dopamine transporter inhibitor, (N-(n-butyl)-3α-[bis (4-fluorophenyl) methoxy]-tropane) (JHW007), which in rodents exhibits a neurochemical and behavioural profile distinct from cocaine, was ineffective. The present findings demonstrate for the first time reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in an invertebrate model and suggest that the long-term adaptations underlying drug conditioning and relapse are highly conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mirtazapine attenuates cocaine seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Méndez, Susana; Leff, Phillipe; Arías-Caballero, Adriana; Hernández-Miramontes, Ricardo; Heinze, Gerardo; Salazar-Juárez, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine addiction. Antidepressants have been studied for their therapeutic potential to treat cocaine use disorder. Research has suggested that antidepressants attenuate both drug craving and the re-acquisition of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. This study examined the efficacy of mirtazapine, an antidepressant/anxiolytic, in decreasing cocaine seeking in rats. We used the cocaine self-administration paradigm to assess the effects of mirtazapine on rats trained to self-administer cocaine or food under a fixed-ratio schedule. Mirtazapine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during extinction. Mirtazapine significantly attenuated non-reinforced lever-press responses during extinction. Moreover, the mirtazapine dosed for 30 days during extinction produced sustained attenuation of lever-press responses during re-acquisition of cocaine self-administration, without changing food-seeking behavior. Our results showed that mirtazapine attenuated the re-acquisition of cocaine-seeking responses. Our study pointed to the efficacy of mirtazapine in reducing the risk of drug relapse during abstinence, suggesting for its potential use as a novel pharmacological agent to treat drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Patricia G.; McLoughlin, Mary Ellen

    1977-01-01

    Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills includes skill development in initiating the job search; arranging actual interviews; preparing a resume; articulating strengths, weaknesses, and career objectives; responding assertively in interviews; asking appropriate questions; accepting or rejecting job offers; confronting discrimination;…

  19. Information Seeking in a Natural Stress Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, David T. A.

    1971-01-01

    Compares hospitalized tuberculosis patients with informative and uninformative physicians as to their use of library books. Finds that the two groups did not differ in general reading, but that those with uninformative physicians tended to seek out books about tuberculosis and its treatment more often. (MB)

  20. Changing Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    Despite the increasing acceptance of the value of psychotherapy, there are still those who think people should solve their own problems. A study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of college students toward seeking professional help before and after taking a course in abnormal psychology to determine whether exposure to the purposes and…

  1. An anlaysis of engineers information seeking activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Information seeking is an important part of the engineering design process. In this context the Internet has become a significant source of information, shaping the way engineers work and interact. Current work has focused on characterizing this activity in terms of total time allocated to differ...

  2. Biodemographic And Health Seeking Behavior Factors Influencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study findings show primarily - amongst the biodemographic and health seeking services factors, delivery-related maternal health complicacies, blindness, higher order births, twin births, lower household size and interaction effect of higher order live births and male child are significantly correlated with higher neonatal ...

  3. The interpersonal effects of Facebook reassurance seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Smith, April R; Hames, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    Social networking sites like Facebook represent a potentially valuable means for individuals with low self-esteem or interpersonal difficulties to connect with others; however, recent research indicates that individuals who are most in need of social benefits from Facebook may be ineffective in their communication strategies, and thereby sabotage their potential to benefit interpersonally. The current study tested whether reassurance seeking via Facebook negatively influenced self-esteem, and whether this change in self-esteem mediated the relationship between Facebook reassurance seeking and greater thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Participants completed measures online at two time-points approximately 24 days apart. Results provided evidence that Facebook reassurance seeking predicted lower levels of self-esteem, which in turn predicted increased feelings that one does not belong and that one is a burden. Key limitations to this study include our use of a predominantly young, female, Caucasian sample, a novel reassurance seeking measure, and only evaluating two time points. These results suggest that Facebook usage has the potential for negative and far-reaching influences on one's interpersonal functioning. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  5. Programmatic correlates of maternal healthcare seeking behaviors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    be biased due to variations in some other factors between the exposure groups that influence maternal health seeking behaviors (for example, education, access to services, urbanization, among others). Accordingly, logistics regression models were implemented afterwards to get the unbiased (adjusted) program effects.

  6. Information seeking and reciprocity: A transformational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, M.; Perugini, M.

    2003-01-01

    The motivation to reciprocate is analyzed within the framework of interdependence theory, with focus on the process of transformation of situations. A model of transformation is presented for the motivation to reciprocate and hypotheses regarding allocation behavior and information seeking are

  7. Methane Digestors. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  8. Sensation Seeking and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Exploring the Mediating Role of Unstructured Socializing With Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2017-05-01

    Researchers have theorized that adolescents high in sensation seeking are particularly sensitive to positive reinforcement and the rewarding outcomes of alcohol use, and thus that the personality vulnerability is a direct causal risk factor for alcohol use. In contrast, the routine activity perspective theorizes that part of the effect of sensation seeking on alcohol use goes through the propensity that sensation seekers have towards unstructured socializing with peers. The study tests a model with indirect and direct paths from sensation seeking and participation in unstructured peer socialization to adolescent alcohol use. Cross-sectional data were collected from 360 students in a state-secular Jewish high school (10th to 12th grade) in the center region of Israel. The sample was equally divided between boys (51.9%) and girls (48.1%), respondents' age ranged from 15 to 17 years (mean = 16.02 ± 0.85). Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect paths. While sensation seeking had a significant direct path to adolescent alcohol use, part of the association was mediated by unstructured socializing with peers. The mediated paths were similar for boys and girls alike. Sensation seeking is primarily biologically determined and prevention efforts are unlikely to modify this personality vulnerability. The results of this study suggest that a promising prevention avenue is to modify extracurricular participation patterns of vulnerable adolescents. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Science teaching in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  10. Help Seeking in Online Collaborative Groupwork: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2015-01-01

    This study examined predictive models for students' help seeking in the context of online collaborative groupwork. Results from multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance in help seeking was at the individual student level, and multiple variables at the individual level were predictive of help-seeking behaviour. Help seeking was…

  11. Celebrity disclosures and information seeking: the case of Angelina Jolie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juthe, Robin H; Zaharchuk, Amber; Wang, Catharine

    2015-07-01

    On 14 May 2013, actress Angelina Jolie disclosed that she had a BRCA1 mutation and underwent a prophylactic bilateral mastectomy. This study documents the impact of her disclosure on information-seeking behavior, specifically that regarding online genetics and risk reduction resources available from the National Cancer Institute. Using Adobe Analytics, daily page views for 11 resources were tracked from 23 April 2013 through 25 June 2013. Usage data were also obtained for four resources over a 2-year period (2012-2013). Source of referral that viewers used to locate a specific resource was also examined. There was a dramatic and immediate increase in traffic to the National Cancer Institute's online resources. The Preventive Mastectomy fact sheet received 69,225 page views on May 14, representing a 795-fold increase as compared with the previous Tuesday. A fivefold increase in page views was observed for the PDQ Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer summary in the same time frame. A substantial increase, from 0 to 49%, was seen in referrals from news outlets to four resources from 7 May to 14 May. Celebrity disclosures can dramatically influence online information-seeking behaviors. Efforts to capitalize on these disclosures to ensure easy access to accurate information are warranted.

  12. Vaginal discharge: perceptions and health seeking behavior among Nepalese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Narjis; Luby, Stephen

    2004-12-01

    To understand women's perceptions and health seeking behavior and the association between vaginal discharge, clinical signs and laboratory findings as a presentation of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). We conducted five focus group discussions with women attending the outpatient department in a large public hospital in Katmandu, Nepal, during May-June 1997. We also interviewed seventy women presenting with vaginal discharge to the same hospital, through structured questionnaire. Women presenting with discharge were also examined and investigated for six common sexually transmitted diseases and reproductive tract infections. In the focus groups vaginal discharge was identified as a common disease distinct from STDs, for which women can seek treatment. STDs were considered as social diseases transmitted to women through multiple sexual partners and not from husband. Patients with vaginal discharge preferred traditional healers and pharmacist. Clinical signs were inconclusive for type of infection. Simple laboratory tests identified etiologic agent in 64 (91%) patients and the three commonest infections were Moniliasis (78%), Bacterial Vaginosis (25%) and Trichomoniasis (17%). Vaginal discharge may be used as a risk marker for identification of STDs by Primary Health Workers. Low cost investigations should be made available at the secondary care level for identification of most common Reproductive Tract Infections. Communication campaigns should target the misconceptions that exist in the communities local context related to the prevention, treatment and control of vaginal discharge and STDs.

  13. The precautionary principle in environmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebel, D; Tickner, J; Epstein, P; Lemons, J; Levins, R; Loechler, E L; Quinn, M; Rudel, R; Schettler, T; Stoto, M

    2001-01-01

    Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, proposed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of an activity; exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions; and increasing public participation in decision making. In this paper we examine the implications of the precautionary principle for environmental scientists, whose work often involves studying highly complex, poorly understood systems, while at the same time facing conflicting pressures from those who seek to balance economic growth and environmental protection. In this complicated and contested terrain, it is useful to examine the methodologies of science and to consider ways that, without compromising integrity and objectivity, research can be more or less helpful to those who would act with precaution. We argue that a shift to more precautionary policies creates opportunities and challenges for scientists to think differently about the ways they conduct studies and communicate results. There is a complicated feedback relation between the discoveries of science and the setting of policy. While maintaining their objectivity and focus on understanding the world, environmental scientists should be aware of the policy uses of their work and of their social responsibility to do science that protects human health and the environment. The precautionary principle highlights this tight, challenging linkage between science and policy. PMID:11673114

  14. 77 FR 1956 - National Science Board; Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on the National Science Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION National Science Board; Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on the National Science Board Data Policies Report AGENCY: National Science Board (NSB), NSF. ACTION: Request for public comments. SUMMARY: The National Science Board seeks comments from the public on the...

  15. A mediation model of professional psychological help seeking for suicide ideation among Asian American and white American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Joel; Brownson, Chris; Rutkowski, Leslie; Nguyen, Chi P; Becker, Marty Swanbrow

    2014-01-01

    This study examined professional psychological help seeking among 1,045 white American and Asian American students from 70 U.S. colleges and universities who had seriously considered attempting suicide. The authors found that Asian American college students had lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for their suicide ideation than White American college students. Guided by social network perspectives on professional psychological help seeking, the authors also tested mediators of this racial disparity. Relative to white Americans, Asian Americans were advised by fewer people (especially fewer family members) to seek professional help, which was, in turn, associated with lower rates of professional psychological help seeking for suicide ideation. These findings underscore the importance of gatekeeping as a suicide prevention strategy for Asian American college students.

  16. Plagiarism prevention challenging writing didactics. An account from the writing center at the FHWien, the University of Applied Sciences of the Viennese Economic Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Fenzl, R; Miglar, K

    2015-01-01

    Plagiarism could be defined as the unlawful use of the intellectual property of others, e.g. when the original source of literature is not correctly cited in a paper. Colleges and universities are obliged to sanction plagiarism. Moreover they have the duty to prevent plagiarism in the first place.The focus of the academic writing center of the FHWien of the Viennese Economic Chamber is to prevent students from the temptations and risks of plagiarism. The center provides assistance for the eff...

  17. Influences of face, stigma, and psychological symptoms on help-seeking attitudes in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, Sut Ieng; Davis, J Mark

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between concerns about loss of face, stigma, psychological symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking mental health services such as counseling in Macao. Participants included 391 students attending the largest public university in Macao: 277 were from Macao and 114 were from Mainland China. Participants completed questionnaires measuring attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help, concerns about loss of face, self-stigma, public-stigma, and psychological symptoms. Results showed that positive attitudes toward help-seeking were significantly negatively correlated with self-stigma, public-stigma, and concerns about loss of face but there was no significant correlation with psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms were positively correlated with face concerns, self-stigma, and public-stigma. Stigma (self and public) was found to be significantly positively associated with face concerns, but the correlations were weak. Findings also showed that Macao students had higher levels of distress, and endorsed greater self- and public-stigma than Mainland Chinese students; however, the groups did not differ in face concerns or attitudes toward help-seeking. Regression analysis indicated that group membership was not a significant predictor of help-seeking. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of professional help-seeking. Age and sex were also found to be significant predictors. Results suggested that younger students were more likely to seek help and that female students reported greater levels of distress and tended to have more positive attitudes toward seeking psychological services than male students. © 2014 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Destructive competition : oil and rent seeking in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Selvik, Kjetil

    2005-01-01

    In countries with poorly developed institutions, rent seeking may impose serious costs for the economy. Our analysis demonstrates how rent seeking distorts the economy through two channels. First, there is the direct cost of the resources wasted in the rent seeking contest. Second, rent seeking distorts firms’ investment decisions, and leads to underinvestment. We conduct a case study of rent seeking in Iran in order to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. Iran is ...

  19. Science and Success: Sex Education and Other Programs That Work to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, HIV, and Sexually Transmitted Infections. Second Edition. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, teen pregnancy and birth rates had declined in the United States. Despite these declines, U.S. teen birth and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates remain among the highest in the industrialized world. Given the need to focus limited prevention resources on effective programs, Advocates for Youth undertook exhaustive reviews…

  20. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  1. Online Cancer Information Seeking: Applying and Extending the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stee, Stephanie K; Yang, Qinghua

    2017-10-30

    This study applied the comprehensive model of information seeking (CMIS) to online cancer information and extended the model by incorporating an exogenous variable: interest in online health information exchange with health providers. A nationally representative sample from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 4 was analyzed to examine the extended CMIS in predicting online cancer information seeking. Findings from a structural equation model supported most of the hypotheses derived from the CMIS, as well as the extension of the model related to interest in online health information exchange. In particular, socioeconomic status, beliefs, and interest in online health information exchange predicted utility. Utility, in turn, predicted online cancer information seeking, as did information-carrier characteristics. An unexpected but important finding from the study was the significant, direct relationship between cancer worry and online cancer information seeking. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  2. Peru seeking buyer for productive offshore tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Petroleos del Peru (Petroperu) is seeking a buyer for its Petromar offshore exploration and production unit. Peru's national oil company wants to sell Petromar acreage, production, and production installations on Block Z-2b for $200 million, payable at $10 million/year for 20 years, plus a share of future production. Petroperu is offering a full interest petroleum exploration and exploitation contract for 30 years for oil and as long as 40 years in the case of gas exploitation. The company seeking the smallest share of current and incremental future production to operate Block Z-2b will be awarded the acreage. Petromar's sale is the latest announced under Peru's privatization program ordered by President Alberto Jujimori

  3. Seeking to recognize order in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Do scientists seek material rewards? What are the changes in modern scientific work? Has the scientist a sense of responsibility to society? These questions were dealt with in a talk given at the Trieste Symposium on Contemporary Physics in June by E.P. Wigner, 1963 Nobel Laureate, one of the 'Grand Old Men' who took part in an evening series under the Title 'From a Life of Physics'. (author)

  4. A proposal to establish an international network in molecular microbiology and genetic engineering for scientific cooperation and prevention of misuse of biological sciences in the framework of science for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The conference on 'Science and Technology for Construction of Peace' which was organized by the Landau Network Coordination Center and A. Volta Center for Scientific Culture dealt with conversion of military and technological capacities into sustainable civilian application. The ideas regarding the conversion of nuclear warheads into nuclear energy for civilian-use led to the idea that the extension of this trend of thought to molecular biology and genetic engineering, will be a useful contribution to Science for Peace. This idea of developing a Cooperation Network in Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering that will function parallel to and with the Landau Network Coordination in the 'A. Volta' Center was discussed in the Second International Symposium on Science for Peace, Jerusalem, January 1997. It is the reason for the inclusion of the biological aspects in the deliberations of our Forum. It is hoped that the establishment of an international network in molecular biology and genetic engineering, similar to the Landau Network in physics, will support and achieve the decommissioning of biological weapons. Such a network in microbiology and genetic engineering will contribute to the elimination of biological weapons and to contributions to Science for Peace and to Culture of Peace activities of UNESCO. (author)

  5. Seeking health care through international medical tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissler, Lee Ann; Casken, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was the exploration of international travel experiences for the purpose of medical or dental care from the perspective of patients from Alaska and to develop insight and understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of medical tourism. The study is conceptually oriented within a model of health-seeking behavior. Using a qualitative design, 15 Alaska medical tourists were individually interviewed. The data were analyzed using a hermeneutic process of inquiry to uncover the meaning of the experience. Six themes reflecting the experiences of Alaska medical tourists emerged: "my motivation," "I did the research," "the medical care I need," "follow-up care," "the advice I give," and "in the future." Subthemes further categorized data for increased understanding of the phenomenon. The thematic analysis provides insight into the experience and reflects a modern approach to health-seeking behavior through international medical tourism. The results of this study provide increased understanding of the experience of obtaining health care internationally from the patient perspective. Improved understanding of medical tourism provides additional information about a contemporary approach to health-seeking behavior. Results of this study will aid nursing professionals in counseling regarding medical tourism options and providing follow-up health care after medical tourism. Nurses will be able to actively participate in global health policy discussions regarding medical tourism trends. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  6. Healthcare seeking behaviour among Chinese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Wei; Xu, Ling; Li, Zhenhong; Ding, Yan; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Fei

    2017-04-18

    Purpose The Chinese population is rapidly ageing before they are rich. The purpose of this paper is to describe healthcare seeking behaviour and the critical factors associated with healthcare seeking behaviour. Design/methodology/approach Using a purposive sampling method, the authors recruited 44 adults aged 60 years or older from three provinces, representing the developed (Shanghai), undeveloped (Ningxia) regions and the regions in between (Hubei). From July to September 2008, using a semi-structured guide, the authors interviewed participants in focus group discussions. Findings The healthcare needs for chronic and catastrophic diseases were high; however, the healthcare demands were low and healthcare utilizations were even lower owing to the limited accessibility to healthcare services, particularly, in underdeveloped rural areas. "Too expensive to see a doctor" was a prime complaint, explaining substantial discrepancies between healthcare needs, demands and use. Care seeking behaviour varied depending on insurance availability, perceived performance, particularly hospital services, and prescription medications. Participants consistently rated increasing healthcare accessibility as a high priority, including offering financial aid, and improving service convenience. Improving social security fairness was the first on the elderly's wish list. Originality/value Healthcare demand and use were lower than needs, and were influenced by multiple factors, primarily, service affordability and efficiency, perceived performance and hospital service quality.

  7. Consumer health information seeking as hypothesis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Browne, Allen C; Kaufman, David R

    2008-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of consumer health sites, lay individuals often experience difficulty finding health information online. The present study attempts to understand users' information seeking difficulties by drawing on a hypothesis testing explanatory framework. It also addresses the role of user competencies and their interaction with internet resources. Twenty participants were interviewed about their understanding of a hypothetical scenario about a family member suffering from stable angina and then searched MedlinePlus consumer health information portal for information on the problem presented in the scenario. Participants' understanding of heart disease was analyzed via semantic analysis. Thematic coding was used to describe information seeking trajectories in terms of three key strategies: verification of the primary hypothesis, narrowing search within the general hypothesis area and bottom-up search. Compared to an expert model, participants' understanding of heart disease involved different key concepts, which were also differently grouped and defined. This understanding provided the framework for search-guiding hypotheses and results interpretation. Incorrect or imprecise domain knowledge led individuals to search for information on irrelevant sites, often seeking out data to confirm their incorrect initial hypotheses. Online search skills enhanced search efficiency, but did not eliminate these difficulties. Regardless of their web experience and general search skills, lay individuals may experience difficulty with health information searches. These difficulties may be related to formulating and evaluating hypotheses that are rooted in their domain knowledge. Informatics can provide support at the levels of health information portals, individual websites, and consumer education tools.

  8. 139 PREVENTION AND SCREENING FOR DIABETES MELLITUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... PREVENTION AND SCREENING FOR DIABETES MELLITUS. *G.U. Eze ... Public Health is the science and art of preventing ... nutrition that targeted only healthy people with ... to such activities as Health education against.

  9. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Language: English (US) Español ( ... when hazardous noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ...

  10. Crowdfunding for Elementary Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jessica; Miller, Kurtz

    2017-01-01

    The inadequate funding of science education in many school districts, particularly in underserved areas, is preventing elementary science educators from realizing the full potential of the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"). Yet many elementary science teachers may be unaware that millions of dollars per year are…

  11. Treatment seeking, vaginal discharge and psychosocial distress among women in urban Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostick, Kristin M; Schensul, Stephen L; Jadhav, Kalpita; Singh, Rajendra; Bavadekar, Amruta; Saggurti, Niranjan

    2010-09-01

    Vaginal discharge (safed pani in Hindi, meaning "white water") is one of the leading symptoms for which women in India seek care. Treatment-seeking for safed pani is disproportionately high among poor women, representing a physical, emotional and financial burden for low-income families. Safed pani is only rarely indicative of a reproductive tract or sexually transmitted infection. The discrepancy between symptom reports and observed pathology has led some researchers to characterize safed pani as a culturally based expression of more generalized negative life situation. Data are drawn from two prevention intervention studies (2002-2006 and 2007-2012) conducted in economically marginal communities in Mumbai. Results show that husbands as problem generators and spousal abusers and women's greater perceived empowerment and reported tension are significantly associated with safed pani. These results provide the basis for identifying women at greater risk for psychosocial distress and providing supports at the locations at which they seek treatment.

  12. Leslie Ford, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Leslie Ford built clinical cancer prevention research as a scientific field when few people were considering the possibility of prevention, and is recognized as a national and international leader in cancer prevention research. She has a passion for prevention and strong belief that all clinical science must, to the fullest extent possible, derive as a translation of basic

  13. Key Barriers for Academic Institutions Seeking to Retain Female Scientists and Engineers: Family-Unfriendly Policies. Low Numbers, Stereotypes, and Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Sue V.; Lane, Eliesh O'neil

    At the end of a special meeting held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in January 2001, a statement released on behalf of the most prestigious U. S. research universities suggested that institutional harriers have prevented viomen from having a level playing field in science and engineering. In 2001, the National Science Foundation initiated a new awards program, ADVANCE, focusing on institutional rather than individual solutions to empower women to participate fully in science and technology. In this study, the authors evaluate survey responses from almost 400 Professional Opportunities for Women in Research and Education awardees from fiscal years 1997 to 2000 to elucidate problems and opportunities identified by female scientists and engineers. Besides other issues, the respondents identified balancing a career and a family as the most significant challenge facing female scientists and engineers today. Institutions must seek to remove or at least lower these and other harriers to attract and retain female scientists and engineers. Grouping the survey responses into four categories forms the basis for four corresponding policy areas, which could be addressed at the institutional level to mitigate the difficulties and challenges currently experienced by female scientists and engineers.

  14. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  15. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... on this, the paper shows that the Swedish tax officials seek to motivate large construction contractors and municipalities to take preventive measures in relation to their sub-contractors to avoid and abate tax evasion. The paper shows the challenges in engaging and involving these external stakeholders...... has implications for how tax authorities (and other state authorities) reform their coercive regulation. If they decide to pursue a voluntary based approach where the actions of external partners play a central role, then the analysis helps to show some of the implied challenges and potentials....

  16. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition

  17. Integrating knowledge seeking into knowledge management models and frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Lottering

    2012-09-01

    Objectives: This article investigates the theoretical status of the knowledge-seeking process in extant KM models and frameworks. It also statistically describes knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies. Using this data, it proposes a KM model based on knowledge seeking. Method: Knowledge seeking is traced in a number of KM models and frameworks with a specific focus on Han Lai and Margaret Graham’s adapted KM cycle model, which separates knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing. This empirical investigation used a questionnaire to examine knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies. Results: This article critiqued and elaborated on the adapted KM cycle model of Lai and Graham. It identified some of the key features of knowledge seeking practices in the workplace. It showed that knowledge seeking and sharing are human-centric actions and that seeking knowledge uses trust and loyalty as its basis. It also showed that one cannot separate knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing. Conclusion: The knowledge seeking-based KM model elaborates on Lai and Graham’s model. It provides insight into how and where people seek and share knowledge in the workplace. The article concludes that it is necessary to cement the place of knowledge seeking in KM models as well as frameworks and suggests that organisations should apply its findings to improving their knowledge management strategies.

  18. Patterns of Information Seeking Behaviour of Law Students in Digital Environment: A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the enormous growth of modern information communication technologies and its massive use have influenced information users all over the world. Such a digital environment has drastically changed the information seeking patterns of information users of every community. These also tend law students to use various legal information sources and services in digital environments while seeking information. But there have been few empirical user studies on the aspect of digital information seeking behaviours of law students in either law or library and information science literatures. This paper aims to draw out patterns of information seeking behavior of students of law in digital environments at the University of Dhaka. A stratified random sample survey was conducted for this study. The results show that students prefer the electronic format of information rather than printed format. Major e-resources used by them and the influential factors of use were also identified in this study. This study also identified some crucial problems for seeking information and provides suggestions for the development of electronic legal information systems.

  19. When and Why Parents Seek Dental Care for Children under 36 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Palti, Dafna Geller; Lima, Jose Eduardo de Oliveira; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fabio; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Pedro, Fabio Luis Miranda; Borges, Alvaro Henrique

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to analyze an infant preventive program determining at what age parents take their children for their first dental visit and the reasons why they do it. A total of 844 children aged from 0 to 36 months, enrolled in the program of oral health maintenance of the Baby Clinic, participated in this study. During the first dental visit, the parents were inquired about the reasons that led them to enroll their children in the program. One trained investigator identified this reasons on the records and classified them according to the following scores: orientation/prevention, caries treatment, malpositioned teeth, dental trauma, tooth color alterations and others. Orientation/prevention was the most prevalent reason from 0-6 months to 25-30 months of age, and at the age 30-36 months, the reason caries/treatment overcame orientation/prevention, becoming the most prevalent reason in that age group. The third place was occupied by dental trauma. The mean age parents seek for dental care to their children was 14, 92 months. This study showed a preferentially preventive/educational profile for the children. However, lots of parents still take children to the dentist preferentially for curative instead of preventive treatment. How to cite this article: Volpato LE, Palti DG, Lima JE, Machado MA, Aranha AM, Bandeca MC, Pedro FL, Borges AH. When and Why Parents Seek Dental Care for Children under 36 Months. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):21-25.

  20. Food seeking in spite of harmful consequences is under prefrontal cortical noradrenergic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrono Enrico

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating disorders are multifactorial psychiatric disorders. Chronic stressful experiences and caloric restriction are the most powerful triggers of eating disorders in human and animals. Although compulsive behavior is considered to characterize pathological excessive food intake, to our knowledge, no evidence has been reported of continued food seeking/intake despite its possible harmful consequences, an index of compulsive behavior. Brain monoamine transmission is considered to have a key role in vulnerability to eating disorders, and norepinephrine in medial prefrontal cortex has been shown to be critical for food-related motivated behavior. Here, using a new paradigm of conditioned suppression, we investigated whether the ability of a foot-shock-paired conditioned stimulus to suppress chocolate-seeking behavior was reversed by previous exposure to a food restriction experience, thus modeling food seeking in spite of harmful consequences in mice. Moreover, we assessed the effects of selective norepinephrine inactivation in medial prefrontal cortex on conditioned suppression test in stressed and caloric restricted mice. Results While Control (non food deprived animals showed a profound conditioned suppression of chocolate seeking during presentation of conditioned stimulus, previously food restricted animals showed food seeking/intake despite its possible harmful consequences. Moreover, food seeking in spite of harmful consequences was prevented by selective norepinephrine inactivation, thus showing that prefrontal cortical norepinephrine is critical also for maladaptive food-related behavior. Conclusions These findings indicate that adaptive food seeking/intake can be transformed into maladaptive behaviors and point to "top-down" influence on eating disturbances and to new targets for therapy of aberrant eating behaviors.

  1. A theory-based approach to understanding suicide risk in shelter-seeking women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Smith, Phillip N

    2015-04-01

    Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence are at an increased risk for suicide ideation and attempts compared to women in the general population. Control-based violence, which is common among shelter-seeking women, may play a pivotal role in the development of suicide ideation and attempts. Current risk assessment and management practices for shelter-seeking women are limited by the lack of an empirically grounded understanding of increased risk in this population. We argue that in order to more effectively promote risk assessment and management, an empirically supported theory that is sensitive to the experiences of shelter-seeking women is needed. Such a theory-driven approach has the benefits of identifying and prioritizing targetable areas for intervention. Here, we review the evidence for the link between coercive control and suicide ideation and attempts from the perspective of Baumeister's escape theory of suicide. This theory has the potential to explain the role of coercive control in the development of suicide ideation and eventual attempts in shelter-seeking women. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention in domestic violence shelters are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Online and live regular poker players: Do they differ in impulsive sensation seeking and gambling practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrault, Servane; Varescon, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Online gambling appears to have special features, such as anonymity, speed of play and permanent availability, which may contribute to the facilitation and increase in gambling practice, potentially leading to problem gambling. The aims of this study were to assess sociodemographic characteristics, gambling practice and impulsive sensation seeking among a population of regular poker players with different levels of gambling intensity and to compare online and live players. Methods 245 regular poker players (180 online players and 65 live players) completed online self-report scales assessing sociodemographic data, pathological gambling (SOGS), gambling practice (poker questionnaire) and impulsive sensation seeking (ImpSS). We used SOGS scores to rank players according to the intensity of their gambling practice (non-pathological gamblers, problem gamblers and pathological gamblers). Results All poker players displayed a particular sociodemographic profile: they were more likely to be young men, executives or students, mostly single and working full-time. Online players played significantly more often whereas live players reported significantly longer gambling sessions. Sensation seeking was high across all groups, whereas impulsivity significantly distinguished players according to the intensity of gambling. Discussion Our results show the specific profile of poker players. Both impulsivity and sensation seeking seem to be involved in pathological gambling, but playing different roles. Sensation seeking may determine interest in poker whereas impulsivity may be involved in pathological gambling development and maintenance. Conclusions This study opens up new research perspectives and insights into preventive and treatment actions for pathological poker players. PMID:28092187

  3. Pre-travel health seeking practices of Umrah pilgrims departing from Assiut International Airport, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Mirette M; Abd El-Megeed, Hosnia S; Abd Ellatif, Mennat Allah M

    2018-04-22

    to assess the health seeking practices and their determinants among Umrah pilgrims departing from Assiut international Airport. We interviewed 300 pilgrims departing from Assiut International Airport while they were in the departure lounge, using a semi-structured questionnaire. Only 60%, 46.3% and 46.3% of Umrah pilgrims believed in importance of pre-travel vaccination, seeking health information, and health examination, respectively. The most frequently practiced pre-travel health related behaviour was getting vaccinated (56.3%), as compared to much lower frequencies of seeking health information (24%) or having a clinical health examination (26.7%). Private clinics, internet and the tourism companies were the main sources of health information of the pilgrims. Positive attitude of pilgrims about health seeking practices, the perception of health risk of travelling to Hajj/Umrah and having a chronic disease were the predictors of pre-travel health practices. Raising awareness among Hajj/Umrah pilgrims about the importance of seeking professional pre-travel health advice and communicating the risk of exposure to travel-related diseases to pilgrims could be important strategies to improve the uptake of preventive measures. Training of general practitioners in the public health sector about the travel health information would promote the travel health services. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Female autonomy and reported abortion-seeking in Ghana, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominski, Sarah D; Gupta, Mira; Aborigo, Raymond; Adongo, Phillip; Engman, Cyril; Hodgson, Abraham; Moyer, Cheryl

    2014-09-01

    To investigate factors associated with self-reported pregnancy termination in Ghana and thereby appreciate the correlates of abortion-seeking in order to understand safe abortion care provision. In a retrospective study, data from the Ghana 2008 Demographic and Health Survey were used to investigate factors associated with self-reported pregnancy termination. Variables on an individual and household level were examined by both bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression. A five-point autonomy scale was created to explore the role of female autonomy in reported abortion-seeking behavior. Among 4916 women included in the survey, 791 (16.1%) reported having an abortion. Factors associated with abortion-seeking included being older, having attended school, and living in an urban versus a rural area. When entered into a logistic regression model with demographic control variables, every step up the autonomy scale (i.e. increasing autonomy) was associated with a 14.0% increased likelihood of reporting the termination of a pregnancy (P health system barriers might play a role in preventing women from seeking safe abortion services, autonomy on an individual level is also important and needs to be addressed if women are to be empowered to seek safe abortion services. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The importance of job characteristics in determining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population, a longitudinal survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbeek, Romy

    2012-08-31

    The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n = 2305 workers). The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency) to a general practitioner (GP), a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance) was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP). For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency), high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency) and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist). Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP), full time work (GP frequency) and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist). We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the

  6. Rent-seeking behaviors in property development: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Suhaila; Aziz, Abdul Rashid Abdul

    2017-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature on rent-seeking behaviors in property development, and discusses three major areas: (1) definition and concept of rent-seeking; (2) factors for the rent-seeking behavior appeared; and (3) the impact of rent-seeking behaviors, particularly on property development. In general, there is no exact word that can define what rent-seeking is. It is found that from the reviewed studies that a few researches have adopted search tasks to predict rent-seeking behavior effects in the economy and the respective economic performance. Based on the findings of the review, rent-seeking behavior increases social cost and this might lead to problems such as corruption. This paper paves the way for future studies in examining rent-seeking behaviors in the Malaysian property development, especially for targeted actions to be taken to alleviate upward pressure on home prices.

  7. Understanding children's science identity through classroom interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijung

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that various stereotypes about science and science learning, such as science being filled with hard and dry content, laboratory experiments, and male-dominated work environments, have resulted in feelings of distance from science in students' minds. This study explores children's experiences of science learning and science identity. It asks how children conceive of doing science like scientists and how they develop views of science beyond the stereotypes. This study employs positioning theory to examine how children and their teacher position themselves in science learning contexts and develop science identity through classroom interactions. Fifteen students in grades 4-6 science classrooms in Western Canada participated in this study. Classroom activities and interactions were videotaped, transcribed, and analysed to examine how the teacher and students position each other as scientists in the classroom. A descriptive explanatory case analysis showed how the teacher's positioning acted to develop students' science identity with responsibilities of knowledge seeking, perseverance, and excitement about science.

  8. Democratizing data science through data science training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Fierro, Lily; Kamdar, Jeana; Gordon, Jonathan; Stewart, Crystal; Bhattrai, Avnish; Abe, Sumiko; Lei, Xiaoxiao; O'Driscoll, Caroline; Sinha, Aakanchha; Jain, Priyambada; Burns, Gully; Lerman, Kristina; Ambite, José Luis

    2018-01-01

    The biomedical sciences have experienced an explosion of data which promises to overwhelm many current practitioners. Without easy access to data science training resources, biomedical researchers may find themselves unable to wrangle their own datasets. In 2014, to address the challenges posed such a data onslaught, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) initiative. To this end, the BD2K Training Coordinating Center (TCC; bigdatau.org) was funded to facilitate both in-person and online learning, and open up the concepts of data science to the widest possible audience. Here, we describe the activities of the BD2K TCC and its focus on the construction of the Educational Resource Discovery Index (ERuDIte), which identifies, collects, describes, and organizes online data science materials from BD2K awardees, open online courses, and videos from scientific lectures and tutorials. ERuDIte now indexes over 9,500 resources. Given the richness of online training materials and the constant evolution of biomedical data science, computational methods applying information retrieval, natural language processing, and machine learning techniques are required - in effect, using data science to inform training in data science. In so doing, the TCC seeks to democratize novel insights and discoveries brought forth via large-scale data science training.

  9. Compensatory help-seeking in young and older adults: does seeking help, help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alea, Nicole; Cunningham, Walter R

    2003-01-01

    Asking other people for help is a compensatory behavior that may be useful across the life span to enhance functioning. Seventy-two older and younger men and women were either allowed to ask for help or were not allowed to ask for help while solving reasoning problems. Although the older adults answered fewer problems correctly, they did not seek additional help to compensate for their lower levels of performance. Younger adults sought more help. There were no age differences, however, in the types of help sought: indirect help (e.g., hints) was sought more often than direct help (e.g., asking for the answer). Exploratory analyses revealed that one's ability level was a better indicator than age of the utility of help-seeking. Findings are interpreted in the context of social and task-related influences on the use of help-seeking as a compensatory behavior across the life span.

  10. Foreign Entry Modes Under Institutional Pressures: The Impact of Strategic Resource Seeking and Market Seeking Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Portugal Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multinational corporations (MNCs are subject to the various dimensions of the external institutional environments. Institutional theory suggests that MNCs need to conform to the prevailing rules, norms and procedures of the locations where they operate in order to survive and grow. This means that MNCs need to develop the best possible configuration of strategy-structure for their worldwide operations. Previous research has noted that in these conditions firms may simply seek to follow a referent other. However, MNCs’ specific strategy for a focal foreign operation is likely to determine the entry mode for each host country. In certain circumstances it may be whether MNCs are pursuing a market-seeking strategy or a strategic resource seeking strategy that shapes the entry mode in face of the prevailing institutional pressures. We contribute to the understanding of entry modes into foreign markets as a reflection of a strategic choice that is bound by institutional constraints.

  11. Help-seeking behavior among Japanese school students who self-harm: results from a self-report survey of 18,104 adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furukawa TA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Norio Watanabe,1,* Atsushi Nishida,2,* Shinji Shimodera,3 Ken Inoue,4 Norihito Oshima,5 Tsukasa Sasaki,6 Shimpei Inoue,3 Tatsuo Akechi,1 Toshi A Furukawa,7 Yuji Okazaki81Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 2Department of Schizophrenia Research, Tokyo Institute of Psychiatry, Tokyo, 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kochi Medical School, Kochi, 4Department Public Health, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Aichi, 5Office for Mental Health Support, Division for Counseling and Support, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 6Health Service Center, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 7Department of Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, 8Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, Tokyo, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with poor help-seeking among adolescents who self-harm and to explore the resources used for help.Methods: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted in 47 junior and 30 senior high schools in Japan. Adolescent self-harm was defined as an adolescent who had harmed himself or herself in the previous year, as in previous studies reported in Western countries. Poor help-seeking was defined as not consulting anyone despite reporting current psychological or somatic complaints. Information about sociodemographic and psychological factors possibly associated with help-seeking, such as suicidal thoughts, depression, anxiety, and psychotic-like experiences, was also collected. Regression analyses were performed to examine associated factors.Results: A total of 18,104 students (8620 aged 12–15 years, 9484 aged 15–18 years, accounting for 93% of all students in the relevant student classes, participated in the study. Two hundred and

  12. Health Seeking Behavior and Family Planning Services Accessibility in Indonesia

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    Niniek Lely Pratiwi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The MDG target to increase maternal health will be achieved when 50% of maternal deaths can be prevented through improvment the coverage of K1, K4, to make sure that midwife stay in the village improve the delivery by health workers in health facilities, increase coverage long-term contraceptive methods participant as well as family and community empowerment in health. Methods: This study is a further analysis of Riskesdas in 2010 to assess how big the accessibility of services in family planning in Indonesia. Results: Women of 3–4 children in rural greater and prevalence (27.1% compared to women who live in urban areas (25.0%. The main reason of not using contraception mostly because they want to have children 27.0% in urban, 28.2% rural whereas, the second reason is the fear of side effects 23.1% in urban, 16.5% rural. There is 10% of respondent did not use contraceptives, because they did not need it. Health seeking behavior of pregnant women with family planning work status has a significant relationship (prevalence ratio 1.073. The jobless mothers has better access to family planning services compared to working mother. Conclusions: Accessibility of family planning services is inadequate, because not all rural ‘Poskesdes’ equipped with infrastructure and family planning devices, a lack of knowledge of family planning in rural areas. Health seeking behavior of family planning services is mostly to the midwives, the scond is to community health centers and than polindes, ‘poskesdes’ as the ranks third.

  13. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

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    Lin Hung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  14. Memory Complaints Associated with Seeking Clinical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carolina; Silva, Dina; Maroco, João; Ginó, Sandra; Mendes, Tiago; Schmand, Ben A.; Guerreiro, Manuela; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment relies on the presence of memory complaints. However, memory complaints are very frequent in healthy people. The objective of this study was to determine the severity and type of memory difficulties presented by elderly patients who seek for clinical help, as compared to the memory difficulties reported by subjects in the community. Assessment of subjective memory complaints was done with the subjective memory complaints scale (SMC). The mini-mental state examination was used for general cognitive evaluation and the geriatric depression scale for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Eight-hundred and seventy-one nondemented subjects older than 50 years were included. Participants in the clinical setting had a higher total SMC score (10.3 ± 4.2) than those in the community (5.1 ± 3.0). Item 3 of the SMC, Do you ever forget names of family members or friends? contributed significantly more to the variance of the total SMC score in the clinical sample (18%) as compared to the community sample (11%). Forgetting names of family members or friends plays an important role in subjective memory complaints in the clinical setting. This symptom is possibly perceived as particularly worrisome and likely drives people to seek for clinical help. PMID:22536537

  15. Facilitators and barriers in treatment seeking for cannabis dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Relatively few cannabis dependent people seek treatment and little is known about determinants of treatment seeking. Methods Treatment determinants were compared among 70 DSM-IV cannabis dependent patients and 241 non-treatment seeking DSM-IV cannabis dependent community subjects. In

  16. Facilitators and barriers in treatment seeking for cannabis dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, Peggy; Liebregts, Nienke; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J.; van den Brink, Wim; van Laar, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Relatively few cannabis dependent people seek treatment and little is known about determinants of treatment seeking. Treatment determinants were compared among 70 DSM-IV cannabis dependent patients and 241 non-treatment seeking DSM-IV cannabis dependent community subjects. In addition, perceived

  17. ACHIEVEMENTS OF PEDIATRIC ANDROLOGY/GYNECOLOGY AS THE FOUNDATION FOR PREVENTION OF REPRODUCTIVE AND SEXUAL FAILURE OF ADULT PATIENTS. THE SCIENCE ABOUT HUMAN SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Okulov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors summarize the experience of management of children with different disorders of reproductive system and emphasize typical mistakes of practitioners, leading in future to decreased human fertility and to deterioration of demographical problems in Russia. Necessity of pediatric andrology/gynecology development as special area of medicine is proved and problems of its establishment are discussed. Authors bring up debatable issue about age qualification for choice of sex in patients born with malformations of externalia. Borderlines and content of new research area – science about human sex – are determined with emphasizing of its interdisciplinary character and problems of professional education which is in prevalence individual. Necessity of terminological unification in pediatric andrology/gynecology is emphasized because inaccurate terms lead to erroneous decisions and actions with long-term sequels. 

  18. Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Hypothyroid Patients at Saveetha Medical College and Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Perumal, SS; Prasad, S; Surapaneni, KM; Joshi, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism causes considerable morbidity. Low knowledge coupled with inadequate health literacy may lead to poor prevention and management. This study aimed to assess health information-seeking behavior and hypothyroid knowledge among South Indian hypothyroid patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2013 in Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. Hundred clinically diagnosed hypothyroid patients ?18 years were interviewed in a hospital using a 57-...

  19. Intention to Seek Care for Symptoms Associated With Gynecologic Cancers, HealthStyles Survey, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Trivers, Katrina F.; Rodriguez, Juan L.; Hawkins, Nikki A.; Polonec, Lindsey; Gelb, Cynthia A.; Purvis Cooper, Crystale

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Women with ovarian cancer typically experience symptoms before diagnosis; such symptoms for other gynecologic cancers have not been systematically studied. We investigated which symptoms of gynecologic cancers prompt intention to seek care among women and whether demographic differences in intention exist. This study was undertaken, in part, to inform development of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's campaign, Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer...

  20. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  1. Understanding Food Allergies: How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe March 2017 Print this issue Understanding Food Allergies How to Prevent Peanut Allergy and More En ... Allergy Therapy Seeking Allergy Relief Wise Choices Food Allergy Symptoms Pay attention to how you feel after ...

  2. Temporal patterns of scientific information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Elad; Sharon, Aviv J

    2017-11-01

    In response to the news coverage of scientific events and to science education, people increasingly go online to get more information. This study investigates how patterns of science and technology information-seeking on Google and Wikipedia change over time, in ways that differ between "ad hoc" terms that correspond to news coverage and "cyclic" terms that correspond to the academic period. Findings show that the science and technology activity in Google and Wikipedia was significantly associated with ad hoc and cyclic patterns. While the peak activity in Google and Wikipedia largely overlapped for ad hoc terms, it mismatched for cyclic terms. The findings indicate the importance of external cues such as news media and education, and also of the online engagement process, and particularly the crucial but different role played by Google and Wikipedia in gaining science and technology knowledge. Educators and policy makers could benefit from taking into account those different patterns.

  3. Information beyond the forum: Motivations, strategies, and impacts of citizen participants seeking information during a consensus conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ashley A; Delborne, Jason; Kleinman, Daniel Lee

    2013-11-01

    During traditional consensus conferences, organizers control the formal information available to participants-by compiling structured background materials and recruiting expert panelists. Less formally, however, participants are encouraged to bring their own experiences into the deliberations, and in doing so, they often seek outside information. We explore this heretofore understudied phenomenon of information seeking during a deliberative event: the U.S. National Citizens' Technology Forum (2008), which addressed the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science on the potential development of human-enhancement technologies. Through interviews with participants and observation of in-person and online deliberations, we identify outside information-seeking strategies and motivations. Our study demonstrates that conceptualizing models of deliberation as standalone settings of communication exchange ignores the reality of the complex information environment from which deliberative participants draw when making sense of technical issues. Future citizen deliberations must incorporate outside information seeking in the design of the exercises.

  4. What Kind of Boy Does Science? A Critical Perspective on the Science Trajectories of Four Scientifically Talented Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi B.; Webb, Angela W.; Archer, Louise; Taylor, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    The close association between science and masculinity has been widely discussed, yet few studies have focused on boys' negotiation with, and participation in, school science. This paper seeks to trouble monolithic notions of the link between science and masculinity, arguing that the "ideal science student" is a classed, racialized, and…

  5. Integrating knowledge seeking into knowledge management models and frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Lottering

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A striking feature of the knowledge management (KM literature is that the standard list of KM processes either subsumes or overlooks the process of knowledge seeking. Knowledge seeking is manifestly under-theorised, making the need to address this gap in KM theory and practice clear and urgent.Objectives: This article investigates the theoretical status of the knowledge-seeking process in extant KM models and frameworks. It also statistically describes knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies. Using this data, it proposes a KM model based on knowledge seeking.Method: Knowledge seeking is traced in a number of KM models and frameworks with a specific focus on Han Lai and Margaret Graham’s adapted KM cycle model, which separates knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing. This empirical investigation used a questionnaire to examine knowledge seeking and knowledge sharing practices in a sample of South African companies.Results: This article critiqued and elaborated on the adapted KM cycle model of Lai and Graham. It identified some of the key features of knowledge seeking practices in the workplace. It showed that knowledge seeking and sharing are human-centric actions and that seeking knowledge uses trust and loyalty as its basis. It also showed that one cannot separate knowledge seeking from knowledge sharing.Conclusion: The knowledge seeking-based KM model elaborates on Lai and Graham’s model. It provides insight into how and where people seek and share knowledge in the workplace. The article concludes that it is necessary to cement the place of knowledge seeking in KM models as well as frameworks and suggests that organisations should apply its findings to improving their knowledge management strategies. 

  6. Travel health prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    All around the world there has been a rapid growth in the number of international travels. According to the World Tourism Organisation the number of international tourist arrivals reached 1,235 billion in 2016 and continues to grow at a high rate. This has been much due to the development of air transport (including low-cost airlines), increasingly common economic migration, a growing number of travellers visiting friends and relatives, and an increase in medical tourism. With tropical destinations becoming increasingly popular among travellers, doctors have seen a rising number of patients who seek medical advice on health risks prevalent in hot countries and health prevention measures to be taken in tropical destinations, especially where sanitation is poor. The risk for developing a medical condition while staying abroad depends on a variety of factors, including the traveller's general health condition, health prevention measures taken before or during travel (vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, health precautions during air, road and sea travel, proper acclimatisation, prevention of heat injuries, protection against local flora and fauna, personal hygiene, water, food and feeding hygiene), as well as the prevalence of health risk factors in a given location. Health prevention is a precondition for safe travel and maintaining good physical health; in the era of a rapid growth in international tourism it has become of key importance for all travellers.

  7. Sexual sensation seeking and Internet sex-seeking of Middle Eastern men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarelli, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Despite recent evidence of stabilization in many developed nations, new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections remain a public health concern globally. Efforts remain fragile in a number of world regions due to incomplete or inconsistent social policies concerning HIV, criminalization of same-sex encounters, social stigma, and religious doctrine. Middle Eastern men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the most hidden and stigmatized of all HIV risk groups. High-risk sexual bridging networks from these men to low prevalence populations (e.g., to spouse to offspring) are emerging HIV transmission pathways throughout the region. This cross-sectional, exploratory study investigated Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale (SSSS) scores to predict numbers of recent MSM sexual activities and to predict any recent unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) activities in 86 Middle Eastern MSM who resided in the Middle East and who used the Internet to sex-seek. In a multivariate hierarchical regression, higher SSSS scores predicted higher numbers of recent MSM sexual activities (p = .028) and URAI (p = .022). In a logistic regression, higher SSSS scores increased the likelihood of engaging in URAI activities threefold (OR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.15-7.85, p = .025). Age and drug/alcohol use during sexual activities served as covariates in the regression models and were not significant in any analyses. Despite numerous hurdles, adopting Internet-based, non-restricted HIV education and prevention public health programs in the Middle East could instrumentally enhance efforts toward reducing the likelihood of new HIV transmissions in MSM and their sexual partners, ultimately contributing to an improved quality of life.

  8. Acute HIV-1 infection is as common as malaria in young febrile adults seeking care in coastal Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Eduard J; Mugo, Peter; Prins, Henrieke A B; Wahome, Elizabeth; Thiong'o, Alexander N; Mwashigadi, Grace; van der Elst, Elisabeth M; Omar, Anisa; Smith, Adrian D; Graham, Susan M

    2014-06-01

    Febrile adults are usually not tested for acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) in Africa. We assessed a strategy to diagnose AHI among young adult patients seeking care. Young adults (defined as a positive p24 antigen test, and subsequent seroconversion or RNA detection. Febrile patients evaluated for AHI were also screened for malaria using a rapid test, with PCR confirmation of positives. In 3602 adults seeking care, overall HIV-1 prevalence was 3.9%: 7.6% (68/897) among patients meeting AHI criteria vs. 2.6% (71/2705) among those who did not (P young febrile adults seeking care. An AHI detection strategy targeting young febrile adults seeking care at pharmacies and health facilities is feasible and should be considered as an HIV-prevention strategy in high-transmission settings.

  9. Toward a Culturally Responsive Model of Mental Health Literacy: Facilitating Help-Seeking Among East Asian Immigrants to North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sumin; Ryder, Andrew G; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2016-09-01

    Studies have consistently found that East Asian immigrants in North America are less likely to use mental health services even when they experience levels of distress comparable to Euro-Americans. Although cultural factors that may prevent East Asian immigrants from seeking mental health care have been identified, few studies have explored ways to foster appropriate help-seeking and use of mental health services. Recent work on mental health literacy provides a potential framework for strategies to increase appropriate help-seeking and use of services. This paper reviews the literature on help-seeking for mental health problems among East Asian immigrants living in Western countries to critically assess the relevance of the mental health literacy approach as a framework for interventions to improve appropriate use of services. Modifications needed to develop a culturally responsive framework for mental health literacy are identified. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  10. Factors associated with mobile health information seeking among Singaporean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leanne; Chiuan Yen, Ching; Xue, Lishan; Choo Tai, Bee; Chuan Chan, Hock; Been-Lirn Duh, Henry; Choolani, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    This study examined effects of age and social psychological factors on women's willingness to be mobile health information seekers. A national survey of 1,878 Singaporean women was conducted to obtain information on women's mobile phone usage, experiences of health information seeking, and appraisals of using mobile phones to seek health information. Results showed that young, middle-aged, and older women exhibited distinct mobile phone usage behaviors, health information-seeking patterns, and assessments of mobile health information seeking. Factors that accounted for their mobile information-seeking intention also varied. Data reported in this study provide insights into mobile health interventions in the future.

  11. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  12. A Multi-Level Model of Information Seeking in the Clinical Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Peter W.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Kaufman, David R.; Mendonça, Eneida A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Clinicians often have difficulty translating information needs into effective search strategies to find appropriate answers. Information retrieval systems employing an intelligent search agent that generates adaptive search strategies based on human search expertise could be helpful in meeting clinician information needs. A prerequisite for creating such systems is an information seeking model that facilitates the representation of human search expertise. The purpose of developing such a model is to provide guidance to information seeking system development and to shape an empirical research program. Design: The information seeking process was modeled as a complex problem-solving activity. After considering how similarly complex activities had been modeled in other domains, we determined that modeling context-initiated information seeking across multiple problem spaces allows the abstraction of search knowledge into functionally consistent layers. The knowledge layers were identified in the information science literature and validated through our observations of searches performed by health science librarians. Results: A hierarchical multi-level model of context-initiated information seeking is proposed. Each level represents (1) a problem space that is traversed during the online search process, and (2) a distinct layer of knowledge that is required to execute a successful search. Grand strategy determines what information resources will be searched, for what purpose, and in what order. The strategy level represents an overall approach for searching a single resource. Tactics are individual moves made to further a strategy. Operations are mappings of abstract intentions to information resource-specific concrete input. Assessment is the basis of interaction within the strategic hierarchy, influencing the direction of the search. Conclusion: The described multi-level model provides a framework for future research and the foundation for development of an

  13. Meningitis and Climate: From Science to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Garcia-Pando, Carlos; Thomson, Madeleine C.; Stanton, Michelle C.; Diggle, Peter J.; Hopson, Thomas; Pandya, Rajul; Miller, Ron L.; Hugonnet, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    Meningococcal meningitis is a climate sensitive infectious disease. The regional extent of the Meningitis Belt in Africa, where the majority of epidemics occur, was originally defined by Lapeysonnie in the 1960s. A combination of climatic and environmental conditions and biological and social factors have been associated to the spatial and temporal patterns of epidemics observed since the disease first emerged in West Africa over a century ago. However, there is still a lack of knowledge and data that would allow disentangling the relative effects of the diverse risk factors upon epidemics. The Meningitis Environmental Risk Information Technologies Initiative (MERIT), a collaborative research-to-practice consortium, seeks to inform national and regional prevention and control strategies across the African Meningitis Belt through the provision of new data and tools that better determine risk factors. In particular MERIT seeks to consolidate a body of knowledge that provides evidence of the contribution of climatic and environmental factors to seasonal and year-to-year variations in meningococcal meningitis incidence at both district and national scales. Here we review recent research and practice seeking to provide useful information for the epidemic response strategy of National Ministries of Health in the Meningitis Belt of Africa. In particular the research and derived tools described in this paper have focused at "getting science into policy and practice" by engaging with practitioner communities under the umbrella of MERIT to ensure the relevance of their work to operational decision-making. We limit our focus to that of reactive vaccination for meningococcal meningitis. Important but external to our discussion is the development and implementation of the new conjugate vaccine, which specifically targets meningococcus A

  14. Young learners' use of social media for information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2015-01-01

    information seeking activities, strategies and preferences can be identified when young learners use social media for information seeking in relation to course work and other study-related work tasks? 2) What motivations can be identified among young learners for using social media for information seeking....... The reported factors motivating information seeking were convenience and easy access to information, in addition to the content associated with specific social media types. Students’ use of social media for information seeking was associated primarily with their private information landscape. Contributions......Background. Increased use of social media for information seeking and learning calls for more research and knowledge of how these emerging technologies can support students’ learning. Objectives. The focus is on recent studies of young learners’ use of social media for information seeking...

  15. Science and data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, David M; Smyth, Padhraic

    2017-08-07

    Data science has attracted a lot of attention, promising to turn vast amounts of data into useful predictions and insights. In this article, we ask why scientists should care about data science. To answer, we discuss data science from three perspectives: statistical, computational, and human. Although each of the three is a critical component of data science, we argue that the effective combination of all three components is the essence of what data science is about.

  16. Russian oil workers seek employment abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that American oil workers discouraged by bleak employment opportunities in the U.S. petroleum industry face increasing competition abroad from Russians seeking a living wage. Moscow's Zagrantrud (Foreign Labor) firm believes millions of Russian skilled and unskilled workers in many occupations will try to find jobs in other countries. The Russian enterprise says it is selecting a group of construction workers to build a refinery in Columbia. Kuwait also wants Russian construction personnel. Russia is especially eager to find overseas work for petroleum industry workers who have lost their jobs in Viet Nam and Cuba. The number of specialists from the former U.S.S.R. in Cuba, many of them engaged in oil exploration and production or pipeline and refinery construction, has fallen from several thousand 2 years ago to 250 at present as Moscow's relations with Havana cooled

  17. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanah Muhamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1 recommendation from family and friends, (2 sanction from family, (3 perceived benefit and compatibility, (4 healer credibility, and (5 reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities.

  18. Model-free stabilization by extremum seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Scheinker, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    With this brief, the authors present algorithms for model-free stabilization of unstable dynamic systems. An extremum-seeking algorithm assigns the role of a cost function to the dynamic system’s control Lyapunov function (clf) aiming at its minimization. The minimization of the clf drives the clf to zero and achieves asymptotic stabilization. This approach does not rely on, or require knowledge of, the system model. Instead, it employs periodic perturbation signals, along with the clf. The same effect is achieved as by using clf-based feedback laws that profit from modeling knowledge, but in a time-average sense. Rather than use integrals of the systems vector field, we employ Lie-bracket-based (i.e., derivative-based) averaging. The brief contains numerous examples and applications, including examples with unknown control directions and experiments with charged particle accelerators. It is intended for theoretical control engineers and mathematicians, and practitioners working in various industrial areas ...

  19. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad, M.; Merriam, Sh.; Merriam, Sh.; Suhami, N.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or bomoh at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities

  20. Science against Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Describes a project involving students in forensic science and crime prevention to improve their investigative skills using a DNA fingerprinting workshop and designing burglar alarms, investigating blood splatter patterns, investigating vehicle collisions, and researching crime prevention advice on the Internet. (YDS)

  1. Impact challenges in community science-with-practice: lessons from PROSPER on transformative practitioner-scientist partnerships and prevention infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Greenberg, Mark

    2011-09-01

    At present, evidence-based programs (EBPs) to reduce youth violence are failing to translate into widespread community practice, despite their potential for impact on this pervasive public health problem. In this paper we address two types of challenges in the achievement of such impact, drawing upon lessons from the implementation of a partnership model called PROSPER. First, we address five key challenges in the achievement of community-level impact through effective community planning and action: readiness and mobilization of community teams; maintaining EBP implementation quality; sustaining community teams and EBPs; demonstrating community-level impact; and continuous, proactive technical assistance. Second, we consider grand challenges in the large-scale translation of EBPs: (1) building, linking and expanding existing infrastructures to support effective EBP delivery systems, and (2) organizing networks of practitioner-scientist partnerships-networks designed to integrate diffusion of EBPs with research that examines effective strategies to do so. The PROSPER partnership model is an evidence-based delivery system for community-based prevention and has evolved through two decades of NIH-funded research, assisted by land grant universities' Cooperative Extension Systems. Findings and lessons of relevance to each of the challenges are summarized. In this context, we outline how practitioner-scientist partnerships can serve to transform EBP delivery systems, particularly in conjunction with supportive federal policy.

  2. Natural food science based novel approach toward prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes: recent studies on brown rice and γ-oryzanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Takayama, Chitoshi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Shimabukuro, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalences of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are dramatically increasing, and there is a strong need for more effective and safer therapies. However, some of drugs show limited efficacy and considerable adverse effects. Furthermore, artificial energy-dense foods and non-caloric foods may promote overeating and weight gain. In this context, a natural food-based approach may represent a valuable means of tackling the obesity-diabetes syndrome. Although recent studies have shown that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and prevents obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We found that one of the major components of brown rice, γ-oryzanol (Orz), plays an important role in the metabolically beneficial effects of brown rice. Orz acts as a chemical chaperone and decreases high fat diet (HFD)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the hypothalamus, thereby leading to a significant shift in preference from fatty to healthy foods. Orz also decreases HFD-induced ER stress in pancreatic β-cells and improves β-cell function. Notably, Orz directly acts on pancreatic islets and enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This evidence highlights food preference as a promising therapeutic target in obesity-diabetes syndrome and suggests that brown rice and Orz may have potential for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Irish women who seek abortions in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted.

  4. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto Rican Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Wall, Melanie M; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2015-12-01

    To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (3 assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation seeking levels were characterized, and then age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models. On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5-10 years) and increased during adolescence (ages 11-17 years). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx versus Puerto Rico and among males versus females. Four classes of sensation seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation seeking trajectories following the average for their age ("normative," 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age ("low" sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an "accelerated" sensation seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected; and a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation seeking scores ("stabilizers"). Site (South Bronx versus Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation seeking trajectory. It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mental health help-seeking patterns and perceived barriers for care among nulliparous pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Deborah; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Deville-Stoetzel, Jean-Benoit

    2018-05-30

    This study examined the patterns of consultation with health providers for emotional symptoms and barriers preventing mental health help-seeking among pregnant women. A total of 652 nulliparous women in their third trimester completed an online questionnaire assessing depressed mood, adjustment in their couple relationship, demographics, help-seeking behaviors for emotional problems and barriers to help-seeking in the past year. The prevalence of having consulted with at least one health provider over the past year for emotional symptoms was 20.1% for the entire sample and 32.7% for the subgroup of women reporting elevated depressive symptoms in the third trimester. Women in the 30-39 age range were more likely to discuss their emotional symptoms with a health provider in the past year compared to younger women (OR = 1.6, CI = 1.0, 2.6, p = 0.041). Among women depressed in the third trimester, being White was independently associated with a greater likelihood of having consulted with a health provider about their emotional symptoms (OR = 2.9, CI = 1.4, 6.1, p = 0.005). Barriers to mental help-seeking included not having gotten around to it (46.1%), being too busy (26.1%), deciding not to seek care (24.3%), cost (22.6%) and not knowing where to go (19.1%). Women with more depressive symptoms in the third trimester endorsed more barriers to mental health service use (β = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.12, p = 0.015). Innovative, evidence-based approaches are needed to more effectively promote mental health during the perinatal period and help women overcome the practical barriers identified to help-seeking.

  6. Examining the Correlates of Online Health Information-Seeking Behavior Among Men Compared With Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoloudakis, Irene A; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda L; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Alley, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J; Short, Camille E

    2016-05-18

    This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic, health behavior, health status, and social media use correlates of online health-seeking behaviors among men and women. Cross-sectional self-report data were collected from 1,289 Australian adults participating in the Queensland Social Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of online health information seeking for men and women. Differences in the strength of the relation of these correlates were tested using equality of regression coefficient tests. For both genders, the two strongest correlates were social media use (men: odds ratio [OR] = 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.78, 3.71]; women: OR = 2.93, 95% CI [1.92, 4.45]) and having a university education (men: OR = 3.63, 95% CI [2.37, 5.56]; women: OR = 2.74, 95% CI [1.66, 4.51]). Not being a smoker and being of younger age were also associated with online health information seeking for both men and women. Reporting poor health and the presence of two chronic diseases were positively associated with online health seeking for women only. Correlates of help seeking online among men and women were generally similar, with exception of health status. Results suggest that similar groups of men and women are likely to access health information online for primary prevention purposes, and additionally that women experiencing poor health are more likely to seek health information online than women who are relatively well. These findings are useful for analyzing the potential reach of online health initiatives targeting both men and women. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Predicting Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Smokers, Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suekyung

    2013-01-01

    Cancer can be one of the most serious diseases that can result in a costly reduction in the quality of life. Among a number of cancer risk factors, tobacco use has been identified as the leading preventable cause of deaths. Prior research has suggested that cancer information seeking may be a pre-step to adopt health protective behaviors that can…

  8. Clinical supervision and nursing students' professional competence: support-seeking behaviour and the attachment styles of students and mentors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moked, Zahava; Drach-Zahavy, Anat

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether the interdependent attachment style of students is positively related to their support-seeking behaviour during supervision and whether their over-dependent and counter-dependent attachment styles are negatively related to it. Second, to determine whether the mentors' attachment styles moderate the relationship between the students' support-seeking behaviours and their professional competence, such that this relationship is stronger when supervisors are characterized by higher independent attachment style. The mentor-student encounter during nursing clinical supervision is expected to create a supportive environment aimed at promoting support-seeking behaviours and subsequent positive supervision outcomes. Bowlby's attachment theory suggests that the three attachment styles - independent, counter-dependent and over-dependent - may have implications for clinical supervision. A correlative-prospective study. One hundred and seventy-eight students and 66 clinical mentors completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of a clinical supervision session during 2012-2013. Results demonstrated that high compared with low independent nursing students tended to seek less support. Second, students who seek less support evaluated their professional competence as higher than students who seek more support. Third, mentor's counter-dependent attachment style moderated the relationship between students' support-seeking behaviour and their professional competencies. The results allude to the detrimental meaning of support-seeking in the eyes of nursing students. Results can guide administrators in promoting supervision processes that are compatible with the students' independent learning style, while also preventing the negative implications of autonomic learning. Furthermore, as mentors' counter-dependent attachment style can hinder students' support-seeking, attachment styles should be considered in the selection of mentors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  10. Motivation, Critical Thinking and Academic Verification of High School Students' Information-seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Hidayat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High school students have known as Gen Y or Z and their media using can be understand on their information-seeking behavior. This research’s purposes were: 1 to analyze the students’ motivation; 2 to analyze the critical thinking and academic verification; 3 to analyze the information-seeking behavior. This study used quantitative approach through survey among 1125 respondents in nine clusters, i.e. Central, East, North, West, and South of Jakarta, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok, and Bogor. Schools sampling based on "the best schools rank" by the government, while respondents have taken by accidental in each school. Construct of questionnaire included measurement of motivation, critical thinking and academic verification, and the information-seeking behavior at all. The results showed that the motivations of the use of Internet were dominated by habit to interact and be entertained while on the academic needs are still relatively small but increasing significantly. Students’ self-efficacy, performance and achievement goals tend to be high motives, however the science learning value, and learning environment stimulation were average low motives. High school students indicated that they think critically about the various things that become content primarily in social media but less critical of the academic information subjects. Unfortunately, high school students did not conducted academic verification on the data and information but students tend to do plagiarism. Key words: Student motivation, critical thinking, academic verification, information-seeking behavior, digital generation.

  11. Silence is deadly: a cluster-randomised controlled trial of a mental health help-seeking intervention for young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calear, Alison L; Banfield, Michelle; Batterham, Philip J; Morse, Alyssa R; Forbes, Owen; Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Fisk, Martin

    2017-10-23

    Young men are consistently less likely to seek help for mental health problems than their female peers. This is particularly concerning given the high rates of suicide among male adolescents. The school system has been identified as an ideal setting for the implementation of prevention and early intervention programs for young people. The current trial aims to determine the effectiveness of the Silence is Deadly program in increasing positive help-seeking intentions for mental health problems and suicide among male secondary school students. This study is a two-arm, cluster-randomised, controlled trial that will compare the Silence is Deadly program to a wait-list control condition. Eight Australian high schools will be recruited to the trial, with male students in grades 11 and 12 (16 to 18 years of age) targeted for participation. The program is an innovative male-tailored suicide prevention intervention, comprising a presentation that emphasises role-modelling and legitimises help-seeking for personal and emotional problems, and a brief video that features celebrity athletes who counter existing male norms around help-seeking and encourage communication about personal and emotional issues. The program also includes a discussion of how to help a friend in distress and ends with a question and answer session. The primary outcome measure for the current study is help-seeking intentions. Secondary outcomes include help-seeking behaviour, help-seeking attitudes, help-seeking stigma, mental health symptoms, and suicidal ideation. Data will be collected pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Primary analyses will compare changes in help-seeking intentions for the intervention condition relative to the wait-list control condition using mixed-effects repeated-measures analyses that account for clustering within schools. If proven to be effective, this targeted help-seeking intervention for adolescent males, which is currently only delivered in

  12. Silence is deadly: a cluster-randomised controlled trial of a mental health help-seeking intervention for young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L. Calear

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young men are consistently less likely to seek help for mental health problems than their female peers. This is particularly concerning given the high rates of suicide among male adolescents. The school system has been identified as an ideal setting for the implementation of prevention and early intervention programs for young people. The current trial aims to determine the effectiveness of the Silence is Deadly program in increasing positive help-seeking intentions for mental health problems and suicide among male secondary school students. Methods This study is a two-arm, cluster-randomised, controlled trial that will compare the Silence is Deadly program to a wait-list control condition. Eight Australian high schools will be recruited to the trial, with male students in grades 11 and 12 (16 to 18 years of age targeted for participation. The program is an innovative male-tailored suicide prevention intervention, comprising a presentation that emphasises role-modelling and legitimises help-seeking for personal and emotional problems, and a brief video that features celebrity athletes who counter existing male norms around help-seeking and encourage communication about personal and emotional issues. The program also includes a discussion of how to help a friend in distress and ends with a question and answer session. The primary outcome measure for the current study is help-seeking intentions. Secondary outcomes include help-seeking behaviour, help-seeking attitudes, help-seeking stigma, mental health symptoms, and suicidal ideation. Data will be collected pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. Primary analyses will compare changes in help-seeking intentions for the intervention condition relative to the wait-list control condition using mixed-effects repeated-measures analyses that account for clustering within schools. Discussion If proven to be effective, this targeted help-seeking intervention for

  13. Associations between media use and health information-seeking behavior on vaccinations in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although vaccinations are critical for preventing emerging infectious diseases, scant research has been conducted on risk communication. With socio-economic characteristics, health behavior, and underlying diseases under control, we investigated associations between media use, health information-seeking behavior, health information type, and vaccination in the population. Methods This study relied on a national survey of Korean adults (n = 1367. Participants were adult males and females age 20 and older. Web and face-to-face surveys were conducted throughout July 2014. The main outcome was vaccination (categorized as yes or no. Independent variables were time spent on media, frequency of health information-seeking behavior, and types of health information sought. Results Controlling for co-variates, logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors that influence Korean adults being vaccinated. Results revealed that accessible information about emerging infectious diseases, listening to the radio, and reading the newspaper were associated with increased odds of being vaccinated. Active seeking health information as well as being female and of higher socio-economic status were positively correlated with Korean adults being vaccinated. Conclusion It is critical to promote health information-seeking behavior and use diverse media channels to increase acceptance and awareness of emerging infectious diseases and vaccinations. Because there are differences in vaccination awareness depending on social class, it is critical to reduce communication inequality, strengthen accessibility to vaccinations, and devise appropriate risk communication strategies that ensure Korean adults receive vaccinations.

  14. A novel UCS memory retrieval-extinction procedure to inhibit relapse to drug seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi-xiao; Xue, Yan-xue; Liu, Jian-feng; Shi, Hai-shui; Jian, Min; Han, Ying; Zhu, Wei-li; Bao, Yan-ping; Wu, Ping; Ding, Zeng-bo; Shen, Hao-wei; Shi, Jie; Shaham, Yavin; Lu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that a conditioned stimulus (CS) memory retrieval-extinction procedure decreases reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking in rats and heroin craving in humans. Here we show that non-contingent cocaine or methylphenidate injections (UCS retrieval) 1 h before the extinction sessions decreases cocaine-priming-induced reinstatement, spontaneous recovery, and renewal of cocaine seeking in rats. Unlike the CS-based memory retrieval-extinction procedure, the UCS memory retrieval manipulation decreases renewal and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in the presence of cocaine cues that were not present during extinction training and also decreases cocaine seeking when the procedure commences after 28 days of abstinence. The inhibitory effect of the UCS retrieval manipulation on cocaine-priming-induced reinstatement is mediated by regulation of AMPA-receptor endocytosis in the basolateral amygdala. The UCS memory retrieval-extinction procedure has superior relapse prevention characteristics than the CS memory retrieval-extinction procedure and could be a promising method for decreasing relapse in human addicts. PMID:26169171

  15. Mental health problems among clinical psychologists: Stigma and its impact on disclosure and help-seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Stacie; Alcock, Kat; Scior, Katrina

    2018-03-24

    To assess the prevalence of personal experiences of mental health problems among clinical psychologists, external, perceived, and self-stigma among them, and stigma-related concerns relating to disclosure and help-seeking. Responses were collected from 678 UK-based clinical psychologists through an anonymous web survey consisting of the Social Distance Scale, Stig-9, Military Stigma Scale, Secrecy Scale, Attitudes towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale-Short Form, alongside personal experience and socio-demographic questions. Two-thirds of participants had experienced mental health problems themselves. Perceived mental health stigma was higher than external and self-stigma. Participants were more likely to have disclosed in their social than work circles. Concerns about negative consequences for self and career, and shame prevented some from disclosing and help-seeking. Personal experiences of mental health problems among clinical psychologists may be fairly common. Stigma, concerns about negative consequences of disclosure and shame as barriers to disclosure and help-seeking merit further consideration. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A novel UCS memory retrieval-extinction procedure to inhibit relapse to drug seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yi-xiao; Xue, Yan-xue; Liu, Jian-feng; Shi, Hai-shui; Jian, Min; Han, Ying; Zhu, Wei-li; Bao, Yan-ping; Wu, Ping; Ding, Zeng-bo; Shen, Hao-wei; Shi, Jie; Shaham, Yavin; Lu, Lin

    2015-07-14

    We recently reported that a conditioned stimulus (CS) memory retrieval-extinction procedure decreases reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking in rats and heroin craving in humans. Here we show that non-contingent cocaine or methylphenidate injections (UCS retrieval) 1 h before the extinction sessions decreases cocaine-priming-induced reinstatement, spontaneous recovery, and renewal of cocaine seeking in rats. Unlike the CS-based memory retrieval-extinction procedure, the UCS memory retrieval manipulation decreases renewal and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in the presence of cocaine cues that were not present during extinction training and also decreases cocaine seeking when the procedure commences after 28 days of abstinence. The inhibitory effect of the UCS retrieval manipulation on cocaine-priming-induced reinstatement is mediated by regulation of AMPA-receptor endocytosis in the basolateral amygdala. The UCS memory retrieval-extinction procedure has superior relapse prevention characteristics than the CS memory retrieval-extinction procedure and could be a promising method for decreasing relapse in human addicts.

  17. Associations between media use and health information-seeking behavior on vaccinations in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeon; Jung, Minsoo

    2017-09-11

    Although vaccinations are critical for preventing emerging infectious diseases, scant research has been conducted on risk communication. With socio-economic characteristics, health behavior, and underlying diseases under control, we investigated associations between media use, health information-seeking behavior, health information type, and vaccination in the population. This study relied on a national survey of Korean adults (n = 1367). Participants were adult males and females age 20 and older. Web and face-to-face surveys were conducted throughout July 2014. The main outcome was vaccination (categorized as yes or no). Independent variables were time spent on media, frequency of health information-seeking behavior, and types of health information sought. Controlling for co-variates, logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors that influence Korean adults being vaccinated. Results revealed that accessible information about emerging infectious diseases, listening to the radio, and reading the newspaper were associated with increased odds of being vaccinated. Active seeking health information as well as being female and of higher socio-economic status were positively correlated with Korean adults being vaccinated. It is critical to promote health information-seeking behavior and use diverse media channels to increase acceptance and awareness of emerging infectious diseases and vaccinations. Because there are differences in vaccination awareness depending on social class, it is critical to reduce communication inequality, strengthen accessibility to vaccinations, and devise appropriate risk communication strategies that ensure Korean adults receive vaccinations.

  18. Understanding family health information seeking: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.

  19. Association of eHealth literacy with cancer information seeking and prior experience with cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Moon, Mikyung; Baeg, Jung Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a critical disease with a high mortality rate in the US. Although useful information exists on the Internet, many people experience difficulty finding information about cancer prevention because they have limited eHealth literacy. This study aimed to identify relationships between the level of eHealth literacy and cancer information seeking experience or prior experience with cancer screening tests. A total of 108 adults participated in this study through questionnaires. Data covering demographics, eHealth literacy, cancer information seeking experience, educational needs for cancer information searching, and previous cancer screening tests were obtained. Study findings show that the level of eHealth literacy influences cancer information seeking. Individuals with low eHealth literacy are likely to be less confident about finding cancer information. In addition, people who have a low level of eHealth literacy need more education about seeking information than do those with a higher level of eHealth literacy. However, there is no significant relationship between eHealth literacy and cancer screening tests. More people today are using the Internet for access to information to maintain good health. It is therefore critical to educate those with low eHealth literacy so they can better self-manage their health.

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Teen Pregnancy A Key Role for Health Care Providers Language: ... Battles: Teen Pregnancy Prevention Status Reports (PSRs): Teen Pregnancy FastStats: Teen Births Vital Signs – Preventing Teen Pregnancy [PODCAST – 1: ...

  1. Preventive Detention: A Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Mishra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available State, ever since, its emergence, has been concerned with the maintenance of law and order and protecting people from external aggression and internal threats, thereby, ensuring safety and security to its inhabitants. The authority to maintain law and order empowers the state to use coercive power. It also emanates from various laws that are enacted from time to time. More often than not, coercive laws are self-contradictory because on the one hand they guarantee rights to people and on the other hand, they take away the right of a person or persons. Therefore, it is not wrong to say that modern states are repository of contradictions and India is no exception. There are several undemocratic provisions in the Indian Constitution; preventive detention is one of them. It seeks to detain a person to prevent him/her from indulging in any activity which is likely to pose a threat to the security of the State. In Britain and America this provision was used during World War II while, in India it can be used even in peacetime. This provision has been extensively used against the political dissidents during the post-colonial period. Justice Mahajan of the Supreme Court of India has held that ‘preventive detention laws are repugnant to democratic constitution and they cannot be found to exist in any of the democratic countries of the world’. The question that one can ask at this juncture is that why did the Government of ‘independent’ India retain preventive detention laws? And further, framed new ones. This research contribution examines the circumstances which compelled the Government to frame ‘preventive detention’ laws, and its use during national emergency and peace time.

  2. Science in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  3. The SEEK: a platform for sharing data and models in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstencroft, Katy; Owen, Stuart; du Preez, Franco; Krebs, Olga; Mueller, Wolfgang; Goble, Carole; Snoep, Jacky L

    2011-01-01

    , its functionalities, and the methods employed for lowering the barriers to adoption of standard formats. As the production of biological data continues to grow, in systems biology and in the life sciences in general, the need to record, manage, and exploit this wealth of information in the future is increasing. We promote the SEEK as a data and model management tool that can be adapted to the specific needs of a particular systems biology project. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancing Science Education through Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Augmenting science with the arts is a natural combination when one considers that both scientists and artists rely on similar attitudes and values. For example, creativity is often associated with artists, but scientists also use creativity when seeking a solution to a problem or creating a new product. Curiosity is another common trait shared…

  5. Physicians' group seeks nuclear arms ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, M S

    1985-08-02

    The history and recent activities of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) are reported. Founded in 1980 by cardiologists Bernard Lown of the United States and Eugene Chazov of the Soviet Union, the group has attracted well over 100,000 members from 51 countries. Following the organization's fifth congress in Budapest in June 1985, a four-city tour of the United States by three American and four Soviet physicians was co-sponsored by IPPNW, Physicians for Social Responsibility, and the Soviet Committee of Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War. Through separate lecture series aimed at physicians and laypersons, the doctors sought to persuade colleagues to take an active stand against nuclear war, and to increase public awareness of the medical realities of a nuclear attack. A similar tour of the Soviet Union is planned.

  6. Plants and Medicines. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  7. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  8. Prevention Obligations in International Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plakokefalos, I.

    2013-01-01

    The paper seeks to examine the content and nature of prevention obligations in international environmental law. Despite their frequent reference to these obligations in practice and in the literature their exact content remains ill-defined. Similarly, the exact nature of these obligations has not

  9. Mathematic anxiety, help seeking behavior and cooperative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Gholamali Lavasani; Farah Khandan

    2011-01-01

    Present project assess the effectiveness of cooperative learning over the mathematic anxiety and review the behavior of help seeking in first grade high school girl students. The experimental research procedure was in the form of pre-post tests after a period of 8 sessions of teaching. To measure the variables, the questionnaire of mathematic anxiety (Shokrani, 2002) and the questionnaire of help seeking technique (Ghadampour, 1998) were practiced (accepting or avoiding help seeking).To perfo...

  10. Sex differences in methamphetamine seeking in rats: Impact of oxytocin

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Brittney M.; Young, Amy B.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence in an animal model of drug self-administration and drug seeking showed that acute oxytocin decreased methamphetamine (meth) seeking in male rats, suggesting potential clinical efficacy for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, based on the well-established role of oxytocin in reproduction and pair bond formation, it is important to know how this effect extrapolates to females. Here, we tested whether oxytocin (1 mg/kg, IP) would decrease meth seeking in female...

  11. Loss aversion and rent-seeking: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to evaluate the impact of loss aversion on rent-seeking contests. We find, as theoretically predicted, a negative relationship between rent-seeking expenditures and loss aversion. However, for any degree of loss aversion, levels of rent-seeking expenditure are higher than predicted. Moreover, we find that the effect of loss aversion becomes weaker with repetition of the contest.

  12. Oil spill first principles. Prevention and best response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornitz, B.; Champ, M.

    2002-01-01

    Different international conventions, U.S. laws, and policy considerations are reviewed, regulatory strategies are discussed, and the book helps promote the use of better science, engineering, technology and policy and law in oil spill prevention and response. 'Oil Spill Response' has greatly improved over the last 30 years. On a global basis, billions have been spent in R and D in planning and response. However, a paradigm shift is in the works that is needed to more effectively use what has been learned in the last 30 years in both prevention and in clean up. The key terms that describe this paradigm shift are Best Science, Engineering and Technology produce Best Response and the Safety Culture prevents oil spills. Oil spills are no longer considered unavoidable 'accidents' of environmental conditions or functions of catastrophic events. More than 80% of all spills are the result of human error. The focus of the current legal, regulatory and convention framework affecting the transportation of oil by ship reflects a recent change in public attitude, an insistence upon protection of the world's marine environments, particularly coastal ecosystems. This public concern seeks to address the root cause of oil spills, including human error. The outcome of such national and international attention is the creation of significant legal and political motivators for a cultural shift by the oil shipping industry, from an 'evasion' culture to a 'safety culture'. The new 'safety culture' connotes continuous improvement in ship operations and a willingness to adopt the evolving safety culture concepts of communication at all levels within the company, better trained and qualified personnel on board ship, emphasis on safety from top down, and proactive institution of safety management systems at all levels of operation. Evasion or mere compliance with international and national law is no longer sufficient for future sustainable shipping

  13. Oil spill first principles. Prevention and best response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ornitz, B.; Champ, M. (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    Different international conventions, U.S. laws, and policy considerations are reviewed, regulatory strategies are discussed, and the book helps promote the use of better science, engineering, technology and policy and law in oil spill prevention and response. 'Oil Spill Response' has greatly improved over the last 30 years. On a global basis, billions have been spent in R and D in planning and response. However, a paradigm shift is in the works that is needed to more effectively use what has been learned in the last 30 years in both prevention and in clean up. The key terms that describe this paradigm shift are Best Science, Engineering and Technology produce Best Response and the Safety Culture prevents oil spills. Oil spills are no longer considered unavoidable 'accidents' of environmental conditions or functions of catastrophic events. More than 80% of all spills are the result of human error. The focus of the current legal, regulatory and convention framework affecting the transportation of oil by ship reflects a recent change in public attitude, an insistence upon protection of the world's marine environments, particularly coastal ecosystems. This public concern seeks to address the root cause of oil spills, including human error. The outcome of such national and international attention is the creation of significant legal and political motivators for a cultural shift by the oil shipping industry, from an 'evasion' culture to a 'safety culture'. The new 'safety culture' connotes continuous improvement in ship operations and a willingness to adopt the evolving safety culture concepts of communication at all levels within the company, better trained and qualified personnel on board ship, emphasis on safety from top down, and proactive institution of safety management systems at all levels of operation. Evasion or mere compliance with international and national law is no longer sufficient for future

  14. Preferences for Depression Help-Seeking Among Vietnamese American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Mozeleski, Jin E; Tsoh, Janice Y; Gildengorin, Ginny; Cao, Lien H; Ho, Tiffany; Kohli, Sarita; Lam, Hy; Wong, Ching; Stewart, Susan; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2017-11-11

    Culture impacts help-seeking preferences. We examined Vietnamese Americans' help-seeking preferences for depressive symptoms, through a telephone survey (N = 1666). A vignette describing an age- and gender-matched individual with depression was presented, and respondents chose from a list of options and provided open-ended responses about their help-seeking preferences. Results showed that 78.3% would seek professional help, either from a family doctor, a mental health provider, or both; 54.4% preferred to seek help from a family doctor but not from a mental health provider. Most (82.1%) would prefer to talk to family or friends, 62.2% would prefer to look up information, and 50.1% would prefer to get spiritual help. Logistic regression analysis revealed that preferences for non-professional help-seeking options (such as talking to friends or family, looking up information, and getting spiritual help), health care access, and perceived poor health, were associated with increased odds of preferring professional help-seeking. This population-based study of Vietnamese Americans highlight promising channels to deliver education about depression and effective help-seeking resources, particularly the importance of family doctors and social networks. Furthermore, addressing barriers in access to care remains a critical component of promoting professional help-seeking.

  15. Latin American Network of students in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Ramirez, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Latin American Network of Students in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology (RedLAtM) is a civil nonprofit organization, organized by students from Mexico and some Latin- American countries. As a growing organization, providing human resources in the field of meteorology at regional level, the RedLAtM seeks to be a Latin American organization who helps the development of education and research in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology in order to engage and promote the integration of young people towards a common and imminent future: Facing the still unstudied various weather and climate events occurring in Latin America. The RedLAtM emerges from the analysis and observation/realization of a limited connection between Latin American countries around research in Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology. The importance of its creation is based in cooperation, linking, research and development in Latin America and Mexico, in other words, to join efforts and stablish a regional scientific integration who leads to technological progress in the area of Atmospheric Sciences and Meteorology. As ultimate goal the RedLAtM pursuit to develop climatic and meteorological services for those countries unable to have their own programs, as well as projects linked with the governments of Latin American countries and private companies for the improvement of prevention strategies, research and decision making. All this conducing to enhance the quality of life of its inhabitants facing problems such as poverty and inequality.

  16. A Study of Rural Elderly’s Health Information Needs and Seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chun Liao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Survey method was used and 92 valid questionnaires were collected for the analyses. The results showed that the majority of the rural elder people expressed the need for and attention to health information. ‘‘health service information’’ and ‘‘prevention health care information’’ were the most needed and important. Family, friends and television were the main channels for accessing health information. However, fewer respondents actively sought health information. When health problems occurred, they tended to seek direct medical treatment. This study also found that men were more attentive and active in seeking health information. Respondents over 75 years old rarely concerned about their health information need. People with more education were also more aware of their health information needs and more attentive to information disseminated via mass media. [Article content in Chinese

  17. Perceptions of Child Body Size and Health Care Seeking for Undernourished Children in Southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ashorn, Ulla

    2016-12-01

    Child undernutrition affects millions of children globally, but little is known about the ability of adults to detect different types of child undernutrition in low-income countries. We used focused ethnographic methods to understand how Malawian parents and grandparents describe the characteristics they use to identify good and poor child growth, their actual or preferred patterns of health seeking for undernourished children, and the perceived importance of child undernutrition symptoms in relation to other childhood illnesses. Malawians value adiposity rather than stature in assessing child growth. Symptoms of malnutrition, including wasting and edema, were considered the least severe childhood illness symptoms. Parents delayed health care seeking when a child was ill. When they sought care, it was for symptoms such as diarrhea or fever, and they did not recognize malnutrition as the underlying cause. These findings can be used to tailor strategies for preventing and treating growth faltering in Malawian children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Text Messaging for Psychiatric Outpatients: Effect on Help-Seeking and Self-Harming Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Toyohiko; Syouji, Hiroko; Takaki, Sachiko; Fujimoto, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Shinichi; Fukutake, Masaaki; Taira, Masaru; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    A mobile phone intervention was developed and tested with 30 psychiatric outpatients with mental illness, who had high ideation for suicide. The intervention involved promoting help-seeking behaviors by sending text messages, including information about social welfare services and reminders about medical appointments, for 6 months. After the intervention period, the number of participants who used social services significantly increased, and more than 80% of participants reported that the text messaging service was helpful and useful. Compared to baseline, participants' self-harming behaviors decreased and the attending psychiatrists rated their suicide ideation as weaker. This is the first intervention study to promote psychiatric patients' help-seeking using text messaging, and although it was not a randomized controlled trial, this intervention has practical value and may lead to the prevention of suicide. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Sensation seeking and drunk driving: the mediational role of social norms and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Iglesias, Beatriz; Gómez-Fraguela, José Antonio; Luengo, Ma Ángeles

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the role of sensation seeking in drunk driving by youths, and the potential mediational effect of social, cognitive and emotional variables on their relationship. To this end, a survey was conducted on 274 drivers (164 females and 110 males) aged 24.36±2.96 years (range 18-30 years). The results obtained confirm the significance of sensation seeking to drunk driving by youths and the mediating role of biased self-efficacy perceptions in their relationship. The important practical implications of this finding on the development of effective interventions to prevent the risks of drunk driving in youths are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  1. Clients and carers perception of mental illness and factors that influence help-seeking: Where they go first and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilale, Harris K; Silungwe, Ndumanene Devlin; Gondwe, Saulos; Masulani-Mwale, Charles

    2017-08-01

    In Northern Malawi, the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is longer than that in high-income countries. The reasons for the delay in help-seeking are not known, although studies show multiple reasons. This research was conducted to establish health care help-seeking behaviours and identify barriers that exist between service users and health care providers. The study also intended to establish the beliefs that clients and family members have regarding the causes of mental illness which profoundly shape help-seeking, care giving process and outcomes. The study employed the exploratory phenomenological method, utilizing focus group discussions (FGDs) in the sampled population. The Health Belief Model and Disease Explanatory Models were conveniently chosen a priori by researchers to develop guide questions to explore clients' and carers' perceptions of the illness and their health care help-seeking behaviours. Results show a bio-psycho-social inclination of disease causation and help-seeking behaviour. Causes of mental illness are understood in three categories, namely: physical/biological, psychological and socio-cultural. The majority of participants attributed mental illness to socio-cultural factors, with witchcraft, spirit possession and curses as main determinants. Causal perceptions also influenced help-seeking pathways. Many participants reported consulting traditional healers first, for diagnosis and to know who was responsible. In this study, it has been found that help-seeking is influenced by the understanding of the source of the illness - which has a bio-psychosocial inclination. The socio-cultural explanation of witchcraft and spirit possession is dominant and a determinant of help-seeking behaviour. While participants noted benefits to hospital treatment, barriers and bio-psychosocial in nature were also noted. Guardians and not clients hold the key to choice of treatment modality and therefore a potential ally in all treatment interventions

  2. Health insurance and care-seeking behaviours of female migrants in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattof, Samantha R

    2018-05-01

    People working in Ghana's informal sector have low rates of enrolment in the publicly funded National Health Insurance Scheme. Informal sector workers, including migrant girls and women from northern Ghana working as head porters (kayayei), report challenges obtaining insurance and seeking formal health care. This article analyses how health insurance status affects kayayei migrants' care-seeking behaviours. This mixed-methods study involved surveying 625 migrants using respondent-driven sampling and conducting in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of 48 migrants. Analyses explore health status and health seeking behaviours for recent illness/injury. Binary logistic regression modelled the effects of selected independent variables on whether or not a recently ill/injured participant (n = 239) sought health care. Although recently ill/injured participants (38.4%) desired health care, less than half (43.5%) sought care. Financial barriers overwhelmingly limit kayayei migrants from seeking health care, preventing them from registering with the National Health Insurance Scheme, renewing their expired health insurance policies, or taking time away from work. Both insured and uninsured migrants did not seek formal health services due to the unpredictable nature of out-of-pocket expenses. Catastrophic and impoverishing medical expenses also drove participants' migration in search of work to repay loans and hospital bills. Health insurance can help minimize these expenditures, but only 17.4% of currently insured participants (58.2%) reported holding a valid health insurance card in Accra. The others lost their cards or forgot them when migrating. Access to formal health care in Accra remains largely inaccessible to kayayei migrants who suffer from greater illness/injury than the general female population in Accra and who are hindered in their ability to receive insurance exemptions. With internal migration on the rise in many settings, health systems must recognize the

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  4. Preventing Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  5. Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for Teachers Report Cyberbullying Print Share Prevent Cyberbullying Be Aware of What Your Kids are Doing ... Signs a Child is Being Cyberbullied or is Cyberbullying Others Many of the warning signs that cyberbullying ...

  6. Preventing Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protective factors listed below: Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent ways of handling disputes Effective ... 2017 Page last updated: August 9, 2017 Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division ...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ... increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse ...

  9. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 ...

  12. The current status of forensic science laboratory accreditation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Ekrem; Neuteboom, Wim

    2007-04-11

    Forensic science is gaining some solid ground in the area of effective crime prevention, especially in the areas where more sophisticated use of available technology is prevalent. All it takes is high-level cooperation among nations that can help them deal with criminality that adopts a cross-border nature more and more. It is apparent that cooperation will not be enough on its own and this development will require a network of qualified forensic laboratories spread over Europe. It is argued in this paper that forensic science laboratories play an important role in the fight against crime. Another, complimentary argument is that forensic science laboratories need to be better involved in the fight against crime. For this to be achieved, a good level of cooperation should be established and maintained. It is also noted that harmonization is required for such cooperation and seeking accreditation according to an internationally acceptable standard, such as ISO/IEC 17025, will eventually bring harmonization as an end result. Because, ISO/IEC 17025 as an international standard, has been a tool that helps forensic science laboratories in the current trend towards accreditation that can be observed not only in Europe, but also in the rest of the world of forensic science. In the introduction part, ISO/IEC 17025 states that "the acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries should be facilitated if laboratories comply with this international standard and if they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with equivalent bodies in other countries using this international standard." Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of this international standard will assist in the harmonization of standards and procedures. The background of forensic science cooperation in Europe will be explained by using an existing European forensic science network, i.e. ENFSI, in order to understand the current status of forensic

  13. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  14. Preventive psychiatry in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Sood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two and a half decades, there have been series of global burden of disease studies which have highlighted significant disability attributable to mental and behavioral disorders with a huge treatment gap. Integration of the preventive strategies in the clinical practice has the potential to reduce the disability due to mental illnesses. The patients come to the clinic with an intention to get treated and investigated for the symptoms they have. At this point, they may also be amenable to the advice related to prevention. Therefore, the clinical encounter can be seen as an opportunity to implement preventive strategies. Preventive efforts in clinical practice must be guided by knowledge about the epidemiological data related to specific mental illnesses and about the evidence-based preventive strategies available for specific mental illnesses. These should be directed toward all those persons (patients, caregivers accompanying and at home, teachers, employers, etc. who are present and also toward those who are not present during the clinical encounter and must be age, gender, and culture sensitive. Sociodemographic characteristics of a person seeking relief from a problem in the clinical encounter help in directing the preventive efforts. The preventive efforts are also driven by the fact that the patient has the first episode or established or treatment refractory mental illness and the short or long duration of illness. For prevention-minded clinical practice, it helps to have a template so that the assessments and interventions relevant for prevention can be carried out as per that scheme; it also helps in orienting the practicing mental health professionals. While making various assessments, making a list of the likely issues to be addressed by preventive efforts during clinical encounter ( first and subsequent is also helpful.

  15. Family Functioning and Adolescent Help-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barry J.; Bowles, Terry V. P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationship between help seeking behavior and family functioning. Adolescents who sought help clustered into two groups of families - one high in conflict and low in democratic parenting style, and one low in conflict and high in democratic parenting style. Complex relationships between help seeking behavior, type of family, and type of…

  16. Spatial factors as contextual qualifiers of information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Savolainen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper investigates the ways in which spatial factors have been approached in information seeking studies. The main attention was focused on studies discussing information seeking on the level of source selection and use. Method. Conceptual analysis of about 100 articles and books thematizing spatial issues of information seeking. Due to research economy, the main attention was paid to studies on everyday life information seeking. Results. Three major viewpoints were identified with regard to the degree of objectivity of spatial factors. The objectifying approach conceives of spatial factors as external and entity-like qualifiers that primarly constrain information seeking. The realistic-pragmatic approach emphasizes the ways in which the availabilty of information sources in different places such as daily work environments orient information seeking. The perspectivist approach focuses on how people subjectively assess the significance of various sources by means of spatial constructs such as information horizons. Conclusion. Spatial factors are centrally important contextual qualifiers of information seeking. There is a need to further explore the potential of the above viewpoints by relating the spatial and temporal factors of information seeking.

  17. Factors Influencing Professional Help-Seeking for Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin; Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Randall, Rebecca

    2018-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the majority of people with suicidality do not seek help. Little systematic evaluation of factors influencing professional help-seeking has been done. To systematically evaluate the factors that influence professional help-seeking for suicidality. Published quantitative and qualitative studies in Medline and PsycInfo databases were reviewed following PRISMA. In all, 55 relevant studies were identified. Of these, 15 studies examined professional help-seeking intentions for perceived suicidal ideation, among people with or without suicidality; 21 studies examined professional help-seeking behavior among people with suicidality; and 19 studies examined suicidal decedents' health services use. Several potential important barriers were identified including high self-reliance, lack of perceived need for treatment, and stigmatizing attitudes toward suicide, toward mental health issues, and toward seeking professional treatment. The presence of suicidality and mental health issues was found to generally decrease help-seeking intentions for perceived suicidal ideation while facilitating actual service use. Social support and informal support from family and friends also played an important role in professional help-seeking. Although the majority of the included studies were of sound quality, some of the factors identified in the review were assessed in relatively few studies, and most of the included studies were conducted in industrialized countries. Further quantitative and qualitative studies examining the potential important factors in broader community samples, especially in developing countries, are needed.

  18. A hierarchical modeling of information seeking behavior of school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the information seeking behavior of school teachers in the public primary schools of rural areas of Nigeria and to draw up a model of their information-seeking behavior. A Cross-sectional survey design research was employed to carry out the research. Findings showed that the ...

  19. Elaborating the Conceptual Space of Information-Seeking Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The article contributes to conceptual studies of information behaviour research by examining the conceptualisations of information seeking and related terms such as information search and browsing. Method: The study builds on Bates' integrated model of information seeking and searching, originally presented in 2002. The model was…

  20. The Role of Personality in Musicians' Information Seeking for Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostagiolas, Petros; Lavranos, Charilaos; Martzoukou, Konstantina; Papadatos, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper explores the relationship between musicians' information seeking behaviour and their personality traits within the context of musical creativity. Although previous research has addressed different socio-technological and behavioral aspects of music information seeking, the role of personality characteristics around…

  1. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  2. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Guszkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98; wakeboarding (n=30; snowboarding (n=30; scuba diving (n=22; alpinism (n=20; paragliding (n=17. The control group included 54 men not involved in sports. Polish version of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-IV of Zuckerman was applied.Results show, that high risk sports males are featured by stronger need of sensations in comparison to control group and this concerned all but one aspect of sensation seeking variable. The only exception was the need of intellectual stimulation. Except from the thrill and adventure seeking dimension, type of sport may also be an important determinant of sensation seeking. Men practising snowboard and wakeboard presented stronger need for sensations, especially in the dimension of experience seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Sport experience (number of jumps in parachuting did not differentiate the level of sensation seeking among investigated parachutists. Population of sport high risk male takers was not homogeneous, and therefore in future research one should analyse specific sports (or events in a certain sport separately.

  3. Bone-seeking /sup 99m/Tc complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, G.; McAfee, J.G.

    1977-01-01

    A bone-seeking, technetium-99m-tin-phosphonate complex effective as a skeletal-imaging agent has been found particularly useful for diagnostic purposes. Skeletal tissue concentrations or technetium-99m obtained with the complex compare favorably to other bone-seeking radionuclides

  4. Reputation-Seeking by a Government Agency in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækkeskov, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Reputation-seeking can explain some decisions of U.S. federal agencies. However, it has remained unclear whether it could be used in the European context where agencies have proliferated in national and regional governance in the past few decades. This article shows that reputation-seeking can oc...

  5. Predicting Intentions to Seek Psychological Help Among Botswana University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho M. Pheko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study had two main objectives. The first was to investigate Botswana’s university students’ intentions to seek psychological help. The second was to investigate whether (a Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help (ATSPPH, (b Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH, and (c Social Stigma of Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH predicted the students’ intentions to seek psychological help. A total of N = 519 (283 females and 236 males students from the University of Botswana completed the survey. Results indicated that generally, the students had moderate intentions of seeking psychological help. Multiple regression analysis revealed that of the three predictors, only ATSPPH and SSRPH significantly predicted intentions to seek psychological help. The current study is important because while it has been established that university students are a high-risk population for mental health problems, there is close to nothing documented on university students in Botswana. Findings of the current study will undoubtedly increase knowledge relating to psychological help-seeking and its predictors in Botswana and may inform interventions that aim to encourage young people to seek psychological or counseling help.

  6. Barriers to Chinese College Students Seeking Psychological Help from Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese students were found less likely to seek professional help for psychological problems compared to their western counterparts. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the barriers to Chinese college students seeking psychological help from professionals. Quantitative data on Asian values, social supports, self-stigma,…

  7. The Information Seeking and Use Behaviors of Retired Investors

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Lisa G.

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the information seeking and use behaviors of a group of US retired or near-retirement investors from everyday life information seeking and serious leisure perspectives. Although primarily qualitative, it also collects and analyzes quantitative data to describe retired investors' information preferences and use.…

  8. Help-Seeking Behaviors of Accounting Principles I Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Susan M.; Sanders, Joseph C.

    This study examined the help-seeking propensities of college students enrolled in a "Principles of Financial Accounting I" course. A total of 364 students responded to a questionnaire on various aspects of help-seeking behavior. It was found that the most frequently used source of help was friends or classmates, followed by the instructor and the…

  9. Avoidance of Counseling: Psychological Factors that Inhibit Seeking Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, David L.; Wester, Stephen R.; Larson, Lisa M.

    2007-01-01

    How do counselors reach out to individuals who are reluctant to seek counseling services? To answer this question, the authors examined the research on the psychological help-seeking barriers from counseling, clinical and social psychology, as well as social work and psychiatry. Specific avoidance factors that have been identified in the mental…

  10. Procedures and Collaborative Information Seeking: A Study of Emergency Departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Reddy, Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Information seeking is a central and inherently collaborative activity in the emergency department (ED) which is the common entry point to hospitals for nearly all acute patients. In this paper, we investigate how ED clinicians’ collabo-rative information seeking (CIS) is shaped by the procedures...

  11. Variation in general practitioners' information-seeking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Videbæk Le, Jette; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov; Riisgaard, Helle

    2016-01-01

    characteristics. Further insights could provide opportunities for targeting information dissemination strategies. Single-handed GPs seek information from colleagues less frequently than GPs in partnerships and do not use other sources more frequently. GPs aged above 44 years do not seek information as frequently...

  12. Stigma in Help-Seeking: The Case of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechtman, Zipora; Vogel, David L.; Strass, Haley A.; Heath, Patrick J.

    2018-01-01

    Stigma associated with seeking help has been found to be a key help-seeking barrier, however its role is less clear for: (a) adolescents, (b) groups outside the United States and (c) different types of therapy. This study addresses these omissions by examining the relationships between perceptions of public stigma of mental illness and the…

  13. Social Goals and Willingness to Seek Help for School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablon, Yaacov B.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between students' social goals and their willingness to seek help for school violence was examined. Four hundred and sixty-two students from sixth, eighth, and tenth grades responded to vignettes used to assess willingness to seek help from teachers and friends for dealing with relational and physical violence. Intimacy goals enhanced…

  14. How nurses seek and evaluate clinical guidelines on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, F.; Steehouder, M.F.; Hendrix, Ron M.G.; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper is a report of a study conducted to assess nurses’ information-seeking strategies and problems encountered when seeking clinical guidelines on the Internet, and to investigate the criteria they apply when evaluating the guidelines and the websites communicating the guidelines. -

  15. Attitude and help-seeking for hearing impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenBrink, RHS; Wit, HP; Kempen, GIJM; vanHeuvelen, MJG

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate help-seeking for hearing impairment in the elderly, and to compare groups showing dissimilar help-seeking on their attitude toward hearing loss and hearing aids. Attitude factors were based on a revised version of the Health Belief Model, and included

  16. Determinants of patient delay in seeking treatment among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients delay in seeking care increases the transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis and hence the burden of the disease. This study investigates the pattern and determinants of patients delay in seeking treatment among pulmonary tuberculosis cases attending a Government Chest Clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A descriptive ...

  17. Managers' Feedback Seeking Propensities on their Intra- Personal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the idea that feedback seeking enhances job performance, the study was aimed at investigating managers' feedback seeking tendencies on their intra personal, interpersonal and leadership skills, and their preferred feedback sources: subordinates, peers and superiors. Using cross-sectional survey design, 156 ...

  18. Suicidal Behavior and Help Seeking among Diverse College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Chris; Becker, Martin Swanbrow; Shadick, Richard; Jaggars, Shanna S.; Nitkin-Kaner, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal and help-seeking behaviors of students of color remain a significant problem on college campuses. Self-reported suicidal experiences and help-seeking behavior of diverse students are examined on the basis of results from a national survey of college student mental health. The results suggest significant differences in the expression of…

  19. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, ...

  20. "Plates and Dishes Smash; Married Couples Clash": Cultural and Social Barriers to Help-Seeking Among Women Domestic Violence Survivors in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, Saltanat

    2018-05-01

    This article develops a grounded theory of help-seeking to investigate the social and cultural determinants of help-seeking among Kyrgyz women who have experienced domestic violence. Results indicate that cultural traditions and social norms-most notably the social construction of marriage, the shame associated with divorce, and the status of daughters-in-law in Kyrgyz society-are used to justify domestic violence and prevent victims from seeking help. The proposed theory and results suggest that scholars, policymakers, and front-line contacts must emphasize dispelling myths, misconceptions, and traditional beliefs about gender and marriage to break the abusive dynamics and provide professional help.

  1. Information Science: Science or Social Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Paul P.K.,; Bhuimali A.

    2017-01-01

    Collection, selection, processing, management, and dissemination of information are the main and ultimate role of Information Science and similar studies such as Information Studies, Information Management, Library Science, and Communication Science and so on. However, Information Science deals with some different characteristics than these subjects. Information Science is most interdisciplinary Science combines with so many knowledge clusters and domains. Information Science is a broad disci...

  2. Science Granting Councils Initiative in Sub-Saharan Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This initiative seeks to strengthen the capacities of science granting councils in East Africa and other selected sub-Saharan African countries. The goal is to contribute to economic and social development in the region through research and evidence-based policies. About the science granting councils initiative The Science ...

  3. Medical returns: seeking health care in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah; Cole, Stephanie

    2011-06-01

    Despite the growing prevalence of transnational medical travel among immigrant groups in industrialized nations, relatively little scholarship has explored the diverse reasons immigrants return home for care. To date, most research suggests that cost, lack of insurance and convenience propel US Latinos to seek health care along the Mexican border. Yet medical returns are common even among Latinos who do have health insurance and even among those not residing close to the border. This suggests that the distinct culture of medicine as practiced in the border clinics Latinos visit may be as important a factor in influencing medical returns as convenience and cost. Drawing upon qualitative interviews, this article presents an emic account of Latinos' perceptions of the features of medical practice in Mexico that make medical returns attractive. Between November 15, 2009 and January 15, 2010, we conducted qualitative interviews with 15 Mexican immigrants and nine Mexican Americans who sought care at Border Hospital, a private clinic in Tijuana. Sixteen were uninsured and eight had insurance. Yet of the 16 uninsured, six had purposefully dropped their insurance to make this clinic their permanent "medical home." Moreover, those who substituted receiving care at Border Hospital for their US health insurance plan did so not only because of cost, but also because of what they perceived as the distinctive style of medical practice at Border Hospital. Interviewees mentioned the rapidity of services, personal attention, effective medications, and emphasis on clinical discretion as features distinguishing "Mexican medical practice," opposing these features to the frequent referrals and tests, impersonal doctor-patient relationships, uniform treatment protocols and reliance on surgeries they experienced in the US health care system. While interviewees portrayed these features as characterizing a uniform "Mexican medical culture," we suggest that they are best described as

  4. Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalervo Järvelin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the research into information seeking and its directions at a general level. We approach this topic by analysis and argumentation based on past research in the domain. We begin by presenting a general model of information seeking and retrieval (IS&R which is used to derive nine broad dimensions that are needed to analyze IS&R. Past research is then contrasted with the dimensions and shown not to cover the dimensions sufficiently. Based on an analysis of the goals of information seeking research, and a view on human task performance augmentation, it is then shown that information seeking is intimately associated with, and dependent on, other aspects of work; tasks and technology included. This leads to a discussion on design and evaluation frameworks for IS&R, based on which two action lines are proposed: information retrieval research needs extension towards more context and information seeking research needs extension towards tasks and technology.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book

  6. Enacting science

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Anthony Leo

    procedures gain complexity and incorporate process components as students become involved in establishing criteria for their work. Contemporary science programs emphasize using performance criteria to evaluate student learning in investigative activity. My study seeks to expand the notion of performance by identifying and portraying essential features of student action-thought.

  7. Nutritional Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This group promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and fo | Establishing a comprehensive understanding of diet and food components in cancer risk and tumor cell behavior.

  8. Substance use and mental illness among nurses: workplace warning signs and barriers to seeking assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cares, Alexa; Pace, Elizabeth; Denious, Jean; Crane, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Although some studies have examined the prevalence of substance use among nurses, few have assessed substance use in the workplace or early cues for identifying these health conditions. Primary data collected as part of a larger program evaluation were examined with the purpose of better understanding (a) the context and perceived consequences of substance use and mental illness among nurses and (b) barriers and opportunities for earlier identification and treatment of these issues among nurses, their colleagues, and employers. Anonymous surveys were mailed to 441 active and recent participants of a peer health assistance program in the summer of 2010. The survey examined drug-related behaviors in the workplace; behavioral cues that may permit earlier identification of substance use and mental illness; perceptions of barriers to seeking assistance; and strategies for preventing problems and overcoming barriers to seeking assistance. Responses were received from 302 nurses (69%). Nearly half (48%) reported drug or alcohol use at work, and two fifths (40%) felt that their competency level was affected by their use. More than two thirds of respondents thought their problem could have been recognized earlier. The most highly rated barriers to seeking assistance for substance use and mental illness included fear and embarrassment and concerns about losing one's nursing license. Respondents recommended greater attention be paid to early identification of risk factors during nurses' professional training as a prevention strategy. Findings from this study provide preliminary data that can be used by schools of nursing and health care employers to improve early identification of nurses' substance use and mental illness treatment needs. These data also suggest a need for more research to explore the prevention and early identification of co-occurring disorders in health care settings where nurses practice.

  9. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  10. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  11. Increasing help-seeking and referrals for individuals at risk for suicide by decreasing stigma: the role of mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Reidenberg, Daniel J; Till, Benedikt; Gould, Madelyn S

    2014-09-01

    Increasing help-seeking and referrals for at-risk individuals by decreasing stigma has been defined as Aspirational Goal 10 in the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force's 2014 prioritized research agenda. This article reviews the research evidence on the impact of mass media awareness campaigns on reducing stigma and increasing help-seeking. The review will focus on both beneficial and iatrogenic effects of suicide preventive interventions using media campaigns to target the broad public. A further focus is on collaboration between public health professionals and news media in order to reduce the risk of copycat behavior and enhance help-seeking behavior. Examples of multilevel approaches that include both mass media interventions and individual-level approaches to reduce stigma and increase referrals are provided as well. Multilevel suicide prevention programs that combine various approaches seem to provide the most promising results, but much more needs to be learned about the best possible composition of these programs. Major research and practice challenges include the identification of optimal ways to reach vulnerable populations who likely do not benefit from current awareness strategies. Caution is needed in all efforts that aim to reduce the stigma of suicidal ideation, mental illness, and mental health treatment in order to avoid iatrogenic effects. The article concludes with specific suggestions for research questions to help move this line of suicide research and practice forward. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preventing proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathjens, G.

    1983-01-01

    Challenging the argument that nuclear proliferation may be stabilizing, the author cites the Israeli attack on Iraq as evidence that emergent nuclear states may be moved to attack their adversaries.The larger the number of decision makers who can unleash nuclear weapons, the greater the liklihood of their use. Several reasons are cited for nations to seek nuclear capability: the accelerated spread of technology, the deterioration in US-Soviet relations and strength relative to their nations, the high cost of conventional weapons, and a loss of confidence in the international safeguards system. The imposition of constraints, such as a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, on nuclear trade and technology transfer are likely to have a high cost. The US position on this issue is likely to be determined by the balance of power with the Soviet Union. 5 references

  13. Map of the Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, Kevin W.

    1999-07-02

    Various efforts to map the structure of science have been undertaken over the years. Using a new tool, VxInsight{trademark}, we have mapped and displayed 3000 journals in the physical sciences. This map is navigable and interactively reveals the structure of science at many different levels. Science mapping studies are typically focused at either the macro-or micro-level. At a macro-level such studies seek to determine the basic structural units of science and their interrelationships. The majority of studies are performed at the discipline or specialty level, and seek to inform science policy and technical decision makers. Studies at both levels probe the dynamic nature of science, and the implications of the changes. A variety of databases and methods have been used for these studies. Primary among databases are the citation indices (SCI and SSCI) from the Institute for Scientific Information, which have gained widespread acceptance for bibliometric studies. Maps are most often based on computed similarities between journal articles (co-citation), keywords or topics (co-occurrence or co-classification), or journals (journal-journal citation counts). Once the similarity matrix is defined, algorithms are used to cluster the data.

  14. Gendered Manifestations of Depression and Help Seeking Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Jarrod B; Shafer, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Men who do not seek help for mental health problems may experience unnecessary suffering which ultimately affects the well-being of themselves and others. Gendered manifestations of depressive symptoms may play an important role in why some men do not seek help for mental health issues. Using data from 2,382 male respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, the authors examined the relationship that both traditional and male-typical symptoms of depression had on the help-seeking behaviors of men. Traditional symptoms increased the odds of seeking help for depression for all men. Male-typical symptoms, however, did not increase the odds of seeking help for depression or another mental health concern. Both traditional and male-typical symptoms increased the odds of initially seeking help from a medical provider, and men with male-typical symptoms had an overall higher likelihood of seeking help from a medical provider. Consequently, it is important that medical professionals assess for depression even when it is not a presenting concern.

  15. [Men and depression: gender-related help-seeking behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M

    2000-11-01

    As epidemiological data concerning gender-related help-seeking behaviour indicate, consultation rate and help-seeking by men is consistently lower, especially in the case of emotional problems and depressive symptoms. There is empirical evidence that the poor treatment rate of men cannot be explained by a better health but must be attributed to a discrepancy of need and help-seeking behaviour. Social change and epidemiological trends in depression point to the male gender-role being an important factor of increasing rates among young men as well as an important determinant of help-seeking behaviour. It is argued that social norms of traditional masculinity make help-seeking more difficult because of the inhibition of expressiveness affecting symptom perception and symptomatology of depression. Besides these predisposing factors of male help-seeking other medical and social factors are mentioned producing further barriers to help-seeking. Further research is needed to investigate the question whether changing masculinity implies gender-role conflict or positive health effects.

  16. Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P; Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R

    2013-01-01

    Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information.

  17. Science of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo; Bergstrom, Carl T; Börner, Katy; Evans, James A; Helbing, Dirk; Milojević, Staša; Petersen, Alexander M; Radicchi, Filippo; Sinatra, Roberta; Uzzi, Brian; Vespignani, Alessandro; Waltman, Ludo; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2018-03-02

    Identifying fundamental drivers of science and developing predictive models to capture its evolution are instrumental for the design of policies that can improve the scientific enterprise-for example, through enhanced career paths for scientists, better performance evaluation for organizations hosting research, discovery of novel effective funding vehicles, and even identification of promising regions along the scientific frontier. The science of science uses large-scale data on the production of science to search for universal and domain-specific patterns. Here, we review recent developments in this transdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. A cross-sectional study of pre-travel health-seeking practices among travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Anita E; Watkins, Rochelle E; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Nilvarangkul, Kessarawan; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2012-05-02

    Pre-travel health assessments aim to promote risk reduction through preventive measures and safe behavior, including ensuring travelers are up-to-date with their immunizations. However, studies assessing pre-travel health-seeking practices from a variety of medical and non-medical sources and vaccine uptake prior to travel to both developing and developed countries within the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted between July and December 2007 to assess pre-travel health seeking practices, including advice from health professionals, health information from other sources and vaccine uptake, in a sample of travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to ensure representativeness of travelers and travel destinations. Pre-travel health seeking practices were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire distributed at the check-in queues of departing flights. Logistic regression models were used to identify significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional, reported separately for Australian residents, residents of other Western countries and residents of countries in Asia. A total of 843 surveys were included in the final sample (Sydney 729, response rate 56%; Bangkok 114, response rate 60%). Overall, pre-travel health information from any source was sought by 415 (49%) respondents with 298 (35%) seeking pre-travel advice from a health professional, the majority through general practice. Receipt of a pre-travel vaccine was reported by 100 (12%) respondents. Significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional differed by region of residence. Asian travelers were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health advice and uptake of pre-travel vaccines than Australian or other Western travelers. Migrant Australians were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health advice than Australian

  19. A cross-sectional study of pre-travel health-seeking practices among travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pre-travel health assessments aim to promote risk reduction through preventive measures and safe behavior, including ensuring travelers are up-to-date with their immunizations. However, studies assessing pre-travel health-seeking practices from a variety of medical and non-medical sources and vaccine uptake prior to travel to both developing and developed countries within the Asia-Pacific region are scarce. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were conducted between July and December 2007 to assess pre-travel health seeking practices, including advice from health professionals, health information from other sources and vaccine uptake, in a sample of travelers departing Sydney and Bangkok airports. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to ensure representativeness of travelers and travel destinations. Pre-travel health seeking practices were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire distributed at the check-in queues of departing flights. Logistic regression models were used to identify significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional, reported separately for Australian residents, residents of other Western countries and residents of countries in Asia. Results A total of 843 surveys were included in the final sample (Sydney 729, response rate 56%; Bangkok 114, response rate 60%). Overall, pre-travel health information from any source was sought by 415 (49%) respondents with 298 (35%) seeking pre-travel advice from a health professional, the majority through general practice. Receipt of a pre-travel vaccine was reported by 100 (12%) respondents. Significant factors associated with seeking pre-travel health advice from a health professional differed by region of residence. Asian travelers were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health advice and uptake of pre-travel vaccines than Australian or other Western travelers. Migrant Australians were less likely to report seeking pre-travel health

  20. Thrill Seeking and Religiosity in Relation to Adolescent Substance Use: Tests of Joint, Interactive, and Indirect Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Thrill seeking is a robust positive predictor of adolescent substance use. Religiosity is negatively associated with substance use among teens, although findings are mixed. Few studies have examined the interplay between these two prominent risk and protective factors. The current study addresses this gap by examining the joint, interactive, and indirect influences of thrill seeking and each of two dimensions of religiosity, religious salience and religious attendance, in relation to adolescent substance use. Participants were 667 rural youths (345 girls and 322 boys) and their families participating in a longitudinal family-focused prevention trial. Data were collected via self-report surveys at six time points across seven years, spanning ages 11 through 18. Results from latent growth curve analyses showed that both religious salience and religious attendance growth factors were associated negatively with late adolescent substance use, while adjusting for thrill seeking and selected covariates. Although the link between thrill seeking and substance use was not moderated by religiosity, there was a statistically significant indirect effect of thrill seeking on the outcome through a faster rate of downturn in religious attendance. Family intervention also predicted a slower rate of downturn in religious attendance and was associated negatively with substance use in late adolescence. Early adolescent substance use predicted a faster rate of decrease in religious salience throughout the teen years. The pattern of associations was similar for boys and girls. Findings suggest that teens who are elevated on thrill seeking could be targeted for specially-designed substance use prevention programs and provide additional evidence for the efficacy of family interventions. PMID:21574673

  1. Parental professional help-seeking for infant sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Wen; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tung, Yi-Ching; Thomas, Karen A; Tsai, Shao-Yu

    2017-12-01

    To explore the perceptions and experiences of parental professional help-seeking for infant sleep and sleep-related concerns. Infant sleep is a frequent concern for parents. However, very little is known about the reasons parents seek, do not seek or delay seeking professional attention about their concerns related to infant sleep. A qualitative study design was used. Twenty audio-taped interviews with parents of healthy 12-month-old infants were conducted at a university-affiliated hospital or parents' homes depending on where parents felt more comfortable discussing their personal views and medical help-seeking experiences. Thematic content analysis was performed to determine specific patterns and similarities within and between interview data. Three main themes developed from the interviews were as follows: (i) uncertainty about infant sleep; (ii) I can handle infant sleep; and (iii) I am not satisfied with the professional services provided for infant sleep. Overall, parents knew little about or misunderstood infant sleep behaviours. Lack of proper information and knowledge about infant sleep influenced parents' motivation for professional help-seeking and help-receiving. Parents who have consulted a healthcare professional but received unsatisfactory responses, such as an ambivalent attitude or insufficient assessment, reported being less motivated or unwilling to seek medical help again. Our study demonstrates the complexity of parental professional help-seeking and receiving for infant sleep. Findings suggest that parents perceive a wide range of barriers that influence the likelihood that they will seek professional advice for infant sleep. Reducing knowledge barriers and providing adequate attention at all well-infant visits would facilitate parental use of healthcare services to manage problematic infant sleep behaviours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Treatment seeking for problematic pornography use among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, Karol; Szmyd, Joanna; Skorko, Maciej; Gola, Mateusz

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Previous studies examined psychological factors related to treatment seeking for problematic pornography use (PU) among males. In this study, we focused on females who seek treatment for problematic PU and compared them with non-problematic pornography users with regard to variables related to problematic PU. Second, we investigated the relationships between critical constructs related to problematic PU with the path analysis method, emphasizing the predictors for treatment seeking among women. We also compared our results with previous studies on males. Methods A survey study was conducted on 719 Polish-speaking Caucasian females, 14-63 years old, including 39 treatment seekers for problematic PU. Results The positive relationship between the mere amount of PU and treatment seeking loses its significance after introducing two other predictors of treatment-seeking: religiosity and negative symptoms associated with PU. This pattern is different from the results obtained in previous studies on males. Discussion Different from previous studies on male samples, our analysis showed that in the case of women, mere amount of PU may be related to treatment-seeking behavior even after accounting for negative symptoms associated with PU. Moreover, religiousness is a significant predictor of treatment seeking among women, which may indicate that in the case of women, treatment seeking for problematic PU is motivated not only by experienced negative symptoms of PU but also by personal beliefs about PU and social norms. Conclusion For females, negative symptoms associated with PU, the amount of PU and religiosity is associated with treatment seeking. Those factors should be considered in treatment.

  3. Sexual Health Information Seeking Online Among Runaway and Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Research shows runaway and homeless youth are reluctant to seek help from traditional health providers. The Internet can be useful in engaging this population and meeting their needs for sexual health information, including information about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using a sample of homeless youth living in Los Angeles, California in June 2009, this study assesses the frequency with which runaway and homeless youth seek sexual health information via the Internet, and assesses which youth are more likely to engage in seeking health information from online sources. Drawing from Andersen's (1968) health behavior model and Pescosolido's (1992) network episode model, we develop and refine a model for seeking online sexual health information among homeless youth. Rather than testing the predicative strength of a given model, our aim is to identify and explore conceptually driven correlates that may shed light on the characteristics associated with these help seeking behaviors among homeless youth. Analyses using multivariate logistic regression models reveal that among the sample of youth, females and gay males most frequently seek sexual health information online. We demonstrate the structure of social network ties (e.g., connection with parents) and the content of interactions (e.g., e-mail forwards of health information) across ties are critical correlates of online sexual health information seeking. Results show a continued connection with parents via the Internet is significantly associated with youth seeking HIV or STI information. Similarly for content of interactions, more youth who were sent health information online also reported seeking HIV information and HIV-testing information. We discuss implications for intervention and practice, focusing on how the Internet may be used for dissemination of sexual health information and as a resource for social workers to link transient, runaway, and homeless youth to care.

  4. Information Seeking When Problem Solving: Perspectives of Public Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kristine; Dobbins, Maureen; Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna

    2017-04-01

    Given the many different types of professionals working in public health and their diverse roles, it is likely that their information needs, information-seeking behaviors, and problem-solving abilities differ. Although public health professionals often work in interdisciplinary teams, few studies have explored their information needs and behaviors within the context of teamwork. This study explored the relationship between Canadian public health professionals' perceptions of their problem-solving abilities and their information-seeking behaviors with a specific focus on the use of evidence in practice settings. It also explored their perceptions of collaborative information seeking and the work contexts in which they sought information. Key Canadian contacts at public health organizations helped recruit study participants through their list-servs. An electronic survey was used to gather data about (a) individual information-seeking behaviors, (b) collaborative information-seeking behaviors, (c) use of evidence in practice environments, (d) perceived problem-solving abilities, and (e) demographic characteristics. Fifty-eight public health professionals were recruited, with different roles and representing most Canadian provinces and one territory. A significant relationship was found between perceived problem-solving abilities and collaborative information-seeking behavior (r = -.44, p public health professionals take a shared, active approach to problem solving, maintain personal control, and have confidence, they are more likely collaborate with others in seeking information to complete a work task. Administrators of public health organizations should promote collaboration by implementing effective communication and information-seeking strategies, and by providing information resources and retrieval tools. Public health professionals' perceived problem-solving abilities can influence how they collaborate in seeking information. Educators in public health

  5. Asians seek end to girls' trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Each year, approximately 1 million Asian children under 18 years old, many of them female, become prostitutes. With regard to this problem, the Summit Foundation, the United Nations Population Fund, UNICEF, and the Centre for Development and Population Activities are sponsoring a conference entitled "Girls' Rights, Society's Responsibility: Taking Action Against Child Sexual Exploitation," on December 8-10, 1997, at the Nehru Centre, Worli, Bombay. Policy makers from government, the legal and police professions, corporations, the tourism industry, and grassroots organizations will attend. Representatives from Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand will develop coordinated strategies to end the abuse. The experiences of community-based nongovernmental organizations will be used to develop approaches to prevent exploitation, provide surveillance, and rehabilitate girls who have been exploited. The Nehru Centre, Jet Airways, and the President Hotel of Bombay will provide support. Participants are to include the Ford Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, UNIFEM, the World Health Organization, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development (USAID), Oxfam, CIDA, SIDA, NORAD, and many corporations (Bata, Apeejay, Pepsi, Tata, Godrej, Mahindra and Mahindra, and hotel and tourist businesses).

  6. Perceptions of Oral Health, Preventive Care, and Care-Seeking Behaviors among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…

  7. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dou...

  8. Predicting attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help among Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Murrell, Brittany; Swift, Joshua K

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the role of current/previous treatment experience, stigma (social and self), and cultural identification (Caucasian and Alaska Native [AN]) in predicting attitudes toward psychological help seeking for ANs. Results indicated that these variables together explained roughly 56% of variance in attitudes. In particular, while self-stigma and identification with the Caucasian culture predicted a unique amount of variance in help-seeking attitudes, treatment use and identification with AN culture did not. The results of this study indicate that efforts to address the experience of self-stigma may prove most useful to improving help-seeking attitudes in ANs.

  9. Health care information seeking and seniors: determinants of Internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Xiaojing; Simpson, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    While seniors are the most likely population segment to have chronic diseases, they are the least likely to seek information about health and diseases on the Internet. An understanding of factors that impact seniors' usage of the Internet for health care information may provide them with tools needed to improve health. This research examined some of these factors as identified in the comprehensive model of information seeking to find that demographics, trust in health information websites, perceived usefulness of the Internet, and internal locus of control each significantly impact seniors' use of the Internet to seek health information.

  10. Radio tomographic imaging of sporadic-E layers during SEEK-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bernhardt

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available During the SEEK-2 Rocket Campaign in August 2002, a Dual Band Beacon (DBB transmitting to Ground Receivers provided unique data on E-Region electron densities. Information from two rocket beacons and four ground receivers yielded multiple samples of E-region horizontal and vertical variations. The radio beacon measurements were made at four sites (Uchinoura, Tarumizu, Tanegashima, Takazaki in Japan for two rockets (S310-31 and S310-32 launched by the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science (ISAS. Analysis was completed for four sets of beacon data to provide electron density images of sporadic-E layers. Signals from the two-frequency beacons on the SEEK-2 rockets were processed to yield total electron content (TEC data that was converted into electron density measurements. Wide variations in layer structures were detected. These included horizontal sporadic-E variations, vertical profiles of double, single, and weak layers. The radio beacon measurements were shown to be in agreement with the in-situ SEEK-2 sensors. The first tomographic image of a sporadic-E layer was produced from the data. The rocket beacon technique was shown to be an excellent tool to study sporadic-E layers because absolute TEC accuracy of 0.01 TEC Units can be easily obtained and, with proper receiver placement, electron density images can be produced using computerized ionospheric tomography with better than 1km horizontal and vertical resolution. Keywords. Ionospheric irregularities – Instruments and techniques – Mid-latitude ionosphere

  11. Motivation, Critical Thinking and Academic Verification of High School Students' Information-seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Hidayat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High school students have known as Gen Y or Z and their media using can be understand on their information-seeking behavior. This research’s purposes were: 1 to analyze the students’ motivation; 2 to analyze the critical thinking and academic verification; 3 to analyze the information-seeking behavior. This study used quantitative approach through survey among 1125 respondents in nine clusters, i.e. Central, East, North, West, and South of Jakarta, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok, and Bogor. Schools sampling based on "the best schools rank" by the government, while respondents have taken by accidental in each school. Construct of questionnaire included measurement of motivation, critical thinking and academic verification, and the information-seeking behavior at all. The results showed that the motivations of the use of Internet were dominated by habit to interact and be entertained while on the academic needs are still relatively small but increasing significantly. Students’ self-efficacy, performance and achievement goals tend to be high motives, however the science learning value, and learning environment stimulation were average low motives. High school students indicated that they think critically about the various things that become content primarily in social media but less critical of the academic information subjects. Unfortunately, high school students did not conducted academic verification on the data and information but students tend to do plagiarism.

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English (US) ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  13. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  14. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Science Smiles. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 4-4 Science Smiles. Chief Editor's column / Science Smiles · R K Laxman · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 3-3 Science Smiles.

  15. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  17. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corresponding to World Suicide Prevention Day, to celebrate life, hope, and reasons to live. SAMHSA is committed to ... members, and helping people navigate the struggles of life to find a sustainable sense of hope, meaning, and purpose. For information about how you ...

  18. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cervical Cancer is Preventable Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... 000 More than 4,000 women die of cervical cancer each year. 93% As many as 93% of ...

  20. Seeking help for obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD): a qualitative study of the enablers and barriers conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Karen J; Rose, Diana; Salkovskis, Paul M

    2017-06-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) can be hugely disabling. Although very effective psychological treatments exist, many people delay years before seeking help or never seek treatment. There have been clinical observation and short questionnaire studies on why people delay, but little qualitative research exists on this complex subject. The present qualitative study aimed to identify the barriers to seeking treatment and the factors that encourage or push people to seek help for their OCD (positive and negative enablers). A qualitative, exploratory study using in-depth, individual, semi-structured interviews was conducted by a researcher with personal experience of OCD. Seventeen people with OCD, contacted through the charity OCD-UK, were interviewed about the factors that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Barriers identified were stigma, 'internal / cognitive' factors, not knowing what their problem was, factors relating to their GP or treatment, and fear of criminalisation. Positive enablers identified were being supported to seek help, information and personal accounts of OCD in the media, and confidence in their GP. Negative enablers were reaching a crisis point and for some participants (whose intrusive thoughts were about harming children) feeling driven to seek treatment because of the nature of the thoughts, that is, seeking help to prevent the 'harm' they feared they were capable of doing. Participants identified a range of barriers and enablers that impacted on their decision to seek help or not. These give important indicators about the likely causes for delayed help seeking in OCD and ways in which people might be encouraged to seek help earlier. People with OCD may face a wide range of barriers to seeking help, including concern about the reaction of health professionals. The level of awareness, kindness, and understanding shown by first-line practitioners can be very important to

  1. Factors associated with treatment seeking for malaria in Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrigendra P; Saha, Kalyan B; Chand, Sunil K; Anvikar, Anup

    2017-11-01

    To determine household factors associated with treatment seeking for malaria. The study was carried out in four districts of Madhya Pradesh with different malaria endemicity. A total of 1470 households were interviewed in which at least one member suffered from microscopically confirmed malaria in the 3 months preceding the survey. Socio-demographic, economic, cultural characteristics, their health beliefs, knowledge and practices regarding malaria and choice of treatment seeking were explored. A total of 764 households were from high-endemic and 706 from low-endemic areas. More than half of household heads were illiterate; most are farmers. Approximately 46% sought treatment for malaria from unqualified informal providers; 19% from qualified private health practitioners and 35% from government health providers. Analysis revealed that household's area of residence, education, occupation, ethnicity, use of preventive measures, economic status, knowledge and practices, distance and delayed treatment seeking was strongly associated with the type of healthcare providers selected. Demand for formal health services among the poor, illiterate, tribal population living in remote areas is low. Accessible and affordable health services and a sensitisation programme to increase the demand for formal providers are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Midlife crisis perceptions, experiences, help-seeking, and needs among multi-ethnic malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Awang, Halimah; Jani, Rohana

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, researchers explored attitudes toward midlife crises, experience with midlife crises, help-seeking, and needs among multi-ethnic Malaysian women. A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 89 Malaysian women of different ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Women expressed concern over physical aging and decline in their physical functional health. Having a midlife crisis was frequently reported. Issues that were frequently reported to trigger a midlife crisis, such as empty nest syndrome, impact of aging on sexual and reproductive function, extended parenthood, caring for aging or ill parents, and career challenges were noted by the study participants (listed here in order of most to least frequently reporting of these themes across the group discussions). Overall, these issues were associated with attitudes about aging. A comparatively less open attitude toward sexual attitudes and help-seeking for sexual problems were found among the Malay and Indian women. This may imply that intervention to increase positive attitudes concerning both sexuality and help-seeking intentions should be culturally specific. The use of religious coping for comfort and consolation was frequently reported; therefore, those providing midlife crisis prevention and intervention programs should consider involving faith-based interventions in the Malaysian setting.

  3. Seeking Alternatives in a Global Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mayor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Replacing the United Nations system and large international institutions with plutocratic groups (G-7, G-8, G-20 and universal principles with the laws of the market has led to multiple crises that require immediate reaction to prevent them from becoming irreversible.Neoliberalism has placed military, energy, economic and media power in the hands of a very few (the “great domain”. The markets – for the most part undeservedly “rescued” – are now harassing political leaders, making democracies progressively more vulnerable and even appointing governments without elections (including in Greece, the cradle!.For the first time in history we have the means for mobilizing people and involving citizens in local and global government, which enables us to affirm that we are living in fascinating times in which radical changes are now feasible.The possible solutions – that may render many of today’s impossibilities as realities of tomorrow – must inevitably be based on equal dignity for all human beings and on social justice. Placing ethical and democratic values at the forefront of public and private activities so that social justice rather than the markets manages the economy at all levels will enable us in a few years to rectify our present misguided direction and get back on course.The “refounding” of the United Nations is one of the most important and urgent means of rectifying the present trends, to endow humanity with the required guidance, coordination and justice systems.The reforms at the UN for global governance and actions to be urgently undertaken are presented. Access to food, water, health services, education and environment care is essential for the historical transition from a culture of imposition and violence to a culture of conciliation and peace. From force to word.

  4. The neuropharmacology of relapse to food seeking: methodology, main findings, and comparison with relapse to drug seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sunila G; Adams-Deutsch, Tristan; Epstein, David H; Shaham, Yavin

    2009-09-01

    Relapse to old, unhealthy eating habits is a major problem in human dietary treatments. The mechanisms underlying this relapse are unknown. Surprisingly, until recently this clinical problem has not been systematically studied in animal models. Here, we review results from recent studies in which a reinstatement model (commonly used to study relapse to abused drugs) was employed to characterize the effect of pharmacological agents on relapse to food seeking induced by either food priming (non-contingent exposure to small amounts of food), cues previously associated with food, or injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. We also address methodological issues related to the use of the reinstatement model to study relapse to food seeking, similarities and differences in mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking versus drug seeking, and the degree to which the reinstatement procedure provides a suitable model for studying relapse in humans. We conclude by discussing implications for medication development and future research. We offer three tentative conclusions: (1)The neuronal mechanisms of food-priming- and cue-induced reinstatement are likely different from those of reinstatement induced by the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. (2)The neuronal mechanisms of reinstatement of food seeking are possibly different from those of ongoing food-reinforced operant responding. (3)The neuronal mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking overlap to some degree with those of reinstatement of drug seeking.

  5. The Relationship of Self-Efficacy, Sensation Seeking and Coping Sterategies with Aptitude of Substance Use in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Kiamarsi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the research was to determine relationship of coping sterategies, self-efficacy and sensation seeking with aptitude of substance use in the students. Method: The population of the study included students of Islamic Azad University Ardabil Branch. The research sample consisted of 313 students who were studying in Islamic Azad University Ardabil Branch. To collect the data Coping Sterategies scale, Sensation Seeking scale, Self-Efficacy inventory and Substance Use Aptitude scale were used. Data was analyzed using of Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses. Findings: The result of Pearson correlation coefficients showed that self-efficacy, sensation seeking, emotin coping sterategies and problem solving coping sterategies related to aptitude substance use in students. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that self-efficacy, sensation seeking and coping sterategies explained 43 percent of variance of aptitude of substance use in students. Conclusion: The results indicated that self-efficacy, sensation seeking and coping sterategies are significant predictors in predicting of aptitude of substance use in adolescents. Clinicians can be used these results for prevention of substance abuse by training of effective coping strategies and promotion of self efficacy.

  6. A longitudinal examination of the relationship between sexual sensation seeking and STI-related risk factors among African American females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Tan, Kevin; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Sexual sensation seeking has been correlated with STI-related risk factors in numerous cross sectional studies. However, no current studies have examined whether sexual sensation seeking is longitudinally related to a broad spectrum of STI-related factors such as consistent condom use, number of sexual partners, frequency of partner sexual communication, self-efficacy to refuse sex, and fear of condom negotiation. We explored these relationships over a 12-month period among a sample of 715 African American females attending three STI clinics in Georgia that were recruited into a larger randomized clinic intervention study. Utilizing A-CASI technology to assess all self-reported measures and employing general estimation equations while controlling for age, peer norms, school enrollment and employment, major results indicated that higher sexual sensation seeking predicted lower percent of condom use in the last 14 and 60 days, lower consistent condom use and a higher number of lifetime sexual partners. Additionally, higher sexual sensation seeking predicted lower partner sexual communication, diminished self-efficacy to refuse sex, and a higher fear of condom negotiation. Findings suggest that STI/HIV prevention/intervention programs should assess for and target sexual sensation seeking behaviors in such efforts.

  7. "Why doesn't she seek help for partner abuse?" An exploratory study with South Asian immigrant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farah; Driver, Natasha; McNally, Mary Jane; Stewart, Donna E

    2009-08-01

    This study explores why South Asian immigrant women with experiences of partner abuse delay seeking help from professionals. Three focus groups were conducted in Hindi language with South Asian immigrant women in Toronto. Twenty-two women participated with a mean age of 46 years (range 29-68 years). Thematic analysis was conducted on the transcribed data using constant comparison techniques within and across the groups. We found that three major themes emerged from the discussions: reasons for delayed help-seeking, turning points and talking to professionals. Women expressed delaying help-seeking to the point when "Pani sar se guzar jata he" (water crosses over your head). Their dominant reasons for delayed help-seeking were social stigma, rigid gender roles, marriage obligations, expected silence, loss of social support after migration and limited knowledge about available resources and myths about partner abuse. Women usually turned for help only after experiencing pronounced mental and physical health problems. The findings are interpreted in light of participants' immigration context and the socio-cultural norms of patriarchy, collectivism and familism. Prevention approaches to address partner abuse and delayed help-seeking among South Asian immigrant women should include tailored community education, social services to reduce vulnerability, and cultural competency of professionals. Further research and program evaluation is needed to advance the field.

  8. Mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy; Lloyd, Gareth P; Viswanath, K; Smith, Tenbroeck; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Vernon, Sally W; Turner, Gina; Hesse, Bradford W; Crammer, Corinne; von Wagner, Christian; Backinger, Cathy L

    2009-01-01

    People often seek and receive cancer information from mass media (including television, radio, print media, and the Internet), and marketing strategies often inform cancer information needs assessment, message development, and channel selection. In this article, we present the discussion of a 2-hour working group convened for a cancer communications workshop held at the 2008 Society of Behavioral Medicine meeting in San Diego, CA. During the session, an interdisciplinary group of investigators discussed the current state of the science for mass media and marketing communication promoting primary and secondary cancer prevention. We discussed current research, new research areas, methodologies and theories needed to move the field forward, and critical areas and disciplines for future research.

  9. Science or Science Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefsrud, Lianne M.; Meyer, Renate

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the framings and identity work associated with professionals’ discursive construction of climate change science, their legitimation of themselves as experts on ‘the truth’, and their attitudes towards regulatory measures. Drawing from survey responses of 1077 professional......, legitimation strategies, and use of emotionality and metaphor. By linking notions of the science or science fiction of climate change to the assessment of the adequacy of global and local policies and of potential organizational responses, we contribute to the understanding of ‘defensive institutional work...

  10. Positron emission tomography basic sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, D W; Valk, P E; Maisey, M N

    2003-01-01

    Essential for students, science and medical graduates who want to understand the basic science of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), this book describes the physics, chemistry, technology and overview of the clinical uses behind the science of PET and the imaging techniques it uses. In recent years, PET has moved from high-end research imaging tool used by the highly specialized to an essential component of clinical evaluation in the clinic, especially in cancer management. Previously being the realm of scientists, this book explains PET instrumentation, radiochemistry, PET data acquisition and image formation, integration of structural and functional images, radiation dosimetry and protection, and applications in dedicated areas such as drug development, oncology, and gene expression imaging. The technologist, the science, engineering or chemistry graduate seeking further detailed information about PET, or the medical advanced trainee wishing to gain insight into the basic science of PET will find this book...

  11. Contraceptive Use among Women Seeking Repeat Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives ... findings, the level of repeat abortions in Europe, .... and contraceptive history, and post-abortion ..... working women.

  12. Help-seeking by substance dependants presenting to healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benzodiazepine, ecstasy, cocaine and inhalant dependency at general practitioners, private psychiatrists, treatment centres and non-prescribing therapists was compared. Different patterns of help seeking for substance dependence from the various professional groups were detected. Regarding alcohol dependence ...

  13. Rabies Exposure: When Should I Seek Medical Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rabies and Kids! When should I seek medical attention? Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... with soap and water. See your doctor for attention for any trauma due to an animal attack ...

  14. Delays and care seeking behavior among tuberculosis patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Delays and care seeking behavior among tuberculosis patients in Tigray of Northern Ethiopia. Mengiste M Mesfin, Tesfay W Tasew, Israel G Tareke, Yohannes T Kifle, Witten H Karen, Madeley J Richard ...

  15. 250 Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviour and Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    constitute a user group of library services distinct from the faculty model. .... Also, very vital to note is the quality of information sources that are available to the ... libraries online resources play substantial role in students information seeking.

  16. Health Seeking Behavior of Patients Diagnosed with Cervical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... explore the care seeking behavior of women with cervical cancer. ... approach. The ... suggested that most cancer patients in sub- .... therapy is perceived to be beneficial by most of ... friend advised me initially to go to Family.

  17. Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually transmitted ... condom use among patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections (STI) ... having less than 8 years of school education; and being resident in villages.

  18. Health Seeking Behaviour among the Rural Dwellers in Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    It involves functioning of the body systems, absence of disease and disability. ... Key points: Health seeking; rural dwellers, conceptualization in Ekiti State. Introduction ..... better able, it is to develop, mobilize and utilize the minds, energies and.

  19. Students seeking technical internships as part of an exchange program

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2004-01-01

    Virginia Tech students are seeking the support of research centers, academic departments, and area businesses to provide opportunities for technical internships through the International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience (IAESTE).

  20. Elder Abuse and Help-Seeking Behavior in Elderly Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Elsie

    2015-09-01

    Elder abuse is a prevalent phenomenon resulting in physical, emotional, and social costs to individuals, families, and society. Timely and effective intervention is crucial because victims are often involved in relationships where re-victimization is common. Most elder abuse victims, however, are reluctant to seek help from outside their families. The aim of the present study is to explore factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among mistreated elders in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 elder abuse survivors. Although almost all of the participants could provide some examples of elder abuse, most denied that their own experience was abusive. Personal and professional social networks were important determinants of help seeking. Social isolation, cultural barriers, self-blame, and lack of knowledge were major barriers to help seeking. © The Author(s) 2014.